Weber, Richard; Sen, Sabyasachi; Youngman, Randall E; Hart, Robert T; Benmore, Chris J
The structure of binary aluminosilicate glasses containing 60-67 mol % Al2O3 were investigated using high-resolution 27Al NMR and X-ray and neutron diffraction. The glasses were made by aerodynamic levitation of molten oxides. The 67% alumina composition required a cooling rate of approximately 1600 degrees C s(1-) to form glass from submillimeter sized samples. NMR results show that the glasses contain aluminum in 4-, 5-, and 6-fold coordination in the approximate ratio 4:5:1. The average Al coordination increases from 4.57 to 4.73 as the fraction of octahedral Al increases with alumina content. The diffraction results on the 67% composition are consistent with a disordered Al framework with Al ions in a range of coordination environments that are substantially different from those found in the equilibrium crystalline phases. Analysis of the neutron and X-ray structure factors yields an average bond angle of 125 +/- 4 degrees between an Al ion and the adjoining cation via a bridging oxygen. We propose that the structure of the glass is a "transition state" between the alumina-rich liquid and the equilibrium mullite phase that are dominated by 4- and 6-coordinated aluminum ions, respectively.
Flesch, R.; Webster, J. D.; Nadeau, P. A.
Hydrothermal experiments were conducted on high-silica (73-75 wt% SiO2), fluid-saturated melts at 844-862°C and ca. 50 MPa using crushed glass of the Los Posos rhyolite. Water and salts including NaCl, KCl, Ca(OH)2, and CaHPO4 and HCl were added proportionally to the experiments to restrict the variability of the aluminosity of the melt. The Durango apatite, which contains 3.53 wt% F and 0.41% Cl, was added as "seeds"bearing magmatic systems.
Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Agersted, Karsten; Zielke, Philipp
phase boundaries. To reduce the amount of Si emission, a low Si containing sealing glass (chemical composition: 48 mol% CaO, 19 mol% ZnO, 21 mol% B2O3 and 12 mol% SiO2) was developed at DTU. In this presentation, the results from thermal characterization, like thermal expansion coefficient, glass......Solid oxide cells require seals that can function in harsh, elevated temperature environments. In the case of solid oxide electrolysis (SOEC), also a low Si content is desired, since Si impurities from the glass sealing can be transported to the active fuel electrode and poison the Ni-YSZ triple...... transition temperature, crystallization temperature, etc., of the glass will be presented. Additionally, the crystallization behavior of the glass was analyzed by in-situ X-ray diffraction, recording temperature resolved XRD spectra from 30 °C up to 900 °C. Furthermore, the long-term stability...
Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Agersted, Karsten; Zielke, Philipp
the amount of Si emission, a low Si containing sealing glass (chemical composition: 50 mol% CaO, 20 mol% ZnO, 20 mol% B2O3 and 10 mol% SiO2) was developed at DTU. In this work, the results from thermal characterization, the crystallization behavior of the glass and the long-term stability and adhesion......Solid oxide cells require seals that can function in harsh, elevated temperature environments. In addition, a low Si content can be advantageous, since Si impurities from the glass sealant can be transported to the active fuel electrode and poison the Ni-YSZ triple phase boundaries. To reduce...... behavior of the glass were studied under SOFC and SOEC relevant conditions. The glass-ceramic sealant performed well over 400 h, and no cell degradation or leakage related to the seal was found, indicating that the developed glass system is applicable for the use in SOFC/SOEC stacks....
Komarov, F.F.; Parkhomenko, I.N.; Vlasukova, L.A.; Mil'chanin, O.V.; Mokhovikov, M.A.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.
The structural transformations in SiO 2 layers implanted with high fluence of Sn ions have been investigated. It has been found that post-implantation annealing results in the β-Sn precipitation as well as the formation of SnO 2 -enriched regions in SiO 2 :Sn matrix. The intensive emission in the range of photon energies 1.5 – 3.5 eV is registered for the implanted and annealed samples. We attribute it to the oxygen deficiency centers created in the SiO 2 :Sn matrix and at the 'nanocluster/SiO 2 ' interfaces. (authors)
Li, Na; Zhou, Qun; Tian, Shu; Zhao, Hong; Li, Xiaowei; Adkins, Jason; Gu, Zhuomin; Zhao, Lili; Zheng, Junwei
In the present work, we report a new and simple approach for preparing a highly ordered Au (1 1 1) nanoparticle (NP) array in SiO 2 cavities on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. We fabricated a SiO 2 cavity array on the surface of an ITO electrode using highly ordered self-assembly of polystyrene spheres as a template. Gold NPs were electrodeposited at the bottom of the SiO 2 cavities, and single gold NPs dominated with (1 1 1) facets were generated in each cavity by annealing the electrode at a high temperature. Such (1 1 1) facets were the predominate trait of the single gold particle which exhibited considerable electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and glycerol. This has been attributed to the formation of incipient hydrous oxides at unusually low potential on the specific (1 1 1) facet of the gold particles. Moreover, each cavity of the SiO 2 possibly behaves as an independent electrochemical cell in which the methanol molecules are trapped; this produces an environment advantageous to catalyzing electrooxidation. The oxidation of methanol on the electrodes is a mixed control mechanism (both by diffusion and electrode kinetics). This strategy both provided an approach to study electrochemical reactions on a single particle in a microenvironment and may supply a way to construct alcohols sensors
Leon C, A.; Portillo V, N.; Hernandez P, I.; May L, M.; Gonzalez R, L.; Luna P, R.; Suarez P, R.
In this work we report the synthesis of Fe/TiO 2 -SiO 2 systems with different concentrations of TiO 2 in order to determine the influence of titanium content on the structural, textural, optical properties and their photo catalytic behavior. The materials were synthesized by the sol-gel method and their modification was carried out by incipient impregnation. All samples were characterized be means of X-ray diffraction, N 2 physisorption (Bet method), Dr-UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy. The modifications of the structural and optical properties are discussed on the basis of long-range order reduction, suggesting the formation of highly dispersed TiO 2 species. On the other hand, it was observed that the energy of the optical band gap decreases by introducing Fe. On the basis of these phenomena, the photo catalytic activity was measured, employing the degradation of orange II azo dye as a model reaction. (Author)
Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.
Pure and molecularly mixed inorganic films for protection against atomic oxygen in lower earth orbit were prepared using radio-frequency (rf) plasma magnetron sputtering technique. Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and silica (SiO 2 ) films with average grain size in the range of 30-80 nm and fully dense or dense columnar structure were synthesized under different conditions of pressure and power. Simultaneous oxide sputtering and plasma polymerization (PP) of hexafluoropropylene (HFP) led to the formation of molecularly mixed films with fluoropolymer content. The degree of plasma polymerization was strongly influenced by total chamber pressure and the argon to HFP molar ratio (n Ar /n M ). An order of magnitude increase in pressure due to argon during codeposition changed the plasma-polymerization mechanism from radical-chain- to radical-radical-type processes. Subsequently, a shift from linear CH 2 group based chain polymerization to highly disordered fluoropolymer content with branching and cross-linking was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed chemical interaction between depositing SiO 2 and PP-HFP through appearance of absorption bands characteristic of Si-F stretching and expansion of SiO 2 network. The relative amount and composition of plasma-polymerized fluoropolymer in such films can be controlled by changing argon to HFP flow ratio, total chamber pressure, and applied power. These films offer great potential for use as protective coatings in aerospace applications
Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Wang, H.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.
The impact of SiO2 content in ultrathin gate dielectrics on the magnitude of the effective work function (EWF) shift induced by nanoscale capping layers has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The magnitude of the effective work function shift for four different capping layers (AlN, Al2O3, La2O3, and Gd2O3) is measured as a function of SiO2 content in the gate dielectric. A nearly linear increase of this shift with SiO2 content is observed for all capping layers. The origin of this dependence is explained using density functional theory simulations.
Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.
The impact of SiO2 content in ultrathin gate dielectrics on the magnitude of the effective work function (EWF) shift induced by nanoscale capping layers has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The magnitude of the effective work function shift for four different capping layers (AlN, Al2O3, La2O3, and Gd2O3) is measured as a function of SiO2 content in the gate dielectric. A nearly linear increase of this shift with SiO2 content is observed for all capping layers. The origin of this dependence is explained using density functional theory simulations.
Zhai, Yunyun; Xiao, Ke; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin
Highlights: • Electrospinning followed by dip-coating was used to fabricate SiO 2 /PEI-PU membranes. • Introducing PEI, PU and SiO 2 improved safety, tensile strength and ionic conductivity. • Coating SiO 2 also restrained the micro-shorting and migrated the self-discharge. • SiO 2 /PEI-PU membranes based cell exhibited prominent cycling and rate performance. - ABSTRACT: The performance of lithium ion battery based on electrospun nanofibrous membranes has gained a great deal of attention in the past decades, but the intrinsic low mechanical strength and large pore size of electrospun membranes limit their battery performance. To overcome this limitation, a powerful strategy for designing, fabricating and evaluating silica nanoparticles coated polyetherimide-polyurethane (SiO 2 /PEI-PU) nanofibrous composite membranes is easily developed via electrospinning followed by a dip-coating process. Benefiting from the high porosity, interpenetrating network structure and synergetic effect of PU, PEI and SiO 2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared composite membranes exhibit high ionic conductivity (2.33 mS cm −1 ), robust tensile strength (15.65 MPa) and improved safety (excellent thermal resistance and flame retardant property). Additionally, the as-prepared composite membranes possess relatively narrow pore size distribution with average pore size of 0.58 μm after coating SiO 2 nanoparticles, which plays an important role in hindering the micro-shorting and mitigating self-discharge. Significantly, the SiO 2 /PEI-PU membranes based Li/LiFePO 4 cell exhibits more excellent cycling stability with capacity retention of 98.7% after 50 cycles at 0.2 C rate and better rate capability compared with the Celgard membrane based cell. The results clearly demonstrate that this is a promising separator candidate for next-generation lithium ion batteries, which may represent a significant step toward separators with improved performance
Chen, YiFan; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Li; Du, Yunzhe; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, LiWei; Huang, YuDong
The increasing growth of the inkjet market makes the inkjet printing more necessary. A composite material based on core-shell structure has been developed and applied to prepare inkjet printing layer. In this contribution, the ink printing record layers based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composite was elaborated. The prepared core-shell composite materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved the presence of electrostatic adsorption between SiO2 molecules and Al13 molecules with the formation of the well-dispersed system. In addition, based on the adsorption and the liquid permeability analysis, SiO2@Al13 ink printing record layer achieved a relatively high ink uptake (2.5 gmm-1) and permeability (87%), respectively. The smoothness and glossiness of SiO2@Al13 record layers were higher than SiO2 record layers. The core-shell structure facilitated the dispersion of the silica, thereby improved its ink absorption performance and made the clear printed image. Thus, the proposed procedure based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell structure of dye particles could be applied as a promising strategy for inkjet printing.
CO2 is an important volatile system relevant for planetary sciences and fundamental chemistry. Molecular CO2 has doubly bonded O=C=O units but high pressure-high temperature (HP-HT) studies have recently shown its transformation into a three-dimensional network of corner-linked [CO4] units analogous to the silica mineral polymorphs, through intermediate non-molecular phases. Here, we report P-V-T data on CO2-IV ice from time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments, which allow determining the compressibility and thermal expansivity of this intermediate molecular-to-non-molecular phase.1 Aditionally, we have explored the SiO2-CO2 phase diagram and the potential formation of silicon carbonate compounds. New data obtained by laser-heating diamond-anvil experiments in CO2-filled microporous silica polymorphs will be shown. In particular, these HP-HT experiments explore the existence of potential CO2/SiO2 compounds with tetrahedrally-coordinated C/Si atoms by oxygens, which are predicted to be stable (or metastable) by state-of-the-art ab initio simulations.2,3 These theoretical predictions were supported by a recent study that reports the formation of a cristobalite-type Si0.4C0.6O2 solid solution at high-pressures and temperatures, which can be retained as a metastable solid down to ambient conditions.4 Entirely new families of structures could exist based on [CO4]4- units in various degrees of polymerisation, giving rise to a range of chain, sheet and framework solids like those found in silicate chemistry. References S. Palaich et al., Am. Mineral. Submitted (2015)  A. Morales-Garcia et al., Theor. Chem. Acc. 132, 1308 (2013)  R. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. X, 4, 011030 (2014)  M. Santoro et al. Nature Commun. 5, 3761 (2014)
Tran Thu Huong; Tran Kim Anh; Le Quoc Minh
Luminescent nanomaterials with one-dimensional (1D) structures have attracted much attention due to their unique properties and potential applications in nanophotonics and nanobiophotonics. In this paper, we report a synthesis of terbium - hydroxide - at - silica Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 and Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 :Eu 3+ nanotubes. Terbium - hydroxide tubes were synthesized by soft template method. The size of the tubes can be controlled precisely and have outer diameters ranging from 80 to 120 nm, wall thickness of about 30 nm, and lengths ranging from 300 to 800 nm. To fabricate core/shell materials, the seed growth method is used. FESEM, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra of Tb(OH) 3 and Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 nanotubes were investigated. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Tb(OH) 3 under 325 nm excitation consists of four main peaks at 488, 542, 582, and 618 nm. Furthermore, a preliminary suggestion for the mechanism of growth of the Tb(OH) 3 nanotubes using the soft - template synthesis technique has been proposed. The PL intensity from Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 or Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 :Eu 3+ nanotubes is much stronger than that of Tb(OH) 3 .
Shen, J.T.; Top, M.; Pei, Y.T.; de Hosson, Jeff
In this work, the tribological performance of PTFE filled SiO2 particles–epoxy composites is investigated. Under a load of 60 N (~140 MPa contact pressure), the optimum content of PTFE lies between 10 and 15 wt%, which yields an ultralow coefficient of friction (CoF) in conjunction with a low wear
Volkmann, U.G.; Pino, M.; Altamirano, L.A.
-crystal substrates. Our results suggest a model of a solid dotriacontane film that has a phase closest to the SiO2 surface in which the long-axis of the molecules is oriented parallel to the interface. Above this "parallel film" phase, a solid monolayer adsorbs in which the molecules are oriented perpendicular...... at higher coverages. In addition, we have performed high-resolution ellipsometry and stray-light measurements on dotriacontane films deposited from solution onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates. After film deposition, these substrates proved to be less stable in air than SiO2....
Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.
Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is used to study Si-rich SiO 2 samples prepared by implantation of Si (160 keV) ions at doses in the range 3x10 16 endash 3x10 17 cm -2 and subsequent thermal annealing at high temperature (up to 1100 degree C). Samples implanted at doses higher than 5x10 16 cm -2 and annealed above 1000 degree C showed a PAS spectrum with an annihilation peak broader than the unimplanted sample. We discuss how these results are related to the process of silicon precipitation inside SiO 2 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Gao, Yangqin; Gereige, Issam; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Cha, Dong Kyu; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Beaujuge, Pierre
Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic arrays of SiO 2-coated ZnO nanorods are prepared in a sequence of low-temperature (<150 C) steps on both glass and thin sheets of PET (2 × 2 in. 2), and the superhydrophobic nanocomposite
Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Taoka, Noriyuki; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Yamada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Tokio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Miyazaki, Seiichi
The effects of postdeposition annealing (PDA) on the interface properties of a SiO2/GaN structure formed by remote oxygen plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RP-CVD) were systematically investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clarified that PDA in the temperature range from 600 to 800 °C has almost no effects on the chemical bonding features at the SiO2/GaN interface, and that positive charges exist at the interface, the density of which can be reduced by PDA at 800 °C. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current density-SiO2 electric field characteristics of the GaN MOS capacitors also confirmed the reduction in interface state density (D it) and the improvement in the breakdown property of the SiO2 film after PDA at 800 °C. Consequently, a high thermal stability of the SiO2/GaN structure with a low fixed charge density and a low D it formed by RP-CVD was demonstrated. This is quite informative for realizing highly robust GaN power devices.
Preparation of a durable superhydrophobic membrane by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO2 nanoparticles: a possible route to superhydrophobic surfaces with low water sliding angle and high water contact angle.
Wang, Shuai; Li, Yapeng; Fei, Xiaoliang; Sun, Mingda; Zhang, Chaoqun; Li, Yaoxian; Yang, Qingbiao; Hong, Xia
A durable superhydrophobic surface with low water sliding angle (SA) and high water contact angle (CA) was obtained by electrospinning poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) which was mixed with epoxy-siloxane modified SiO(2) nanoparticles. To increase the roughness, modified SiO(2) nanoparticles were introduced into PVDF precursor solution. Then in the electrospinning process, nano-sized SiO(2) particles irregularly inlayed (it could also be regard as self-assembly) in the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands so as to form a dual-scale structure. This structure was responsible for the superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning property. In addition, epoxy-siloxane copolymer was used to modify the surface of SiO(2) nanoparticles so that the SiO(2) nanoparticles could stick to the surface of the micro-sized PVDF mini-islands. Through the underwater immersion test, the SiO(2) nanoparticles cannot be separated from PVDF easily so as to achieve the effect of durability. We chiefly explore the surface wettability and the relationship between the mass ratio of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles/PVDF and the CA, SA of electrospun mat. As the content of modified SiO(2) nanoparticles increased, the value of CA increased, ranging from 145.6° to 161.2°, and the water SA decreased to 2.17°, apparently indicating that the membrane we fabricated has a perfect effect of superhydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nguyen Thanh Chung; Tran Ngoc Ha; Hoang Van Duc
A novel method (High-gravity reactive precipitation - HGRP) was developed to prepare nano-SiO 2 from rice husk ash using gas-liquid reaction system. The precipitated silica produced by our proposed method had average size of 20 nm with narrow size distribution and purity of SiO 2 was approximately 99.2%. The principles of the method as well as experimental conditions were also described. (author)
Han, Tongtong; Li, Caifeng; Guo, Xiangyu; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli
A series of SiO2@aluminum-MOF(MIL-68) composites with different SiO2 loadings have been synthesized by a simple and mild compositing strategy for high-efficiency removal of aniline. As evidenced from SEM and TEM images as well as the particle size distribution, the incorporation of SiO2 can improve the dispersity of MIL-68(Al) in composites, and result in the smaller particle size than that of pristine MIL-68(Al). Besides, the adsorption of aniline over SiO2, MIL-68(Al), the physical mixture of these two materials, and SiO2@MIL-68(Al) composites was investigated comparatively, demonstrating a relatively high adsorption capacity (531.9 mg g-1) of 7% SiO2@MIL-68(Al) towards aniline. Combining the ultrafast adsorption dynamics (reaching equilibrium within 40 s) and great reusability, 7% SiO2@MIL-68(Al) shows excellent adsorption performance. This indicates that the SiO2@MIL-68(Al) composites possess great potential applications as a kind of fascinating adsorbent in water pollution protection.
Barillot, T; Grojo, D; Gertsvolf, M; Rayner, D M; Corkum, P B; Lei, S
By comparing simulations with experiment, we show that the effective refractive index of fused SiO 2 can be locally reduced by (1.8 ± 0.2)% by femtosecond laser nanostructuring. We create a microlens of material containing a planar array of nanocracks embedded inside fused silica and probe how it refracts or absorbs light as a function of pulse energy. The self-generated microlens lowers the peak light intensity by deflecting the light around the focus. We obtain the refractive index by simulating the beam transport using the 3D wave equation in conjunction with the measured dimensions of the modified material.
Kusanagi, Susumu; Kobayashi, Hajime
Decreases in oxygen signal intensities in spectra of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (HRBS) were observed during measurements on a 5-nm thick SiO 2 layer on a Si substrate when irradiated by 250-550 keV He + ions. Shifts in an implanted arsenic profile in a 5-nm thick SiO 2 /Si substrate were also observed as a result of He + ion irradiation. These results lead to the conclusion that the SiO 2 surface was sputtered by He + ions in this energy range
Full Text Available The high pollution levels in our cities are producing a significant increase of dust on buildings. An application of photoactive coatings on building materials can produce buildings with self-cleaning surfaces. In this study, we have developed a simple sol-gel route for producing Au-TiO2/SiO2 photocatalysts with application on buildings. The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs improved the TiO2 photoactivity under solar radiation because they promoted absorption in the visible range. We varied the content of AuNPs in the sols under study, in order to investigate their effect on self-cleaning properties. The sols obtained were sprayed on a common building stone, producing coatings which adhere firmly to the stone and preserve their aesthetic qualities. We studied the decolourization efficiency of the photocatalysts under study against methylene blue and against soot (a real staining agent for buildings. Finally, we established that the coating with an intermediate Au content presented the best self-cleaning performance, due to the role played by its structure and texture on its photoactivity.
Pang, Zengyuan; Nie, Qingxin; Lv, Pengfei; Yu, Jian; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu
We report a room-temperature ammonia sensor with extra high response values and ideal flexibility, including polyaniline (PANI)-coated titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (TiO2-SiO2) or copper oxide-titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (CuO-TiO2-SiO2) composite nanofibers. Such flexible inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by calcination. Then, in situ polymerization of aniline monomers was carried out with inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers as templates. Gas sensing tests at room temperature indicated that the obtained CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers had much higher response values to ammonia gas (ca. 45.67-100 ppm) than most of those reported before as well as the prepared TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers here. These excellent sensing properties may be due to the P-N, P-P heterojunctions and a structure similar to field-effect transistors formed on the interfaces between PANI, TiO2, and CuO, which is p-type, n-type, and p-type semiconductor, respectively. In addition, the prepared free-standing CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofiber membrane was easy to handle and possessed ideal flexibility, which is promising for potential applications in wearable sensors in the future.
Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic arrays of SiO 2-coated ZnO nanorods are prepared in a sequence of low-temperature (<150 C) steps on both glass and thin sheets of PET (2 × 2 in. 2), and the superhydrophobic nanocomposite is shown to have minimal impact on solar cell device performance under AM1.5G illumination. Flexible plastics can serve as front cell and backing materials in the manufacture of flexible displays and solar cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Wen, H.-C.; Lysaght, P.; Alshareef, H.N.; Huffman, C.; Harris, H.R.; Choi, K.; Senzaki, Y.; Luan, H.; Majhi, P.; Lee, B.H.; Campin, M. J.; Foran, B.; Lian, G.D.; Kwong, D.-L.
A systematic experimental evaluation of the thermal stability of Ru metal gate electrodes in direct contact with SiO 2 and Hf-based dielectric layers was performed and correlated with electrical device measurements. The distinctly different interfacial reactions in the Ru/SiO 2 , Ru/HfO 2 , and Ru/HfSiO x film systems were observed through cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron-energy-loss spectra, and energy dispersive x-ray spectra analysis. Ru interacted with SiO 2 , but remained stable on HfO 2 at 1000 deg. C. The onset of Ru/SiO 2 interfacial interactions is identified via silicon substrate pitting possibly from Ru diffusion into the dielectric in samples exposed to a 900 deg. C/10-s anneal. The dependence of capacitor device degradation with decreasing SiO 2 thickness suggests Ru diffuses through SiO 2 , followed by an abrupt, rapid, nonuniform interaction of ruthenium silicide as Ru contacts the Si substrate. Local interdiffusion detected on Ru/HfSiO x samples may be due to phase separation of HfSiO x into HfO 2 grains within a SiO 2 matrix, suggesting that SiO 2 provides a diffusion pathway for Ru. Detailed evidence consistent with a dual reaction mechanism for the Ru/SiO 2 system at 1000 deg. C is presented
Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao; Feng, Jian; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu; Jiang, Yonggang; Qi, Hongyu
Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO 2 aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis
Yao Jianke; Xu Cheng; Ma Jianyong; Fang Ming; Fan Zhengxiu; Jin Yunxia; Zhao Yuanan; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda
TiO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /SiO 2 high reflectors (HR) are prepared by electron beam evaporation at different TiO 2 deposition rates. It is found that the changes of properties of TiO 2 films with the increase of rate, such as the increase of refractive index and extinction coefficient and the decrease of physical thickness, lead to the spectrum shift and reflectivity bandwidth broadening of HR together with the increase of absorption and decrease of laser-induced damage threshold. The damages are found of different morphologies: a shallow pit to a seriously delaminated and deep crater, and the different amorphous-to-anatase-to-rutile phase transition processes detected by Raman study. The frequency shift of Raman vibration mode correlates with the strain in film. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveals that impurities and non-stoichiometric defects are two absorption initiations resulting to the laser-induced transformation.
Lee, Gyeo-Re; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Min, Jae-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup
The dependence of the SiO 2 etch rate on the angle of ions incident on the substrate surface was studied over a bias voltage range from -20 to -600 V in a high-density CHF 3 plasma using a Faraday cage to control the ion incident angle. The effect of the bottom plane on the sidewall etching was also examined. Differences in the characteristics of the etch rate as a function of the ion angle were observed for different bias voltage regions. When the absolute value of the bias voltage was smaller than 200 V, the normalized etch rate (NER) defined as the etch rate normalized by the rate on the horizontal surface, changed following a cosine curve with respect to the ion incident angle, defined as the angle between the ion direction and the normal of the substrate surface. When the magnitude of the bias voltage was larger than 200 V, the NER was deviated to higher values from those given by a cosine curve at ion angles between 30 deg. and 70 deg. , and then drastically decreased at angles higher than 70 deg. until a net deposition was observed at angles near 90 deg. . The characteristic etch-rate patterns at ion angles below 70 deg. were determined by the ion energy transferred to the surface, which affected the SiO 2 etch rate and, simultaneously, the rate of removal of a fluorocarbon polymer film formed on the substrate surface. At high ion angles, particles emitted from the bottom plane contributed to polymer formation on and affected the etching characteristics of the substrate
Haeri, S Z; Ramezanzadeh, B; Asghari, M
In this study it has been aimed to enhance the thermal resistance of epoxy coating through incorporation of SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids. SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids were synthesized through one-step sol-gel route using a mixture of Tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS) and 3-Aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) silanes. The SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids were prepared at various hydrolysis times of 24, 48 and 72h. Then 0.2wt.% of GO and SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids were separately incorporated into the epoxy coating. Results revealed that amino functionalized SiO 2 nanoparticles with particle size around 20-30nm successfully synthesized on the basal plane of GO. Results showed significant improvement of dispersion and interfacial interactions between nanohybrids and epoxy composite arising from covalent bonding between the SiO 2 -GO and the epoxy matrix. It was found that the thermal resistance of SiO 2 -GO nanohybrids and SiO 2 -GO/Epoxy nanocomposite was noticeably higher than GO and epoxy matrix, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Mei; Zhao, Aiwu; Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Jin; Chen, Ping; Sun, Henghui
As a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) nanocomposite, cube-like Fe3O4@SiO2@Au@Ag magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized for the first time. Cube-like α-Fe2O3 NPs with uniform size were achieved by optimizing reaction temperature and time. Firstly, the cube-like Fe3O4@SiO2 with good dispersity was achieved by calcining α-Fe2O3@SiO2 NPs in hydrogen atmosphere at 360 °C for 2.5 h, followed by self-assembling a PEI shell via sonication. Furthermore, the Au@Ag particles were densely assembled on the Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs to form the Fe3O4@SiO2@Au@Ag composite structure via strong Ag-N interaction. The obtained nanocomposites exhibited an excellent SERS behavior, reflected by the low detection of limit (p-ATP) at the 5 × 10-14 M level. Moreover, these nanocubes were used for the detection of thiram, and the detection limit can reach 5 × 10-11 M. Meanwhile, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency specifies that the residue in fruit must be lower than 7 ppm. Hence, the resulting substrate with high SERS activity has great practical potential applications in the rapid detection of chemical, biological, and environment pollutants with a simple portable Raman instrument at trace level.
Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yongguang; Mentbayeva, Almagul; Wang, Xin; Maximov, M. Yu.; Liu, Baoxi; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Yin, Fuxing
Carbon-coated silica nanoparticles anchored on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SiO2@C/MWNT composite) were synthesized via a simple and facile sol-gel method followed by heat treatment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) studies confirmed densely anchoring the carbon-coated SiO2 nanoparticles onto a flexible MWNT conductive network, which facilitated fast electron and lithium-ion transport and improved structural stability of the composite. As prepared, ternary composite anode showed superior cyclability and rate capability compared to a carbon-coated silica counterpart without MWNT (SiO2@C). The SiO2@C/MWNT composite exhibited a high reversible discharge capacity of 744 mAh g-1 at the second discharge cycle conducted at a current density of 100 mA g-1 as well as an excellent rate capability, delivering a capacity of 475 mAh g-1 even at 1000 mA g-1. This enhanced electrochemical performance of SiO2@C/MWNT ternary composite anode was associated with its unique core-shell and networking structure and a strong mutual synergistic effect among the individual components.
Matsui, Miyako; Kuwahara, Kenichi
A cyclic process for highly selective SiO2 etching with atomic-scale precision over Si3N4 was developed by using BCl3 and fluorocarbon gas chemistries. This process consists of two alternately performed steps: a deposition step using BCl3 mixed-gas plasma and an etching step using CF4/Ar mixed-gas plasma. The mechanism of the cyclic process was investigated by analyzing the surface chemistry at each step. BCl x layers formed on both SiO2 and Si3N4 surfaces in the deposition step. Early in the etching step, the deposited BCl x layers reacted with CF x radicals by forming CCl x and BF x . Then, fluorocarbon films were deposited on both surfaces in the etching step. We found that the BCl x layers formed in the deposition step enhanced the formation of the fluorocarbon films in the CF4 plasma etching step. In addition, because F radicals that radiated from the CF4 plasma reacted with B atoms while passing through the BCl x layers, the BCl x layers protected the Si3N4 surface from F-radical etching. The deposited layers, which contained the BCl x , CCl x , and CF x components, became thinner on SiO2 than on Si3N4, which promoted the ion-assisted etching of SiO2. This is because the BCl x component had a high reactivity with SiO2, and the CF x component was consumed by the etching reaction with SiO2.
Schiwietz, G.; Skogvall, B.; Schneider, D.; Clark, M.; DeWitt, D.; McDonald, J.
Sputtering of surface atoms by low energy (a few keV) heavy ions is a commonly used technique in material science and applied physics. In general, sputtering occurs via nuclear energy transfer processes and is determined mainly by the atom-atom interaction potentials. In the energy range of interest these potentials depend only slightly on the charge state of one collision partner if the other is neutral. The development of new ion-sources, however, allows for the use of ions with charged states of q > 50. For these highly charged ions it is conceivable that electronic processes come into play as well. If, for example, the density of charged surface atoms exceeds a certain limit, then particle emission can occur via the electrostatic repulsion of target atoms, the so-called Coulomb explosion. Indications for such electronic effects have been found in a few investigations of ion-induced sputtering Si (q q+ ). However, the order of magnitude of this effect is not clear until now. In this work we present preliminary data on sputtering, ion backscattering, electron and photon emission from SiO 2 surface induced by incident Xe ions of very high charge states (q=30--50). The experiment was performed at the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a time-of-flight (TOF) ion analyzer-system from the Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Berlin
Nag, M.; Steudel, S.; Bhoolokam, A.; Chasin, A.; Rockele, M.; Myny, K.; Maas, J.; Fritz, T.; Trube, J.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.
In this work, we report on high-performance bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC) amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with SiO2 as an etch-stop-layer (ESL) deposited by medium frequency physical vapor deposition (mf-PVD). The TFTs show field-effect mobility (μFE) of
Le, Nhu Y Thi; Pham, Duy Khanh; Le, Kim Hung; Nguyen, Phuong Tung
SiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the sol–gel method in an ultrasound reactor and monodispersed NPs with an average particle size of 10–12 nm were obtained. The synergy occurring in blending NPs and anionic surfactant solutions was identified by ultra-low interfacial tension (IFT) reduction measured by a spinning drop tensiometer (Temco500). The oil displacement efficiency of the synergistic blends and surfactant solutions at Dragon South-East (DSE) reservoir temperature was evaluated using contact angle measurement (Dataphysics OCA 20). It was found that SiO 2 /surfactant synergistic blends displace oil as well as their original surfactant solutions at the same 1000 ppm total concentration. Abundant slag appearing in the SiO 2 /surfactant medium during oil displacement could be attributed to an adsorption of surfactants onto the NPs. The results indicate that at a concentration of 1000 ppm in total, the original surfactant SS16-47A and its blend with SiO 2 NPs in the ratio of 8:2 exhibited an IFT reduction as high as fourfold of the IFT recorded for the DSE oil–brine interface and very high speed of oil displacement. Therefore, it could potentially be applicable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in high-temperature reservoirs with high hardness-injection-brine, like the one at DSE. This opens up a new direction for developing effective EOR compositions, which require less surfactant and are environmentally safer
Wang, Wei; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Foster, Carmen M.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Gu, Baohua; Retterer, Scott T.
A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of cultured macrophages. Differences in particle agglomeration and cell association were clearly associated with differences in observed nanoparticle toxicity. The capacity to maintain particle fluorescence while making significant changes to surface chemistry makes these particles extremely versatile and useful for studies of particle agglomeration, uptake, and transport in environmental and biological systems.A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of cultured macrophages. Differences in particle agglomeration and cell association were clearly associated with differences in observed nanoparticle toxicity. The capacity to maintain particle fluorescence while making significant changes to surface chemistry makes these particles extremely versatile and useful for studies of particle agglomeration, uptake, and transport in environmental and biological systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Cell culture preparation for dose/response imaging experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02639f
Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Shunsheng; Yin, Zhengliang; Cheng, Li; Wu, Limin
TiO 2 has been widely investigated as an electrode material because of its long cycle life and good durability, but the relatively low theoretical capacity restricts its practical application. Herein, we design and synthesize novel hierarchical SiO 2 @C/TiO 2 (HSCT) hollow spheres via a template-directed method. These unique HSCT hollow spheres combine advantages from both TiO 2 such as cycle stability and SiO 2 with a high accessible area and ionic transport. In particular, the existence of a C layer is able to enhance the electrical conductivity. The SiO 2 layer with a porous structure can increase the ion diffusion channels and accelerate the ion transfer from the outer to the inner layers. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the HSCT-hollow-sphere-based electrode manifests a high specific capacitance of 1018 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 which is higher than those for hollow TiO 2 (113 F g -1 ) and SiO 2 /TiO 2 (252 F g -1 ) electrodes, and substantially higher than those of all the previously reported TiO 2 -based electrodes.
Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 shell, and suitable magnetic properties for allowing collection in a magnetic field. These magnetic properties, large area, relative high saturation intensity, and low retentive magnetism make the particles have high dispersibility in suspension and yet enable them to be recovered well using magnetic fields. The functionality of these particles was tested by measuring the photocatalytic activity of the decolouring of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under ultraviolet light and sunlight. The results showed that the introduction of the Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles significantly increased the decoloration rate so that an MO solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L could be decoloured completely within 180 minutes. The particles were recovered after utilization, washing, and drying and the primary recovery ratio was 87.5%.
Yu, Xuehua; Zhao, Zhen; Wei, Yuechang; Liu, Jian
A series of novel oxide catalysts, which contain three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) and microporous structure, were firstly designed and successfully synthesized by simple method. In the as-prepared catalysts, 3DOM SiO2 is used as support and microporous K-OMS-2 oxide nanoparticles are supported on the wall of SiO2. 3DOM K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts were firstly used in soot particle oxidation reaction and they show very high catalytic activities. The high activities of K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts can be assigned to three possible reasons: macroporous effect of 3DOM structure for improving contact between soot and catalyst, microporous effect of K-OMS-2 for adsorption of small gas molecules and interaction of K and Mn for activation of gas molecules. The catalytic activities of catalysts are comparable to or even higher than noble metal catalyst in the medium and high temperature range. For example, the T50 of K-OMS-2/SiO2-50, 328 °C, is much lower than those of Pt/Al2O3 and 3DOM Au/LaFeO3, 464 and 356 °C,respectively. Moreover, catalysts exhibited high catalytic stability. It is attributed to that the K+ ions are introduced into the microporous structure of OMS-2 and stabilized in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, the K+ ions play an important role in templating and stabilizing the tunneled framework of OMS-2.
Rashid, Zahra; Soleimani, Masoud; Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Esmaeili, Elaheh
The present study is aimed at the synthesis of MnFe2O4@SiO2@PMIDA in terms of highly efficient sensing platform for anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) immobilization. Superparamagnetic manganese ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized following co-precipitation method and then SiO2 shell was coated on the magnetic core with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) through a silanization reaction to prevent oxidation, agglomeration and, increase the density of OH groups on the surface of MnFe2O4. Subsequently, MnFe2O4@SiO2@PMIDA obtained as a result of the reaction between N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) and MnFe2O4@SiO2. The reactive carboxyl groups on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles can efficiently conjugate to a monoclonal antibody, specific to PSMA, which was confirmed by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, this kind of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles is promising to be utilized in the improvement of ELISA-based biosensors and also will be effective in a variety of biomedical applications such as cell separation, diagnosis, and monitoring of human diseases.
Li, Ruguang; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Cheng, Xiaomin; Liu, Fengli
Highlights: • Al_2O_3-B_2O_3-SiO_2 has good chemical durability, corrosion resistance and dense structure. • The material rarely used in high temperature thermal storage. • The material was prepared and characterized in the paper. - Abstract: In this paper, Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), further, the porosity was detected by Archimedes principle, thermo physical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. The phase composition was detected by XRD, and the morphology was observed by SEM. The results indicated that the thermal conductivities of the Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic were between 1.3 and 1.5 W·(m·K)"−"1, and the material had good thermal stability in the range of 300–900 °C. The porosity and apparent density were increased with the temperature. The porosity of Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic in ranging from 1.2 to 9.6%, the apparent density were between 2.12 and 2.67 g·cm"−"3, and heat capacities were between 0.64 and 0.79 kJ/(kg·K). All the results indicated that the Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic can be applied as encapsulation material in high temperature latent thermal energy storage.
Huh, Joo-Youl; Hwang, Min-Je; Shim, Seung-Woo; Kim, Tae-Chul; Kim, Jong-Sang
The reactive wetting behaviors of molten Zn-Al-Mg alloys on MnO- and amorphous (a-) SiO2-covered steel sheets were investigated by the sessile drop method, as a function of the Al and Mg contents in the alloys. The sessile drop tests were carried out at 460 °C and the variation in the contact angles (θc) of alloys containing 0.2-2.5 wt% Al and 0-3.0 wt% Mg was monitored for 20 s. For all the alloys, the MnO-covered steel substrate exhibited reactive wetting whereas the a-SiO2-covered steel exhibited nonreactive, nonwetting (θc > 90°) behavior. The MnO layer was rapidly removed by Al and Mg contained in the alloys. The wetting of the MnO-covered steel sheet significantly improved upon increasing the Mg content but decreased upon increasing the Al content, indicating that the surface tension of the alloy droplet is the main factor controlling its wettability. Although the reactions of Al and Mg in molten alloys with the a-SiO2 layer were found to be sluggish, the wettability of Zn-Al-Mg alloys on the a-SiO2 layer improved upon increasing the Al and Mg contents. These results suggest that the wetting of advanced high-strength steel sheets, the surface oxide layer of which consists of a mixture of MnO and SiO2, with Zn-Al-Mg alloys could be most effectively improved by increasing the Mg content of the alloys.
A combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy to construct well-defined core-shell epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with high encapsulation loading, super thermal stability and nonpolar solvent tolerance
Full Text Available SiO2-based microcapsules containing hydrophobic molecules exhibited potential applications such as extrinsic self-healing, drug delivery, due to outstanding thermal and chemical stability of SiO2. However, to construct SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability is still a troublesome issue, limiting their further utilization. We herein design a single-batch route, a combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy, to fabricate epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability. The final SiO2-based microcapsules preserve high encapsulation loading of 85.7 wt% by controlling exclusively hydrolysis and condensed polymerization at oil/water interface in the initial interfacial polymerization step. In the subsequent in-situ polymerization step, the initial SiO2-based microcapsules as seeds could efficiently harvest SiO2 precursors and primary SiO2 particles to finely tune the SiO2 wall thickness, thereby enhancing long-term structural stability of the final SiO2-based microcapsules including high thermal stability with almost no any weight loss until 250°C, and strong tolerance against nonpolar solvents such as CCl4 with almost unchanged core-shell structure and unchanged core weight after immersing into strong solvents for up to 5 days. These SiO2-based microcapsules are extremely suited for processing them into anticorrosive coating in the presence of nonpolar solvents for self-healing application.
Cao, Yongqiang; Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping; Shi, Ruixia; Ma, Qian; Zhang, Aiyu; Zhu, Yuanna; Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Jianrong
The polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hybrid luminescent micro-/nanofibers doped with the novel hybrid SiO 2 -coated CdTe nanocrystals (HS-CdTe NCs) have been fabricated for the first time via the electrospinning technique. The morphologies and photoluminescence (PL) emissions of HS-CdTe/PVP micro-/nanofibers prepared by doping the HS-CdTe NCs with the different PL peak wavelength (571, 616, and 643 nm) in PVP fibers were investigated by optical and PL microscope. The results revealed that all the HS-CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers showed an ultralong length for several hundreds of micrometers and a relatively uniform diameter of 1000 ∼ 1200 nm. The hybrid fibers displayed a wavelength-tunable PL emission, determining by the PL of doped HS-CdTe NCs. Moreover, similar to the original PL properties of HS-CdTe NCs before the electrospinning, the HS-CdTe/PVP fibers also showed a series of superior PL properties, such as narrow and symmetry PL spectrum, high, and uniform brightness. For comparison purpose, we also prepared three CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers by doping the 553 nm, 600 nm, and 633 nm PL-emitting CdTe NCs respectively in PVP electrospinning fibers. The characterization results showed that, the obtained three CdTe/PVP hybrid fibers had a basically satisfactory micro-/nanofiber morphology with a long length and relatively uniform diameter, but all the fibers exhibited very weak PL emissions. The enormous contrast in PL properties between HS-CdTe/PVP and CdTe/PVP fibers should mainly be ascribed to the different connection modes of ligands with the NCs and the passivation effect of inert hybrid silica shell on HS-CdTe. It is hopeful that the high luminescent HS-CdTe/PVP micro-/nanofibers with the tunable PL peak wavelength would be a good candidate in the optical sensor, light-emitting devices (LEDs), nanometer-scale waveguides, and the other related photonic materials. - Highlights: • The HS-CdTe/PVP electrospun hybrid fibers were fabricated for the first time. • The
Phatangare, A. B.; Dhole, S. D.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.
The surface properties of substrates made of 3 nm gold nanoparticles embedded on SiO2 nanospheres enabled fingerprint detection of thiabendazole (TBZ), crystal violet (CV) and 4-Aminothiophenol (4-ATP) at an ultralow concentration of ∼10-18 M by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Gold nanoparticles of an average size of ∼3 nm were synthesized and simultaneously embedded on SiO2 nanospheres by the electron irradiation method. The substrates made from the 3 nm gold nanoparticles embedded on SiO2 nanospheres were successfully used for recording fingerprint SERS spectra of TBZ, CV and 4-ATP over a wide range of concentrations from 10-6 M to 10-18 M using 785 nm laser. The unique features of these substrates are roughness near the surface due to the inherent structural defects of 3 nm gold nanoparticles, nanogaps of ≤ 1 nm between the embedded nanoparticles and their high number. These produced an abundance of nanocavities which act as active centers of hot-spots and provided a high electric field at the reporter molecules and thus an enhancement factor required to record the SERS spectra at ultra low concentration of 10-18 M. The SERS spectra recorded by the substrates of 4 nm and 6 nm gold nanoparticles are discussed.
Pozo Lopez, G.; Silvetti, S.P.; Urreta, S.E.; Cabanillas, E.D.
Composites Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 /SiO 2 are obtained after high-energy ball milling precursor oxides, in stoichiometric proportions, for 200 h at room temperature and further isothermal annealing for 1 h at 1273 K, under air and argon atmosphere, respectively. After 200 h grinding, a complex microstructure develops with small hematite crystals mixed with SiO 2 and remanent NiO and ZnO particles, and very small NiZn ferrite clusters, reaching a mean size of ∼9 nm. The high temperature treatments remove the hematite grains from the powder and promote the growth of NiZn ferrite grains to reach mean sizes nearly ∼20 nm. For treatments in oxidizing atmospheres, the major phases are SiO 2 and NiZn ferrite, while for annealing in Ar a new phase appears, fayalite, which is paramagnetic at room temperature. The M-H loops are all well described by the sum of a ferromagnetic and a superparamagnetic-like contribution. The observed properties are interpreted considering the different magnetic phases obtained, their crystal sizes and their mutual interactions
Zhang, Ying; Chen, Juanrong; Hua, Li; Li, Songjun; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Sheng, Weichen; Cao, Shunsheng
Ongoing research activities are targeted to explore high photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 -based photocatalysts for the degradation of environmental contaminants under UV and visible light irradiation. In this work, we devise a facile, cost-effective technique to in situ synthesize hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 (SCT) hollow spheres for the first time. This strategy mainly contains the preparation of monodisperse cationic polystyrene spheres (CPS), sequential deposition of inner SiO 2 , the preparation of the sandwich-like CPS@SiO 2 @CPS particles, and formation of outer TiO 2 . After the one-step removal of CPS templates by calcination at 450°C, hierarchical SiO 2 @C-doped TiO 2 hollow spheres are in situ prepared. The morphology, hierarchical structure, and properties of SCT photocatalyst were characterized by TEM. SEM, STEM Mapping, BET, XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XPS. Results strongly confirm the carbon doping in the outer TiO 2 lattice of SCT hollow spheres. When the as-synthesized SCT hollow spheres were employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light and ultraviolet irradiation, the SCT photocatalyst exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than commercial P25, effectively overcoming the limitations of poorer UV activity for many previous reported TiO 2 -based photocatalysts due to doping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gasnier, E.; Bardez-Giboire, I.; Massoni, N.; Montouillout, V.; Pellerin, N.; Allix, M.; Ory, S.; Cabie, M.; Poissonnet, S.; Massiot, D.
Considering the interest of developing new glass matrices able to immobilize higher concentration of high level nuclear wastes than currently used nuclear borosilicate compositions, glasses containing high rare earth contents are of particular interest. This study focuses on a peraluminous alumino borosilicate system SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O-CaO-Nd 2 O 3 defined by a per-alkaline/peraluminous ratio RP = ([Na 2 O] + [CaO])/ ([Na 2 O] + [CaO] + [Al 2 O 3 ]) ≤ 0.5. Samples with various contents of Nd 2 O 3 from 0 to 10 mol% were studied using DSC, XRD, SEM, TEM, STEM and EMPA methods. The glasses present a high thermal stability even after a slow cooling treatment from the melt. Only a slight mullite crystallization is detected for low Nd 2 O 3 content (≤2.3 mol%) and crystallization of a neodymium borosilicate crystalline phase combined to a phase separation occurred at high Nd 2 O 3 content (≥8 mol%). The solubility of neodymium in the presence of aluminum is demonstrated, with higher neodymium incorporation amounts than in per-alkaline glasses. (authors)
Choi, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Young-Min; Park, Young-Wook; Park, Tae-Hyun; Jeong, Jin-Wook; Choi, Hyun-Ju; Song, Eun-Ho; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Cheol-Ho
The present study demonstrates a flexible gas-diffusion barrier film, containing an SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 nanolaminate on a plastic substrate. Highly uniform and conformal coatings can be made by alternating the exposure of a flexible polyethersulfone surface to vapors of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 , at nanoscale thickness cycles via RF-magnetron sputtering deposition. The calcium degradation test indicates that 24 cycles of a 10/10 nm inorganic bilayer, top-coated by UV-cured resin, greatly enhance the barrier performance, with a permeation rate of 3.79 x 10 -5 g m -2 day -1 based on the change in the ohmic behavior of the calcium sensor at 20 deg. C and 50% relative humidity. Also, the permeation rate for 30 cycles of an 8/8 nm inorganic bilayer coated with UV resin was beyond the limited measurable range of the Ca test at 60 deg. C and 95% relative humidity. It has been found that such laminate films can effectively suppress the void defects of a single inorganic layer, and are significantly less sensitive against moisture permeation. This nanostructure, fabricated by an RF-sputtering process at room temperature, is verified as being useful for highly water-sensitive organic electronics fabricated on plastic substrates.
Raos, B J; Unsworth, C P; Costa, J L; Rohde, C A; Simpson, M C; Doyle, C S; Dickinson, M E; Bunting, A S; Murray, A F; Delivopoulos, E; Graham, E S
Cell patterning commonly employs photolithographic methods for the micro fabrication of structures on silicon chips. These require expensive photo-mask development and complex photolithographic processing. Laser based patterning of cells has been studied in vitro and laser ablation of polymers is an active area of research promising high aspect ratios. This paper disseminates how 800 nm femtosecond infrared (IR) laser radiation can be successfully used to perform laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates for the patterning of human hNT astrocytes (derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT)) whilst 248 nm nanosecond ultra-violet laser radiation produces photo-oxidization of the parylene-C and destroys cell patterning. In this work, we report the laser ablation methods used and the ablation characteristics of parylene-C for IR pulse fluences. Results follow that support the validity of using IR laser ablative micromachining for patterning human hNT astrocytes cells. We disseminate the variation in yield of patterned hNT astrocytes on parylene-C with laser pulse spacing, pulse number, pulse fluence and parylene-C strip width. The findings demonstrate how laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates can offer an accessible alternative for rapid prototyping, high yield cell patterning with broad application to multi-electrode arrays, cellular micro-arrays and microfluidics. (paper)
Said, K.; Moya, G.; Si Ahmed, A.; Damamme, G.; Kallel, A.
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Positive charging of high purity amorphous SiO_2 achieved by electron irradiation in a specially equipped scanning electron microscope. • Quantity of detrapped holes evaluated via measurements of induced and secondary electron currents. • Study of isothermal detrapping for different temperatures (300–663 K). • Analysis of the hole detrapping via a first order kinetics. • Evaluation of the hole detrapping parameters (activation energy and frequency factor). - Abstract: Isothermal detrapping of holes after electron irradiation (using a SEM) in high purity amorphous SiO_2 is evaluated at different temperatures (in the range 300–663 K) by means of the induced and secondary current measurements. In order to single out the hole detrapping, the specific charging conditions (1 keV defocused electron beam of low density) leading to positive charging are adopted. The thermal detrapping, which stems from a single trap, begins at 523 K and is completed at 663 K. After annealing in air at 973 K during 48 h, two detrapping stages are revealed: the former is connected with an additional shallow trap, while the latter requires temperatures above 663 K for a complete detrapping. The first order kinetics describes reasonably well the detrapping process. The frequency factors (near 10"1"0 s"−"1) and the activation energies (about 1.6 eV) deduced from this analysis could be assigned, respectively, to the relaxation connected to detrapping and to the trap energy level of the charged oxygen vacancy.
Chen, Ying; Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin
This paper presents a novel sensing layer modification technique for static micro-cantilever sensors that detect trace explosives by measuring specific adsorption-induced surface stress. For the first time, a method of directly modifying a siloxane sensing bilayer on an SiO(2) surface is proposed to replace the conventional self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiols on Au to avoid the trouble from long-term unstable Au-S bonds. For modifying the long-term reliable sensing bilayer on the piezoresistor-integrated micro-cantilevers, a siloxane-head bottom layer is self-assembled directly on the SiO(2) cantilever surface, which is followed by grafting another explosive-sensing-group functionalized molecule layer on top of the siloxane layer. The siloxane-modified sensor has experimentally exhibited a highly resoluble response to 0.1 ppb TNT vapor. More importantly, the repeated detection results after 140 days show no obvious attenuation in sensing signal. Also observed experimentally, the specific adsorption of the siloxane sensing bilayer to TNT molecules causes a tensile surface stress on the cantilever. Herein the measured tensile surface stress is in contrast to the compressive surface stress normally measured from conventional cantilever sensors where the sensitive thiol-SAMs are modified on an Au surface. The reason for this newly observed phenomenon is discussed and preliminarily analyzed.
Chen Ying; Xu Pengcheng; Li Xinxin
This paper presents a novel sensing layer modification technique for static micro-cantilever sensors that detect trace explosives by measuring specific adsorption-induced surface stress. For the first time, a method of directly modifying a siloxane sensing bilayer on an SiO 2 surface is proposed to replace the conventional self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiols on Au to avoid the trouble from long-term unstable Au-S bonds. For modifying the long-term reliable sensing bilayer on the piezoresistor-integrated micro-cantilevers, a siloxane-head bottom layer is self-assembled directly on the SiO 2 cantilever surface, which is followed by grafting another explosive-sensing-group functionalized molecule layer on top of the siloxane layer. The siloxane-modified sensor has experimentally exhibited a highly resoluble response to 0.1 ppb TNT vapor. More importantly, the repeated detection results after 140 days show no obvious attenuation in sensing signal. Also observed experimentally, the specific adsorption of the siloxane sensing bilayer to TNT molecules causes a tensile surface stress on the cantilever. Herein the measured tensile surface stress is in contrast to the compressive surface stress normally measured from conventional cantilever sensors where the sensitive thiol-SAMs are modified on an Au surface. The reason for this newly observed phenomenon is discussed and preliminarily analyzed.
Liang, Yanjie; Noh, Hyeon Mi; Park, Sung Heum; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun
Nowadays, in view of health and safety demands, the controlled design of selective and sensitive sensors for Cu2+ detection is of considerable importance. Therefore, we construct herein core-shell colloidal GdVO4:Eu3+@SiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) as optical sensor for the detection of Cu2+, which were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction and encapsulated with a uniform layer of ultrathin silica through a sol-gel strategy. The NCs present strong red emission due to energy transfer from VO43- groups to Eu3+ when exciting with ultraviolet (UV) light. This intense red emission from Eu3+ could be selectively quenched in the presence of Cu2+ in comparison to other metal ions and the limit of detection is as low as 80 nM in aqueous solution. It is revealed that the spectral overlap between the emission band of NCs and the absorption of Cu2+ accounts for this intriguing luminescence behavior. The detection ability is highly reversible by the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with the recovery of almost 100% of the original luminescence. The luminescence quenching and recovery processes can be performed repeatedly with good sensing ability. These remarkable performances allow the colloidal GdVO4:Eu3+@SiO2 NCs a promising fluorescence chemosensor for detecting Cu2+ ions in aqueous solution.
Tang, Wufu; Zhang, Qian; Luo, Zhiwei; Yu, Jingbo; Gao, Xianglong; Li, Yunxing; Lu, Anxian
To obtain CoO-doped MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MAS)-colored transparent glass-ceramics with high crystallinity, the glass with the composition 21MgO-21Al2O3-54SiO2-4B2O3-0.2CoO (in mol %) was prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and subsequently thermal treated at several temperatures. The crystallization behavior of the glass, the precipitated crystalline phases and crystallinity were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure of the glass-ceramics was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FSEM). The transmittance of glass-ceramic was measured by UV spectrophotometer. The results show that a large amount of α-cordierite (indianite) with nano-size was precipitated from the glass matrix after treatment at 1020 °C for 3 h. The crystallinity of the transparent glass-ceramic reached up to 97%. Meanwhile, the transmittance of the glass-ceramic was 74% at 400 nm with a complex absorption band from 450 nm to 700 nm. In addition, this colored transparent glass-ceramic possessed lower density (2.469 g/cm3), lower thermal expansion coefficient (1.822 × 10-6 /℃), higher Vickers hardness (9.1 GPa) and higher bending strength (198 MPa) than parent glass.
Li, Lei; Zhao, Aiwu; Wang, Dapeng; Guo, Hongyan; Sun, Henghui; He, Qinye
The cube-like Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag (FSA) nanocomposites with great SERS activity have been successfully synthesized by a layer-by-layer procedure in this paper. The cube-like Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core–shell structures were prepared via a new route and Ag nanoparticles were introduced onto their surface through a one-pot hydrothermal reaction. By controlling the reaction time, the coverage rate of Ag on the FSA surface could be tuned, and then a series of FSA composites were obtained. The SERS properties of these FSA composites were investigated using p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) as the probe molecule. It was found that the FSA composites synthesized with a reaction time of 6 h showed the best SERS performance, and the detection limit for p-ATP could reach 1 × 10 −7 M. For practical application, the FSA composites were also used to detect thiram, one of the dithiocarbamate fungicides that has been widely used as a pesticide in agriculture. The detection limit is as low as 1 × 10 −6 M (0.24 ppm), lower than the maximal residue limit of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The resulting substrate with high SERS activity, stability and strong magnetic responsivity makes the FSA composite a perfect choice for practical SERS detection applications.
Guo, Hao; Zhang, Xiong; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Peiyuan; Liu, Honggang; Chang, Hudong; Zhao, Wei; Liao, Qinghua; Cui, Yiping
GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) backside reflector have been proposed and fabricated. Highly passivated Al(2)O(3) layer deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) layer with excellent uniformity and quality has been achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. With a 60 mA current injection, an enhancement of 21.6%, 59.7%, and 63.4% in the light output power (LOP) at 460 nm wavelength was realized for the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers, the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and Ag mirror + 3-pair TiO(2)/SiO(2) DBR backside reflector, and the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layer and Ag mirror + 3-pair ALD-grown TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) DBR backside reflector as compared with the conventional LED only with a single SiO(2) passivation layer, respectively.
Mokhovikov, M.A.; Komarov, F.F.; Vlasukova, L.A.; Mil'chanin, O.V.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.; Zhukovski, P.; Vengerek, P.
We present the results of the structure and elemental composition of the SiO 2 layers after high-dose zinc implantation (10 16 - 10 17 sm -2 ) at room temperature and at 500°C, as well as after 700°C annealing. In the case of 'hot' implantation the formation of nano sized (to 5 nm) clusters containing atoms of zinc is registered in as-implanted samples. TEM-analysis proves crystalline structure of these precipitates. Subsequent annealing results in a redistribution of zinc within the implanted layer and in the formation of large crystallites (10 -12 nm for a dose of 5*10 16 cm -2 and 12-18 nm for a dose of 10 17 cm -2 ) in the area of high impurity concentration. (authors)
Gao, L. G.; Xu, B.; Guo, H. X.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.
The band alignments of (La2O3)0.5(SiO2)0.5(LSO)/GaN and LSO/SiO2/GaN gate dielectric stacks were investigated comparatively by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offsets for LSO/GaN stack and LSO/SiO2/GaN stack are 0.88 and 1.69 eV, respectively, while the corresponding conduction band offsets are found to be 1.40 and 1.83 eV, respectively. Measurements of the leakage current density as function of temperature revealed that the LSO/SiO2/GaN stack has much lower leakage current density than that of the LSO/GaN stack, especially at high temperature. It is concluded that the presence of a SiO2 buffer layer increases band offsets and reduces the leakage current density effectively.
Stolyarova, V L; Lopatin, S I; Shilov, A L; Shugurov, S M
The unique properties of the PbO-B2O3-SiO2 system, especially its extensive range of glass-forming compositions, make it valuable for various practical applications. The thermodynamic properties and vaporization of PbO-B2O3-SiO2 melts are not well established so far and the data obtained on these will be useful for optimization of technology and thermodynamic modeling of glasses. High-temperature Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry was used to study vaporization processes and to determine the partial pressures of components of the PbO-B2O3-SiO2 melts. Measurements were performed with a MS-1301 mass spectrometer. Vaporization was carried out using two quartz effusion cells containing the sample under study and pure PbO (reference substance). Ions were produced by electron ionization at an energy of 25 eV. To facilitate interpretation of the mass spectra, the appearance energies of ions were also measured. Pb, PbO and O2 were found to be the main vapor species over the samples studied at 1100 K. The PbO activities as a function of the composition of the system were derived from the measured PbO partial pressures. The B2O3 and SiO2 activities, the Gibbs energy of formation, the excess Gibbs energy of formation and mass losses in the samples studied were calculated. Partial pressures of the vapor species over PbO-B2O3-SiO2 melts were measured at 1100 K in the wide range of compositions using the Knudsen mass spectrometric method. The data enabled the PbO, B2O3, and SiO2 activities in these melts to be derived and provided evidence of their negative deviations from ideal behavior. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yayuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Kai; Cui, Yi
High ionic conductivity solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has long been desired for the next generation high energy and safe rechargeable lithium batteries. Among all of the SPEs, composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) with ceramic fillers has garnered great interest due to the enhancement of ionic conductivity. However, the high degree of polymer crystallinity, agglomeration of ceramic fillers, and weak polymer-ceramic interaction limit the further improvement of ionic conductivity. Different from the existing methods of blending preformed ceramic particles with polymers, here we introduce an in situ synthesis of ceramic filler particles in polymer electrolyte. Much stronger chemical/mechanical interactions between monodispersed 12 nm diameter SiO2 nanospheres and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains were produced by in situ hydrolysis, which significantly suppresses the crystallization of PEO and thus facilitates polymer segmental motion for ionic conduction. In addition, an improved degree of LiClO4 dissociation can also be achieved. All of these lead to good ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 60 °C, 4.4 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 30 °C). At the same time, largely extended electrochemical stability window up to 5.5 V can be observed. We further demonstrated all-solid-state lithium batteries showing excellent rate capability as well as good cycling performance.
Xu, Xiuling; Hu, Fan; Shuai, Qi
Mesoporous silica core-shell nanospheres encapsulating a rare-earth metal complex (RC) were first synthesised through a facile W/O (water in oil) inverse microemulsion method. In order to achieve targeted complex delivery, folic acid (FA) was used as the targeting component due to its high affinity for over-expressed folate receptors (FRs) in cancer cells. The RC 2 @SiO 2 -FA nanospheres were characterised via ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis spectroscopy), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A microwave method was used to synthesise five RC cores based on 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, and their crystal structures were further confirmed using X-ray diffraction. The five RC cores have the following chemical formulae: [Er 2 (p-CPA) 6 (H 2 O) 6 ] RC 1 , [Ho 2 (p-CPA) 6 (H 2 O) 6 ] RC 2 , [Sm(p-CPA) 3 (H 2 O)] RC 3 , [Pr(p-CPA) 3 (H 2 O)]·3H 2 O RC 4 and [Ce(p-CPA) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ]·2H 2 O RC 5 . The carboxyl groups showed two kinds of coordination modes, namely μ 2 -η 1 :η 1 and μ 2 -η 1 :η 2 , among RC 1 -RC 5 . The flexible -OCH 2 COO- spacer group, which can undergo rotation of its C-O and C-C bonds, offered great potential for structural diversity. In vivo experiments revealed that the nanospheres exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells and 293 T cells, even at concentrations of up to 80 μg mL -1 . Nevertheless, all of the RC cores showed a certain degree of anti-tumour efficacy; in particular, RC 2 showed the strongest cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity of all of the RC 2 @SiO 2 -FA nanospheres was higher than that of lone RC 2 . These types of FA-targeted mesoporous silica nanocarriers can be used for the delivery of anti-tumour RC, and provide a basis for the further study of affordable non-platinum-based complexes.
Chen, D. Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, J.
We have investigated carrier transport in SiO 2 /nc-Si/SiO 2 multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V 2 ) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V 1/2 . Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages
Castro, Yolanda; Mosa, Jadra; Aparicio, Mario; Pérez-Carrillo, Lourdes A.; Vílchez, Susana; Esquena, Jordi; Durán, Alicia
In this work, highly conductive hybrid organic–inorganic membranes loaded with SiO 2 , TiO 2 –P 2 O 5 and SiO 2 –TiO 2 –P 2 O 5 meso/macroporous particles were prepared via a sol–gel process. Meso/macroporous particles were incorporated to hybrid membranes, for improving water retention and enhancing electrochemical performance. These particles with a polymodal pore size distribution were prepared by templating in highly concentrated emulsions, the particles showed a specific surface area between 50 m 2 /g (TiO 2 –P 2 O 5 ) and 300 m 2 /g (SiO 2 –TiO 2 –P 2 O 5 ). The particles were dispersed in a hybrid silica sol and further sprayed onto glass paper. The films were polymerized and sintered; those loaded with meso/macroporous particles had a homogenous distribution. High temperature proton conductivity measurements confirmed a high water retention. Conductivity of these materials is higher than that of Nafion ® at higher temperatures (120 °C) (2·10 −2 S/cm). This study provides processing guideline to achieve hybrid electrolytes for efficient conduction of protons due to their high surface area and porous structure. - Highlights: • Hybrid electrolyte with meso/macroporous particles were synthesized by sol–gel. • Depositions of hybrid solutions by spraying onto glass substrates were performed. • Proton conductivity was evaluated as a function of composition and porous structure
Ojha, Prasanta Kumar; Rath, S. K.; Chongdar, T. K.; Gokhale, N. M.; Kulkarni, A. R.
A series of SOFC glass sealants with composition SrO (x), La2O3 (15), Al2O3 (15), B2O3 (40 - x), and SiO2 (30) [x = 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30] (wt.%) [SLABS] are investigated for their structure property correlations at different compositions. Quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows structural rigidity with increasing SrO content, as demonstrate by an increase in the Si-O-Si/O-Si-O bending and B-O-B stretching frequencies. The role of SrO as a modifier dominates the control of the structure and behaviour of glasses compared with the effect of network formers, i.e., the B2O3/SiO2 ratio. Consequent to the structural changes, increasing substitution of B2O3 by SrO the glasses causes increases in the density, glass transition temperature and dilatometric softening point. On the other hand, the crystallization temperatures show a decreasing trend and the coefficient of thermal expansion increases with increase in substitution.
Surowska, B.; Walczak, M.; Bienias, J.
The paper presents the study of intermediate SiO 2 and SiO 2 -TiO 2 sol-gel coatings and dental porcelain coatings on Ti6Al4VELI titanium alloy. Surface microstructures and wear behaviour by pin-on-disc method of the ceramic coatings were investigated. The analysis revealed: (1) a compact, homogeneous SiO 2 and SiO 2 -TiO 2 coating and (2) that intermediate coatings may provide a durable joint between metal and porcelain, and (3) that dental porcelain on SiO 2 and TiO 2 coatings shows high wear resistance. (author)
Mantlikova, A.; Poltierova Vejpravova, J.; Bittova, B.; Burianova, S.; Niznansky, D.; Ardu, A.; Cannas, C.
We have investigated the processes leading to the formation of the Fe 2 O 3 and CeO 2 nanoparticles in the SiO 2 matrix in order to stabilize the ε-Fe 2 O 3 as the major phase. The samples with two different concentrations of the Fe were prepared by sol–gel method, subsequently annealed at different temperatures up to 1100 °C, and characterized by the Mössbauer spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and magnetic measurements. The evolution of the different Fe 2 O 3 phases under various conditions of preparation was investigated, starting with the preferential appearance of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase for the sample with low Fe concentration and low annealing temperature and stabilization of the major ε-Fe 2 O 3 phase for high Fe concentration and high annealing temperature, coexisting with the most stable α-Fe 2 O 3 phase. A continuous increase of the particle size of the CeO 2 nanocrystals with increasing annealing temperature was also observed. - Graphical abstract: The graphical abstract displays the most important results of our work. The significant change of the phase composition due to the variation of preparation conditions is demonstrated. As a result, significant change of the magnetic properties from superparamagnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase with negligible coercivity to the high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 phase has been observed. Highlights: ► Research of the stabilization of the high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 in CeO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 /SiO 2 . ► Samples with two different concentrations of Fe and three annealing temperatures. ► Phase transition γ→ε→(β)→α with increasing annealing temperature and particle size. ► Elimination of the superparamagnetic phases in samples with higher content of Fe. ► Best conditions for high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 —higher Fe content and T A =1100°C.
Full Text Available In this present work, high specific surface area and strong visible light absorption nitrogen doped TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by using sol-gel coupled with hydrothermal treatment method. Nitrogen was found to improve the specific surface area while it also distorted the crystal phase of the resulting N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst. As the N/ (TiO2-SiO2 molar ratio was more than 10%, the derived catalyst presented the superior specific surface area up to 260 m2/g. Nevertheless, its photoactivity towards phenol removal was observed to significantly decrease, which could results from the too low crystallinity. The nitrogen content in N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst was therefore necessary to be optimized in terms of phenol removal efficiency and found at ca. 5%. Under UVA light and natural sunlight irradiation of 80 min, N(5%-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst presented the phenol decomposition efficiencies of 68 and 100%, respectively. It was also interestingly found in this study that the reaction rate was successfully expressed using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H model, indicating the L-H nature of photocatalytic phenol decomposition reaction on the N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst.
Obata, Seiji; Sato, Minoru; Akada, Keishi; Saiki, Koichiro
A high throughput synthesis method of graphene has been required for a long time to apply graphene to industrial applications. Of the various synthesis methods, the chemical exfoliation of graphite via graphene oxide (GO) is advantageous as far as productivity is concerned; however, the quality of the graphene produced by this method is far inferior to that synthesized by other methods, such as chemical vapor deposition on metals. Developing an effective reduction and restoration method for GO on dielectric substrates has been therefore a key issue. Here, we present a method for changing GO deposited on a dielectric substrate into high crystallinity graphene at 550 °C this method uses CH4/H2 plasma and a Cu catalyst. We found that Cu remotely catalyzed the high degree reduction and restoration of GO on SiO2 and the effect ranged over at least 8 mm. With this method, field-effect transistor devices can be fabricated without any post treatment such as a transfer process. This plasma treatment increased electron and hole mobilities of GO to 480 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and 460 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 respectively; these values were more than 50 times greater than that of conventional reduced GO. Furthermore, the on-site conversion ensured that the shape of the GO sheets remained unchanged after the treatment. This plasma treatment realizes the high throughput synthesis of a desired shaped graphene on any substrate without any residue and damage being caused by the transfer process; as such, it expands the potential applicability of graphene.
Lee, Jin-Kwan; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Min, Jae-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup
The dependence of Si 3 N 4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 on ion-incident angles was studied for different bias voltages in a high-density C 4 F 8 plasma. A Faraday cage and specially designed substrate holders were used to accurately control the angles of incident ions on the substrate surface. The normalized etch yield (NEY), defined as the etch yield obtained at a given ion-incident angle normalized to that obtained on a horizontal surface, was unaffected by the bias voltage in Si 3 N 4 etching, but it increased with the bias voltage in SiO 2 etching in the range of -100 to -300 V. The NEY changed showing a maximum with an increase in the ion-incident angle in the etching of both substrates. In the Si 3 N 4 etching, a maximum NEY of 1.7 was obtained at 70 deg. in the above bias voltage range. However, an increase in the NEY at high ion-incident angles was smaller for SiO 2 than for Si 3 N 4 and, consequently, the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 decreased with an increase in the ion-incident angle. The etch selectivity decreased to a smaller extent at high bias voltage because the NEY of SiO 2 had increased. The characteristic changes in the NEY for different substrates could be correlated with the thickness of a steady-state fluorocarbon (CF x ) film formed on the substrates
Zhao, Yayu; Fu, Yongming; Wang, Penglei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu
Highly stable piezo-immunoglobulin-biosensing has been realized from a SiO2/ZnO nanowire (NW) nanogenerator (NG) as a self-powered/active biosensor. The piezoelectric output generated by the SiO2/ZnO NW NG can act not only as a power source for driving the device, but also as a sensing signal for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG). The stability of the device is very high, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranges from 1.20% to 4.20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of IgG on the device can reach 5.7 ng mL(-1). The response of the device is in a linear relationship with IgG concentration. The biosensing performance of SiO2/ZnO NWs is much higher than that of bare ZnO NWs. A SiO2 layer uniformly coated on the surface of the ZnO NW acts as the gate insulation layer, which increases mechanical robustness and protects it from the electrical leakages and short circuits. The IgG biomolecules modified on the surface of the SiO2/ZnO NW act as a gate potential, and the field effect can influence the surface electron density of ZnO NWs, which varies the screening effect of free-carriers on the piezoelectric output. The present results demonstrate a feasible approach for a highly stable self-powered/active biosensor.
Li, Tingting; Li, Na; Liu, Jiawei; Cai, Kai; Foda, Mohamed F.; Lei, Xiaomin; Han, Heyou
In this work, a high-capacity supercapacitor material based on functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene was fabricated by low temperature hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) using both ionic liquid (IL) and SiO2 spheres as ``spacers''. In the synthesis, the introduction of dual ``spacers'' effectively enlarged the interspace between graphene sheets and suppressed their re-stacking. In addition, the IL also acted as a structure-directing agent playing a crucial role in inducing the formation of unique 3D architectures. Consequently, fast electron/ion transport channels were successfully constructed and numerous oxygen-containing groups on graphene sheets were effectively reserved, which had unique advantages in decreasing ion diffusion resistance and providing additional pseudocapacitance. As expected, the obtained material exhibited superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to single ``spacer'' designed electrodes and simultaneously maintained excellent cycling stability. In particular, there was nearly no loss of its initial capacitance after 3000 cycles. In addition, we further assembled a symmetric two-electrode device using the material, which showed outstanding flexibility and low equivalent series resistance (ESR). More importantly, it was capable of yielding a maximum power density of about 13.3 kW kg-1 with an energy density of about 7.0 W h kg-1 at a voltage of 1.0 V in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. All these impressive results demonstrate that the material obtained by this approach is greatly promising for application in high-performance supercapacitors.In this work, a high-capacity supercapacitor material based on functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene was fabricated by low temperature hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) using both ionic liquid (IL) and SiO2 spheres as ``spacers''. In the synthesis, the introduction of dual ``spacers'' effectively enlarged the interspace between graphene sheets
Li, Tingting; Li, Na; Liu, Jiawei; Cai, Kai; Foda, Mohamed F; Lei, Xiaomin; Han, Heyou
In this work, a high-capacity supercapacitor material based on functionalized three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene was fabricated by low temperature hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) using both ionic liquid (IL) and SiO2 spheres as "spacers". In the synthesis, the introduction of dual "spacers" effectively enlarged the interspace between graphene sheets and suppressed their re-stacking. In addition, the IL also acted as a structure-directing agent playing a crucial role in inducing the formation of unique 3D architectures. Consequently, fast electron/ion transport channels were successfully constructed and numerous oxygen-containing groups on graphene sheets were effectively reserved, which had unique advantages in decreasing ion diffusion resistance and providing additional pseudocapacitance. As expected, the obtained material exhibited superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to single "spacer" designed electrodes and simultaneously maintained excellent cycling stability. In particular, there was nearly no loss of its initial capacitance after 3000 cycles. In addition, we further assembled a symmetric two-electrode device using the material, which showed outstanding flexibility and low equivalent series resistance (ESR). More importantly, it was capable of yielding a maximum power density of about 13.3 kW kg(-1) with an energy density of about 7.0 W h kg(-1) at a voltage of 1.0 V in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte. All these impressive results demonstrate that the material obtained by this approach is greatly promising for application in high-performance supercapacitors.
Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on ionic liquid-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles for the determination of flavonoids in bio-matrix samples coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.
He, Huan; Yuan, Danhua; Gao, Zhanqi; Xiao, Deli; He, Hua; Dai, Hao; Peng, Jun; Li, Nan
A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on mixed hemimicelles of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coated Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was developed for simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of flavonoids in bio-matrix samples. A comparative study on the use of RTILs (C16mimBr) and CTAB-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs as sorbents was presented. Owing to bigger adsorption amounts for analytes, RTILs-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs was selected as MSPE materials and three analytes luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol can be quantitatively extracted and simultaneously determined coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in urine samples. No interferences were caused by proteins or endogenous compounds. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9993) for all calibration curves was obtained, and the limits of detection (LOD) for luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol were 0.10 ng/mL, 0.50 ng/mL and 0.20 ng/mL in urine samples, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries (93.5-97.6%, 90.1-95.4% and 93.3-96.6% for luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol) in biological matrices were achieved. It was notable that while using a small amount of Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs (4.0 mg) and C16mimBr (1.0 mg), satisfactory preconcentration factors and extraction recoveries for the three flavonoids were obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a mixed hemimicelles MSPE method based on RTILs and Fe3O4/SiO2 NPs magnetic separation has ever been used for pretreatment of complex biological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Xi; Liu, Dali; Chen, Jiansheng; Wang, Guolei
The properties of ZnO/SiO 2 /Si surface acoustic wave (SAW) love mode biosensors are studied in this paper. This specific structure is very suitable for biosensors since the reactive ZnO surface offers the opportunity for effective bio–ZnO interfaces, and the development of sensors directly on Si substrates provides the chance for full integration with read-out and signal processing circuitry in the mature Si technology. However, investigations of the dependence of buffer layer SiO 2 on the performance of biosensors are very few. Therefore, the main interest of this paper is to find the relation between the properties of biosensors and the SiO 2 layer. Some important results are obtained by solving the coupled electromechanical field equations. It is found that the mass loading sensitivity can be further improved by adding the SiO 2 layer; furthermore, the maximal sensitivity of the biosensors can be obtained by adjusting the thicknesses of the two layers. Accordingly, consideration of the buffer layer is very important in the optimization of devices. On the other hand, it is found that the thickness of the piezoelectric guiding layer has an evident effect on the electromechanical coupling coefficient, while that of the SiO 2 layer has a tiny effect on it. Moreover, we find that the effect of initial stresses on the properties of biosensors depends on the distribution of acoustic flow power in the two layers. This analysis is meaningful for the manufacture and applications of the ZnO/SiO 2 /Si structure love wave biosensor
Yang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weizhen; Gan, Wenjun; Xu, Jingli; Hayat, Tasawar; Alharbi, Njud S.; Yang, Fan
Sandwich-like structure of graphene oxide (GO) @SiO2@C-Ni nanosheets were prepared by combining an extended stöber method with subsequent carbonization treatment, in which polydopamine was used as reducing agent and carbon source. Firstly, the GO nanosheets were covered with SiO2 interlayer and finally coated with a outer shell of nickel ion doped polydopamine (PDA-Ni2+) with an extended stöber method. Followed by a carbonization to produce the GO@SiO2@C-Ni sheets with metallic nickel nanoparticles embedded in PDA-derived thin graphic carbon layer. Notably, silica interlayer played a vital role in the formation of such GO@SiO2@C-Ni sheets. Without the protection of SiO2, the hydrophobic graphene@C-Ni composites were obtained instead. While with silica layer as the spacer, the obtained hydrophilic GO@SiO2@C-Ni composites were not only well dispersed in the solution, but also can be adjusted in terms of the size and density of Ni nanoparticles (NPs) on surface by changing the calcination temperature or the molar ratio between dopamine and nickel salt. Furthermore, nickel nanoparticles decorated on GO@SiO2 sheets were employed to enrich His-rich proteins (BHb and BSA) via specific metal affinity force between polyhistidine groups and nickel nanoparticles.
Ketabdari, M.R.; Ahmadi, K.; Esmaeilnia Shirvani, A.; Tofigh, A.
X-ray diffraction technique is commonly used for qualitative analysis of minerals, and has also been successfully used for quantitative measurements. In this research, the matrix flushing and a new X-ray diffraction method have been used for the determination of crystallinity and amorphous content of Opal and Quartz mixture. The PCAPD is used to determine the quantitative analysis of these two minerals
Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Wang-Cheng; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Hsu, Heng-Tung; Hsu, Hisang-Hua; Huang, Yu-Xiang; Lin, Tai-Wei; Wu, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Wen-Hao; Maa, Jer-Shen; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Chang, Edward Yi
Improved device performance to enable high-linearity power applications has been discussed in this study. We have compared the La2O3/SiO2 AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with other La2O3-based (La2O3/HfO2, La2O3/CeO2 and single La2O3) MOS-HEMTs. It was found that forming lanthanum silicate films can not only improve the dielectric quality but also can improve the device characteristics. The improved gate insulation, reliability, and linearity of the 8 nm La2O3/SiO2 MOS-HEMT were demonstrated.
Abel, Brett M.; Morgan, James M.; Mauro, John C.
. In the composition range of interest for industrial glasses, Tliq tends to decrease with increasing strontium-to-alumina ratio. We find that cristobalite, mullite, and slawsonite are the dominant devitrification phases for the compositions with high SiO2, SiO2+Al2O3, and SrO contents, respectively. By comparison...... with the phase diagrams for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 systems, we have found that for the highest [RO]/[Al2O3] ratios, Tliq exhibits a minimum value for R = Ca. Based on the phase diagram established here, the composition of glass materials, for example, for liquid crystal display substrates, belonging...... to the SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 family may be designed with a more exact control of the glass-forming ability by avoiding the regions of high liquidus temperature....
Full Text Available In order to study the internal friction of thin films a nodal suspension system called GeNS (Gentle Nodal Suspension has been developed. The key features of this system are: i the possibility to use substrates easily available like silicon wafers; ii extremely low excess losses coming from the suspension system which allows to measure Q factors in excess of 2×108 on 3” diameter wafers; iii reproducibility of measurements within few percent on mechanical losses and 0.01% on resonant frequencies; iv absence of clamping; v the capability to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Measurements at cryogenic temperatures on SiO2 and at room temperature only on Ta2O5 films deposited on silicon are presented.
Kim, Jong-Woong; Kim, Young-Seok; Hong, Sung-Jei; Hong, Tae-Hwan; Han, Jeong-In
SiO2 thin film has a wide range of applications, including insulation layers in microelectronic devices, such as semiconductors and flat panel displays, due to its advantageous characteristics. Herein, we developed a new eco-friendly method for manufacturing SiO2 nanoparticles and, thereby, SiO2 paste to be used in the digital printing process for the fabrication of SiO2 film. By excluding harmful Cl- and NO3- elements from the SiO2 nanoparticle synthetic process, we were able to lower the heat treatment temperature for the SiO2 precursor from 600 to 300 °C and the diameter of the final SiO2 nanoparticles to about 14 nm. The synthesized SiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in an organic solvent with additives to make a SiO2 paste for feasibility testing. The SiO2 paste was printed onto a glass substrate to test the feasibility of using it for digital printing. The insulation resistance of the printed film was high enough for it to be used as an insulation layer for passivation.
Antonova, I V; Volodin, V A; Marin, D M; Skuratov, V A; Smagulova, S A; Janse van Vuuren, A; Neethling, J; Jedrzejewski, J; Balberg, I
In this paper we report the ability of swift heavy Xe ions with an energy of 480 MeV and a fluence of 10 12 cm -2 to enhance the formation of Ge nanocrystals within SiO 2 layers with variable Ge contents. These Ge-SiO 2 films were fabricated by the co-sputtering of Ge and quartz sources which followed various annealing procedures. In particular, we found that the irradiation of the Ge : SiO 2 films with subsequent annealing at 500 °C leads to the formation of a high concentration of nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 2-5 nm, whereas without irradiation only amorphous inclusions were observed. This effect, as evidenced by Raman spectra, is enhanced by pre-irradiation at 550 °C and post-irradiation annealing at 600 °C, which also leads to the observation of room temperature visible photoluminescence. (paper)
Mohamed, Bashir M
Abstract Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP) are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg\\/ml). Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass\\/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS) approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg\\/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i) human cell line specific stress-response, ii) SiO2NP size and iii) concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell\\/tissue investigations based on the combined
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml. Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2 were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i human cell line specific stress-response, ii SiO2NP size and iii concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell/tissue investigations based on the
Prapruddivongs, C.; Apichartsitporn, M.; Wongpreedee, T.
In this work, biodegradation behavior of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and crosslinked PLA filled with two types of SiO2, precipitated SiO2 (commercial SiO2) and SiO2 from rice husk ash, were studied. Rice husks were first treated with 2 molar hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce high purity SiO2, before burnt in a furnace at 800°C for 6 hours. All components were melted bending by an internal mixer then hot pressed using compression molder to form tested specimens. FTIR spectra of SiO2 and PLA samples were investigated. The results showed the lack of silanol group (Si-OH) of rice husk ash after steric acid surface modification, while the addition of particles can affect the crosslinking of the PLA. For biodegradation test by evaluating total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved during 60 days incubation at a controlled temperature of 58±2°C, the results showed that the biodegradation of crosslinked PLA occurred slower than the neat PLA. However, SiO2 incorporation enhanced the degree of biodegradation In particular, introducing commercial SiO2 in PLA and crosslinked PLA tended to clearly increase the degree of biodegradation as a consequence of the more accelerated hydrolysis degradation.
Shutthanadan, Vaithiyalingam; Baer, Donald R.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Adams, Evan M.; Maheswaran, Saravanamuthu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, Bernard P.
As part of understanding the processes leading to sodium release and ion exchange, the surface and near surface reaction regions on several specimens of a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass have been examined after exposures to isotopically labeled aqueous solutions. The majority of the analyses describe here have been carried out using energetic ion beam analysis. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the overall glass composition and to determine the profiles and amounts of Na released from the surface. An important part of the ion exchange process is the uptake and incorporation of hydrogen and oxygen in the glass from the solution. To facilitate this analysis, the glasses were exposed to a solution containing 18O and deuterium and analyzed by accelerator based nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). To confirm some of the RBS depth profile data very near the surface, XPS depth profiles were collected on some samples. Although the Na concentration is decreased in the near surface region, it is not totally removed from the outer surface. In this same region, there is also a significant amount of 18O incorporated demonstrating considerable interaction between the water and the glass. Deeper into the material the amounts of deuterium and 18O are more consistent with water or H3O+ diffusion. These results suggest that there exist an outer reaction layer and an inner diffusion controlled layer in the surface region of the reacted glass
Tiwari, Babita; Bhatacharya, S.; Dixit, A.; Gadkari, S. C.; Kothiyal, G. P.
Glasses in the SrO-ZnO-B2O3-SiO2 (SZBS) system with and without V2O5 were prepared by melt-quench method and transformed into glass-ceramics by controlled crystallization. Investigated glasses and glass-ceramics have thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) in the range of 95-120 × 10-7/°C (30-600 °C), which match closely with TEC of other components of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Study of thermo-physical properties of SZBS glasses revealed the network modifying effect of V2O5. Addition of V2O5 increases the TEC and decreases the viscosity of the glass which is beneficial for making seal with Crofer-22-APU. Microstructural investigations have shown good bonding of SZBS glasses with Crofer-22-APU. Elemental line scans indicate that inter-diffusion of Fe, Cr and Si across interface, which is thought to be responsible for good bonding with Crofer-22-APU.
Li, Zhi'ang; Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Min; Chen, Tong; Chen, Jifang; Ge, Wen; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin
Residues of organic dye in industrial effluents cause severe water system pollution. Although several methods, such as biodegradation and activated carbon adsorption, are available for treating these effluents before their discharge into waterbodies, secondary pollution by adsorbents and degrading products remains an issue. Therefore, new materials should be identified to solve this problem. In this work, CoFe2O4-SiO2 core-shell structures were synthesized using an improved Stöber method by coating mesoporous silica onto CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The specific surface areas of the synthesized particles range from 30 m2/g to 150 m2/g and vary according to the dosage amount of tetraethoxysilane. Such core-shelled nanoparticles have the following advantages for treating industrial effluents mixed with dye: good adsorption capability, above-room-temperature magnetic recycling capability, and heat-enduring stability. Through adsorption of methylene blue, a typical dyeing material, the core-shell-structured particles show a good adsorption capability of approximately 33 mg/L. The particles are easily and completely collected by magnets, which is possible due to the magnetic property of core CoFe2O4. Heat treatment can burn out the adsorbed dyes and good adsorption performance is sustained even after several heat-treating loops. This property overcomes the common problem of particles with Fe3O4 as a core, by which Fe3O4 is oxidized to nonmagnetic α-Fe2O3 at the burning temperature. We also designed a miniature of effluent-treating pipeline, which demonstrates the potential of the application.
Tang, Mingyi; Huang, Guanbo; Li, Xianxian; Pang, Xiaobo; Qiu, Haixia
Hydrophilic and biocompatible macromolecules were used to improve and simplify the process for the fabrication of core/shell SiO 2 @Au composite particles. The influence of polymers on the morphology of SiO 2 @Au particles with different size of SiO 2 cores was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical property of the SiO 2 @Au particles was studied with UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results indicate that the structure and composition of macromolecules affect the morphology of Au layers on SiO 2 microspheres. The SiO 2 @Au particles prepared in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have thin and complete Au nanoshells owing to their inducing act in preferential growth of Au nanoparticles along the surface of SiO 2 microspheres. SiO 2 @Au particles can be also prepared from SiO 2 microspheres modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane in the presence of PVA or PVP. This offers a simple way to fabricate a Au layer on SiO 2 or other microspheres. The SiO 2 @Au particles demonstrated high catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Facile direct deposition method for Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres. • Influence of different types of macromolecule on the formation of Au shell. • High catalytic performance of Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres
Alekseeva, Z.D.; Mazurin, O.V.; Aver'yanov, V.I.; Galakhov, F.Ya.
The liquation region in the system Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 was investigated. The liquation temperatures were determined by the boundary of disappearance of opalescence in specimens with pre-induced opalescence. Extrapolation of the concentration dependences of the liquation temperature along sections with a constant SiO 2 content to a point indicates that with a SiO 2 content of 20-40% the liquation boundary in the system B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 hardly lies above 450 deg C
Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Yao, Minghao; Tang, Bin; Li, Enzhu; Zhang, Shuren
Composite substrates for microwave circuit applications have been fabricated by filling polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer matrix with ceramic powder consisting of rutile TiO2 ( D 50 ≈ 5 μm) partially substituted with fused amorphous SiO2 ( D 50 ≈ 8 μm) with composition x vol.% SiO2 + (50 - x) vol.% TiO2 ( x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12), and the effects of SiO2 addition on characteristics such as the density, moisture absorption, microwave dielectric properties, and thermal properties systematically investigated. The results show that the filler was well distributed throughout the matrix. High dielectric constant ( ɛ r > 7.19) and extremely low moisture absorption (ceramic particles served as barriers and improved the thermal stability of the PTFE polymer, retarding its decomposition. The temperature coefficient of dielectric constant ( τ ɛ ) of the composites shifted toward the positive direction (from - 309 ppm/°C to - 179 ppm/°C) as the SiO2 content was increased, while the coefficient of thermal expansion remained almost unchanged (˜ 35 ppm/°C).
High-throughput multipesticides residue analysis in earthworms by the improvement of purification method: Development and application of magnetic Fe3 O4 -SiO2 nanoparticles based dispersive solid-phase extraction.
Sun, Yuhan; Qi, Peipei; Cang, Tao; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiangyun; Yang, Xuewei; Wang, Lidong; Xu, Xiahong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan; Zhao, Changshan
As a key representative organism, earthworms can directly illustrate the influence of pesticides on environmental organisms in soil ecosystems. The present work aimed to develop a high-throughput multipesticides residue analytical method for earthworms using solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile as the solvent and magnetic material-based dispersive solid-phase extraction for purification. Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were modified with a thin silica layer to form Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 nanoparticles, which were fully characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 nanoparticles were used as the separation media in dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine and ZrO 2 as the cleanup adsorbents to eliminate matrix interferences. The amounts of nanoparticles and adsorbents were optimized for the simultaneous determination of 44 pesticides and six metabolites in earthworms by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The method performance was systematically validated with satisfactory results. The limits of quantification were 20 μg/kg for all analytes studied, while the recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 65.1 to 127% with relative standard deviation values lower than 15.0%. The developed method was subsequently utilized to explore the bioaccumulation of bitertanol in earthworms exposed to contaminated soil, verifying its feasibility for real sample analysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Chen, Zhe; Jia, Da-Shuang; Zhou, Yue; Hao, Jiang; Liang, Yu; Cui, Zhi-Min; Song, Wei-Guo
Metal nanoparticles such as Ag, Cu and Fe are effective catalysts for many reactions, whereas a facile method to prepare metal nanoparticles with high uniformed dispersion is still desirable. Herein, the topotactic structure conversion of layered silicate, RUB-15, was utilized to support metal nanoparticles. Through simple ion-exchange and following calcination step, metal nanoparticles were generated in situ inside the interlayer space of layered silica, and the topotactic structure conversion process assured nano-sized and highly uniformed dispersion of metal nanoparticles. The obtained Ag/SiO2 composite showed superior catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methylene blue (MB), with a rate constant as high as 0.0607 s-1 and 0.0778 s-1. The simple and universal synthesis method as well as high activity of the product composite endow the strategy good application prospect.
B. Pivac; P. Dubček; J. Dasović; H. Zorc; S. Bernstorff; J. Zavašnik; B. Vlahovic
The annealing behavior of very thin SiO2/Ge multilayers deposited on Si substrate by e-gun deposition in high vacuum was explored. It is shown that, after annealing at moderate temperatures (800°C) in inert atmosphere, Ge is completely outdiffused from the SiO2 matrix leaving small (about 3 nm) spherical voids embedded in the SiO2 matrix. These voids are very well correlated and formed at distances governed by the preexisting multilayer structure (in vertical direction) and self-organization ...
Dresch, Mauro Andre
This work has as objective to evaluate anodes and electrolytes in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) operating at high temperature (130 deg C). As anode materials, electrocatalysts based on Pt Sn/C were prepared by Modified Polyol Method with various Pt:Sn atomic ratios. Such methodology promotes self organized electrocatalysts production with narrow particle size distribution and high alloying degree. The electrocatalysts were characterized by XRD, and CO stripping. The results showed that these materials presented high alloying degree and Eonset CO oxidation at lower potential as commercial materials. As electrolyte, Nafion-SiO 2 hybrids were synthesized by sol-gel reaction, by the incorporation of oxide directly into the ionic aggregates of various kinds of Nafion membranes. The synthesis parameter, such sol-gel solvent, membrane thickness and silicon precursor concentration were studied in terms of silica incorporation degree and hybrid mechanical stability. Finally, the optimized anodes and electrolytes were evaluated in DEFC operating at 80 - 130 deg C temperature range. The results showed a significant improvement of the DEFC performance (122 mW cm -2 ), resulted from the acceleration of ethanol oxidation reaction rate due to anode material optimization and high temperature operation once the use of hybrids possibilities the increase of temperature without a significant conductivity loses. In this sense, the combination of optimized electrodes and electrolytes are a promising alternative for the development of these devices. (author)
Zhang, Dongen; Wu, Jinbo; Zhou, Bingpu; Hong, Yaying; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia
by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, standard and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The C-doped SiO2 displayed outstanding photocatalytic properties, as evidenced by its catalysis of Rhodamine B
Pan Tao; Jin Minghua; Liu Xiaomei; Du Zhongjun; Zhou Xianqing; Huang Peili; Sun Zhiwei
Objective: To study the cytotoxicity and effect on gap junction intracellular communication (GJIC) of SiO 2 nanoparticles in HL-7702 cells, and to provide experimental basis for toxicity assessment and the security applications of SiO 2 nanoparticles. Methods: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to characterize two kinds of SiO 2 nanoparticles, verifying their size, dispersion and shape; dynamic light scattering (DLS) method was used to analyze the water dispersion and culture medium dispersion of the SiO 2 nanoparticles; MTT assay was carried out to examine the cytotoxicities of the two sizes SiO 2 nanoparticles on the cells; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay was performed to examine the integrity nano of the cell membrane; Scrape-loading and dye transfer assay was performed to examine the effect of SiO 2 nanoparticles on GJIC. Results: Based on the result of TEM, two kinds of SiO 2 nanoparticles were spherically shaped, uniformly sized and sporadically dispersed; the statistical analysis results showed the diameters of the two nanoparticles were (447.60±20.78) nm and (67.42±5.69) nm, respectively, thus they could be categorized as submicron scale and nano scale. The DLS method results manifested that the hydration nanoparticle sizes of the two SiO 2 nanoparticles were (684.37±18.76) nm, (128.31±7.64) nm in high purity water and (697.02±19.57) nm, (133.74±8.97) nm in RPMI-1640 solution, all the two nanoparticles were well dispersed without aggregation. MTT assay indicated that 24 h after treatment of SiO 2 nanoparticles, the cell viabilities were affected by both the size and the dose of the SiO 2 nanoparticles; the higher the dose was, the less viability the cells exhibited. Moreover, the nano scale particles inflicted more damage to the cells. LDH release assay indicated that the SiO 2 particles could also damage the cell membrane in a dose-dependent and size-dependent way. Scrape-loading and dye transfer assay indicated that the nano
Odoj, R.; Hilpert, K.; Nuernberg, H.W.
Additions of aluminium oxide and silicen oxide to ceramic fuel for pyrocarbon-coated nuclear fuel paticles counteract a release of fission-cesium by compound formation. The vapourization tests carried out here using samples from the quasi-ternary system cesium-oxide-aluminium-oxide-silicon-oxide by means of high-temperature mass spectroscopy using a Knudsen cell served the optimization of this retention effect. The aim of the apparative changes on the knudsen cell were to shield heat radiation on the temperature measuring borehole through the tungsten wire cathode in order to be able to perform exact temperature measurements even below 1,000 0 C. A new method of preparation was developed to obtain defined cesium aluminium silicates whose composition was determined by Guinier and goniometer pictures as well as by microscopic investigations. According to the latter, 3 ternary compounds are present in the system investigated: CsAlSiO 4 , CsAlSi 2 O 6 and CsAlSi 5 O 12 . Their lattice constants were determined from goniometric measurements; the vapour pressure equection were set up from the measured cesium vapour pressure values over each sample and the enthalpies of the vapourization reactions were found to be 84 kcal for CsAlSiO 4 at 1,400 0 K, 100 kcal for CsAlSi 2 O 6 at 1,550 0 K and 122 kcal for CsAlSi 5 O 12 at 1,650 0 K. The cesium vapour pressures of the glas phases investigated of the system are above the Cs partial pressures of the solid crystalline phases of the same composition. The results of the work explain the causes of the reduction of the Cs release and show that the vapour pressure can be lowered by more than 10 orders of magnitude at reactor relevant temperatures by compound formation. (RB) [de
ZEIGMAN Yury Veniaminovich,
Full Text Available When oil production is increasing due to intensive oilfield development methods supporting seam pressure by water injection oil producers face the problem of displacement agent break in more permeable intervals of petroleum reservoir. That leads to dramatic increase of product inundation for well stock and decrease of economic efficiency for well performance. Nowadays the petroleum engineers have proposed more than 100 technologies designed to restrict water inflows and flooding agent to bottom-hole zone of the production wells. The water inflows restriction technologies are distinguished by the type of applied chemical compositions and the way how the chemical compositions are delivered to bottom-hole zone. The analysis of the currently applied chemical compositions has allowed authors to reveal the common feature. The common feature is that the currently applied chemical compositions are non-selective and they produce isolating or blocking effect onto water-saturated and oil-saturated zones of the petroleum reservoir. The application of the nonselective high-stability chemical compositions leads to uncontrolled colmatation of all treated intervals and makes it difficult to involve them into filtration process in future. This work presents the technology for the selective reservoir stimulation based on emulsion systems with SiO2 nanoparticles content and gelling acid composition. The technology was developed for complex impact on formation system, that achieved by blocking water-saturated intervals of reservoir and stimulation of less permeable oil-saturated intervals of reservoir. The paper shows the results of complex laboratory experiments to study viscosity parameters of emulsion systems with SiO2 nanoparticles content. The results of the experiments revealed the ability of the SiO2 nanoparticles to rise dynamic viscosity of the different type of emulsion systems: oil in water and water in oil. Test for thermostability of the modified
Ren, Mengguo; Lu, Xiaonan; Deng, Lu; Kuo, Po-Hsuen; Du, Jincheng
The effect of B2O3/SiO2 substitution in SrO-containing 55S4.3 bioactive glasses on glass structure and properties, such as ionic diffusion and glass transition temperature, was investigated by combining experiments and molecular dynamics simulations with newly developed potentials. Both short-range (such as bond length and bond angle) and medium-range (such as polyhedral connection and ring size distribution) structures were determined as a function of glass composition. The simulation results were used to explain the experimental results for glass properties such as glass transition temperature and bioactivity. The fraction of bridging oxygen increased linearly with increasing B2O3 content, resulting in an increase in overall glass network connectivity. Ion diffusion behavior was found to be sensitive to changes in glass composition and the trend of the change with the level of substitution is also temperature dependent. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) with increasing B2O3 content. This is explained by the increase in ion diffusion coefficient and decrease in ion diffusion energy barrier in glass melts, as suggested by high-temperature range (above Tg) ion diffusion calculations as B2O3/SiO2 substitution increases. In the low-temperature range (below Tg), the Ea for modifier ions increased with B2O3/SiO2 substitution, which can be explained by the increase in glass network connectivity. Vibrational density of states (VDOS) were calculated and show spectral feature changes as a result of the substitution. The change in bioactivity with B2O3/SiO2 substitution is discussed with the change in pH value and release of boric acid into the solution.
Tan, Feihu; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hongbin; Wei, Feng; Du, Jun
PbO-SrO-Na2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 (PSNNS) glass ceramic thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition technology on heavily doped silicon substrates. The influence of annealing temperatures on microstructures, dielectric properties and energy storage performances of the as-prepared films were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction studies indicate that Pb2Nb2O7 crystallizes at 800°C and disappears at 900°C, while NaNbO3 and PbNb2O6 are formed at the higher temperature of 900°C. The dielectric properties of the glass ceramics thin films have a strong dependence on the phase assemblages that are developed during heat treatment. The maximum dielectric constant value of 171 was obtained for the film annealed at 800°C, owing to the high electric breakdown field strength, The energy storage densities of the PSNNS films annealed at 800°C were as large as 36.9 J/cm3, These results suggest that PSNNS thin films are promising for energy storage applications.
Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki
Obtaining "hard" and "crack-resistant" glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3-(100-x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3-SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3 • 40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses.
Leinenweber, Kurt; Gullikson, Amber L.; Stoyanov, Emil; Malik, Abds-Sami
The accuracy and precision of pressure measurements and the pursuit of reliable and readily available pressure scales at simultaneous high temperatures and pressures are still topics in development in high pressure research despite many years of work. In situ pressure scales based on x-ray diffraction are widely used but require x-ray access, which is lacking outside of x-ray beam lines. Other methods such as fixed points require several experiments to bracket a pressure calibration point. In this study, a recoverable high-temperature pressure gauge for pressures ranging from 3 GPa to 10 GPa is presented. The gauge is based on the pressure-dependent solubility of an SiO 2 component in the rutile-structured phase of GeO 2 (argutite), and is valid when the argutite solid solution coexists with coesite. The solid solution varies strongly in composition, mainly in pressure but also somewhat in temperature, and the compositional variations are easily detected by x-ray diffraction of the recovered products because of significant changes in the lattice parameters. The solid solution is measured here on two isotherms, one at 1200 °C and the other at 1500 °C, and is developed as a pressure gauge by calibrating it against three fixed points for each temperature and against the lattice parameter of MgO measured in situ at a total of three additional points. A somewhat detailed thermodynamic analysis is then presented that allows the pressure gauge to be used at other temperatures. This provides a way to accurately and reproducibly evaluate the pressure in high pressure experiments and applications in this pressure-temperature range, and could potentially be used as a benchmark to compare various other pressure scales under high temperature conditions. - Graphical abstract: The saturation curve of SiO 2 in TiO 2 shows a strong pressure dependence and a strong dependence of unit cell volume on composition. This provides an opportunity to use this saturation curve as a
Hillock formation in Al thin films with varying thicknesses of SiO 2 as a passivation layer was investigated during thermal cycling. Based on the stress measurements and the number of hillocks, 250 nm thick SiO 2 was thick enough to suppress the hillock formation and the suppression of hillock at 250 nm passivation and the lack of suppression at thinner passivation is related to the presence/absence of protection against the diffusive flow of atoms from the surrounding area to the surface due to the biaxial compressive stresses present in the film through the weak spots in the passivation layer. The stress state of Al films measured during annealing (the driving force for hillock formation) did not vary much with SiO 2 thickness. A small number of hillocks formed during the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 overlayers at 300 °C. - Highlights: ► We examined the effect of SiO 2 overlayers on hillock formation in Al thin films. ► Thin overlayers were not effective in suppressing diffusive flow to the surface. ► A thick overlayer suppressed the diffusive flow from the interior to the surface. ► The stress state of Al films did not vary much with SiO 2 passivation thickness. ► High mechanical strength provided a large driving force for the large grain growth.
Pinto, Tânia V; Costa, Paula; Sousa, Céu M; Sousa, Carlos A D; Pereira, Clara; Silva, Carla J S M; Pereira, Manuel Fernando R; Coelho, Paulo J; Freire, Cristina
Photochromic silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 @NPT), fabricated through the covalent immobilization of silylated naphthopyrans (NPTs) based on 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran (S1, S2) and 3H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran (S3, S4) or through the direct adsorption of the parent naphthopyrans (1, 3) onto silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs), were successfully incorporated onto cotton fabrics by a screen-printing process. Two aqueous acrylic- (AC-) and polyurethane- (PU-) based inks were used as dispersing media. All textiles exhibited reversible photochromism under UV and solar irradiation, developing fast responses and intense coloration. The fabrics coated with SiO 2 @S1 and SiO 2 @S2 showed rapid color changes and high contrasts (ΔE* ab = 39-52), despite presenting slower bleaching kinetics (2-3 h to fade to the original color), whereas the textiles coated with SiO 2 @S3 and SiO 2 @S4 exhibited excellent engagement between coloration and decoloration rates (coloration and fading times of 1 and 2 min, respectively; ΔE* ab = 27-53). The PU-based fabrics showed excellent results during the washing fastness tests, whereas the AC-based textiles evidenced good results only when a protective transfer film was applied over the printed design.
Skov Jensen, J.; Franzo, G.; Leervad Petersen, T.P.; Pereira, R.; Chevallier, J.; Christian Petersen, M.; Bech Nielsen, B.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.
Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) at around 600 nm from magnetron-sputtered SiO 2 films co-doped with Ge is reported. The PL signal is observed in pure SiO 2 , however, its intensity increases significantly in the presence of Ge-nanocrystals (Ge-nc). The PL intensity has been optimized by varying the temperature of heat treatment, type of gas during heat treatment, concentration of Ge in the SiO 2 films, and gas pressure during deposition. Maximum intensity occurs when Ge-nc of around 3.5 nm are present in large concentration in SiO 2 layers deposited at fairly high gas pressure. Based on time resolved PL, and PL measurements after α-particle irradiation or H passivation, we attribute the origin of the PL to a defect in SiO 2 (probably an O deficiency) that is excited through an energy transfer from Ge-nc. There is no direct PL from the Ge-nc; however, there is a strong coupling between excitons created in the Ge-nc and the SiO 2 defect
The design and fabrication of efficient photothermal materials is the key issue in solar-driven water evaporation. In this work, a robust CuCr2O4/SiO2 composite membrane with outstanding solar-driven water evaporation performance (1.32 kg m−2 h−1) under one sun irradiation is rationally designed and synthesized by using quartz glass fibrous membrane as supporting matrix and stable CuCr2O4 particles as the active light absorber. Instead of coating a separate layer on top of the support, the CuCr2O4 particles are evenly distributed inside the matrix, which endows the membrane with great mechanical strength and excellent wear and abrasion resistance. The highly porous composite survives 6 atm pressure and retains its performance even after 75% of the membrane is removed by sandpaper. This work also looks into a generally overlooked aspect of wet versus dry state of photothermal material and its implications. Interestingly, the composite possesses a gray color with a high reflectance in dry state but turns into deep black with a low reflectance in wet state due to the decreased subsurface scattering and strong NIR light absorbance of water in wet state. This composite material also possesses excellent thermal stability and thermal shock resistance, making it able to be easily recovered by calcination in air or direct burning in fire for contaminants removal. The results demonstrate that this composite is a competitive photothermal material for practical solar distillation and indicate that the optical properties of material in wet state are more relevant to photothermal material screening and optimization for solar distillation.
Full Text Available Structural properties and chemical composition change the photocatalytic activity in TiO2-SiO2 nanopowder composite. The SiO2-TiO2 nanostructure is synthesized based on sol–gel method. The nanoparticles are characterized by x-ray fluorescents (XRF, x- ray diffraction (XRD, tunneling electron microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, UV-vis. Spectrophotometer and furrier transmission create infrared absorption (FTIR techniques. The rate constant k for the degradation of methylen blue in its aqueous solution under UV irradiation is determined as a measure of photocatalytic activity. Dependence between photocatalytic activity and SiO2 content in the composite is determined. Rate constant k is found dependent on the content of SiO2 in the composite that calcined at 900 oC. The addition of low composition SiO2 to the TiO2 matrix (lower than 45% enhances the photocatalytic activity due to thermal stability and increasing in the surface area. The effects of chemical compositions on the surface topography and the crystallization of phases are studied.
Xu, Cui; Zhang, Hao; Guan, Ruifang
Fluorescent compound without typical fluorophores was synthesized with citric acid (CA) and aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) firstly, and then it was grafted to the surface of the prepared SiO2 microspheres by chemical reaction. The fluorescent SiO2 microspheres with good fluorescent properties were obtained by optimizing the reaction conditions. And the morphology and structure of the fluorescent SiO2 microspheres have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the preparation of fluorescent SiO2 microspheres have good monodispersity and narrow particle size distribution. Moreover, the fluorescent SiO2 microspheres can be applied to detect Fe3+ in aqueous solution, prepare fluorescent SiO2 rubber, and have potential to be applied in the fluorescent labeling and fingerprint appearing technique fields.
On-line packed magnetic in-tube solid phase microextraction of acidic drugs such as naproxen and indomethacin by using Fe3O4@SiO2@layered double hydroxide nanoparticles with high anion exchange capacity.
Shamsayei, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asiabi, Hamid; Safari, Meysam
The authors describe a 3-component nanoparticle system composed of a silica-coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) core and a layered double (Cu-Cr) hydroxide nanoplatelet shell. The sorbent has a high anion exchange capacity for extraction anionic species. A simple online system, referred to as "on-line packed magnetic-in-tube solid phase microextraction" was designed. The nanoparticles were placed in a stainless steel cartridge via dry packing. The cartridge was then applied to the preconcentration acidic drugs including naproxen and indomethacin from urine and plasma. Extraction and desorption times, pH values of the sample solution and flow rates of sample solution and eluent were optimized. Analytes were then quantified by HPLC with UV detection. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection range from 70 to 800 ng L -1 , with linear responses from 0.1-500 μg L -1 (water samples), 0.6-500 μg L -1 (spiked urine), and 0.9-500 μg L -1 (spiked plasma). The inter- and intra-assay precisions (RSDs, for n = 5) are in the range of 2.2-5.4%, 2.8-4.9%, and 2.0-5.2% at concentration levels of 5, 25 and 50 μg L -1 , respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of the drugs in spiked human urine and plasma, and good results were achieved. Graphical abstract Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @CuCr-LDH magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and packed in to a stainless steel column. The column was applied to solid phase microextraction of acidic drugs from biological samples.
Megala, Rajesh; Gowthami, T.; John Sushma, N.; Kamala, S.; Deva Prasad Raju, B.
Fluoroborosilicate glasses of composition 35SiO2-25B2O3-10Na2CO3-15NaF-15CaF2-xNd2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.5. 1.0, 2.0 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching technique and various physical properties have been calculated. From the absorption spectra J-O Intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4, 6) and radiative properties are evaluated by using J-O theory. The high values of Ω2 = 4.213 × 10-20 cm2, Ω4 = 5.345 × 10-20 cm2, Ω6 = 5.526 × 10-20 cm2 suggest that among the prepared glasses 0.5 mol% Nd glass is more asymmetric, more covalent and rigid in nature. The emission spectra were recorded with 808 nm laser as excitation source. The strong NIR emissions were observed at 876 nm, 1056 nm, 1328 nm corresponding to the transitions 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 4F3/2 → 4I11/2, 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 respectively. Stimulated emission cross -section (σemi) and Gain bandwidth (σemi × Δλeff) were calculated. For 0.5 mol% Nd these values are found to be 3.30 × 10-20 cm2, 11 × 10-26 cm2. From the decay curve analysis the lifetime values for 4F3/2 level have been determined and these values are decreased with increase in Nd3+ ions concentration. These results may suggest that the prepared SBNCNd05 (Nd = 0.5 mol%) glass could be useful for 1056 nm laser applications.
Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Flament, O.; Leray, J.L.
Electron trapping near the Si/SiO 2 interface plays a crucial role in mitigating the response of MOS devices to ionizing radiation or high-field stress. These electrons offset positive charge due to trapped holes, and can be present at densities exceeding 10 12 cm -2 in the presence of a similar density of trapped positive charge. The nature of the defects that serve as hosts for trapped electrons in the near-interfacial SiO 2 is presently unknown, although there is compelling evidence that these defects are often intimately associated with trapped holes. This association is depicted most directly in the model of Lelis et al., which suggests that trapped electrons and holes occupy opposite sides of a compensated E center in SiO 2 . Charge exchange between electron traps and the Si can occur over a wide range of time scales, depending on the trap depth and location relative to the Si/SiO 2 interface. Here the authors report a detailed study of the stability of electron traps associated with trapped holes near the Si/SiO 2 interface
Tseng, Kuang-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Lung
This study investigates the effects of flux compounds on the weld shape, ferrite content, and hardness profile in the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 6 mm-thick austenitic 316 L stainless steel plates, using TiO2 and SiO2 powders as the activated fluxes. The metallurgical characterizations of weld metal produced with the oxide powders were evaluated using ferritoscope, optical microscopy, and Vickers microhardness test. Under the same welding parameters, the penetration capability of TIG welding with TiO2 and SiO2 fluxes was approximately 240% and 292%, respectively. A plasma column made with SiO2 flux exhibited greater constriction than that made with TiO2 flux. In addition, an anode root made with SiO2 flux exhibited more condensation than that made with TiO2 flux. Results indicate that energy density of SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding is higher than that of TiO2-flux assisted TIG welding.
Full Text Available Raspberry‐like SiO2 particles with a nano‐micro‐binary structure were prepared by a simple sol‐gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES as precursors. The chemical components and morphology of the SiO2 particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR and a Transmission electron microscope (TEM. The surface topography and wetting behaviour of the raspberry‐like SiO2 surface were observed with a Scanning electron microscope (SEM and studied by the water/oil contact angle (CA, respectively. The thermal stability of the prepared SiO2 particles was characterized by TGA analysis. The results show that the highly dispersed SiO2 particles initially prepared by the sol‐gel method turn into raspberry‐like particles with during the aging process. The raspberry‐like SiO2 particles show superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity across a wide range of pH values. The SiO2 particles were thermally stable up to 475°C, while above this temperature the hydrophobicity decreases and finally becomes superhydrophobic when the temperature reaches 600°C. The raspberry‐like SiO2 particles which were prepared have potential applications in the fields of superhydrophobic surfaces, water‐oil separation, anti‐corrosion and fluid transportation.
Spataru, Nicolae; Anastasescu, Crina; Radu, Mihai Marian; Balint, Ioan; Negrila, Catalin; Spataru, Tanta; Fujishima, Akira
Highly defected SiO2 nanotubes (SiO2-NT) were obtained by a simple sol-gel procedure followed by calcination. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) polycrystalline films coated with SiO2-NT were used as working electrodes and, unexpectedly, cyclic voltammetric experiments have shown that the concentration of both positive and negative defects at the surface is high enough to enable redox processes involving positively charged Ru(bpy)32+/3+ to occur. Conversely, no electrochemical activity was put into evidence for Fe(CN)63-/4- species, most likely as a result of the strong electrostatic repulsion exerted by the negatively charged SiO2 surface. The concentration of surface defects was further increased by a subsequent thermal treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere which, as EIS measurements have shown, significantly promotes Ru(bpy)32+ anodic oxidation. Digital simulation of the voltammetric responses demonstrated that this treatment does not lead to a similar increase of the number of electron-donor sites. It was also found that methanol anodic oxidation at hydrogenated SiO2-NT-supported platinum results in Tafel slopes of 116-220 mV decade-1, comparable to those reported for both conventional PtRu and Pt-oxide catalysts.
Full Text Available Abstract Optical integration is essential for practical application, but it remains unexplored for nanoscale devices. A newly designed nanocomposite based on ZnO semiconductor nanowires and Tb(OH3/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres has been synthesized and studied. The unique sea urchin-type morphology, bright and sharply visible emission bands of lanthanide, and large aspect ratio of ZnO crystalline nanotips make this novel composite an excellent signal receiver, waveguide, and emitter. The multifunctional composite of ZnO nanotips and Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanoparticles therefore can serve as an integrated nanophotonics hub. Moreover, the composite of ZnO nanotips deposited on a Tb(OH3/SiO2 photonic crystal can act as a directional light fountain, in which the confined radiation from Tb ions inside the photonic crystal can be well guided and escape through the ZnO nanotips. Therefore, the output emission arising from Tb ions is truly directional, and its intensity can be greatly enhanced. With highly enhanced lasing emissions in ZnO-Tb(OH3/SiO2 as well as SnO2-Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanocomposites, we demonstrate that our approach is extremely beneficial for the creation of low threshold and high-power nanolaser.
Wang, Siqi; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; He, Fang; Ma, Liying
Silica (SiO2) is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries owing to its high theoretical specific capacity, relatively low operation potentials, abundance, environmental benignity and low cost. However, the low intrinsic electrical conductivity and large volume change of SiO2 during the discharge/charge cycles usually results in poor electrochemical performance. In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified SiO2/C composites have been fabricated through an in-situ chemical vapor deposition method. The results show that the electrical conductivity of the SiO2/C/CNTs is visibly enhanced through a robust connection between the CNTs and SiO2/C particles. Compared with the pristine SiO2 and SiO2/C composites, the SiO2/C/CNTs composites display a high initial capacity of 1267.2 mA h g-1. Besides, an excellent cycling stability with the capacity of 315.7 mA h g-1 is achieved after 1000th cycles at a rate of 1 A g-1. The significantly improved electrochemical properties of the SiO2/C/CNTs composites are mainly attributed to the formation of three dimensional CNT networks in the SiO2/C substrate, which can not only shorten the Li-ion diffusion path but also relieve the volume change during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction processes.
Choi, Jaeyoung; Joo, Soyeong; Park, Tae Joo; Kim, Woo-Byoung
Highlights: • Leakage current density of the commercial PECVD grown ∼5 nm SiO_2 layer has been decreased about three orders of magnitude by densification. • The densification of SiO_2 layer is achieved by high oxidation ability of O·. • Densities of suboxide, fixed charge (N_f) and defect state (N_d) in SiO_2/Si interface are decreased by NAOS and PMA. • Tunneling barrier height (Φ_t) is increased because of the increase of atomic density in SiO_2 layer. - Abstract: Low-temperature nitric acid (HNO_3) oxidation of Si (NAOS) has been used to improve the interface and electrical properties of ∼5 nm-thick SiO_2/Si layers produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Investigations of the physical properties and electrical characteristics of these thin films revealed that although their thickness is not changed by NAOS, the leakage current density at a gate bias voltage of −1 V decreases by about two orders of magnitude from 1.868 × 10"−"5 A/cm"2. This leakage current density was further reduced by post-metallization annealing (PMA) at 250 °C for 10 min in a 5 vol.% hydrogen atmosphere, eventually reaching a level (5.2 × 10"−"8 A/cm"2) approximately three orders of magnitude less than the as-grown SiO_2 layer. This improvement is attributed to a decrease in the concentration of suboxide species (Si"1"+, Si"2"+ and Si"3"+) in the SiO_2/Si interface, as well as a decrease in the equilibrium density of defect sites (N_d) and fixed charge density (N_f). The barrier height (Φ_t) generated by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism also increased from 0.205 to 0.371 eV after NAOS and PMA. The decrease in leakage current density is therefore attributed to a densification of the SiO_2 layer in combination with the removal of OH species and increase in interfacial properties at the SiO_2/Si interface.
Zhang, Qingmeng; Luo, Jun; Tang, Qun; Han, Dongfang; Zhou, Yi; Du, Jun
Nanocomposite dielectrics in 6PbO-4BaO-20Na2O-40Nb2O5-30SiO2 system were prepared via melt-quenching followed by controlled crystallization. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Pb2Nb2O7, Ba,NaNb5O15, NaNbO3 and PbNb2O6 phases are formed from the as-quenched glass annealed in temperature range from 700 degrees C to 850 degrees C. Ba2NaNb5O15, Pb2Nb2O7 crystallizes at 700 degrees C and then Pb2Nb2O7 disappears at 850 degrees C, while PbNb2O6 and NaNbO3 are formed at 850 degrees C. Microstructural observation shows that the crystallized particles are nanometer-sized and randomly distributed with glass matrix being often found at grain boundaries. The dielectric constant of the nanocomposites formed at different crystallization temperatures shows good frequency and electric field stability. The breakdown strength is slightly decreased when the glass-ceramics thickness is varied from 1 mm to 4 mm. The corresponding energy density could reach 2.96 J/cm3 with a breakdown strength of 58 kV/mm for thickness of 1 mm.
Full Text Available The annealing behavior of very thin SiO2/Ge multilayers deposited on Si substrate by e-gun deposition in high vacuum was explored. It is shown that, after annealing at moderate temperatures (800°C in inert atmosphere, Ge is completely outdiffused from the SiO2 matrix leaving small (about 3 nm spherical voids embedded in the SiO2 matrix. These voids are very well correlated and formed at distances governed by the preexisting multilayer structure (in vertical direction and self-organization (in horizontal direction. The formed films produce intensive photoluminescence (PL with a peak at 500 nm. The explored dynamics of the PL decay show the existence of a very rapid process similar to the one found at Ge/SiO2 defected interface layers.
Katsumata, Toru; Morita, Kentaro; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki
Visible light thermal radiation from SiO 2 glass doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were studied for the fiber-optic thermometer application based on the temperature dependence of thermal radiation. Thermal radiations according to Planck's law of radiation are observed from the SiO 2 fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu at the temperature above 1100 K. Thermal radiations due to f-f transitions of rare-earth ions are observed from the SiO 2 fibers doped with Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb at the temperature above 900 K. Peak intensities of thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO 2 fibers increase sensitively with temperature. Thermal activation energies of thermal radiations by f-f transitions seen in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb doped SiO 2 fibers are smaller than those from SiO 2 fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu. Thermal radiation due to highly efficient f-f transitions in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb ions emits more easily than usual thermal radiation process. Thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO 2 are potentially applicable for the fiber-optic thermometry above 900 K
Full Text Available This study examined theSiO2 gas present in the coatings used in corrosion industry.These layers have been created by physical vapor deposition (PVD, with an appropriate performance. Sublimation of SiO2is used to protect PVD aluminum flakes from water corrosionand to generate highly porous SiO2 flakes with holes in the nanometer range. SiOx/Al/SiOx sandwiches were made as well as Ag loaded porous SiO2 as antimicrobial filler.
Full Text Available Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and silica (SiO2 nanopowders have been prepared by the microwave hydrothermal (M-H method using metal nitrates as precursors of CoFe2O4 and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a precursor of SiO2. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD and FESEM. The (100-x (CoFe2O4 + xSiO2 (where x = 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% composites with different weight percentages have been prepared using ball mill method. The composite samples were sintered at 800°C/60 min using the microwave sintering method and then their structural and morphological studies were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR spectra, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The effect of SiO2 content on the magnetic and electrical properties of CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposites has been studied via the magnetic hysteresis loops, complex permeability, permittivity spectra, and DC resistivity measurements. The synthesized nanocomposites with adjustable grain sizes and controllable magnetic properties make the applicability of cobalt ferrite even more versatile.
Liu, Xue; Wang, Zengyao; Zhao, Chengji; Bu, Wenhuan; Na, Hui
A series of fluorinated dental resin composites were prepared with two kinds of SiO 2 particles. Bis-GMA (bisphenol A-glycerolate dimethacrylate)/4-TF-PQEA (fluorinated acrylate monomer)/TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (40/30/30, wt/wt/wt) was introduced as resin matrix. SiO 2 nanopartices (30nm) and SiO 2 microparticles (0.3µm) were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) and used as fillers. After mixing the resin matrix with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% SiO 2 nanopartices and 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% SiO 2 microparticles, respectively, the fluorinated resin composites were obtained. Properties including double bond conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), water sorption (W p ), water solubility (W y ), mechanical properties and cytotoxicity were investigated in comparison with those of neat resin system. The results showed that, filler particles could improve the overall performance of resin composites, particularly in improving mechanical properties and reducing PS of composites along with the addition of filler loading. Compared to resin composites containing SiO 2 microparticles, SiO 2 nanoparticles resin composites had higher DC, higher mechanical properties, lower PS and lower W p under the same filler content. Especially, 50% SiO 2 microparticles reinforced resins exhibited the best flexural strength (104.04 ± 7.40MPa), flexural modulus (5.62 ± 0.16GPa), vickers microhardness (37.34 ± 1.13 HV), compressive strength (301.54 ± 5.66MPa) and the lowest polymerization (3.42 ± 0.22%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chain, C.Y.; Damonte, L.C.; Ferrari, S.; Munoz, E.; Torres, C. Rodriguez; Pasquevich, A.F.
A high-k HfO 2 /SiO 2 gate stack is taking the place of SiO 2 as a gate dielectric in field effect transistors. This fact makes the study of the solid-state reaction between these oxides very important. Nanostructure characterization of a high-energy ball milled and post-annealed equimolar HfO 2 and amorphous SiO 2 powder mixture has been carried out by perturbed angular correlations (PAC) technique. The study was complemented with X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The experimental results revealed that the ball milling of equimolar mixtures increases the defects concentration in hafnium oxide. No solid-state reaction occurred even after 8 h of milling. The formation of HfSiO 4 (hafnon) was observed in the milled blends annealed at high temperatures.The PAC results of the milled samples are compared with those obtained for pure m-ZrO 2 subjected to high-energy ball milling and with reported microstructure data for the system ZrO 2 -SiO 2 .
Yang, Manli; Shi, Jinsheng; Xia, Yanzhi
Sodium alginate (SA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/SiO 2 nanocomposite films were prepared by in situ polymerization through solution casting and solvent evaporation. The effect of different SA/PVA ratios, SiO 2 , and glycerol content on the mechanical properties, water content, water solubility, and water vapor permeability were studied. The nanocomposite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal stability (thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermogravimetry) analyses. The nanocomposites showed the highest values of mechanical properties, such as SA/PVA ratio, SiO 2 , and glycerol content was 7:3, 6wt.%, and 0.25g/g SA, respectively. The tensile strength and elongation at break (E%) of the nanocomposites increased by 525.7% and 90.7%, respectively, compared with those of the pure alginate film. The Fourier transform infrared spectra showed a new SiOC band formed in the SA/PVA/SiO 2 nanocomposite film. The scanning electron microscopy image revealed good adhesion between SiO 2 and SA/PVA matrix. After the incorporation of PVA and SiO 2 , the water resistance of the SA/PVA/SiO 2 nanocomposite film was markedly improved. Transparency decreased with increasing PVA content but was enhanced by adding SiO 2 . Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won
Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842
Miao, Guang; Ye, Feiyan; Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong; Wang, Haihui
This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO2/SiO2 were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO2 served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO2 acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO2 as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO2/SiO2; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO2/SiO2 was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bansal, Narottam P.; Hyatt, Mark J.
Barium aluminosilicate glasses are being investigated as matrix materials in high-temperature ceramic composites for structural applications. Kinetics of crystallization of two refractory glass compositions in the barium aluminosilicate system were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From variable heating rate DTA, the crystallization activation energies for glass compositions (wt percent) 10BaO-38Al2O3-51SiO2-1MoO3 (glass A) and 39BaO-25Al2O3-35SiO2-1MoO3 (glass B) were determined to be 553 and 558 kJ/mol, respectively. On thermal treatment, the crystalline phases in glasses A and B were identified as mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and hexacelsian (BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2), respectively. Hexacelsian is a high-temperature polymorph which is metastable below 1590 C. It undergoes structural transformation into the orthorhombic form at approximately 300 C accompanied by a large volume change which is undesirable for structural applications. A process needs to be developed where stable monoclinic celsian, rather than hexacelsian, precipitates out as the crystal phase in glass B.
Full Text Available In order to improve the Mg removal from an A-380 molten alloy, mixtures of zeolite and SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2(NPs were tested. Zeolite was enriched with 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 12.5 wt-% of amorphous SiO2(NPs. The SiO2(NPs and zeolite were mixed for 30 min in ethanol for each experiment and then dried in a furnace at 80°C for 12 h. The enriched zeolites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 gas adsorption analysis. The Mg removal was carried out injecting each mixture into the molten aluminum alloy at 750°C using argon. The Mg content of the molten alloy was measured after different periods of the injection time. Zeolites enriched with 2.5 and 5 wt-% of SiO2(NPs were demonstrated to be the better mixtures, removing Mg from an initial content of 1.6 to a final content of 0.0002 and 0.0101 wt-%, respectively, in 45 min of injection.
Wang, Yali; Cao, Xiaoan; Li, Jinwen; Chen, Nan
In the present work, two morphologies of SiO(2) nanomaterials (SiO(2) nanotubes and nanoparticles) have been successfully synthesized in supercritical fluids (SCFs). The cataluminescence (CTL) features of the two SiO(2) nanomaterials to some common harmful gases were compared, and the results showed that SiO(2) nanotubes had better CTL sensing characteristic to some common harmful gases. The SiO(2) nanotubes not only had uniform size and shape with a high specific surface area, but also exhibited superior sensitivity and selectivity to ethyl acetate vapor. Using the SiO(2) nanotubes as sensing material, a CTL sensor for ethyl acetate vapor was developed. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and specificity to ethyl acetate at optimal temperature of 293°C, a wavelength of 425 nm and a flow rate of 345 mL/min. With a detection limit of 0.85 ppm, the linear range of CTL intensity versus concentrations of ethyl acetate vapor was 2.0-2000 ppm. None or only very low levels of interference were observed while the foreign substances such as acetone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, formaldehyde, ammonia, ethanol, benzene and methanol were passing through the sensor. This method allows rapid determination of gaseous ethyl acetate at workshop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lim, Yu Dian; Grapov, Dmitry; Hu, Liangxing; Kong, Qinyu; Tay, Beng Kang; Labunov, Vladimir; Miao, Jianmin; Coquet, Philippe; Aditya, Sheel
It has been widely reported that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit superior field emission (FE) properties due to their high aspect ratios and unique structural properties. Among the various types of CNTs, random growth CNTs exhibit promising FE properties due to their reduced inter-tube screening effect. However, growing random growth CNTs on individual catalyst islands often results in spread out CNT bundles, which reduces overall field enhancement. In this study, significant improvement in FE properties in CNT bundles is demonstrated by confining them in microfabricated SiO2 pits. Growing CNT bundles in narrow (0.5 μm diameter and 2 μm height) SiO2 pits achieves FE current density of 1-1.4 A cm-2, which is much higher than for freestanding CNT bundles (76.9 mA cm-2). From the Fowler Nordheim plots, confined CNT bundles show a higher field enhancement factor. This improvement can be attributed to the reduced bundle diameter by SiO2 pit confinement, which yields bundles with higher aspect ratios. Combining the obtained outcomes, it can be conclusively summarized that confining CNTs in SiO2 pits yields higher FE current density due to the higher field enhancement of confined CNTs.
Petitgirard, Sylvain; Malfait, Wim J.; Journaux, Baptiste
and present Earth. SiO2 is the main constituent of Earth's mantle and is the reference model system for the behavior of silicate melts at high pressure. Here, we apply our recently developed x-ray absorption technique to the density of SiO2 glass up to 110 GPa, doubling the pressure range...... for such measurements. Our density data validate recent molecular dynamics simulations and are in good agreement with previous experimental studies conducted at lower pressure. Silica glass rapidly densifies up to 40 GPa, but the density trend then flattens to become asymptotic to the density of SiO2 minerals above 60...... GPa. The density data present two discontinuities at similar to 17 and similar to 60 GPa that can be related to a silicon coordination increase from 4 to a mixed 5/6 coordination and from 5/6 to sixfold, respectively. SiO2 glass becomes denser than MgSiO3 glass at similar to 40 GPa, and its density...
Zhu, Rongrong; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liang, Peng; He, Xiaolie; Zhuang, Xizhen; Huang, Ruiqi; Wang, Mei; Wang, Qigang; Qian, Yechang; Wang, Shilong
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis and is highly expressed in carcinoma, which make it an important target for tumor targeting therapy. Neuroblastoma is the main cause for cancer-related death in children. Like most solid tumors, it is also accompanied with the overexpression of VEGF. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (DOX), a typical chemotherapeutic agent, exhibits efficient anticancer activities for various cancers. However, DOX, without targeting ability, usually causes severe damage to normal tissues. To overcome the shortages, we designed a novel nano-composite, which is Bevacizumab (Bev) modified SiO 2 @LDH nanoparticles (SiO 2 @LDH-Bev), loading with DOX to achieve targeting ability and curative efficiency. SiO 2 @LDH-DOX and SiO 2 @LDH-Bev-DOX nanoparticles were synthesized and the physicochemical properties were characterized by TEM detection, Zeta potential analysis, FTIR, Raman and XPS analysis. Then in vitro and in vivo anti-neuroblastoma efficiency, targeting ability and mechanisms of anti-carcinoma and anti-angiogenesis of SiO 2 @LDH-Bev-DOX were explored. Our results indicated that we obtained the core-shell structure SiO 2 @LDH-Bev with an average diameter of 253±10nm and the amount of conjugated Bev was 4.59±0.38μg/mg SiO 2 @LDH-Bev. SiO 2 @LDH-Bev-DOX could improve the cellular uptake and the targeting effect of DOX to brain and tumor, enhance the anti-neuroblastoma and anti-angiogenesis efficiency both in vitro and in vivo, and alleviate side effects of DOX sharply, especially hepatic injury. In addition, we also demonstrated that angiogenesis inhibitory effect was mediated by DOX and VEGF triggered signal pathways, including PI3K/Akt, Raf/MEK/ERK, and adhesion related pathways. In summary, SiO 2 @LDH-Bev could be a potential VEGF targeting nanocarrier applied in VEGF positive cancer therapy. This paper explored that a novel core-shell structure nanomaterial SiO 2 @LDH and modified SiO 2 @LDH with
Li, Yue; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Jiang, Xiao-Ping; Ye, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ye-Wang; Zhang, Xiao-Yun
Fe3O4@SiO2-graphene oxide (GO) composites were successfully fabricated by chemical binding of functional Fe3O4@SiO2 and GO and applied to immobilization of cellulase via covalent attachment. The prepared composites were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were monodisperse spheres with a mean diameter of 17 ± 0.2 nm. The thickness of SiO2 layer was calculated as being 6.5 ± 0.2 nm. The size of Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs was 24 ± 0.3 nm, similar to that of Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2. Fe3O4@SiO2-GO composites were synthesized by linking of Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2 NPs to GO with the catalysis of EDC and NHS. The prepared composites were used for immobilization of cellulase. A high immobilization yield and efficiency of above 90 % were obtained after the optimization. The half-life of immobilized cellulase (722 min) was 3.34-fold higher than that of free enzyme (216 min) at 50 °C. Compared with the free cellulase, the optimal temperature of the immobilized enzyme was not changed; but the optimal pH was shifted from 5.0 to 4.0, and the thermal stability was enhanced. The immobilized cellulase could be easily separated and reused under magnetic field. These results strongly indicate that the cellulase immobilized onto the Fe3O4@SiO2-GO composite has potential applications in the production of bioethanol.
Li, Yue; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Jiang, Xiao-Ping; Ye, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ye-Wang; Zhang, Xiao-Yun
Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 –graphene oxide (GO) composites were successfully fabricated by chemical binding of functional Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 and GO and applied to immobilization of cellulase via covalent attachment. The prepared composites were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs) were monodisperse spheres with a mean diameter of 17 ± 0.2 nm. The thickness of SiO 2 layer was calculated as being 6.5 ± 0.2 nm. The size of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 NPs was 24 ± 0.3 nm, similar to that of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 –NH 2 . Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 –GO composites were synthesized by linking of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 –NH 2 NPs to GO with the catalysis of EDC and NHS. The prepared composites were used for immobilization of cellulase. A high immobilization yield and efficiency of above 90 % were obtained after the optimization. The half-life of immobilized cellulase (722 min) was 3.34-fold higher than that of free enzyme (216 min) at 50 °C. Compared with the free cellulase, the optimal temperature of the immobilized enzyme was not changed; but the optimal pH was shifted from 5.0 to 4.0, and the thermal stability was enhanced. The immobilized cellulase could be easily separated and reused under magnetic field. These results strongly indicate that the cellulase immobilized onto the Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 –GO composite has potential applications in the production of bioethanol
Li, Ailing; Qiu, Dong
The possibility of using phytic acid as a precursor to synthesize CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) glasses by sol-gel method has been explored and the pseudo ternary phase diagram has been established. It was shown that gel-glasses over a broader range of compositions could be prepared compared to other phosphorus precursors or melt-quenching method. Furthermore, phytic acid was found to assist calcium being incorporated into glass networks. In vitro tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed on the above gel-glasses and it was found that they were bioactive over a much broader compositional range especially at high phosphate content, thus enabling one to design bioactive materials with various degradation rates by adjusting the phosphate content.
Yang, Huan; Ding, Qiuyu; Li, Ben Q.; Jiang, Xinbing; Zhang, Manman
Though noble metal nanoparticles have been explored to enhance the performance of the organic solar cell, effect of dielectric nanoparticles, and coupled effect of dielectric and metal nanoparticles, have rarely been reported, if at all, on organic solar cell. This work reports an experimental study on synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles in a bulk organic heterojunction for the broadband light absorption enhancement. The wavelength scale SiO2 particles were arranged as a monolayer on the surface of the solar cell to guide incident light into the active layer and prolong the effective optical length of the entered energy. This is achieved by the excitation of whispering gallery modes in SiO2 nanoparticles and by leaky mode radiation. When small size Ag particles were incorporated into the transport layer of the solar cell, synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles is formed by coupling of the whispering gallery mode of closely arranged SiO2 particles atop and collaborative localized surface plasma resonance scattering of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in the transport layer. As a result, the performance of the organic solar cell is greatly enhanced and the short-circuit current density has an improvement of 42.47%. Therefore, the organic solar cell incorporated with SiO2 and Ag particles presents a meaningful strategy to achieve high energy-harvesting performance. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Photocatalysis provides a \\'green\\' approach to completely eliminate various kinds of contaminants that are fatal for current environmental and energy issues. Semiconductors are one of the most frequently used photocatalysts as they can absorb light over a wide spectral range. However, it is also well known that naked SiO2 is not an efficient photocatalyst due to its relatively large band gap, which could only absorb shortwave ultraviolet light. In this report, nanoscale particles of carbon-doped silicon dioxide (C-doped SiO2) for use in photocatalysis were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot thermal process using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the source of both silicon and carbon. These particles were subsequently characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, standard and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The C-doped SiO2 displayed outstanding photocatalytic properties, as evidenced by its catalysis of Rhodamine B degradation under near-UV irradiation. We propose that carbon doping of the SiO2 lattice creates new energy states between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band, which narrows the band gap of the material. As a result, the C-doped SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in a neutral environment. The novel synthesis reported herein for this material is both energy efficient and environmentally friendly and as such shows promise as a technique for low-cost, readily scalable industrial production. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Nazari, Ali; Riahi, Shadi
Research highlights: → TiO 2 nanoparticles effects on flexural strength of self compacting concrete. → Physical and microstructural consideration. → Mechanical tests. → Thermal analysis. → Porosimetry. - Abstract: In the present study, flexural strength, thermal properties and microstructure of self compacting concrete with different amount of SiO 2 nanoparticles has been investigated. SiO 2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were partially added to self compacting concrete and various behaviors of the specimens have been measured. The results indicate that SiO 2 nanoparticles are able to improve the flexural strength of self compacting concrete and recover the negative effects of superplasticizer on flexural strength of the specimens. SiO 2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of the increased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 amount at the early ages of hydration. The increased the SiO 2 nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt%, causes the reduced the flexural strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all also indicate that SiO 2 nanoparticles up to 4 wt% could improve the mechanical and physical properties of the specimens. Finally, SiO 2 nanoparticles could improve the pore structure of concrete and shift the distributed pores to harmless and few-harm pores.
Full Text Available Using silica sol as a binder for titanium investment casting is very attractive due to its good stability and reasonable cost as compared with yttrium sol and zirconium sol. However, the mechanism of interface reaction in the related system remains unclear. In this investigation, the interface reaction between Y2O3-SiO2 (Y-Si shell mold and titanium alloys was studied. A group of shell molds were prepared by using Y2O3 sand and silica sol with different contents of SiO2. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was cast under vacuum by gravity casting through cold crucible induction melting (CCIM method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS were employed to characterize the micromorphology and composition of the reaction area, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was used to confirm the valence state of relevant elements. White light interferometer (WLI was used to obtain the surface topography of Y-Si shells. The results show that the thickness of reaction layers is below 3 μm when the SiO2 content of silica sol is below 20wt.%. Whereas, when the SiO2 content increases to 25wt.%, the thickness of the reaction layer increases sharply to about 15 μm. There is a good balance between chemical inertness and mechanical performance when the SiO2 content is between 15 and 20wt.%. Moreover, it was found that the distribution of SiO2 and the roughness at the surface of the shell are the key factors that determine the level of reaction.
Degueldre, C.; Wernli, B.
SiO 2 colloids have been identified as a potential vector for enhancing radionuclide transport in granitic groundwater and in concrete pore water. The sorption behaviour of 241 Am(III) on SiO 2 colloids was studied as a function of americium concentration pH (5-12), colloid concentration, ionic strength, temperature and SiO 2 allotropic species. The Am(III) sorption mechanism on amorphous silica is different from that on quartz. For SiO 2(amorphous) solution, the variation of log K p (ml g -1 ) with pH is linear (pH=5-9) with a slope of +1 indicating a one proton exchange mechanism. The colloid concentration (ppm) affects the sorption and log K p 3.7-0.67 log [SiO 2 ] (pH = 6). K p increases insignificantly when the ionic strength decreases. It shows no significant variation, however, with the Am concentration. On amorphous silica, the Am(III) sorption is driven by proton exchange from the silanol groups. For SiO 2 (quartz), log K p is constant over a large range of quartz concentration in suspension and the variation of log K p with pH is about linear (pH = 5-12), with a slope of 0.28, indicating a more complex exchange mechanism. Reactions taking into account the interaction of positive Am(OH) w (3-w)+ species on to the negatively charged quartz surface are suggested. (author)
Chen, J.-H.; Jang, C.; Ishigami, M.; Xiao, S.; Cullen, W. G.; Williams, E. D.; Fuhrer, M. S.
We review our recent work on the physical mechanisms limiting the mobility of graphene on SiO 2. We have used intentional addition of charged scattering impurities and systematic variation of the dielectric environment to differentiate the effects of charged impurities and short-range scatterers. The results show that charged impurities indeed lead to a conductivity linear in density ( σ(n)∝n) in graphene, with a scattering magnitude that agrees quantitatively with theoretical estimates; increased dielectric screening reduces the scattering from charged impurities, but increases the scattering from short-range scatterers. We evaluate the effects of the corrugations (ripples) of graphene on SiO 2 on transport by measuring the height-height correlation function. The results show that the corrugations cannot mimic long-range (charged impurity) scattering effects, and have too small an amplitude-to-wavelength ratio to significantly affect the observed mobility via short-range scattering. Temperature-dependent measurements show that longitudinal acoustic phonons in graphene produce a resistivity that is linear in temperature and independent of carrier density; at higher temperatures, polar optical phonons of the SiO 2 substrate give rise to an activated, carrier density-dependent resistivity. Together the results paint a complete picture of charge carrier transport in graphene on SiO 2 in the diffusive regime.
Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Song, In Kyu
SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports with various zirconium contents are prepared by grafting a zirconium precursor onto the surface of commercial Carbosil silica. Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports on the performance of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts is investigated. SiO 2-ZrO 2 prepared by a grafting method serves as an efficient support for the nickel catalyst in the steam reforming of LNG. Zirconia enhances the resistance of silica to steam significantly and increases the interaction between nickel and the support, and furthermore, prevents the growth of nickel oxide species during the calcination process through the formation of a ZrO 2-SiO 2 composite structure. The crystalline structures and catalytic activities of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are strongly influenced by the amount of zirconium grafted. The conversion of LNG and the yield of hydrogen show volcano-shaped curves with respect to zirconium content. Among the catalysts tested, the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) sample shows the best catalytic performance in terms of both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield. The well-developed and pure tetragonal phase of ZrO 2-SiO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) appears to play an important role in the adsorption of steam and subsequent spillover of steam from the support to the active nickel. The small particle size of the metallic nickel in the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) catalyst is also responsible for its high performance.
Chiam, L.T.; Tye, C.T.
Environmental friendly bio-oil which offers supply reliability as a potential alternative fuel, has spurred to rapid development of bio fuels technology. Palm oil is a potential renewable energy source for bio fuels production in the future and Malaysia is one of the world largest palm oil producers. However, undesired oxygen content in the plant fatty acid that contributes to low energy density, high viscosity, and low stability, makes the palm oil not effective to be used as bio fuels directly. In the present study, the performance of silica supported trimetal catalyst, NiSnK/ SiO 2 , on deoxygenation of used palm oil was evaluated. In addition, the effects of operating parameters, such as reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity were investigated. Conversion of palmitic acid as high as 90 % was achieved in deoxygenation of used palm oil at reaction temperature 350 degree Celsius. In order to have a better understanding on the deoxygenation reaction, model compound system using the major saturated fatty acid in the used palm oil, palmitic acid was also carried out. Palmitic acid was found mainly decarboxylated into n-pentadecane with some decarboxylation and isomerization products. (author)
Full Text Available Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses containing different amounts of SiO2 were successfully synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method. The influence mechanism of SiO2 on the structural and spectroscopic properties was investigated systematically using the micro-Raman technique. It was worth noting that the glass with 26.7 mol % SiO2 possessed the longest fluorescence lifetime (1.51 ms, the highest gain coefficient (1.10 ms·pm2, the maximum Stark splitting manifold of 2F7/2 level (781 cm−1, and the largest scalar crystal-field NJ and Yb3+ asymmetry degree. Micro-Raman spectra revealed that introducing SiO2 promoted the formation of P=O linkages, but broke the P=O linkages when the SiO2 content was greater than 26.7 mol %. Based on the previous 29Si MAS NMR experimental results, these findings further demonstrated that the formation of [SiO6] may significantly affect the formation of P=O linkages, and thus influences the spectroscopic properties of the glass. These results indicate that phosphosilicate glasses may have potential applications as a Yb3+-doped gain medium for solid-state lasers and optical fiber amplifiers.
Wang, Ling; Zeng, Huidan; Yang, Bin; Ye, Feng; Chen, Jianding; Chen, Guorong; Smith, Andew T.; Sun, Luyi
Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses containing different amounts of SiO2 were successfully synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method. The influence mechanism of SiO2 on the structural and spectroscopic properties was investigated systematically using the micro-Raman technique. It was worth noting that the glass with 26.7 mol % SiO2 possessed the longest fluorescence lifetime (1.51 ms), the highest gain coefficient (1.10 ms·pm2), the maximum Stark splitting manifold of 2F7/2 level (781 cm−1), and the largest scalar crystal-field NJ and Yb3+ asymmetry degree. Micro-Raman spectra revealed that introducing SiO2 promoted the formation of P=O linkages, but broke the P=O linkages when the SiO2 content was greater than 26.7 mol %. Based on the previous 29Si MAS NMR experimental results, these findings further demonstrated that the formation of [SiO6] may significantly affect the formation of P=O linkages, and thus influences the spectroscopic properties of the glass. These results indicate that phosphosilicate glasses may have potential applications as a Yb3+-doped gain medium for solid-state lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. PMID:28772601
Dai, Chi-Jie; Tsao, Hou-Yen; Lin, Yow-Jon; Liu, Day-Shan
This study investigates the effect of different types of SiO 2 on the electronic and surface properties of pentacene films. Developing better contacts on dielectrics is one of the main challenges for pentacene-based transistor technology. The water contact angle variation indicates more hydrophobic thermally grown SiO 2 surfaces than sol–gel SiO 2 surfaces, suggesting that the thermally grown SiO 2 dielectric enables a better molecular arrangement as the pentacene layer is deposited. It is found that the carrier mobility in pentacene on thermally grown SiO 2 dielectrics is higher than that in pentacene on sol–gel SiO 2 dielectrics. The Hall-effect analysis by using the polaron theory revealed that the enhanced carrier mobility is due to the increased spacing between molecules. - Highlights: • The carrier mobility of pentacene on thermally grown and sol–gel SiO 2 was researched. • The enhanced carrier mobility of pentacene on thermally grown SiO2 was observed. • The dominance of tunneling (hopping) at low (high) temperatures was observed. • The carrier mobility is correlated with the morphology of pentacene films
Zayas, Mª. E.; Espinoza-Beltrán, F. J.; Romero, Maximina; Rincón López, Jesús María
A new family of glasses from the TeO2-CdO-Al2O3-SiO2 system obtained from CdS-TeO2 mixtures melted in fireclay crucibles have been prepared and characterized. The density values of these glasses are in the 3.30-3.46 gcm-3 range. The viscosity-temperature variation shows that glasses with high TeO2 content depict the typical variation of `short glasses' for a molding operation. Microstructural observations by TEM (replica method) and SEM microscopies have shown that these glasses contain very ...
Full Text Available The thermal behaviour of the Rosa mutiflora biomass by thermogravimetric analysis was studied at heating rate 3 K min−1 from ambient temperature to 950 °C. TGA tests were performed in high purity carbon dioxide (99 998% with a flow rate 200 ml/min and 100 mg of sample, milled and sieved to a particle size below 250 µm. Moreover, yields of gasification products such as hydrogen (H2, carbon monoxide (CO and methane (CH4 were determined based on the thermovolumetric measurements of catalytic (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 and Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 with K2O promoter catalysts and non-catalytic gasification of the Rosa multiflora biomass. Additionally, carbon conversion degrees are presented. Calculations were made of the kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation reaction in the catalytic and non-catalytic CO2 gasification processes. A high temperature of 950 °C along with Ni/Al2O3-SiO2and Ni/Al2O3-SiO2 with K2O promoter catalysts resulted in a higher conversion of Rosa multiflora biomass into gaseous yield production with greatly increasing of H2 and CO contents. Consequently, H2 and CO are the key factors to produce renewable energy and bio-gases (synthesis gas. The parameters obtained during the experimental examinations enable a tentative assessment of plant biomasses for the process of large-scale gasification in industrial sectors.
Marel, C. van der; Verheijen, M.A.; Tamminga, Y.; Pijnenburg, R.H.W.; Tombros, N.; Cubaynes, F.
investigated [D. A. Muller, T. Sorsch, S. Moccio, F. H. Baumann, K. Evans-Lutterodt, and G. Timp, Nature (London) 399, 758 (1999); D. A. Muller and J. B. Neaton, Structure and Energetics of the Interface Between Si and Amorphous SiO 2 in Fundamental Aspects of Silicon Oxidation, edited by Y. J. Chabal (Springer, Berlin, 2001), pp. 219-246.] by means of high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements of the O K edge in ultrathin gate oxides of SiO 2
Full Text Available The total ionizing dose irradiation effects are investigated in Si vertical diffused MOSFETs (VDMOSs with different gate dielectrics including single SiO2 layer and double Si3N4/SiO2 layer. Radiation-induced holes trapping is greater for single SiO2 layer than for double Si3N4/SiO2 layer. Dielectric oxidation temperature dependent TID effects are also studied. Holes trapping induced negative threshold voltage shift is smaller for SiO2 at lower oxidation temperature. Gate bias during irradiation leads to different VTH shift for different gate dielectrics. Single SiO2 layer shows the worst negative VTH at VG=0 V, while double Si3N4/SiO2 shows negative VTH shift at VG=-5 V, positive VTH shift at VG=10 V, and negligible VTH shift at VG=0 V.
Zhu, Haibo; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Dong, Hailin; Llorens, Isabelle; Saih, Youssef; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Basset, Jean-Marie
The VOx/SiO2 catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were synthesized by a simple grafting method. The VOCl3 was first grafted at the surface of SiO2, which was dehydrated at different temperature (from 200 to 1000°C). The formed grafted complexes were then calcined in air, leading to the formation of VOx/SiO2 catalysts. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The SiO2 pretreatment temperature has an evident effect on the loading and dispersion of VOx on SiO2, which finally affects their catalytic performance. High SiO2 treatment temperature is beneficial to dispersing the vanadium oxide species at the SiO2 surface. These materials are efficient catalysts for the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propylene. The best selectivity to propylene is achieved on the VOx/SiO2-(1000) catalyst. The high selectivity and activity are well maintained for three days catalytic reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
King, David M; Liang Xinhua; Weimer, Alan W; Burton, Beau B; Akhtar, M Kamal
Pigment-grade TiO 2 particles were passivated using nanothick insulating films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Conformal SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers were coated onto anatase and rutile powders in a fluidized bed reactor. SiO 2 films were deposited using tris-dimethylaminosilane (TDMAS) and H 2 O 2 at 500 deg. C. Trimethylaluminum and water were used as precursors for Al 2 O 3 ALD at 177 deg. C. The photocatalytic activity of anatase pigment-grade TiO 2 was decreased by 98% after the deposition of 2 nm SiO 2 films. H 2 SO 4 digest tests were performed to exhibit the pinhole-free nature of the coatings and the TiO 2 digest rate was 40 times faster for uncoated TiO 2 than SiO 2 coated over a 24 h period. Mass spectrometry was used to monitor reaction progress and allowed for dosing time optimization. These results demonstrate that the TDMAS-H 2 O 2 chemistry can deposit high quality, fully dense SiO 2 films on high radius of curvature substrates. Particle ALD is a viable passivation method for pigment-grade TiO 2 particles
The VOx/SiO2 catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were synthesized by a simple grafting method. The VOCl3 was first grafted at the surface of SiO2, which was dehydrated at different temperature (from 200 to 1000°C). The formed grafted complexes were then calcined in air, leading to the formation of VOx/SiO2 catalysts. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The SiO2 pretreatment temperature has an evident effect on the loading and dispersion of VOx on SiO2, which finally affects their catalytic performance. High SiO2 treatment temperature is beneficial to dispersing the vanadium oxide species at the SiO2 surface. These materials are efficient catalysts for the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propylene. The best selectivity to propylene is achieved on the VOx/SiO2-(1000) catalyst. The high selectivity and activity are well maintained for three days catalytic reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Green, Eleanor C. R.; Artacho, Emilio; Connolly, James A. D.
Rocky planets and satellites form through impact and accretion processes that often involve silicate fluids at extreme temperatures. First-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations have been used to investigate the bulk thermodynamic properties of SiO2 fluid at high temperatures (4000-6000 K) and low densities (500-2240 kg m-3), conditions which are relevant to protoplanetary disc condensation. Liquid SiO2 is highly networked at the upper end of this density range, but depolymerises with increasing temperature and volume, in a process characterised by the formation of oxygen-oxygen (Odbnd O) pairs. The onset of vaporisation is closely associated with the depolymerisation process, and is likely to be non-stoichiometric at high temperature, initiated via the exsolution of O2 molecules to leave a Si-enriched fluid. By 6000 K the simulated fluid is supercritical. A large anomaly in the constant-volume heat capacity occurs near the critical temperature. We present tabulated thermodynamic properties for silica fluid that reconcile observations from FPMD simulations with current knowledge of the SiO2 melting curve and experimental Hugoniot curves.
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the deposition of silica layers at atmospheric pressure as a pretreatment for the structural bonding of titanium (Ti6Al4V, Ti15V3Cr3Sn3Al in comparison to an anodizing process (NaTESi process. The SiO2 film was deposited using the LARGE plasma source, a linearly extended DC arc plasma source and applying hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO as a precursor. The morphology of the surface was analyzed by means of SEM, while the characterization of the chemical composition of deposited plasma layers was done by XPS and FTIR. The long-term durability of bonded samples was evaluated by means of a wedge test in hot/wet condition. The almost stoichiometric SiO2 film features a good long-term stability and a high bonding strength compared to the films produced with the wet-chemical NaTESi process.
Johannessen, B.; Kluth, P.; Glover, C.J.; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.
Elemental Cu and Au nanocrystals (NCs) were produced by high-energy ion-implantations into amorphous silica (SiO 2 ) and subsequent thermal annealing. By a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) we confirm both NC species to have the bulk face-centered cubic phase and estimate their average diameter. We concentrate on the investigation of the concentration and size-dependent coordination number (China) of these matrix embedded NCs utilising extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The CN is found to be suppressed compared to that of a bulk standard. The CN in Au NCs is found to be lower than that of Cu NCs in agreement with smaller average Au NC sizes. We explain this difference by the difference in diffusivity for the two atomic species in SiO 2
Schulze, D.; Finster, J.
SiO 2 surface layers of 160 nm thickness formed by 16 O + ion implantation into silicon are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements into the depth after a step-by-step chemical etching. The chemical nature and the thickness of the transition layer were determined. The results of the XPS measurements show that the outer surface and the bulk of the layers formed by oxygen implantation and subsequent high temperature annealing consist of SiO 2 . There is no evidence for Si or SiO/sub x/ (0 2 and Si is similar to that of thin grown oxide layers. Only its thickness is somewhat larger than in thermal oxide
Asadullah, Mohammad; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Koyama, Shuntarou; Tomishige, Keiichi
The gasification of cedar wood in the presence of Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 has been conducted in the laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor using air as a gasifying agent at low temperatures (823-973 K) in order to produce high-quality fuel gas for gas turbine for power generation. The performance of the Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst has been compared with conventional catalysts such as commercial steam reforming catalyst G-91, dolomite and noncatalyst systems by measurements of the cold gas efficiency, tar concentration, carbon conversion to gas and gas composition. The tar concentration was completely negligible in the Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 -catalyzed product gas whereas it was about 30, 113, and 139 g/m 3 in G-91, dolomite and noncatalyzed product gas, respectively. Since the carbon conversion to useful gas such as CO, H 2 , and CH 4 are much higher on Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst than others at 873 K, the cold gas efficiency is much higher (71%) in this case than others. The hydrogen content in the product gas is much higher (>24 vol%) than the specified level (>10 vol%) for efficient combustion in the gas turbine engine. The char and coke formation is also very low on Rh/CeO 2 /SiO 2 catalyst than on the conventional catalysts. Although the catalyst surface area was slightly decreased after using the same catalyst in at least 20 experiments, the deactivation problem was not severe
Gutierrez W, C.; Mondragon G, G.; Perez H, R.; Mendoza A, D.
Metallic nanoparticles was synthesized in SiO 2 matrices by means of a process of two stages. The first one proceeded via sol-gel, incorporating the metallic precursors to the reaction system before the solidification of the matrix. Later on, the samples underwent a thermal treatment in atmosphere of H 2 , carrying out the reduction of the metals that finally formed to the nanoparticles. Then it was detected the presence of smaller nanoparticles than 20 nm, dispersed and with the property of being liberated easily of the matrix, conserving a free surface, chemically reactive and with response to external electromagnetic radiation. The system SiO 2 -Pd showed an important thermoluminescent response. (Author)
Saito, Tatsuro; Momose, Takeshi; Hoshi, Toru; Takai, Madoka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Shimogaki, Yukihiro
The surface of 500-mm-long microchannels in SiO2 microchips was modified using supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and a biocompatible polymer was coated on it to confer biocompatibility to the SiO2 surface. In this method, the SiO2 surface of a microchannel was coated with poly(ethylene glycol monomethacrylate) (PEGMA) as the biocompatible polymer using allyltriethoxysilane (ATES) as the anchor material in scCO2 as the reactive medium. Results were compared with those using the conventional wet method. The surface of a microchannel could not be modified by the wet method owing to the surface tension and viscosity of the liquid, but it was modified uniformly by the scCO2 method probably owing to the near-zero surface tension, low viscosity, and high diffusivity of scCO2. The effect of the surface modification by the scCO2 method to prevent the adsorption of protein was as high as that of the modification by the wet method. Modified microchips can be used in biochemical and medical analyses.
Wahyuni, S.; Prasetya, A. T.
The aim of this research is to develop nanomaterials for coating applications. This research studied the effect of various TiO2-SiO2 composites in acrylic paint to enhance the hydrophobic properties of the substrate. Titanium dioxide containing silica in the range 20-35 mol% has been synthesized using sol-gel route. The XRD’s spectra show that increasing SiO2 content in the composite, decreasing its crystalline properties but increasing the surface area. TiO2-SiO2 composite was dispersed in acrylic paint in 2% composition by weight. The largest contact angle was 70, which produced by the substrate coated with TS-35-modified acrylic paint. This study also investigated the enhanced photo-activity of TiO2-SiO2 modified with poly-aniline. The XRD spectra show that the treatment does not change the crystal structure of TiO2. The photo-activity of the composite was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine-B with visible light. The best performance of the degradation process was handled by the composite treated with 0.1mL anilines per gram of TiO2-SiO2 composite (TSP-A). On the other side, the contact angle 70 has not shown an excellent hydrophobic activity. However, the AFM spectra showed that nanoroughness has started to form on the surface of acrylic paint modified with TiO2-SiO2 than acrylic alone.
Wu, Lian-Kui; Xia, Jie; Hou, Guang-Ya; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Tang, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Guo-Qu
Highlights: • MnO 2 -SiO 2 composite film is prepared by potentiodynamical deposition. • Hierarchical porous MnO 2 films is obtained after the etching of SiO 2 . • The obtained MnO 2 film electrode exhibit high specific capacitance. - Abstract: We report a novel silica co-electrodeposition route to prepare nanostructured MnO 2 films. Firstly, MnO 2 -SiO 2 composite film was fabricated on a stainless steel substrate by potentiodynamical deposition, i.e. cyclic deposition, and then the SiO 2 template was removed by simple immersion in concentrated alkaline solution, leading to the formation of a porous MnO 2 (po-MnO 2 ) matrix. The structure and morphology of the obtained films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties of the po-MnO 2 film were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that this porous MnO 2 derived from the MnO 2 -SiO 2 composite film exhibits good electrochemical performance for potential use as a supercapacitor material.
Benedetto, F. E.; Prado, M. O.
Vitreous SiO 2 porous matrices can be used in many applications involving the uptake of chemical species on its solid surface. In this work, vitreous silica sponges were prepared from a sodium borosilicate glass manufactured in our laboratory. The product obtained was then separated into phases with subsequent leaching of the soluble phase rich in B and Na. The resulting porous matrices have a specific surface of 35 m2/gr. Adsorption of uranyl ions onto the SiO 2 porous surface was studied to evaluate the use of this material as a filter for treatment of uranium containing water. The effects of contact time, adsorbent mass and equilibrium concentration of solution were studied. The porous adsorbent exhibits a pseudo-second-order kinetic behavior. The sponges with adsorbed uranium were thermally sealed as a way of U immobilization. Retention of uranium was confirmed during the matrix sealing by TGA. Uranium concentration before and after adsorption tests were made by means of ICP-OES. For uranium concentration of 800 ppm, 72 hours contact time and pH of 3.5, the amount of uranium adsorbed was 21.06 ± 0.02 mg U per gram of vitreous porous SiO 2 . (author)
Gonçalves Rogéria R.
Full Text Available Eu3+ doped bulk monoliths and thin films were obtained by sol-gel methods in the ZrO2, SiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 systems. Eu3+ 5D0 ® 7FJ emission and decay time characteristics were measured during the entire experimental preparation route from the initial sol to the final xerogels. The crystalline phases identified were tetragonal ZrO2 and mixtures of rutile and anatase TiO2 at high temperature treatments in bulk samples. Good quality thin films were obtained for all systems by dip-coating optical glasses (Schott BK270. The same spectroscopic features were observed either for the bulk monoliths or the films. By appropriate heat treatments under H2 atmosphere Eu2+ containing samples could be obtained in the SiO2-TiO2 system.
Full Text Available We studied the photoluminescence (PL of Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs embedded in SiO2 obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy. The Si-NCs are formed at high depth (1-2 μm inside the SiO2 achieving a robust and better protected system. After metal ion implantation (Ag or Au, and a subsequent thermal annealing at 600°C under hydrogen-containing atmosphere, the PL signal exhibits a noticeable increase. The ion metal implantation was done at energies such that its distribution inside the silica does not overlap with the previously implanted Si ion . Under proper annealing Ag or Au nanoparticles (NPs could be nucleated, and the PL signal from Si-NCs could increase due to plasmonic interactions. However, the ion-metal-implantation-induced damage can enhance the amount of hydrogen, or nitrogen, that diffuses into the SiO2 matrix. As a result, the surface defects on Si-NCs can be better passivated, and consequently, the PL of the system is intensified. We have selected different atmospheres (air, H2/N2 and Ar to study the relevance of these annealing gases on the final PL from Si-NCs after metal ion implantation. Studies of PL and time-resolved PL indicate that passivation process of surface defects on Si-NCs is more effective when it is assisted by ion metal implantation.
Need for high performance materials for advanced applications have led to the development of new concepts in materials design processing and their fabrication. The development of nanocrystalline materials with improved and novel properties is an important turning point in materials research. In present work, we report synthesis and structural characterization of Y 2 O 3 : SiO 2 nanocomposite. Sol-gel technique is being used to prepare-Y 2 O 3 SiO 2 nanocomposite due to its effectiveness in preparing samples with good mixing of starting materials and at relatively low reaction temperature. We have used Y(NO 3 ) 3 .4H 2 O and TEOS as precursors and followed usual approach of sol-gel technique, the final product of Y 2 O 3 : SiO 2 nanocomposite is obtained in the form of powder. The powder samples were sintered at different temperature for different time durations in programmable muffle furnace. The samples were characterized by complementary techniques as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). (author)
Aegerter, M.A.; Santos, D.I. dos; Ventura, P.C.S.
Aqueous solutions simulating radioactive nuclear wastes (like Savanah River Laboratory) were incorporated in porous glass matrix with high silica content prepared by decomposition of borosilicate glass like Na 2 O - B 2 O 3 - SiO 2 . After sintering, the samples were submitted, during 28 days, to standard leaching tests MCC1, MCC5 (Soxhlet) and stagnating. The total weight loss, ph, as well as the integral and differential leaching rates and the accumulated concentrations in the leach of Si, Na, B, Ca, Mn, Al, Fe and Ni. The results are compared with the results from reference borosilicate glass, made by fusion, ceramic, synroc, concrets, etc... (E.G.) [pt
Matsuda, A; Matsuno, Y; Katayama, S; Tsuno, T [Nippon Steel Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Toge, N; Minami, T [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering
TiO2-SiO2 films prepared by the sol-gel method serves as an effective alkali passivation layer on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate and the film is superior to a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film from the view point of weathering resistance improvement. To clarify the reason, alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 glass films with different TiO2 contents coated on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate was studied by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses, and compared with the results of a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: An increase in TiO2 content in the TiO2 SiO2 film increases the sodium concentration in the film, which was induced by sodium migration from the glass substrate during the heat-treatment. Because of the presence of sodium the TiO2 -SiO2 films serve not as a barrier but as an effective getter of alkali ions and thereby effectively improve the weathering resistance Of the glass substrate. 10 refs., 6 figs.
Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi
Electrical dipole at SiO_2/Si and HfO_2/SiO_2 interfaces have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under monochromatized Al Kα radiation. From the analysis of the cut-off energy for secondary photoelectrons measured at each thinning step of a dielectric layer by wet-chemical etching, an abrupt potential change caused by electrical dipole at SiO_2/Si and HfO_2/SiO_2 interfaces has been clearly detected. Al-gate MOS capacitors with thermally-grown SiO_2 and a HfO_2/SiO_2 dielectric stack were fabricated to evaluate the Al work function from the flat band voltage shift of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. Comparing the results of XPS and C-V measurements, we have verified that electrical dipole formed at the interface can be directly measured by photoemission measurements. (author)
Prachachet, R.; Samransuksamer, B.; Horprathum, M.; Eiamchai, P.; Limwichean, S.; Chananonnawathorn, C.; Lertvanithphol, T.; Muthitamongkol, P.; Boonruang, S.; Buranasiri, P.
Fabricated omnidirectional anti-reflection nanostructure films as a one of the promising alternative solar cell applications have attracted enormous scientific and industrial research benefits to their broadband, effective over a wide range of incident angles, lithography-free and high-throughput process. Recently, the nanostructure SiO2 film was the most inclusive study on anti-reflection with omnidirectional and broadband characteristics. In this work, the three-dimensional silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanostructured thin film with different morphologies including vertical align, slant, spiral and thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on the glass slide and silicon wafer substrate. The morphological of the prepared samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The transmission, omnidirectional and birefringence property of the nanostructure SiO2 films were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE). The spectrophotometer measurement was performed at normal incident angle and a full spectral range of 200 - 2000 nm. The angle dependent transmission measurements were investigated by rotating the specimen, with incidence angle defined relative to the surface normal of the prepared samples. This study demonstrates that the obtained SiO2 nanostructure film coated on glass slide substrate exhibits a higher transmission was 93% at normal incident angle. In addition, transmission measurement in visible wavelength and wide incident angles -80 to 80 were increased in comparison with the SiO2 thin film and glass slide substrate due to the transition in the refractive index profile from air to the nanostructure layer that improve the antireflection characteristics. The results clearly showed the enhanced omnidirectional and broadband characteristic of the three dimensional Si
Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Zhao, Jiao; Chen, Junyu; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Tian, Jianwen; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen
Polyethylenimine-tannins coated SiO2 (SiO2@PEI-TA) hybrid materials have been prepared via a single-step multifunctional coating with polyethylenimine (PEI) and tannins (TA), and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-prepared SiO2@PEI-TA composites were examined as adsorbents to remove the Cu2+ from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial Cu2+ concentration, solution pH and temperature, on Cu2+ adsorption have been investigated. The results show that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto SiO2@PEI-TA is dependent on the contact time, Cu2+ concentration, pH and temperature. The SiO2@PEI-TA composites show a 2.4-fold increase in adsorption capacity, implying that the introduction of PEI-TA coating is in favor of the Cu2+ adsorption. Based on the analysis of kinetic data, the kinetics of Cu2+ adsorption is more accurately described by the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data are analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results of isotherms show that the better agreement is Freundlich isotherm model with correlation coefficient of 0.9914, which suggests that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto SiO2@PEI-TA is mainly a heterogeneous adsorption process. Thermodynamic analyses show that the adsorption interaction is actually a spontaneous and endothermic chemical process, which might involve the chemical chelation between Cu2+ and functional groups (amine and carboxyl groups) on the surface of SiO2@PEI-TA. In addition, the Cu2+ ions could desorb from SiO2@PEI-TA by using acid solution and the adsorption efficiency remains at high level after five adsorption-desorption recycles. These results provide potential applications of these novel adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal Cu2+ from aqueous solution and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed in the study.
The distribution of experimental dielectric strengths of SiO 2 gate dielectric in a CMOS transistor structure is shown to be composed of a primary, statistically-normal distribution of high dielectric strength and a secondary distribution spread through the lower dielectric strength region. The dielectric strength was not significantly affected by high level (1 x 10 6 RADS (Si)) gamma radiation or high temperature (200 0 C) stress. The primary distribution breakdowns occurred at topographical edges, mainly at the gate/field oxide interface, and the secondary distribution breakdowns occurred at random locations in the central region of the gate
Full Text Available C-A-S-H (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and N-A-S-H (Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O have a wide range of chemical compositions and structures and are difficult to separate from alkali-activated materials. Therefore, it is difficult to analyze their microscopic properties directly. This paper reports research on the synthesis of C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H particles with an average particle size smaller than 300 nm by applying the hydrothermal method. The composition and microstructure of the products with different CaO(Na2O/SiO2 ratios and curing conditions were characterized using XRD, the RIR method, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and laser particle size analysis. The results showed that the C-A-S-H system products with a low CaO/SiO2 ratio were mainly amorphous C-A-S-H gels. With an increase in the CaO/SiO2 ratio, an excess of Ca(OH2 was observed at room temperature, while in a high-temperature reaction system, katoite, C4AcH11, and other crystallized products were observed. The katoite content was related to the curing temperature and the content of Ca(OH2 and it tended to form at a high-temperature and high-calcium environment, and an increase in the temperature renders the C-A-S-H gels more compact. The main products of the N-A-S-H system at room temperature were amorphous N-A-S-H gels and a small amount of sodalite. An increase in the curing temperature promoted the formation of the crystalline products faujasite and zeolite-P. The crystallization products consisted of only zeolite-P in the high-temperature N-A-S-H system and its content were stable above 70%. An increase in the Na2O/SiO2 ratio resulted in more non-bridging oxygen and the TO4 was more isolated in the N-A-S-H structure. The composition and microstructure of the C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H system products synthesized by the hydrothermal method were closely related to the ratio of the raw materials and the curing conditions. The results of this study increase our understanding of the hydration products of alkali
A. P. Nesenchouk
Full Text Available The paper considers an effect of ZrO2 content in 20%Co/xZrO2∙(100 – xSiO2 (x = 0, 10, 15, 25, 30, 40 and 100 mass percent catalyst carriers on their catalytic properties. Temperature programmed desorption of NH3 has made it possible to determine relations between their acid and catalytic properties. The paper reveals the TPD spectrum is the result of 4 overlapping peaks originating during NH3 desorption from the respective groups of acid sites. Total acidity of samples and contribution of separate acid site groups into the given acidity have been have been determined in the paper. The paper contains graphical dependences of a various-type acid site number on content of zirconium oxide in the carrier. Correlations between change in various-type acid site number and catalytic process parameters (CO conversion, C5+ hydrocarbon output and C5+ isoparaffin output have been found in the paper. The paper shows that the highest values of CO conversion and C5+ hydrocarbon output correspond to maximum number of acid sites, and that number accounts for a peak of desorbed ammonia at Tmax = 122 °C, while the lowest isoparaffin output corresponds to minimum number of acid sites, which characterizes a peak of desorbed ammonia at Tmax = 224–257 °C.
Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Dortu, Fabian; Schrevens, Olivier; Giannone, Domenico; Bouville, David; Cassan, Eric; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Sohlström, Hans; Sanchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Hill, Daniel
We present an efficient and highly alignment-tolerant light coupling and distribution system for a multichannel Si3N4/SiO2 single-mode photonics sensing chip. The design of the input and output couplers and the distribution splitters is discussed. Examples of multichannel data obtained with the system are given.
Zheng Yansheng; He Yi; Qing Yongquan; Zhuo Zhihao; Mo Qian
Highlights: ► The coating showed the water contact angle of 165° and the water sliding angle of 6°. ► The hierarchical structure with the low surface energy leads to surface superhydrophobicity. ► We demonstrated a simple yet efficient approach to preparing superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic coating has been fabricated on the glass substrates with modified SiO 2 sol and polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion through a sol–gel process. SiO 2 sol was modified with γ-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane. The coatings were characterized by water contact angle measurement, Scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal synthetic analysis. The experimental results show that coatings exhibited superhydrophobic and heat-resistant property with a water average contact angle of 156° and sliding angle of 6°, coating has a rough surface with both micro- and nanoscale structures, γ-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane enhanced the hydrophobicity of the coatings. Low surface energy of polymer and special structure of the coatings were responsible for the hydrophobic of the surfaces.
Yue, Yunliang; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yuqi; Song, Yu; Zuo, Xu
Dozens of models are investigated by the first-principles calculations to simulate the interactions of an atomic hydrogen with a defect-free random network of amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) and oxygen vacancies. A wide variety of stable configurations are discovered due to the disorder of a-SiO2, and their structures, charges, magnetic moments, spin densities, and density of states are calculated. The atomic hydrogen interacts with the defect-free a-SiO2 in positively or negatively charged state, and produces the structures absent in crystalline SiO2. It passivates the neutral oxygen vacancies and generates two neutral hydrogenated E‧ centers with different Si dangling bond projections. Electron spin resonance parameters, including Fermi contacts, and g-tensors, are calculated for these centers. The atomic hydrogen interacts with the positive oxygen vacancies in dimer configuration, and generate four different positive hydrogenated defects, two of which are puckered like the Eγ‧ centers. This research helps to understand the interactions between an atomic hydrogen, and defect-free a-SiO2 and oxygen vacancies, which may generate the hydrogen-complexed defects that play a key role in the degeneration of silicon/silica-based microelectronic devices.
Full Text Available This paper presents the preparation of high-quality vanadium dioxide (VO2 thermochromic thin films with enhanced visible transmittance (Tvis via radio frequency (RF sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. VO2 thin films with high Tvis and excellent optical switching efficiency (Eos were successfully prepared by employing SiO2 as a passivation layer. After SiO2 deposition, the roughness of the films was decreased 2-fold and a denser structure was formed. These morphological changes corresponded to the results of optical characterization including the haze, reflectance and absorption spectra. In spite of SiO2 coating, the phase transition temperature (Tc of the prepared films was not affected. Compared with pristine VO2, the total layer thickness after SiO2 coating was 160 nm, which is an increase of 80 nm. Despite the thickness change, the VO2 thin films showed a higher Tvis value (λ 650 nm, 58% compared with the pristine samples (λ 650 nm, 43%. This enhancement of Tvis while maintaining high Eos is meaningful for VO2-based smart window applications.
Li, Shi-Kuo; Hou, Xiao-Cheng; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Kang, Wen-Juan; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua
In this paper, we reported a simple and efficient protocol for preparation of Cu2+-modified magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase. The uniform magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell microspheres with a thin shell of 20 nm were synthesized through a solvothermal method followed by a sol-gel process. An amino-terminated silane coupling agent of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) was then grafted on them for capturing Cu2+ ions. The reaction process is very simple, efficient, and economical. Noticeably, the content of Cu2+ ions on the magnetic core/shell microspheres can reach 4.6 Wt%, endowing them possess as high immobilization capacity as 225.5 mg/g for cellulase. And the immobilized cellulase can be retained over 90 % on the magnetic microspheres after six cycles. Meanwhile, the magnetic microspheres decorated with Cu2+ ions show a superparamagnetic character with a high magnetic saturation of 58.5 emu/g at room temperature, suggesting conveniently and rapidly recycle the enzyme from solution. This facile, recyclable, high immobilization capacity and activity strategy may find potential applications in enzyme catalytic reactions with low cost.
Li, Shi-Kuo; Hou, Xiao-Cheng; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Kang, Wen-Juan; Xie, An-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua
In this paper, we reported a simple and efficient protocol for preparation of Cu 2+ -modified magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core/shell microspheres for immobilization of cellulase. The uniform magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core/shell microspheres with a thin shell of 20 nm were synthesized through a solvothermal method followed by a sol–gel process. An amino-terminated silane coupling agent of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTS) was then grafted on them for capturing Cu 2+ ions. The reaction process is very simple, efficient, and economical. Noticeably, the content of Cu 2+ ions on the magnetic core/shell microspheres can reach 4.6 Wt%, endowing them possess as high immobilization capacity as 225.5 mg/g for cellulase. And the immobilized cellulase can be retained over 90 % on the magnetic microspheres after six cycles. Meanwhile, the magnetic microspheres decorated with Cu 2+ ions show a superparamagnetic character with a high magnetic saturation of 58.5 emu/g at room temperature, suggesting conveniently and rapidly recycle the enzyme from solution. This facile, recyclable, high immobilization capacity and activity strategy may find potential applications in enzyme catalytic reactions with low cost
Page, Alister J.; Chandrakumar, K. R. S.; Irle, Stephan; Morokuma, Keiji
Quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulations of pristine and carbon-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles have been performed between 1000 and 3000 K. At temperatures above 1600 K, pristine nanoparticle SiO 2 decomposes rapidly, primarily forming SiO. Similarly, carbon-doped nanoparticle SiO 2 decomposes at temperatures above 2000 K, primarily forming SiO and CO. Analysis of the physical states of these pristine and carbon-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles indicate that they remain in the solid phase throughout decomposition. This process is therefore one of sublimation, as the liquid phase is never entered. Ramifications of these observations with respect to presently debated mechanisms of carbon nanotube growth on SiO 2 nanoparticles will be discussed.
Shi, Yusuf; Li, Renyuan; Shi, Le; Ahmed, Elaf; Jin, Yong; Wang, Peng
% of the membrane is removed by sandpaper. This work also looks into a generally overlooked aspect of wet versus dry state of photothermal material and its implications. Interestingly, the composite possesses a gray color with a high reflectance in dry state
Li, J.; Jiang, X.; Zhu, D.; Zhu, M.; Shao, Z.; Johnson, S.; Luo, Z.
Eutectic Al/Si binary alloy is technically one of the most important Al casting alloys due to its high corrosion resistance, evident shrinkage reduction, low thermal expansion coefficient, high fluidity, and good weldability. In this work, multi phased Al/Si matrix nano composites reinforced with Al_2O_3 and multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) have been sintered by an in situ vacuum hot-pressing method. The alumina Al_2O_3 nanoparticles were introduced by an in situ reaction of Al with SiO_2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the sintered Al/Si/Al_2O_3/SiO_2/MWCNTs nano composites with different alumina contents were investigated. The mechanical properties were determined by micro-Vickers hardness and compressive and shear strength tests. The results demonstrated that in situ alumina and MWCNTs had impacts on microstructure and mechanical properties of the nano composites. Based on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the nano composites, strengthening and fracture mechanisms by multiple reinforcements were analyzed
Vo Van Hoang; Nguyen Trung Hai; Hoang Zung
By using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we found a transition from a tetrahedral to an octahedral network structure in an amorphous SiO 2 model under compression from 2.20 to 5.35 g/cm 3 . And on heating of a high density amorphous (hda) model of 5.35 g/cm 3 at zero pressure, the structure transforms to a low density amorphous (lda) form. Simulations were done in a model containing 3000 particles under periodic boundary conditions with interatomic potentials which have a weak Coulomb interaction and a Morse type short-range interaction
Zeng, Chao; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes
The extensive production and application of engineered silica nanoparticles (SiO_2 NPs) will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. Granular media filtration, a widely used process in water and wastewater treatment plants, has the potential for NP abatement. In this work, laboratory-scale column experiments were performed to study the transport and retention of SiO_2 NPs on three widely used porous materials, i.e., sand, anthracite, and granular activated carbon (GAC). Synthetic fluorescent core-shell SiO_2 NPs (83 nm) were used to facilitate NP detection. Sand showed very low capacity for SiO_2 filtration as this material had a surface with limited surface area and a high concentration of negative charge. Also, we found that the stability and transport of SiO_2 NP were strongly dependent on the ionic strength of the solution. Increasing ionic strength led to NP agglomeration and facilitated SiO_2 NP retention, while low ionic strength resulted in release of captured NPs from the sand bed. Compared to sand, anthracite and GAC showed higher affinity for SiO_2 NP capture. The superior capacity of GAC was primarily due to its porous structure and high surface area. A process model was developed to simulate NP capture in the packed bed columns and determine fundamental filtration parameters. This model provided an excellent fit to the experimental data. Taken together, the results obtained indicate that GAC is an interesting material for SiO_2 NP filtration.
Zeng, Chao; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes
The extensive production and application of engineered silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. Granular media filtration, a widely used process in water and wastewater treatment plants, has the potential for NP abatement. In this work, laboratory-scale column experiments were performed to study the transport and retention of SiO2 NPs on three widely used porous materials, i.e., sand, anthracite, and granular activated carbon (GAC). Synthetic fluorescent core-shell SiO2 NPs (83 nm) were used to facilitate NP detection. Sand showed very low capacity for SiO2 filtration as this material had a surface with limited surface area and a high concentration of negative charge. Also, we found that the stability and transport of SiO2 NP were strongly dependent on the ionic strength of the solution. Increasing ionic strength led to NP agglomeration and facilitated SiO2 NP retention, while low ionic strength resulted in release of captured NPs from the sand bed. Compared to sand, anthracite and GAC showed higher affinity for SiO2 NP capture. The superior capacity of GAC was primarily due to its porous structure and high surface area. A process model was developed to simulate NP capture in the packed bed columns and determine fundamental filtration parameters. This model provided an excellent fit to the experimental data. Taken together, the results obtained indicate that GAC is an interesting material for SiO2 NP filtration.
Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.
Silicon (100) wafers are ubiquitous in microfabrication and, accordingly, their surface characteristics are important. Herein, we report the analysis of Si (100) via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using monochromatic Al K radiation. Survey scans show that the material is primarily silicon and oxygen, and the Si 2p region shows two peaks that correspond to elemental silicon and silicon dioxide. Using these peaks the thickness of the native oxide (SiO2) was estimated using the equation of Strohmeier.1 The oxygen peak is symmetric. The material shows small amounts of carbon, fluorine, and nitrogen contamination. These silicon wafers are used as the base material for subsequent growth of templated carbon nanotubes.
Conrad, Brad; Groce, Michelle; Cullen, William; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Williams, Ellen; Einstein, Ted
We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy to characterize the nucleation, growth, and morphology of C60 on ultrathin SiO2 grown at room temperature. C60 thin films are deposited in situ by physical vapor deposition with thicknesses varying from <0.05 to ˜1 ML. Island size and capture zone distributions are examined for a varied flux rate and substrate deposition temperature. The C60 critical nucleus size is observed to change between monomers and dimers non-monotonically from 300 K to 500 K. Results will be discussed in terms of recent capture zone studies and analysis methods. Relation to device fabrication will be discussed. doi:10.1016/j.susc.2011.08.020
Full Text Available In this paper, air plasmas spray (APS was used to prepare YSZ and Sc2O3–YSZ (ScYSZ coating in order to improve the thermal insulation ability of TC4 alloy. SiO2 aerogel was also synthesized and affixed on TC4 titanium alloy to inhabit thermal flow. The microstructures, phase compositions and thermal insulation performance of three coatings were analyzed in detail. The results of thermal diffusivity test by a laser flash method showed that the thermal diffusivities of YSZ, Sc2O3–YSZ and SiO2 aerogel are 0.553, 0.539 and 0.2097×10−6 m2/s, respectively. Then, the thermal insulation performances of three kinds of coating were investigated from 20 °C to 400 °C using high infrared radiation heat flux technology. The experimental results indicated that the corresponding temperature difference between the top TC4 alloy (400 °C and the bottom surface of YSZ is 41.5 °C for 0.6 mm thickness coating. For 1 mm thickness coating, the corresponding temperature difference between the top TC4 alloys (400 °C and the bottom surface of YSZ, ScYSZ, SiO2 aerogel three specimens is 54, 54.6 and 208 °C, respectively. The coating thickness and species were found to influence the heat insulation ability. In these materials, YSZ and ScYSZ exhibited a little difference for heat insulation behavior. However, SiO2 aerogel was the best one among them and it can be taken as protection material on TC4 alloys. In outer space, SiO2 aerogel can meet the need of thermal insulation of TC4 of high-speed aircraft.
Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Mansingh, Abhai; Sreenivas, K.
Theoretical calculations have been performed for the temperature stability of the c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 thin film layered structures on passivated silicon (SiO 2 /Si) substrate with and without a non-piezoelectric SiO 2 overlayer. The phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) have been calculated. The thicknesses of various layers have been determined for optimum SAW performance with zero TCD. The presence of a non-piezoelectric SiO 2 overlayer on LiNbO 3 film is found to significantly enhance the coupling coefficient. The optimized results reveal that a high coupling coefficient of K 2 =3.45% and a zero TCD can be obtained in the SiO 2 /LiNbO 3 /SiO 2 /Si structure with a 0.235λ thick LiNbO 3 layer sandwiched between 0.1λ thick SiO 2 layers. (author)
Yu, Pingsheng; Su, Liangbi; Cheng, Junhua; Zhang, Xia; Xu, Jun
The 2Bi 2 O 3 -3GeO 2 /SiO 2 glass samples have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. XRD patterns, absorption spectra, excitation-emission spectra and Raman measurements were utilized to characterize the synthesized glasses. When substitute SiO 2 for GeO 2 , the 0.4Bi 2 O 3 -(0.4-0.1)GeO 2 -(0.2-0.5)SiO 2 glasses exhibit strong emission centered at about 475nm (under 300nm excitation), and the decay constants are within the scope of 20-40ns. W doping into 2Bi 2 O 3 -3SiO 2 glass could increase the emission intensity of 470nm, and the W-doped 2Bi 2 O 3 -3SiO 2 glass has shown another emission at about 433nm with much shorter decay time (near 10ns). The 2Bi 2 O 3 -3GeO 2 /SiO 2 glass system could be the possible candidate for scintillator in high energy physics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhao, J. P.; Huang, D. X.; Jacobson, A. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Makarenkov, B.; Chu, W. K.; Bahrim, B.; Rabalais, J. W.
Under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, extremely small Ge nanodots embedded in SiO 2 , i.e., Ge-SiO 2 quantum dot composites, have been formed by ion implantation of 74 Ge + isotope into (0001) Z-cut quartz at a low kinetic energy of 9 keV using varying implantation temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and micro-Raman scattering show that amorphous Ge nanodots are formed at all temperatures. The formation of amorphous Ge nanodots is different from reported crystalline Ge nanodot formation by high energy ion implantation followed by a necessary high temperature annealing process. At room temperature, a confined spatial distribution of the amorphous Ge nanodots can be obtained. Ge inward diffusion was found to be significantly enhanced by a synergetic effect of high implantation temperature and preferential sputtering of surface oxygen, which induced a much wider and deeper Ge nanodot distribution at elevated implantation temperature. The bimodal size distribution that is often observed in high energy implantation was not observed in the present study. Cross-sectional TEM observation and the depth profile of Ge atoms in SiO 2 obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectra revealed a critical Ge concentration for observable amorphous nanodot formation. The mechanism of formation of amorphous Ge nanodots and the change in spatial distribution with implantation temperature are discussed
Rajendran, V; Begum, A Nishara; Azooz, M A; el Batal, F H
Bioactive glasses of the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 have been prepared by the normal melting and annealing technique. The elastic moduli, attenuation, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and fracture surface energy have been obtained using the known method at room temperature. The temperature dependence of elastic moduli and attenuation measurements have been extended over a wide range of temperature from 150 to 500 K. The SiO2 content dependence of velocities, attenuation, elastic moduli, and other parameters show an interesting observation at 45 wt% of SiO2 by exhibiting an anomalous behaviour. A linear relation is developed for Tg, which explores the influence of Na2O on SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses. The measured hardness, fracture toughness and fracture surface energy show a linear relation with Young's modulus. It is also interesting to note that the observed results are functions of polymerisation and the number of non-bridging oxygens (NBO) prevailing in the network with change in SiO2 content. The temperature dependence of velocities, attenuation and elastic moduli show the existence of softening in the glass network structure as temperature increases.
Zeb, F.; Nadeem, K.; Shah, S. Kamran Ali; Kamran, M.; Gul, I. Hussain; Ali, L.
We studied the surface spins disorder in uncoated and silica (SiO 2 ) coated maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles using temperature and time dependent magnetization. The average crystallite size for SiO 2 coated and uncoated nanoparticles was about 12 and 29 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape and well separated. Temperature scans of zero field cooled (ZFC)/field cooled (FC) magnetization measurements showed lower average blocking temperature (T B ) for SiO 2 coated maghemite nanoparticles as compared to uncoated nanoparticles. The saturation magnetization (M s ) of SiO 2 coated maghemite nanoparticles was also lower than the uncoated nanoparticles and is attributed to smaller average crystallite size of SiO 2 coated nanoparticles. For saturation magnetization vs. temperature data, Bloch's law (M(T)= M(0).(1− BT b )) was fitted well for both uncoated and SiO 2 coated nanoparticles and yields: B =3×10 −7 K -b , b=2.22 and B=0.0127 K -b , b=0.57 for uncoated and SiO 2 coated nanoparticles, respectively. Higher value of B for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles depicts decrease in exchange coupling due to enhanced surface spins disorder (broken surface bonds) as compared to uncoated nanoparticles. The Bloch's exponent b was decreased for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles which is due to their smaller average crystallite size or finite size effects. Furthermore, a sharp increase of coercivity at low temperatures (<25 K) was observed for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles which is also due to contribution of increased surface anisotropy or frozen surface spins in these smaller nanoparticles. The FC magnetic relaxation data was fitted to stretched exponential law which revealed slower magnetic relaxation for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles. All these measurements revealed smaller average crystallite size and enhanced surface spins disorder in SiO 2 coated nanoparticles than in uncoated γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Surface effects in SiO 2 coated and uncoated γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were studied. • Average crystallite size was decreased for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles. • Average blocking temperature of SiO 2 coated nanoparticles is decreased. • SiO 2 coated nanoparticles showed enhanced surface spins disordered • SiO 2 coated nanoparticles showed slow magnetic relaxation.
Full Text Available .physb.2011.09.091 Concentration effect of Tm3+ on cathodoluminescence properties of SiO2: Tm 3+ and SiO2:Ho 3+, Tm3+ systems M.S. Dhlamini, G.H. Mhlongo, H.C. Swart, O.M. Ntwaeaborwa, K.T. Hillie ABSTRACT: Cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of Si...O2 powders activated with thulium (Tm3+) and holmium (Ho3+) ions prepared by a sol–gel process were investigated. Different molar concentrations of Tm3+ co-doped with Ho3+ were studied. The 460 nm peak was monitored and the influence of the beam...
Tsvetelina, Gerganova; Yordanka, Ivanova; Yuliya, Vueva; Miranda, Salvado Isabel M; Helena, Fernandes Maria
The crystallization behaviour of hybrid SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposites derived from titanosiloxanes by sol-gel method has been investigated depending on the type of siloxane precursor and the pirolysis temperature. The resulting hybrid titanosiloxanes, crosslinked with trimethylsilil isocyanate (nitrogen-modified) or methyltrietoxisilane (carbon-modified), were pirolyzed in an inert atmosphere in the temperature range between 600 to 1100 degrees C in order to form C-(N)-Si-O-TiO2 nanocomposites. By means of XRD, FTIR, 29Si NMR, SEM, TEM and AFM investigations have been established that the transformation of the nanostructured SiO2-TiO2 hybrid materials into nanocomposites as well as the crystalline size depend on the titanium content and the type of cross-linking agents used in the synthesizes.
Shukla, Gokaran; Archer, Thomas; Sanvito, Stefano
SiO2 and HfO2 are both high-k, wide-gap semiconductors, currently used in the microelectronic industry as gate barriers. Here we investigate whether the same materials can be employed to make magnetic tunnel junctions, which in principle can be amenable for integration in conventional Si technology. By using a combination of density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's functions method for quantum transport we have studied the transport properties of Co [0001 ] /SiO2[001 ] /Co [0001 ] and Fe [001 ] /HfO2[001 ] /Fe [001 ] junctions. In both cases we found a quite large magnetoresistance, which is explained through the analysis of the real band structure of the magnets and the complex one of the insulator. We find that there is no symmetry spin filtering for the Co-based junction since the high transmission Δ2' band crosses the Fermi level, EF, for both spin directions. However, the fact that Co is a strong ferromagnet makes the orbital contribution to the two Δ2' spin subbands different, yielding magnetoresistance. In contrast for the Fe-based junction symmetry filtering is active for an energy window spanning between the Fermi level and 1 eV below EF, with Δ1 symmetry contributing to the transmission.
Park, Kyoung-Soo; Kim, Youngman
Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, [(CH3)3Si]2NH) was used as a precursor to form SiO2 protective coatings on IN738LC alloys by combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). SEM and XPS showed that the processed coatings were composed mainly of SiO2. The amount of HMDS had the largest effect on the size of the SiO2 agglomerates and the thickness of the deposited coatings. The specimens coated with SiO2 using the 0.05 mol/l HMDS solution showed a significantly higher temperature oxidation resistance than those deposited under other conditions.
Huang, C-K; Hou, C-H; Chen, C-C; Tsai, Y-L; Chang, L-M; Wei, H-S; Hsieh, K-H; Chan, C-H
We proposed a novel technique to fabricate colloidal crystals by using monodisperse SiO 2 coated magnetic Fe 3 O 4 (SiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 ) microspheres. The magnetic SiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 microspheres with a diameter of 700 nm were synthesized in the basic condition with ferric sulfate, ferrous sulfate, tartaric acid and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the reaction system. Monodisperse SiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic microspheres have been successfully used to fabricate colloidal crystals under the existing magnetic field
Barrón Zambrano, J A; Ávila Ortega, A; Muñoz Rodríguez, D; Carrera Figueiras, C; López-Pérez, A J
In this work, a biohybrid material based on SiO 2 -alginate was obtained and its properties of adsorption evaluated using methylene blue as a model dye. The experimental results showed that the biohybrid SiO 2 -alginate has a higher adsorption ability compared to their base compounds (SiO 2 and alginate). Methylene blue adsorption is pH dependent, resulting in a maximum adsorption at pH = 8. The sorption kinetics rate is similar to SiO 2 . Kinetic data were fitted to a model of pseudosecond order. The experimental isotherms fit well the Langmuir model.
Indrayana, I. P. T.; Julian, T.; Suharyadi, E.
The photodegradation activity of nanocomposites for 20 ppm methylene blue solution has been investigated in this work. Nanocomposites Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 have been synthesized using coprecipitation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the formation of three phases in sample Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 i.e., Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, Zn(OH)2, and SiO2. The appearance of SiO2 phase showed that the encapsulation process has been carried out. The calculated particles size of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 is greater than Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4. Bonding analysis via vibrational spectra for Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 confirmed the formation of bonds Me-O-Si stretching (2854.65 cm-1) and Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching (1026.13 cm-1). The optical gap energy of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 was smaller (2.70 eV) than Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (3.04 eV) due to smaller lattice dislocation and microstrain that affect their electronic structure. The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 showed high photodegradation ability due to smaller optical gap energy and the appearance of SiO2 ligand that can easily attract dye molecules. The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/SiO2 also showed high degradation activity even without UV light radiation. The result showed that photodegradation reaction doesn’t follow pseudo-first order kinetics.
José Antonio Rodríguez
Full Text Available Motivated by the necessity to have all silicon optoelectronic circuits, researchers around the world are working with light emitting silicon materials. Such materials are silicon dielectric compounds with silicon content altered, such as silicon oxide or nitride, enriched in different ways with Silicon. Silicon Rich Oxide or silicon dioxide enriched with silicon, and silicon rich nitride are without a doubt the most promising materials to reach this goal. Even though they are subjected to countless studies, the light emission phenomenon has not been completely clarified. So, a review of different proposals presented to understand the light emission phenomenon including emissions related to nanocrystals and to point defects in SiO2 is presented.
Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B; Stefanski, Johannes; Jahn, Sandro; Skinner, Lawrie B; Wang, Yanbin
We investigated the structure of SiO 2 glass up to 172 GPa using high-energy X-ray diffraction. The combination of a multichannel collimator with diamond anvil cells enabled the measurement of structural changes in silica glass with total X-ray diffraction to previously unachievable pressures. We show that SiO 2 first undergoes a change in Si-O coordination number from fourfold to sixfold between 15 and 50 GPa, in agreement with previous investigations. Above 50 GPa, the estimated coordination number continuously increases from 6 to 6.8 at 172 GPa. Si-O bond length shows first an increase due to the fourfold to sixfold coordination change and then a smaller linear decrease up to 172 GPa. We reconcile the changes in relation to the oxygen-packing fraction, showing that oxygen packing decreases at ultrahigh pressures to accommodate the higher than sixfold Si-O coordination. These results give experimental insight into the structural changes of silicate glasses as analogue materials for silicate melts at ultrahigh pressures.
Daguano, J.K.M.F.; Santos, F.A.; Santos, C.; Marton, L.F.M.; Conte, R.A.; Rodrigues Junior, D.; Melo, F.C.L.
In this work, lithium disilicate glass-ceramics were developed starting of the rice ash- SiO 2 and Li 2 CO 3 powders. The results were compared with glass ceramics based on the lithium disilicate obtained by commercial SiO 2 powders. Glass were melted at 1580 deg C, and annealed at 850 deg C. X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for characterization of the materials, and hardness and fracture toughness were evaluated using Vickers indentation method. Glasses with amorphous structure were obtained in both materials. After annealing, 'rice-ash' samples presented Li 2 SiO 3 and residual SiO 2 as crystalline phases. On the other side, commercial SiO 2 - Samples presented only Li 2 Si 2 O 5 as crystalline phases and the better results of hardness and fracture toughness. (author)
Full Text Available We present experimental results and theoretical simulations of the adsorption behavior of the metal–organic precursor Co2(CO8 on SiO2 surfaces after application of two different pretreatment steps, namely by air plasma cleaning or a focused electron beam pre-irradiation. We observe a spontaneous dissociation of the precursor molecules as well as autodeposition of cobalt on the pretreated SiO2 surfaces. We also find that the differences in metal content and relative stability of these deposits depend on the pretreatment conditions of the substrate. Transport measurements of these deposits are also presented. We are led to assume that the degree of passivation of the SiO2 surface by hydroxyl groups is an important controlling factor in the dissociation process. Our calculations of various slab settings, using dispersion-corrected density functional theory, support this assumption. We observe physisorption of the precursor molecule on a fully hydroxylated SiO2 surface (untreated surface and chemisorption on a partially hydroxylated SiO2 surface (pretreated surface with a spontaneous dissociation of the precursor molecule. In view of these calculations, we discuss the origin of this dissociation and the subsequent autocatalysis.
Azadi, Mahboobeh; Zolfaghari, Mehrdad; Rezanezhad, Saeid; Azadi, Mohammad
This study has been presented with mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composites, reinforced by SiO2 nano-particles. The stir casting method was employed to produce various aluminum matrix composites. Different composites by varying the SiO2 nano-particle content (including 0.5 and 1 weight percents) and two dispersion methods (including ball-milling and pre-heating) were made. Then, the density, the hardness, the compression strength, the wear resistance and the microstructure of nano-composites have been studied in this research. Besides, the distribution of nano-particles in the aluminum matrix for all composites has been also evaluated by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Obtained results showed that the density, the elongation and the ultimate compressive strength of various nano-composites decreased by the presence of SiO2 nano-particles; however, the hardness, the wear resistance, the yield strength and the elastic modulus of composites increased by auditioning of nano-particles to the aluminum alloy. FESEM images indicated better wetting of the SiO2 reinforcement in the aluminum matrix, prepared by the pre-heating dispersion method, comparing to ball-milling. When SiO2 nano-particles were added to the aluminum alloy, the morphology of the Si phase and intermetallic phases changed, which enhanced mechanical properties. In addition, the wear mechanism plus the friction coefficient value were changed for various nano-composites with respect to the aluminum alloy.
Perez R, J.F.; Jimenez S, S.; Gonzalez H, J.; Vorobiev, Y.V.; Hernandez L, M.A.; Parga T, J.R.
Phonon spectra in SiO 2 sol-gel made glasses annealed under different conditions are investigated using infrared absorption and Raman scattering. These data are compared with those obtained in commercial optical-quality quartz. All the materials exhibit the same phonon bands, the exact position and the intensity depend on the measuring technique and on the sample preparation method. The phonon spectra in this material are interpreted on the basis of a simple quasi-linear description of elastic waves in an O-Si-O chain. It is shown that the main features observed in the range 400-1400 cm -1 can be predicted using a quasi-linear chain model in which the band at 1070 cm -1 is assigned to the longitudinal optical waves in the O-Si-O chain with the smallest possible wavelength at the Brillouin zone boundary, the band located around 450 cm -1 is assigned to the transversal optical waves and the band at 800 cm -1 to the longitudinal acoustical waves with the same wavelength. The degree of structural disorder can be also deduced within the framework of the proposed model. (Author)
Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any combination thereof from water, such as produced water, are provided. In an embodiment, the functionalized material is a mineral material, such as mica, silica (e.g. an SiO2 microsphere) or a metal oxide, and the outer surface of the material is functionalized with an alkyl chain or a perfluorinated species. In an embodiment, the method of making the functionalized material, includes: a) providing a mineral material; b) providing an alkyl chain and/or a perfluorinated species, the alkyl chain or perfluorinated species selected to dissolve organic foulants, charged contaminants or oily matter from water or any combination thereof; c) hydroxylating the material via a concentrated acid solution or a basic solution; and d) grafting the alkyl chain and/or the perfluorinated species onto the material via a silanation reaction.
Zhuravlev, K.S.; Tyschenko, I.E.; Vandyshev, E.N.; Bulytova, N.V.; Misiuk, A.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.
The effect of hydrostatic pressure applied at high temperature on photoluminescence of Si-implanted SiO 2 films was studied. A 'blue'-shift of PL spectrum from the SiO 2 films implanted with Si + ions to total dose of 1.2x10 17 cm -2 with increase in hydrostatic pressure was observed. For the films implanted with Si + ions to a total dose of 4.8x10 16 cm -2 high temperature annealing under high hydrostatic pressure (12 kbar) causes a 'red'-shift of photoluminescence spectrum. The 'red' photoluminescence bands are attributed to Si nanocrystals while the 'blue' ones are related to Si nanocrystals of reduced size or chains of silicon atoms or Si-Si defects. A decrease in size of Si nanocluster occurs in result of the pressure-induced decrease in the diffusion of silicon atoms. (author)
Burruel I, S. E.; Cruz V, C.; Salas J, Ch. J.; Bernal, R.; Garcia H, A. R.; Castano, V. M.
Full text: In this work, we evaluated the effect of Cu-dopant concentration in SiO 2 particles on structural and thermoluminescence (Tl) properties, prepared by the sol-gel technique. Tl studies in silica samples containing Cu show an important enhancement of their Tl response when compared with pure silica samples. In the copper doped silica a prominent Tl peak is observed, the glow curve was observed between 70 and 450 degrees C after exposure to beta irradiation. The maximum temperature of the glow peak centered at around 140 degrees C shifts to higher values and the intensity enhancement with increasing Cu content, this glow curve is surely composed of several overlapped individual Tl peaks. Also, the particle size is affected by the concentration of Cu dopant. In the case SiO 2 , only is observed a glow peak centered to 95 degrees C, which is interesting for non-Tl dosimetry of ionizing radiation, which is based in detecting the afterglow response following exposure to radiation. The dose response of SiO 2 :Cu showed a linear behaviour in the interval studied with no saturation evidence until 6.4 kGy, which makes this material suitable and promising for medical, industrial and also space dosimetry applications. (Author)
structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to ... gaku D-max γA diffractometer with graphite mono- chromized ... FT–IR absorption spectra of TiO2-doped SiO2 com-.
Assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on SiO2 monodisperse spheres. K C BARICK and D BAHADUR*. Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,. Mumbai 400 076, India. Abstract. The assembly of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on submicroscopic SiO2 ...
Chen, T.; Wu, M.Y.; Ishihara, R.; Nomura, K.; Kamiya, T.; Hosono, H.; Beenakker, C.I.M.
In this paper, we were able to crystallize InGaZnO4 (IGZO) by excimer laser on SiO2 substrate. It was observed that uniform  textured polycrystalline IGZO film has been obtained without any grain boundaries and oxygen vacancies on SiO2 substrate. This process is very promising in fabricating
Lazauskas, A.; Guobiene, A.; Prosycevas, I.; Baltrusaitis, V.; Grigaliunas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas
This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO2 nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO2 nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment,
Lim, Namsoo; Yoo, Tae Jin; Kim, Jin Tae; Pak, Yusin; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Kim, Hyeonghun; Kim, Woochul; Lee, Byoung Hun; Jung, Gun Young
A tunable graphene doping method utilizing a SiO2/Si substrate with nanopores (NP) was introduced. Laser interference lithography (LIL) using a He–Cd laser (λ = 325 nm) was used to prepare pore size- and pitch-controllable NP SiO2/Si substrates
Full Text Available The experimental conditions were optimized for the synthesis of amorphous SiO2 particles by the reaction of neutralization of sodium silicate solution with H2SO4 solution. Amorphous SiO2 particles were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, EDS and microelectrophoresis. The amorphous peak was located at 2θ = 21.8º in the XRD pattern. Primary SiO2 particles were ~ 15 to ~ 30 nm in size and they aggregated into bigger particles. Amorphous SiO2 particles showed a specific surface area up to 130 m²g-1, dependent on the parameters of the precipitation process. The EDS spectrum of amorphous SiO2 particles did not show contamination with sulfate or other ions, which cannot be excluded in traces. pHzpc =1.7 was obtained by microelectrophoresis.
Laleh Enayati Ahangar
Full Text Available In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions. A large range of cationic, anionic and neutral dyes including: methyl orange, methylene blue, neutral red, bromocresol green and methyl red are used for treatment investigations. Neutral red and bromocresol green have good results in reusing treatment. The high surface area of nanocomposites improve the kinetic of wastewater treatment. In this method, by using the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, TiO2-based photocatalyst could be separated and reused for 3 times. The efficiency of this method is respectively 100% and 65% for low concentration (10 ppm and high concentration (50 ppm of neutral red and bromocrosol green after 3 h treatment. The efficiency of treatment using the second used nanocomposite was 90% for 10 ppm of the same dyes.
Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the optical behavior of SiO2 thin films prepared via sol-gel route using spin coating deposition from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS as precursor. Thin films were annealed at different temperatures (400-600oC. Absorption edge and band gap of thin layers were measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometery. Optical refractive index and dielectric constant were measured by ellipsometry technique. Based on our atomic force microscopic (AFM and ellipsometry results, thin layers prepared through this method showed high surface area, and high porosity ranging between 4.9 and 16.9, low density 2 g/cm, and low dielectric constant. The dielectric constant and porosity of layers increased by increasing the temperature due to the changes in surface roughness and particle size.
Yang, Peng; Yang, Yingshu; Wang, Yinghui; Gao, Jiechao; Sui, Ning; Chi, Xiaochun; Zou, Lu; Zhang, Han-Zhuang
The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) infiltrated into inverse opal SiO2 photonic crystals (PCs) are systemically studied. The special porous structure of inverse opal PCs enhanced the thermal exchange rate between the CdSe QDs and their surrounding environment. Finally, inverse opal SiO2 PCs suppressed the nonlinear PL enhancement of CdSe QDs in PCs excited by a continuum laser and effectively modulated the PL characteristics of CdSe QDs in PCs at high temperatures in comparison with that of CdSe QDs out of PCs. The final results are of benefit in further understanding the role of inverse opal PCs on the PL characteristics of QDs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sakoh, Akifumi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yoko, Toshinobu; Nishii, Junji; Nishiyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Isamu
The photoluminescence spectra of the divalent Ge (Ge2+) center in GeO2-SiO2 glasses with different photosensitivities were investigated by means of excitation-emission energy mapping. The ultraviolet light induced photorefractivity has been correlated with the local structure around the Ge2+ centers. The glasses with a larger photorefractivity tended to exhibit a greater band broadening of the singlet-singlet transition on the higher excitation energy side accompanied by an increase in the Stokes shifts. This strongly suggests the existence of highly photosensitive Ge2+ centers with higher excitation energies. It is also found that the introduction of a hydroxyl group or boron species in GeO2-SiO2 glasses under appropriate conditions modifies the local environment of Ge2+ leading to an enhanced photorefractivity.
Espinosa, M.E.; Perez H, R.; Perez A, M.; Mondragon G, G.; Arenas A, J.
The surface properties of catalysts of Pt and Ag supported in conventional SiO 2 hey have been studied through reduction reactions of N 2 O with H 2 which is a sensitive reaction to the structure. In our case it was used a meso porous ceramic support of SiO 2 of great surface area (1100 m 2 /gr), where it is caused a high dispersion of the metallic nanoparticles of Pt and Ag, the total charge of the active phase in the meso porous support was of 3% in weight. The catalysts show a variation in the percentages of conversion of N 2 O depending on the size and dispersion of the metallic phases. (Author)
Adamiak, Joanna; Kalinowska-Alichnewicz, Dorota; Szadkowski, Michal; Skupinski, Wincenty
Highlights: → A novel catalyst H 3 PO 4 /MoO 3 /SiO 2 was characterized and used in nitration. → On the surface domains of phosphomolybdic acid (HPM) are obtained. → Dinitrotoluene is obtained with very high yield i.e. 96 wt.% in mild conditions. → Dinitrochlorobenzene is obtained with only twelve-fold excess of nitric acid. → It is sulfuric acid free and solvent free nitration of aromatic compounds. - Abstract: A new catalyst, H 3 PO 4 /MoO 3 /SiO 2 , was prepared by modification of MoO 3 /SiO 2 using phosphoric acid. The characterization of the catalyst was performed using Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption-desorption methods. Molybdenum oxides were identified along with phosphomolybdic acid and polymolybdates on the modified surface. The suitability of the catalysts for toluene and chlorobenzene nitration in continuous process was examined. Toluene is effectively nitrated to dinitrotoluene (DNT) in one-stage process (96 wt.% of DNT in the product) and in mild conditions i.e. at room temperature and only with ten-fold excess of nitric acid. In chlorobenzene nitration only twelve-fold excess of nitric acid is needed to obtain as high yield as 95 wt.%. Most importantly, the novel catalysts we have developed, provide the opportunity for sulfuric acid- free nitration of aromatic compounds.
Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi
The control of chemical composition and bonding features at a SiO2/GaN interface is a key to realizing high-performance GaN power devices. In this study, an ∼5.2-nm-thick SiO2 film has been deposited on an epitaxial GaN(0001) surface by remote O2-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (O2-RPCVD) using SiH4 and Ar/O2 mixture gases at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. The depth profile of chemical structures and electronic defects of the O2-RPCVD SiO2/GaN structures has been evaluated from a combination of SiO2 thinning examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the total photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS) measurements. As a highlight, we found that O2-RPCVD is effective for fabricating an abrupt SiO2/GaN interface.
Suvorova, N.A.; Lopez, C.M.; Irene, E.A.; Suvorova, A.A.; Saunders, M.
(Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) thin films were deposited by ion sputtering on both bare and oxidized Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results have shown that a SiO 2 underlayer of nearly the same thickness (2.6 nm in average) is found at the Si interface for BST sputter depositions onto nominally bare Si, 1 nm SiO 2 on Si or 3.5 nm SiO 2 on Si. This result was confirmed by high-resolution electron microscopy analysis of the films, and it is believed to be due to simultaneous subcutaneous oxidation of Si and reaction of the BST layer with SiO 2 . Using the conductance method, capacitance-voltage measurements show a decrease in the interface trap density D it of an order of magnitude for oxidized Si substrates with a thicker SiO 2 underlayer. Further reduction of D it was achieved for the capacitors grown on oxidized Si and annealed in forming gas after metallization
Suvorova, N. A.; Lopez, C. M.; Irene, E. A.; Suvorova, A. A.; Saunders, M.
(Ba,Sr)TiO3(BST) thin films were deposited by ion sputtering on both bare and oxidized Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results have shown that a SiO2 underlayer of nearly the same thickness (2.6 nm in average) is found at the Si interface for BST sputter depositions onto nominally bare Si, 1 nm SiO2 on Si or 3.5 nm SiO2 on Si. This result was confirmed by high-resolution electron microscopy analysis of the films, and it is believed to be due to simultaneous subcutaneous oxidation of Si and reaction of the BST layer with SiO2. Using the conductance method, capacitance-voltage measurements show a decrease in the interface trap density Dit of an order of magnitude for oxidized Si substrates with a thicker SiO2 underlayer. Further reduction of Dit was achieved for the capacitors grown on oxidized Si and annealed in forming gas after metallization.
Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K
The influence of sputtered SiO 2 over-layer on the SAW propagation characteristics of a 128 deg. rotated Y-cut X-propagating lithium niobate SAW filter has been studied. Experimentally measured SAW phase velocity and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD), with varying SiO 2 over-layer thickness, show a significant deviation from the theoretically calculated values using the bulk material parameters of SiO 2 . The observed deviation is attributed to the differences in the material parameters (density, elastic and dielectric constants and their temperature coefficient) of the deposited SiO 2 over-layer. The density and the dielectric constant of the deposited SiO 2 layer were determined separately, and the elastic constants and their temperature coefficients were estimated by fitting the experimental velocity and TCD data, respectively. The deviation in the dielectric constant and the density in comparison to the bulk was insignificant, and the estimated values of the elastic constants (C 11 = 0.75x10 11 N m -2 and C 44 0.225x10 11 N m -2 ) were found to be lower, and the respective temperature coefficients (5.0x10 -4 deg C -1 and 2.0x10 -4 deg C -1 ) were high in comparison to the bulk material parameters
Bonilla, Ruy S.; Wilshaw, Peter R.
This manuscript reports an experimental and theoretical study of the transport of potassium ions in thin silicon dioxide films. While alkali contamination was largely researched in the context of MOSFET instability, recent reports indicate that potassium ions can be embedded into oxide films to produce dielectric materials with permanent electric charge, also known as electrets. These electrets are integral to a number of applications, including the passivation of silicon surfaces for optoelectronic devices. In this work, electric field assisted migration of ions is used to rapidly drive K+ into SiO2 and produce effective passivation of silicon surfaces. Charge concentrations of up to ~5 × 1012 e cm-2 have been achieved. This charge was seen to be stable for over 1500 d, with decay time constants as high as 17 000 d, producing an effectively passivated oxide-silicon interface with SRV industrial manufacture of silicon optoelectronic devices.
Bahariqushchi, R.; Gundogdu, Sinan; Aydinli, A.
Multilayers of germanium nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in thin films of silicon nitride matrix separated with SiO2 barriers have been fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). SiGeN/SiO2 alternating bilayers have been grown on quartz and Si substrates followed by post annealing in Ar ambient from 600 to 900 °C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as well as Raman spectroscopy show good crystallinity of Ge confined to SiGeN layers in samples annealed at 900 °C. Strong compressive stress for SiGeN/SiO2 structures were observed through Raman spectroscopy. Size, as well as NC-NC distance were controlled along the growth direction for multilayer samples by varying the thickness of bilayers. Visible photoluminescence (PL) at 2.3 and 3.1 eV with NC size dependent intensity is observed and possible origin of PL is discussed.
Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Kawano, Takao; Itoh, Hisayoshi
Defects in 3 MeV electron irradiated vitreous SiO 2 (v-SiO 2 ) were probed by the positron annihilation technique. For unirradiated v-SiO 2 specimens, almost all positrons were found to annihilate from positronium (Ps) states. This high formation probability of Ps was attributed to the trapping of positrons by open-space defects. The formation probability of Ps was decreased by the electron irradiation. The observed inhibition of the Ps formation was attributed to the trapping of positrons by point defects introduced and/or activated by the irradiation. From measurements of the lifetime distribution of Ps, it was found that, by the electron irradiation, the mean size of open-space defects was decreased and the size distribution of such defects was broadened. (Author)
Zheng, Fan; Park, Byoung-Nam; Seo, Soonjoo; Evans, Paul G.; Himpsel, F. J.
Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is used to study the orientation of pentacene molecules within thin films on SiO 2 for thicknesses ranging from monolayers to the bulk (150 nm). The spectra exhibit a strong polarization dependence of the π * orbitals for all films, which indicates that the pentacene molecules are highly oriented. At all film thicknesses the orientation varies with the rate at which pentacene molecules are deposited, with faster rates favoring a thin film phase with different tilt angles and slower rates leading to a more bulklike orientation. Our NEXAFS results extend previous structural observations to the monolayer regime and to lower deposition rates. The NEXAFS results match crystallographic data if a finite distribution of the molecular orientations is included. Damage to the molecules by hot electrons from soft x-ray irradiation eliminates the splitting between nonequivalent π * orbitals, indicating a breakup of the pentacene molecule
Full Text Available A method of producing large area continuous graphene directly on SiO2 by chemical vapor deposition is systematically developed. Cu thin film catalysts are sputtered onto the SiO2 and pre-patterned. During graphene deposition, high temperature induces evaporation and balling of the Cu, and the graphene “lands onto” SiO2. Due to the high heating and growth rate, continuous graphene is largely completed before the Cu evaporation and balling. 60 nm is identified as the optimal thickness of the Cu for a successful graphene growth and μm-large feature size in the graphene. An all-carbon device is demonstrated based on this technique.
Dong, Yibo; Xie, Yiyang; Xu, Chen; Li, Xuejian; Deng, Jun; Fan, Xing; Pan, Guanzhong; Wang, Qiuhua; Xiong, Fangzhu; Fu, Yafei; Sun, Jie
A method of producing large area continuous graphene directly on SiO2 by chemical vapor deposition is systematically developed. Cu thin film catalysts are sputtered onto the SiO2 and pre-patterned. During graphene deposition, high temperature induces evaporation and balling of the Cu, and the graphene "lands onto" SiO2. Due to the high heating and growth rate, continuous graphene is largely completed before the Cu evaporation and balling. 60 nm is identified as the optimal thickness of the Cu for a successful graphene growth and μm-large feature size in the graphene. An all-carbon device is demonstrated based on this technique.
Li, Ronghua; Boudot, Mickael; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David; Faustini, Marco
The appearance of structural colors on coated-glass is a critical esthetical drawback toward industrialization of photocatalytic coatings on windows for architecture or automobile. Herein we describe a rational approach to suppress the structural color of mesoporous TiO 2 -based coatings preserving photoactivity and mechanical stiffness. Addition of SiO 2 as third component is discussed. Ti x Si (1-x) O 2 mesoporous coatings were fabricated by one-step liquid deposition process through the evaporation induced self-assembling and characterized by GI-SAXS, GI-WAXS, electron microscopies, and in situ Environmental Ellipsometry Porosimetry. Guided by optical simulation, we investigated the critical role of SiO 2 on the optical responses of the films but also on the structural, mechanical, and photocatalytic properties, important requirements to go toward real applications. We demonstrate that adding SiO 2 to porous TiO 2 allows tuning and suppression of structural colors through refractive index matching and up to 160% increase in mechanical stiffening of the films. This study leads us to demonstrate an example of "invisible" coating, in which the light reflection is angle- and thickness-independent, and exhibiting high porosity, mechanical stiffness, and photoactivity.
Qourzal, S.; Barka, N.; Tamimi, M.; Assabbane, A.; Nounah, A.; Ihlal, A.; Ait-Ichou, Y.
Silica gel supported titanium dioxide particles (TiO 2 -SiO 2 ) prepared by sol-gel method was as photocatalyst in the degradation of β-naphthol in water under UV-illumination. The prepared sample has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The supported catalyst had large surface area and good sedimentation ability. The photodegradation rate of β-naphthol under UV-irradiation depended strongly on adsorption capacity of the catalyst, and the photoactivity of the supported catalyst was much higher than that of the pure titanium dioxides. The experiments were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The photodegradation rate of β-naphthol using 60% TiO 2 -SiO 2 particles was faster than that using TiO 2 'Degussa P-25', TiO 2 'PC-50' and TiO 2 'Aldrich' as photocatalyst by 2.7, 4 and 7.8 times, respectively. The kinetics of photocatalytic β-naphthol degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The effect of the TiO 2 loading on the photoactivity of TiO 2 -SiO 2 particles was also discussed. With good photocatalytic activity under UV-irradiation and the ability to be readily separated from the reaction system, this novel kind of catalyst exhibited the potential effective in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous systems.
Liu, H.; Liu, L. L.
The phase transition sequence of SiO2 inducing by high pressure was theoretically predicted as coordination number (CN=6) structures (rutile, pyrite), CN=8 (Pnma) and CN=9 (P-62m) structures, but only the phases up to pyrite structure in SiO2 were observed experimentally up to now. The CN8 phase and CN9 phases of SiO2 were predicted to be stable at least 650 GPa, which is challenging to achieve in the static DAC experiment at present. In other metal dioxide systems, such as TiO2, the ambient rutile and anatase phases first transform to pyrite (CN6), then to the baddeleyite (CN7) phase, to a Pnma (CN8) phase and P-62m(CN9) phase. In this report, under strong compression at room temperature, several metal dioxides were studied experimentally and theoretically, to verify whether this theoretical predicted trend is common transition path under strong compression. This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (11374075), Heilongjiang Province Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (JC201005), Longjiang Scholar, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (HIT. BRET1.2010002, HIT. IBRSEM.A.201403).
Bornacelli, J.; Esqueda, J.A.R.; Fernandez, L.R.; Oliver, A.
We studied the photoluminescence (PL) of Si nano crystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiO 2 obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy. The Si-NCs are formed at high depth (1-2 μm) inside the SiO 2 achieving a robust and better protected system. After metal ion implantation (Ag or Au), and a subsequent thermal annealing at 600°C under hydrogen-containing atmosphere, the PL signal exhibits a noticeable increase. The ion metal implantation was done at energies such that its distribution inside the silica does not overlap with the previously implanted Si ion . Under proper annealing Ag or Au nanoparticles (NPs) could be nucleated, and the PL signal from Si-NCs could increase due to plasmonic interactions. However, the ion-metal-implantation-induced damage can enhance the amount of hydrogen, or nitrogen, that diffuses into the SiO 2 matrix. As a result, the surface defects on Si-NCs can be better passivated, and consequently, the PL of the system is intensified. We have selected different atmospheres (air, H 2 /N 2 and Ar) to study the relevance of these annealing gases on the final PL from Si-NCs after metal ion implantation. Studies of PL and time-resolved PL indicate that passivation process of surface defects on Si-NCs is more effective when it is assisted by ion metal implantation.
Khan, Easir A.
SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin polycrystalline silicalite-1 shell which was synthesized via a self-assembly of silicalite-1 nanocrystals on core silica surface followed by a secondary seeded growth method. The core materials, SiO2 used in this study has mesoporosity with an average pore diameter of 60Å and hence offers no shape selectivity for xylene isomers. However, the shell, silicalite-1 contains rigid pore structures and preferentially adsorbs p-xylene from their isomers mixtures. A series of adsorption fixed bed breakthrough adsorption/desorption experiment was performed to obtain the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption isotherm parameters of xylene isomers. The equilibrium isotherms of xylene isomers follow the Langmuir\\'s model. A chromatographic adsorption model has been used to describe the fixed-bed breakthrough profiles of xylene isomers. The model has successfully predicted the responses of the binary mixtures of p/o-xylene isomers. The SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell adsorbents have shown para-selectivity as high as 15. © Bangladesh Uni. of Engg. & Tech.
Zhou, Yingying; Xie, Hui; Zhou, Wancheng; Ren, Zhaowen
SiO2 was successfully coated on the surface of flaky carbonyl iron particles using a chemical bath deposition method in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). The morphologies, composition, valence states of elements, as well as antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TG) and microwave network analyzer. TG curve shows the obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred to 360 °C after SiO2-coated, which can be ascribed to the exits of SiO2 overlayer. Compared with the raw carbonyl iron, SiO2-coated sample shows good wave absorption performance due to its impedance matching. The electromagnetic properties of raw and SiO2-coated carbonyl iron particles were characterized in X band before and after heat treatment at 250 °C for 10 h. It was established that SiO2-coated carbonyl iron demonstrate good thermal stability, indicating SiO2-coating is useful in the usage of microwave absorbers operating at temperature up to 250 °C.
Full Text Available The SiO2/PSN core-shell microspheres were prepared via an emulsion reaction combined with the polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs method using polysilazane (PSN in situ polymerization on the surface of SiO2 modified by silane coupling agents MPS, followed by pyrolysis process to obtain SiO2/SiCN core-shell ceramic microspheres. The effects of raw mass ratio, curing time and pyrolysis temperature on the formation and the morphology of core-shell microspheres were studied. The morphology, chemical composition and phase transformation were characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR and XRD. The results show that after reaction for 4h at 200℃, SiO2 completely coated PSN forms a core-shell microsphere with rough surface when the mass ratio of SiO2 and PSN is 1:4; when pyrolysis temperature is at 800-1200℃, amorphous SiO2/SiCN core-shell ceramic microspheres are prepared; at 1400℃, the amorphous phase partially crystallizes to produce SiO2, SiC and Si3N4 phase.
Raut, A. P.; Deshpande, V. K.
The physical properties like density, glass transition temperature (Tg), and ionic conductivity of lithium borate (LB) glasses with SiO2 addition were measured before and after gamma irradiation. Remarkable changes in properties have been obtained in the physical properties of LB glasses with SiO2 addition and after gamma irradiation. The increase in density and glass transition temperature of LB glasses with SiO2 addition has been explained with the help of increase in density of cross linking due to SiO4 tetrahedra formation. The increase in ionic conductivity with SiO2 addition was explained with the help of ‘mixed glass former effect’. The increase in density and Tg of LB glasses with SiO2 addition after gamma irradiation has been attributed to fragmentation of bigger ring structure into smaller rings, which increases the density of cross linking and hence compaction. The exposure of gamma irradiation has lead to decrease in ionic conductivity of LB glasses with SiO2 addition. The atomic displacement caused by gamma irradiation resulted in filling of interstices and decrease in trapping sites. This explains the obtained decrease in ionic conductivity after gamma irradiation of glasses. The obtained results of effect of SiO2 addition and gamma irradiation on the density, Tg and ionic conductivity has been supported by FTIR results.
Takeuchi, Wakana; Washizu, Tomoya; Ike, Shinichi; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki
We have investigated the selective growth of a Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on a line/space-patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We examined the behavior of a Sn precursor of tributyl(vinyl)tin (TBVSn) during the growth on Si and SiO2 substrates and investigated the effect of the Sn precursor on the selective growth. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer was performed under various total pressures and growth temperatures of 300 and 350 °C. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on the patterned Si region is achieved at a low total pressure without Ge1- x Sn x growth on the SiO2 region. In addition, we found that the Sn content in the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer increases with width of the SiO2 region for a fixed Si width even with low total pressure. To control the Sn content in the selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer, it is important to suppress the decomposition and migration of Sn and Ge precursors.
Fu Zhiqiang; Jean-Charles, R.
The stability behaviours of SiC coatings and SiO 2 /SiC coatings in helium with little impurities are studied by HSC Chemistry 4.1, the software for analysis of Chemical reaction and equilibrium in multi-component complex system. It is found that in helium with a low partial pressure of oxidative impurities under different total pressure, the key influence factor controlling T cp of SiC depends is the partial pressure of oxidative impurities; T cp of SiC increases with the partial pressure of oxidative impurities. In helium with a low partial pressure of different impurities, the key influence factor of T cs of SiO 2 are both the partial pressure of impurities and the amount of impurities for l mol SiO 2 ; T cs of SiO 2 increases with the partial pressure of oxidative impurities at the same amount of the impurities for 1 mol SiO 2 while it decreases with the amount of the impurities for 1 mm SiO 2 at the same partial pressure of the impurities. The influence of other impurities on T cp of SiC in He-O 2 is studied and it is found that CO 2 , H 2 O and N-2 increase T cp of SiC in He-O 2 while H 2 , CO and CH 4 decrease T cp of SiC He-O 2 . When there exist both oxidative impurities and reductive impurities, their effect on T cs of SiO 2 can be suppressed by the other. In HTR-10 operation atmosphere, SiO 2 /SiC coatings can keep stable status at higher temperature than SiC coatings, so SiO 2 /SiC coatings is more suitable to improve the oxidation resistance of graphite in HTR-10 operation atmosphere compared with SiC coatings. (authors)
Saravanapavan, Priya; Jones, Julian R; Pryce, Russell S; Hench, Larry L
Bioactive glasses react chemically with body fluids in a manner that is compatible with the repair processes of the tissues. This results in the formation of an interfacial bond between the glasses and living tissue. Bioactive glasses also stimulate bone-cell proliferation. This behavior is dependent on the chemical composition as well as the surface texture of the glasses. It has been recently reported that gel-derived monolith specimens in the binary SiO2 - CaO are bioactive over a similar molar range of SiO2 content as the previously studied ternary CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system. In this report, the preparation and bioactivity of the binary gel-glass powder with 70 mol % SiO2 is discussed and its bioactivity is compared with the melt-derived 45S5 (quaternary) Bioglass and sol-gel-derived 58S (ternary) bioactive gel-glass compositions. Dissolution kinetic parameters K(1) and K(2) were also computed based on the silicon release for all glass powders. It was shown that the simple two-component SiO2-CaO gel-glass powder is bioactive with comparable dissolution rates as the clinically used melt-derived 45S5 Bioglass powder and extensively studied sol-gel-derived 58S gel-glass powder. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pankratov, V.; Osinniy, Viktor; Kotlov, A.
done. It is demonstrated that the experimentally determined blueshift of the photoluminescence excitation and absorption spectra is larger than the theoretical predictions. The influence of point defects in the SiO2 matrix on the optical and luminescence properties of the embedded Si nanocrystals...... is discussed. Moreover, it is demonstrated that no energy transfer takes place between the SiO2 and Si nanocrystals when the excitation energy is higher than the band-to-band transition energy in SiO2....
Full Text Available Chongwen Wang,1,2,* Kehan Zhang,2,* Zhe Zhou,2,* Qingjun Li,2 Liting Shao,2 Rong Zhang Hao,3 Rui Xiao,2 Shengqi Wang1,2 1College of Life Sciences & Bio-Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of New Molecular Diagnosis Technologies for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 3Institute for Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nanomaterials combined with antibiotics exhibit synergistic effects and have gained increasing interest as promising antimicrobial agents. In this study, vancomycin-modified magnetic-based silver microflowers (Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers were rationally designed and prepared to achieve strong bactericidal ability, a wide antimicrobial spectrum, and good recyclability. High-performance Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers served as a multifunction-supporting matrix and exhibited sufficient magnetic response property due to their 200 nm Fe3O4 core. The microflowers also possessed a highly branched flower-like Ag shell that provided a large surface area for effective Ag ion release and bacterial contact. The modified-vancomycin layer was effectively bound to the cell wall of bacteria to increase the permeability of the cell membrane and facilitate the entry of the Ag ions into the bacterium, resulting in cell death. As such, the fabricated Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers were predicted to be an effective and environment-friendly antibacterial agent. This hypothesis was verified through sterilization of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 10 and 20 µg mL-1, respectively. The microflowers also showed enhanced effect compared with bare Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers and free-form vancomycin, confirming the synergistic effects of the combination of the
Nazari, Ali; Riahi, Shadi
Research highlights: → Nanoparticles in concrete. → Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. → Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO 2 nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO 2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO 2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO 2 nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH) 2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO 2 nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete
Tracing high-pressure metamorphism in marbles: Phase relations in high-grade aluminous calcite-dolomite marbles from the Greek Rhodope massif in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 and indications of prior aragonite
Proyer, A.; Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Hoinkes, G.
Four different types of parageneses of the minerals calcite, dolomite, diopside, forsterite, spinel, amphibole (pargasite), (Ti-)clinohumite and phlogopite were observed in calcite-dolomite marbles collected in the Kimi-Complex of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (RMP). The presence of former aragonite can be inferred from carbonate inclusions, which, in combination with an analysis of phase relations in the simplified system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 (CMAS-CO 2) show that the mineral assemblages preserved in these marbles most likely equilibrated at the aragonite-calcite transition, slightly below the coesite stability field, at ca. 720 °C, 25 kbar and aCO 2 ~ 0.01. The thermodynamic model predicts that no matter what activity of CO 2, garnet has to be present in aluminous calcite-dolomite-marble at UHP conditions.
Li, Chen; Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A.
Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO_2 ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar"+ ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO_2 from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si_3N_4 and SiO_2 layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si_3N_4 etching and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4 were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si_3N_4 were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si_3N_4 has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO_2, Si_3N_4 physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si_3N_4 to SiO_2 ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO_2 to Si_3N_4 etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si_3N_4 surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si_3N_4 as compared to SiO_2. The comparison of C_4F_8 and CHF_3 only showed a difference in etching selectivity for FC depleted conditions. For FC accumulation conditions
Ma, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaohua; Ge, Hongguang; Tian, Guanghui; Zhang, Qiang
Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres (SiO2@TiO2-Ag) with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity were successfully fabricated by combining both coating anatase TiO2 on the surface of SiO2 spheres and subsequent depositing face-centered cubic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the coated TiO2 surface via novel sol-gel method and Ag-seed-mediated photodeposition (PD) route, respectively. The morphology, structure, composition and optical properties of the resulting composites were characterized in detail. The results reveal that the monodisperse SiO2 spheres of ∼260 nm were covered uniformly and perfectly by the TiO2 nanoparticle coating layer with the thickness of ca. 55 nm by the novel sol-gel method. Further, homogeneously and highly dispersed Ag NPs with an average size of 8 ± 1.5 nm were strongly anchored onto the TiO2 surface in SiO2@TiO2 core-shell spheres by the modified PD process (Ag-seed-mediated PD route), whereas polydispersed Ag aggregates and detached Ag NPs were irregularly deposited over the TiO2 surface in previous works, which is the inherent problem and has not been effectively solved for depositing noble metal NPs such as Au, Ag, Pt, Pd on TiO2 surface by conventional PD method. The formation mechanism of small and uniformly dispersed Ag NPs with narrow size distribution via the modified PD method is tentatively explained by both nucleation kinetics and growth kinetics. The key reason is that the pre-deposited seeds firmly tethered on SiO2@TiO2 spheres served as nucleation sites and anchoring points for the further nucleation and subsequent growth of Ag via photoreduction of Ag+.
Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M. G.
We report a solid-state synthesis for SiO 2 nanowires (NWs) (up to 20 microns in length and from about 40 to about 150 nm in diameter) coated by Au nanoparticles (NPs) (from about 20 to about 80 nm in diameter). This protocol is based on three steps: (1) large area production of very long SiO 2 NWs on a Si surface exploiting a simple Au/Si solid-state reaction at high temperature; (2) coating of the SiO 2 NWs by a Au film of desired thickness using sputtering depositions; and (3) a thermal process to induce a dewetting process of the Au-film coating the SiO 2 NWs to obtain Au NPs on the curved surface of the NWs. The morphology evolution of the SiO 2 NWs was followed, in each step, by scanning electron microscopy analyses. They allowed to correlate the evolution of the NPs size with the NWs sizes for different thicknesses of the starting Au-film coating the NWs and different annealing temperatures of the dewetting process. Some theoretical concepts, related to the dewetting process of a film on a curved surface were used to describe the experimental data. The main advantages of the proposed protocols include: (i) simplicity and low-cost (it is based only on sputtering depositions and thermal processes), and (ii) versatility based on the possibility of tuning Au-film thickness and annealing temperature to tune the NPs–NWs sizes ratio. These advantages can make this technique suitable for the mass production of Au NPs-coated SiO 2 NWs toward applications in electronic devices, biosensors, and nanoscale optical devices
Sirohi, Sidhharth; Singh, Anandpreet; Dagar, Chakit; Saini, Gajender; Pani, Balaram; Nain, Ratyakshi
In this article, we present a novel fabrication of microporous SiO2/triangular Ag nanoparticles for dye (methylene blue) adsorption and plasmon-mediated degradation. Microporous SiO2 nanoparticles with pore size aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane) to introduce amine groups. Amine-functionalized microporous silica was used for adsorption of triangular silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The synthesized microporous SiO2 nanostructures were investigated for adsorption of different dyes including methylene blue, congo red, direct green 26 and curcumin crystalline. Amine-functionalized microporous SiO2/triangular Ag nanostructures were used for plasmon-mediated photocatalysis of methylene blue. The experimental results revealed that the large surface area of microporous silica facilitated adsorption of dye. Triangular Ag nanoparticles, due to their better charge carrier generation and enhanced surface plasmon resonance, further enhanced the photocatalysis performance.
Ajioka, T.; Ushio, S.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to characterize the damage introduced into SiO 2 by ion implantation. By measuring the peak width of Si/sub 2p/ from SiO 2 which corresponds to perturbation of the SiO 2 network, good depth profiles of the damage have been obtained for implanted samples and subsequently annealed samples. The results show that the damage distributed more widely than that calculated from energy deposition and that the perturbation of the network is caused not only by radiation damage but also by the existence of impurities in the network. It has been found that the XPS method is effective to understand the atomic structure, and thus, electrical properties of SiO 2
Lee, S.Y.; Nandakumar, V.; Murdock, B.; Hebert, D.
PECVD SiO 2 dielectric has been evaluated as an insulator for a Nb-based, all-refractory Josephson integrated circuit process. First, the properties of PECVD SiO 2 films were measured and compared with those of evaporated SiO films. Second, the PECVD SiO 2 dielectric film was used in our Nb-based Josephson integrated circuit process. The main problem was found to be the deterioration of the critical temperature of the superconducting niobium adjacent to the SiO 2 . The cause and a solution of the problem were investigated. Finally, a Josephson integrated sampler circuit was fabricated and tested. This paper shows acceptable junction I-V characteristics and a measured time resolution of a 4.9 ps pulse in liquid helium
Villa S, G.; Mendoza A, D.; Gutierrez W, C.; Perez H, R.
This paper reports a method to synthesize Ag unidirectional structures covered with SiO 2 by sol-gel technique using Au nanoparticles as nucleation centers of the unidirectional structures. In the first phase unidirectional structures of SiO 2 -Ag CI are obtained by sol-gel, using TEOS as a precursor of metallic structures (Ag) and the incorporation of Au nanoparticles as nucleation centers for growth of unidirectional structures. In the second stage, one-way systems are subjected to thermal treatment in H 2 atmosphere for obtain AG 0 particles through mechanisms that diffusion and coalescence of silver to form structures that have a thin cover of SiO 2 . Analysis by scanning electron microscopy, transmission and atomic force microscopy allowed to determine the chemical composition and microstructural properties of unidirectional systems SiO 2 -Ag. (Author)
Akilu, S.; Baheta, A. T.; Sharma, K. V.; Said, M. A.
Nanostructured ceramic materials have recently attracted attention as promising heat transfer fluid additives owing to their outstanding heat storage capacities. In this paper, experimental measurements of the specific heats of SiO2-Glycerol, SiO2-Ethylene Glycol, and SiO2-Glycerol/Ethylene Glycol mixture 60:40 ratio (by mass) nanofluids with different volume concentrations of 1.0-4.0% have been carried out using differential scanning calorimeter at temperatures of 25 °C and 50 °C. Experimental results indicate lower specific heat capacities are found with SiO2 nanofluids compared to their respective base fluids. The specific heat was decreasing with the increase of concentration, and this decrement depends on upon the type of the base fluid. It is observed that temperature has a positive impact on the specific heat capacity. Furthermore, the experimental values were compared with the theoretical model predictions, and a satisfactory agreement was established.
Munirasu, Selvaraj; Nunes, Suzana Pereira
of functionalized nanoparticles in different solvents and immersion in water. The resulting asymmetrically porous morphology and nanoparticle assembly was characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The PMMA functionalized SiO2 hybrid material
Full Text Available Kyu Hwan Shim,1 John Hulme,1 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Seong Soo A An1 1Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnam-si, 2Department of Analysis, KTR, Kimpo, Gyeonggi-do, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: A multitude of nanoparticles, such as titanium oxide (TiO2, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, gold oxide, silver oxide, iron oxide, and silica oxide, are found in many chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and electronic products. Recently, SiO2 nanoparticles were shown to have an inert toxicity profile and no association with an irreversible toxicological change in animal models. Hence, exposure to SiO2 nanoparticles is on the increase. SiO2 nanoparticles are routinely used in numerous materials, from strengthening filler for concrete and other construction composites, to nontoxic platforms for biomedical application, such as drug delivery and theragnostics. On the other hand, recent in vitro experiments indicated that SiO2 nanoparticles were cytotoxic. Therefore, we investigated these nanoparticles to identify potentially toxic pathways by analyzing the adsorbed protein corona on the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles in the blood and brain of the rat. Four types of SiO2 nanoparticles were chosen for investigation, and the protein corona of each type was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology. In total, 115 and 48 plasma proteins from the rat were identified as being bound to negatively charged 20 nm and 100 nm SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively, and 50 and 36 proteins were found for 20 nm and 100 nm arginine-coated SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. Higher numbers of proteins were adsorbed onto the 20 nm sized SiO2 nanoparticles than onto the 100 nm sized nanoparticles regardless of charge. When proteins were compared between the two charges, higher numbers of proteins were found for arginine-coated positively charged SiO2 nanoparticles than for the negatively charged nanoparticles. The proteins identified as bound in the corona from SiO2 nanoparticles were further analyzed with ClueGO, a Cytoscape plugin used in protein ontology and for identifying biological interaction pathways. Proteins bound on the surface of nanoparticles may affect functional and conformational properties and distributions in complicated biological processes. Keywords: silica, nanoparticles, protein corona, plasma, brain homogenate, nanotoxicity
Tamilselvi, M.; Kamaraj, P.; Arthanareeswari, M.; Devikala, S.; Selvi, J. Arockia
Highlights: • Nano SiO 2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coating on mild steel was developed. • Coatings showed enhanced corrosion resistance. • The nano SiO 2 is adsorbed on mild steel surface and become nucleation sites. • The nano SiO 2 accelerates the phosphating process. - Abstract: This paper reports the development of nano SiO 2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel at low temperature for achieving better corrosion protection. A new formulation of phosphating bath at low temperature with nano SiO 2 was attempted to explore the possibilities of development of nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel with improved corrosion resistance. The coatings developed were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electrochemical measurements. Significant variation in the coating weight, morphology and corrosion resistance was observed as nano SiO 2 concentrations varied from 0.5–4 g/L. The results showed that, the nano SiO 2 in the phosphating solution changed the initial potential of the interface between mild steel substrate and phosphating solution and reduce the activation energy of the phosphating process, increase the nucleation sites and yielded zinc phosphate coatings of higher coating weight, greater surface coverage and enhanced corrosion resistance. Better corrosion resistance was observed for coatings derived from phosphating bath containing 1.5 g/L nano SiO 2 . The new formulation reported in the present study was free from Ni or Mn salts and had very low concentration of sodium nitrite (0.4 g/L) as accelerator
Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 has been found to be an extremely efficient catalyst for the preparation of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones/thiones via three-component reactions of an aldehyde, β-ketoester or β-diketone and urea or thiourea under mild conditions. Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as a solid Lewis acid has been synthesized by reaction of ...
Ohta, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Takanobu; Ohdomari, Iwao
Potential energy distribution of interstitial O2 molecule in the vicinity of SiO2/Si(001) interface is investigated by means of classical molecular simulation. A 4-nm-thick SiO2 film model is built by oxidizing a Si(001) substrate, and the potential energy of an O2 molecule is calculated at Cartesian grid points with an interval of 0.05 nm in the SiO2 film region. The result shows that the potential energy of the interstitial site gradually rises with approaching the interface. The potential gradient is localized in the region within about 1 nm from the interface, which coincides with the experimental thickness of the interfacial strained layer. The potential energy is increased by about 0.62 eV at the SiO2/Si interface. The result agrees with a recently proposed kinetic model for dry oxidation of silicon [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 196102 (2006)], which argues that the oxidation rate is fully limited by the oxidant diffusion.
Full Text Available Use of silicon dioxide (SiO2 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 have been widely investigated individually in coatings technology, but their combined properties promote compatibility for different innovative applications. For example, the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 coatings, when exposed to UV light, have interesting environmental applications, such as air purification, self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. However, as reported in different pilot projects, serious durability problems, associated with the adhesion between the substrate and TiO2, have been evidenced. Thus, the aim of this work is to synthesize SiO2 together with TiO2 to increase the durability of the photocatalytic coating without affecting its photocatalytic potential. Therefore, synthesis using sonochemistry, synthesis without sonochemistry, physical characterization, photocatalytic evaluation, and durability of the SiO2, SiO2@TiO2 and TiO2 coatings are presented. Results indicate that using SiO2 improved the durability of the TiO2 coating without affecting its photocatalytic properties. Thus, this novel SiO2@TiO2 coating shows potential for developing long-lasting, self-cleaning and air-purifying construction materials.
Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Uedono, A.; Kobayashi, Y.
Positron and positronium (Ps) behavior in SiO 2-Si have been studied by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and age-momentum correlation (AMOC) spectroscopy with a pulsed slow positron beam. The PALS study of SiO 2-Si samples, which were prepared by a dry-oxygen thermal process, revealed that the positrons implanted in the Si substrate and diffused back to the interface do not contribute to the ortho-Ps long-lived component, and the lifetime spectrum of the interface has at least two components. From the AMOC study, the momentum distribution of the ortho-Ps pick-off annihilation in SiO 2, which shows broader momentum distribution than that of crystalline Si, was found to be almost the same as that of free positron annihilation in SiO 2. A varied interface model was proposed to interpret the results of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) experiments. The narrow momentum distribution found in the n-type MOS with a negative gate bias voltage could be attributed to Ps formation and rapid spin exchange in the SiO 2-Si interface. We have developed a two-dimensional positron lifetime technique, which measures annihilation time and pulse height of the scintillation gamma-ray detector for each event. Using this technique, the positronium behavior in a porous SiO 2 film, grown by a sputtering method, has been studied.
Zhu Tong; Du Chunyu; Liu Chuntao; Yin Geping; Shi Pengfei
This paper describes the preparation of SiO 2 stabilized Pt/C catalyst (SiO 2 /Pt/C) by the hydrolysis of alkoxysilane, and examines the possibility that the SiO 2 /Pt/C is used as a durable cathode catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). TEM and XRD results revealed that the hydrolysis of alkoxysilane did not significantly change the morphology and crystalline structure of Pt particles. The SiO 2 /Pt/C catalyst exhibited higher durability than the Pt/C one, due to the facts that the silica layers covered were beneficial for reducing the Pt aggregation and dissolution as well as increasing the corrosion resistance of supports, although the benefit of silica covering was lower than the case of Pt/CNT catalyst. Also, it was observed that the activity of the SiO 2 /Pt/C catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction was somewhat reduced compared to the Pt/C one after the silica covering. This reduction was partially due to the low oxygen kinetics as revealed by the rotating-disk-electrode measurement. Silica covering by hydrolysis of only 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane is able to achieve a good balance between the durability and activity, leading to SiO 2 /Pt/C as a promising cathode catalyst for PEMFCs.
Hao, Chunjing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zailei; Ji, Yongjun; Zhan, Hanhui; Xiao, Fangxing; Wang, Dan; Liu, Bin; Su, Fabing
Highlights: • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared via a facile co-precipitation method. • Introduction of SiO 2 support increases the dispersion of CeO 2 -TiO 2 . • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for phenol degradation. • Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ pair coexisting in CeO 2 improves electron–hole pairs separation efficiency. - Abstract: A series of CeO 2 -TiO 2 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared with TiCl 4 and Ce (NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursors via a facile co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (N 2 -BET), Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis spectroscopy measurements. The results indicated that TiO 2 doped with CeO 2 and supported on SiO 2 could reduce the crystallite size, inhibit the phase transformation, enhance the thermal stability, and effectively extend the spectral response from UV to visible range. When applied to the phenol photodegradation on a homemade batch reactor with an external cooling jacket, the CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photodegradation efficiency in comparison with commercial Degussa P25 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 . The unique catalytic properties of CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 were ascribed to improved electron–hole pairs separation efficiency and formation of more reactive oxygen species owing to the presence of Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ , as well as high dispersion of active component of CeO 2 -TiO 2 as a result of the introduction of SiO 2 support. Furthermore, the catalysts can be easily recovered from the reaction solution by centrifugation and reused for four cycles without significant loss of activity
Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz
Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.
Lancry, M; Douay, M; Niay, P; Beclin, F; Menke, Y; Milanese, D; Ferraris, M; Poumellec, B
The diffraction efficiency of gratings written in ternary SnO2:SiO2:Na2O bulk glasses rises dramatically with time after the occultation of the cw 244nm light used to write the thick hologram. This self-induced behavior lasts for several hours and ultimately leads to refractive index changes as high as 3 10-3.
Full Text Available SiO2:Pr3+–Ce3+ phosphor powders were successfully prepared using a sol–gel process. The concentration of Pr3+ was fixed at 0.2 mol% while that of Ce3+ was varied in the range of 0.2–2 mol%. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM...
Lancok, A.; Zaveta, K.; Savii, C.; Barcova, K.
Fe 2 O 3 /SiO 2 magnetic nanocomposites rich in Fe 2 O 3 have been obtained by annealing at 1000 grad C the xerogel samples, prepared under various conditions. The target concentrations of iron oxide in inert matrix were 20% and 30%. As mesoporous matrices both silica and polyvinyl alcohol - silica hybrid ones were used. The xerogel nanocomposite samples were obtained in situ and by impregnation under ultrasonic activation. All obtained samples were annealed under moderate oxidation conditions (air) and inert atmosphere such as vacuum or nitrogen. Moessbauer spectra were obtained using a conventional Moessbauer spectrometer with a 57 Co/Rh source and constant acceleration. Velocity calibration was done using α-iron, and the Moessbauer parameters are given relative to this standard at room temperature. The Moessbauer spectra contained the sextets of ε-Fe 2 O 3 , hematite, and superparamagnetic component. The content of various phases in the samples depends on the conditions of preparation. In one of the samples also magnetite was present. The ranges of the ε-Fe 2 O 3 area of the samples are 39-76%. The hematite phase is only residual, after transformation due to heat treatment. (authors)
The synthesis of aminomethylphosphine-metal complexes have opened a new perspective to the catalytic applications of organic compounds. Magnetic Fe3O4 nano-core was synthesized using the closed quartz tube with Teflon cover and microwaved 200°C for 1h with power controlled instrument set to max. 600W. Novel nano-composite supported; Fe3O4@SiO2(CH2)3NHArN(CH2PPh2)2 and Fe3O4@SiO2(CH2)3N(CH2PPh2)2 type bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)amino ligands and their Pd(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized with FT-IR, SEM, EDX, TEM, UV-Visible, XRD and TG/DTA techniques. All the complexes were used as heterogeneous catalysts in the oxidation of 2-methyl naphthalene (2MN) to 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3, menadione, 2MNQ) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. Selectivity reached about 55-60% with a conversion of 90-96% using the nano-magnetite supported aminomethylphosphine-Pd(II) complexes. The complexes were very active in three times in the catalytic recycling experiments in five catalytic cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balvay, A; Bencsik, A; Thieriet, N; Lakhdar, L
Titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 and SiO 2 NPs) are now in daily use in many commercial products of which food, sunscreens, toothpastes or cosmetics. However, their effects on human body, especially on the central nervous system, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether direct exposition of the brain to TiO 2 and SiO 2 NPs results in alternations in nervous system function. C57Bl6 mice were exposed to 5 and 10 μg doses of TiO 2 and SiO 2 NPs through intracerebroventricular administration using a stereotaxic approach. Then the neurologic effects were investigated using motor performance parameters, measured on a rotarod at 20 rpm or at an accelerating rod (from 4 to 40 rpm). Before and after injection, motor activity is registered individually for each mouse exposed, once a week, for 8 weeks. Besides, a group of 3 mice is culled at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after exposure in order to study the time dependant effect on the histopathology of the brain (gliosis, inflammatory process...). Both rotarod tests (accelerating and at 20 rpm) showed that TiO 2 and SiO 2 NPs exposure could significantly impair the motor performances, even several weeks after initial acute exposure. The first examination of the brain histopathology revealed microglial activation. As it appeared to grow throughout the brain in a time dependant manner this suggests the induction of a long lasting neuroinflammation. These primary findings indicated that exposure to TiO 2 and SiO 2 NPs could possibly impair the locomotor ability and this deficit may be possibly attributed at least to an inflammatory process maintained till 8 weeks after exposure in the mouse brain. To fully investigate the neurotoxicological consequences of TiO 2 and SiO 2 NPs exposure, brain contents in these NPs will be also investigated as well as other alterations like neurotransmitter levels. These preliminary data already underline the necessity of more in vivo studies to better
Balvay, A.; Thieriet, N.; Lakhdar, L.; Bencsik, A.
Titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 and SiO2 NPs) are now in daily use in many commercial products of which food, sunscreens, toothpastes or cosmetics. However, their effects on human body, especially on the central nervous system, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether direct exposition of the brain to TiO2 and SiO2 NPs results in alternations in nervous system function. C57Bl6 mice were exposed to 5 and 10 μg doses of TiO2 and SiO2 NPs through intracerebroventricular administration using a stereotaxic approach. Then the neurologic effects were investigated using motor performance parameters, measured on a rotarod at 20 rpm or at an accelerating rod (from 4 to 40 rpm). Before and after injection, motor activity is registered individually for each mouse exposed, once a week, for 8 weeks. Besides, a group of 3 mice is culled at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after exposure in order to study the time dependant effect on the histopathology of the brain (gliosis, inflammatory process...). Both rotarod tests (accelerating and at 20 rpm) showed that TiO2 and SiO2 NPs exposure could significantly impair the motor performances, even several weeks after initial acute exposure. The first examination of the brain histopathology revealed microglial activation. As it appeared to grow throughout the brain in a time dependant manner this suggests the induction of a long lasting neuroinflammation. These primary findings indicated that exposure to TiO2 and SiO2 NPs could possibly impair the locomotor ability and this deficit may be possibly attributed at least to an inflammatory process maintained till 8 weeks after exposure in the mouse brain. To fully investigate the neurotoxicological consequences of TiO2 and SiO2 NPs exposure, brain contents in these NPs will be also investigated as well as other alterations like neurotransmitter levels. These preliminary data already underline the necessity of more in vivo studies to better characterize TiO2
Johannes, Daniel; Webber, Robert
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR) are operated in space to cool detectors of cosmic radiation to a few 10s of mK. A key element of the ADR is a superconducting magnet operating at about 0.3 K that is continually energized and de-energized in synchronism with a thermal switch, such that a piece of paramagnetic salt is alternately warm in a high magnetic field and cold in zero magnetic field. This causes the salt pill or refrigerant to cool, and it is able to suck heat from an object, e.g., the sensor, to be cooled. Current has to be fed into and out of the magnets from a dissipative power supply at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft. The current leads that link the magnets to the power supply inevitably conduct a significant amount of heat into the colder regions of the supporting cryostat, resulting in the need for larger, heavier, and more powerful supporting refrigerators. The aim of this project was to design and construct high-temperature superconductor (HTS) leads from YBCO (yttrium barium copper oxide) composite conductors to reduce the heat load significantly in the temperature regime below the critical temperature of YBCO. The magnet lead does not have to support current in the event that the YBCO ceases to be superconducting. Cus - tomarily, a normal metal conductor in parallel with the YBCO is a necessary part of the lead structure to allow for this upset condition; however, for this application, the normal metal can be dispensed with. Amorphous silicon dioxide is deposited directly onto the surface of YBCO, which resides on a flexible substrate. The silicon dioxide protects the YBCO from chemically reacting with atmospheric water and carbon dioxide, thus preserving the superconducting properties of the YBCO. The customary protective coating for flexible YBCO conductors is silver or a silver/gold alloy, which conducts heat many orders of magnitude better than SiO2 and so limits the use of such a composite conductor for passing current
A tunable graphene doping method utilizing a SiO2/Si substrate with nanopores (NP) was introduced. Laser interference lithography (LIL) using a He–Cd laser (λ = 325 nm) was used to prepare pore size- and pitch-controllable NP SiO2/Si substrates. Then, bottom-contact graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) were fabricated on the NP SiO2/Si substrate to measure the transfer curves. The graphene transferred onto the NP SiO2/Si substrate showed relatively n-doped behavior compared to the graphene transferred onto a flat SiO2/Si substrate, as evidenced by the blue-shift of the 2D peak position (∼2700 cm−1) in the Raman spectra due to contact doping. As the porosity increased within the substrate, the Dirac voltage shifted to a more positive or negative value, depending on the initial doping type (p- or n-type, respectively) of the contact doping. The Dirac voltage shifts with porosity were ascribed mainly to the compensation for the reduced capacitance owing to the SiO2–air hetero-structured dielectric layer within the periodically aligned nanopores capped by the suspended graphene (electrostatic doping). The hysteresis (Dirac voltage difference during the forward and backward scans) was reduced when utilizing an NP SiO2/Si substrate with smaller pores and/or a low porosity because fewer H2O or O2 molecules could be trapped inside the smaller pores.
Lin, Jyun-Hao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Huang, Kai-Wen
Highlights: • Concave nano-patterned sapphire substrates with SiO 2 blocking layer. • The IQE is almost two times larger than that of conventional one. • The EQE was extremely enhanced more than 100%. - Abstract: In contrast to convex nano-pattern sapphire substrates (NPSS), which are frequently used to fabricate high-quality nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), concave NPSS have been paid relatively less attention. In this study, a concave NPSS was fabricated, and its nitride epitaxial growth process was evaluated in a step by step manner. A SiO 2 layer was used to avoid nucleation over the sidewall and bottom of the nano-patterns to reduce dislocation reformation. Traditional LED structures were grown on the NPSS layer to determine its influence on device performance. X-ray diffraction, etched pit density, inverse leakage current, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) results showed that dislocations and non-radiative recombination centers are reduced by the NPSS constructed with a SiO 2 blocking layer. An IQE twice that on a planar substrate was also achieved; such a high IQE significantly enhanced the external quantum efficiency of the resultant device. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the SiO 2 blocking layer proposed in this work can enhance the performance of LEDs.
Mohammad Ali Ghasemzadeh
Full Text Available In this research a highly efficient one-pot preparation of tricarboxamide derivatives via five-component reactions of isocyanides, aldehydes Meldrum's acid and 2equiv. of amines have been developed in the presence of Fe3O4@SiO2-OSO3H nanocomposite. Nano-Fe3O4 encapsulated-silica particles bearing sulfonic acid was readily recovered using an external magnet and could be reused several times without significant loss of reactivity. The catalyst was fully characterized by VSM, FT-IR, SEM, XRD, EDX and TEM analysis.
Huan, Qing; Hu, Hao; Pan, Li-Da; Xiao, Jiang; Du, Shi-Xuan; Gao, Hong-Jun
Deposition patterns of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on different surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. A homemade physical vapour deposition system allows the better control of molecule deposition. Taking advantage of this system, we investigate TCNQ thin film growth on both SiO2 and mica surfaces. It is found that dense island patterns form at a high deposition rate, and a unique seahorse-like pattern forms at a low deposition rate. Growth patterns on different substrates suggest that the fractal pattern formation is dominated by molecule-molecule interaction. Finally, a phenomenal “two-branch" model is proposed to simulate the growth process of the seahorse pattern.
Qing, Huan; Hao, Hu; Li-Da, Pan; Jiang, Xiao; Shi-Xuan, Du; Hong-Jun, Gao
Deposition patterns of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on different surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. A homemade physical vapour deposition system allows the better control of molecule deposition. Taking advantage of this system, we investigate TCNQ thin film growth on both SiO 2 and mica surfaces. It is found that dense island patterns form at a high deposition rate, and a unique seahorse-like pattern forms at a low deposition rate. Growth patterns on different substrates suggest that the fractal pattern formation is dominated by molecule–molecule interaction. Finally, a phenomenal “two-branch” model is proposed to simulate the growth process of the seahorse pattern. (general)
Hocevar, Moiera; Regreny, Philippe; Descamps, Armel; Albertini, David; Saint-Girons, Guillaume; Souifi, Abdelkader; Gendry, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles
We studied a memory structure based on InAs nanocrystals grown by molecular beam epitaxy directly on thermal SiO 2 on silicon. Both nanocrystal diameter and density can be controlled by growth parameters. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows high crystallinity and low size dispersion. In an electrical test structure with a 3.5 nm tunnel oxide, we observed that 80% of the initial injected electrons remain stored in the InAs nanocrystals after 3 months and that the retention time for electrons in InAs nanocrystals is four orders of magnitude higher than in silicon nanocrystals
TiO2/SiO2 prepared via facile sol-gel method as an ideal support for green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using Oenothera biennis extract and their excellent catalytic performance in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol
Full Text Available In the present study, the extract of the plant of Oenothera biennis was used to green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs as an environmentally friendly, simple and low cost method. And Additionally, TiO2/SiO2 was prepared via facile sol-gel method using starch as an important, naturally abundant organic polymer as an ideal support. The Ag NPs/TiO2/SiO2 as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Ag+ ions using Oenothera biennis extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent and Ag NPs immobilization on TiO2/SiO2 surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. Several techniques such as FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, sScanning eElectron mMicroscopy (FE-SEM, Eenergy dDispersive X-ray sSpectroscopy (EDS, and Ttransmission Eelectron Mmicroscopy (TEM were used to characterize TiO2/SiO2, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, and Ag NPs/TiO2/SiO2. Moreover, the catalytic activity of the Ag NPs/ TiO2/SiO2 was investigated in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP at room temperature. On the basis of the results, the Ag NPs/TiO2/SiO2 was found to be high catalytic activity highly active catalyst according to the experimental results in this study. In addition, Ag NPs/TiO2/SiO2 can be recovered and reused several times in the reduction of 4-NP with no significant loss of catalytic activity.
Mukherjee, Shyama P.; Sharma, Shiv K.
GeO2 gel and gels in the SiO2-GeO2 system synthesized by the hydrolytic polycondensation of metal alkoxides have been studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The molecular structures, hydroxyl contents, and crystallinity of gels and gel-glasses in relation to the thermal history and GeO2 concentration were investigated. The binary compositions having up to 70 mol percent GeO2 were examined.
Chao, Jie; Lv, Yan; Chen, Jin; Wang, Jing; Yao, Honghong
The inhalation of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) particles causes silicosis, a stubborn pulmonary disease that is characterized by alveolar inflammation during the early stage. Soluble cytokine receptors (SCRs) play important roles in regulating inflammation by either attenuating or promoting cytokine signaling. However, the role of SCRs in silicosis remains unknown. Luminex assays revealed increased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sVEGFR) family levels in the plasma of silicosis patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), cells from the differentiated human monocytic cell line U937 released sVEGFR family proteins after exposure to SiO 2 (50μg/cm 2 ). Further Western blot experiments revealed that VEGFR expression was also elevated in U937 cells. In contrast, levels of sVEGFR family members did not change in the supernatants of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after exposure to SiO 2 (50μg/cm 2 ). Interestingly, VEGFR expression in HUVECs decreased after SiO 2 treatment. In a scratch assay, HUVECs exhibited cell migration ability, indicating the acquisition of mesenchymal properties. Our findings highlight the important role of sVEGFRs in both inflammation and fibrosis induced by SiO 2 , suggesting a possible mechanism for the fibrogenic effects observed in pulmonary diseases associated with fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Takahashi, Kazunari; Wakamatsu, Yuji; Yaakob, Yazid; Araby, Mona Ibrahim; Kalita, Golap; Kitazawa, Masashi; Tanemura, Masaki
Low-temperature growth, as well as the transfer free growth on substrates, is the major concern of graphene research for its practical applications. Here we propose a simple method to achieve the transfer free graphene growth on SiO2 covered Si (SiO2/Si) substrate at 250 °C based on a solid-liquid-solid reaction. The key to this approach is the catalyst metal, which is not popular for graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition. A catalyst metal film of 500 nm thick was deposited onto an amorphous C (50 nm thick) coated SiO2/Si substrate. The sample was then annealed at 250 °C under vacuum condition. Raman spectra measured after the removal of the catalyst by chemical etching showed intense G and 2D peaks together with a small D and intense SiO2 related peaks, confirming the transfer free growth of multilayer graphene on SiO2/Si. The domain size of the graphene confirmed by optical microscope and atomic force microscope was about 5 μm in an average. Thus, this approach will open up a new route for transfer free graphene growth at low temperatures.
Full Text Available Thermodynamic properties of the liquid Bi2O3-SiO2 solutions were determined from the results of the electrochemical measurements by use of the solid oxide galvanic cells with YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia electrolyte. Activities of Bi2O3 in the solutions were determined for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 SiO2 mole fractions in the temperature range 1073-1293 K from measured electromotive force (e.m.f of the solid electrolyte galvanic cell: Bi, Bi2O3-SiO2 | YSZ | air (pO2 = 0.213 bar Additionally, heat capacity data obtained for two solid phases 6Bi2O3•SiO2 and 2Bi2O3•3SiO2 were included into optimization of thermodynamic properties of the system. Optimization procedure was supported by differential thermal analysis (DTA data obtained in this work as well as those accepted from the literature. Using the data obtained in this work, and the information about phase equilibria found in the literature, binary system Bi2O3-SiO2 was assessed with the ThermoCalc software.
Kajihara, Koichi; Ikuta, Yoshiaki; Oto, Masanori; Hirano, Masahiro; Skuja, Linards; Hosono, Hideo
Creation and annihilation of point defects were studied for SiO 2 glass exposed to ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum UV (VUV) lights to improve transparency and radiation toughness of SiO 2 glass to UV-VUV laser light. Topologically disordered structure of SiO 2 glass featured by the distribution of Si-O-Si angle is a critical factor degrading transmittance near the fundamental absorption edge. Doping with terminal functional groups enhances the structural relaxation and reduces the number of strained Si-O-Si bonds by breaking up the glass network without creating the color centers. Transmittance and laser toughness of SiO 2 glass for F 2 laser is greatly improved in fluorine-doped SiO 2 glass, often referred as 'modified silica glass'. Interstitial hydrogenous species are mobile and reactive at ambient temperature, and play an important role in photochemical reactions induced by exposure to UV-VUV laser light. They terminate the dangling-bond type color centers, while enhancing the formation of the oxygen vacancies. These findings are utilized to develop a deep-UV optical fiber transmitting ArF laser photons with low radiation damage
Zhou, Linjie; Gao, Kang; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; He, Mingrui; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi
Synthetic antifouling membrane surfaces with dual-defense mechanisms (fouling-resistant and fouling-release mechanism) were constructed through the synergy of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) and SiO2 nanoparticles. During the nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process, the amphiphilic PFSA polymers spontaneously segregated to membrane surfaces and catalyzed the hydrolysis-polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to generate hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The resulting PVDF/PFSA/SiO2 hybrid membranes were characterized by contact angle measurements, FTIR, XPS, SEM, AFM, TGA, and TEM. The hydrophilic microdomains and low surface energy microdomains of amphiphilic PFSA polymers respectively endowed membrane surfaces with fouling-resistant mechanism and fouling-release mechanism, while the hydrophilic SiO2 NPs intensified the fouling-resistant mechanism. When the addition of TEOS reached 3 wt%, the hybrid membrane with optimal synergy of PFSA and SiO2 NPs displayed low flux decline (17.4% DRt) and high flux recovery (99.8% FRR) during the filtration of oil-in-water emulsion. Meanwhile, the long-time stability test verified that the hybrid membrane possessed persistent antifouling performance.
Jithendra Kumara, K. S.; Krishnamurthy, G.; Sunil Kumar, N.; Naik, Nagaraja; Praveen, T. M.
The Co(II) and Fe(III) centres magnetically separable two new mesoporous nanocatalyst were synthesised via chemical synthesis method. The transmission electron microscopic studies (TEM) show that, the particles are spherical shape with mean size of 20 nm. The Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals that SiO2 is coating on the surface of the cobalt ferrate nanoparticle (CoFe2O4). The SiO2 coating is efficiently preventing the aggregated collision of nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements show that diamagnetic character of the SiO2 is unaffected to the coercivity of SiO2 coated CoFe2O4 particles. In addition, these nanoparticles are used as nanocatalyst for high yielding, facile and expeditious synthesis of various functionalized 2-arylbenzimidazoles via one-pot condensation. The cascade including imine formation, cyclization, condensation, and aromatization occurs, without addition of any reducing or oxidizing agents. In all situations, the desired product was synthesised with excellent yield. The shorter reaction time, mild reaction condition, simplicity, non-toxicity, safe reaction and easy workup are the impotent merits of this protocol.
Kowada, Y [Hyogo Univ. of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan); Adachi, H [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Minami, T [Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
Using the sol-gel method the surface of metal and glass substrates can be modified. For example, stainless steel sheets coated with the SiO2-ZrO2 glass films have higher resistance to corrosion and oxidation. The coating films contain high concentration of alkali ions diffusing from the glass substrates. It suggests that the sodium ions are trapped strongly within the coating films and are blocked to further diffuse to the surface. This behavior must be associated with the chemical bonding around the sodium ions in the SiO2-TiO2 and SiO2-ZrO2 films. For better understanding of the chemical bonding in the glasses, the electronic states of the SiO2-MxOy glasses were calculated by means of the DV-Xa cluster method. In this paper, the calculation method is explained, the results are discussed and the conclusion is stated. 17 refs., 6 figs.
Aji, Afifah Iswara; Praseptiangga, Danar; Rochima, Emma; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia
Food packaging is important for protecting food from environmental influences such as heat, light, water vapor, oxygen, dirt, dust particles, gas emissions and so on, which leads to decrease the quality of food. The most widely used type of packaging in the food industry is plastic which is made from synthetic polymers and takes hundreds of years to biodegrade. Recently, food packaging with high bio-degradability is being developed using biopolymer combined with nanoparticles as reinforcing agent (filler) to improve its properties. In this study, semi-refined iota carrageenan films were prepared by incorporating SiO2 nanoparticles as filler at different concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/w carrageenan) using solution casting method. The optical transparency and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation at break) of the films were analyzed. The results showed that incorporation of SiO2 nanoparticles to carrageenan matrix on optical transparency of the films. For the mechanical properties, the highest tensile strength was found for incorporation of 0.5% SiO2, while the elongation at break of the films improved with increasing SiO2 concentration.
Qasim, M; Paik, P; Das, D; Singh, Braj R; Naqvi, A H
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that causes common infections such as denture stomatitis, thrush, urinary tract infections, etc. Immunocompromised patients can become severely infected by this fungus. Development of an effective anticandidal agent against this pathogenic fungus, therefore, will be very useful for practical application. In this work, Ag-embedded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (mSiO_2@AgNPs) have successfully been synthesized and their anticandidal activities against C. albicans have been studied. The mSiO_2@AgNPs nanoparticles (d ∼ 400 nm) were designed using pre-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a precursor for SiO_2 in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an easily removable soft template. A simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach has been adopted to synthesize silver (Ag) nanoparticles using silver nitrate and leaf extract of Azadirachta indica. The mesopores, with size-equivalent diameter of the micelles (d = 4–6 nm), were generated on the SiO_2 surface by calcination after removal of the CTAB template. The morphology and surface structure of mSiO_2@AgNPs were characterized through x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis (PSA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM micrograph reveals the well-ordered mesoporous structure of the SiO_2 sphere. The antifungal activities of mSiO_2@AgNPs on the C. albicans cell have been studied through microscopy and are seen to increase with increasing dose of mSiO_2@AgNPs, suggesting mSiO_2@AgNPs to be a potential antifungal agent for C. albicans 077. (paper)
Shen, Guozhu; Fang, Xumin; Wu, Hongyan; Wei, Hongyu; Li, Jingfa; Li, Kaipeng; Mei, Buqing; Xu, Yewen
A facile method has been developed to fabricate magnetic core/shell SiO2/C/Co sub-microspheres via the pyrolysis of SiO2/PANI (polyaniline) and electroless plating method. The electromagnetic parameters of these SiO2/C and SiO2/C/Co composites were measured and the microwave reflection loss properties were evaluated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The results show that the dielectric loss of SiO2/C composite increases with the increase of carbonization temperature and the magnetic loss enhances due to the deposition of cobalt on the SiO2/C sub-microspheres. The reflection loss results exhibit that the microwave absorption properties of the SiO2/C/Co composites are more excellent than those of SiO2/C composites for each thickness. The maximum effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss ≤ -10 dB) arrives at 5.0 GHz (13.0-18 GHz) for SiO2/C/Co composite with 1.5 mm of thickness and the minimum reflection loss value is -24.0 dB at 5.0 GHz with 4.0 mm of thickness. The microwave loss mechanism of the SiO2/C/Co composites was also discussed in this paper.
Zhu, J.G.; White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Withrow, S.P.; Chen, Y.
Nanocrystals of group IV (Si, Ge and SiGe), III-V (GaAs), and II-VI (CdSe) semiconductor materials have been fabricated inside SiO 2 by ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing. The microstructure of these nanocrystalline semiconductor materials has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocrystals form in near-spherical shape with random crystal orientations in amorphous SiO 2 . Extensive studies on the nanocrystal size distributions have been carried out for the Ge nanocrystals by changing the implantation doses and the annealing temperatures. Remarkable roughening of the nanocrystals occurs when the annealing temperature is raised over the melting temperature of the implanted semiconductor material. Strong red photoluminescence peaked around 1.67 eV has been achieved in samples with Si nanocrystals in SiO 2
Pi, X.D.; Coleman, P.G.; Harding, R.; Davies, G.; Gwilliam, R.M.; Sealy, B.J.
Positron annihilation spectroscopy has been employed to study changes in the interface region between nanocrystalline Si and SiO 2 , following annealing between 400 deg. C and 900 deg. C in nitrogen or oxygen. With the support of photoluminescence spectroscopy we find that nitrogen and oxygen are trapped in voids at the interface at low temperatures. At temperatures above 700 deg. C both nitrogen and oxygen react with Si nanocrystals, and the resulting volume increase introduces stress in the SiO 2 matrix which is relaxed by the shrinkage of its intrinsic open volume. Oxygen appears to enhance Si diffusion in SiO 2 so that the agglomeration of Si nanocrystals occurs more readily during annealing in oxygen than in nitrogen
Yang Zhengwen; Yan Dong; Song Zhiguo; Zhou Dacheng; Yu Xue; Yang Yong; Yin Zhaoyi; Yan Lei; Wang Rongfei; Wu Hangjun; Qiu Jianbei
The SiO 2 : Tb, Yb inverse opals with photonic band gap at 465 or 543 nm were prepared, and an effect of photonic band gap on upconversion spontaneous emission from Tb 3+ was investigated. The results show that the photonic band gap has a significant influence on the upconversion emission of the SiO 2 : Tb, Yb inverse opals. The upconversion luminescence of the Tb 3+ ions is suppressed in the inverse opal compared with the luminescence of that of the reference sample. - Highlights: ► Upconversion emission from Tb 3+ was observed in the SiO 2 : Tb, Yb inverse opal. ► UC emission of Tb 3+ was modulated by controlling the structure of inverse opal. ► UC emission of Tb 3+ was depressed in the inverse opal.
Pham, Tuan. H.; Dang, Cu. X.
Silicon dioxide, SiO2, is one of the preferred low index materials for optical thin film technology. It is often deposited by electron beam evaporation source with less porosity and scattering, relatively durable and can have a good laser damage threshold. Beside these advantages the deposition of critical optical thin film stacks with silicon dioxide from an E-gun was severely limited by the stability of the evaporation pattern or angular distribution of the material. The even surface of SiO2 granules in crucible will tend to develop into groove and become deeper with the evaporation process. As the results, angular distribution of the evaporation vapor changes in non-predicted manner. This report presents our experiments to apply Ion Assisted Deposition process to evaporate silicon in a molten liquid form. By choosing appropriate process parameters we can get SiO2 film with good and stable property.
Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Lan, Wen-Lin; Chen, Nien-Po; Wu, Chyan-Chyi
This paper demonstrates the antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres applied to cover glass by using the optimal spin-coating method. Because of the hydrolysis and condensation reactions between the SiO2 nanosphere antireflection (AR) coating and n-octadecyltriethoxysilane solution (C18-TEOS), the contact angle of the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment is improved approximately 38%, and the moisture-resistance remains unchanged, which preserved similar transmittance for six weeks. Furthermore, the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment exhibits approximately 3% and 7% improvement in the transmittance at normal and oblique incidence, respectively. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional AR coating with nanoscale SiO2 particles can be fabricated using the proposed simple and economical method.
Chhikara, Manisha; Pavlica, Egon; Matković, Aleksandar; Gajić, Radoš; Bratina, Gvido
Atomic force microscopy has been used to examine early stages of pentacene growth on exfoliated single-layer graphene transferred to SiO2 substrates. We have observed 2D growth with mean height of 1.5 ± 0.2 nm on as-transferred graphene. Three-dimensional islands of pentacene with an average height of 11 ± 2 nm were observed on graphene that was annealed at 350 °C prior to pentacene growth. Compellingly similar 3D morphology has been observed on graphene transferred onto SiO2 that was treated with hexamethyldisilazane prior to the transfer of graphene. On multilayer graphene we have observed 2D growth, regardless of the treatment of SiO2. We interpret this behavior of pentacene molecules in terms of the influence of the dipolar field that emerges from the water monolayer at the graphene/SiO2 interface on the surface energy of graphene.
Boies, Adam M; Girshick, Steven L; Roberts, Jeffrey T; Zhang Bin; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Mochizuki, Amane
Gas-phase silver nanoparticles were coated with silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) by photoinduced chemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD). Silver nanoparticles, produced by inert gas condensation, and a SiO 2 precursor, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were exposed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at atmospheric pressure and varying temperatures. The VUV photons dissociate the TEOS precursor, initiating a chemical reaction that forms SiO 2 coatings on the particle surfaces. Coating thicknesses were measured for a variety of operation parameters using tandem differential mobility analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the particle coatings was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest purity films were produced at 300-400 0 C with low flow rates of additional oxygen. The photo-CVD coating technique was shown to effectively coat nanoparticles and limit core particle agglomeration at concentrations up to 10 7 particles cm -3 .
Hu, Yue; Miao, Zhao-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Tong; Tang, Ying-Ying; Yu, Sheng; Shan, Chen-Xiao; Wen, Hong-Mei; Zhu, Dong
The currently utilized ligand fishing for bioactive molecular screening from complex matrixes cannot perform imaging screening. Here, we developed a new solid-phase ligand fishing coupled with an in situ imaging protocol for the specific enrichment and identification of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp 90) inhibitors from Tripterygium wilfordii, utilizing a multiple-layer and microkernel-based mesoporous nanostructure composed of a protective silica coating CdTe quantum dot (QD) core and a mesoporous silica shell, i.e., microkernel-based mesoporous (SiO 2 -CdTe-SiO 2 )@SiO 2 fluorescent nanoparticles (MMFNPs) as extracting carries and fluorescent probes. The prepared MMFNPs showed a highly uniform spherical morphology, retention of fluorescence emission, and great chemical stability. The fished ligands by Hsp 90α-MMFNPs were evaluated via the preliminary bioactivity based on real-time cellular morphology imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and then identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Celastrol was successfully isolated as an Hsp 90 inhibitor, and two other specific components screened by Hsp 90α-MMFNPs, i.e., demecolcine and wilforine, were preliminarily identified as potential Hsp 90 inhibitors through the verification of strong affinity to Hsp 90 and antitumor bioactivity. The approach based on the MMFNPs provides a strong platform for imaging screening and discovery of plant-derived biologically active molecules with high efficiency and selectivity.
Lee, Kuan-Wei; Huang, Jung-Sheng; Lu, Yu-Lin; Lee, Fang-Ming; Lin, Hsien-Cheng; Huang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yeong-Her
The silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) on AlGaAs prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) at 40 °C has been explored. The LPD-SiO 2 film deposition rate is about 67 nm h −1 for the first hour. The leakage current density is about 1.21 × 10 −6 A cm −2 at 1 MV cm −1 . The interface trap density (D it ) and the flat-band voltage shift (ΔV FB ) are 1.28 × 10 12 cm −2 eV −1 and 0.5 V, respectively. After rapid thermal annealing in the N 2 ambient at 300 °C for 1 min, the leakage current density, D it , and ΔV FB can be improved to 4.24 × 10 −7 A cm −2 at 1 MV cm −1 , 1.7 × 10 11 cm −2 eV −1 , and 0.2 V, respectively. Finally, this study demonstrates the application of the LPD-SiO 2 film to the AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor
Prasad, S.J.; Owen, S.J.T.
Indium Phosphide is an attractive material for high-speed devices. Though many successful devices have been built and demonstrated, InP MISFET's still suffer from drain current drift. From the data current drift measurements, the shift in the threshold voltage ΔV was computed for different times. It was found that a linear relationship exists between √ΔV and log(t). When a positive bias-stress was applied to the gate of an MIS capacitor for a time t, the C-V cure shifted by an amount ΔV and again, a linear relationship was observed between √ΔV and log(t). This was verified on four different gate insulators: pyrolytic SiO 2 at 320 0 C and 360 0 C, plasma oxide at 300 0 C and photo CVD oxide at 225 0 C. These results can only be explained by a model in which electrons tunnel from the substrate into oxide traps
Sorokin, A.V.; Gnap, B.A.; Bespalova, I.I.; Yefimova, S.L.; Malyukin, Yu.V.
The effect of cyanine dye 3,3′-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO) and benzimidazole dye 4-dimethylamino-1,8-naphthoylene-1′,2′-benzimidazole (DNBI) accumulation in nanoporous silica matrices on the dyes luminescence properties has been studied. For both dyes, ground state dimer formation with perpendicular transition dipoles at high dye concentrations has been considered as a result of restricted geometry of the nanoscale pores. The dimer excitation leads to excimer formation revealing by appearance of new long-wavelength luminescence band and shortening the dye luminescence lifetime. In the excimer luminescence excitation spectra two additional bands have been observed, one of which is bathochromically shifted relatively to the absorption band and another one is hypsocromically shifted. Using the Kasha exciton model it was shown that the excimers possess oblique transition dipoles configuration. - Highlights: • Organic dye molecules are efficiently accumulated in nanoporous silica matrices. • Restricted geometry of SiO 2 nanopores provokes excimerization of both cyanine and benzimidazole dyes. • The excimers reveal configuration of oblique dimers. • The excimers are originated from ground state dimers with a perpendicular arrangement of transition dipoles.
Full Text Available Synthesis of Fe3O4/SiO2 modified with N-(2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl group (Fe3O4/SiO2/ED via coating method and its application for adsorption-desorption of anionic gold in aqueous solution have been conducted. The synthesized product was characterized with an X-ray diffractometer (XRD, a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrophotometer and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Adsorption of Au(III was conducted in a batch system and the variables included pH, contact time, and initial concentration were investigated. Results showed that magnetite/silica has been successfully functionalized with N-(2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl in a homogeneous system. Kinetics study showed that adsorption of Au(III followed the pseudo-second order model with rate constant of 0.710 g mmol L-1min-1. Furthermore, the experimental data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model with the maximum adsorption capacity for Au(III of 142.9 mg g-1 and the energy of 25.0 kJ mol-1. Gold loaded on the Fe3O4/SiO2/ED could be easily desorbed with 0.2 mol L-1 HCl containing 2 wt.% of thiourea with recovery of 99.8%. Fe3O4/SiO2/ED was reusable and stable in 5 cycles of adsorption-desorption with recovery more than 90%. Fe3O4/SiO2/ED showed high selectivity towards Au(III in the multimetal system Au(III/Cu(II/Cr(VI with the coefficient selectivity for αAu-Cu of 227.5and for αAu-Cr of 12.3.
Fine nanoparticles of Ta3N5 (10-20 nm) were synthesized on the surfaces of SiO2 spheres with a diameter of ∼550 nm. A sol-gel method was used to modify the surface of SiO2 with Ta2O5 from TaCl5 dissolved in ethanol in the presence of citric acid and polyethylene glycol. The resulting oxide composites were treated in an NH3 flow at 1123 K to form core-shell structured Ta3N5/SiO2 sub-microspheres. The obtained samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photocatalytic activity measurements for H 2 evolution from an aqueous methanol solution. The XRD results demonstrate the expected sequential formation of Ta2O5 layers, followed by Ta3N5 after nitridation on the Ta 2O5/SiO2 composite. SEM and TEM observations indicate that the obtained Ta3N5/SiO2 sub-microspheres have a uniform size distribution with high crystallinity and an obvious core-shell structure. The presence of support maintained the intrinsic photocatalytic activity of Ta3N5 nanoparticles, but it did drastically improve the dispersion of the photocatalysts in the solution. This study proposes the use of an inert support in photocatalytic reactors to improve ease of handling the powder photocatalyst for gas-phase photocatalysis and the suspension of the solution, controlling nature of light harvesting and degree of scattering of the photoreactor. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ma Xiaojun; Gao Dangzhong; Meng Jie
The measuring method based on vertical scanning interference and combined with the relation between refraction index and density of SiO_2 foam shells is introduced, and the relation is analyzed according to formulas of Lorentz-Lorenz and Gladstone-Dale. The experimental result and measuring uncertainty evaluation indicate that the precision measurement of density of low density SiO_2 foam shells can be realized by using the vertical scanning interference technique and combining with Gladstone and Dale analysis method, and the measuring uncertainty is about 5%. (authors)
Mogensen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed
. From this perspective, the purpose of this paper is therefore to address focus on alternative passive coatings that without actively killing the bacteria provide a hydrophobic and easy-to-clean textile surface. The paper relates to an in-situ study evaluating the effect and cleaning potential of SiO2...... contact plates through a three-week period. By determining the level of contamination on these surfaces, the study illustrates that the SiO2-coated textile is possible to clean to an acceptable level below the critical limit value of 2,5 Colony Forming Units (CFU) per cm2. In comparison, the traditional...
Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giraud, V.; Cheung, A.; Glover, C.J.; Azevedo, G. de M; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.
Au nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated by ion implantation into thin SiO 2 and annealing were investigated by means of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A bond length contraction was observed and can be explained by surface tension effects in a simple liquid-drop model. Such results are consistent with previous reports on nonembedded NCs implying a negligible influence of the SiO 2 matrix. Cumulant analysis of the EXAFS data suggests surface reconstruction or relaxation involving a further shortened bond length. A deviation from the octahedral closed shell structure is apparent for NCs of size 25 A
Xu, J. L.; Xiao, Q. F.; Mei, D. D.; Zhong, Z. C.; Tong, Y. X.; Zheng, Y. F.; Li, L.
Amorphous SiO2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the "coral reef" like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 μm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO2 and a few amorphous Fe2O3 and Nd2O3. The amorphous SiO2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees.
Jia, Lei; Chen, Jiang-xian; Lu, Zhen-lin; Li, Shu-feng; Umeda, Junko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi
Ti alloys strengthened by both Si and O solutes were prepared by powder metallurgy method from pure Ti and amorphous SiO2 powder obtained by combusting rice husks. At the same time, Ti alloys singly strengthened by Si or O were also prepared for studying the strengthening effect of Si and O solutes. Results showed that amorphous SiO2 powder originated from rice husks could almost fully dissolve into pure Ti matrix when the content was not higher than 1.0 wt%, while higher content of SiO2 addition resulted in the formation of Ti5Si3 intermetallics. Si and O elements leaded to negative and positive distortion of Ti lattice, and the influencing degrees were ‑0.02 and +0.014 Å/wt% for lattice constant a, while ‑0.05 and +0.046 Å/wt% for constant c, respectively. Solid solution of Si and O would also result in the increase of hardness, which was 98.5 and 209.43 HV/wt%, respectively. When Si and O were co-exsited in Ti matrix, the negative and positive distortion cancelled each other, while the strengthening effect did not cancel but enhance each other.
Wang, Moo-Chin; Cheng, Chih-Wei; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Hsi, Chi-Shiung
The crystallization behavior of the (1 - x)Li 2 O.xNa 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .4SiO 2 glasses has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The crystalline phase was composed of β-spodumene. The isothermal crystallization kinetics of β-spodumene from the (1 - x)Li 2 O.xNa 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .4SiO 2 glasses has also been studied by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method. The activation energy of β-spodumene formation decreases from 359.2 to 317.8 kJ/mol when the Na 2 O content increases from 0 to 0.4 mol and it increases from 317.8 to 376.9 kJ/mol when the Na 2 O content increases from 0.4 to 0.6 mol. The surface nucleation and plate-like growth were dominant in the crystallization of the (1 - x)Li 2 O.xNa 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .4SiO 2 glasses.
Xu, J.L.; Xiao, Q.F.; Mei, D.D.; Zhong, Z.C.; Tong, Y.X.; Zheng, Y.F.; Li, L.
Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the “coral reef” like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 µm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO 2 and a few amorphous Fe 2 O 3 and Nd 2 O 3 . The amorphous SiO 2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees. - Highlights: • Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation. • The coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance. • The corrosion resistance could be enhanced by one order of magnitude. • The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples.
He Ming; Wu Mengqiang; Zhang Shuren; Zhou Xiaohua; Zhang Ting; Chen Song
Research highlights: → As for CBS ternary system glass ceramics, due to the complex phase compositions, many methods could be difficult to determine quantitatively the absolute amounts of crystalline and remaining oxides. In this study, an available method based on the Rietveld method was used to quantitatively analyze the relative weight fraction and densities of crystalline phases. These above data are used to obtain a table of both relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of all phases including CBS LTCC. Using volume additivity rule, it is possible to analysis quantitatively the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases and also the oxides molar content in the remaining glass. - Abstract: Based on Rietveld method of X-ray techniques and volume additivity rule, a new method was developed to quantitatively analyze the phase composition of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics. Lattice parameters, densities and relative weight fractions of crystalline phases in CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) refinement. According to the relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of various components, the volume additivity rule was revealed by calculating the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass ceramics. In addition, molar contents of the oxides in the remaining glass can also be determined by this method. Comparing this method with internal standard method, it is found that the maximum deviations of the crystallinity and the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases are less than 2.6% and 2.9%, respectively. As a result, quantitative evaluation of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics can be achieved using this method.
Martinet, C; Kassir-Bodon, A; Deschamps, T; Cornet, A; Le Floch, S; Martinez, V; Champagnon, B
Densified silica can be obtained by different pressure and temperature paths and for different stress conditions, hydrostatic or including shear. The density is usually the macroscopic parameter used to characterize the different compressed silica samples. The aim of our present study is to compare structural modifications for silica glass, densified from several routes. For this, densified silica glasses are prepared from cold and high temperature (up to 1020 °C) compressions. The different densified glasses obtained in our study are characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Intertetrahedral angles from the main band relative to the bending mode decrease and their values are larger for densified samples from high temperature compression than those samples from cold compression. The relative amount of 3-membered rings deduced from the D2 line area increases as a function of density for cold compression. The temperature increase during the compression process induces a decrease of the 3 fold ring population. Moreover, 3 fold rings are more deformed and stressed for densified samples at room temperature at the expense of those densified at high temperature. Temperature plays a main role in the reorganization structure during the densification and leads to obtaining a more relaxed structure with lower stresses than glasses densified from cold compression. The role of hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic applied stresses on the glass structure is discussed. From the Sen and Thorpe central force model, intertetrahedral angle average value and their distribution are estimated.
Jia, Yanrong; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qiubao; Fan, Qinguo; Shao, Jianzhong
The SiO 2 /polyethyleneimine (PEI) films with structural colors on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates were fabricated by an electrostatic self-assembly method. The morphology of the films was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that there was no distinguishable multilayered structure found of SiO 2 /PEI films. The optical behaviors of the films were investigated through the color photos captured by a digital camera and the color measurement by a multi-angle spectrophotometer. Different hue and brightness were observed at various viewing angles. The structural colors were dependent on the SiO 2 particle size and the number of assembly cycles. The mechanism of the structural colors generated from the assembled films was elucidated. The morphological structures and the optical properties proved that the SiO 2 /PEI film fabricated on PET substrate formed a homogeneous inorganic/organic SiO 2 /PEI composite layer, and the structural colors were originated from single thin film interference. - Highlights: • SiO 2 /PEI thin films were electrostatic self-assembled on PET substrates. • The surface morphology and optical behavior of the film were investigated. • The structural colors varied with various SiO 2 particle sizes and assembly cycles. • Different hue and lightness of SiO 2 /PEI film were observed at various viewing angles. • Structural color of the SiO 2 /PEI film originated from single thin film interference
Full Text Available The aim of the present work is synthesis of ferroelectric nanomaterials, in the K2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 system via solgel method and studying the processes of formation and structure of the synthesized ferroelectric nanomaterials. The structure of synthesized materials has been studied by means of the following methods: EDS, XRD, FT-IR, SEM and AFM. The results obtained showed that the structure of the investigated compositions does not depend on the niobium content and all the samples keep their amorphous nature at room temperature. The surface structure shows random distribution of different kinds of aggregates with dimensions about 200–500 nm. The presence of a hybrid nanostructure with well-deﬁ ned nanounits having special geometry is clearly observed.
Stepina, N.P.; Dvurechenskii, A.V.; Armbrister, V.A.; Kirienko, V.V.; Novikov, P.L.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovskii, A.K.; Smagina, Z.V.; Spesivtzev, E.V.
A floating gate memory structure, utilizing Ge nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on tunnel SiO 2 , have been fabricated using pulsed low energy ion-beam induced molecular-beam deposition (MBD) in ultra-high vacuum. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge NCs when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Growth conditions for independent change of NCs size and array density were established allowing to optimize the structure parameters required for memory device. Activation energy E = 0.25 eV was determined from the temperature dependence of NCs array density. Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the process, determining NCs array density, is the surface diffusion. Embedding of the crystalline Ge dots into silicon oxide was carried out by selective oxidation of Si(100)/SiO 2 /Ge(NCs)/poly-Si structure. MOS-capacitor obtained after oxidation showed a hysteresis in its C-V curves attributed to charge retention in the Ge dots
Kachurin, G. A.; Cherkova, S. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Volodin, V. A.
Thermally grown SiO 2 layers have been irradiated with 700-MeV Bi ions with doses of (3–10) × 10 12 cm −2 . It is found that, even after a dose of 3 × 10 12 cm −2 , a photoluminescence band in the region of 600 nm appears. Its intensity levels off at a dose of ∼5 × 10 12 cm −2 . The nature of the emission centers is studied by the methods of infrared transmission, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and the reaction to passivating low-temperature anneals. It is established that irradiation brings about a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds with a relevant increase in the Si-Si bonds. It is assumed that the photoluminescence is caused by nanostructures containing an excess Si and/or having a deficit of O. The reaction of reduction of SiO 2 proceeds in ion tracks due to high levels of ionization and heating within these tracks. The dose dependence is used to estimate the diameter of a track at 8–9 nm.
Adamiak, Joanna; Kalinowska-Alichnewicz, Dorota; Szadkowski, Michał; Skupiński, Wincenty
A new catalyst, H(3)PO(4)/MoO(3)/SiO(2), was prepared by modification of MoO(3)/SiO(2) using phosphoric acid. The characterization of the catalyst was performed using Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption-desorption methods. Molybdenum oxides were identified along with phosphomolybdic acid and polymolybdates on the modified surface. The suitability of the catalysts for toluene and chlorobenzene nitration in continuous process was examined. Toluene is effectively nitrated to dinitrotoluene (DNT) in one-stage process (96 wt.% of DNT in the product) and in mild conditions i.e. at room temperature and only with ten-fold excess of nitric acid. In chlorobenzene nitration only twelve-fold excess of nitric acid is needed to obtain as high yield as 95 wt.%. Most importantly, the novel catalysts we have developed, provide the opportunity for sulfuric acid- free nitration of aromatic compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koo, Sangmo; Jang, Hyunchul; Ko, Dae-Hong
In this study, we investigated the formation of a Si1- x Ge x fin structure in SiO2 trench arrays via an ultra-high-vacuum chemical-vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) selective epitaxial growth (SEG) process. Defect generation and microstructures of Si1- x Ge x fin structures with different Ge concentrations ( x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.45) were examined. In addition, the strain evolution of a Si1- x Ge x fin structure was analyzed by using reciprocal space mapping (RSM). An (111) facet was formed from the Si1- x Ge x epi-layer and SiO2 trench wall interface to minimize the interface and the surface energy. The Si1- x Ge x fin structures were fully relaxed along the direction perpendicular to the trenches regardless of the Ge concentration. On the other hand, the fin structures were fully or partially strained along the direction parallel to the trenches depending on the Ge concentration: fully strained Si0.8Ge0.2 and Si0.7Ge0.3, and a Si0.55Ge0.45 strain-relaxed buffer. We further confirmed that the strain on the Si1- x Ge x fin structures remained stable after oxide removal and H2/N2 post-annealing.
Saxena, Nupur; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay
Effect of rapid thermal annealing temperature on the dispersion of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC’s) embedded in SiO 2 matrix grown by atom beam sputtering (ABS) method is reported. The dispersion of Si NCs in SiO 2 is an important issue to fabricate high efficiency devices based on Si-NC’s. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the precipitation of excess silicon is almost uniform and the particles grow in almost uniform size upto 850 °C. The size distribution of the particles broadens and becomes bimodal as the temperature is increased to 950 °C. This suggests that by controlling the annealing temperature, the dispersion of Si-NC’s can be controlled. The results are supported by selected area diffraction (SAED) studies and micro photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The discussion of effect of particle size distribution on PL spectrum is presented based on tight binding approximation (TBA) method using Gaussian and log-normal distribution of particles. The study suggests that the dispersion and consequently emission energy varies as a function of particle size distribution and that can be controlled by annealing parameters
Full Text Available In this study, the current conduction mechanisms of structures with tandem high-k dielectric in illumination are discussed. Samples of Al/SiO2/Si (S, Al/HfO2/SiO2/Si (H, and Al/3HfO2/SiO2/Si (3H were examined. The significant observation of electron traps of sample H compares to sample S is found under the double bias capacitance-voltage (C-V measurements in illumination. Moreover, the photo absorption sensitivity of sample H is higher than S due to the formation of HfO2 dielectric layer, which leads to larger numbers of carriers crowded through the sweep of VG before the domination of tunneling current. Additionally, the HfO2 dielectric layer would block the electrons passing through oxide from valance band, which would result in less electron-hole (e−-h+ pairs recombination effect. Also, it was found that both of the samples S and H show perimeter dependency of positive bias currents due to strong fringing field effect in dark and illumination; while sample 3H shows area dependency of positive bias currents in strong illumination. The non-uniform tunneling current through thin dielectric and through HfO2 stacking layers are importance to MOS(p tunneling photo diodes.
van der Marel, C; Verheijen, M.A.; Tamminga, Y; Pijnenburg, RHW; Tombros, N; Cubaynes, F
Ultrathin SiO2 layers are of importance for the semiconductor industry. One of the techniques that can be used to determine the chemical composition and thickness of this type of layers is x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As shown by Seah and Spencer [Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 640 (2002)], it
Mohammad W. Kadi
Full Text Available ZrO2-SiO2 mixed oxides were prepared via the sol-gel method. Photo-assisted deposition was utilized for doping the prepared mixed oxide with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 wt% of Pt. XRD spectra showed that doping did not result in the incorporation of Pt within the crystal structure of the material. UV-reflectance spectrometry showed that the band gap of ZrO2-SiO2 decreased from 3.04 eV to 2.48 eV with 0.4 wt% Pt doping. The results show a specific surface area increase of 20%. Enhanced photocatalysis of Pt/ZrO2-SiO2 was successfully tested on photo degradation of cyanide under illumination of visible light. 100% conversion was achieved within 20 min with 0.3 wt% of Pt doped ZrO2-SiO2.
Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Miyashita, A.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.
The structure of the SiO 2 -4ph-SiC interface layer produced by dry oxidation has been studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy using slow positron beams. From Doppler broadening measurements, the interface layer was clearly distinguished from the SiO 2 and SiC layers and was observed to be defective. At the interface layer, a single long positron lifetime of 451 ps, which is close to the second lifetime in the SiO 2 layer, was obtained, thus suggesting that the structure of the interface layer resembles an amorphous SiO 2 network. A comparison was made between the obtained electron momentum distribution at the interface layer and the theoretical calculation. It was found that positrons annihilate with oxygen valence electrons. By annealing after the oxidation, the annihilation probability of the positrons with oxygen valence electrons and the number of interface traps decreased in the same temperature range, thus suggesting a correlation between interface traps and positron annihilation sites
Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.
TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans
Leervad Pedersen, T.P.; Skov Jensen, J.; Chevallier, J.
The synthesis of evenly distributed Ge nanoclusters in plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour-deposited (PE-CVD) SiO2 thin films containing 8 at. % Ge is reported. This is of importance for the application of nanoclusters in semiconductor technology. The average diameter of the Ge nanoclusters can...
Paušová, Š.; Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Prevot, V.; Mailhot, G.
Roč. 89, č. 8 (2014), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0268-2575 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : photocatalysis * TiO2/SiO2 * composite Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.349, year: 2014
Kulazynski, M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Trawczynski, J.; Walendziewski, J.
Combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) on Cr2O3, V2O5, Pt or Pd catalysts supported on TiO2-SiO2 as a carrier has been investigated. It was found that oxide catalysts are very active but their activity quickly diminishes due to loss of the active component, especially at higher reaction temperatures
May 28, 2012 ... low cost, ease of preparation, and catalyst recycling.3,4 Among various solid .... FeCl3-SiO2 (np) to produce 1,8-dioxo-octahydro-xanthenes. RESEARCH ..... 38 G. Song, B. Wang, H. Luo and L. Yang, Catal. Commun., 2007, 8 ...
Different possible forms of Al2O3 units in a SiO2 network are studied theoretically within the framework of density-functional theory. Total-energy differences between the various configurations are obtained, and simple thermodynamical arguments are used to provide an estimate of their relative...
Veltkamp, Henk-Willem; Zhao, Yiyuan; de Boer, Meint J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad
This abstract describes an application of an easy and straightforward method for selective SiO2 etching in three dimensional structures, which is developed by our group. The application in this abstract is the protection of the buried-oxide (BOX) layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer against
Gasvoda, Ryan J; van de Steeg, Alex W; Bhowmick, Ranadeep; Hudson, Eric A; Agarwal, Sumit
Surface phenomena during atomic layer etching (ALE) of SiO 2 were studied during sequential half-cycles of plasma-assisted fluorocarbon (CF x ) film deposition and Ar plasma activation of the CF x film using in situ surface infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Infrared spectra of the surface after the CF x deposition half-cycle from a C 4 F 8 /Ar plasma show that an atomically thin mixing layer is formed between the deposited CF x layer and the underlying SiO 2 film. Etching during the Ar plasma cycle is activated by Ar + bombardment of the CF x layer, which results in the simultaneous removal of surface CF x and the underlying SiO 2 film. The interfacial mixing layer in ALE is atomically thin due to the low ion energy during CF x deposition, which combined with an ultrathin CF x layer ensures an etch rate of a few monolayers per cycle. In situ ellipsometry shows that for a ∼4 Å thick CF x film, ∼3-4 Å of SiO 2 was etched per cycle. However, during the Ar plasma half-cycle, etching proceeds beyond complete removal of the surface CF x layer as F-containing radicals are slowly released into the plasma from the reactor walls. Buildup of CF x on reactor walls leads to a gradual increase in the etch per cycle.
Full Text Available The present work is about the development of a Novel Composite that has several properties in only one material. This material is composed by a silica network with a sharpened pore size distribution - diameter near 1000 Å - intercrossed with another carbon network that has carbonaceous microdomains of high activity. The first network facilitates the entrance of big molecules to the interior of the material grains so they quickly reach the active sites of the carbonous network, minimizing the diffusional resistance observed when high performance activated carbons are used in adsorption processes or catalytic applications. These two intercrossed structures are self-supporting and independent among them, so one from the other can be isolated without losing the original shape and volume of the starting composite, then, their possible uses may be multiplied. The Novel Composite is stable with respect to other support or adsorbent materials due to its high obtention temperature (1550 ºC. The obtention methods of the composite and its isolated structures are described. The material was characterized by different techniques (XRD, IR, Loss on ignition, pore size distribution, specific surface area, adsorption desorption isotherms, methylene blue adsorption and SEM.En el presente trabajo se describe el desarrollo de un nuevo material compuesto que reúne distintas propiedades en un solo material. Dicho material está formado por una red de sílice con distribución de tamaño de poro estrecha - diámetro cercano a los 1000 Å - entrecruzada con otra red de carbón pseudografítica donde los microdominios carbonosos son de alta actividad. La primer red facilita la entrada de grandes moléculas al interior de los granos del material permitiendo su rápido acceso a los sitios activos de la red carbonosa, esto minimiza la resistencia difusional observada cuando se utilizan carbones activados de alto rendimiento en los procesos de adsorción o aplicaciones
Bau, Jeremy A.
Semiconductor systems for photocatalytic overall water splitting into H2 and O2 gases typically require metal cocatalyst particles, such as Pt, to efficiently catalyze H2 evolution. However, such metal catalyst surfaces also serve as recombination sites for H2 and O2, forming H2O. We herein report the photon-induced fabrication of microporous SiO2 membranes that can selectively restrict passage of O2 and larger hydrated ions while allowing penetration of protons, water, and H2. The SiO2 layers were selectively photodeposited on Pt nanoparticles on SrTiO3 photocatalyst by using tetramethylammonium (TMA) as a structure-directing agent (SDA), resulting in the formation of core–shell Pt@SiO2 cocatalysts. The resulting photocatalyst exhibited both improved overall water splitting performance under irradiation and with no H2/O2 recombination in the dark. The function of the SiO2 layers was investigated electrochemically by fabricating the SiO2 layers on a Pt electrode via an analogous cathodic deposition protocol. The uniform, dense, yet amorphous layers possess microporosity originating from ring structures formed during the hydrolysis of the silicate precursor in the presence of TMA, suggesting a double-role for TMA in coordinating silicate to cathodic surfaces and in creating a microporous material. The resulting layers were able to function as a molecular sieve, allowing for exclusive H2 generation while excluding unwanted side reactions by O2 or ferricyanide. The SiO2 layer is stable for extended periods of time in photocatalytic conditions, demonstrating promise as a nontoxic material for selective H2 evolution.
Bau, Jeremy A.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro
Semiconductor systems for photocatalytic overall water splitting into H2 and O2 gases typically require metal cocatalyst particles, such as Pt, to efficiently catalyze H2 evolution. However, such metal catalyst surfaces also serve as recombination sites for H2 and O2, forming H2O. We herein report the photon-induced fabrication of microporous SiO2 membranes that can selectively restrict passage of O2 and larger hydrated ions while allowing penetration of protons, water, and H2. The SiO2 layers were selectively photodeposited on Pt nanoparticles on SrTiO3 photocatalyst by using tetramethylammonium (TMA) as a structure-directing agent (SDA), resulting in the formation of core–shell Pt@SiO2 cocatalysts. The resulting photocatalyst exhibited both improved overall water splitting performance under irradiation and with no H2/O2 recombination in the dark. The function of the SiO2 layers was investigated electrochemically by fabricating the SiO2 layers on a Pt electrode via an analogous cathodic deposition protocol. The uniform, dense, yet amorphous layers possess microporosity originating from ring structures formed during the hydrolysis of the silicate precursor in the presence of TMA, suggesting a double-role for TMA in coordinating silicate to cathodic surfaces and in creating a microporous material. The resulting layers were able to function as a molecular sieve, allowing for exclusive H2 generation while excluding unwanted side reactions by O2 or ferricyanide. The SiO2 layer is stable for extended periods of time in photocatalytic conditions, demonstrating promise as a nontoxic material for selective H2 evolution.
Kachurin, G.A.; Cherkova, S.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovsky, A.K.; Cherkov, A.G.; Bublikov, A.V.; Tetelbaum, D.I.
The effect of 10 13 -10 16 cm -2 P ions implantation and of subsequent annealing on Si nanocrystals (Si-ncs), formed preliminarily in SiO 2 layers by the ion-beam synthesis, has been studied. Photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution electron microscopy (HREM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and optical absorption were used for characterizations. The low fluence implantations have shown even individual displacements in Si-ncs quench their PL. Restoration of PL from partly damaged Si-ncs proceeds at annealing less than 1000 deg. C. In the low fluence implanted and annealed samples an increased Si-ncs PL has been found and ascribed to the radiation-induced shock crystallization of stressed Si nanoprecipitates. Annealing at temperatures under 1000 deg. C are inefficient when P ion fluences exceed 10 14 cm -2 , thus becoming capable to amorphize Si-ncs. High crystallization temperature of the amorphized Si-ncs is attributed to a counteraction of their shell layers. After implantation of the highest P fluences an enhanced recovery of PL was found from P concentration over 0.1 at.%. Raman spectroscopy and HREM showed an increased Si-ncs number in such layers. The effect resembles the impurity-enhanced crystallization, known for heavily doped bulk Si. This effect, along with the data obtained by XPS, is considered as an indication P atoms are really present inside the Si-ncs. However, no evidence of free electrons appearance has been observed. The fact is explained by an increased interaction of electrons with the donor nuclei in Si-ncs
Abbas, Mohamed; Torati, Sri Ramulu; Kim, Cheolgi
A novel sonochemical approach was developed for the synthesis of different core/shell structures of Fe3O4/SiO2/Ag nanocubes and SiO2/Ag nanospheres. The total reaction time of the three sonochemical steps for the synthesis of Fe3O4/SiO2/Ag nanocubes is shorter than that of the previously reported methods. A proposed reaction mechanism for the sonochemical functionalization of the silica and the silver on the surface of magnetic nanocubes was discussed in detail. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the surface of Fe3O4/SiO2 nanocubes was decorated with small Ag nanoparticles of approximately 10-20 nm in size, and the energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping analysis confirmed the morphology of the structure. Additionally, X-ray diffraction data were used to confirm the formation of both phases of a cubic inverse spinel structure for Fe3O4 and bcc structures for Ag in the core/shell structure of the Fe3O4/SiO2/Ag nanocubes. The as-synthesized Fe3O4/SiO2/Ag nanocubes showed a high efficiency in the catalytic reduction reaction of 4-nitroaniline to 4-phenylenediamine and a better performance than both Ag and SiO2/Ag nanoparticles. The grafted silver catalyst was recycled and reused at least fifteen times without a significant loss of catalytic efficiency.A novel sonochemical approach was developed for the synthesis of different core/shell structures of Fe3O4/SiO2/Ag nanocubes and SiO2/Ag nanospheres. The total reaction time of the three sonochemical steps for the synthesis of Fe3O4/SiO2/Ag nanocubes is shorter than that of the previously reported methods. A proposed reaction mechanism for the sonochemical functionalization of the silica and the silver on the surface of magnetic nanocubes was discussed in detail. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the surface of Fe3O4/SiO2 nanocubes was decorated with small Ag nanoparticles of approximately 10-20 nm in size, and the energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping analysis confirmed the morphology of the
Norsyahida Mohammad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum
Solid acid composites CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 with different mole ratios of CsH 2 PO 4 and NaH 2 PO 4 to SiO 2 were synthesized and characterized. Preliminary infrared measurements of CsH 2 PO 4 and its composites indicated that hydrogen bonds breaking and formation were detected between 1710 to 2710 cm -1 , while the rotation of phosphate tetrahedral anions occurred between 900 and 1200 cm -1 . The superprotonic transition of CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 composite was identified at superprotonic temperatures between 230 and 260 degree Celcius, under atmospheric pressure. This study reveals higher conductivity values for composites with higher CsH 2 PO 4 (CDP) content. Solid acid composite CDP 613 appeared as the composite with the highest conductivity that is 7.2x10 -3 S cm -1 at 230 degree Celcius. Thermal stability of the solid acid composites such as temperature of dehydration, melting and decomposition were investigated. The addition of NaH 2 PO 4 lowers the dehydration temperature of the solid acid composites. (author)
Li, Jie; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Kai; Pan, Xi-De; Li, Cheng-Xin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu
In this study, vacuum cold spraying was used as a simple and fast way to prepare transparent super-hydrophobic coatings. Submicrometer-sized Al2O3 powder modified by 1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecyltriethoxysilane and mixed with hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel was employed for the coating deposition. The deposition mechanisms of pure Al2O3 powder and Al2O3-SiO2 mixed powder were examined, and the effects of powder structure on the hydrophobicity and light transmittance of the coatings were evaluated. The results showed that appropriate contents of SiO2 aerogel in the mixed powder could provide sufficient cushioning to the deposition of submicrometer Al2O3 powder during spraying. The prepared composite coating surface showed rough structures with a large number of submicrometer convex deposited particles, characterized by being super-hydrophobic. Also, the transmittance of the obtained coating was higher than 80% in the range of visible light.
Milivojević, D.; Babić-Stojić, B.; Jokanović, V.; Jagličić, Z.; Makovec, D.
Samples of Mn-oxide nanoparticles dispersed in an amorphous SiO2 matrix with manganese concentration 0.7 and 3 at% have been synthesized by a sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy analysis has shown that the samples contain agglomerates of amorphous silica particles 10-20 nm in size. In silica matrix two types of Mn-rich particles are dispersed, smaller nanoparticles with dimensions between 3 and 10 nm, and larger crystalline areas consisting of aggregates of the smaller nanoparticles. High-temperature magnetic susceptibility study reveals that dominant magnetic phase at higher temperatures is λ-MnO2. At temperatures below TC=43 K strong ferrimagnetism originating from the minor Mn3O4 phase masks the relatively weak magnetism of λ-MnO2 with antiferromagnetic interactions. Magnetic field dependence of the maximum in the zero-field-cooled magnetization for both the samples in the vicinity of 40 K, and a frequency shift of the real component of the ac magnetic susceptibility in the sample with 3 at% Mn suggest that the magnetic moments of the smaller Mn3O4 nanoparticles with dimensions below 10 nm are exposed to thermally activated blocking process just below the Curie temperature TC. Appearance of a maximum in the zero-field-cooled magnetization for both the samples below 10 K indicates possible spin glass freezing of the magnetic moments at low temperatures which might occur in the geometrically frustrated Mn sublattice of the λ-MnO2 crystal structure.
Budak, S.; Alim, M. A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Muntele, C.
Thermoelectric generator devices have been prepared from 200 alternating layers of SiO2/SiO2+Ge superlattice films using DC/RF magnetron sputtering. The 5 MeV Si ionsbombardmenthasbeen performed using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to formquantum dots and / or quantum clusters in the multi-layer superlattice thin films to decrease the cross-plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient and increase the cross-plane electrical conductivity to increase the figure of merit, ZT. The fabricated devices have been annealed at the different temperatures to tailor the thermoelectric and optical properties of the superlattice thin film systems. While the temperature increased, the Seebeck coefficient continued to increase and reached the maximum value of -25 μV/K at the fluenceof 5x1013 ions/cm2. The decrease in resistivity has been seen between the fluence of 1x1013 ions/cm2 and 5x1013 ions/cm2. Transport properties like Hall coefficient, density and mobility did not change at all fluences. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the multi-junction thermoelectric devices. The loci obtained in the C*-plane for these data indicate non-Debye type relaxation displaying the presence of the depression parameter.
The work presented in this PhD Thesis provides new insights into the underlying reasons that make SiO2-MgO materials excellent catalysts for the ethanol-to-butadiene Lebedev process. In particular, the preparation technique of choice affects the structural properties of the resulting SiO2-MgO
Full Text Available In this study, red cathodoluminescence (CL) ( emission=614 nm) was observed from Pr3+ ions in a glassy (amorphous) SiO2 host. This emission was enhanced considerably when ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were incorporated in the SiO2:Pr3+ suggesting...
Liu Yang; Liao Fuhui; Li Junran; Zhang Shaohua; Chen Shumei; Wei Chenguan; Gao Song
Electrorheological (ER) materials of pure SiO 2 and SiO 2 doped with rare earths (RE = Ce, Gd, Y) (non-metallic glasses (silicates)) were prepared using Na 2 SiO 3 and RECl 3 as starting materials. The electrorheological properties are not enhanced by all rare earth additions. The material doped with Ce exhibits the best ER performance
van de Loo, B. W. H.; Ingenito, A.; Verheijen, M. A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.; Kessels, W. M. M.
Black silicon (b-Si) nanotextures can significantly enhance the light absorption of crystalline silicon solar cells. Nevertheless, for a successful application of b-Si textures in industrially relevant solar cell architectures, it is imperative that charge-carrier recombination at particularly highly n-type doped black Si surfaces is further suppressed. In this work, this issue is addressed through systematically studying lowly and highly doped b-Si surfaces, which are passivated by atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films or SiO2/Al2O3 stacks. In lowly doped b-Si textures, a very low surface recombination prefactor of 16 fA/cm2 was found after surface passivation by Al2O3. The excellent passivation was achieved after a dedicated wet-chemical treatment prior to surface passivation, which removed structural defects which resided below the b-Si surface. On highly n-type doped b-Si, the SiO2/Al2O3 stacks result in a considerable improvement in surface passivation compared to the Al2O3 single layers. The atomic-layer-deposited SiO2/Al2O3 stacks therefore provide a low-temperature, industrially viable passivation method, enabling the application of highly n- type doped b-Si nanotextures in industrial silicon solar cells.
Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Bahyar, Tarifeh
Reduction of structurally different carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, α,β-unsaturated enals and enones, α-diketones and acyloins were accomplished efficiently by sodium borohydride in the presence of wet SiO 2 (30% m/m) under solvent free condition. The reactions were performed at room temperature or 75-80 deg C with high to excellent yields of the corresponding products. The chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was achieved successfully with this reducing system. (author)
Sola, A; Bellucci, D; Raucci, M G; Zeppetelli, S; Ambrosio, L; Cannillo, V
Because of their excellent bioactivity, bioactive glasses are increasingly diffused to produce biomedical devices for bone prostheses, to face the dysfunctions that may be caused by traumatic events, diseases, or even natural aging. However, several processing routes, such as the production of scaffolds or the deposition of coatings, include a thermal treatment to apply or sinter the glass. The exposure to high temperature may induce a devetrification phenomenon, altering the properties and, in particular, the bioactivity of the glass. The present contribution offers an overview of the thermal behavior and properties of two glasses belonging to the Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system, to be compared to the standard 45S5 Bioglass(®). The basic goal is to understand the effect of both the original composition and the thermal treatment on the performance of the sintered glasses. The new glasses, the one (BG_Na) with a high content of Na2O, the other (BG_Ca) with a high content of CaO, were fully characterized and sintering tests were performed to define the most interesting firing cycles. The sintered samples, treated at 880°C and 800°C respectively, were investigated from a microstructural point of view and their mechanical properties were compared to those of the bulk (not sintered) glass counterparts. The effect of sintering was especially striking on the BG_Ca material, whose Vickers hardness increased from 598.9 ± 46.7 HV to 1053.4 ± 35.0 HV. The in vitro tests confirmed the ability of the glasses, both in bulk and sintered form, of generating a hydroxyapatite surface layer when immersed in a simulated body fluid. More accurate biological tests performed on the sintered glasses proved the high bioactivity of the CaO-rich composition even after a heat treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
To assess the acceptability of prospective compositions, response criteria based on durability, homogeneity, viscosity and volatility were defined. Response variables were weighted: durability 35%, homogeneity 25%, viscosity 25%, volatility 15%. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to define the first twelve glass formulations. Glass former additives included Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, ZrO2 and SiO2. Lithia was added to facilitate fritting of the additives. The additives were normalized to silica content to ease experimental matrix definition and glass formulation. Preset high and low values of these ratios were determined for the initial twelve melts. Based on rankings of initial compositions, new formulations for testing were developed based on a simplex algorithm. Rating and ranking of subsequent compositions continued until no apparent improvement in glass quality was achieved in newly developed formulations. An optimized composition was determined by averaging the additive component values of the final best performing compositions. The glass former contents to form the optimized glass were: 16.1 wt % Al2O3, 12.3 wt % B2O3, 5.5 wt % CaO, 1.7 wt % Li2O, 3.3 wt % ZrO2, 61.1 wt % SiO2. An optimized composition resulted after only 25 trials despite studying six glass additives. A vitrification campaign was completed using a small-scale Joule heated melter. 80 lbs of glass was produced over 96 hours of continuous operation. Several salt compounds formed and deposited on melter components during the run and likely caused the failure of several pour chamber heaters. In an attempt to minimize sodium volatility, several low or no boron glasses were formulated. One composition containing no boron produced a homogeneous glass worthy of additional testing
Cao, Yan-Qiang; Wu, Bing; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong
In situ-formed SiO2 was introduced into HfO2 gate dielectrics on Ge substrate as interlayer by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The interfacial, electrical, and band alignment characteristics of the HfO2/SiO2 high-k gate dielectric stacks on Ge have been well investigated. It has been demonstrated that Si-O-Ge interlayer is formed on Ge surface during the in situ PEALD SiO2 deposition process. This interlayer shows fantastic thermal stability during annealing without obvious Hf-silicates formation. In addition, it can also suppress the GeO2 degradation. The electrical measurements show that capacitance equivalent thickness of 1.53 nm and a leakage current density of 2.1 × 10-3 A/cm2 at gate bias of Vfb + 1 V was obtained for the annealed sample. The conduction (valence) band offsets at the HfO2/SiO2/Ge interface with and without PDA are found to be 2.24 (2.69) and 2.48 (2.45) eV, respectively. These results indicate that in situ PEALD SiO2 may be a promising interfacial control layer for the realization of high-quality Ge-based transistor devices. Moreover, it can be demonstrated that PEALD is a much more powerful technology for ultrathin interfacial control layer deposition than MOCVD.
Abbas, Mohamed; Abdel-Hamed, M. O.; Chen, Jiangang
A facile and eco-friendly efficient sonochemical approach was designed for the synthesis of highly crystalline Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres in single reaction. The generated physical properties (shock waves, microjets, and turbulent flows) from ultrasonication as a consequence of the collapse of microbubbles and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a chemical linker were found to play a crucial role in the successful formation of the core/shell NPs within short time than the previously reported methods. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that a uniform SiO2 shell is successfully coated over Fe3O4 nanospheres, and the thickness of the silica shell could be easily controlled in the range from 5 to 15 nm by adjusting the reaction parameters. X-ray diffraction data were employed to confirm the formation of highly crystalline and pure phase of a cubic inverse spinel structure for magnetite (Fe3O4) nanospheres. The magnetic properties of the as-synthesized Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres were measured at room temperature using vibrating sample magnetometer, and the results demonstrated a high magnetic moment values with superparamagnetic properties.
Wan, Chang Jin; Zhu, Li Qiang; Zhou, Ju Mei; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing
In neuroscience, signal processing, memory and learning function are established in the brain by modifying ionic fluxes in neurons and synapses. Emulation of memory and learning behaviors of biological systems by nanoscale ionic/electronic devices is highly desirable for building neuromorphic systems or even artificial neural networks. Here, novel artificial synapses based on junctionless oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid transistors gated by nanogranular phosphorus-doped SiO2-based proton-conducting films are fabricated on glass substrates by a room-temperature process. Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) are mimicked by tuning the pulse gate voltage amplitude. The LTM process in such an artificial synapse is due to the proton-related interfacial electrochemical reaction. Our results are highly desirable for building future neuromorphic systems or even artificial networks via electronic elements.
Marraco-Borderas, C.; Nistal, A.; Garcia, E.; Sainz, M.A.; Martin de la Escalera, F.; Essa, Y.; Miranzo, P.
High performance lightweight materials are required in the aerospace industry. Silicon carbide, carbon fiber reinforced carbon and slicon carbide composites comply with those requirements but they suffer from oxidation at the high temperature of the service conditions. One of the more effective approaches to prevent this problem is the use of protecting ceramic coatings, where the good adhesion between substrates and coatings are paramount to guarantee the optimal protection performance. In the present work, the adhesion between those substrates and glass coatings of the Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system processed by oxyacetylene flame spraying is analyzed. Increasing load scratch tests are employed for determining the failure type, maximum load and their relation with the elastic and mechanical properties of the coatings. The results points to the good adhesion of the coatings to silicon carbide and carbon fibre reinforced silicon carbide while the carbon fiber reinforced carbon is not a suitable material to be coated. (Author)
Kurovics, E.; Shmakova, A.; Kanev, B.; Gömze, L. A.
Based on high purity alumina and quartz powders and IG-017 bio-original additives the authors have developed new ceramic composite materials for different industrial purposes. The main goal was to fine a material and morphological structures of high performance ceramic composites as frames for development complex materials for extreme consumptions in the future. For this the mixed powders of Al2O3 , SiO2 and IG-017 bio-original additive were uniaxially pressed at different compaction pressures into disc shapes and were sintered in electric kiln under air (1) and nitrogrn (2) atmosphere. The grain size distributions of the raw materials were determined by laser granulometry. There thermo-physical properties were also determined by derivatography. The prepared and sintered specimens were tested on geometrical sizes, microstructure and morphology by scanning electron microscopy, porosity and water absorption. In this work the authors present the results of their research and investigation.
Wu, Cuiqing; Liu, Qi; Chen, Rongrong; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Hongsen; Li, Rumin; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Liu, Peili; Wang, Jun
Superhydrophobic coatings are highly promising for protecting material surfaces and for wide applications. In this study, superhydrophobic composites, comprising a rhombic-dodecahedral zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8@SiO 2 ), have been manufactured onto AZ31 magnesium alloy via chemical etching and dip-coating methods to enhance stability and corrosion resistance. Herein, we report on a simple strategy to modify hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilan (HDTMS) on ZIF-8@SiO 2 to significantly improve the property of repelling water. We show that various liquids can be stable on its surface and maintain a contact angle higher than 150°. The morphologies and chemical composition were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR). In addition, the anticorrosion and antiattrition properties of the film were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization and HT, respectively. Such a coating shows promising potential as a material for large-scale fabrication.
Jia, Q.X.; Arendt, P.; Groves, J.R.; Fan, Y.; Roper, J.M.; Foltyn, S.R.
Highly conductive biaxially textured RuO 2 thin films were deposited on technically important SiO 2 /Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition, where yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) produced by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) was used as a template to enhance the biaxial texture of RuO 2 on SiO 2 /Si. The biaxially oriented RuO 2 had a room-temperature resistivity of 37 μΩ-cm and residual resistivity ratio above 2. We then deposited Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 thin films on RuO 2 /IBAD-YSZ/SiO 2 /Si. The Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 had a pure (111) orientation normal to the substrate surface and a dielectric constant above 360 at 100 kHz. copyright 1998 Materials Research Society
Cheng, Zengguang; Zhou, Qiaoyu; Wang, Chenxuan; Li, Qiang; Wang, Chen; Fang, Ying
By combining atomic force microscopy and trans-port measurements, we systematically investigated effects of thermal annealing on surface morphologies and electrical properties of single-layer graphene devices fabricated by electron beam lithography on silicon oxide (SiO(2)) substrates. Thermal treatment above 300 °C in vacuum was required to effectively remove resist residues on graphene surfaces. However, annealing at high temperature was found to concomitantly bring graphene in close contact with SiO(2) substrates and induce increased coupling between them, which leads to heavy hole doping and severe degradation of mobilities in graphene devices. To address this problem, a wet-chemical approach employing chloroform was developed in our study, which was shown to enable both intrinsic surfaces and enhanced electrical properties of graphene devices. Upon the recovery of intrinsic surfaces of graphene, the adsorption and assisted fibrillation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ1-42) on graphene were electrically measured in real time.
R. Ajay Kumar
Full Text Available Multilayer dielectric thin film structure has been demanded for its application in optoelectronic devices such as optical waveguides, vertical cavity surface-emitting devices, biosensors etc. In this paper, we present the fabrication and characterization of bilayer thin films of TiO2/SiO2 using sol-gel spin coating method. Ellipsometer measurement showed refractive index values 1.46, 2.1 corresponding to the SiO2 and TiO2 films respectively. The FTIR transmittance peaks observed at ~970 cm-1, ~1100 cm-1 and ~1400 cm-1 are attributed to the Ti-O-Si, Si-O-Si and Ti-O-Ti bonds respectively. Maximum reflectance is observed from two bilayer film structure which can be further optimized to get the high reflection to a broad wavelength range.
Savchyn, Oleksandr; Coffey, Kevin R.; Kik, Pieter G.
The presence of indirect Er 3+ excitation in Si-rich SiO 2 is demonstrated for Si-excess concentrations in the range of 2.5-37 at. %. The Si excess concentration providing the highest density of sensitized Er 3+ ions is demonstrated to be relatively insensitive to the presence of Si nanocrystals and is found to be ∼14.5 at. % for samples without Si nanocrystals (annealed at 600 deg. C) and ∼11.5 at. % for samples with Si nanocrystals (annealed at 1100 deg. C). The observed optimum is attributed to an increase in the density of Si-related sensitizers as the Si concentration is increased, with subsequent deactivation and removal of these sensitizers at high Si concentrations. The optimized Si excess concentration is predicted to generate maximum Er-related gain at 1.54 μm in devices based on Er-doped Si-rich SiO 2 .
Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Moon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Dong-Wook; Oh, Tae Sik; Yoo, Ji Beom
Graphical abstract: The SiO_2 hollow spheres and polyimide hybrid synthesized using one step process, simultaneous occurrence of decomposition and polymerization (SODP) is useful with a ultra-low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLED. - Highlights: • We fabricated hybrid films of SHS/PI by using a one step process with SODP. • The film has ultralow dielectric constant (50 vol% at k = 1.67). • There is no collapse of SiO_2 hollow spheres in the PI matrix after bending test for 50,000 cycles. - Abstract: The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant as well as materials with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties for optimal device performance. Hybrid films of SiO_2 hollow spheres (SHS)/polyimide (PI) were prepared using a one-step process, with simultaneous occurrence of decomposition (polystyrene, PS) and polymerization (PI) (SODP). No collapse of SiO_2 hollow spheres in PI was observed from 10 vol% to 60 vol% SHS in hybrid films. The dielectric constant of hybrid films was reduced from 3.45 to 1.67 and was saturated at above 50 vol% of SHS due to the maximum fill factor of SHS in the PI matrix. The thermal stability was excellent up to 500 °C due to the inherent thermal property of PI. After a bending test for 50,000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm, the SHS/PI hybrid films retained their dielectric constant and current density. These results indicate the hybrid film to be the most promising candidate for flexible ILDs with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for foldable OLEDs.
Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S; Li, Chen; Lai, C Steven; Hudson, Eric A
The evaluation of a plasma-based atomic layer etching (ALE) approach for native oxide surface removal from Si substrates is described. Objectives include removal of the native oxide while minimizing substrate damage, surface residues and substrate loss. Oxide thicknesses were measured using in situ ellipsometry and surface chemistry was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The cyclic ALE approach when used for removal of native oxide SiO 2 from a Si substrate did not remove native oxide to the extent required. This is due to the high reactivity of the silicon substrate during the low-energy (<40 eV) ion bombardment phase of the cyclic ALE approach which leads to reoxidation of the silicon surface. A modified process, which used continuously biased Ar plasma with periodic CF 4 injection, achieved significant oxygen removal from the Si surface, with some residual carbon and fluorine. A subsequent H 2 /Ar plasma exposure successfully removed residual carbon and fluorine while passivating the silicon surface. The combined treatment reduced oxygen and carbon levels to about half compared to as received silicon surfaces. The downside of this process sequence is a net loss of about 40 Å of Si. A generic insight of this work is the importance of the substrate and final surface chemistry in addition to precise etch control of the target film for ALE processes. By a fluorocarbon-based ALE technique, thin SiO 2 layer removal at the Ångstrom level can be precisely performed from an inert substrate, e.g. a thick SiO 2 layer. However, from a reactive substrate, like Si, complete removal of the thin SiO 2 layer is prevented by the high reactivity of low energy Ar + ion bombarded Si. The Si surfaces are reoxidized during the ALE ion bombardment etch step, even for very clean and ultra-low O 2 process conditions. (paper)
Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Armbrister, V. A.; Kesler, V. G.; Novikov, P. L.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Kirienko, V. V.; Smagina, Zh. V.; Groetzschel, R.
Pulsed low-energy (200 eV) ion-beam induced nucleation during Ge deposition on thin SiO 2 film was used to form dense homogeneous arrays of Ge nanocrystals. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge nanocrystals when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Temperature and flux variation was used to optimize the nanocrystal size and array density required for memory device. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation shows that ion impacts open an additional channel of atom displacement from a nanocrystal onto SiO 2 surface. This results both in a decrease in the average nanocrystal size and in an increase in nanocrystal density
Banerjee, S.P.; Bhadra, A.K.; Sircar, N.R.
The effect of addition of ZrO 2 in different proportions in the refractories of the Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system was studied. The investigation was confined to two broad ranges of compositions incorporating zirconia (15-30 percent and 80-85 percent) in the Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 -SiO 2 system. The overall attainment of properties is dependent upon the mode of fabrication and firing, and bears a relationship with the phase assemblages and the relative proportion thereof. Of the different characteristics, the trend of dissociation of zircon has been found to be specially significant vis-a-vis the temperature of firing and thermal shock resistance. Reassociation of the dissociated products has been ascribed to bring forth improved resistance to thermal spalling. The different products developed during this investigation are considered to be very promising which find useful applications in view of the properties attained by them. (auth.)
Yaakob, N. H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A. T.; Bradley, D. A.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.
This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.
Chen Min; Mikecz, Anna von
Despite of their exponentially growing use, little is known about cell biological effects of nanoparticles. Here, we report uptake of silica (SiO 2 ) nanoparticles to the cell nucleus where they induce aberrant clusters of topoisomerase I (topo I) in the nucleoplasm that additionally contain signature proteins of nuclear domains, and protein aggregation such as ubiquitin, proteasomes, cellular glutamine repeat (polyQ) proteins, and huntingtin. Formation of intranuclear protein aggregates (1) inhibits replication, transcription, and cell proliferation; (2) does not significantly alter proteasomal activity or cell viability; and (3) is reversible by Congo red and trehalose. Since SiO 2 nanoparticles trigger a subnuclear pathology resembling the one occurring in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders, we suggest that integrity of the functional architecture of the cell nucleus should be used as a read out for cytotoxicity and considered in the development of safe nanotechnology
Huseynov, Elchin; Garibov, Adil; Mehdiyeva, Ravan; Huseynova, Efsane
In the present work, nano SiO2 particles are investigated before and after gamma irradiation (25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 kGy) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method for the wavenumber between 400-4000 cm-1. It is found that as a result of spectroscopic analysis, five new peaks have appeared after gamma radiation. Two of new obtained peaks (which are located at 687 cm-1 and 2357 cm-1 of wavenumber) were formed as a result of gamma radiation interaction with Si-O bonds. Another three new peaks (peaks appropriate to 941, 2052 and 2357 cm-1 values of wavenumber) appear as a result of interaction of water with nano SiO2 particles after gamma irradiation. It has been defined as asymmetrical bending vibration, symmetrical bending vibration, symmetrical stretching vibration and asymmetrical stretching vibration of Si-O bonds appropriate to peaks.
Sieber, N.; Klabes, R.; Voelskow, M.; Fenske, F.
The behaviour of oxide charges and interface charges in boron implanted and non-implanted SiO 2 -Si structures as well as the electrical activation of the dopants by the action of incoherent light pulses was studied. Depth profiles of electrically active boron ions are presented for different annealing conditions as measured by the pulsed C-V method. It can be concluded that exposure of MOS structures to intense radiation of flash lamps does not increase the fixed charge and the fast state density at the SiO 2 -Si interface if optimal annealing conditions (energy densities) are employed. Low dose boron implanted silicon can be electrically activated without diffusion or segregation of dopants
Sun, Yifei; Narayanachari, K. V. L. V.; Wan, Chenghao; Sun, Xing; Wang, Haiyan; Cooley, Kayla A.; Mohney, Suzanne E.; White, Doug; Duwel, Amy; Kats, Mikhail A.; Ramanathan, Shriram
We present a study of co-sputtered VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite dielectric thin-film media possessing continuous temperature tunability of the dielectric constant. The smooth thermal tunability is a result of the insulator-metal transition in the VO2 inclusions dispersed within an insulating matrix. We present a detailed comparison of the dielectric characteristics of this nanocomposite with those of a VO2 control layer and of VO2/SiO2 laminate multilayers of comparable overall thickness. We demonstrated a nanocomposite capacitor that has a thermal capacitance tunability of ˜60% between 25 °C and 100 °C at 1 MHz, with low leakage current. Such thermally tunable capacitors could find potential use in applications such as sensing, thermal cloaks, and phase-change energy storage devices.
Yaakob, N.H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A.T.; Bradley, D.A; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.
This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.
Cao, Mao-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Xiao-Yong; Jin, Hai-Bo; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Yu-Jin
In this paper, cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared and their microwave absorption properties were investigated in detail. Dielectric constants and losses of the pure cagelike ZnO nanostructures were measured in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4GHz. The measured results indicate that the cagelike ZnO nanostructures are low-loss material for microwave absorption in X band. However, the cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites exhibit a relatively strong attenuation to microwave in X band. Such strong absorption is related to the unique geometrical morphology of the cagelike ZnO nanostructures in the composites. The microcurrent network can be produced in the cagelike ZnO nanostructures, which contributes to the conductive loss.
Revesz, A. G.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Hughes, H. L.; Skorupa, W.
Positron annihilation spectroscopy of thermally grown and deposited SiO 2 films on silicon shows in a non-destructive manner that these films have a gradient in their density. The gradient is most pronounced for the oxide grown in dry oxygen. Oxidation in water-containing ambient results in an oxide with reduced gradient, similarly to the gradient in the deposited oxide. These observations are in accordance with earlier optical and other studies using stepwise etching or a set of samples of varying thickness. The effective oxygen charge, which is very likely one of the reasons for the difference in the W parameters of silica glass and quartz crystal, could be even higher at some localized configurations in the SiO 2 films resulting in increased positron trapping.
Balasubramanian, S.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S.
In the present work, effect of residual stress, induced due to annealing of SiO2 microcantilevers (MCs) on their resonance frequency is studied. SiO2MCs of various dimensions were fabricated using direct laser writer & wet chemical etching method and were annealed at 800 °C in oxygen environment, post release. The residual stress was estimated from the deflection profile of the MCs measured using 3D optical microscope, before and after annealing. Resonance frequency of the MCs was measured using nano-vibration analyzer and was found to change after annealing. Further the frequency shift was found to depend on the MC dimensions. This is attributed to the large stress gradients induced by annealing and associated stiffness changes.
Grunthaner, F. J.; Maserjian, J.
Changes in silicon surface preparation prior to thermal oxidation are shown to leave a signature by altering the final SiO2/Si interface structure. Surface analytical techniques, including XPS, static SIMS, ion milling, and newly developed wet-chemical profiling procedures are used to obtain detailed information on the chemical structure of the interface. The oxides are shown to be essentially SiO2 down to a narrow transitional interface layer (3-7 A). A number of discrete chemical species are observed in this interface layer, including different silicon bonds (e.g., C-, OH-, H-) and a range of oxidation states of silicon (0 to +4). The effect of surface preparation and the observed chemical species are correlated with oxide growth rate, surface-state density, and flatband shifts after irradiation.
Luo, Honglin; Li, Wei; Ao, Haiyong; Li, Gen; Tu, Junpin; Xiong, Guangyao; Zhu, Yong; Wan, Yizao
Three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffolds hold great promises in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, for the first time, 3D SiO 2 -CaO binary glass nanofibrous scaffolds have been fabricated via a combined method of template-assisted sol-gel and calcination by using bacterial cellulose as the template. SEM with EDS, TEM, and AFM confirm that the molar ratio of Ca to Si and fiber diameter of the resultant SiO 2 -CaO nanofibers can be controlled by immersion time in the solution of tetraethyl orthosilicate and ethanol. The optimal immersion time was 6h which produced the SiO 2 -CaO binary glass containing 60at.% Si and 40at.% Ca (named 60S40C). The fiber diameter of 60S40C scaffold is as small as 29nm. In addition, the scaffold has highly porous 3D nanostructure with dominant mesopores at 10.6nm and macropores at 20μm as well as a large BET surface area (240.9m 2 g -1 ), which endow the 60S40C scaffold excellent biocompatibility and high ALP activity as revealed by cell studies using osteoblast cells. These results suggest that the 60S40C scaffold has great potential in bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Maolin; An, Taicheng; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Xinming; Hu, Xiaohong; Ding, Xuejun
An adsorptive silica-supported titania photocatalyst TiO(2)/SiO(2) was prepared by using nanosized titania (anatase) immobilized on silica gel by the sol-gel technique with the titanium tetra isopropoxide as the main raw material and acetic acid as the acid catalyst. Meanwhile the structure and properties of the TiO(2)/SiO(2) photocatalyst were studied by means of many modern analysis techniques such as TEM, XRD, and BET. Gas-solid heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of four carbonyl compounds mixture at low concentration levels over ultraviolet irradiated TiO(2)/SiO(2) photocatalyst were carried out with high degradation efficiencies in a coaxial triple-cylinder-type fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor, which provided efficient continuous contact of ultraviolet photons, silica-supported titania photocatalyst, and gaseous reactants. Experimental results showed that the photocatalyst had a high adsorption performance and a good photocatalytic activity for four carbonyl compounds mixture. Some factors influencing the photocatalytic decomposition of the mixed carbonyl compounds, i.e. the gas flowrate, relative humidity, concentration of oxygen, and illumination time, were discussed in detail. It is found that the photocatalytic reaction rate of four carbonyl compounds decreased in this order: propionaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
Peng, Di; Liu, Xiang; Huang, Mengjun; Wang, Dan; Liu, Renlong
Solid powder fluorescence shows great potential for application in medicine, biology, and engineering, especially in the identification of latent fingermarks in forensic science. However, conventional developing methods suffer from some drawbacks, such as low contrast, low sensitivity, low selectivity, and high toxicity. To conquer these challenges, novel SiO2@C-dot microspheres were prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method by using citric acid as a carbon source and aminosilane as a nitrogen source. Interestingly, the results showed that the resultant powders possess good monodispersity, high fluorescence emission, and resistance to self-quenching. Additionally, the mechanism for the solid-state fluorescence of SiO2@C-dot compounds was also investigated. More importantly, the fingermarks on various surfaces, including transparent glasses, ceramic tiles, transparent plastics, aluminum alloys, plastic cards, painted woods, artificial leathers, and Chinese paper money, developed by the powders have indicated well-defined papillary ridges under a 365 nm UV lamp. The novel strategy of using monodisperse SiO2@C-dot microspheres as a fluorescent label for developing latent fingermarks showed greater advantages compared to conventional methods, which was also demonstrated using the automatic fingerprint identification system. It is simple, rapid, low-cost, nontoxic, and effective, and is expected to be a promising alternative for the development of latent fingerprints in forensic science.
Mo, H.; Taub, H.; Volkmann, U.G.
on the SiO2 surface with the long-axis of the C32 molecules oriented parallel to the interface followed by a C32 monolayer with the long-axis perpendicular to it. Finally, preferentially oriented bulk particles nucleate having two different crystal structures. This growth model differs from that found...... previously for shorter alkanes deposited from the vapor phase onto solid surfaces....
Kong, Y.; Leung, T.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.
The positron mobility in thermally grown SiO 2 is deduced from Doppler broadening lineshape data on a metal-oxide-semiconductor sample for positrons implanted into the oxide layer. The fitted mobility is ∼13(10)x10 -3 cm 2 /s V. This value is between that of the electron and hole mobilities in the same system and is two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous estimate from positron measurements
Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Leung, T.C.; Nielsen, B.; Wu, X.Y.
We describe positron annihilation studies of SiO 2 /Si(100) structures having 100-nm-thick oxide grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A normalized shape parameter is used to characterize the positron annihilation spectra. Activation and passivation of interface states by atomic hydrogen are demonstrated by repeated vacuum anneal and atomic hydrogen exposure. Hydrogen activation energy is derived for one of the samples as 2.02±0.07 eV
Full Text Available Ammonia gas sensing properties of tungsten trioxide thick film sensor was investigated. The doping of noble catalysts such as Pt, Pd, Au enhanced the gas sensitivity. Platinum doping was found to result in highest sensitivity. Remarkable sensitivity enhancement was realized by coating WO3 thick film sensors with SiO2 overlayer. Sol gel process derived silica overlayer increased ammonia gas sensitivity for doped as well as undoped sensor.
Díaz, Gabriela; Chang, Yao-Jen; Philipossian, Ara
The controllable synthesis and characterization of novel thermally stable silver-based particles are described. The experimental approach involves the design of thermally stable nanostructures by the deposition of an interfacial thick, active titania layer between the primary substrate (SiO2 particles) and the metal nanoparticles (Ag NPs), as well as the doping of Ag nanoparticles with an organic molecule (Congo Red, CR). The nanostructured particles were composed of a 330-nm silica core capped by a granular titania layer (10 to 13 nm in thickness), along with monodisperse 5 to 30 nm CR-Ag NPs deposited on top. The titania-coated support (SiO2/TiO2 particles) was shown to be chemically and thermally stable and promoted the nucleation and anchoring of CR-Ag NPs, which prevented the sintering of CR-Ag NPs when the structure was exposed to high temperatures. The thermal stability of the silver composites was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Larger than 10 nm CR-Ag NPs were thermally stable up to 300 °C. Such temperature was high enough to destabilize the CR-Ag NPs due to the melting point of the CR. On the other hand, smaller than 10 nm Ag NPs were stable at temperatures up to 500 °C because of the strong metal-metal oxide binding energy. Energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was carried out to qualitatively analyze the chemical stability of the structure at different temperatures which confirmed the stability of the structure and the existence of silver NPs at temperatures up to 500 °C.
da Cunha Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Romanyuk, Konstantin; Luchkin, Sergey; Kopelevich, Yakov; Kholkin, Andrei
Electromechanical response of materials is a key property for various applications ranging from actuators to sophisticated nanoelectromechanical systems. Here electromechanical properties of the single-layer graphene transferred onto SiO2 calibration grating substrates is studied via piezoresponse force microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The correlation of mechanical strains in graphene layer with the substrate morphology is established via Raman mapping. Apparent vertical piezoresponse from the single-layer graphene supported by underlying SiO2 structure is observed by piezoresponse force microscopy. The calculated vertical piezocoefficient is about 1.4 nm V(-1), that is, much higher than that of the conventional piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate and comparable to that of relaxor single crystals. The observed piezoresponse and achieved strain in graphene are associated with the chemical interaction of graphene's carbon atoms with the oxygen from underlying SiO2. The results provide a basis for future applications of graphene layers for sensing, actuating and energy harvesting.
Lynn, K.G.; Asoka-Kumar, P.
The hydrogen atoms are one of the most common impurity species found in semiconductor systems owing to its large diffusivity, and are easily incorporated either in a controlled process like in ion implantation or in an uncontrolled process like the one at the fabrication stage. Hydrogen can passivate dangling bonds and dislocations in these systems and hence can be used to enhance the electrical properties. In a SiO 2 /Si system, hydrogen can passivate electronic states at the interface and can alter the fixed or mobile charges in the oxide layer. Since hydrogen is present in almost all of the environments of SiO 2 /Si wafer fabrication, the activation energy of hydrogen atoms is of paramount importance to a proper understanding of SiO 2 /Si based devices and has not been measured on the technologically most important Si(100) face. There are no direct, nondestructive methods available to observe hydrogen injection into the oxide layer and subsequent diffusion. This study uses the positrons as a ''sensitive'', nondestructive probe to observe hydrogen interaction in the oxide layer and the interface region. We also describe a new way of characterizing the changes in the density of the interface states under a low-temperature annealing using positrons. 9 refs., 6 figs
Lynn, K. G.; Asoka-Kumar, P.
The hydrogen atoms are one of the most common impurity species found in semiconductor systems owing to its large diffusivity, and are easily incorporated either in a controlled process like in ion implantation or in an uncontrolled process like the one at the fabrication stage. Hydrogen can passivate dangling bonds and dislocations in these systems and hence can be used to enhance the electrical properties. In a SiO2/Si system, hydrogen can passivate electronic states at the interface and can alter the fixed or mobile charges in the oxide layer. Since hydrogen is present in almost all of the environments of SiO2/Si wafer fabrication, the activation energy of hydrogen atoms is of paramount importance to a proper understanding of SiO2/Si based devices and has not been measured on the technologically most important Si(100) face. There are no direct, nondestructive methods available to observe hydrogen injection into the oxide layer and subsequent diffusion. The positrons are used as a 'sensitive', nondestructive probe to observe hydrogen interaction in the oxide layer and the interface region. A new way is described of characterizing the changes in the density of the interface states under a low temperature annealing using positrons.
Malik, Nishant; Finstad, Terje G; Schjølberg-Henriksen, Kari; Poppe, Erik U; Taklo, Maaike M V
Al–Al thermocompression bonding suitable for wafer level sealing of MEMS devices has been investigated. This paper presents a comparison of thermocompression bonding of Al films deposited on Si with and without a thermal oxide (SiO 2 film). Laminates of diameter 150 mm containing device sealing frames of width 200 µm were realized. The wafers were bonded by applying a bond force of 36 or 60 kN at bonding temperatures ranging from 300–550 °C for bonding times of 15, 30 or 60 min. The effects of these process variations on the quality of the bonded laminates have been studied. The bond quality was estimated by measurements of dicing yield, tensile strength, amount of cohesive fracture in Si and interfacial characterization. The mean bond strength of the tested structures ranged from 18–61 MPa. The laminates with an SiO 2 film had higher dicing yield and bond strength than the laminates without SiO 2 for a 400 °C bonding temperature. The bond strength increased with increasing bonding temperature and bond force. The laminates bonded for 30 and 60 min at 400 °C and 60 kN had similar bond strength and amount of cohesive fracture in the bulk silicon, while the laminates bonded for 15 min had significantly lower bond strength and amount of cohesive fracture in the bulk silicon. (paper)
Abe, T.; Yamada-Kaneta, H.
Diffusion behavior of oxygen at (near) the Si/SiO 2 interface was investigated. We first oxidized the floating-zone-grown silicon substrates, and then annealed the SiO 2 -covered substrates in an argon ambient. We examined two different conditions for oxidation: wet and dry oxidation. By the secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, we measured the depth profiles of the oxygen in-diffusion of these heat-treated silicon substrates: We found that the energy of dissolution (in-diffusion) of an oxygen atom that dominates the oxygen concentration at the Si/SiO 2 interface depends on the oxidation condition: 2.0 and 1.7 eV for wet and dry oxidation, respectively. We also found that the barrier heights for the oxygen diffusion in argon anneal were significantly different for different ambients adopted for the SiO 2 formation: 3.3 and 1.8 eV for wet and dry oxidation, respectively. These findings suggest that the microscopic behavior of the oxygen atoms at the Si/SiO 2 interface during the argon anneal depends on the ambient adopted for the SiO 2 formation
Nakano, Shinsuke; Muto, Shunsuke; Tanabe, Tetsuo
To understand the plastic deformation mechanism of SiO 2 polytypes, we measured the mechanical parameters of He + -irradiated crystalline SiO 2 (α-quartz, c-SiO 2 ) and vitreous SiO 2 (silica glass, v-SiO 2 ) as functions of the irradiation dose, by using the instrumented indentation method combined with a finite-element analysis. We extracted the effects of local rotation and bending of the SiO 4 framework (the degree of local structural freedom), which play key roles in the plastic deformation, and expressed the hardness change with a simple formula. For v-SiO 2 , the changes in the density and the number of broken bonds correlated well with the change in the degree of freedom. In contrast, for c-SiO 2 the present formulation was insufficient to fully express the hardness change in the structural disordering regime. The structure change by irradiation peculiar to this material is discussed, based on the theoretical formulation
Full Text Available Silicon has been the choice for photonics technology because of its cost, compatibility with mass production and availability. Silicon based photonic devices are very significant from commercial point of view and are much compatible with established technology. This paper deals with deposition and characterization of SiO2 films prepared by indigenously developed chemical vapor deposition system. Ellipsometry study of prepared films showed an increase in refractive index and film thickness with the increment in deposition temperature. The deposition temperature has a significant role for stoichiometric SiO2 films, FTIR measurement has shown the three characteristics peaks of Si-O-Si through three samples prepared at temperatures 700, 750 and 800 °C while Si-O-Si stretching peak positions were observed to be shifted to lower wavenumber in accordance to the temperature. FESEM analysis has confirmed the smooth surface without any crack or disorder while EDX analysis showed the corresponding peaks of compositional SiO2 films.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7245
Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2 binary coatings were deposited by a sol-gel dip-coating method using tetrabutyl titanate and tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursors. The structure and chemical composition of the coatings annealed at different temperatures were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The refractive indices of the coatings were calculated from the measured transmittance and reflectance spectra. An increase in refractive index with the high temperature thermal annealing process was observed. The Raman and FTIR results indicate that the refractive index variation is due to changes in the removal of the organic component, phase separation and the crystal structure of the binary coatings.
Khouchaf, L.; Boinski, F.; Tuilier, M.H.; Flank, A.M.
Micro X-ray absorption near edge structure XANES and micro fluorescence experiments have been carried out using X-ray microbeam from synchrotron radiation source with high brightness to investigate the local structural evolutions of heterogeneous and natural SiO 2 submitted to alkali-silica reaction ASR process. Compared to elemental maps obtained by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope ESEM, micro fluorescence X maps showed the diffusion of potassium cations inside the grains with higher accuracy. Si K-edge spectra show the disorder induced by the dissolution of the grain from the outside to the inside. Potassium K-edge spectra do not show significant changes around K cations. The breaking of Si-O-Si bonds and the disorder of the (SiO 4 ) n network may be affected to potassium cations
Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Bidault, Sebastien; Bonod, Nicolas; Abbarchi, Marco
We report the fabrication of Si-based dielectric Mie resonators via a low cost process based on solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin amorphous Si on SiO2. We investigate the dewetting dynamics of a few nanometer sized layers annealed at high temperature to form submicrometric Si-particles. Morphological and structural characterization reveal the polycrystalline nature of the semiconductor matrix as well as rather irregular morphologies of the dewetted islands. Optical dark field imaging and spectroscopy measurements of the single islands reveal pronounced resonant scattering at visible frequencies. The linewidth of the low-order modes can be ∼20 nm in full width at half maximum, leading to a quality factor Q exceeding 25. These values reach the state-of-the-art ones obtained for monocrystalline Mie resonators. The simplicity of the dewetting process and its cost-effectiveness opens the route to exploiting it over large scales for applications in silicon-based photonics.
Zhu, Li Qiang; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui
Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO 2 nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics
Recently, single layer MoS2 with a direct band gap of 1.9 eV has been proposed as a candidate for two dimensional nanoelectronic devices. However, the synthetic approach to obtain high-quality MoS2 atomic thin layers is still problematic. Spectroscopic and microscopic results reveal that both single layers and tetrahedral clusters of MoS2 are deposited directly on the SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The tetrahedral clusters are mixtures of 2H- and 3R-MoS2. By ex situ optical analysis, both the single layers and tetrahedral clusters can be attributed to van der Waals epitaxial growth. Due to the similar layered structures we expect the same growth mechanism for other transition-metal disulfides by chemical vapor deposition. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Papadimitriou, Sofia; Bikiaris, Dimitrios
Creation of immediate release formulations for the poorly water-soluble drug Tibolone through the use of solid dispersions (SDs). SD systems of Tibolone (Tibo) with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), fumed SiO(2) nanoparticles, and their corresponding ternary systems (PVP/SiO(2)/Tibo) were prepared and studied in order to produce formulations with enhanced drug dissolution rates. The prepared SDs were characterized by the use of differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffractometry techniques. Also dissolution experiments were performed. From the results it was concluded that PVP as well as SiO(2) can be used as appropriate carriers for the amorphization of Tibo, even when the drug is used at high concentrations (20-30%, w/w). This is due to the evolved interactions taking place between the drug and the used carriers, as was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. At higher concentrations the drug was recrystallized. Similar are the observations on the ternary PVP/SiO(2)/Tibo SDs. The dissolution profiles of the drug in PVP/Tibo and SiO(2)/Tibo SDs are directly dependent on the physical state of the drug. Immediately release rates are observed in SD with low drug concentrations, in which Tibo was in amorphous state. However, these release profiles are drastically changed in the ternary PVP/SiO(2)/Tibo SDs. An immediate release profile is observed for low drug concentrations and an almost sustained release as the concentration of Tibo increases. This is due to the weak interactions that take place between PVP and SiO(2), which result in alterations of the characteristics of the carrier (PVP/SiO(2) nanocomposites). Immediate release formulation was created for Tibolone as well as new nanocomposite matrices of PVP/SiO((2)), which drastically change the release profile of the drug to a sustained delivery.
Shao, Yi; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Lu, Guanzhong; Wang, Yanqin
A simple Pd-loaded Nb2 O5 /SiO2 catalyst was prepared for the hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-related compounds to alkanes under mild conditions. Niobium oxide dispersed in silica (Nb2 O5 /SiO2 ) as the support was prepared by the sol-gel method and characterized by various techniques, including N2 adsorption, XRD, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), TEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) atomic mapping. The characterization results showed that the niobium oxide species were amorphous and well dispersed in silica. Compared to commercial Nb2 O5 , Nb2 O5 /SiO2 has significantly more active niobium oxide species exposed on the surface. Under mild conditions (170 °C, 2.5 MPa), Pd/10 %Nb2 O5 /SiO2 was effective for the hydrodeoxygenation reactions of 4-(2-furyl)-3-buten-2-one (aldol adduct of furfural with acetone), palmitic acid, tristearin, and diphenyl ether (model compounds of microalgae oils, vegetable oils, and lignin), which gave high yields (>94 %) of alkanes with little CC bond cleavage. More importantly, owing to the significant promotion effect of NbOx species on CO bond cleavage and the mild reaction conditions, the CC cleavage was considerably restrained, and the catalyst showed an excellent activity and stability for the hydrodeoxygenation of palmitic acid with almost no decrease in hexadecane yield (94-95 %) in a 150 h time-on-stream test. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2 composites were synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as the structure directing template. Self-assembly hexadecyltrimethyl- ammonium bromide TiO2-SiO2/(CTAB were soaked into silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solution. The Ag-TiO2-SiO2(Ag-TS composite were prepared via a precipitation of AgBr in soaking process and its decomposition at calcination stage. Structural characterization of the materials was carried out by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. Characterization results revealed that Ag particles were incorporated into hierarchical TiO2-SiO2 without significantly affecting the structures of the supports. Further heating-treatment at 723 K was more favorable for enhancing the stability of the Ag-TS composite. The cyclohexene oxide was the major product in the epoxidation using H2O2 as the oxidant over the Ag-TS catalysts. Besides, the optimum catalytic activity and stability of Ag-TS catalysts were obtained under operational conditions of calcined at 723 K for 2 h, reaction time of 120 min, reaction temperature of 353 K, catalyst amount of 80 mg, aqueous H2O2 (30 wt.% as oxidant and chloroform as solvent. High catalytic activity with conversion rate up to 99.2% of cyclohexene oxide could be obtainable in water-bathing. The catalyst was found to be stable and could be reused three times without significant loss of catalytic activity under the optimized reaction conditions.
Veith, Lothar; Vennemann, Antje; Breitenstein, Daniel; Engelhard, Carsten; Wiemann, Martin; Hagenhoff, Birgit
The direct detection of nanoparticles in tissues at high spatial resolution is a current goal in nanotoxicology. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is widely used for the direct detection of inorganic and organic substances with high spatial resolution but its capability to detect nanoparticles in tissue sections is still insufficiently explored. To estimate the applicability of this technique for nanotoxicological questions, comparative studies with established techniques on the detection of nanoparticles can offer additional insights. Here, we compare ToF-SIMS imaging data with sub-micrometer spatial resolution to fluorescence microscopy imaging data to explore the usefulness of ToF-SIMS for the detection of nanoparticles in tissues. SiO 2 nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 25 nm, core-labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, were intratracheally instilled into rat lungs. Subsequently, imaging of lung cryosections was performed with ToF-SIMS and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticles were successfully detected with ToF-SIMS in 3D microanalysis mode based on the lateral distribution of SiO 3 - (m/z 75.96), which was co-localized with the distribution pattern that was obtained from nanoparticle fluorescence. In addition, the lateral distribution of protein (CN - , m/z 26.00) and phosphate based signals (PO 3 - , m/z 78.96) originating from the tissue material could be related to the SiO 3 - lateral distribution. In conclusion, ToF-SIMS is suitable to directly detect and laterally resolve SiO 2 nanomaterials in biological tissue at sufficient intensity levels. At the same time, information about the chemical environment of the nanoparticles in the lung tissue sections is obtained.
Full Text Available Through a natural tree grain template and sol-gel technology, the heterogeneous catalytic materials based on polyoxometalate compounds H3[PM12O40] encapsulating SiO2: SiO2@H3[PM12O40] (SiO2@PM12, M = W, Mo with core-shell structure had been prepared. The structure and morphology of the core-shell microspheres were characterized by the XRD, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorbance, and SEM. These microsphere materials can be used as heterogeneous catalysts with high activity and stability for catalytic wet air oxidation of pollutant dyes safranine T (ST at room condition. The results show that the catalysts have excellent catalytic activity in treatment of wastewater containing 10 mg/L ST, and 94% of color can be removed within 60 min. Under different cycling runs, it is shown that the catalysts are stable under such operating conditions and the leaching tests show negligible leaching effect owing to the lesser dissolution.
Saeed Farhadi; Kosar Jahanara
A ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was prepared from metal nitrates and tetraethyl orthosilicate by the sol-gel process, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The nanocomposite was tested as a heterogeneous catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols, phenols, and amines under solvent-free conditions. Under optimized conditions, efficient acetylation of these substrates with acetic anhy-dride over the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was obtained. Acetylation of anilines and primary aliphatic amines proceeded rapidly at room temperature, while the reaction time was longer for the acetylation of alcohols and phenols, showing that an amine NH2 group can be selectively acetylated in the presence of alcoholic or phenolic OH groups. The catalyst can be reused without obvious loss of catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of the ZnAl2O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was higher than that of pure ZnAl2O4. The method gives high yields, and is clean, cost effective, compatible with sub-strates having other functional groups and it is suitable for practical organic synthesis.
Yang, Y.M.; Wu, X.L.; Siu, G.G.; Huang, G.S.; Shen, J.C.; Hu, D.S.
Using magnetron cosputtering of SiO 2 , Ge, and Si targets, Si-based SiO 2 :Ge:Si films were fabricated for exploring the influence of Si target proportion (P Si ) and annealing temperature (Ta) on formation, local structure, and phonon properties of nanocrystalline Si 1-x Ge x (nc-Si 1-x Ge x ). At low P Si and Ta higher than 800 deg. C, no nc-Si 1-x Ge x but a kind of composite nanocrystal consisting of a Ge core, GeSi shell, and amorphous Si outer shell is formed in the SiO 2 matrix. At moderate P Si , nc-Si 1-x Ge x begins to be formed at Ta=800 deg. C and coexists with nc-Ge at Ta=1100 deg. C. At high P Si , it was disclosed that both optical phonon frequency and lattice spacing of nc-Si 1-x Ge x increase with raising Ta. The possible origin of this phenomenon is discussed by considering three factors, the phonon confinement, strain effect, and composition variation of nc-Si 1-x Ge x . This work will be helpful in understanding the growth process of ternary GeSiO films and beneficial to further investigations on optical properties of nc-Ge 1-x Si x in the ternary matrix
Grzyb, Tomasz; Runowski, Marcin; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Giersig, Michael; Lis, Stefan
Terbium fluoride nanocrystals, covered by a shell, composed of cerium fluoride were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Their complex structure was formed spontaneously during the synthesis. The surface of these core/shell nanocrystals was additionally modified by silica. The properties of TbF 3 @CeF 3 and TbF 3 @CeF 3 @SiO 2 nanocrystals, formed in this way, were investigated. Spectroscopic studies showed that the differences between these two groups of products resulted from the presence of the SiO 2 shell. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the trigonal crystal structure of TbF 3 @CeF 3 nanocrystals. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in connection with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a complex structure of the formed nanocrystals. Crystallized as small discs, ‘the products’, with an average diameter around 10 nm, showed an increase in the concentration of Tb 3+ ions from surface to the core of nanocrystals. In addition to photo-physical analyses, cytotoxicity studies were performed on HSkMEC (Human Skin Microvascular Endothelial Cells) and B16F0 mouse melanoma cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of the nanomaterials was neutral for the investigated cells with no toxic or antiproliferative effect in the cell cultures, either for normal or for cancer cells. This fact makes the obtained nanocrystals good candidates for biological applications and further modifications of the SiO 2 shell.Graphical Abstract
Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Bashter, I. I.; Morcos, H. N.; El-Mesiry, M. S.; Mansy, M. S.
A simple model along with a computer code "HEXA-FILTERS" is used to carry out the calculation of the total cross-sections of BeO and SiO2 having poly or mono-crystalline form as a function of neutron wavelength at room (R.T.) and liquid nitrogen (L.N.) temperatures. An overall agreement is indicated between the calculated neutron cross-sections and experimental data. Calculation shows that 25 cm thick of polycrystalline BeO cooled at liquid nitrogen temperature was found to be a good filter for neutron wavelengths longer than 0.46 nm. While, 50 cm of SiO2, with much less transmission, for neutrons with wavelengths longer than 0.85 nm. It was also found that 10 cm of BeO and 15 cm SiO2 thick mono-crystals cut along their (0 0 2) plane, with 0.5° FWHM on mosaic spread and cooled at L.N., are a good thermal neutron filter, with high effect-to-noise ratio.
Zuo, Chenggang; Huang, Jinze; Liu, Shaoyou; Xiao, Anguo; Shen, Youming; Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhou, Zhihua; Zhu, Ligang
Transparent Tb 3+ -doped BaO-Gd 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glasses with the greater than 4g/cm 3 were prepared by high temperature melting method and its luminescent properties have been investigated by measured UV-vis transmission, excitation, emission and luminescence decay spectra. The transmission spectrum shows there are three weak absorption bands locate at about 312, 378 and 484nm in the glasses and it has good transmittance in the visible spectrum region. Intense green emission can be observed under UV excitation. The effective energy transfer from Gd 3+ ion to Tb 3+ ion could occur and sensitize the luminescence of Tb 3+ ion. The green emission intensity of Tb 3+ ion could change with the increasing SiO 2 /B 2 O 3 ratio in the borosilicate glass matrix. With the increasing concentration of Tb 3+ ion, 5 D 4 → 7 F J transitions could be enhanced through the cross relaxation between the two nearby Tb 3+ ions. Luminescence decay time of 2.12ms from 546nm emission is obtained. The results indicate that Tb 3+ -doped BaO-Gd 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glasses would be potential scintillating material for applications in X-ray imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dove, Patricia M.
Our goal is to develop a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of amorphous silica, SiO2(am), dissolution kinetics in aqueous solutions. A knowledge of fundamental controls on the reactivity of simple Si-O bonded phases is the baseline of behavior for understanding highly complex silica phases. In the Earth, silicate minerals comprise >70% of the crust and dominate virtually every subsurface system. More importantly for the objectives of this EMSP project, the silicates are important because compositionally complex glasses will become the front line of defense in containing radioactive wastes in the nation's long term and interim storage strategies. To date, the behavior of SiO2(am) is largely inferred from studies of the better known crystalline polymorphs (e.g. alpha-quartz). In the first step towards constructing a general model for amorphous silica reactivity in the complex fluid compositions of natural waters, we are determining the dissolution behavior as a function of temperature, solution pH and cation concentration. With these data we are determining relationships between SiO2 glass structure and dissolution rates in aqueous solutions, as described below
Stavarache, Ionel; Lepadatu, Ana-Maria; Stoica, Toma; Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia
Ge–SiO 2 films with high Ge/Si atomic ratio of about 1.86 were obtained by co-sputtering of Ge and SiO 2 targets and subsequently annealed at different temperatures between 600 and 1000 °C in a conventional furnace in order to show how the annealing process influences the film morphology concerning the Ge nanocrystal and/or amorphous nanoparticle formation and to study their electrical behaviour. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, Raman spectroscopy and electrical conductance measurements were performed in order to find out the annealing effect on the film surface morphology, as well as the Ge nanoparticle formation in correlation with the hopping conductivity of the films. AFM images show that the films annealed at 600 and 700 °C present a granular surface with particle height of about 15 nm, while those annealed at higher temperatures have smoother surface. The Raman investigations evidence Ge nanocrystals (including small ones) coexisting with amorphous Ge in the films annealed at 600 °C and show that almost all Ge is crystallized in the films annealed at 700 °C. The annealing at 800 °C disadvantages the Ge nanocrystal formation due to the strong Ge diffusion. This transition in Ge nanocrystals formation process by annealing temperature increase from 700 to 800 °C revealed by AFM and Raman spectroscopy measurements corresponds to a change in the electrical transport mechanism. Thus, in the 700 °C annealed films, the current depends on temperature according to a T −1/2 law which is typical for a tunnelling mechanism between neighbour Ge nanocrystals. In the 800 °C annealed films, the current–temperature characteristic has a T −1/4 dependence showing a hopping mechanism within an electronic band of localized states related to diffused Ge in SiO 2 .
Elizabeth Ellen Hoppe
Full Text Available Hafnon (HfSiO4 as it is initially formed in a partially demixed film of hafnium titanate (HfTiO4 on fused SiO2 is studied by atomic number (Z contrast high resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy and microscopy. The results show exsoluted Ti is the catalyst for hafnon formation by a two-step reaction. Ti first reacts with SiO2 to produce a glassy Ti-silicate. Ti is then replaced by Hf in the silicate to produce HfSiO4. The results suggest this behavior is prototypical of other Ti-bearing ternary or higher order oxide films on SiO2 when film thermal instability involves Ti exsolution.
Daldosso, N.; Dalba, G.; Fornasini, P.; Grisenti, R.; Pavesi, L.; Luppi, M.; Magri, R.; Ossicini, S.; Degoli, E.; Rocca, F.; Boninelli, S.; Priolo, F.; Spinella, C.; Iacona, F.
Light-emitting silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 have been investigated by x-ray absorption measurements in total electron and photoluminescence yields, by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and by ab initio total energy calculations. Both experimental and theoretical results show that the interface between the silicon nanocrystals and the surrounding SiO 2 is not sharp: an intermediate region of amorphous nature and variable composition links the crystalline Si with the amorphous stoichiometric SiO 2 . This region plays an active role in the light-emission process
Wang Jue; Li Qing; Shen Jun; Zhou Bin; Chen Lingyan; Jiang; Weiyang
Low density SiO 2 gels are prepared by a two-step sol-gel process from TEOS. The influence of various solution ratios on the gelation process is investigated. The comparative characterization of gels using different solvent, such as ethanol, acetone and methyl cyanide, is also given. The ultralow-density SiO 2 aerogels with density less than 10 kg/m 3 are prepared by CO 2 supercritical drying technique. The structure difference between SiO 2 aerogels prepared by conventional single-step process and the two-step process is also presented
Full Text Available Control of liquid crystal (LC orientation using a proper SiO2 alignment layer is essential for the optimization of vertically aligned nematic (VAN displays. With this aim, we studied the optical anisotropy of thin SiO2 films by generalized ellipsometry as a function of deposition angle. The columnar SiO2 structure orientation measured by a noninvasive ellipsometry technique is reported for the first time, and its morphology influence on the LC alignment is demonstrated for large deposition angles.
Huang Jinzhao; Xu Zheng; Zhao Suling; Li Yuan; Yuan Guangcai; Wang Yongsheng; Xu Xurong
The impact excitation and ionization is the most important process in layered optimization scheme and solid state cathodoluminescence. The conduction property (semiconductor property) of SiO 2 , ZnS and ZnO is studied based on organic/inorganic electroluminescence. The hot electron property (acceleration and multiplication property) of SiO 2 and ZnS is investigated based on the solid state cathodoluminescence. The results show that the SiO 2 has the fine hot electron property and the conduction property is not as good as ZnO and ZnS
Magnozzi, M.; Terreni, S.; Anghinolfi, L.; Uttiya, S.; Carnasciali, M. M.; Gemme, G.; Neri, M.; Principe, M.; Pinto, I.; Kuo, L.-C.; Chao, S.; Canepa, M.
The use of amorphous, SiO2-TiO2 nanolayered coatings has been proposed recently for the mirrors of 3rd-generation interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, to be operated at low temperature. Coatings with a high number of low-high index sub-units pairs with nanoscale thickness were found to preserve the amorphous structure for high annealing temperatures, a key factor to improve the mechanical quality of the mirrors. The optimization of mirror designs based on such coatings requires a detailed knowledge of the optical properties of sub-units at the nm-thick scale. To this aim we have performed a Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) study of amorphous SiO2-TiO2 nanolayered films deposited on Si wafers by Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS). We have analyzed films that are composed of 5 and 19 nanolayers (NL5 and NL19 samples) and have total optical thickness nominally equivalent to a quarter of wavelength at 1064 nm. A set of reference optical properties for the constituent materials was obtained by the analysis of thicker SiO2 and TiO2 homogeneous films (∼ 120 nm) deposited by the same IBS facility. By flanking SE with ancillary techniques, such as TEM and AFM, we built optical models that allowed us to retrieve the broad-band (250-1700 nm) optical properties of the nanolayers in the NL5 and NL19 composite films. In the models which provided the best agreement between simulation and data, the thickness of each sub-unit was fitted within rather narrow bounds determined by the analysis of TEM measurements on witness samples. Regarding the NL5 sample, with thickness of 19.9 nm and 27.1 nm for SiO2 and TiO2 sub-units, respectively, the optical properties presented limited variations with respect to the thin film counterparts. For the NL19 sample, which is composed of ultrathin sub-units (4.4 nm and 8.4 nm for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively) we observed a significant decrease of the IR refraction index for both types of sub-units; this points to a lesser mass density with
Full Text Available According to the relevant literature, the utilization of different kind of glass fibers in concrete introduces positive effect on the mechanical behavior, especially toughness. There are many glassfibers available to reinforce concretes. Glass fiber composition is so important because it may change the properties such as strength, elastic modulus and alkali resistance. Its most important property to be used in concrete is the alkali resistance. Some glasses of SrO–MgO–ZrO2–SiO2 (SMZS quaternary system, such as 26SrO, 20MgO, 14ZrO2, 40SiO2 (Zrn glass, have been found to be highly alkali resistant thanks to their high ZrO2 and MgO contents. Previous researches on these glasses with MnO and/or Fe2O3 partially replacing SrO have been made with the aim of improving the chemical resistance and decreasing the production cost.The main target of the present study, first of all, was to characterize commercially available alkali resistant glass fiber for concrete reinforcement and then to compare its alkali durability with those of the SrO-Mn2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-ZrO2-SiO2 (SMFMZS system glasses. For such purposes, XRF, Tg-DTA, alkali resistance tests and SEM analysis conducted with EDX were employed. According tothe alkali endurance test results it was revealed that some of the SMFMZS system glass powders are 10 times resistant to alkali environments than the commercial glass fibers used in this study.Therefore, they can be considered as alternative filling materials on the evolution of chemically resistant concrete structures.
Full Text Available Tingting Li,1 Xue Shen,1 Yin Chen,1 Chengchen Zhang,1 Jie Yan,1 Hong Yang,1 Chunhui Wu,1,2 Hongjun Zeng,1,2 Yiyao Liu1,21Department of Biophysics, School of Life Science and Technology, 2Center for Information in Biomedicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Engineering a safe and high-efficiency delivery system for efficient RNA interference is critical for successful gene therapy. In this study, we designed a novel nanocarrier system of polyethyleneimine (PEI-modified Fe3O4@SiO2, which allows high efficient loading of VEGF small hairpin (shRNA to form Fe3O4@SiO2/PEI/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites for VEGF gene silencing as well as magnetic resonance (MR imaging. The size, morphology, particle stability, magnetic properties, and gene-binding capacity and protection were determined. Low cytotoxicity and hemolyticity against human red blood cells showed the excellent biocompatibility of the multifunctional nanocomposites, and also no significant coagulation was observed. The nanocomposites maintain their superparamagnetic property at room temperature and no appreciable change in magnetism, even after PEI modification. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellular internalization into MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by Prussian blue staining and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis, respectively, demonstrated that the Fe3O4@SiO2/PEI/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites could be easily internalized by MCF-7 cells, and they exhibited significant inhibition of VEGF gene expression. Furthermore, the MR cellular images showed that the superparamagnetic iron oxide core of our Fe3O4@SiO2/PEI/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites could also act as a T2-weighted contrast agent for cancer MR imaging. Our data highlight multifunctional Fe3O4@SiO2/PEI/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites as a potential platform for simultaneous gene delivery and MR cell imaging, which are promising
Arutyunyan, S. S.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, B. Yu.; Tomosh, K. N.; Fedorov, Yu. V.
The fabrication of a two-layer Si_3N_4/SiO_2 dielectric mask and features of its application in the technology of non-fired epitaxially grown ohmic contacts for high-power HEMTs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are described. The proposed Si_3N_4/SiO_2 mask allows the selective epitaxial growth of heavily doped ohmic contacts by nitride molecular-beam epitaxy and the fabrication of non-fired ohmic contacts with a resistance of 0.15–0.2 Ω mm and a smooth surface and edge morphology.
Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Melson, W. G.; Soto, G. J.
Despite the importance of water to arc magma genesis, fractionation and eruption, few quantitative constraints exist on the water content of Arenal magmas. Early estimates, by electron microprobe sum deficit, suggested up to 4 wt% H2O in olivine-hosted basaltic andesite melt inclusions (MI) from pre-historic ET-6 tephra (Melson, 1982), and up to 7 wt% H2O in plagioclase and orthopyroxene-hosted dacitic MI from 1968 lapilli (Anderson, 1979). These high water contents are consistent with abundant hornblende phenocrysts in Arenal volcanics, but inconsistent with geochemical tracers such as 10Be and Ba/La that suggest a low flux of recycled material (and presumably water) from the subduction zone. In order to test these ideas, and provide the first direct measurements of water in mafic Arenal magmas, we have studied olivine-hosted MI from the prehistoric (900 yBP; Soto et al., 1998) ET3 tephra layer. MI range from andesitic (> 58% SiO2) to basaltic compositions ( 4 wt%) found here for Arenal basaltic MI support the semi-quantitative data from earlier studies, but are somewhat unexpected given predictions from slab tracers. Arenal water contents (4%) approach those of the 1995 eruption of Cerro Negro in Nicaragua (4-5 wt% in basaltic MI; Roggensack et al., 1997), despite the fact that the latter has Ba/La of > 100, while Arenal has Ba/La Journal of Geology; Melson, William G. (1982) Boletin de Volcanologia; Roggensack et al. (1997) Science; Soto et al. (1998) OSIVAM; Williams-Jones et al. (2001) Journal of Volc. and Geoth. Res.
Saxena, Nupur; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay
A novel synthesis method for luminescent and by-products (like CdO) free CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 (i.e. 1%Ag doped CdS/SiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition is reported. Targets of CdS, CdS:Ag(1%) and SiO 2 are used to deposit CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposite thin films by swapping them at a frequency ratio of 2:8 laser pulses/sec. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis ensures the ratio of CdS to SiO 2 in nanocomposite as 21:79 which is nearly same as the ratio of incident pulses/sec (i.e. 2:8) on the two targets. Transmission electron micrographs visualize the formation of CdS/ CdS:Ag(1%) nanocrystals in nanocomposite systems after annealing at 500 °C. Highly intense and broad red emission is achieved from CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposites. The efficiencies of emission from pristine CdS:SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposites are found to be enhanced by approximately two times as compared to sole nanocrystalline CdS and CdS:Ag(1%) thin films respectively and further enhanced upto 7 times on annealing the nanocomposite systems at 500 °C. - Graphical abstract: A modified synthesis method for luminescent and by-products (like CdO) free undoped &1% Ag doped CdS/SiO 2 (deposit CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition is reported. Targets of CdS or CdS:Ag(1%) and SiO 2 are used to deposit CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposite thin films by swapping them at a frequency of 2:8 pulses/sec. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis ensures the ratio of CdS to SiO 2 in nanocomposite as 21:79 which is nearly same as the ratio of incident pulses/sec (2:8) on the two targets. Transmission electron micrographs visualize the formation of CdS nanocrystals in nanocomposite systems after annealing at 500 °C. Intense and broad red emission is achieved from deposit CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposites. The efficiency of
Zhou, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhen; Meng, Huanju; Lu, Yanying; Cao, Jun; Cheng, Fangyi; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun
We reported a one-step dry coating of amorphous SiO 2 on spherical Ni-rich layered LiNi 0.915 Co 0.075 Al 0.01 O 2 (NCA) cathode materials. Combined characterization of XRD, EDS mapping, and TEM indicates that a SiO 2 layer with an average thickness of ∼50 nm was uniformly coated on the surface of NCA microspheres, without inducing any change of the phase structure and morphology. Electrochemical tests show that the 0.2 wt% SiO 2 -coated NCA material exhibits enhanced cyclability and rate properties, combining with better thermal stability compared with those of pristine NCA. For example, 0.2 wt% SiO 2 -coated NCA delivers a high specific capacity of 181.3 mA h g -1 with a capacity retention of 90.7% after 50 cycles at 1 C rate and 25 °C. Moreover, the capacity retention of this composite at 60 °C is 12.5% higher than that of pristine NCA at 1 C rate after 50 cycles. The effects of SiO 2 coating on the electrochemical performance of NCA are investigated by EIS, CV, and DSC tests, the improved performance is attributed to the surface coating layer of amorphous SiO 2 , which effectively suppresses side reactions between NCA and electrolytes, decreases the SEI layer resistance, and retards the growth of charge-transfer resistance, thus enhancing structural and cycling stability of NCA.
Xu, Nuo; Zhu, Meiping; Sun, Jian; Chai, Yingjie; Kui, Yi; Zhao, Yuanan; Shao, Jianda
Two kinds of polarizer coatings were prepared by electron beam evaporation, using HfO2-SiO2 mixture and HfO2 as the high-refractive-index materials, respectively. The HfO2-SiO2 mixture layer was implemented by coevaporating SiO2 and metal Hf, the materials were deposited at an oxygen atmosphere to achieve stoichiometric coatings. The certain HfO2 and SiO2 content ratio is controlled by adjusting the deposition rate of HfO2 and SiO2 using individual quartz crystal monitor. The spectral performance, surface and interfacial properties, as well as the laser-induced damage performance were studied and compared. Comparing with polarizer coating using HfO2 as high-refractive-index material, the polarizer coating using HfO2-SiO2 mixture as high-refractive-index material shows better performance with broader polarizing bandwidth, lower surface roughness, better interfacial property while maintaining high laser-induced damage threshold.
Kohara, Kaori; Yamamoto, Shinpei; Seinberg, Liis; Murakami, Tatsuya; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Kurata, Hiroki; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Takano, Mikio
Carboxylated SiO2-coated α-Fe nanoparticles have been successfully prepared via CaH2-mediated reduction of SiO2-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles followed by surface carboxylation. These α-Fe-based nanoparticles, which are characterized by ease of coating with additional functional groups, a large magnetization of 154 emu per g-Fe, enhanced corrosion resistivity, excellent aqueous dispersibility, and low cytotoxicity, have potential to be a versatile platform in biomedical applications.
Barranco Quero, Ángel; Cotrino Bautista, José; Yubero Valencia, Francisco; Espinós, J. P.; Rodríguez González-Elipe, Agustín
Synthesis of porous SiO2 thin films in room temperature was carried out using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave reactor with a downstream configuration.The gas adsorption properties and the type of porosity of the SiO2 thin films were assessed by adsorption isotherms of toluene at room temperature.The method could also permit the tailoring synthesis of thin films when both composition and porosity can be simultaneously and independent...
Li Zhixia; Kawashita, Masakazu; Araki, Norio; Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Doi, Masaaki
We have prepared magnetic SiO 2 microspheres with a diameter of 20-30 μm as thermoseeds for hyperthermia of cancer. These were prepared by directly introducing preformed magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) into microspheres of a SiO 2 gel matrix derived from the hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) in a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. Dimethylformamide (DMF) was used as a stabilizer, methanol (CH 3 OH) as a dispersant and ammonia (NH 4 OH) as the catalyst for the formation of the spherical particles in the aqueous phase of the W/O emulsion. The magnetic IONPs were synthesized hydrochemically in an aqueous system composed of ferrous chloride, sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Mono-dispersed magnetic SiO 2 gel microspheres with a diameter of approximately 20 μm were successfully obtained by adding a determined amount of solution with a molar ratio of TMOS/DMF/CH 3 OH/H 2 O/NH 4 OH = 1:1.4:9:20:0.03 to kerosene with a surfactant (sorbitan monooleate/sorbitan monostearate = 3:1 by weight ratio) that was 30 wt% of the total amount of the oil phase. These were estimated to contain up to 60 wt% of IONPs that consisted mainly of Fe 3 O 4 and showed a higher specific absorption rate (SAR = 27.9-43.8 W g -1 ) than that of the starting IONPs (SAR = 25.3 W g -1 ) under an alternating current magnetic field of 300 Oe and 100 kHz.
Wang, D.; Penner, S.; Su, D.S.; Rupprechter, G.; Hayek, K.; Schloegl, R.
Regularly grown Pt particles supported by amorphous SiO 2 were heated in hydrogen at 873 K after an oxidising treatment. The morphological and structural changes were studied by electron microscopy. Platinum silicides Pt 3 Si with L1 2 (Cu 3 Au) structure, monoclinic Pt 3 Si and tetragonal Pt 12 Si 5 were identified after the treatment. The mechanisms of coalescence of the particles and the formation of irregular large particles are suggested. A topotactic structural transformation accompanied with the migration of Si from the substrate to the particles are suggested to take place during Pt 3 Si formation
GarcIa, N; Yan Zang; Ballestar, A; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Bern, F; Esquinazi, P
The electrical potential on the surface of ∼300 nm thick SiO 2 grown on single-crystalline Si substrates has been characterized at ambient conditions using electric field microscopy. Our results show an inhomogeneous potential distribution with fluctuations up to ∼0.4 V within regions of 1 μm. The potential fluctuations observed at the surface of these usual dielectric holders of graphene sheets should induce strong variations in the graphene charge densities and provide a simple explanation for some of the anomalous behaviors of the transport properties of graphene.
Li Wei; Zheng Shaohua; Cao Bingqiang; Ma Shiyu
In this article, the lubrication properties of ZrO 2 /SiO 2 composite nanoparticles modified with aluminum zirconium coupling agent as additives in lubricating oil under variable applied load and concentration fraction were reported. It was demonstrated that the modified nanoparticles as additives in lubrication can effectively improve the lubricating properties. Under an optimized concentration of 0.1 wt%, the average friction coefficient was reduced by 16.24%. This was because the nanoparticles go into the friction zone with the flow of lubricant, and then the sliding friction changed to rolling friction with a result of the reduction of the friction coefficient.
Tsong, I.S.T.; Monkowski, M.D.; Monkowski, J.R.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Miller, P.D.; Moak, C.D.
Hydrogen and chlorine depth profiles were obtained on a series of silicon oxides thermally grown in HCl/O 2 and Cl 2 /O 2 ambients at 1100 0 C for 15 minutes using the 19 F nuclear reaction and SIMS techniques. The data show close correlation between the H and Cl profiles in both the HCl/O 2 and Cl 2 /O 2 oxides. While the H and Cl appear to be enriched at the SiO 2 /Si interface of the HCl/O 2 oxides, they are higher in concentration and more evenly distributed in the oxide bulk of the Cl 2 /O 2 oxides
Kosugi , T.; Kobayashi , H.; Kogure , Y.
Internal friction of (SiO2)1-x (GeO2)x glasses (x = 0, 5, 10, 24 and 100 mole%) is measured at temperatures between 1.6 and 280 K. The data are filted with the equations for thermally activated relaxation with distributing activation energies in symmetrical double-well potentials. From the determined relaxation strength spectra for each sample, the contributions from each type of microscopic structural units are calculated assuming that transverse motion of the bridging O atom in Si-O-Si, Si-...
Robinson, I. K.; Waskiewicz, W. K.; Tung, R. T.
X-ray diffraction has been used to measure the intensity profile of the two-dimensional rods of scattering from a single interface buried inside a bulk material. In both Si(111)/a-Si and Si(111)/SiO2 examples there are features in the perpendicular-momentum-transfer dependence which are not expec...... are not expected from an ideal sharp interface. The diffraction profiles are explained by models with partially ordered layers extending into the amorphous region. In the Si(111)/a-Si case there is clear evidence of stacking faults which are attributed to residual 7×7 reconstruction....
Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Vazquez, C.; Fragoso, R.
Fission fragment tracks from 252 Cf have been observed in SiO 2 optical fiber, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), after a very short chemical etching in hydrofluoric acid solution at normal temperature. The nuclear track starting and evolution process is followed by the AFM direct measurements on the material surface and beyond a fine layer of the surface material. The images of the scanned cones were determined observing the two predominant energies from 252 Cf fission fragments and the development of the tracks in the 150 μm diameter optical fiber conduit
Heidari, Elham; Xu, Xiaochuan; Tang, Naimei; Mokhtari-Koushyar, Farzad; Dalir, Hamed; Chen, Ray T.
Here a photonic waveguide on Al2O3/SiO2 platform is proposed to cover the 240 320 nm wavelength-range, which is of paramount significance in protein and nuclei acid quantification. Our optical waveguide increases path-length and overlap integration for light-matter interaction with proteins. The proposed system detects one order less proteins concentration as low as 12.5 μg/ml compared with NanoDropTM that detects Beer-Lambert-law.
Khatri, R.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Roellig, L.O.; Lynn, K.G.
Using Doppler broadening annihilation spectroscopy, we investigated the properties of irradiated samples of SiO 2 /Si(100) with 117 nm thick oxide layer, grown in dry O 2 on p- and n-type substrates. These samples were irradiated with γ rays and x rays at doses in the range of 7x10 4 --9x10 6 rad and 50--2000 mJ/cm 2 , respectively. The changes observed in the Doppler broadening line shape parameter after irradiation and its recovery during isochronal annealing were used to obtain an activation energy of 1.48--1.61 eV required for annealing the defects
Full Text Available In this work we prepared double-layer antireflection coatings (DARC by using the SiO2/SiNx:H heterostructure design. SiO2 thin films were deposited by electron-beam evaporation on the conventional solar cell with SiNx:H single-layer antireflection coatings (SARC, while to avoid the coverage of SiO2 on the front side busbars, a steel mask was utilized as the shelter. The thickness of the SiNx:H as bottom layer was fixed at 80 nm, and the varied thicknesses of the SiO2 as top layer were 105 nm and 122 nm. The results show that the SiO2/SiNx:H DARC have a much lower reflectance and higher external quantum efficiency (EQE in short wavelengths compared with the SiNx:H SARC. A higher energy conversion efficiency of 17.80% was obtained for solar cells with SiO2 (105 nm/SiNx:H (80 nm DARC, an absolute conversion efficiency increase of 0.32% compared with the conventional single SiNx:H-coated cells.
Full Text Available We presented a method to use SiO2/SiNx:H double layer antireflection coatings (DARC on acid textures to fabricate colored multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si solar cells. Firstly, we modeled the perceived colors and short-circuit current density (Jsc as a function of SiNx:H thickness for single layer SiNx:H, and as a function of SiO2 thickness for the case of SiO2/SiNx:H (DARC with fixed SiNx:H (refractive index n=2.1 at 633 nm, and thickness = 80 nm. The simulation results show that it is possible to achieve various colors by adjusting the thickness of SiO2 to avoid significant optical losses. Therefore, we carried out the experiments by using electron beam (e-beam evaporation to deposit a layer of SiO2 over the standard SiNx:H for 156×156 mm2 mc-Si solar cells which were fabricated by a conventional process. Semisphere reflectivity over 300 nm to 1100 nm and I-V measurements were performed for grey yellow, purple, deep blue, and green cells. The efficiency of colored SiO2/SiNx:H DARC cells is comparable to that of standard SiNx:H light blue cells, which shows the potential of colored cells in industrial applications.
Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine; Daryl Jesus Arapoc; Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis
High content screening (HCS) is the convergence between cell-based assays, high-resolution fluorescence imaging, phase-contrast imaging of fixed- or live-cell assays, tissues and small organisms. It has been widely adopted in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries for target identification and validation and as secondary screens to reveal potential toxicities or to elucidate a drugs mechanism of action. By using the ImageXpress® Micro XLS System HCS, the complex network of key players controlling proliferation and apoptosis can be reduced to several sentinel markers for analysis. Cell proliferation and apoptosis are two key areas in cell biology and drug discovery research. Understanding the signaling pathways in cell proliferation and apoptosis is important for new therapeutic discovery because the imbalance between these two events is predominant in the progression of many human diseases, including cancer. The DNA binding dye DAPI is used to determine the nuclear size and nuclear morphology as well as cell cycle phases by DNA content. Images together with MetaXpress® analysis results provide a convenient and easy to use solution to high volume image management. In particular, HCS platform is beginning to have an important impact on early drug discovery, basic research in systems cell biology, and is expected to play a role in personalized medicine or revealing off-target drug effects. (author)
Soares, V. O.; Soares, P.; Peitl, O.; Zanotto, E. D.; Duran, A.; Castro, Y.
The sol-gel process is widely used to obtain coatings on glass-ceramic substrates in order to improve the scratch and abrasion resistance, also providing a bright and homogeneous appearance of a glaze avoiding expensive final polishing treatments. This paper describes the preparation of silica and silica / zirconia coatings by sol-gel method on Li 2 O-Al 2 O3-SiO 2 (LAS) glassceramic substrates produced by sintering. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on LAS substrates and characterized by optical microscopy and spectral ellipsometry. On the other hand, hardness and elastic modulus, coefficient of friction and abrasion and scratch resistance of the coatings were determined and compared with the substrate properties. Coatings deposited on LAS glass-ceramic confere the substrate a bright and homogeneous aspect, similar to a glaze, improving the appearance and avoiding the final polishing. However these coatings do not increase the scratch resistance of the substrate only equaling the properties of the glass-ceramic. (Author)
Xiang, Qing; Zhou, Yan; Ooi, Boon Siew; Lam, Yee Loy; Chan, Yuen Chuen; Kam, Chan Hin
We report here the processing and optical characterization of Nd3+-doped SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3 planar waveguides deposited on SOS substrates by the sol-gel route combined with spin-coating and rapid thermal annealing. The recipes used for preparing the solutions by sol-gel route are in mole ratio of 93SiO2:20AlO1.5: x ErO1.5. In order to verify the residual OH content in the films, FTIR spectra were measured and the morphology of the material by the XRD analysis. Five 2-layer films annealed at a maximum temperature of 500 degrees C, 700 degrees C, 900 degrees, 1000 degrees C, 1100 degrees C respectively were fabricated on silicon. The FTIR and XRD curves show that annealing at 1050 degrees C for 15s effectively removes the OH in the materia and keeps the material amorphous. The propagation loss of the planar waveguides was measured by using the method based on scattering in measurements and the result was obtained to be 1.54dB/cm. The fluorescence spectra were measured with 514nm wavelength of Ar+ laser by directly shining the pump beam on the film instead of prism coupling. The results show that the 1 mole Nd3+ content recipe has the strongest emission efficiency among the four samples investigated.
Park, Minsung; Seo, Sungmin; Lee, In Su; Jung, Jong Hwa
A new fluorogenic based aminonaphthalimide-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) core/shell magnetic nanoparticles 1 has been prepared, and its abilities to sense and separate metal ions were evaluated by fluorophotometry. The nanoparticles 1 exhibited a high affinity and selectivity for Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) ions over competing metal ions.
Wang, Dan Ping; Zeng, Hua Chun
to prepare inorganic-polymer nanocomposites. In this work, we explore the roles of metal-oxide nanoparticles (anatase TiO2) in the area of constructional synthesis of highly complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanostructures comprising SiO2, TiO2
Xiong, Dehua; Cheng, Jinshu; Li, Hong
The crystallization behavior and microstructure of R 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (R means K, Na and Li) glass were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization kinetic parameters including the crystallization apparent activation energy (E a ), the Avrami parameter (n), glass transition temperature (T g ) and the activity energy of glass transition (E t ) were also measured with different methods. The results have shown that: the DSC traces of composition A parent glass have two different precipitation crystallization peaks corresponding to E a1 (A) = 151.4 kJ/mol (Li 2 SiO 3 ) and E a2 (A) = 623.1 kJ/mol (Li 2 Si 2 O 5 ), the average value of n = 1.70 (Li 2 Si 2 O 5 ) for the surface crystallization and E t (A) = 202.8 kJ/mol. And E a (B) = 50.7 kJ/mol (Li 2 SiO 3 ), the average value of n = 3.89 (Li 2 SiO 3 ) for the bulk crystallization and E t (B) = 220.4 kJ/mol for the composition B parent glass. Because of the content of R 2 O is bigger than composition A, composition B parent glass has a lower E a , T g and a larger n, E t .
Vulpoi, Adriana; Baia, Lucian; Simon, Simion; Simon, Viorica
In this study are reported results obtained from the structural, morphological and textural investigations of 56SiO 2 ∙(40-x)CaO·4P 2 O 5 ·xAg 2 O system, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 mol%. The samples obtained by sol–gel method were annealed and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrational spectroscopy (Raman, FTIR), N 2 -adsorption measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD patterns of the investigated samples exhibit tricalcium phosphate (TCP) nanostructured phase and show the existence of metallic silver as dispersed phase. The presence of apatite-like phase is underlined by the recorded Raman and especially FT-IR spectra. TEM pictures indicate the presence of silver nanoparticles of almost spherical shapes and various sizes inside the matrix, depending on the Ag 2 O content. Regarding the textural properties, it was observed both a decrease of the specific surface area as well as a progressive change of the mesoporous characteristics with the silver addition, the latter behavior recommending the potential use of these samples for applications, where the morphology control is required.
M. Q. Liu
Full Text Available In this article, we addressed a feasible and versatile method of the fabrication of porous polyimide microspheres presenting excellent heat resistance. The preparation process consisted of two steps. Firstly, a novel polyimide/nano-silica composite microsphere was prepared via the self-assembly structures of poly(amic acid (PAA, precursor of PI/nanosized SiO2 blends after in situ polymerization, following the two-steps imidization. Subsequently, the encapsulated nanoparticles were etched away by hydrofluoric acid treatment, giving rise to the pores. It is found the composite structure of PI/SiO2 is a precondition of the formation of nanoporous structures, furthermore, the morphology of the resultant pore could be relatively tuned by changing the content and initial morphology of silica nano-particles trapped into PI matrix. The thermal properties of the synthesized PI porous spheres were studied, indicating that the introduction of nanopores could not effectively influence the thermal stabilities of PI microspheres. Moreover, the fabrication technique described here may be extended to other porous polymer systems.
Ding, Shuo; Hough, Taylor; Dasgupta, Rajdeep
In order to constrain sulfur concentration in intermediate to high-Ti mare basalts at sulfide saturation (SCSS), we experimentally equilibrated FeS melt and basaltic melt using a piston cylinder at 1.0-2.5 GPa and 1400-1600 °C, with two silicate compositions similar to high-Ti (Apollo 11: A11, ∼11.1 wt.% TiO2, 19.1 wt.% FeO∗, and 39.6 wt.% SiO2) and intermediate-Ti (Luna 16, ∼5 wt.% TiO2, 18.7 wt.% FeO∗, and 43.8 wt.% SiO2) mare basalts. Our experimental results show that SCSS increases with increasing temperature, and decreases with increasing pressure, which are similar to the results from previous experimental studies. SCSS in the A11 melt is systematically higher than that in the Luna 16 melt, which is likely due to higher FeO∗, and lower SiO2 and Al2O3 concentration in the former. Compared to the previously constructed SCSS models, including those designed for high-FeO∗ basalts, the SCSS values determined in this study are generally lower than the predicted values, with overprediction increasing with increasing melt TiO2 content. We attribute this to the lower SiO2 and Al2O3 concentration of the lunar magmas, which is beyond the calibration range of previous SCSS models, and also more abundant FeTiO3 complexes in our experimental melts that have higher TiO2 contents than previous models' calibration range. The formation of FeTiO3 complexes lowers the activity of FeO∗, aFeO∗silicate melt , and therefore causes SCSS to decrease. To accommodate the unique lunar compositions, we have fitted a new SCSS model for basaltic melts of >5 wt.% FeO∗ and variable TiO2 contents. Using previous chalcophile element partitioning experiments that contained more complex Fe-Ni-S sulfide melts, we also derived an empirical correction that allows SCSS calculation for basalts where the equilibrium sulfides contain variable Ni contents of 10-50 wt.%. At the pressures and temperatures of multiple saturation points, SCSS of lunar magmas with compositions from
de Jong, E. M. L. D.; de Boer, W. D. A. M.; Yassievich, I. N.; Gregorkiewicz, T.
Silicon (Si) nanocrystals (NCs) are of great interest for many applications, ranging from photovoltaics to optoelectonics. The photoluminescence quantum yield of Si NCs dispersed in SiO2 is limited, suggesting the existence of very efficient processes of nonradiative recombination, among which the formation of a self-trapped exciton state on the surface of the NC. In order to improve the external quantum efficiency of these systems, the carrier relaxation and recombination need to be understood more thoroughly. For that purpose, we perform transient-induced absorption spectroscopy on Si NCs embedded in a SiO2 matrix over a broad probe range for NCs of average sizes from 2.5 to 5.5 nm. The self-trapping of free excitons on surface-related states is experimentally and theoretically discussed and found to be dependent on the NC size. These results offer more insight into the self-trapped exciton state and are important to increase the optical performance of Si NCs.
Leung, T. C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K. G.
Studies of SiO2-Si and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures using positrons are summarized and a concise picture of the present understanding of positrons in these systems is provided. Positron annihilation line-shape S data are presented as a function of the positron incident energy, gate voltage, and annealing, and are described with a diffusion-annihilation equation for positrons. The data are compared with electrical measurements. Distinct annihilation characteristics were observed at the SiO2-Si interface and have been studied as a function of bias voltage and annealing conditions. The shift of the centroid (peak) of γ-ray energy distributions in the depletion region of the MOS structures was studied as a function of positron energy and gate voltage, and the shifts are explained by the corresponding variations in the strength of the electric field and thickness of the depletion layer. The potential role of the positron annihilation technique as a noncontact, nondestructive, and depth-sensitive characterization tool for the technologically important, deeply buried interface is shown.
Leung, T.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.
Studies of SiO 2 -Si and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures using positrons are summarized and a concise picture of the present understanding of positrons in these systems is provided. Positron annihilation line-shape S data are presented as a function of the positron incident energy, gate voltage, and annealing, and are described with a diffusion-annihilation equation for positrons. The data are compared with electrical measurements. Distinct annihilation characteristics were observed at the SiO 2 -Si interface and have been studied as a function of bias voltage and annealing conditions. The shift of the centroid (peak) of γ-ray energy distributions in the depletion region of the MOS structures was studied as a function of positron energy and gate voltage, and the shifts are explained by the corresponding variations in the strength of the electric field and thickness of the depletion layer. The potential role of the positron annihilation technique as a noncontact, nondestructive, and depth-sensitive characterization tool for the technologically important, deeply buried interface is shown
Yang Yongzhen; Song Jingjing; Han Yanxing; Guo Xingmei; Liu Xuguang; Xu Bingshe
SiO 2 was firstly coated onto the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor by Stoeber method. Then SiO 2 -encapsulated CMS (CMS-SiO 2 ) composites were self-assembled by vertical deposition, in which the effects of deposition temperature and suspension concentration on the quality of self-assembling film were investigated. Morphologies and structures of the samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. The results show that uniform CMS-SiO 2 composites with good mono-dispersion were prepared by Stober method with 0.5 g of CMSs, 2 mL of TEOS, 30 mL of ammonia and 12 h of reaction time, the CMSs-based films with ordered and denser structure were prepared by vertical deposition using CMS-SiO 2 composites as monodipersion spheres under suspension concentration of 1 wt% and deposition temperature of 50 deg. C. The ultraviolet-visible absorption measurement shows that the absorbance of CMS-SiO 2 composite films grew steadily with increasing suspension concentration.
Yaakob, Nor Haliza; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Ali, Hassan; Asni, Hazila
Recently, research groups have reported a number of radiation effects on the applications of SiO2 optical fibres with possible use as dosimeter material because these optical fibre provide a good basis for medical radiation dosimetry. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence response and fading characteristic for germanium and aluminium doped SiO2 optical fibres with photon irradiation. These optical fibres are placed in solid phantom and irradiated to 6 and 10 MV photon beam at dose ranging from 0.06 Gy to 0.24 Gy using Primus MLC 3339 linear accelerator at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru. In fading studies, the TL measurements were continued up to 14 days period. The optical fibres will produce glow curves whereby the information is then analyzed. Al and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship that is proportionality between the TL signal and the doses. Comparison for TL response between different linear accelerator showed a good agreement because these optical fibres also have a linear dose-TL signal relationship even using different equipments.
Wei Yaowei; Zhang Zhe; Liu Hao; Ouyang Sheng; Zheng Yi; Tang Gengyu; Chen Songlin; Ma Ping
Laser conditioning is one of the important methods to improve the laser damage threshold of film optics. Firstly, a large aperture laser was used to irradiate the HfO 2 /SiO 2 reflectors, which were evaporated from hafnia and silica by e-beam. Secondly, a laser calorimeter was used to test the film absorption before and after laser irradiation. Focused ion beam (FIB) was few reported using on laser film, it was used to study the damage morphology and explore the cause of damage. The shooting of the partial ejection on nodule was obtained for the first time, which provided the basis for study the damage process. The results show that film absorption was decreased obviously after the laser irradiation, laser conditioning can raise the laser damage threshold by the 'cleaning mechanism'. For the HfO 2 /SiO 2 reflectors, laser conditioning was effective to eject the nodules on substrate. It resulted from the nodule residue not to affect the subsequent laser. In addition, laser conditioning was not effective to the nodule in the film, which might be from the material spatter in coating process. In this case, other method could be used to get rid of the nodules. (authors)
George, I; Vranic, S; Boland, S; Borot, M C; Marano, F; Baeza-Squiban, A
Safe development and application of nanotechnologies in many fields require better knowledge about their potential adverse effects on human health. Evidence of abilities of nanoparticles (NPs) to cross epithelial barriers and reach secondary organs via the bloodstream led us to investigate the translocation of SiO 2 NPs of 50 nm (50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs) across human bronchial epithelial cells that are primary targets after exposure to inhaled NPs. We quantified the translocation of fluorescently labelled SiO 2 NPs at non-cytotoxic concentrations (5 and 10 μg/cm 2 ) across Calu-3 epithelial monolayer. After 14 days in culture Calu-3 cells seeded onto 3 μm-polycarbonate Transwell membranes formed an efficient bronchial barrier assessed by measurement of the transepithelial electric resistance and quantification of the permeability of the monolayer. After 24 hours of exposure, we observed a significant translocation of NPs that was more important when the initial NP concentration decreased. Confocal microscopy observations revealed NP uptake by cells and an important NP retention inside the porous membrane. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs can cross the human bronchial epithelial barrier without affecting the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayer.
Cullen, William; Yamamoto, Mahito; Pierre-Louis, Olivier; Einstein, Theodore; Fuhrer, Michael
Atomically-thin graphene is arguably the thinnest possible mechanical membrane: graphene's effective thickness (the thickness of an isotropic continuum slab which would have the same elastic and bending stiffness) is significantly less than 1 å, indicating that graphene can distort out-of-plane to conform to sub-nanometer features. Here we study the elastic response of graphene supported on a SiO2 substrate covered with SiO2 nanoparticles. At a low density of nanoparticles, graphene is largely pinned to the substrate due to adhesive interaction. However, with increasing nanoparticle density, graphene's elasticity dominates adhesion and strain is relieved by the formation of wrinkles which connect peaks introduced by the supporting nanoparticles. At a critical density, the wrinkles percolate, resulting in a wrinkle network. We develop a simple elastic model allowing for adhesion which accurately predicts the critical spacing between nanoparticles for wrinkle formation. This work has been supported by the University of Maryland NSF-MRSEC under Grant No. DMR 05-20471 with supplemental funding from NRI, and NSF-DMR 08-04976.
Wang Junlong; Wang Chuang; Jiao Gengsheng; Wang Qiuya
A technology of conjugated tri-component interpenetrating polymer networks was applied to synthesize a nano-SiO 2 /polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/cyanate (CE) composite through an asynchronous synthesis way. The microstructure of the composite was characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical properties were measured in German-made DL-1000B and XCL-40 universal material test machines, respectively. Results showed that both the impact strength and the flexural strength were in the optimum status when 3% SiO 2 /PMMA/CE was chosen as a sample with the PMMA/CE ratio of 20/80. Compared with the strengths of pure cyanate, those of the composite were raised by 137.28% and 31.29%, respectively. When 3% nano-SiO 2 was added, the impact strength was increased by 29.96% and the flexural strength by 20.05%, compared with the strengths of polymers without SiO 2 . Analysis and measurements by IR and TEM indicated that no chemical reactions took place among components in the composite. The interpenetration of the conjugated tri-component improved the loading capacity of the polymer, hence the toughness enhancement of cyanate.
Giyjaz E. Bekmukhamedov
Full Text Available Due to the continuously rising demand for C3–C5 olefins it is important to improve the performance of catalysts for dehydrogenation of light alkanes. In this work the effect of modification by SiO2 on the properties of the alumina support and the chromia-alumina catalyst was studied. SiO2 was introduced by impregnation of the support with a silica sol. To characterize the supports and the catalysts the following techniques were used: low-temperature nitrogen adsorption; IR-spectroscopy; magic angle spinning 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance; temperature programmed desorption and reduction; UV-Vis-, Raman- and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR-spectroscopy. It was shown that the modifier in amounts of 2.5–7.5 wt % distributed on the support surface in the form of SiOx-islands diminishes the interaction between the alumina support and the chromate ions (precursor of the active component. As a result, polychromates are the compounds predominantly stabilized on the surface of the modified support; under thermal activation of the catalyst and are reduced to the amorphous Cr2O3. This in turn leads to an increase in the activity of the catalyst in the dehydrogenation of isobutane.
Albuquerque Adriana Silva de
Full Text Available Granular systems composed by nanostructured magnetic materials embedded in a non-magnetic matrix present unique physical properties that depend crucially on their nanostructure. In this work, we have studied the structural and magnetic properties of NiZn-ferrite nanoparticles embedded in SiO2, a granular system synthesized by sol-gel processing. Samples with ferrite volumetric fraction x ranging from 6% to 78% were prepared, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Our results show the formation of pure stoichiometric NiZn-ferrite in the SiO2 matrix for x < 34%. Above these fraction, our samples presented also small amounts of Fe2O3. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed the superparamagnetic behaviour of the ferrimagnetic NiZn-ferrite nanoparticles. The combination of different ferrite concentration and heat treatments allowed the obtaintion of samples with saturation magnetization between 1.3 and 68 emu/g and coercivity ranging from 0 to 123 Oe, value which is two orders of magnitude higher than the coercivity of bulk NiZn-ferrite.
Fujita, Tetsuo; Fukui, Minoru; Okada, Syunji; Shimizu-Iwayama, Tsutomu; Hioki, Tatsumi; Itoh, Noriaki
Aanomalous features of the defects in Si implanted amorphous SiO 2 are reported. The numbers of E 1 prime centers and B 2 centers are found to increase monotonically with implanted Si dose, in contrast to the saturating feature of these numbers in Ar implanted samples. Moreover, when H ions are implanted in amorphous SiO 2 predamaged by Si implantation, both of the density and the number of E 1 prime centers increase and they reach a constant value at a small H dose. We point out that these anomalies can be explained in terms of the difference in the cross-section for defect annihilation in the specimens implanted with Si ions and other ions, in accordance with the homogeneous model proposed by Devine and Golanski. We consider that the main mechanism of defect annihilation is the recombination of an E 1 prime center and an interstitial O, which is stabilized by an implanted Si, reducing the cross-section in Si-implanted specimens. ((orig.))
Beeman, J.W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.
In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO 2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25–35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ∼630nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82 Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO 2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials
Beeman, J. W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.
In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25-35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ˜630 nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials.
DiMaria, D.J.; Young, D.R.; Hunter, W.R.; Serrano, C.M.
The position of the centroid of electrons trapped on sites resulting from aluminum implantation into SiO 2 is measured by using the photo I-V technique for energies from 15 to 40 keV, oxide thicknesses from 49 to 140 nm, and post-implant annealing temperature from 600 to 1050 0 C in N 2 for 30 min. The centroid of the trapped electrons is found to be identical to that of the implanted aluminum from SIMS measurements, regardless of annealing temperature from 600 to 1050 0 C, and located closer (by less than 9 nm) to the Al--SiO 2 interface than predicted from the Lindhard-Scharff-Schott (LSS) calculations of Gibbons, Johnson, and Mylroie. Comparison of centroids determined from photo I-V and SIMS measurements as a function of SiO 2 thickness also implies that the distributions of the ions and negative trapped charge are the same. The trapping behavior of these sites is discussed in the accompanying paper by Young et al
You, Su Jin; Park, Eun Duck; Park, Myung-June
This work addresses the kinetic mechanism for the dehydration of D-xylose over the SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 solid catalyst, where the formation of condensed products is included in addition to the production of furfural and its decomposition. The kinetic modeling and parametric sensitivity show that the isomerization of D-xylose takes place in the early stages of the reaction, followed by the dehydration of isomers. Accordingly, the homogeneous polymerization of isomers is found to be dominant. The developed model is used to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on the catalytic performance; high temperature and D-xylose concentration guarantee high furfural yield.
Zahaimi, Nurul Arina; Ooi Abdullah, Mohd Haris Ridzuan; Zin, Hafiz; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Lutfi; Hashim, Suhairul; Saripan, Mohd Iqbal; Paul, Mukul Chandra; Bradley, D.A.; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek
Study focuses on characterisation of diverse concentrations of Ge-doped SiO 2 fibre as a potential thermoluminescence (TL) system for radiotherapy dosimetry. Irradiations were made using a linear accelerator providing 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams. Investigation has been done on various doped core diameter Ge-doped SiO 2 glass fibres such as commercial telecommunication fibres of 8 µm and 9 µm (CorActive High Tech, Canada), tailor-made fibres of 23 and 50 µm produced by the Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, and tailor-made fibres of 11 µm produced by the University of Malaya Photonics Research Centre. The fibres have been characterised for TL sensitivity, reproducibility, dose- and energy-dependence. The area under the TL glow curve increases with increasing core diameter. For repeat irradiations at a fixed dose the dosimeter produces a flat response better than 4% (1SD) of the mean of the TL distribution. Minimal TL signal fading was found, less than 0.5% per day post irradiation. Linearity of TL has been observed with a correlation coefficient (r 2 ) of better than 0.980 (at 95% confidence level). For particular dopant concentrations, the least square fits show the change in TL yield, in counts per second per unit mass, obtained from 50 µm core diameter fibres irradiated at 6 MV of photon to be 8 times greater than that of 8 µm core diameter fibre. With respect to energy response, the TL yield at 10 MV decreases by∼5% compared to that at 6 MV, primarily due to the lower mass energy absorption coefficient at higher photon energy. These early results indicate that selectively screened fibres can be developed into a promising TL system, offering high spatial resolution capability and, with this, verification of complex radiotherapy dose distributions. - Highlights: • We examined the TL glow curve intensity for various diameter sizes of germanium doped silica glass fibre. • TL sensitivity increased with the increase of fibre core
Wang, Haibin; Chen, Eryu; Jia, Xianbu; Liang, Lijun; Wang, Qi
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The SiO 2 and PTFE NP-filled coatings exhibit excellent superhydrophobicity. • PTFE-filled coatings show denser structures and better liquid resistance than SiO 2 . • Air pocket of Wentzel model explains the difference in the superhydrophobicity. - Abstract: Superhydrophobicity is extensively investigated because of the numerous methods developed for water-repellant interface fabrication. Many suitable functional materials for the production of superhydrophobic surfaces on various substrates are still being explored. In this study, inorganic SiO 2 and organic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticles (NPs) are used for a comparative study on the performance of superhydrophobic coating on carbon steel surfaces. The NPs are added to PTFE coating emulsions by physical blending to form coating mixtures. Raw SiO 2 NPs are then hydrophobized using KH-570 and validated by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Laser Scattering (DLS) grain size analyses. The microstructures of the surfaces are characterized by contact angle (CA) measurements and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images. The prepared surfaces are subjected to adhesion, hardness, water resistance, and acid/alkali erosion tests. Hydrophobized SiO 2 -filled coating surfaces are found to have better uniformity than raw SiO 2 regardless of their similar maximum static contact angles (SCAs) about 150°. A SCA of 163.1° is obtained on the PTFE NP-filled coating surfaces that have a considerably denser structure than SiO 2 . Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses reveal that all fabricated surfaces have good thermal stability and tolerate temperatures up to 550 °C. The PTFE NP-filled coating surfaces also exhibit excellent water and acid resistance. A possible mechanism concerning the amount of trapped air is proposed in relation to practical superhydrophobic surface fabrication
Wang, Chao; Zhao, Li; Liang, Zihui; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin
Highly transparent, energy-saving, and superhydrophobic nanostructured SiO 2 /VO 2 composite films have been fabricated using a sol-gel method. These composite films are composed of an underlying infrared (IR)-regulating VO 2 layer and a top protective layer that consists of SiO 2 nanoparticles. Experimental results showed that the composite structure could enhance the IR light regulation performance, solar modulation capability, and hydrophobicity of the pristine VO 2 layer. The transmittance of the composite films in visible region ( T lum ) was higher than 60%, which was sufficient to meet the requirements of glass lighting. Compared with pristine VO 2 films and tungsten-doped VO 2 film, the near IR control capability of the composite films was enhanced by 13.9% and 22.1%, respectively, whereas their solar modulation capability was enhanced by 10.9% and 22.9%, respectively. The water contact angles of the SiO 2 /VO 2 composite films were over 150°, indicating superhydrophobicity. The transparent superhydrophobic surface exhibited a high stability toward illumination as all the films retained their initial superhydrophobicity even after exposure to 365 nm light with an intensity of 160 mW . cm -2 for 10 h. In addition, the films possessed anti-oxidation and anti-acid properties. These characteristics are highly advantageous for intelligent windows or solar cell applications, given that they can provide surfaces with anti-fogging, rainproofing, and self-cleaning effects. Our technique offers a simple and low-cost solution to the development of stable and visible light transparent superhydrophobic surfaces for industrial applications.
Zheng, Lingling; Pi, Fuwei; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan
Highlights: • An efficient photocatalyst Fe_3O_4@SiO_2@mTiO_2 with high magnetic response and large specific surface area was synthesized. • Photocatalytic efficiency of Fe_3O_4@SiO_2@mTiO_2 on Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion was higher than TiO_2 P-25. • Possible photocatalytic degradation mechanisms for the Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion were proposed. - Abstract: A novel magnetic mesoporous nanomicrospheres Fe_3O_4@SiO_2@mTiO_2 were synthetized and characterized by a series of techniques including FE-TEM, EDS, FE-SEM, PXRD, XPS, BET, TGA as well as VSM, and subsequently tested as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion under UV irradiation. The well-designed nanomicrospheres exhibit a pure and highly crystalline anatase TiO_2 layer, large specific surface area, and high-magnetic-response. Photocatalytic degradation of the three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and the formation intermediates were identified using HPLC, TOC-V_c_p_n, IC, pH meter and GC–MS. Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion disappeared after 45 min, 45 min, and 80 min UV illumination, respectively. At the end of the treatment, the total organic carbon (TOC) of the OPPs was reduced 80–85%. The main mineralization products were SO_4"2"−, NO_3"− and PO_4"3"− and Omethoate additionally formed NO_2"−. Based on the results, we proposed the photocatalytic degradation pathways for Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion.
Full Text Available High-Si-content transition metal nitride coatings, which exhibited an X-ray amorphous phase, were proposed as protective coatings on glass molding dies. In a previous study, the Zr–Si–N coatings with Si contents of 24–30 at.% exhibited the hardness of Si3N4, which was higher than those of the middle-Si-content (19 at.% coatings. In this study, the bonding characteristics of the constituent elements of Zr–Si–N coatings were evaluated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results indicated that the Zr 3d5/2 levels were 179.14–180.22 and 180.75–181.61 eV for the Zr–N bonds in ZrN and Zr3N4 compounds, respectively. Moreover, the percentage of Zr–N bond in the Zr3N4 compound increased with increasing Si content in the Zr–Si–N coatings. The Zr–N bond of Zr3N4 dominated when the Si content was >24 at.%. Therefore, high Si content can stabilize the Zr–N compound in the M3N4 bonding structure. Furthermore, the thermal stability and chemical inertness of Zr–Si–N coatings were evaluated by conducting thermal cycle annealing at 270 °C and 600 °C in a 15-ppm O2–N2 atmosphere. The results indicated that a Zr22Si29N49/Ti/WC assembly was suitable as a protective coating against SiO2–B2O3–BaO-based glass for 450 thermal cycles.
Nag, Jadupati; Ray, Nirat
Yttrium Iron Garnet (Y3Fe5O12) was synthesized by solid state/ceramic process. Thin films of YIG were deposited on SiO2 substrate at room temperature(RT) and at substrate temperature (Ts) 700 °C using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. RT deposited thin films are amorphous in nature and non-magnetic. After annealing at temperature 800 ° RT deposited thin films showed X-ray peaks as well as the magnetic order. Magnetic ordering is enhanced by annealing temperature(Ta ≥ 750 °C) and resulted good quality of films with high magnetization value.
Ziemath, Ervino C.; Aegerter, Michel A.
Precursor glass and glass-ceramics with molar composition 2Na2O·1CaO·3SiO2 are studied by infrared, conventional, and microprobe Raman techniques. The Gaussian deconvoluted Raman spectrum of the glass presents bands at 625 and 660 cm-1, attributed to bending vibrations of Si-O-Si bonds, and at 860, 920, 975 and 1030 cm-1, attributed to symmetric stretching vibrations of SiO4 tetrahedra with 4, 3, 2, and 1 nonbridging oxygens, respectively. The Raman microprobe spectrum of a highly crystalliz...
Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre
Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997
Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajjadi, Mohaddeseh; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali
In this study, a convenient method for the synthesis of arylaminotetrazoles has been developed using a copper (II)-aminotetrazole complex immobilized on silica-coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@SiO2) nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2-aminotet-Cu(II)) as a novel and efficient magnetically catalyst. The constructed superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles were successfully prepared, as proven using different spectroscopic techniques such as fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The applicability of Fe3O4@SiO2-aminotet-Cu(II) magnetic catalyst allows the efficient synthesis of a variety of arylaminotetrazoles from the reaction between various arylcyanamides with sodium azide in high yields. The effect of catalyst loading was investigated. In addition, the reaction mechanism for the synthesis of arylaminotetrazoles was reasonably proposed. Results show that the 1-aryl-5-amino-1H-tetrazole (B isomer) and 5-arylamino-1H-tetrazole (A isomer) can be obtained from the arylcyanamides carrying electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents, respectively. This procedure offers a simple methodology, relatively short reaction times, easy work-up, high yields of the products and a cleaner reaction with elimination of hydrazoic acid (HN3). Moreover, catalyst can be conveniently recovered through the use of external magnet and reused for at least 6 times without any significant loss of its activity.
Khosroshahi, Mohammad E.; Ghazanfari, Lida
Highlights: ► The purpose of the research was to synthesize and characterize Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Au NPs. ► Uncoated MNPs showed an Ms range of 80–100 emu g −1 for particles between 35–96 nm. ► The magnetic NPs were modified with a thin layer of silica using Stober method. ► Small gold colloids (1–3 nm) were covered the amino functionalized particle surface. ► An absorption peak of 550 nm was obtained for a gold thickness of about 35 nm. - Abstract: The purpose of this research was to synthesize and characterize gold-coated Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 nanoshells for biomedical applications. Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. Smaller particles were synthesized by decreasing the NaOH concentration, which in our case this corresponded to 35 nm using 0.9 M of NaOH at 750 rpm with a specific surface area of 41 m 2 g −1 . For uncoated Fe 3 O 4 NPs, the results showed an octahedral geometry with saturation magnetization range of 80–100 emu g −1 and coercivity of 80–120 Oe for particles between 35 and 96 nm, respectively. The magnetic NPs were modified with a thin layer of silica using Stober method. Small gold colloids (1–3 nm) were synthesized using Duff method and covered the amino functionalized particle surface. Magnetic and optical properties of gold nanoshells were assessed using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), UV–Vis spectrophotometer, atomic and magnetic force microscope (AFM, MFM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, three main peaks of Au (1 1 1), (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) were identified. The formation of each layer of a nanoshell is also demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results. The Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Au nanostructures, with 85 nm as particle size, exhibited an absorption peak at ∼550 nm with a magnetization value of 1.3 emu g −1 with a specific surface area of 71 m 2 g −1 .
Bootkul, D.; Intarasiri, S.; Aramwit, C.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on SiO 2 /Si substrate are attractive for novel sensitive and selective chemical sensors. According to the almost never ending of size reduction, a nm-thickness layer of the film is greatly required. However, formation of such a very thin DLC film on SiO 2 /Si substrate is challenging. In this experiment, DLC films were formed using our in-house Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition (FCVAD) facility by varying the bias voltage of 0 V, −250 V and −450 V with the arc voltage of 350 V, 450 V, 550 V, 650 V and 750 V for 10 min. Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the film qualities and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was applied for cross sectional analysis. Results showed that films of thickness ranging from 10–50 nm were easily acquired depending on deposition conditions. Deconvolution of Raman spectra of these samples revealed that, when fixing the substrate bias but increasing the arc voltage from 350 to 750 V, the ratio between D-peak and G-peak intensity, namely I D /I G ratio, tended to reduce up to the arc voltage of 450 V, then increased up to the arc voltage of 650 V and finally decreased again. On the other hand, when fixing the arc voltage, the I D /I G ratio tended to decrease continuously as the increasing of bias voltage. It can be concluded that the bonding structure would evolve from a graphitic-like structure to a diamond-like structure as the substrate bias increases. Additionally, the sp 3 site should be maximized at the arc voltage ∼450 V for fixed bias voltage. It is expected that, at −450 V bias and 450 V arc, sp 3 fractions could be higher than 60%. However, in some cases, e.g. at low arc voltages, voids formed between the film and the amorphous SiO 2 substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the C edge across the DLC indicated that the thicker DLC film had uniform chemistry and structure, whereas the thin DLC film showed changes in the edge shape, indicating a gradual change in its properties between the edges and the core
Butt, M A; Fomchenkov, S A; Verma, P; Khonina, S N; Ullah, A
We report a design for creating a multilayer dielectric optical filters based on TiO 2 and SiO 2 /MgF 2 alternating layers. We have selected Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) for high refractive index (2.5), Silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and Magnesium fluoride (MgF 2 ) as a low refractive index layer (1.45 and 1.37) respectively. Miniaturized visible spectrometers are useful for quick and mobile characterization of biological samples. Such devices can be fabricated by using Fabry-Perot (FP) filters consisting of two highly reflecting mirrors with a central cavity in between. Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) consisting of alternating high and low refractive index material pairs are the most commonly used mirrors in FP filters, due to their high reflectivity. However, DBRs have high reflectivity for a selected range of wavelengths known as the stopband of the DBR. This range is usually much smaller than the sensitivity range of the spectrometer range. Therefore a bandpass filters are required to restrict wavelength outside the stopband of the FP DBRs. The proposed filter shows a high quality with average transmission of 97.4% within the passbands and the transmission outside the passband is around 4%. Special attention has been given to keep the thickness of the filters within the economic limits. It can be suggested that these filters are exceptional choice for florescence imaging and Endoscope narrow band imaging. (paper)
The concept of silicate liquid immiscibility was invoked early in the history of petrology to explain certain pairs of compositionally divergent rocks, but. as a result of papers by Greig (Am. J. Sci. 13, 1-44, 133-154) and Bowen (The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks), it fell into disfavor for many years. The discovery of immiscibility in geologically reasonable temperature ranges and compositions in experimental work on the system K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2, and of evidence for immiscibility in a variety of lunar and terrestrial rocks, has reinstated the process. Phase equilibria in the high-silica corner of the tetrahedron representing the system K2O- FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 are presented, in the form of constant FeO sections through the tetrahedron, at 10% increments. Those sections, showing the tentative relationships of the primary phase volumes, are based on 5631 quenching runs on 519 compositions, made in metallic iron containers in pure nitrogen. Thirteen crystalline compounds are involved, of which at least six show two or more crystal modifica-tions. Two separate phase volumes, in each of which two immiscible liquids, one iron-rich and the other iron-poor, are present at the liquidus. One of these volumes is entirely within the quaternary system, astride the 1:1 K2O:Al2O3 plane. No quaternary compounds as such have been found, but evidence does point toward at least partial quaternary solid solution, with rapidly lowering liquidus temperatures, from K2O??Al2O3?? 2SiO2 ('potash nepheline', kalsilite. kaliophilite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??3SiO2, and from K2O??Al2O3??4SiO2 (leucite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??5SiO2, Both of these series apparently involve substitution, in tetrahedral coordination. of a ferrous iron and a silicon ion for two aluminum ions. Some of the 'impurities' found in analyses of the natural phases may reflect these substitutions. As a result of the geometry of the immiscibility volume located entirely within the quaternary
Boccaccini, A. R.
Full Text Available Very fine and sinterable ceramic powders (100-600 nm in the system Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 were obtained by the method of cohydrolisis from organo-metallic precursors. Isostatically pressed powder compacts could be densified to a relative high density (~ 92 % th. density at relative low temperatures (1320-1380ºC. The technical coefficient of thermal expansion was measured by dilatometry. The value obtained (8.8 10-6 1/ºC corresponds closely to that of Ti, opening the possibility to use Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 ceramics to fabricate metal/ceramic composite implants. The measured mechanical properties of dense sintered Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 material: Young´s modulus, flexure strength and compression strength, are higher than those of pure TiO2. Highly porous Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 ceramics (P~ 65% were obtained by the method of evaporation of hydrogen peroxide. These materials exhibited interconnected porosity and their properties, particularly the Young´s modulus, resulted very similar to those of bone, which is an important pre-requisite for the design of quirurgical implants.Se han obtenido polvos cerámicos muy finos (100- 600 nm y de alta sinterabilidad, en el sistema Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2, por el método de co-hidrólisis controlada a partir de precursores organo-metálicos. Los compactos fabricados a partir del polvo de cohidrólisis calcinado fueron sinterizados en el rango de temperaturas 1320-1380 ºC, obteniéndose densidades elevadas (~ 92% D.T.. El coeficiente de expansión térmica técnico del material cerámico sinterizado fue medido por dilatometría. El valor obtenido, 8.8 10-6 ºC-1, es muy similar al de titanio metálico y por lo tanto el material cerámico Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 puede ser candidato para la fabricación de implantes compuestos cerámico/metal. Las propiedades mecánicas: módulo de elasticidad, resistencia a la flexión y resistencia a la compresión, del material denso sinterizado, fueron determinadas, resultando muy superiores a las de TiO2 puro
Syamsi Aini; Jon Efendi; Syamsi Aini; Jon Efendi
This study highlights the potential use of Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles as heterogeneous catalysis in oxidation reaction. The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was synthesized by reduction of TiCl 4 and diazonium salt with sodium borohydride to produce phenyl titanium nanoparticles (Ti-Phenyl), followed by the silica shell coating using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, diffuse reflectance (DR) UV-visible spectrometer, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometer, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The core-shell size of Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was in the range of 40 to 100 nm with its core composed with an agglomeration of Ti-Phenyl. The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was active as a catalyst in the liquid phase epoxidation of 1-octene with aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. (author)
Full Text Available Physical and electrical properties of The SiO2-ZnO mixing at different compositions were investigated. The experiment used simple mixing method at the sintering temperature 600oC. It was used the composition mixing ratio of SiO2:ZnO ie. 0:10; 7:3; 5:5; 3:7; and 10:0 (%Wt. Based on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results, it obtained that a new phase in each sample was not formed even though having different diffraction peak. The mixing ratio of SiO2: ZnO nanocomposite (7:3 %wt had the biggest grain size (77,92 nm, the highest dielectric constant (3.00E+05 and the smallest conductivity (0,726549 (Ωm-1. On the other side, the mixing ratio of SiO2: ZnO nanocomposite (5:5 %wt had the smallest grain size (35.42nm, dielectric constant (3.00E+2 and the highest conductivity (25.36729 (Ωm-1. It can be concluded that the difference of composition ratio offered the change on both physical and electrical properties of SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite.
Joong Kim, Kyung; Park, Ki Tae; Lee, Jong Wan
The thickness measurement of ultra-thin SiO 2 films thinner than 1 nm was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Amorphous SiO 2 thin films were grown on amorphous Si films to avoid the thickness difference due to the crystalline structure of a substrate. SiO 2 thin films were grown by ion beam sputter deposition under oxygen gas flow and the thickness was measured by in situ XPS. The attenuation length was determined experimentally by a SiO 2 film with a known thickness. The straight line fit between the measured thickness using XPS and the nominal thickness showed a good linear relation with a gradient of 0.969 and a small offset of 0.126 nm. The gradient measured at the range of 3.4-0.28 nm was very close to that measured at sub-nanometer range of 1.13-0.28 nm. This result means that the reliable measurement of SiO 2 film thickness below 1 nm is possible by XPS
Luo, Dahao; Wu, Chen; Yan, Mi
Three inorganic-organic hybrids have been designed by incorporating epoxy-modified silicone resin (ESR) with SiO2, Fe3O4 and their mixture in the application as the coating of Fe soft magnetic composites (SMCs). The introduced SiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in the ESR, while the Fe3O4 tends to agglomerate or even separate from the ESR. Simultaneous addition of the SiO2 and Fe3O4 gives rise to satisfactory distribution of both nanoparticles and optimized magnetic performance of the SMCs with high permeability (124.6) and low loss (807.8 mW/cm3). On one hand, introduction of the ferromagnetic Fe3O4 reduces the magnetic dilution effect, which is beneficial for improved magnetization and permeability. On the other hand, SiO2 incorporation prevents the agglomeration of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and gives rise to increased electrical resistivity for reduced core loss as well as enhanced mechanical strength of the SMCs.
Gao Haiyan; Xiang Hongwei; Li Yongwang; Sun Yuhan; Liu Tao; Xie Yaning; Hu Tiandou
The Co-based catalysts have been extensively used in converting CO to longer chain hydrocarbons which can then be hydrocracked to diesel oil with high grade. SiO 2 is one of the most commonly used carriers for Co-based catalysts. It is showed that commercial silica carrier after modification can lead to much high reaction activity and selectivity to heavy hydrocarbons. But the structure of Co-based catalysts supported on the modified carrier has not been clearly understood. XAFS is used to investigate the change of structure of cobalt species in Co-based catalysts supported on modified carriers. The result from XAFS indicate that the structure of Co-based catalysts supported on modified carrier has certain change in comparison with Co-based catalyst supported on commercial silica. The interaction between carrier and metal is woken in the modified catalysts. Especially, the structure of catalysts after reduction have distinct difference. The extent of reduction in modified catalysts is much more than the catalyst supported on commercial silica. Cobalt species of the catalyst supported commercial silica after reduction dose exist mainly in the form of cobalt metal forms and may exist in the form of Co 2 SiO 4 surface compound
Morales-Saavedra, Omar G; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G; Torres-Zúñiga, Vicente; Guadalupe-Bañuelos, José; Ortega-Martínez, Roberto; Rivera, Ernesto; García, Tonatiuh
The well-established catalyst-free sonogel route was successfully implemented to fabricate highly pure, optically active, solid state polymeric azo- dye/SiO 2 -based hybrid composites. Bulk samples exhibit controllable geometrical shapes and monolithic structure with variable dopant concentrations. Since the implemented azo-dye chromophores exhibit a push–pull structure, hybrid film samples were spin-coated on ITO-covered glass substrates; molecular alignment was then performed via electrical poling in order to explore the quadratic nonlinear optical performance of this kind of composite. Comprehensive morphological, spectroscopic and optical characterization of the samples were performed with several experimental techniques: atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and infrared, Raman, photoluminescent and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. The linear refractive indices of both bulk and thin film samples were measured according to the Brewster angle technique and a numerical analysis of the transmission spectral data, respectively. Regardless of the low glass transition temperatures of the studied polymers, some hybrid film samples were able to display stable nonlinear optical activity such as second harmonic generation. Results show that the chromophores were satisfactorily embedded into the highly pure SiO 2 sonogel network without significant guest–host molecular interactions, thus preserving their optical properties and producing sol–gel hybrid glasses suitable for optical applications
Xu, Jian; Liu, Bingguo; Liu, Zhiwen; Gong, Yuxuan; Hu, Baofu; Wang, Jian; Li, Hui; Wang, Xinliang; Du, Baoli
In recent times, there have been rapid advances in the solid-state laser lighting technology. Due to the large amounts of heat accumulated from the high flux laser radiation, color conversion materials used in solid-state laser lighting devices should possess high durability, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal quenching. The aim of this study is to develop a thermally robust SiO2-YAG:Ce composite thick film (CTF) for high-power solid-state laser lighting applications. Commercial colloidal silica which was used as the source of SiO2, played the roles of an adhesive, a filler, and a protecting agent. Compared to the YAG:Ce powder, the CTF exhibits remarkable thermal stability (11.3% intensity drop at 200 °C) and durability (4.5% intensity drop after 1000 h, at 85 °C and 85% humidity). Furthermore, the effects of the substrate material and the thickness of the CTF on the laser lighting performance were investigated in terms of their thermal quenching and luminescence saturation behaviors, respectively. The CTF with a thickness of 50 μm on a sapphire substrate does not show luminescence saturation, despite a high-power density of incident radiation i.e. 20 W/mm2. These results demonstrate the potential applicability of the CTF in solid-state laser lighting devices.
Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, H.
We have studied positron annihilation in a Silicon carbide (SiC)-metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) structure using a monoenergetic positron beam. The Doppler broadening of annihilation quanta were measured as functions of the incident positron energy and the gate bias. Applying negative gate bias, significant increases in S-parameters were observed. This indicates the migration of implanted positrons towards SiO 2/SiC interface and annihilation at open-volume type defects. The behavior of S-parameters depending on the bias voltage was well correlated with the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics. We observed higher S-parameters and the interfacial trap density in MOS structures fabricated using the dry oxidation method as compared to those by pyrogenic oxidation method.
Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, H.
We have studied positron annihilation in a Silicon carbide (SiC)-metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) structure using a monoenergetic positron beam. The Doppler broadening of annihilation quanta were measured as functions of the incident positron energy and the gate bias. Applying negative gate bias, significant increases in S-parameters were observed. This indicates the migration of implanted positrons towards SiO 2 /SiC interface and annihilation at open-volume type defects. The behavior of S-parameters depending on the bias voltage was well correlated with the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. We observed higher S-parameters and the interfacial trap density in MOS structures fabricated using the dry oxidation method as compared to those by pyrogenic oxidation method
Kachurin, G.A.; Yanovskaya, S.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Lejer, A.F.; Ruault, M.-O.
Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the formation of silicon nanocrystals in SiO 2 implanted with Si ions. Si clusters have been formed at once in the postimplanted layers, providing the excessive Si concentration more ∼ 3 at. %. Si segregation with Si-Si 4 bonds formation is enhanced as following annealing temperature increase, however, the Raman scattering by Si clusters diminishes. The effect is explained by a transformation of the chain-like Si clusters into compact phase nondimensional structures. Segregation of Si nanoprecipitates had ended about 1000 deg C, but the strong photoluminescence typical for Si nanocrystals manifested itself only after 1100 deg C [ru
Walder, Cordula; Zellmeier, Matthias; Rappich, Jörg; Ketelsen, Helge; Hinrichs, Karsten
For the design and process control of periodic nano-structured surfaces spectroscopic ellipsometry is already established in the UV-VIS spectral regime. The objective of this work is to show the feasibility of spectroscopic ellipsometry in the infrared, exemplarily, on micrometer-sized SiO2 line gratings grown on silicon wafers. The grating period ranges from 10 to about 34 μm. The IR-ellipsometric spectra of the gratings exhibit complex changes with structure variations. Especially in the spectral range of the oxide stretching modes, the presence of a Rayleigh singularity can lead to pronounced changes of the spectrum with the sample geometry. The IR-ellipsometric spectra of the gratings are well reproducible by calculations with the RCWA method (Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis). Therefore, infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry allows the quantitative characterization and process control of micrometer-sized structures.
Canut, B.; Blanchin, M.G.; Ramos-Canut, S.; Teodorescu, V.; Toulemonde, M.
Silicon oxide films thermally grown on Si(1 0 0) wafers were irradiated with 200 MeV 197 Au ions in the 10 9 -10 1 cm -2 fluence range. The targets were then etched at room temperature in aqueous HF solution (1 vol.%) for various durations. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode was used to probe the processed surfaces. Conical holes with a low size dispersion were evidenced. Their surface diameter varies between 20 and 70 nm, depending on the etching time. Sol-gel dip coating technique, associated with a further annealing treatment performed at 500 o C for 15 min, was used to fill the nanopores created in SiO 2 with a transparent conductive oxide (SnO 2 doped with antimony). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) performed on cross-sectional specimen showed that SnO 2 :Sb crystallites of ∼5 nm mean size are trapped in the holes without degrading their geometry
Sakurai, T.; Kawata, H.; Sato, T.; Hisatsugu, T.; Hashimoto, H.; Furuya, T.
The lateral spread of implanted P + ions and the shape of the mask window have been observed simultaneously using the technique of staining the cleaved surface and scanning electron microscopy for the Si samples with the SiO 2 mask window with a tapered edge. The mask edge with a gradient of 45 0 or 78 0 to the Si surface and the implanted n-type region with a carrier concentration higher than 2 x 10 17 /cm 3 are observed in the same photograph. The observed maximum lateral spread when the gradient of the mask edge is 45 0 is about 1.6 times larger than that when the gradient is 78 0 . The calculated results of the lateral spread agree relatively well with the experimental data although the precise analysis based on the definite basis is necessary
Current-perpendicular-to-plane electronic transport properties and magnetoresistance of amorphous Co40Fe40B20/SiO2/Si heterostructures are investigated systematically. A backward diode-like rectifying behavior was observed due to the formation of a Schottky barrier between Co40Fe40B20 and Si. The junction resistance shows a metal-insulator transition with decreasing temperature in both the forward and reverse ranges. A large positive magnetoresistance (MR) of ∼2300% appears at 200 K. The positive MR can be attributed to the magnetic-field-controlled impact ionization process of carriers. MR shows a temperature-peak-type character under a constant bias current, which is related to the spin-dependent barrier in the Si near the interface. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Kabadayi, Oe.; Guemues, H.
The heavy ion ranges in amorphous SiO 2 have been calculated by using a technique based on solution of first order ODE's. Br, Au, Hg, Bi projectiles have been chosen as incident ions. Since the target is assumed to be amorphous, Bragg's rule can be used to calculate electronic and nuclear stopping powers in the compound. Numerical solutions have ben performed by using Fuhlberg fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta method. The results are compared with experimental data, as well as with the result of Monte Carlo program SRIM and other standard procedures such as PRAL and WS. It is found that the agreement between our method and the experiment is good and within 10%. (author)
Tsong, I.S.T.; Monkowski, M.D.; Monkowski, J.R.; Miller, P.D.; Moak, C.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Wintenberg, A.L.
Silicon oxides thermally grown in H 2 O, O 2 , HCl/O 2 and Cl 2 /O 2 ambients were analyzed, via 1 H( 19 F,αγ) 16 O nuclear reaction and SIMS, for the presence of hydrogen. In addition, those oxides grown in HCl/O 2 and Cl 2 /O 2 ambients were analyzed with SIMS for the presence of chlorine. The SIMS data show that the hydrogen levels in these oxides were below the limit of detection for nuclear reaction experiments. The 35 Cl + depth-profiles show that chlorine is enriched at the SiO 2 interface for the HCl/O 2 grown oxides while it is more evenly distributed in oxide bulk in the Cl 2 /O 2 grown samples
Nakagawa, M.; Okada, M.; Kawabata, Y.; Atobe, K.; Itoh, H.; Nakanishi, S.
The synthetic silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), cut parallel (x-plate) or perpendicular (z-plate) to c-axis, are irradiated by reactor neutrons at 360 K (2.8x10 18 n/cm 2 ) or at 20 K (8.0x10 16 n/cm 2 ). After neutron irradiation at 360 K, the main absorption peak can be observed at 212 nm (5.84 eV) for z-plate and 217 nm (5.71 eV) for x-plate. After irradiation at 20 K a new band at 250 nm (4.96 eV) can be observed in addition to the band at about 220 nm. The 250 nm band having FWHM similar 0.44 eV disappears at 300-340 K. Thermoluminescences are also observed between 80 to 400 K; which show some difference between x-plate and z-plate. ((orig.))
Zhang, Y.; Mi, W. B.; Zhang, Xixiang
Current-perpendicular-to-plane electronic transport properties and magnetoresistance of amorphous Co40Fe40B20/SiO2/Si heterostructures are investigated systematically. A backward diode-like rectifying behavior was observed due to the formation of a Schottky barrier between Co40Fe40B20 and Si. The junction resistance shows a metal-insulator transition with decreasing temperature in both the forward and reverse ranges. A large positive magnetoresistance (MR) of ∼2300% appears at 200 K. The positive MR can be attributed to the magnetic-field-controlled impact ionization process of carriers. MR shows a temperature-peak-type character under a constant bias current, which is related to the spin-dependent barrier in the Si near the interface. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
This document is conceived as an overview of Guido Roma's research achievements on defects stability and kinetics in two materials of interest in nuclear science and for many other application domains: silicon dioxide and silicon carbide. An extended summary in french is followed by the main document, in english. Chapter 1 describes the context, introduces the approach and explains the choice of silicon dioxide and silicon carbide. Chapter 2 discusses several approximations and specific issues of the application of Density Functional Theory to point defects in non-metallic materials for the study of defects energetics and diffusion. Chapter 3 is devoted to native defects in silicon dioxide and the understanding of self-diffusion in crystalline and amorphous SiO 2 . Chapter 4 summarises the results on native defects and palladium impurities in silicon carbide. A conclusion, including suggestions for future developments, closes the main part of the document. (author) [fr
Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Bottani, C.E.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.; Ottaviani, G.P.
Silicon implanted and annealed SiO 2 layers are studied using photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Two PL emission bands are observed. A band centered at 560 nm is present in as-implanted samples and it is still observed after 1,000 C annealing. The emission time is fast. A second band centered at 780 nm is detected after 1,000 C annealing. The intensity of the 780 nm band further increased when hydrogen annealing was performed. The emission time is long (1 micros to 0.2 ms). PAS results show that defects produced by implantation anneal at 600 C. Based on the annealing behavior and on the emission times, the origin of the two bands is discussed
Zhang Chunlai; Wang Biyi; Tian Dongbin; Yin Wei; Jiang Xiaodong; Yuan Xiaodong; Yan Lianghong; Zhang Hongliang; Zhao Songnan; Lv Haibing
SiO 2 thin films were deposited using tetraethoxylsilane as precursor, ammonia as catalyst on K9 glass by sol-gel method. These films were post-treated by ammonia and heat. The properties of the coatings were characterized by ellipsometer, UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR-spectroscopy, scanning probe microscope and contact angle measurement apparatus. The resuits indicate that the thickness of the films with ammonia and heat treatment tend to decrease. Both the refractive index and water contact angle increase after ammonia treatment. However, they both decrease after heat treatment. The former increases by 0.236 for the first step, then decreases by 0.202 for the second. The latter increases to 58.92 degree, then decreases to 38.07 degree. The transmittance of the coatings turn to be better and continuously shift to short wave by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The surface becomes smoother by AFM after the two-step treatment. (authors)
Szydlo, N.; Poirier, R.
Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors were studied where the metal is a semitransparent gold layer of 5mm diameter, the oxide is thermal silica whose, thickness depends on the nature of the implant, and the semiconductor is N-type silicon of 5 ohms/cm. The SiO 2 thickness was chosen in such a way that the maximum of the profile of the implanted substance is in the medium of the oxide layer. In the case of virgin silica, the oscillations in the photocurrent versus energy and exponential variations versus the applied voltage show that the photoconduction obeys the model of injection limited current. In the case of the oxide after ion bombardment, the photocurrent similarity, independent of the direction of the electric field in silica, shows that volume transport phenomena become preponderent [fr
Full Text Available The interactions of magnesia-chromite refractory brick with Cu-Na2O.2SiO2 and CuO-Na2O.2SiO2 melts are studied and the chemical durability of corrosion products in water is evaluated. The corrosion tests confirm intensive infiltration of the slag melts into the tested refractory bricks and formation of Cr(6+ compounds. The molten copper partially oxidizes during corrosion test by air and penetrates into bricks. Interactions among periclase (MgO and chromite (FeCr2O4 grains with the melt Na2O.2SiO2 and copper oxides makes possible to form several compounds (e.g. Cu2MgO3, CuCrO4, CaCrO4, Na2CrO4, MgCrO4. Just the marked yellow spots, which were observed on the corroded brick surface after 30 days of free storage, suggest hydration of the high-temperature corrosion products. The yellow color of spots points out to chromates as Na2CrO4 and MgCrO4, which are well soluble in water. The leaching of corroded bricks in water (batch leaching test of a ratio of S (solid : W (water = 0.1 taking up to 28 days confirmed the Cr, Na, Mg and Ca ions leach-out. The pH value of solution increased up to 9 during leaching mainly as a consequence of elevated Na+ ion concentration. The Cr ion concentration rises in the solution up to 1 mmol.l-1. The observed moderate decrease of Cr ion concentration in the solution with the length of leaching indicates super-saturation of the solution and precipitation of the products.
Yu, C.F.; Chao, D.S.; Chen, Y.-F.; Liang, J.H.
Prospects of developing into numerous silicon-based optoelectronic applications have prompted many studies on the optical properties of Ge nanoparticles within a silicon oxide (SiO 2 ) matrix. Even with such abundant studies, the fundamental mechanism underlying the Ge nanoparticle-induced photoluminescence (PL) is still an open question. In order to elucidate the mechanism, we dedicate this study to investigating the correlation between the PL properties and microstructure of the Ge nanoparticles synthesized in thermally grown SiO 2 films. Our spectral data show that the peak position, at ∼3.1 eV or 400 nm, of the PL band arising from the Ge nanoparticles was essentially unchanged under different Ge implantation fluences and the temperatures of the following annealing process, whereas the sample preparation parameters modified or even fluctuated (in the case of the annealing temperature) the peak intensity considerably. Given the microscopically observed correlation between the nanoparticle structure and the sample preparation parameters, this phenomenon is consistent with the mechanism in which the oxygen-deficiency-related defects in the Ge/SiO 2 interface act as the major luminescence centers; this mechanism also successfully explains the peak intensity fluctuation with the annealing temperature. Moreover, our FTIR data indicate the formation of GeO x upon ion implantation. Since decreasing of the oxygen-related defects by the GeO x formation is expected to be correlated with the annealing temperature, presence of the GeO x renders further experimental support to the oxygen defect mechanism. This understanding may assist the designing of the manufacturing process to optimize the Ge nanoparticle-based PL materials for different technological applications
Jia, Weiyi; Castro, Lymari; Wang, Yanyun; Liu, Huimin
Chromium ions are very attractive to optical spectroscopy and laser physics. It is well known that the first laser in the history is a ruby laser activated with Cr(3+). It was found in early nineties that Cr(4+) was also an interesting lasing ion in the near infrared, and various Cr(4+) lasers have been developed. Very recently, it was reported that Cr(2+) doped in CdSe crystals showed lasing action in the infrared. The above achievement have stimulated an interest in searching for Cr(5+) and investigating its optical properties. Cr(5+) is isoelectronic with Ti(3+) and V(4+), having electron configuration 3d1. Ti(3+) is the active center of commercial cw and femtosecond sapphire lasers, tunable in the range 680-1100 nm. V(4+) doped in YAlO3 and Al2O3 showed broad band emission near 635 nm. Although EPR results of Cr(5+) were reported, the optical properties were less studied. Herren et al. reported an observation of luminescence from Cr doped in SiO2 sol-gel glass. The luminescence spectrum was assigned to pentavalent ions in their first paper, and later it was identified to be the emission from the charge transfer transition of Cr(6+). The first observation of photoluminescence from octahedrally coordinated Cr(5+) in BaCaMg aluminate glasses was reported very recently. In this work, we report luminescence results of Cr doped SiO2 sol-gel glasses. The fluorescence spectra are very different from Herrens' results, and we believe it originates from pentavalent Cr.
Kline, J.E.; Leonard, J.P.
Pulsed excimer laser irradiation has been used to fully melt 200 nm films of elemental Au and Ni on SiO 2 substrates. With the use of a capping layer of SiO 2 and line irradiation via projection optics, the typical liquid-phase dewetting processes associated with these metals on SiO 2 has been suppressed. In a series of experiments varying line widths and fluence, a process region is revealed immediately above the complete melting threshold for which the films remain continuous and smooth after melting and resolidification. Simple energetic arguments for mechanisms leading to initiation of dewetting support these observations, and a gas-mediated model is proposed to describe the process conditions that are necessary for the suppression of dewetting