Lemkin, Allison; Kistin, Caroline J; Cabral, Howard J; Aschengrau, Ann; Bair-Merritt, Megan
Maltreated youth have higher rates of school dropout than their non-maltreated peers. School connectedness is a modifiable predictor of school success. We hypothesized maltreated youth's school connectedness (supportive relationships with adults at school and participation in school clubs) would be positively associated with high school graduation. We included youth with at least one Child Protective Services (CPS) report by age twelve from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect, a prospective cohort study. Participation in extracurricular activities and adult relationships reported at age 16, high school graduation/General Education Development (GED) status reported at age 18, and demographics were provided by youth and caregivers. Maltreatment data were coded from CPS records. The outcome was graduation/receipt of GED. Multivariable logistic regressions examined the association between school connectedness and graduation/receipt of GED, controlling for confounders. In our sample of 318 maltreated youth, 73.3% graduated. School club was the only activity with a statistically significant association with graduation in bivariate analysis. Having supportive relationships with an adult at school was not significantly associated with graduation, though only 10.7% of youth reported this relationship. Maltreated youth who participated in school clubs had 2.54 times the odds of graduating, adjusted for study site, gender, poverty status, caregiver high school graduation status, and age at first CPS report (95% CI: [1.02, 6.33]). Few maltreated youth reported relationships with adults at school, and additional efforts may be needed to support these vulnerable youth. School club participation may represent an opportunity to modify maltreated youth's risk for school dropout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reed, Donald B.
Gay youth enter high school with the knowledge that they are different and with the belief that heterosexuality is normal and that homosexuality is not normal. Also, gay youth enter high school with the belief that honesty and integrity are important personal values. Additionally, the gay youth enter high school without family knowledge of their…
Trapl, Erika S; Koopman Gonzalez, Sarah J; Cofie, Leslie; Yoder, Laura D; Frank, Jean; Sterling, Kymberle L
Prevalence of cigar use has been increasing among youth. Research indicates that youth are modifying cigar products either by "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) or "blunting" (removing the tobacco and supplementing or replacing with marijuana), yet little is known about youth who engage in this behavior. Thus, this study examines demographic and concurrent substance use behaviors of youth who modify cigars. Data from the 2013 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior survey were examined (n = 16 855). The survey collected data on demographics, cigar product use, cigar modification behaviors, and current cigarette, hookah and marijuana use. Responses to cigar product use items were used to create a composite to classify youth in one of eight unique user categories. Univariate and bivariate statistics were calculated using SPSS complex samples procedures. Overall, 15.2% reported current cigar product use, 11.0% reported current freaking, and 18.5% reported current blunt use; taken together, 25.3% of respondents reported any current use of a cigar product. When examined by user category, of those who endorsed any cigar product use, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars use only was most endorsed (26.3%), followed by Blunt only (25.2%) and all three (ie, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars, freaking, and blunting; 17.4%). A substantial proportion of high school youth who report using cigar products are modifying them in some way, with nearly half freaking and nearly two-thirds blunting. Given the FDA Center for Tobacco products recent extension of its regulatory authority to include cigar products, it is imperative to understand more about the prevalence of and reasons for cigar modification behaviors. Although the FDA has recently enacted regulatory authority over cigar products, little is known about cigar product modification. This is the first study to concurrently examine two unique cigar modification behaviors, "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) and
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...
Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs fr...
Saltzman, J.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.
The chasm between classroom science and scientific research is bridged by the History of Life Internships at Stanford University. Nineteen interns recorded more than 25,500 linear body size measurements of fossil echinoderms and ostracods spanning more than 11,000 species. The interns were selected from a large pool of applicants, and well-established relationships with local teachers at schools serving underrepresented groups in STEM fields were leveraged to ensure a diverse mix of applicants. The lead investigator has been hosting interns in his research group for seven years, in the process measuring over 36,000 foraminfera species as well as representatives from many other fossil groups. We (faculty member, researcher, and educators) all find this very valuable to engage youth in novel research projects. We are able to create an environment where high school students can make genuine contributions to jmportant and unsolved scientific problems, not only through data collection but also through original data analysis. Science often involves long intervals of data collection, which can be tedious, and big questions often require big datasets. Body size evolution is ideally suited to this type of program, as the data collection process requires substantial person-power but not deep technical expertise or expensive equipment. Students are therefore able to engage in the full scientific process, posing previously unanswered questions regarding the evolution of animal size, compiling relevant data, and then analyzing the data in order to test their hypotheses. Some of the projects students developed were truly creative and fun to see come together. Communicating is a critical step in science yet is often lost in the science classroom. The interns submitted seven abstracts to this meeting for the youth session entitled Bright STaRS based on their research projects. To round out the experience, students also learn about the broad field of earth sciences through
Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs from different regions of California explain what they think empowerment means and how they became empowered through their involvement with the GSA. Youth describe three inter-related dimensions of empowerment: personal empowerment, relational empowerment, and strategic empowerment through having and using knowledge. When these three dimensions are experienced in combination, GSA leaders have the potential for individual and collective empowerment as agents of social change at school. By understanding these youth's perspectives on the meanings of empowerment, this article clarifies the conceptual arena for future studies of socially marginalized youth and of positive youth development. PMID:19636734
Russell, Stephen T; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, "empowerment" is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs from different regions of California explain what they think empowerment means and how they became empowered through their involvement with the GSA. Youth describe three inter-related dimensions of empowerment: personal empowerment, relational empowerment, and strategic empowerment through having and using knowledge. When these three dimensions are experienced in combination, GSA leaders have the potential for individual and collective empowerment as agents of social change at school. By understanding these youth's perspectives on the meanings of empowerment, this article clarifies the conceptual arena for future studies of socially marginalized youth and of positive youth development.
Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.
This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...
McWilliams, Julia Ann; Bonet, Sally Wesley
This article examines how the pre-migratory experiences of 90 Bhutanese, Burmese, and Iraqi refugee youth shape their aspirations, needs and capabilities as they transition to postsecondary education and work in the American urban context. It further explores how their schooling experiences in precarious urban school districts influence their…
Chow, Anthony S.; Smith, Kathelene McCarty; Sun, Katherine
This study explored the impact of using best practices identified in previous studies in designing age-appropriate websites for middle and high school youth. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, 31 middle and 22 high school youth took part in six focus groups across four states. Participants were introduced to a website specifically designed for…
Morris, Kevin; Simon, Janet E; Grooms, Dustin R; Starkey, Chad; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y
High-intensity sport training at the youth level has led to increased concern for overuse conditions. Few researchers have examined overuse conditions in youth sports. To examine the rates, risks, and distributions of overuse conditions between youth and high school football players. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Youth and high school football teams. The Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS) investigated youth football athletes from age 5 to 14 years. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) focused on high school football athletes 14 to 18 years old. The YFSS data consisted of 210 team-seasons, and the NATION data consisted of 138 team-seasons. Athletic trainers collected football injury and exposure data during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Injury rates, risks, and distributions were calculated, with injury rate ratios, risk ratios, and injury proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing youth and high school football players. The YFSS reported 1488 injuries, of which 53 (3.6%) were overuse conditions. The NATION reported 12 013 injuries, of which 339 (2.8%) were overuse conditions. The overuse condition rate did not differ between high school and youth football (3.93 versus 3.72/10 000 athlete-exposures; injury rate ratio = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.79, 1.41). However, the 1-season risk of overuse condition was higher in high school than in youth football players (2.66% versus 1.05%; risk ratio = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.84, 3.47). Compared with high school football players, youth football players had greater proportions of overuse conditions that were nontime loss (ie, football players. However, differences existed between the 2 levels of competition. Although additional research on the incidence of overuse conditions across all youth and high school sports is needed, these findings may highlight the need for programming that is specific to competition level.
Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Morean, Meghan; Kong, Grace; Bold, Krysten W; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Simon, Patricia; Wu, Ran
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) electrically heat and vaporize e-liquids to produce inhalable vapors. These devices are being used to inhale vapors produced by dripping e-liquids directly onto heated atomizers. The current study conducts the first evaluation of the prevalence rates and reasons for using e-cigarettes for dripping among high school students. In the spring of 2015, students from 8 Connecticut high schools ( n = 7045) completed anonymous surveys that examined tobacco use behaviors and perceptions. We assessed prevalence rates of ever using e-cigarettes for dripping, reasons for dripping, and predictors of dripping behaviors among those who reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among 1080 ever e-cigarette users, 26.1% of students reported ever using e-cigarettes for dripping. Reasons for dripping included produced thicker clouds of vapor (63.5%), made flavors taste better (38.7%), produced a stronger throat hit (27.7%), curiosity (21.6%), and other (7.5%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that male adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64), whites (OR = 1.46), and those who had tried multiple tobacco products (OR = 1.34) and had greater past-month e-cigarette use frequency (OR = 1.07) were more likely to use dripping ( P s e-cigarettes also report using the device for dripping. Future efforts must examine the progression and toxicity of the use of e-cigarettes for dripping among youth and educate them about the potential dangers of these behaviors. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Myers, Raquel; Chou, Chih-Ping; Sussman, Steve; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Pachon, Harry; Valente, Thomas W.
Research suggests that acculturation increases the risk of substance use among Hispanic youth. However, this process is not well understood. This study examined associations between acculturation and several substance use indicators among a sample of 714 Hispanic youth attending alternative high schools in southern California. Peer social…
Clifton, Daniel R; Onate, James A; Schussler, Eric; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y
Variations in knee-sprain incidence among competition levels are unclear but may help inform prevention strategies in American football players. To describe the epidemiology of knee sprains in youth, high school, and collegiate football players. Descriptive epidemiology study. Injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were collected from 3 injury-surveillance programs at the youth, high school, and collegiate competition levels. Data from 310 youth, 184 high school, and 71 collegiate football team-seasons were collected during the 2012 through 2014 seasons. Knee-sprain rates and risks were calculated for each competition level. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) and risk ratios (RRs) compared knee-sprain rates by competition level. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) compared differences in surgery needs, recurrence, injury mechanism, and injury activity by competition level. Knee-sprain rates in youth, high school, and collegiate football were 0.16/1000 AEs, 0.25/1000 AEs, and 0.69/1000 AEs, respectively. Knee-sprain rates increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: IRR = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 2.30; collegiate versus high school: IRR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.38, 3.96). Knee-sprain risk was highest in collegiate (4.3%), followed by high school (2.0%) and youth (0.5%) athletes. Knee-sprain risk increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: RR = 3.73; 95% CI = 2.60, 5.34; collegiate versus high school: RR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.83, 2.51). Collegiate football had the lowest proportion of knee sprains that were noncontact injuries (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.95; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.79) and the lowest proportion that occurred while being tackled (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.98). Knee-sprain incidence was highest in collegiate football
Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, "empowerment" is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led…
Edwards, Katie M.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Rodenhizer-Stämpfli , Kara Anne
Using data from a sample of 218 high school youth from three high schools in New England (one rural, two urban), this brief discusses dating and sexual aggression bystander intervention among high school youth. Authors Katie Edwards, Robert Eckstein, and Kara Anne Rodenhizer-Stämpfli report that an overwhelming majority (93.6 percent) of high…
Alicea, Stacey; Pardo, Gisselle; Conover, Kelly; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary
African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health, as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse, community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful youth development. Adolescents with elevated mental health needs may experience impaired judgment, poor problem-solving skills, and conflictual interpersonal relationships, resulting in unsafe sexual behavior and drug use. However, mental health services are frequently avoided by urban adolescents who could gain substantial benefit from care. Thus, the development of culturally sensitive, contextually relevant and effective services for urban, low-income African American and Latino adolescents is critical. Given the complexity of the mental health and social needs of urban youth, novel approaches to service delivery may need to consider individual (i.e., motivation to succeed in the future), family (i.e., adult support within and outside of the family), and community-level (i.e., work and school opportunities) clinical components. Step-Up, a high school-based mental health service delivery model has been developed to bolster key family, youth and school processes related to youth mental health and positive youth development. Step-Up (1) intervenes with urban minority adolescents across inner-city ecological domains; (2) addresses multiple levels (school, family and community) in order to target youth mental health difficulties; and (3) provides opportunities for increasing youth social problem-solving and life skills. Further, Step-Up integrates existing theory-driven, evidence-based interventions. This article describes Step-Up clinical goals, theoretical influences, as well as components and key features, and presents preliminary data on
Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…
Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Finch, Andrew J; Hennessy, Emily A; Moberg, D Paul
Recovery high schools (RHSs) are an alternative high school option for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs), designed to provide a recovery-focused learning environment. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of youth who choose to attend RHSs, and to compare them with local and national comparison samples of youth in recovery from SUDs who were not enrolled in RHSs. We conducted secondary analysis of existing data to compare characteristics of youth in three samples: (1) adolescents with SUDs who enrolled in RHSs in Minnesota, Texas, and Wisconsin after discharge from treatment (RHSs; n = 171, 51% male, 86% White, 4% African American, 5% Hispanic); (2) a contemporaneously recruited local comparison sample of students with SUDs who did not enroll in RHSs (n = 123, 60% male, 77% White, 5% African American, 12% Hispanic); and (3) a national comparison sample of U.S. adolescents receiving SUD treatment (n = 12,967, 73% male, 37% White, 15% African American, 30% Hispanic). Students enrolled in RHSs had elevated levels of risk factors for substance use and relapse relative to both the local and national comparison samples. For instance, RHS students reported higher rates of pre-treatment drug use, past mental health treatment, and higher rates of post-treatment physical health problems than adolescents in the national comparison sample. We conclude that RHSs serve a population with greater co-occurring problem severity than the typical adolescent in SUD treatment; programming offered at RHSs should attend to these complex patterns of risk factors. SUD service delivery policy should consider RHSs as an intensive recovery support model for the most high-risk students with SUDs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McDougall, Janette; DeWit, David J.; King, Gillian; Miller, Linda T.; Killip, Steve
Negative peer attitudes are generally recognised as being a major barrier to full social inclusion at school for children and youth with disabilities. The present study examined the attitudes of 1,872 grade nine high school students in Ontario, Canada toward their peers with disabilities. A bioecological perspective and a structural equation…
Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.
Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…
Gross, Thomas J; Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P
The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire nine-item short form (APQ-9) is an often used assessment of parenting in research and applied settings. It uses parent and youth ratings for three scales: Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal invariance of the APQ-9 for both parents and youth, and the multigroup invariance between parents and youth during the transition from middle school to high school. Parent and youth longitudinal configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the APQ-9 were supported when tested separately. However, the multigroup invariance tests indicated that scalar invariance was not achieved between parent and youth ratings. Essentially, parent and youth mean scores for Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision can be independently compared across the transition from middle school to high school. However, comparing parent and youth scores across the APQ-9 scales may not be meaningful.
Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.
The second part of a two-part, two volume study deals with high school youth and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Data, collected from interviews and questionnaires, are summarized and presented in tabular form. One fourth of high schoolers in a…
Gibson, Margaret A.; Hidalgo, Nicole
Background/Context: Among the children of immigrants, one of the populations placed at greatest risk of not finishing high school are the children of migrant farmworkers. Although it is difficult to track graduation rates for migrant students because of their mobility, the U.S. Department of Education estimates that only half of all migrant…
Martin, Lee; Dixon, Colin; Betser, Sagit
Despite their potential, maker activities do not always support equitable engagement. The authors report on a design research study where they worked to support equitable engagement of youth repertoires of practice in a high school makerspace. Their orientation toward equity is grounded in the construct of repertoires of practice, and they focus…
Sarmiento, Kelly; Donnell, Zoe; Hoffman, Rosanne
Background: In 2013, the National Academy of Sciences emphasized the need to develop, implement, and evaluate effective large-scale educational strategies to improve the culture of concussion in youth and high school sports. In support of this recommendation, in this article we summarize research on factors that contribute to the culture of…
Bidell, Markus P
This study explored the nexus of home and school climate on the psychological distress of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) homeless youth, as well as their experiences during high school. Of the LGBT homeless youth (N = 89) surveyed, 39.3% reported not completing high school. Most participants did not seek support from school staff nor did they report attending a school with a Gay-Straight Alliance. Significantly higher levels of psychological distress were found among high school graduates and those reporting LGBT harassment at home; however, harassment experienced at school was not statistically related to psychological distress. Findings are discussed.
Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Hainline, Brian; Snook, Erin M; Hayden, Ross; Simon, Janet E
A report by the Institute of Medicine called for comprehensive nationwide concussion incidence data across the spectrum of athletes aged 5 to 23 years. To describe the incidence of concussion in athletes participating in youth, high school, and collegiate American football. Data were collected by athletic trainers at youth, high school, and collegiate football practices and games to create multiple prospective observational cohorts during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Data were collected from July 1, 2012, through January 31, 2013, for the 2012 season and from July 1, 2013, through January 31, 2014, for the 2013 season. The Youth Football Surveillance System included 118 youth football teams, providing 4092 athlete-seasons. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 11 957 athlete-seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 24 member institutions, providing 4305 athlete-seasons. All injuries regardless of severity, including concussions, and athlete exposure information were documented by athletic trainers during practices and games. Injury rates, injury rate ratios, risks, risk ratios, and 95% CIs were calculated. Concussions comprised 9.6%, 4.0%, and 8.0% of all injuries reported in the Youth Football Surveillance System; National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network; and National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program, respectively. The game concussion rate was higher than the practice concussion rate across all 3 competitive levels. The game concussion rate for college athletes (3.74 per 1000 athlete exposures) was higher than those for high school athletes (injury rate ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.50-2.31) and youth athletes (injury rate ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.17-2.10). The practice concussion rate in college (0.53 per 1000 athlete exposures) was lower than that in high school (injury rate ratio, 0
Yeargin, Susan W; Kerr, Zachary Y; Casa, Douglas J; Djoko, Aristarque; Hayden, Ross; Parsons, John T; Dompier, Thomas P
Data on exertional heat illness (EHI) in youth football are limited and have not been compared across competition levels. This study describes the epidemiology of EHI events in youth, high school (HS), and college football in the 2012-2014 seasons. One hundred and eighteen youth teams (players age 5-14 yr), 96 HS programs (~14-18 yr), and 34 college programs (~18-23 yr) participated. During games and practices, athletic trainers recorded EHI events and athlete exposures (AE), defined as one athlete participating in one game/practice. We calculated the number of reported EHI by time in season, game/practice, and need for emergency transportation. EHI rates, risk, included rate ratios (IRR), and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in 2015. EHI rates for youth, HS, and college football were 1.82, 0.57, and 1.67/10,000 AE, respectively. Rates were highest during the preseason (youth: 2.76; HS: 1.47; college: 3.66/10,000 AE). Game rates were higher than practice rates in youth (4.04 vs 1.22/10,000 AE; IRR = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.75-6.26) and college (4.42 vs 1.38/10,000 AE; IRR = 3.21; 95% CI, 2.00-5.16); the practice rate was higher than the game rate in HS (0.63 vs 0.27/10,000 AE; IRR = 2.33; 95% CI, 1.01-5.38). The EHI risk was higher in college (0.9%) than in youth (0.6%; RR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.37) and HS (0.5%; RR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.43-2.81). Common EHI events included heat cramps (youth: 15.8%; HS: 28.6%; college: 45.6%), heat exhaustion (youth: 42.1%; HS: 32.9%; college: 20.0%), and dehydration (youth: 31.6%; HS: 28.6%; college: 28.9%). EHI risk was low. Higher preseason football EHI rates across levels emphasize developing and continually modifying preseason heat acclimatization policies. Lower EHI rates in HS games and youth practices may be attributable to night events, suggesting the importance of modifying/canceling events based on environmental conditions.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P
To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95
Wagner, Mary M; Newman, Lynn A; Javitz, Harold S
Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), this study examines the career and technical education (CTE) course taking of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) in the context of the national movement toward higher standards for determining whether students leave high school "college and career ready." Descriptive analyses document the extent of general education CTE course taking overall by students with LD and their engagement in a concentrated program of occupationally specific general education CTE, a level of course taking early research has linked to improved post-high school employment outcomes. Propensity score modeling was used to determine whether either type of CTE course taking is related to higher odds of full-time employment after high school and whether results differ with the length of time youth were out of high school. Results show no benefits of CTE course taking overall, but demonstrate a significant positive effect for participating in a concentration of occupationally specific CTE in the first 2 post-high school years; effects are nonsignificant for later years. The implications for high school programming and transition planning for students with LD are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2015.
Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille
Bullying has become a significant public health issue, particularly among youth. This study documents cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere and their correlates among both heterosexual and sexual-minority high school students in Quebec (Canada). A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14-20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. We assessed cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere in the past 12 months and their association with current self-esteem and psychological distress as well as suicidal ideations. Bullying at school or elsewhere was the most common form of bullying (26.1%), followed by cyberbullying (22.9%) and homophobic bullying (3.6%). Overall, girls and sexual-minority youth were more likely to experience cyberbullying and other forms of bullying as well as psychological distress, low self-esteem and suicidal ideations. The three forms of bullying were significantly and independently associated with all mental health outcomes. The results underscore the relevance of taking into account gender and sexual orientation variations in efforts to prevent bullying experience and its consequences. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Denny, Simon; Farrant, Bridget; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Clark, Terryann
Despite numerous calls to improve training in adolescent health, there is little known about the prevalence or effectiveness of specialized training in adolescent health. A two-stage random sampling cluster design was used to collect nationally representative data from 8,500 students from 91 high schools. Student data were linked to data from a survey of school health clinicians from participating schools on their level of training in youth health. Multilevel models accounting for demographic characteristics of students were used to estimate the association between nurses and physicians training in youth health and health outcomes among students. Almost all nurses and physicians reported some training in youth health, either having attended lectures or study days in youth health (n = 60, 80%) or completed postgraduate papers in youth health (n = 13, 17.3%). Students in schools where the nurses and physicians had received postgraduate training in youth health were less likely than students from schools with clinicians having attended lectures or study days in youth health to report emotional and behavior difficulties (11.8 vs. 12.7, p = .002) and binge drinking (19.6% vs. 24.9%, p = .03). There were no significant associations between depressive symptoms, suicide risk, cigarette, marijuana, contraception use, or motor vehicle risk behaviors among students and level of training among clinicians in their schools' health service. Postgraduate training in youth health among nurses and physicians in school health services is associated with fewer students reporting mental health difficulties and binge alcohol use. These findings support specialized training in youth health for clinicians working predominantly with young people. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bozick, Robert; Srinivasan, Sinduja; Gottfried, Michael
Our study assesses whether high school science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses provide non-college bound youth with the skills and training necessary to successfully transition from high school into the STEM economy. Specifically, our study estimates the effects that advanced math, advanced science, engineering, and…
Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Abou-Mediene, Sharifa; Farroukh, Mona; Rice, Virginia Hill
To determine tobacco use rates (cigarette, water pipe smoking [WPS] or narghile) in Arab American compared to non-Arab youth. A convenience sample of 2,782 14- to 18-year-old high school students from a midwest community completed a 21-item tobacco use history survey. Seventy-one percent of the participants were ArA. Grades 9 through 12 were equally represented. Results included 'ever tried cigarettes [narghile]' (20%, 39%); 'smoked cigarettes [narghile] in the past 30 days' (7%, 22%); and 'regular smoking [narghile]' (3%, 15%) for ArA and non-Arab youths, respectively. Each was significantly related to grade and ethnicity. WPS for ArA and non-Arab youths was (38%, 21%); (17%, 11%); and (7%, 5%) for 'ever used,' 'used in the past 30 days,' and 'regular use,' respectively. Grade, ethnicity, and sex were significantly related to WPS. Cigarette smoking rates for non-Arab youth were lower than current national youth smoking rates but significantly higher than ArA youth. Rates for ArA youth were much lower than current national reported data. Rates of WPS for US youth, regardless of race or ethnicity, are not known. Findings from this study indicate that both ArA and non-Arab youth are experimenting and using WPS regularly. These results underscore the importance of assessing novel forms of tobacco use, particularly WPS, a growing phenomenon among US youth.
This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…
Kataoka, Chie; Nozu, Yuji; Kudo, Masako; Sato, Yuki; Kubo, Motoyoshi; Nakayama, Naoko; Iwata, Hideki; Watanabe, Motoi
This study aimed to clarify relationships between prevalence of risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students. Data from a national survey, the Japan Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011 (the subjects were 9,778 students: 5,027 males, 4,751 females, in the first grade to the third grade of 102 schools randomly selected among high schools throughout Japan) was used for this analysis. We focused on nine items of risk behavior in JYRBS: "lack of vigorous physical activity," "skipping breakfast," "current cigarette use," "current alcohol use," "lifetime thinner use," "ever had sexual intercourse," "rarely or never wore seatbelts," "in a physical fight," and "seriously considered attempting suicide." Students with less than six hours of sleep duration accounted for approximately 40% of males and females. The odds ratios of prevalence of each of the nine risk behaviors were calculated on the basis of the group "six hours or more and less than eight hours" of sleep, whose prevalence of risk behaviors was the lowest. In the group with "four hours or more and less than six hours," the odds ratios of "lack of vigorous physical activity" and "skipping breakfast" for both males and females were significantly high. Furthermore, in the group with shorter sleep duration of "less than four hours," the odds ratios of all nine risk behaviors for males (odds ratios: 1.47-3.28) and eight risk behaviors (except for "rarely or never wore seatbelts") for females (1.54-4.68) were significantly high. On the other hand, in the group with long sleep duration of "10 hours or more," the odds ratios of "current cigarette use" and "lifetime thinner use" for both males and females were significantly high. It was shown that short sleep duration of less than six hours and long sleep duration of 10 hours or more related to the prevalence of youth risk behaviors among Japanese high school students. It was suggested that sleep duration should be considered as an important category
Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William D.; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Objectives: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. There is considerable debate regarding the rationale, optimal timing, injury risk, and the psychosocial health of a young athlete specializing early in a single sport. The purpose of our study was to compare youth single sport specialization in high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with respect to the age of special...
Clifton, Daniel R; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Hertel, Jay; Onate, James A; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y
Variations in ankle injury rates and distributions among competition levels are unclear, but such data may help inform strategies to prevent ankle sprains during American football. To describe the epidemiological patterns of ankle sprains in youth, high school (HS), and collegiate American football. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data regarding youth, HS, and college football athletes were collected from 3 injury surveillance programs: (1) the Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS), (2) the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION), and (3) the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP). During the 2012-2014 seasons, the YFSS, NATION, and NCAA ISP included 310, 184, and 71 football team-seasons, respectively. Athletic trainers (ATs) attended each practice and game and reported injuries and athlete-exposures (AEs) via their preferred injury documentation application. Ankle sprain rates for each type of ankle sprain were calculated overall, by event type (ie, practices and games), and specifically for severe injuries (ie, participation restriction time >21 days) and recurrent injuries (as defined by ATs). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare ankle sprain rates by competition level and event type. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were used to compare differences in severity, surgical needs, recurrence, injury mechanism, and injury activity by competition level. RRs and IPRs with 95% confidence intervals excluding 1.00 were considered statistically significant. A total of 124, 897, and 643 ankle sprains were reported in youth, HS, and college football, respectively. This led to respective rates of 0.59, 0.73, and 1.19 sprains per 1000 AEs. The ankle sprain rate in college football was higher than the rates in HS (RR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.48-1.82) and youth (RR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65-2.43) football. The proportion of ankle sprains that were recurrent in youth football was higher than the proportions in HS (IPR
Full Text Available In this paper, we explore high school students’ intrapersonal experiences regarding their leisure activities, and whether it is justified, on the basis of their perception, to make a distinction between active and passive leisure. The data were collected by 24-hour time diary method (description of experiences regarding the stated activities and the thematic content analysis method was applied. The comments embedded in students’ descriptions (unit of analysis were classified into four categories: aims/importance of activities, mental effort, motivational value and experience of engagement. The sample of 922 high school students was structured by the region, age (I-IV grade and type of school (grammar and vocational schools. As expected, extracurricular activities and hobbies are significantly more often described as mentally demanding and important for the development of competencies and identity, compared to passive leisure activities - watching entertainment shows and movies, reading for pleasure, listening to music and playing computer games. For these latter activities, there are significantly more positive comments on their motivational value. There is no significant difference regarding the experience of engagement, partly because of the unexpectedly large number of positive comments on watching entertainment shows and movies. The implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of positive youth development. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multi-stage sampling procedure was followed to select a representative sample of school youth. The total sample size for this study was 3840. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was guided by the ecological framework. Results The overall proportion of people who reported ever having oral sex was 5.4% (190 and that of anal sex was 4.3% (154. Of these 51.6% (98 had oral sex and 57.1% (87 had anal sex in the past 12 months. Multiple partnerships were reported by 61.2% of the respondents who had oral sex and 51.1% of students practicing anal sex. Consistent condom use was reported by 12.2% of those practicing oral sex and 26.1% of anal sex. Reasons for oral and anal sex included prevention of pregnancy, preserving virginity, and reduction of HIV and STIs transmission. Oral sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with perception of best friends engagement in oral sex (AOR = 5.7; 95% CI 3.6-11.2 and having illiterate mothers (AOR = 11.5; 95%CI 6.4-18.5. Similarly, anal sex practice was strongly and significantly associated with favorable attitude towards anal sex (AOR = 6.2; 95%CI 3.8-12.4, and perceived best friends engagement in anal sex (AOR = 9.7; 95%CI 5.4-17.7. Conclusion Considerable proportion of adolescents had engaged in oral and anal sex practices. Multiple sexual partnerships were common while consistent condom use was low. Sexual health education and behavior change communication strategies need to
Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M
The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Pierson, Melinda R.; Stang, Kristin K.
Recent developments in policy and practice have emphasized the importance of promoting self-determination and supporting access to the general curriculum for youth with disabilities. To understand how these trends align, we examined the efforts of 340 general and special educators to promote student self-determination in high school classrooms.…
This article discusses competing perspectives on the value of the General Educational Development (GED) credential. Although scholars and journalists debate the worth of the credential, urban youth continue to pursue the GED, especially as proxy for inadequate schooling. Using qualitative data from a participatory action research project, the…
Callahan, Rebecca; Obenchain, Kathryn
Socialization into the dominant civic and political discourse lies at the heart of social studies. As they become proficient in the discourse of home and school, Latino immigrant youth demonstrate the potential to uniquely benefit from this socialization. This qualitative study explores ten Latino immigrant young adults' perceptions of how their…
Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee
Introduction: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1...
Morean, Meghan; Kong, Grace; Bold, Krysten W.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Simon, Patricia; Wu, Ran
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) electrically heat and vaporize e-liquids to produce inhalable vapors. These devices are being used to inhale vapors produced by dripping e-liquids directly onto heated atomizers. The current study conducts the first evaluation of the prevalence rates and reasons for using e-cigarettes for dripping among high school students. METHODS: In the spring of 2015, students from 8 Connecticut high schools (n = 7045) completed anonymous surveys that examined tobacco use behaviors and perceptions. We assessed prevalence rates of ever using e-cigarettes for dripping, reasons for dripping, and predictors of dripping behaviors among those who reported ever use of e-cigarettes. RESULTS: Among 1080 ever e-cigarette users, 26.1% of students reported ever using e-cigarettes for dripping. Reasons for dripping included produced thicker clouds of vapor (63.5%), made flavors taste better (38.7%), produced a stronger throat hit (27.7%), curiosity (21.6%), and other (7.5%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that male adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64), whites (OR = 1.46), and those who had tried multiple tobacco products (OR = 1.34) and had greater past-month e-cigarette use frequency (OR = 1.07) were more likely to use dripping (Ps < .05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that a substantial portion (∼1 in 4) of high school adolescents who had ever used e-cigarettes also report using the device for dripping. Future efforts must examine the progression and toxicity of the use of e-cigarettes for dripping among youth and educate them about the potential dangers of these behaviors. PMID:28167512
Tsai, James; Walton, Kimp; Coleman, Blair N; Sharapova, Saida R; Johnson, Sarah E; Kennedy, Sara M; Caraballo, Ralph S
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. middle school and high school students in 2016 (1). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to assess self-reported reasons for e-cigarette use among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) student e-cigarette users. Among students who reported ever using e-cigarettes in 2016, the most commonly selected reasons for use were 1) use by "friend or family member" (39.0%); 2) availability of "flavors such as mint, candy, fruit, or chocolate" (31.0%); and 3) the belief that "they are less harmful than other forms of tobacco such as cigarettes" (17.1%). The least commonly selected reasons were 1) "they are easier to get than other tobacco products, such as cigarettes" (4.8%); 2) "they cost less than other tobacco products such as cigarettes" (3.2%); and 3) "famous people on TV or in movies use them" (1.5%). Availability of flavors as a reason for use was more commonly selected by high school users (32.3%) than by middle school users (26.8%). Efforts to prevent middle school and high school students from initiating the use of any tobacco product, including e-cigarettes, are important to reduce tobacco product use among U.S. youths (2).
Sarmiento, Kelly; Donnell, Zoe; Hoffman, Rosanne
In 2013, the National Academy of Sciences emphasized the need to develop, implement, and evaluate effective large-scale educational strategies to improve the culture of concussion in youth and high school sports. In support of this recommendation, in this article we summarize research on factors that contribute to the culture of concussion. We conducted the literature search using 7 electronic databases. We used a scoping review method to identify studies that addressed knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, use of educational resources, and interventions related to concussion among young athletes, coaches, and parents. Of the 33 articles identified, most focused on concussion education (N = 15), followed by knowledge (N = 13), behaviors (N = 13), and attitudes (N = 5). Three studies addressed multiple study populations. The rapid spread of concussion education and awareness efforts has outpaced research on effective strategies to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that contribute to the culture of concussion. Further research is critical to inform the development and implementation of large-scale educational efforts. This research should incorporate rigorous study designs; be inclusive of diverse ages, socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnic groups; and examine opportunities to improve behavioral outcomes around concussion prevention, reporting, and management. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Lavoie, J C; Collins, B R
This study investigated the assumption that youth culture orientation adversely affects school performance, using rock music as the youth culture component. Adolescents in grades 9-12 were assigned to a subject matter topic in the area of literature, mathematics, physical science, or social science and requested to study this topic intensely for 30 min in a music condition consisting of rock, classical, or no music. The subjects then were tested on their retention of the factual content of the article either immediately after the study period, 1 day later, or 3 days later. Retention was significantly lower in the rock music condition. Students recalled more content in the literature topic and in the immediate test. The results are discussed with reference to a social learning theory interpretation of youth culture.
Youth suicide is a public health issue and the second leading cause of death for young Iowans ages 15 to 24 years, with young males six times more likely to die than their female peers (Iowa Department of Public Health, 2009). Suicide among adolescents is a complex issue, but there are patterns of individual, family, school, and community…
Jackson, Cheryl D.
Many youth face the following educational and economic barriers to success: (1) increased high school dropout rates; (2) adolescent pregnancy; (3) chronic unemployment; (4) poverty; (5) drug abuse; (6) suicide; and (7) crime and delinquency. The Atlantic Community College (New Jersey) Youth Corps Program, a successful conservation and service…
Pope, Lizzy; Garnett, Bernice; Dibble, Marguerite
To encourage high school students to meet physical activity goals using a newly developed game, and to document the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of using an electronic gaming application to promote physical activity in high school students. Working with youth and game designers an electronic game, Camp Conquer, was developed to motivate high school students to meet physical activity goals. One-hundred-five high school students were recruited to participate in a 12-week pilot test of the game and randomly assigned to a Game Condition or Control Condition. Students in both conditions received a FitBit to track their activity, and participants in the Game Condition received access to Camp Conquer. Number of steps and active minutes each day were tracked for all participants. FitBit use, game logins, and qualitative feedback from researchers, school personnel, and participants were used to determine intervention engagement. The majority of study participants did not consistently wear their FitBit or engage with the gaming intervention. Numerous design challenges and barriers to successful implementation such as the randomized design, absence of a true school-based champion, ease of use, and game glitches were identified. Developing games is an exciting technique for motivating the completion of a variety of health behaviors. Although the present intervention was not successful in increasing physical activity in high school students, important lessons were learned regarding how to best structure a gaming intervention for the high school population.
Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a "Work Hard, Play Hard"-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure.
Edwards, Katie M; Rodenhizer-Stämpfli, Kara Anne; Eckstein, Robert P
Bystander action is a critical component of dating and sexual aggression prevention; however, little is known about barriers and facilitators of bystander action among high school youth and in what situations youth are willing to engage in bystander action. The current study examined bystander action in situations of dating and sexual aggression using a mixed methodological design. Participants included primarily Caucasian (83.0%, n = 181) male (54.6%, n = 119) and female (44.5%, n = 97) high school youth (N = 218). Most (93.6%) students had the opportunity to take action during the past year in situations of dating or sexual aggression; being female and histories of dating and sexual aggression related to bystander action. Thematic analysis of the focus group data identified barriers (e.g., the aggression not meeting a certain threshold, anticipated negative consequences) to bystander action, as well as insight on promising forms of action (e.g., verbally telling the perpetrator to stop, getting a teacher); problematic intervention methods (e.g., threatening or using physical violence to stop the perpetrator) were also noted. Implications for programming are discussed.
Ascherman, Lee I; Shaftel, Julia
Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings. The role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist and the importance of advocacy for these youth are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Won; Brown, Kari-Elle; Fong, Vanessa L.
This article explores how graduates of a junior high school in Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, chose their high school and college major subject of study and the extent to which their majors fit with their work trajectories. We found that most interviewees considered the likelihood of a major and degree leading to better job opportunities…
Weinstein, Allison B.
The reality is that many adolescents are engaging in sexual activity. It is also a reality that the rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is high and continues to be a major problem. What are schools doing about this continued problem and the rise in STDs? More specifically, what are Northern California high schools doing to address this…
Wilcox, Kristen Campbell
What kinds of challenges do educators face in increasing Native American high school graduation rates, and what kinds of adaptations to a traditional high school are understood as necessary to achieve this outcome? This case study explored these questions as part of a larger multiple case study that investigated practices and processes related to…
Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru
Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.
Hlengiwe Nokuthula Sacolo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. RESULTS: The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.
Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru
Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756
Filiz, Tuncay M; Cinar, Nursan; Topsever, Pinar; Ucar, Fatma
The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an in-school questionnaire, the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of high-school students in Sakarya, Turkey concerning sun protection and skin cancer. The knowledge and behavior scores of girls were higher than those of boys, whereas boys had better attitude scores.
Miller, Stephen; Pike, James; Chapman, Jared; Xie, Bin; Hilton, Brian N.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.
This study examines the point-of-sale marketing practices used to promote electronic cigarettes at stores near schools that serve at-risk youths. One hundred stores selling tobacco products within a half-mile of alternative high schools in Southern California were assessed for this study. Seventy percent of stores in the sample sold electronic…
Solberg, V. Scott H.; Carlstom, Aaron H.; Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Jones, Janice E.
Using cluster analysis, 789 predominately Latino and African American high school youth were classified into varying academic at-risk profiles using self-reported levels of academic confidence, motivation to attend school, perceived family support, connections with teachers and peers, and exposure to violence. Six clusters emerged, 5 of which were…
Edwards, Katie M
The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts.
Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee
The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.
Yayi Suryo Prabandari
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have reported an association between cigarette advertising and smoking behavior. Although this has been reported extensively in the West, it has been reported less in Southeast Asian countries that have not completely banned tobacco advertising promotion and sponsorship (TAPS. Indonesia is the only ASEAN country that has not ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, so TAPS regulation is limited. This study aimed to assess the association between youths’ perceptions of cigarette ads and smoking initiation. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 2,115 high school students aged 13–18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to gauge the perception of cigarette ads and initiation to smoking. We calculated the odds ratio (OR between the perception of cigarette ads and smoking initiation, adjusting for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. The sociodemographic variables included in the final model were age and sex. Results: The final multivariate model showed an association between perception of tobacco ads encouraging youths to smoke and smoking initiation (OR 2.70 and current smoking (OR 7.63. Attitude toward TAPS was associated with smoking initiation (OR 1.51 and current smoking (OR 3.32. Exposure to cigarette ads had an association with smoking initiation only (OR 1.27 and did not have an association with current smoking. Having friends and family who smoked was associated with smoking initiation and current smoking in the final multivariate model. Smoking initiation and current smoking were also related to the susceptibility to smoke. Conclusions: This study revealed that cigarette ads were perceived as encouraging youths to smoke and that smoking status was consistently associated with perception of cigarette ads targeted at youths, attitude toward TAPS, and susceptibility as well as smoking friends and family. Regulations to ban TAPS
Vagi, Kevin J; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Basile, Kathleen C; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M
National estimates of teen dating violence (TDV) reveal high rates of victimization among high school populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Youth Risk Behavior Survey has provided often-cited estimates of physical TDV since 1999. In 2013, revisions were made to the physical TDV question to capture more serious forms of physical TDV and to screen out students who did not date. An additional question was added to assess sexual TDV. To describe the content of new physical and sexual TDV victimization questions first administered in the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to share data on the prevalence and frequency of TDV (including the first-ever published overall "both physical and sexual TDV" and "any TDV" national estimates using these new questions), and to assess associations of TDV experience with health-risk behaviors. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 9900 students who dated, from a nationally representative sample of US high school students, using the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two survey questions separately assessed physical and sexual TDV; this analysis combined them to create a 4-level TDV measure and a 2-level TDV measure. The 4-level TDV measure includes "physical TDV only," "sexual TDV only," "both physical and sexual TDV," and "none." The 2-level TDV measure includes "any TDV" (either or both physical and sexual TDV) and "none." Sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between TDV and health-risk behaviors. In 2013, among students who dated, 20.9% of female students (95% CI, 19.0%-23.0%) and 10.4% of male students (95% CI, 9.0%-11.7%) experienced some form of TDV during the 12 months before the survey. Female students had a higher prevalence than male students of physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, and any TDV. All health-risk behaviors were most prevalent among students who experienced both forms of TDV and were
... Concussion ABCs A child can take a spill, knock his/her head, and get a concussion in any number of school settings ranging from the hallway, the playground, the cafeteria, in school sports activities, and beyond. This flexible set of materials ...
Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley
As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…
Gottfried, Michael; Estrada, Fernando; Sublett, Cameron
Sexual minority students such as those identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, as well as those identifying with emerging self-labels (e.g., queer) face a host of risk factors in high school that can potentially compromise educational excellence, particularly in rigorous academic disciplines. The current study advances the area of diversity…
Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N
Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Rienzo, Barbara A; Miller, M David; Pigg, R Morgan; Dodd, Virginia J
Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of hopelessness and suicidality associated with physical activity and sport participation. Data from the CDC's 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was used to compare the odds of hopelessness and suicidality in students who engaged in various levels of physical activity to inactive students. Similar analyses were performed comparing risks of athletes to nonathletes, and the risks of highly involved athletes to nonathletes. Findings showed that frequent, vigorous activity reduced the risk of hopelessness and suicidality among male adolescents. However, low levels of activity actually increased the risk of feeling hopeless among young females. Yet, for both males and females, sport participation protected against hopelessness and suicidality. These findings indicate that involvement in sport confers unique psychosocial benefits that protect adolescents against suicidality. Findings suggest that mechanisms other than physical activity contribute to the protective association between sport and reduced suicidality. Social support and integration may account for some of the differences found in suicidality between athletes and nonathletes.
Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.
Bajaj, Monisha; Canlas, Melissa; Argenal, Amy
This article presents data from a two-year ethnographic case study to explore how immigrant and refugee youth in the United States made sense of participation in a weekly human rights club after school. Three types of student responses to human rights education are exemplified through the profiles of students. The article offers new insights on…
Margolis, Katherine A; Nguyen, Anh B; Slavit, Wendy I; King, Brian A
Curiosity is a potential risk factor for electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, which has increased considerably among US youth in recent years. We examined the relationship between curiosity about e-cigarettes and perceived harm, comparative addictiveness, and e-cigarette advertisement exposure. Data came from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students. In 2014, 2.5% of middle school and 9.2% of high school students currently used cigarettes, while 3.9% of middle school and 13.4% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use. Among never e-cigarette users (n=17,286), descriptive statistics assessed curiosity about e-cigarettes by combustible tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and school level. Associations between curiosity and perceived harm (absolute and comparative to cigarettes), comparative addictiveness, and e-cigarette advertising exposure were explored using multivariate models in 2015. Among youth who never used e-cigarettes, 25.8% reported curiosity about e-cigarettes. Higher levels of perceived absolute harm and comparative harm were associated with lower levels of curiosity, while no association was observed between comparative addictiveness and curiosity. Among never combustible tobacco users, the odds of high curiosity were greater among non-Hispanic blacks (odds ratio (OR): 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.02-1.88), Hispanics (OR=1.79; 95% CI:1.48-2.16), and non-Hispanic 'Other' (OR=1.47; 95% CI:1.15-1.89) race/ethnicities than non-Hispanic whites. One-quarter of middle and high school students who have never used e-cigarettes are curious about the products, with greater curiosity among those with lower perceptions of harm from these products. These findings may help inform future strategies aimed at reducing curiosity about e-cigarettes among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available This paper reports the process data on program fidelity, best practices for intervention implementation, youth and coach engagement, and youth application of knowledge and skills for the two-year WAVE~Ripples for Change (WAVE obesity prevention intervention program focused on healthy eating, physical activity, and life skills with high school (HS soccer players aged 14–19 years. Internal (staff: n = 7; volunteers: n = 27 and external (youth: n = 100; coaches: n = 9 stakeholders were interviewed/ surveyed. Staff rated program fidelity as high (94%, as did volunteers (85%. Best practices included coach encouragement for athlete participation, use of on-line consent for enrollment, building relationships with HS staff to complete assessments, sending text reminders, and providing incentives. Study results showed an enrollment rate of 72%, completion of baseline assessments of 89–98%, attendance of sports nutrition lessons in Year 1 and Year 2 of 90% and 39%, respectively, and team-building workshop (TBW attendance of 25–31%. Activities exceeding youth expectations (>90% included, (1 activities with their soccer team; (2 the TBW-cooking; and (3 sports nutrition lessons. The obesity prevention skills most applied by youth were obtained from the TBW-gardening and harvesting (49%, the TBW-cooking (43%, and sports nutrition lessons (44%. Coaches also rated the sports nutrition lessons highly and reported increased awareness for hydration/fueling during sport by the athletes. Using sport teams/clubs to engage youth in obesity prevention is a feasible model for future study.
May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…
Eustache, Eddy; Gerbasi, Margaret E; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Fils-Aimé, J Reginald; Severe, Jennifer; Raviola, Giuseppe J; Legha, Rupinder; Darghouth, Sarah; Grelotti, David J; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Pierre, Ermaze L; Affricot, Emmeline; Alcindor, Yoldie; Becker, Anne E
The mental health treatment gap for youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is substantial; strategies for redress are urgently needed to mitigate the serious health and social consequences of untreated mental illness in youth. To estimate the burden of major depressive episode (MDE) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as utilization of care among Haitian youth in order to describe the mental health treatment gap in a LMIC setting. We estimated the point prevalence of MDE, PTSD, and subthreshold variants in a school-based sample of youth ( n = 120, ages 18-22 years) using a modified Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID)-based interview and examined treatment utilization among those receiving one of these diagnoses. We assessed additional psychopathology with self-report measures to examine validity of study diagnostic assignments. The combined prevalence of full-syndrome or subthreshold MDE or PTSD was high (36.7%). A large majority of affected individuals (88.6%) had accessed no mental health services in the health sector, and 36.4% had accessed no care of any kind in either the health or folk sectors in the past year. Findings demonstrate a high mental health burden among Haiti's youth and that many youth with MDE and PTSD are not accessing mental health care.
Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas
Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and
Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Ritchie, Amanda; Linick, Jessica L.; Cleland, Charles M.; Elliott, Luther; Grethel, Michele
There is growing awareness that students’ experiences of stress may impede academic success, compromise mental health, and promote substance use. We examined these factors in an under-studied population, private/independent high school students, using a multi-method (qualitative and quantitative), iterative data collection and analytic process. We first conducted qualitative interviews with faculty and staff at a number of highly competitive private schools, followed by an anonymous quantitative survey with 128 11th grade students from two of these settings. We then conducted a qualitative exploration of the quantitative results with a subset of students. Next, a set of Expert Panel members participated in qualitative interviews to reflect on and interpret study findings. Overall, we found students experienced high levels of chronic stress, particularly in relation to academic performance and the college admissions process. While students described a range of effective, adaptive coping strategies, they also commonly internalized these serious pressures and turned to alcohol and drugs to cope with chronic stress, although not typically at problematic levels. We discuss study implications for both schools and families derived from the Expert Panel. PMID:26257685
For this purpose, 400 female high school students of Kerman responded to the scale of parenting style perception, school climate perception, and positive youth development. The results of correlation analysis indicated a positive and significant correlation between school climate dimensions (teacher support, autonomy ...
Wagner, B M; Cole, R E; Schwartzman, P
Three groups of junior and senior high schools students (total N = 1050) recruited in rural counties of a mid-Atlantic state--those who had made a prior suicide attempt, those reporting high levels of depressed mood or suicidal ideation, and those who were not depressed or suicidal--were compared with regard to their reports of a number of potential risk factors for suicidal behavior. Adolescents with a history of a suicide attempt reported more frequent stresses related to parents, lack of adult supports outside of the home, police, and sexuality (i.e., concerns about pregnancy, pressure to have sex, getting sexually transmitted diseases), compared with both depressed/suicide ideators and nondepressed adolescents. Suicide attempters were also more likely than the other adolescents to report that they were physically hurt by a parent, that they ran away from home, that they lived apart from both parents, and that they knew someone who had completed suicide. Results are discussed in the context of prior studies of adolescent suicidal behavior in community and clinical samples.
Nalkur, Priya G.
This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…
Melissa A. Little
Full Text Available The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at one-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate. Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at baseline, quitting was defined as having not used marijuana in the last 30 days at one-year follow-up (43% of baseline users. To account for the level of influence we employed a theory-based analytic strategy, hierarchical regression. In the final multivariate model, lower level of baseline marijuana use and less of a likelihood to endorse pro-drug-use myths remained predictors of marijuana use cessation one year later. Implications of these findings include the need to develop cessation programs that reduce psychological dependence on marijuana use, and correct cognitive misperceptions about drug use in order to help adolescents make decisions that lead to health-promoting behaviors.
Burns, John R; Rapee, Ronald M
Epidemiological studies indicate that as many as 1 in 5 young people will develop a mental health problem in any given year. Early detection and intervention are needed to reduce the impact that these conditions have-both for the young person and for the communities in which they live. This study reports the development of a new instrument aimed at helping identify students at risk of developing mental health difficulties. Rather than asking about the presence of symptoms of mental health conditions, the RADAR screening tool assesses a student's balance of risk and protective factors associated with the development of mental health problems. The RADAR was evaluated with a sample of 838 participants in high school Years 7-12. A robust internal factor structure was revealed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was satisfactory for each subscale, ranging from .73 to .90 while the reliability for the total scale was .91. Retest stability, measured over a 12 month period, was found to be strong (r = .72). Convergent validity was demonstrated with reference to standard measures of depression and behavioral problems. It is concluded that the RADAR is a promising measure for helping mental health professionals and educators decide which students may be at risk of developing mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela
Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and engagement, which suggests that switching schools may be part of the same long-term developmental process of disengagement that leads to dropping out. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study uses propensity score matching to pair youth who switched high schools with similar youth who stayed in the same school. We find that while over half the association between switching schools and dropout is explained by observed characteristics prior to 9th grade, switching schools is still associated with dropout. Moreover, the relationship between switching schools and dropout varies depending on a youth's propensity for switching schools. PMID:25554706
Eglaucimara Oliveira Rodriguez
Full Text Available This study investigates teachers’ perceptions about the assistance provided to students with special educational needs, developmental disorders and high skills or giftedness at a state educational institution in Londrina (Brazil which offers exclusively Youth and Adult Education modality. For this, we applied an instrument to collect data with 24 participants whose questions were about school inclusion in Youth and Adult Education. The results showed that most teachers did not receive specific training to support pupils with special educational needs. These professionals reported that they are dissatisfied with the developed work, highlighting the lack of training and capacitating programs as the main cause. Data also showed that, in seeking help and support for professional practice, teachers usually rely on colleagues with specific training and the school teaching staff. Several points highlighted as barriers for effective school inclusion are related to questions present in any heterogeneous class and not specifically with students with special educational needs. Thus, it is believed that the inclusion in the school environment can be a reality and the teacher is a key element in the consolidation of this process.
In this paper, I review an issue that is an urgent challenge in the development field-the effectiveness of after-school programs for preventing school-age youth violence in vulnerable settings in Latin American and the Caribbean. These programs have proliferated in the region and include sports, recreation, music, tutoring, and other focused activities. Given their popularity and because they target known risk factors for violence (such as drop-out from school, poor academic performance, lack of motivation, too much idle time, low quality and quantity of adult supervision, and social isolation), it is critical to examine empirically whether they can be effective prevention strategies. Unfortunately, most rigorous trials of after-school interventions to prevent youth violence have been conducted in developed countries, with far fewer in Latin America. In this review, a broad range of databases was searched systematically. Only six studies in five Latin American and Caribbean countries were identified. Reported results indicate at least some benefits for youth behavior, although not across all youth. Additional concerns regarding how these programs are implemented and whether specific components can be tied to violence prevention are noted. The need for more rigorous evaluation of these programs is noted.
Stovall, David; Delgado, Natalia
Zero-tolerance discipline policies, harsh sentencing laws, and the gentrification of communities of color have devastating effects for the lives of young people. Coupled with the fact that urban schools can devalue their views, values, and understandings of the world, this article examines an effort to challenge deficit theories that permeate…
Full Text Available Introduction. Not many studies have been performed in Poland on using mobile applications from the sport and fitness category and exergames. The main purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent such technologies are used by youth. Material and methods. A total of 435 pupils (including 263 females aged 17.78 ± 1.19 years took part in the study. A diagnostic survey was carried out; the data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the authors and a scale assessing the stage of exercise change developed by Marcus, Rakowski, and Rossi (1992. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations were used to describe the data and to test differences between groups; a chi2 test was used with Cramér’s V statistic as a measure of effect size in contingency tables larger than 2 × 2. Results. Of the 435 participants, approximately a third (30.8% had used some type of fitness application. The most frequently downloaded applications were exercise plans, such as Weider’s Aerobic Six and applications for physical activity monitoring (steps, distance, such as Endomondo. Exergames were less popular. Only 5.29% of the respondents claimed they used exergames regularly, although about every third person used them regularly, especially males. Conclusions. Eight of ten respondents held the view that such applications are useful but are something that they could do without; only one in ten could not imagine exercising without such applications. Most of the latter category of users were persons at the action stage, next - persons at the preparation stage, but - what is interesting - none at the maintenance stage. It seems, then, that such applications may be - and in the light of the data obtained really are - an indispensable aid for people at the early stages of developing a habit of regular physical activity.
Gefter, Liana; Morioka-Douglas, Nancy; Srivastava, Ashini; Rodriguez, Eunice
The Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaches Program (SYDCP) is a school based health program in which Family Medicine residents train healthy at-risk adolescents to become diabetes self-management coaches for family members with diabetes. This study evaluates the impact of the SYDCP when disseminated to remote sites. Additionally, this study aims to assess perceived benefit of enhanced curriculum. From 2012-2015, 10 high schools and one summer camp in the US and Canada and five residency programs were selected to participate. Physicians and other health providers implemented the SYDCP with racial/ethnic-minority students from low-income communities. Student coaches completed pre- and posttest surveys which included knowledge, health behavior, and psychosocial asset questions (i.e., worth and resilience), as well as open-ended feedback questions. T-test pre-post comparisons were used to determine differences in knowledge and psychosocial assets, and open and axial coding methods were used to analyze qualitative data. A total of 216 participating high school students completed both pre-and posttests, and 96 nonparticipating students also completed pre- and posttests. Student coaches improved from pre- to posttest significantly on knowledge (pknowledge gain, pride in helping family members, improved relationships and connectedness with family members, and lifestyle improvements. Overall, when disseminated, this program can increase health knowledge and some psychosocial assets of at-risk youth and holds promise to empower these youth with health literacy and encourage them to adopt healthy behaviors.
Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.
Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…
Full Text Available Introduction. Infection with HCV is an important clinical problem diagnostic, epidemiological, economic and social in Poland and in the world. Purpose of the work. Good knowledge of the basic school and youth Professional on infection with HCV. Material and method. The study was conducted in three secondary schools (high school, technical school, vocational school principal in the story. The study included 109 students. Research was a diagnostic survey, questionnaire, and tools were the original questionnaire surveys that include questions about demographic and social characteristics and standard questionnaire survey by the Polish group of experts HCV. Statistical analysis was conducted using the statistical package StatSoft Statistica 12.0 PL and Microsoft Office. The results. The vast majority of young people (82 respondents - 75.2% knew that the HCV virus is the cause of hepatitis c. Girls more often (81.8% than boys (64.8% knew that the HCV virus can infect through contact with infected blood. More than a third of boys (37.0% and girls (36.4% knew that in Poland about 700 thousand people are infected with HCV. A large group of young people (80.7% knew that everyone is vulnerable to infection with HCV. Girls more often (76.4% than boys (59.3% correctly reported examples of situations which may lead to infection. More than half of the test (67.0% knew that by doing a blood test for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies, you can verify that you are infected with HCV and 67.0% of respondents knew that there is no developed hepatitis b vaccine hepatitis C. Less than half of the test (44.0% had knowledge of the possibility of cure people infected with HCV. Conclusions. Investigated young people had a high level of knowledge about the causes of hepatitis c. Should motivate school students to broaden knowledge about the prevention of infection with HCV, risk and sources of infection with HCV with particular attention to drug addicts, to beauty salons
Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
Recent work has studied addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. This is the first longitudinal study using a matrix measure. We investigated the use of this approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years at baseline; longitudinal n = 538) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, shopping, gambling, Internet, love, sex, eating, work, and exercise). These were examined at two time-points one year apart. Latent class and latent transition analyses (LCA and LTA) were conducted in Mplus. Prevalence rates were stable across the two time-points. As in the cross-sectional baseline analysis, the 2-class model (addiction class, non-addiction class) fit the data better at follow-up than models with more classes. Item-response or conditional probabilities for each addiction type did not differ between time-points. As a result, the LTA model utilized constrained the conditional probabilities to be equal across the two time-points. In the addiction class, larger conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.40-0.49) were found for love, sex, exercise, and work addictions; medium conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.17-0.27) were found for cigarette, alcohol, other drugs, eating, Internet and shopping addiction; and a small conditional probability (0.06) was found for gambling. Persons in an addiction class tend to remain in this addiction class over a one-year period.
Morgan, Yvette; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert
Described is a 4-year model of a Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) offered to 294 academically and economically disadvantaged students and their parents during in- and out-of-school time activities through partnerships forged with school personnel and community-based agencies. In an urban high school where…
Grohmann, Márcia Zampieri; Rosa, Ana Claudia da; Nunes, Jankel Dal’osto; Piveta, Maíra Nunes
This paper aims to identify the profile of younger who download more software pirates; understand young people's behavior in relation to digital piracy; verify if this profile impact in young justice perception and attitude toward digital piracy . The research is characterized by quantitative and descriptive, using Suki, Suki and Ramayah (2011) model in a 397 student sample. The results showed that: the using of software pirates is more high among men and who made less use of software pirates...
Kopels, Sandra; Paceley, Megan S.
Bullying toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths is a pervasive problem in schools that has negative impacts on LGBTQ students' mental health and educational outcomes. School social workers need to understand the prevalence and dynamics of bullying toward LGBTQ students to respond appropriately to victims and…
Noland, Melody; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Rayens, Emily A; Howard, Tiffany; Hahn, Ellen J
Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design. United States. A nationally representative sample of US high school students (N = 11 053) who completed the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS); slightly more than half were urban (54%). The NYTS measures tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and use behavior and demographics of students in the United States. Weighted logistic regression assessed the relationships of urban-rural location with current e-cigarette use and dual use, adjusting for demographic factors, perceived risk, and social norms. There were clear differences in patterns of adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette use in rural versus urban areas. Social norms and perceptions may play a role in understanding these differences. Urban youth current cigarette smokers were nearly twice as likely as rural cigarette smokers to also use e-cigarettes. Reasons for urban-rural differences need to be taken into account when designing prevention programs and policy changes.
Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne
Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056
Madkour, Aubrey S; Johnson, Carolyn C; Clum, Gretchen A; Brown, Lisanne
Although disaster exposure has been linked with increased child aggression by previous reports, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages: 12-18 years) were assessed. Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina), and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 5,267) were used. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with χ(2) analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Age, gender, and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups; dating violence and forced sex increased before the storm, whereas weapon-carrying and missing school as a result of feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior post-Katrina among school-attending youth in New Orleans. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Pisani, Anthony R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Petrova, Mariya; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Goldston, David B.; Xia, Yinglin; Gould, Madelyn S.
To develop and refine interventions to prevent youth suicide, knowledge is needed about specific processes that reduce risk at a population level. Using a cross-sectional design, the present study tested hypotheses regarding associations between self-reported suicide attempts, emotion regulation difficulties, and positive youth-adult relationships…
Murugesan, Gowtham; Saghafi, Behrouz; Davenport, Elizabeth; Wagner, Ben; Urban, Jillian; Kelley, Mireille; Jones, Derek; Powers, Alex; Whitlow, Christopher; Stitzel, Joel; Maldjian, Joseph; Montillo, Albert
The effect of repetitive sub-concussive head impact exposure in contact sports like American football on brain health is poorly understood, especially in the understudied populations of youth and high school players. These players, aged 9-18 years old may be particularly susceptible to impact exposure as their brains are undergoing rapid maturation. This study helps fill the void by quantifying the association between head impact exposure and functional connectivity, an important aspect of brain health measurable via resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, the data from two separate studies (youth and high school) are combined to form a high-powered analysis with 60 players. These players experience head acceleration within overlapping impact exposure making their combination particularly appropriate. Second, multiple features are extracted from rs-fMRI and tested for their association with impact exposure. One type of feature is the power spectral density decomposition of intrinsic, spatially distributed networks extracted via independent components analysis (ICA). Another feature type is the functional connectivity between brain regions known often associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Third, multiple supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated for their stability and predictive accuracy in a low bias, nested cross-validation modeling framework. Each classifier predicts whether a player sustained low or high levels of head impact exposure. The nested cross validation reveals similarly high classification performance across the feature types, and the Support Vector, Extremely randomized trees, and Gradboost classifiers achieve F1-score up to 75%.
Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper that comprises the problems of the relation between young cultures and learning are studied, as well as the transmission problems between young people and teachers, in the first year of Middle School. It is a qualitative research which studied deeply some cases. The research makes a comparison among young students and teachers. We use two techniques of research: the semi structured interview and the discussion group. The general objectives are explore and describe the meanings that the incorporation of mass media of communication gets for the for young identities, as well as the consumption and production of young cultures and the impact which introduces their meanings into the generational transmition process between teachers and young people. From our results, we propose three discussion axes: the massification which involves for young people the consumption of young cultures in the first year of Middle School, does not allow visualize, and it could cover up interpersonal violence relations and inequality among themselves as well as their positions of cultural producers; it does exist for young people a marked dissociation in the classroom: on one side, there are the interactions between the group members and consumption/production of young cultures, and, on the other side, the school culture, and the learning process; the problem of attention/inattention of young people in the learning process in the class, is linked to the transmission process, which is produced between teachers and students in the entry into the Middle School. Keywords: Pedagogy. Youth Cultures. Middle School.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the one year prospective associations between adolescent social self-control and drug outcomes (cigarette use, alcohol use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and problem drug use among adolescents from regular and continuation high schools. In our previous cross-sectional study, poor social self-control was found to be associated with higher drug use, controlling for 12 personality disorder categories. In this study, we attempted to find out (a whether lack of social self-control predicted drug use one year later, and (b whether drug use at baseline predicted social self-control one year later. Methods We surveyed 2081 older adolescents from 9 regular (N = 1529 and 9 continuation (alternative (N = 552 high schools in the Los Angeles area. Data were collected at two time points in an interval of approximately 1 year. Results Past 30-day cigarette smoking, marijuana use, hard drug use, and problem drug use at baseline were found to predict lower social self-control at follow-up, controlling for baseline social self-control and demographic variables. The effect of problem drug use as a one-year predictor of social self-control was found to be moderated by school type (regular or continuation high school, such that the relationship was significant for continuation high school students only. Conversely, social self-control was found to predict past 30-day alcohol use, marijuana use, and problem drug use, controlling for baseline drug use and demographic variables. For alcohol use, marijuana use, and problem drug use outcomes, school type was not found to moderate the effects of social self-control, though an interaction effect was found regarding cigarette smoking. Social self-control was a significant predictor of cigarette use only at regular high school. Conclusion The results indicate that social self-control and drug use share a reciprocal relationship. Lack of social self-control in adolescents seems to
Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko; Yoshikawa, Kanako
Seasonality in youth suicide has been speculated to be associated with the school calendar, as it tends to increase at the beginning of the academic year or after a long break, but robust empirical evidence remains scarce. We examined the nationwide death records in the Vital Statistics of Japan to investigate the seasonal patterns of suicide among youth. Our data set included 108 968 suicides by individuals who died at 6-26 years of age between 1974 and 2014 in Japan. The daily frequencies of death were plotted against the Japanese school calendar, which has little regional and temporal variations. We also estimated a Poisson regression model to uncover the cyclical patterns of suicide deaths. We found that the frequencies of suicide by middle school students (ages 12-15 years) and high school students (ages 15-18 years) sharply increased around the dates when a school session began in April and September. These tended to be low during school breaks. The results of regression analysis suggested middle school students were more than twice as likely to die by suicide when the summer break ended and the second semester began, compared with the baseline week in July. Similarly, the frequency of suicide for high school students also increased by ∼40% at the end of the summer break. Importantly, no such pattern was found for those aged 18-26 years. Our findings strongly indicate that the cyclical pattern of youth suicide is closely related to the school calendar. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories...... of recovery? RECENT FINDINGS:Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced...
Carter, Erik W; Sisco, Lynn G; Brown, Lissa; Brickham, Dana; Al-Khabbaz, Zainab A
We examined the peer interactions and academic engagement of 23 middle and high school students with developmental disabilities within inclusive academic and elective classrooms. The extent to which students with and without disabilities interacted socially was highly variable and influenced by instructional format, the proximity of general and special educators, and curricular area. Peer interactions occurred more often within small group instructional formats, when students were not receiving direct support from a paraprofessional or special educator, and in elective courses. Academic engagement also varied, with higher levels evidenced during one-to-one or small group instruction and when in proximity of general or special educators. Implications for designing effective support strategies for students with autism and/or intellectual disability within general education classrooms are discussed.
Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett
This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…
Huang, Li-Ling; Kowitt, Sarah D; Sutfin, Erin L; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O
Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students' current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%-10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.74). Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users.
Drawing from a two-year ethnographic study of Latino high school students engaged in youth participatory action research (YPAR), this article describes students' quest for freedom in schools, locating their struggle within a larger effort to realize the democratic ideals of public schooling. Using Latino/a Critical Race Theory as a theoretical…
Singer, Jonathan B.; Slovak, Karen
No published studies have explored school social workers (SSWs) experiences with, or beliefs and attitudes about, working with suicidal youths at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. The authors surveyed SSWs (N = 399) who were members of the 11-state Midwest Council on School Social Workers. Results indicated significant SSW…
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J
Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…
Chiang, Huey-Ling; Kao, Wei-Chih; Chou, Mei-Chun; Chou, Wen-June; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
School dysfunction is observed in youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the factors moderating their school dysfunction have not been well explored. This study investigated school functions in youths with ASD in Taiwan, stratified by personal characteristics including demographics, ASD subtypes, intelligence profiles, and the presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We recruited 160 youths (aged 6-18 years, 87.5% boys) with a clinical diagnosis of ASD and 160 age and gender-matched typically developing (TD) youths. Their parents received a semi-structured psychiatric interview for their ASD and ADHD diagnoses and reported their school functions. Youths with ASD were further grouped into low-functioning autism (LFA, ASD with intellectual disability and developmental language delay, n = 44), high-functioning autism (HFA, ASD with no intellectual disability, n = 55) and Asperger's syndrome (AS, ASD with neither language delay nor intellectual disability, n = 61). Compared to TD, ASD had worse school functions in the domains of academic performance, attitude toward schoolwork, social interaction, and behavioral problems except for no academic differences from TD in HFA and ASD without ADHD. Subgroup analysis revealed that HFA and AS had better academic performance but showed worse attitude toward school than LFA. Comorbidity of ADHD negatively impacted all domains of school functions. Besides autistic and ADHD symptoms, oppositional symptoms, lower intelligence, older age, and female gender in youths also predicted school dysfunction. Although youths with ASD have school dysfunction in several domains, this study specifically addresses the role of intelligence and comorbid ADHD on their school dysfunction. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Impaired school functions varied in ASD youths with different characteristics. Youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encounter
Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Doping control is an important means for preventing the use of illegal substances and methods in sports. Objective: This study investigated the self-reported use of illegal substances among young Brazilian students in the Youth School Games, the main sporting event among school-aged athletes in Brazil with almost 2 million students during all the phases. Methods: Cross-sectional study with athletes of the Youth School Games 2006 aged 14-17 years. The subjects were randomly selected and completed an anonymous questionnaire about substances use. Chi-square test was used for comparison of proportions between different variables on self-reported use of substances. Univariate and multivariate analyzes and logistic regression were performed. Results: Among the 402 athletes (aged 14-17 who volunteered to participate, the results showed high prevalence of alcohol (35.8%, nutritional supplements (39.1%, and tobacco (5.4%. Regarding illegal drugs and doping, 1.7% reported the use of stimulants, 2.2% illicit drugs, 0.5% anabolic steroids, and 1.7% hormones and other similar substances. Moreover, a different use of stimulants was found (especially Judo and Table tennis, medications (especially Judo and Chess and dietary supplements (especially Swimming and Judo, with over 50% reported use. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the use of substances among young athletes is similar to the results found among adult Olympic athletes as per International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency, especially regarding the use of dietary supplements, anabolic steroids, and stimulants according to data collected by other studies. We consider that the findings of the present work indicate the need for specific efforts to monitor, prevent, and control use of substances among school athletes in big events and competitions, such as this research on doping in the Youth School Games.
Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.
Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…
Craig, Shelley L.; Smith, Mark S.
Sexual minority youth are known to face increased risk of poor school performance; however, little research has focused on the educational experiences of multiethnic sexual minority youth (MSMY) in particular. Using venue-based sampling approaches, this study surveyed 255 MSMY at 15 urban high schools. The majority of participants identified as…
Watson, Lori Anne
Schools contribute heavily to the feelings of isolation and stigmatization that many gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth experience. Research demonstrates that the climate of US middle and high schools are generally unsupportive and unsafe for many of these youth who are often susceptible to harassment, discrimination, and other negative events,…
Nyika, Lawrence; McPherson, Charmaine; Murray-Orr, Anne
In this essay, we review empirical, theoretical, and substantial grey literature in relation to immigrant youth and health promoting schools (HPS). We examine the health promotion concept to consider how it may inform the HPS model. Using Canada as an example, we examine current immigrant youth demographics and define several key terms including…
Lee, Bora; Porfeli, Erik J.
We tested a model of socialization to work in the family context and its implications as a lever for school engagement using a sample of 154 parent-youth dyads living in the United States. A path model was fitted to data. Findings revealed that parents' reported work experiences was aligned to youths' perception of their parents' success in the…
Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.
Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…
Veltro, Franco; Ialenti, Valentina; Iannone, Claudia; Bonanni, Emiliana; Morales García, Manuel Alejandro
School is potentially one of the most important and effective agencies for the promotion of mental health. For this reason, in Italy, the Mental Health Department of The National Health Institute has developed an intervention based on a structured handbook. The aim of this intervention is to promote the psychological well-being of the students. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of this intervention through a quasi-experimental study design of four classes (two were control) of secondary education, including 79 students aged 14 to 16 years (15.35 ± 0.68). Assessments were administered before and after the intervention. The results showed improvement in perceived self-efficacy (p ≤ .001), emotional coping (p = .003), and overall well-being (p usefulness was also increased (p skills, problem solving, and goal definition training is recommended with the use of a revised handbook. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Czaja, Marion D.; Belcher, Sandi
This report describes and evaluates the Raven School, a charter school established in 1998 to serve adjudicated youths ages 16 to 18. The school is administered by the Gulf Coast Trades Center, a private nonprofit organization located in the Sam Houston National Forest in rural Texas. In addition to academics and GED preparation, other program…
Travers, Áine; McDonagh, Tracey; Elklit, Ask
This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories of recovery? Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced by pre-trauma functioning as well as peri-traumatic and post-traumatic factors. These include proximity to the trauma, peri-traumatic dissociation, post-traumatic emotional regulation difficulties, social support, and flexibility of coping styles. Research that separates the distinguishing features of young people with differing recovery styles is vital to tailor intervention. But methodological and design issues associated with such research necessitates caution in drawing conclusions. Variation in definitions and measures and the self-report nature of many of the studies are potential sources of bias. Greater uniformity across designs would enhance confidence and allow for improved evidence-based intervention.
Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement
Goldenberg, Barry M.
This manuscript, written with the educator in mind, describes the Youth Historians in Harlem (YHH) program, a twenty-week after-school history program that engaged urban students in history by immersing them in aspects of the historical process. Throughout the program, a group of Black male high school students were apprenticed as historical…
Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Moss, Colleen K.; Pesko, Matthew J.
The school activities, social relationships, and leadership opportunities youth with disabilities experience outside of the classroom can make important contributions to positive adolescent development and successful transitions to adult life. Unfortunately, many high school students with disabilities are not accessing or benefiting from the rich…
Robinson-Zanartu, Carol; Butler-Byrd, Nola; Cook-Morales, Valerie; Dauphinais, Paul; Charley, Elvina; Bonner, Mike
Despite growing emphases on multicultural competence, Native American youth remain tremendously underserved by schools: low achievement, high dropout rates, and over-identification for special education persist. The authors analyzed responses of 403 school psychologists to a national survey regarding their competence gained in training, in current…
Thompson, Olivia M.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Moser, Richard P.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Agurs-Collins, Tanya
Background: Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in…
Kauh, Tina J.
This executive summary highlights the main findings from our participation and outcomes analysis of the "AfterZone" initiative--a citywide system-building effort in Providence, Rhode Island, that aims to provide high-quality, accessible out-of-school-time services to middle school youth. The summary briefly defines the AfterZone's unique…
Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru
BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned be...
Dlamini, Siyabonga; Taylor, Myra; Mkhize, Nosipho; Huver, Rosemarie; Sathiparsad, Reshma; de Vries, Hein; Naidoo, Kala; Jinabhai, Champak
The cross-sectional study investigated South African rural high school learners' choice of sexual abstinence in order to be able to develop tailored health education messages. All Grade 9 learners from one class at each of 10 randomly selected rural high schools participated. The Integrated Model for Motivational and Behavioural Change was used to…
... illicit drugs showed five-year declines, such as synthetic marijuana, hallucinogens other than LSD, and over-the-counter ... 8th graders who think that occasional use of synthetic marijuana or over-the-counter cough and cold medications ...
Hughes, Luanne J.; Savoca, LeeAnne; Grenci, Alexandra
Youth Advisory Councils (YACs) ensure that students are represented in school wellness discussions. YACs empower students to present ideas, insights, and input on nutrition and physical activity; work alongside peers to assess wellness needs; and develop recommendations for enhancing/expanding the school wellness environment. YACs provide a…
McGlashan, Hayley; Fitzpatrick, Katie
Purpose: Previous research examining the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer (LGBTQ) youth in schools suggests that schools are not inclusive places for non-heterosexual students. Some scholars, however, suggest that a continued focus on how these young people are marginalised is itself a problem, and that research should also…
Robertson, G.; Cruz, E.; Selvans, M. M.
The Smithsonian's Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) program at the National Museum of Natural History gives young people from the Washington, D.C. area the opportunity to engage in science out of school through 16-week internships. We will present the program's successful strategies and lessons learned around recruiting and engaging young people from underserved communities, and maintaining relationships that help to support their pursuit of STEM and other career paths. The YES! program connects Smithsonian collections, experts, and training with local DC youth from communities traditionally underrepresented in science careers. YES! is now in its fifth year and has directly served 122 students; demographics of alumni are 67% female, and 51% Latino, 31% African-American, 7% Asian, 5% Caucasian and 6% other. The program immerses students in science research by giving them the opportunity to work side-by-side with scientists and staff from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Gardens, and National Zoo. In addition to working on a research project, students have college preparatory courses, are trained in science communication, and apply their skills by interacting with the public on the exhibit floor.
Patricia C. Valery
Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire” were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food” at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40, though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P<0.001. Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35 more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.
This work is focused on the point of the secondary school youth attitude on the issue of the rational nutrition. Using the questionnaire investigation that is divided into several research areas I am trying to prove or disconfirm the existence of the mutual relationship between the branch of study and the preferences of healthy nutrition and healthy lifestyle for youth. My thesis deals with the question of a provable relationship in knowledge achieved in the field of healthy nutrition and hea...
McGuire, Jenifer K; Anderson, Charles R; Toomey, Russell B; Russell, Stephen T
Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260, 68 transgender youth) from study 1 and focus groups (n = 35) from study 2, we examine transgender youth's experience of school harassment, school strategies implemented to reduce harassment, the protective role of supportive school personnel, and individual responses to harassment, including dropping out and changing schools. In both studies, we found that school harassment due to transgender identity was pervasive, and this harassment was negatively associated with feelings of safety. When schools took action to reduce harassment, students reported greater connections to school personnel. Those connections were associated with greater feelings of safety. The indirect effects of school strategies to reduce harassment on feelings of safety through connection to adults were also significant. Focus group data illuminate specific processes schools can engage in to benefit youth, and how the youth experience those interventions.
Bashiru Bako Umar
Full Text Available In Nigeria, School-Based Management Committees (SBMCs aim to provide an opportunity for all stakeholders, particularly the vulnerable groups in the school’s host communities such as young people and women to partake in school governance. Research on the experiences of youth voice in the committees is scant, however, as much of the existing literature on SBMCs focuses on program outcomes. Using qualitative research interviews, observations, and document analysis, this study addressed this gap by exploring how youth participate and express themselves in two SBMCs in Niger State, Nigeria. The findings, which were derived from 19 youth and adult participants, were drawn from SBMC members out of which 12 were youth between the ages 13 and 25, while 7 were adults aged 40 and above. The participants revealed that youth committee members expressed their voice in the committees through participating in a number of committee activities. Specifically, the youth participated in decision-making during meetings, aided in the construction of committee projects, undertook administrative/managerial functions and monitored the committee’s projects. They also participated in revenue generation, planning, school visits and supervision, advocacy, and sensitization campaigns.
Research suggests that the quality of out-of-school time (OST) programs is related to positive youth outcomes and skilled staff are a critical component of high quality programming. This descriptive case study of competency frameworks for youth workers in the OST field demonstrates how experts and practitioners characterize a skilled youth worker. A comparative analysis of 11 competency frameworks is conducted to identify a set of common core competencies. A set of 12 competency areas that ar...
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Perez-Aguilar, Giselle; Kim, Grace; Wong, Mitchell D; Chung, Paul J
Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent self-concept, social networks, and substance use. Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17-22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self-concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students' names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracurricular activities, and school norms determined potential friendship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social networks, all of which impact substance use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students often face challenges that prevent them from developing a sense of connectedness to school. Many LGBT youth attend schools that are unwelcoming or even overtly hostile. For any student, being victimized at school can negatively impact their sense of school connectedness. This article discusses the…
Full Text Available Youth experience considerable free time, the use of which can foster active healthy lifestyles or facilitate engagement in activities that are detrimental to self and or to society. In order for the former to occur, specific knowledge, attitudes, and skills must be acquired. This research explores an initiative in which older youth served as leaders in an after school initiative in an economically challenged community where little attention was being paid to the provision of free time opportunities for youth. Not only were positive developmental outcomes experienced by the participants (the ability to find ways to spend free time; an appreciation for the outcomes that can accrue from engagement in positive activities; and the ability to communicate effectively, but the same was true for the older youth who served as leaders (understanding the meaning of success, appreciating the power of interpersonal relationships, and becoming a role model.
Full Text Available This article addresses the relationship between ethnic identity and school performance of Moroccan youth living in Barcelona (Spain, particularly in cases of academic success. The bulk of the article makes reference to examples from ethnographical research to pinpoint the strategies used by some of these youths and their families to transcend the cultural, linguistic, and social barriers they face both in school and in their wider community. In so doing, we shift our gaze from John Ogbu’s immigrant/involuntary typology to the patterns of variability along ethnic, class and gender lines that exist within this minority group. Results from recent ethnographic research points out that high academic performance does not necessarily entails neither rejection of ethnicity nor simple conformity. Rather, some of these Moroccan youth adopt an instrumental view of education that promotes the development of new and proactive cultural identities inside and outside the school arena.
Rye, James A; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eck, Ronald; Neal, William A
The prevalence of overweight in youth has increased three- to four-fold in the United States since the 1960s. The school environment can play prominently in the mitigation of this epidemic by increasing physical activity opportunities/ levels, decreasing the availability of food/ beverage with added sugar, and enhancing students' scientific understandings about energy balance. The potential to increase energy expenditure goes beyond the school day to include safe routes for walking and biking to school (active transport) as well as the availability of school facilities as a community resource for physical activity outside of school hours. However, school consolidation and siting decisions have profound effects on active transport as well as the school as a community resource. Teachers and adolescents should not be overlooked as important partners in conceiving and carrying out programming that seeks to increase physical activity levels in youth and the broader community. As leaders and health care providers in their communities, physicians are postured to be effective advocates of, and to leverage in their own practice, school-based policies and practices towards promoting healthy weight in youth.
Gonzalez, Taucia; Love, Larry D.; Johnson, Mary L.; Picón, Ninoska; Velázquez, Josué
This Equity Brief focuses on disrupting the dominant narratives around inclusion by asking the question, "Whose Voice Matters" in creating inclusive schools. Ensuring that youth from historically marginalized groups have leadership opportunities and have their voices heard is one way to support and empower them. Supporting students of…
Full Text Available Disclosed aspects of the marketing approach in the activities of youth sports schools. The degree of use of marketing in the organization and management of youth sports schools. Identified constraints and the possible consequences of the use of marketing in youth sports schools. The study involved 127 employees with 15 youth sports schools. The respondents were the director and deputy instructor methodists that senior coaches offices youth sports schools. It is certain that in their professional activities only 36.0% of workers in youth sports schools use marketing is the marketing research, 73.2% of respondents believe that the use of marketing to promote the image of youth sports schools. The absence of a marketing specialist in the management bodies of physical education and sport is one of the main problems for the efficient functioning of the market of sports schools sports and sports services.
Bethea, Sharon L.
The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…
Quijada Cerecer, Patricia D.
Research indicates that high school campus climates are contentious for students of color, particularly as they negotiate institutional and personal racism. Unfortunately, minimal research centers on the experiences of American Indian youth. In response, this qualitative study explores American Indian responses to hostile campus climates. Using a…
Lambert, Matthew C.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Epstein, Michael H.; W. Thompson, Ronald
Background: Behavioral, social, emotional, and educational risks among children and youth with school identified disabilities served in residential care have been well documented. However, the health care needs and medical service utilization of this high-risk population are less well known. Given the risks associated with children with…
The following article relates a reflexive ethnographic research project that focuses on youth voice in relation to the process of choosing a high school and a language of instruction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this methodological article is to relate a story of research and explore the tensions between theory and practice experienced by a…
Sexually active young people are at high risk of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Consistent condom use is critically important for preventing both. This study examined sexual activity and pattern of condom use among in-school youths in Sagamu. Multi-staged sampling method was used to choose ...
Zenere, Frank J.; Lazarus, Philip J.
An 18-year longitudinal case study of the suicide rates of students attending a large, urban, multicultural school district between 1989 and 2006 is described. The high rate of suicide (5.5 per 100,000 students ages 5-19) in the district during the period 1980-1988 led to the development and implementation of a district-wide Youth Suicide…
The late rapper Tupac Shakur wrote a poem called "The Rose that Grew from Concrete" that serves as a good metaphor for helping educators, including school librarians, to disrupt stereotypical metanarratives they might have about urban youth and replace them with new narratives of hope, compassion, and high expectations for all students. Tupac's…
Dunsmore, Kate; Lagos, Taso G.
Research on the lack of civic and political engagement on the part of today's youth has relied on traditional, often quantitative, measures of political knowledge that may miss important elements of the process. Using an ethnographic approach with a group of inner-city high school students, our study reveals a richer construction of students'…
National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010
Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…
Ozkol, Hivren; Zucker, Marla; Spinazzola, Joseph
This study examined the pathways from violence exposure to aggressive behaviors in urban, elementary school youth. We utilized structural equation modeling to examine putative causal pathways between children's exposure to violence, development of posttraumatic stress symptoms, permissive attitudes towards violence, and engagement in aggressive…
Edwards, Laura L; Hunt, Abby; Cope-Barnes, Doug; Hensel, Devon J; Ott, Mary A
Middle school youth (N = 1472) in Central Indiana completed a survey about parent-adolescent sexual communication. Being older, female, mixed race, ever had sex, ever arrested, and higher HIV knowledge were associated with more frequent sexual communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vélez Young-Alfaro, Morghan
This ethnography explores incarcerated students' experiences and dynamics of identity formation inside a youth prison school. Across two years, 100 students and 50 adults were engaged. The structure, discourse, and adult-student interactions revealed a fixation on framing students as threats with a racialized undertone while also exposing the…
Sobel, Russell S.; King, Kerry A.
Because entrepreneurial activity is a key source of economic growth, promoting youth entrepreneurship has become a priority for policymakers. School choice programs force administrators and teachers to be more entrepreneurial in their jobs by encouraging innovation and by creating competition and a more business-like environment in K-12 education.…
Rita I. Henderson
Full Text Available Introduction: Addressing systemic barriers experienced by low-income and minority students to accessing medical school, the University of Calgary's Cumming School of Medicine has spearheaded a year-round, mini-med school outreach initiative for Aboriginal students. Method: Junior and senior high school youth generally attend the half-day program in classes or camps of 15–25, breaking into small groups for multisession activities. Undergraduate medical education students mentor the youth in stations offering experiential lessons in physical examination, reading x-rays, and anatomy. All resources from the medical school are offered in-kind, including a pizza lunch at midday, whereas community partners organize transportation for the attendees. Results: Opening the medical school and its resources to the community offers great benefits to resource-constrained schools often limited in terms of science education resources. The model is also an effort to address challenges among the medical professions around attracting and retaining students from underserved populations. Conclusion: The prospect of increasing admission rates and successful completion of medical education among students from marginalized communities poses a real, though difficult-to-measure, possibility of increasing the workforce most likely to return to and work in such challenging contexts. A mini-medical school for Aboriginal youth highlights mutual, long-term benefit for diverse partners, encouraging medical educators and community-based science educators to explore the possibilities for deepening partnerships in their own regions.
Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 1: Comparisons with Other Youth. Full Report. NCEE 2017-4016
Lipscomb, Stephen; Haimson, Joshua; Liu, Albert Y.; Burghardt, John; Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.
The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) 2012 is a national study of nearly 13,000 youth with and without an individualized education program (IEP). These students were chosen to represent all students with and without an IEP in the United States in grades 7 through 12 (or secondary ungraded classes). Among the youth with an IEP are…
Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 1: Comparisons with Other Youth. Executive Summary. NCEE 2017-4017
Lipscomb, Stephen; Haimson, Joshua; Liu, Albert Y.; Burghardt, John; Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.
The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) 2012 is a national study of nearly 13,000 youth with and without an individualized education program (IEP). These students were chosen to represent all students with and without an IEP in the United States in grades 7 through 12 (or secondary ungraded classes). Among the youth with an IEP are…
Lechuga, Chalane Elizabeth
This research explores how Latino/a high school students in New Mexico constitute their racial identities in this particular historical moment, the post-Civil Rights colorblind era. I explore what their chosen nomenclatures and employed discourses suggest about the relationship between their racial identities and academic achievement. The research…
Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.
Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) has the knowledge and expertise to promote the prevention of overweight and obesity and address the needs of overweight and obese youth in schools. The school nurse collaborates with students, families, school personnel, and health care providers to promote healthy weight and identify overweight and obese youth who may be at risk for health problems. The school nurse can refer and follow up with students who may need to see a health care provider. The school nurse also educates and advocates for changes in school and district policies that promote a healthy lifestyle for all students.
Costello, Mary Jean E; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid; Church, Dana L; Cunningham, John A
Substance use is common among youth; however, our understanding of co-morbid tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use remains limited. The school-environment may play an important role in the likelihood a student engages in high risk substance use behaviors, including co-morbid use. This study aims to: (i) describe the prevalence of co-morbid substance use behaviors among youth; (ii) identify and compare the characteristics of youth who currently use a single substance, any two substances, and all three substances; (iii) examine if the likelihood of co-morbid use varies by school and; (iv) examine what factors are associated with co-morbid use. This study used nationally representative data collected from students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 41,886) as part of the 2006-2007 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Demographic and behavioral data were collected including, current cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use. Results. 6.5% (n = 107,000) reported current use of all three substances and 20.3% (n = 333,000) of any two substances. Multi-level analysis revealed significant between school variability in the odds a student used all three substances and any two substances; accounting for 16.9% and 13.5% of the variability, respectively. Co-morbid use was associated with sex, grade, amount of available spending money and perceived academic performance. Co-morbid substance use is high among youth; however, not all schools share the same prevalence. Knowing the school characteristics that place particular schools at risk for student substance use is important for tailoring drug and alcohol education programs. Interventions that target the prevention of co-morbid substance use are required.
Bopp, P. Jayne; Juday, Timothy R.; Charters, Cloudia W.
Chrysalis is a weekly after-school drop-in group on O'ahu high school campuses for transgendered and questioning youth. Nine Chrysalis members, nine demographically matched TG youth, and five key informants participated in a study to evaluate program effectiveness in improving life skills and preventing HIV infection. Chrysalis members scored…
Fernando AT; Samaranayake CB; Blank CJ; Roberts G; Arroll B
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. METHODS: The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of househol...
Korinek, Kim; Punpuing, Sureeporn
We analyze school attrition among youth in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. We find that family investments in schooling are shaped by both household and local community contexts. There is an enrollment advantage for girls across different households and communities. We find that youth whose mothers have migrated and youth in immigrant households…
Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Dupéré, Véronique; Brault, Marie-Christine; Andrew, Marie Mc
In most Western countries, the individual, social, and family characteristics associated with students' dropout in the general population are well documented. Yet, there is a lack of large-scale studies to establish whether these characteristics have the same influence for students with an immigrant background. The first aim of this study was to assess the differences between first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students in terms of the individual, social, and family factors associated with school dropout. Next, we examined the differential associations between these individual, social, and family factors and high school dropout as a function of students' immigration status. Participants were 2291 students (54.7% with an immigrant background) from ten low-SES schools in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Individual, social, and family predictors were self-reported by students in secondary one (mean age = 12.34 years), while school dropout status was obtained five or 6 years after students were expected to graduate. Results of logistic regressions with multiple group latent class models showed that first- and second-generation students faced more economic adversity than third-generation-plus students and that they differed from each other and with their native peers in terms of individual, social, and family risk factors. Moreover, 40% of the risk factors considered in this study were differentially associated with first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students' failure to graduate from high school. These results provide insights on immigrant and non-immigrant inner cities' students experiences related to school dropout. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
O'Donnell, Deborah A; Roberts, William C; Schwab-Stone, Mary E
Community violence exposure among youth can lead to various negative outcomes, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Research in the Western world indicates that a number of social support factors may moderate the relation between violence exposure and internalizing symptoms. Little research has been carried out in non-Western countries. This study aimed to fill this gap by exploring the relations among violence exposure, parental warmth, positive school climate, and post-traumatic stress reactions among youth in The Republic of The Gambia, Africa. A school-based survey of youth behaviors, feelings, attitudes, and perceptions was administered to 653 students at senior secondary schools in four Gambian communities. Students reported high levels of exposure to violence. Over half of students reported witnessing someone threatened with serious physical harm, beaten up or mugged, attacked or stabbed with a knife/piece of glass, or seriously wounded in an incident of violence. Nearly half of students reported being beaten up or mugged during the past year, and nearly a quarter reported being threatened with serious physical harm. There were no sex differences in levels of exposure. Traumatic stress symptoms were common, especially among females. Both violence witnessing and violent victimization significantly predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms, and positive school climate moderated the relationship. Among youth victimized by violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at low levels of exposure. Among youth who had witnessed violence, positive school climate was most strongly correlated with lower levels of post-traumatic stress at high levels of exposure. Community-based programs that bring together parents, schools, and youth may play an important role in combating the negative effects of some types of violence exposure among Gambian youth. Youth experiencing high levels of violent victimization
Sælid, Gry Anette; Nordahl, Hans M
Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) is effective in reducing distress in several target groups. No other study has tested the mental health effects on adolescents in a high school setting while expanding a Cognitive Behaviour-based therapy, REBT, into the concept of mental health literacy. The format of the ABC model, which is an important element of REBT, functioned as a working manual in and between three sessions. This study tested whether knowledge and practical use of the ABC model increased self-esteem and hope, and reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, and dysfunctional thinking. Sixty-two high school students with subclinical levels of anxiety and depression were randomly allocated into three groups; three individual REBT sessions, or three individual attentional placebo (ATP) sessions or no sessions (control). However, dysfunctional thinking, self-esteem and hope were not measured in the control group. Repeated measures with ANOVA and t-tests were conducted. Both REBT and ATP significantly reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, but only REBT was significantly different from the control group at the six-month follow-up. Only REBT significantly reduced dysfunctional thinking, and both REBT and ATP significantly increased self-esteem and hope. REBT had both an immediate and a long-term effect. The findings show the potential positive effects of educating well-documented psychological techniques as ordinary education in school. Further research might contribute to decide whether or not to change the school system by enclosing mental health literacy classes for all students.
Discusses the shift from high school journalism to college journalism for students. Describes the role of the high school journalism advisor in that process. Offers checklists for getting to know a college publication. Outlines ways high school journalism teachers can take advantage of journalism resources available at local colleges and…
Thompson, Brett A.
Since its inception in 1997, Cisco's curriculum has entered thousands of high schools across the U.S. and around the world for two reasons: (1) Cisco has a large portion of the computer networking market, and thus has the resources for and interest in developing high school academies; and (2) high school curriculum development teams recognize the…
For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…
Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.
Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298
Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa
Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…
Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of generalization of the Social Competence Intervention-Adolescent (SCI-A curriculum in a school setting for individuals with high-functioning autism or Asperger's Syndrome (=6. This study examined to what degree the generalization of the SCI-A curriculum could be measured when delivered in a school setting. Across the six participants preliminary results suggest improvement on teacher reports of social skills and executive functioning. Some improvements were also evident in direct measures of facial-expression recognition. Data collected in the nonintervention settings indicated that some generalization of social interaction skills may have occurred for all six participants. Future research directions are discussed.
Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.
Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…
This article examines our modern ways of schooling youth in light of philosophic and personal narrative accounts of "the Dionysian" aspect--a term the author uses to understand his own experiences and aspirations as a high school English teacher. Having articulated the meaning of this term, he goes on to point out how schools today are…
Crump, Casey; Rivera, Diana; London, Rebecca; Landau, Melinda; Erlendson, Bill; Rodriguez, Eunice
Chronic health conditions are common and increasing among U.S. children and youth. We examined whether chronic health conditions are associated with low school performance. This retrospective cohort study of 22,730 children and youth (grades 2-11) in San Jose, California, was conducted from 2007 through 2010. Health conditions were defined as chronic if reported in each of the first 2 years, and school performance was measured using standardized English language arts (ELA) and math assessments. Chronic health conditions were independently associated with low ELA and math performance, irrespective of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or grade level. Adjusted odds ratios for the association between any chronic health condition and low ("basic or below") performance were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.36; P absenteeism had little effect on these results. The strongest associations were found for ADHD, autism, and seizure disorders, whereas a weak association was found for asthma before but not after adjusting for absenteeism, and no associations were found for cardiovascular disorders or diabetes. Chronic neurodevelopmental and seizure disorders, but not cardiovascular disorders or diabetes, were independently associated with low school performance among children and youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2016
"Educational Exclusion: Drop Out, Push Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline among LGBTQ Youth" provides an in-depth look at the conditions that effectively push LGBTQ youth out of school and potentially into the criminal justice system. The report provides specific, real world guidance to address the hostile school climates and…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is dropout status determined... INVESTMENT ACT Out-of-School Youth § 664.310 When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools? A school dropout is defined as an individual who is no longer attending any...
Objective We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program, and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youth and parents. Method We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youth identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools in New York State. The at-risk teenagers and their parents were interviewed approximately two years after the initial screen to assess service use during the intervening period and identify barriers that may have interfered with seeking treatment. Results At the time of the screen, 72% of the at-risk students were not receiving any type of mental health service. Of these students, 51% were deemed in need of services and subsequently referred by us to a mental health professional. Nearly 70% followed through with the screening’s referral recommendations. Youth and their parents reported perceptions about mental health problems, specifically relating to the need for treatment, as the primary reasons for not seeking service. Conclusions Screening appears to be effective in enhancing the likelihood that students at risk for suicidal behavior will get into treatment. Well developed and systematic planning is needed to ensure that screening and referral services are coordinated so as to facilitate access for youth into timely treatment. PMID:19858758
Olufajo, Olubode Ademola; Agaku, Israel Terungwa
To obtain nationally representative estimates of the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at U.S. schools, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure at school among U.S. middle and high school students using data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey comprising of 18,866 students spread across all the U.S. states.…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James
Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027
Johnson, Jennifer Leigh; Beard, Joyce; Evans, Dena
Annually, over 80,000 refugees enter the United States as a result of political or religious persecution. Of these, approximately 35% to 40% are children and adolescents. Refugees are faced with challenges associated with living conditions, cultural and social norms, and socioeconomic status due to problems occurring in their homelands. These challenges include but are not limited to malnutrition, communicable disease, questionable immunization status, lack of formal education, sexual abuse, violence, torture, human trafficking, homelessness, poverty, and a lack of access to health care. Moreover, the psychological impact of relocation and the stress of acculturation may perpetuate many of these existing challenges, particularly for refugee youth, with limited or underdeveloped coping skills. School nurses are uniquely poised to support refugee youth in the transition process, improve overall health, and facilitate access to primary health services. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the unique refugee experience, examine the key health care needs of the population, and present school nurses with timely and relevant resources to assist in caring for refugee youth.
This manual is designed to help teachers, businesses, Chambers of Commerce, and students start their own economic development activities and youth ventures. It describes a two-step plan to economic development through youth: development of an in-school student chamber of commerce program and development of a youth-owned venture. The first part of…
Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Latzman, Natasha E.; Valle, Linda Anne; Kuoh, Henrietta; Burton, Tessa; Taylor, Bruce G.; Tharp, Andra T.
Purpose This study describes the lifetime prevalence of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration in a sample of middle school students from high-risk urban communities and examines the relation between TDV and related cognitive and behavioral risk factors. Methods Surveys were administered to 2,895 middle school students in four U.S. cities; 1,673 students (58%) reported having dated and were included in analyses. The sample was 52.3% female, 48.2% non-Hispanic black/African-American, 38.2% Hispanic, 4.8% non-Hispanic white, and 7.6% other race. Six types of TDV perpetration were assessed: threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and stalking. Results Of the students who had dated, 77% reported perpetrating verbal/emotional abuse, 32% reported perpetrating physical abuse, 20% reported threatening a partner, 15% reported perpetrating sexual abuse, 13% reported perpetrating relational abuse, and 6% reported stalking. Girls were more likely than boys to report perpetrating threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, and physical abuse, and boys were more likely to report perpetrating sexual abuse. Involvement in bullying positively predicted perpetration of TDV, albeit, in different ways for boys and girls. Other risk factors differed by sex. For instance, alcohol use and sex initiation predicted multiple forms of TDV perpetration for boys, whereas weapon carrying and emotional symptoms predicted several forms of TDV perpetration for girls. Conclusions The prevalence of TDV was high in our sample. Important sex differences in rates of perpetration and risk factors emerged. Comprehensive prevention programs that target TDV and related risk factors, such as bullying and other risk factors, seem warranted. PMID:25620454
Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Agurs-Collins, Tanya
Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in children and adolescents. To evaluate the relationship between school vending machine purchasing behavior and school vending machine access and individual-level dietary characteristics, we used population-level YouthStyles 2005 survey data to compare nutrition-related policy and behavioral characteristics by the number of weekly vending machine purchases made by public school children and adolescents (N = 869). Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted logistic regression models that were weighted on age and sex of child, annual household income, head of household age, and race/ethnicity of the adult in study. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2008. Compared to participants who did not purchase from a vending machine, participants who purchased >or=3 days/week were more likely to (1) have unrestricted access to a school vending machine (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.13-2.59); (2) consume regular soda and chocolate candy >or=1 time/day (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.87-5.51 and OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.34-5.46, respectively); and (3) purchase pizza or fried foods from a school cafeteria >or=1 day/week (OR = 5.05; 95% CI = 3.10-8.22). Future studies are needed to establish the contribution that the school-nutrition environment makes on overall youth dietary intake behavior, paying special attention to health disparities between whites and nonwhites.
Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculat...
Chiado, Wendy S.
Too many of our nation's youth have failed to complete high school. Determining why so many of our nation's students fail to graduate is a complex, multi-faceted problem and beyond the scope of any one study. The study presented herein utilized a thirteen-step mixed methods model developed by Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2007) to demonstrate within a…
The XIX International Youth School on Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy (COOS2015) was held in Kazan, Russia, from October 5 to October 7 at the Nikolai Lobachevsky Scientific Library of Kazan Federal University. The School follows the global tendency toward comprehensive studies of matter properties and its interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarussia and Russia had plenary lecture presentations. This is the right place, where over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in hot discussions regarding the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the full-size papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. (paper)
Coxe, Kathryn; Hamilton, Kelsey; Harvey, Hosea H; Xiang, Joe; Ramirez, Marizen R; Yang, Jingzhen
The purpose of the study was to examine the consistency and variation in content of high school written traumatic brain injury (TBI) policies in relation to the three key tenets of youth sports TBI laws. A content analysis was conducted on written TBI policies retrieved from 71 high schools currently participating in High School Reporting Information Online. Each policy was independently analyzed by two trained coders. The number and percent of the policies reflecting the three key tenets of state youth sports TBI laws were described and compared on policy enforcement (i.e., strictness of language), policy description (i.e., details and definitions of the requirements), and policy implementation steps (i.e., specific steps for implementing the requirements). Direct quotes were identified to support quantitative findings. All 71 high school TBI policies contained at least two of the three main TBI law tenets, where 98.6% (n = 70) included the return to play tenet, 83.1% (n = 59) included the removal from play tenet, and 59.2% (n = 42) specified the distribution of TBI information sheets to student-athletes and their parents. Nearly half of the policies (49.3%, n = 35) required parents' signature while only 39.4% (n = 28) required students' signature on the TBI information sheet. The language exhibited wide variance across the 71 TBI policies regarding policy enforcement, policy description, and policy implementation specifications. All 71 TBI policies covered at least two of the three youth sports TBI law tenets, but with considerable variation. Future research should assess variations by schools within the same state and their impact on TBI rates in school athletics. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reports from national education organizations in the US indicate the sorry state of high schools in the country that are accused of failing to adequately prepare their graduates for college or for the workforce, highlighting what is a serious problem in light of the troubled state of the US economy. The need to improve high schools is urgent and…
Peterson, Jane W.
A study asked selected high school principals to respond to statements about the value of high school journalism to the high school student and about the rights and responsibilities of the high school journalist. These responses were then checked against such information as whether or not the high school principal had worked on a high school…
Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf
Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. I...
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Giga, Noreen M.; Villenas, Christian; Danischewski, David J.
The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) "National School Climate Survey" is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students' well-being. The survey has consistently indicated…
Mehrley, Melissa; Leibold, Nancyruth
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that school nurses have the knowledge and expertise to promote the prevention of overweight and obesity and address the needs of overweight and obese youth in schools. The school nurse collaborates with students, families, school personnel, and health care providers to promote healthy…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Palmer, Neal A.; Kull, Ryan M.; Greytak, Emily A.
For many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, intolerance and prejudice make school a hostile and dangerous place. This study examined simultaneously the effects of a negative school climate on achievement and the role that school-based supports--safe school policies, supportive school personnel, and gay-straight alliance (GSA)…
Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Martinez, Lisa M.; Ortega, Debora
The purpose of this study is to address how spaces in school and out of school support or constrain undocumented Latina/o youths' development as critical multicultural citizens. We draw on data from a multi-phase, qualitative study to present findings indicating that the youths persevered through academic and civic engagement. Ultimately, the…
Zimmerman, Marc A.; Eisman, Andria B.; Reischl, Thomas M.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Stoddard, Sarah; Miller, Alison L.; Hutchison, Pete; Franzen, Susan; Rupp, Laney
We report on an effectiveness evaluation of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) program. YES applies empowerment theory to an after-school program for middle school students. YES is an active learning curriculum designed to help youth gain confidence in themselves, think critically about their community, and work with adults to create positive…
While empowerment has become a popular concept in working with adolescents, few attempts have been made to explore the possibilities for empowering school personnel to create an environment in which young people can make maximum use of the opportunity to learn and grow. Based on the field experiences of 15 Hong Kong school social workers, this article examines how practitioners use various strategies to interact with school personnel to generate empowering practices in the school setting: namely, (1) exerting influence on school personnel in daily conversations and interactions; (2) creating an environment conducive to the teacher-student relationship; (3) achieving consensus with school personnel through lobbying and negotiation; and (4) collaborating with school personnel to organize life education and positive youth development programs. The findings provide valuable reference materials to guide other practitioners in applying the empowerment approach in actual practice. It also helps fill the gap in existing literature on empowerment and school social work.
Aratani, Yumiko; Cooper, Janice L.
This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine the relationship between running away from home between the ages of 12 and 14 and dropping from high school among youth. Propensity score matching was conducted in estimating the effect of running away on high school dropout while controlling for confounding…
Zeldin, Shepherd; Krauss, Steven Eric; Kim, Taehan; Collura, Jessica; Abdullah, Haslinda
After-school programs are prevalent across the world, but there is a paucity of research that examines quality within the "black box" of programs at the point of service. Grounded in current theory, this research examined hypothesized pathways between the experience of youth-adult partnership (youth voice in decision-making; supportive adult relationships), the mediators of program safety and engagement, and the developmental outcomes of youth empowerment (leadership competence, policy control) and community connectedness (community connections, school attachment). Surveys were administered to 207 ethnically diverse (47.3 % female; 63.3 % Malay) youth, age 15-16, attending after-school co-curricular programs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results showed that youth voice in program decision-making predicted both indicators of youth empowerment. Neither youth voice nor supportive adult relationships was directly associated with community connectedness, however. Program engagement mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and empowerment. In contrast, program safety mediated the associations between youth-adult partnership and community connectedness. The findings indicate that the two core components of youth-adult partnership-youth voice and supportive adult relationships-may operate through different, yet complementary, pathways of program quality to predict developmental outcomes. Implications for future research are highlighted. For reasons of youth development and youth rights, the immediate challenge is to create opportunities for youth to speak on issues of program concern and to elevate those adults who are able and willing to help youth exercise their voice.
Howell, J. Emory
strategies. With all the publicity given to the occasion in the popular press, it seems trite to mention that this school year will end in the 21st century. Nevertheless it is an inescapable fact that this year's senior class will be the first to live out all their post-high-school years in a new century and a new millennium in a world where technological change occurs at breathtaking speed. When they become adults, this school year's students will face the host of problems that plague our planetproblems that will not be left behind with the mere turn of a calendar page: poverty, hunger, political upheaval, disease, natural disasters, environmental degradation. The new school year provides us with an opportunity to help these students equip themselves with the intellectual skills and working knowledge necessary to tackle global problems and local problems. It is a daunting task, one that can only be understood fully by those who teach high school students year after year, often with limited resources and inadequate reward. So why devote this space to something that every experienced teacher knows? Precisely to wish you well, to encourage, to say hurrah, and especially to thank you for what you have done and what you are going to do to educate youth for a productive and chemically literate life in the new millennium.
Robinson, Becky S.
For more than 100 years, vocational psychologists and educational researchers have sought to identify the significant influences shaping occupational interests. This descriptive study used a series of vocational card sort exercises with 139 rural high school youth to identify gender differences in occupational interests toward working in 60 of the…
McWhirter, J. Jeffries; And Others
Identifies and discusses five basic skill strengths or skill deficits that mark critical difference between low-risk and high-risk youth. The "Five Cs of Competency" described include critical school competencies, concept of self and self-esteem, communication skills, coping ability, and control. Contends that these characteristics discriminate…
Santos, Carlos E; Collins, Mary Ann
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between school connectedness and performance in standardized test scores and whether this association was moderated by ethnic private regard. The study combines self-report data with school district reported data on standardized test scores in reading and math and free and reduced lunch status. Participants included 436 Mexican-origin youth attending a middle school in a southwestern U.S. state. Participants were on average 12.34 years of age (SD = .95) and 51.8% female and 48.2% male. After controlling for age, gender, free and reduced lunch status, and generational status, school connectedness and ethnic private regard were both positive predictors of standardized test scores in reading and math. Results also revealed a significant interaction between school connectedness and ethnic private regard in predicting standardized test scores in reading, such that participants who were low on ethnic private regard and low on school connectedness reported lower levels of achievement compared to participants who were low on ethnic private regard but high on school connectedness. At high levels of ethnic private regard, high or low levels of school connectedness were not associated with higher or lower standardized test scores in reading. The findings in this study provide support for the protective role that ethnic private regard plays in the educational experiences of Mexican-origin youth and highlights how the local school context may play a role in shaping this finding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Marshall, Amy; Powell, Norman; Pierce, Doris; Nolan, Ronnie; Fehringer, Elaine
Students, a large percentage with disabilities, are at high risk for poor post-secondary outcomes in state agency education programs. This mixed-methods study describes the understandings of student transitions in state agency education programs from the perspectives of youth and administrators. Results indicated that: transition is more narrowly defined within alternative education programs; key strengths of transition practice are present in nontraditional schools; and the coordination barriers within this fluid inter-agency transition system are most apparent in students' frequent inter-setting transitions between nontraditional and home schools.
Sykes, Brooke; Kuyper, Hans
This paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between school segregation and youth educational outcomes in general, and educational inequalities in particular. Using data from a longitudinal Dutch cohort study, we test whether the ethnic composition (operationalised as both ethnic
Hill, Renee Franklin; Kumasi, Kafi
School library and youth services professionals must develop and display a strong sense of cultural competence to effectively serve their patrons. Cultural competence is defined here as one's ability to understand the needs of populations different from their own. This paper reports on the perceptions of school library and youth services students…
Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may face particularly hostile school climates, as they often report experiencing harassment, discrimination, and other negative experiences in school. LGBT youth, regardless of their gender identity, often face victimization and stigmatization based on both sexual orientation and gender…
Rittenmeyer, Dennis C.
Using the schools to achieve racial balance, eliminate poverty, fight drug abuse, prevent pregnancy, and reduce youth suicide is too large a task. Teachers and principals should address educational issues, not unmet social needs. To improve the educational performance of the schools, the quality of life for youth must first be improved. (MSE)
Crawford, Shelley; Caltabiano, Nerina J.
The school professional is in a unique position to play a strategic role in the early identification and prevention of youth suicide. The current study assessed North Queensland teachers' knowledge on youth suicide. The sample comprised 201 secondary school teachers. A survey research design was used and data was collected using a…
This article investigates whether school activism diminishes the alienation that accompanies urban youths' observations of unequal educational conditions, and often leads to underachievement and school rejection. The study is based on interviews with 13 urban youth about their participation in a community-based program that supports education…
There is a dearth of research on the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools in the Republic of Ireland. The current study assessed the school-based experiences of twenty five (N = 25) participants in the BeLonG To LGBT youth group in Dublin city using a mixed design survey instrument. The majority (n = 19) of…
Holt, Nicholas L.; Sehn, Zoe L.; Spence, John C.; Newton, Amanda S.; Ball, Geoff D. C.
Background: School-based recreational opportunities for youth from low-income inner-city neighbourhoods are often lacking. School programs represent an ideal location for promoting youth development in low-income areas because they can provide safe, supervised, and structured activities. Such activities should include not only physical education…
Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie
Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school policies on smoking rates among youth in Florida. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and a multiple regression analysis were used to determine whether the comprehensiveness and enforcement of tobacco-free school policies affect the youth smoking rates within Florida public school districts. The 2010 and 2014 youth smoking rates were calculated based on the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey results. The 2010 youth smoking rate and the inclusion of the enforcement component with provision of cessation resources were statistically significant predictors of the 2014 youth smoking rate. However, the comprehensiveness level of a policy and the inclusion of an enforcement component were not statistically significant predictors. The inclusion of an enforcement component with provision of cessation resources is important in efforts to reduce youth smoking rates. The content of the tobacco-free school policies seems to be less relevant to their effectiveness than the enforcement of the policies. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Many secondary students have given up the joy of reading. When asked why they don't read for pleasure, students came up with many different reasons, the first being lack of time. High school students are busy with after school jobs, sports, homework, etc. With the growing number of students enrolled in AP classes, not only is there not much time…
Green, Daniel G.
Strapped for cash, a Massachusetts high school creates its own venture capital fund to incentivize teachers to create programs that improve student learning. The result has been higher test scores and higher job satisfaction. One important program is credited with helping close the achievement gap at the school, while others have helped ambitious…
Laufer, Avital; Harel, Yossi
This study explored the relative importance of family, peers and school in predicting youth violence. The analysis was done on a nationally representative sample included 8,394 students from grade 6th-10th in Israel. Measures of youth violence included bullying, physical fights and weapon carrying. The findings suggested that all three social systems had significant relations with youth violence, respectively. Variables found to predict violence were: Family-lack of parental support regarding school; Peers-Lack of social integration or too many evenings out with friends; School-feeling of school alienation, low academic achievement and perceptions of frequent acts of violence in school. School perceptions had the strongest predicting power. Findings emphasized the importance of focusing on improving the daily school experience in reducing youth violence.
Malsbary, Christine Brigid
The article presents findings from a multisited ethnography in two public high schools in Los Angeles and New York City. Schools were chosen for their hyper-diverse student populations. Students came from over 40 countries, speaking 20 languages in one school and 33 languages in another. Results of analysis found that despite contrasting missions,…
Pedro, Kris Tunac De; Esqueda, Monica Christina
Military-connected youth often experience daily stressors that affect their academic success and social and emotional development. Stressors such as multiple deployments and frequent school transitions may weaken the social ties that military-connected youth have with school communities, placing them at risk of social alienation and victimization. Within this youth population, military-connected lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may be especially at risk of school victimization. However, to the authors' knowledge, no empirical studies have been conducted on the school experiences of military-connected LGBT youth. Drawing from the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS; n = 634,978), this study explored school victimization and weapon carrying among military-connected LGBT youth and their peers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that military connection, LGB identity, and transgender identity were associated with an increased odds of nonphysical victimization, physical violence, and weapon carrying. Military transgender youth were at an increased risk of weapon carrying (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.23, 2.16]). Future research is needed to explore risk and protective factors influencing school victimization and weapon carrying among military-connected LGBT youth.
Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.
This report summarizes several group discussions with parents of high school students, high school students, and nursing students regarding the world of work and the advantages and disadvantages of a youth apprenticeship program. Section I is an executive summary that describes the methodology, summarizes key attitudes toward youth apprenticeships…
Barnes, Margaret; Courtney, Mary D; Pratt, Jan; Walsh, Anne M
A case study and focus-group discussions were conducted with 10 youth health nurses (nurses) employed in the recently introduced School-Based Youth Health Nurse Program (SBYHNP) to identify their roles, responsibilities, and professional development needs. Major roles are support, referral, health promotion, and marketing. Clients include high school students, teachers, and parents; the majority of whom are female and aged 13-16 years. Health issues addressed during individual consultations are predominantly psychosocial but also include medical, sexual health and sexuality issues, health surveillance, and risk-taking behaviors. Nurses also provide clients with health information and promote enhanced personal skill development during these consultations. Health promotion strategies undertaken by nurses were predominantly health education and health information displays. Nurses reported marketing their role and function within the school to be an essential and often difficult aspect of their role. Professional development through the SBYHNP was excellent; however, there was concern relating to the availability of future educational opportunities. The SBYHNP provides nurses with a new, challenging, autonomous role within the school environment and the opportunity to expand their role to incorporate all aspects of the health-promoting schools' framework.
Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Bacon, Sarah
Background: Teen dating violence (TDV) negatively impacts health, mental and physical well-being, and school performance. Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of high school students participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) are used to demonstrate associations…
on the publicly available XHSTT format for modeling instances and solutions of the HSTP) and the Danish High School Timetabling Problem (DHSTP). For both problems a complex Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) model is developed, and in both cases are empirical tests performed on a large number of real-life datasets......High school institutions face a number of important planning problems during each schoolyear. This Ph.D. thesis considers two of these planning problems: The High School Timetabling Problem (HSTP) and the Consultation Timetabling Problem (CTP). Furthermore a framework for handling various planning....... The second part contains the main scienti_c papers composed during the Ph.D. study. The third part of the thesis also contains scienti_c papers, but these are included as an appendix. In the HSTP, the goal is to obtain a timetable for the forthcoming school-year. A timetable consists of lectures scheduled...
Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Rounds, Kathleen A.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth (LGBT) continue to face extreme discrimination within the school environment. Existing literature suggests that LGBT youth are at high risk for a number of health problems, including suicide ideation and attempts, harassment, substance abuse, homelessness, and declining school performance. This…
Affonso, Dyanne D; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y; Archambeau, Olga G; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N; Frueh, B Christopher
Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward school-based youth violence prevention program development. Eight focus groups involving 86 community stakeholders included 51 adults (parent, teachers, school staff, community leaders) and 35 children aged 8-15 years old (3rd- to 10-th grade). Qualitative narrative analysis elicited major themes. Five themes emerged: (1) School-community violence takes on many forms that become entrenched in local culture. (2) Disintegration of community resources and a sense of learned helplessness underlie the escalation of youth violence. (3) Inadequate role modeling coupled with behavioral ambivalence among adults has sustained a climate of local cultural acceptance with youth violence. (4) Connection to cultural values has diminished, leading to a sense of loss in cultural identity among students. (5) Cultural values and practices are potential strategies for youth violence prevention. Cultural and community contextual factors contributed to youth violence in rural Hawaiian communities. Study implications include the need to further investigate the impact of vigilant, community involvement of stakeholders in school-based youth violence prevention program development. Cultural revitalization at family, school, and community levels may be critical success factors of such programs.
Jagers, Robert J; Lozada, Fantasy T; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Guillaume, Casta
This study used short-term longitudinal data to examine the contributions of democratic teaching practices (e.g., the Developmental Designs approach) and equitable school climate to civic engagement attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among 515 Black and Latino middle school students (47.9% male). Concurrent experiences of democratic homeroom and classroom practices, and equitable school climate were associated with higher scores on each civic engagement component. The relation between classroom practices and civic attitudes was more robust when school climate was seen as more equitable. Longitudinally, homeroom practices and equitable school climate predicted higher civic attitudes 1 year later. Discussion focuses on civic attitudes and future research on school experiences that support civic engagement among youth of color. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ogunleye, Ayodele A
The most prevalent sedentary behaviours in children and adolescents are engagement with small screen media (screen-time) and passive travel (by motorised vehicle). The objective of this research was to assess the independence of these behaviours from one another and from physical activity as predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness in n=6819 10-16 year olds (53% male) who self-reported their physical activity (7-day recall) school travel and screen time habits. Travel was classified as active (walking, cycling) or passive; screen time as 4 h. The multivariate odds of being fit were higher in active travel (Boys: OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59; Girls: OR 1.46, 1.15-1.84) than in passive travel groups. Boys reporting low screen time were more likely to be fit than those reporting >4 h (OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.68-2.63) as were girls (OR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.24-2.20). These odds remained significant after additionally controlling for physical activity. Passive travel and high screen time are independently associated with poor cardiorespiratory fitness in youth, and this relationship is independent of physical activity levels. A lifestyle involving high screen time and habitual passive school travel appears incompatible with healthful levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drawing from a multi-sited, global ethnography on youth civic engagement and artistic practices, the author uses students' perceptions from one Canadian high school, as they reflect on their experiences in a drama classroom, to ask what we might learn about the macro discourses and processes of social innovation from the local, artistic, and…
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…
Evans, Michael A.; Lopez, Megan; Maddox, Donna; Drape, Tiffany; Duke, Rebekah
The concept of connected learning proposes that youth leverage individual interest and social media to drive learning with an academic focus. To illustrate, we present in-depth case studies of Ryan and Sam, two middle-school-age youth, to document an out-of-school intervention intended to direct toward intentional learning in STEM that taps interest and motivation. The investigation focused on how Ryan and Sam interacted with the designed elements of Studio STEM and whether they became more engaged to gain deeper learning about science concepts related to energy sustainability. The investigation focused on the roles of the engineering design process, peer interaction, and social media to influence youth interest and motivation. Research questions were based on principles of connected learning (e.g., self-expression, lower barriers to expertise, socio-technical supports) with data analyzed within a framework suggested by discursive psychology. Analyzing videotaped excerpts of interactions in the studio, field notes, interview responses, and artifacts created during the program resulted in the following findings: problem solving, new media, and peer interaction as designed features of Studio STEM elicited evidence of stimulating interest in STEM for deeper learning. Further research could investigate individual interest-driven niches that are formed inside the larger educational setting, identifying areas of informal learning practice that could be adopted in formal settings. Moreover, aspects of youth's STEM literacy that could promote environmental sustainability through ideation, invention, and creativity should be pursued.
Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G
Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Full Text Available Arizona’s first Teen Institute (TI program, Youth Empowered for Success, began in July 2004. It is the first TI-based project to focus on nurturing resilience via Health Realization (Pransky, 2007. The YES program’s design to “create conditions for success” in high schools is discussed. YES utilizes a strengths-based, multi-faceted approach of (1 teaching participants how to access their innate resilience and common sense (Health Realization, (2 training them in community development for school culture change and (3 helping them develop meaningful partnerships with adults. YES also expands upon the TI model by providing staff support for community development throughout the academic year. It is hypothesized that these efforts ultimately will increase overall well-being and reduce the incidence of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (ATOD as well as depression and suicide among youth.
Rosen, Brittany L; DiClemente, Ralph; Shepard, Allie L; Wilson, Kelly L; Fehr, Sara K
School nurses are at the intersection of the healthcare and school communities, thus, they can be considered opinion leaders in providing health advice - including information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine - to parents and students. This study examined school nurses' attitudes toward the HPV vaccine based on age, years as a school nurse, geographic location, urban vs. rural work setting, HPV and vaccine knowledge, perception of role as opinion leaders, and school district support in providing health education. Participants (n = 413) were systematically sampled from the National Association of School Nurses' membership and completed a web-based survey. Multiple regression was used to predict positive HPV vaccine attitudes. The model was statistically significant accounting for 50.8% of the variance (F [9, 400] = 45.96, p school nurses' positive attitudes towards HPV vaccine. Despite school nurses being seen as champions for adolescent vaccines, they need additional professional development to increase their HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes to encourage parents and adolescents to consider the uptake of HPV vaccination. To engage school nurses' in promoting HPV vaccine uptake, interventions need to focus on increasing school nurses' perception of their role as opinion leaders for HPV vaccine and knowledge to increase positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination for youth.
Carmen P. Mombourquette
Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.
Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Garrett, J. T.; Roberts, Lisen C.
A comprehensive discussion of the potential for cultural discontinuity experienced by native youth in the schools is offered with implications for culturally responsive service delivery. Practical recommendations are provided for special educators and related service professionals working with native youth to improve knowledge, awareness, and…
Noam, Gil G.; Shah, Ashima
This chapter highlights the fit between youth-development-oriented programming and informal science activities in out-of-school time (OST) and illustrates how science and youth development can and should co-occur. The clover model and Dimensions of Success tool are introduced as lenses for designing and assessing science program quality in OST.…
The perspectives of in-school youths in Kampala, Uganda, on the role of ... to support and talk to youths about sex and HIV in a way that helps protect them from ... Keywords: Baumrind theory, communication, East Africa, parents, qualitative ...
Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher
Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…
Cook, Amy L.; Hayden, Laura A.
Given the burgeoning obesity problem among Latino youth and concomitant health problems (Spiotta & Luma, 2008), school counselors have begun to recognize the need for culturally sensitive programming to promote healthy lifestyles. More theoretical, evidence-based programs are needed, however, to ensure Latino youth receive appropriate…
Ho, New Fei; Zhou, Jonathan; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Kua, Phek Hui Jade
This study examined whether a three-month equine-assisted learning program improved measures of character skills in two independent cohorts of Year 1 youths, in a specialized secondary school for youths with difficulties coping with mainstream curriculum. In 2013, 75 students underwent intervention while 82 students did not. In 2014, 58 students…
Robinson, James D.
The Daniels Vocational Assessment and Training Center was organized to meet the vocational and educational needs of disadvantaged youth and adults. Out-of-school and out-of-work youth and adults are provided with the opportunity to acquire employment skills, basic education, and behavior patterns which will enable them to enter and compete…
Monkman, Karen; Proweller, Amira
This qualitative study examines the notion of youth leadership in an after-school program focused on teaching leadership skills and instilling habits of civic engagement within a long-term support program that prioritizes college readiness for low-income minority students. Through activities designed to help youth discover their passions, envision…
Wright, William; Friese, Bettina; Carrel, Aaron; Meinen, Amy
Purpose/Objectives: The goal of the program was to establish youth gardens across Wisconsin by conducting workshops for school staff and childcare providers on how to start and sustain a youth garden with limited resources. Methods: Evaluation utilized an end-of-workshop questionnaire and follow-up survey. The end-of-workshop questionnaire focused…
Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.
This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…
Kulago, Hollie Anderson
The three purposes of this qualitative research study were to: Create a platform for Dine youth to describe their community in their own words; identify effective partnerships between the school and community to promote academic success for Dine youth; and critique the colonizing ways of an old order of Western research that contributed to the…
The Influence of the Trainer's Motivation and Cooperative Learning towards the Improvement of the Youth School Dropouts' Vocational Competences: "A Case Study of Life Skills Training at the Center for Social Empowerment of Youths ("Balai Pemberdayaan Sosial Bina Remaja") in the West Java Province"
The fact that there are many children and youths dropping out of school in Indonesia cannot be denied. The number of dropouts in elementary schools, junior, and senior high schools, and combined with those abandoning school before finishing their higher education program each year remains high. To mitigate this situation, there has been an…
MacMillan, Freya; Kirk, Alison; Mutrie, Nanette; Moola, Fiona; Robertson, Kenneth
It is not clear how best to support youth with type 1 diabetes to participate in physical education (PE) at school. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of facilitators and barriers to PE in youth with type 1 diabetes and to determine how schools can help these individuals to be physically active. Interviews and focus groups were…
This book takes up the question of what shape high school English studies should take in the coming years. It describes an English program that blends philosophical depth with classroom practicality. Drawing examples from commonly taught texts such as "Macbeth,""To Kill a Mockingbird," and "Lord of the Flies," the…
Full Text Available O texto discute as relações entre juventude e escola, problematizando o lugar que a escola ocupa na socialização da juventude contemporânea, em especial dos jovens das camadas populares. Trabalha com a hipótese de que as tensões e os desafios existentes na relação atual da juventude com a escola são expressões de mutações profundas que vêm ocorrendo na sociedade ocidental, interferindo na produção social dos indivíduos, nos seus tempos e espaços, afetando diretamente as instituições e os processos de socialização das novas gerações. Nesse sentido, discute as características dos jovens que chegam às escolas públicas de ensino médio, evidenciando a existência de uma nova condição juvenil no Brasil contemporâneo. Localiza os problemas e desafios na relação dos jovens com a escola, constatando as transformações existentes na instituição escolar e as tensões e os constrangimentos na difícil tarefa de constituir-se como alunos, concluindo que a escola tornou-se menos desigual, mas continua sendo injusta.This text discusses the relationships between schooling and youth and the place of schools in the socialization of contemporary youth, especially in what regards young people from lower classes. It considers the hypothesis that the challenges and tensions between schooling and youth are the results of deep changes that have taken place in Western societies and have interfered both in the social production of individuals and in their times and spaces, affecting the institutions and the socialization process of the new generations. This paper thus discusses the characteristics of young students who study public high schools and provides evidence for the existence of a new youth condition in contemporary Brazil. it points out the challenges and concerns of schooling and youth, emphasizing the transformations within schooling institutions and the tensions and constraints in the difficult task of becoming students
Campa, Mary I; Leff, Sarah Z; Tufts, Margaret
To explore the programmatic reach and experience of high-need adolescents who received sexual health education in 3 distinct implementation settings (targeted-prevention settings, traditional schools, and alternative schools) through a statewide sexual health education program. Data are from youth surveys collected between September 2013 and December 2014 in the California Personal Responsibility Education Program. A sample of high-need participants (n = 747) provided data to examine the impact of implementation setting on reach and program experience. Implementation in targeted-prevention settings was equal to or more effective at providing a positive program experience for high-need participants. More than 5 times as many high-need participants were served in targeted-prevention settings compared with traditional schools. Reaching the same number of high-need participants served in targeted-prevention settings over 15 months would take nearly 7 years of programming in traditional schools. To maximize the reach and experience of high-need youth populations receiving sexual health education, state and local agencies should consider the importance of implementation setting. Targeted resources and efforts should be directed toward high-need young people by expanding beyond traditional school settings.
Evans, Ashley; Leung, Brian P.
After-school programs (ASPs) are learning centers that provide enrichment opportunities after regular school hours. This article examines the value these programs can add to a child's educational day, especially for urban youth who are vulnerable during after-school hours. Quality ASPs can be part of the solution to help mitigate the effects of…
White, Michael D.; Fyfe, James J.; Campbell, Suzanne P.; Goldkamp, John S.
Studied the experiences of 178 juveniles targeted by the Truant Recovery Program, a collaborative and nonpunitive school-law enforcement effort in California. Findings suggest that intensive cooperation between school and police may be effective in identifying troubled youth. Findings also raise questions about appropriate school and justice…
Hansen, Benjamin; Lang, Matthew
Previous research has found evidence of academic benefits to longer school years. This paper investigates one of the many potential costs of increased school year length, documenting a dramatic decrease in youth suicide in months when school is not in session. A detailed analysis does not find that other potential explanations such as economic…
Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.
Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…
Thompson, Candace; Ongaga, Kennedy
Over the past two decades, the perceived failed promise of the comprehensive high school to effectively educate America's youth has generated a national interest in high school reform. One such area of reform is a movement to restructure high schools as small learning communities centered around unique curriculum and state-of-the-art teaching.…
Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T
First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.
Graybill, Emily C; Proctor, Sherrie L
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience harassment and discrimination in schools and these experiences lead to increased negative social-emotional outcomes. Youth who can identify at least one supportive adult at school report better outcomes than youth who cannot identify a safe adult. Yet, many educators report feeling uncomfortable or unprepared to support LGBT youth. One reason for educators' discomfort may be that content related to issues unique to LGBT youth is sometimes missing or covered minimally in university training programs. We hypothesized that LGBT content may be covered minimally in school support personnel journals, as well. This study analyzed eight school support personnel journals across the disciplines of school counseling, school nursing, school psychology, and school social work for LGBT content published between 2000 and 2014 to gain a better understanding of the visibility of LGBT issues in the research. Results suggested that there has been a lack of presence of LGBT issues in journals across disciplines. These results also suggest a need for an intentional focus on issues relevant to LGBT youth in school support personnel journals. Thus, the article concludes with an introduction to two articles in this special topic section, including Russell, Day, Ioverno, and Toomey's (in this issue) study on teacher perceptions of bullying in the context of enumerated school policies and other supportive sexual orientation and gender identity related practices and Poteat and Vecho's (in this issue) study on characteristics of bystanders in homophobic bullying situations. The broad goal of these three studies is to increase visibility of critical LGBT issues in school support personnel journals. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ozer, Emily J; Newlan, Sami; Douglas, Laura; Hubbard, Elizabeth
This multi-method study examines tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research (YPAR) in urban high schools among 15 semester-cohorts. Student participants in the present study were 77 ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in a major metropolitan school district. Data were gathered using systematic classroom observations, interviews with teachers and students involved in the projects, and participant observation. The two most commonly-constrained phases of the YPAR project were issue selection and action steps. A central tension in the issue selection phase for projects enacted across multiple semester cohorts was the tension between original inquiry and "traction:" Sticking with the same topic enabled sustained building of strategic alliances and expertise for making change, but limited the incoming cohort's power to define the problem to be addressed. In further analyses, we identified processes that promoted student power despite continuity-related constraints-teachers' framing and buy-in strategies, "micro-power" compensation, and alignment of students' interests with the prior cohort-as well as constraints in other phases of the projects. This study's findings regarding the promotion of youth power in the face of constraints advance the integration of theory and practice in youth-led research and have implications for participatory research more broadly.
Kornbluh, Mariah; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Ozer, Emily J
The exploration of social networking sites (SNS) in promoting social change efforts offers great potential within the field of community psychology. Online communities on SNS provide opportunities for bridging across groups, thus fostering the exchange of novel ideas and practices. Currently, there have only been limited efforts to examine SNS within the context of youth-led efforts. To explore the potential of SNS to facilitate the diffusion of social justice efforts between distinct youth groups, we linked three school-based youth-led participatory action research projects involving 54 high school students through a SNS. This study offers an innovative methodological approach and framework, utilizing social network analysis and strategic sampling of key student informants to investigate what individual behaviors and online network features predict student adoption of social change efforts. Findings highlight prospective facilitators and barriers to diffusion processes within a youth-led online network, as well as key constructs that may inform future research. We conclude by providing suggestions for scholars and practitioners interested in examining how SNS can be used to enhance the diffusion of social justice strategies, youth-led engagement efforts, and large-scale civic organizing. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L
Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effectiveness of the “What’s Up!” Intervention to Reduce Stigma and Psychometric Properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ: Results from a Cluster Non-randomized Controlled Trial Conducted in Catalan High Schools
Full Text Available Mental disorders are highly prevalent in the general population, and people who experience them are frequently stigmatized. Stigma has a very negative impact on social, academic/professional, and personal life. Considering the high rates of mental disorders among children and adolescents (13.4% and how critical this age is in the formation of nuclear beliefs, many campaigns to combat stigma have been developed in the last decade, with mixed results. The OBERTAMENT initiative has produced various anti-stigma campaigns in Catalonia (Spain. In the present study, the main objective was to report on the effectiveness of the OBERTAMENT “What’s up!” intervention, a curricular intervention including education and social contact conducted by the teachers in the classroom with teenagers aged between 14 and 18. Prior to this, we examined the psychometric properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ, our main outcome measure, in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. A cluster non-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess this intervention, which was tested in nine high schools situated in the Barcelona region. A convenience sample of 261 students formed the intervention group and 132 the control group (52% women, mean age = 14, SD = 0.47. The assignment to study conditions was conducted by Departament d’Ensenyament (Department of Education, Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan Government. Participants were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and 9-month follow-up. The main outcome measure of this study was the YPQ. The Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS was used as secondary outcome measure. The statistical analysis indicated that the YPQ possesses a two-factor structure (stereotypical attitudes and intended behavior and sound psychometric properties. The multilevel mixed-effects models revealed statistically significant interactions for both study measures and post hoc intragroup analyses revealed a
Banfield, Michelle; McGorm, Kelly; Sargent, Ginny
Health promotion provides a key opportunity to empower young people to make informed choices regarding key health-related behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol use, sexual practices, dietary choices and physical activity. This paper describes the evaluation of a pilot School Youth Health Nurse (SYHN) Program, which aims to integrate a Registered Nurse into school communities to deliver health promotion through group education and individual sessions. The evaluation was guided by the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework. The objectives were to explore: 1) whether the Program was accessible to the high school students; 2) the impacts of the Program on key stakeholders; 3) which factors affected adoption of the Program; 4) whether implementation was consistent with the Program intent; and 5) the long-term sustainability of the Program. Research included retrospective analysis of Program records, administration of a survey of student experiences and interviews with 38 stakeholders. This evaluation provided evidence that the SYHN Program is reaching students in need, is effective, has been adopted successfully in schools, is being implemented as intended and could be maintained with sustained funding. The nurses deliver an accessible and acceptable primary health care service, focused on health promotion, prevention and early intervention. After some initial uncertainty about the scope and nature of the role, the nurses are a respected source of health information in the schools, consulted on curriculum development and contributing to whole-of-school health activities. Findings demonstrate that the SYHN model is feasible and acceptable to the students and schools involved in the pilot. The Program provides health promotion and accessible primary health care in the school setting, consistent with the Health Promoting Schools framework.
Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Olsen, Emily O’malley; Bacon, Sarah
BACKGROUND Teen dating violence (TDV) negatively impacts health, mental and physical well-being, and school performance. METHODS Data from a nationally representative sample of high school students participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) are used to demonstrate associations of physical and sexual TDV with school violence-related experiences and behaviors, including bullying victimization. Bivariate and adjusted sex-stratified regressions assessed relationships between TDV and school violence-related experiences and behaviors. RESULTS Compared to students not reporting TDV, those experiencing both physical and sexual TDV were more likely to report carrying a weapon at school, missing school because they felt unsafe, being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property, having a physical fight at school, and being bullied on school property. CONCLUSIONS School-based prevention efforts should target multiple forms of violence. PMID:27374352
Hedemann, Erin R; Frazier, Stacy L
This study examined a university-community partnership, focusing on mental health promotion within an after-school music program. We pursued two goals: (a) supporting staff around student engagement and behavior management; (b) integrating social-emotional activities into the curriculum. We assessed youth's mental health needs and examined feasibility of social-emotional activities delivered. One-hundred sixty-two youth participated in activities, while a subset of youth (n = 61) and their parents provided information on mental health need. Rates of anxiety and depression symptoms were high, and youth reported high satisfaction with the activities. Results suggest promise of this model for mental health promotion for urban youth.
Full Text Available Objective: School-associated firearm violence among children and adolescents is a national public concern. The objective of this study was to determine the accessibility of firearms, methods of firearm access and firearm safety knowledge among middle and high school students in Orange County, California. Methods: After permission from school officials and parents was obtained, a 24-question survey was distributed to 176 students in grades 6 through 12 at four schools in Orange County. Data was collected over a 12-month period beginning in February 2003. Data analysis was presented in proportions. In addition, cross tabulations were performed to determine which factors were associated with access to guns, having fired a gun, and firearm possession at school. Results: The mean age of participants was 16.1 years. Seventy-seven (45% were male, 121 (69% Hispanic, and 171 (94% were of middle income. Four participants (2.3% admitted to gang involvement, 47 (26.7% had fired a gun. Those more likely to have fired a gun appeared to be non-Hispanic males (p= 0.001. Seventy-five (43% reported access to a gun. Older students and those in grades 9 to 12 were more likely to have access to a gun (p= 0.01, which they stated could be obtained from their homes, friends or relatives (4.5% to 22%. No students admitted to bringing a gun to school. Two (1.1% students stated that they had thought of using a gun at school. One hundred one students (62% were taught firearm safety by their parent(s. Conclusion: Almost half of the students in this study acknowledged that they could gain access to a gun and two students had thought about using a gun at school. Firearm education, safety and counseling are of paramount importance to ensure safety among school youths.
1 Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences ... withdrawal from play at time of injury and management. ..... 2011 South African Rugby Union (SARU) Youth Week tournaments.
Brown, James R; Aalsma, Matthew C; Ott, Mary A
Current research offers a limited understanding of parental experiences when reporting bullying to school officials. This research examines the experiences of middle-school parents as they took steps to protect their bullied youth. The qualitative tradition of interpretive phenomenology was used to provide in-depth analysis of the phenomena. A criterion-based, purposeful sample of 11 parents was interviewed face-to-face with subsequent phone call follow-ups. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and coded. MAX qda software was used for data coding. In analyzing the interviews, paradigm cases, themes, and patterns were identified. Three parent stages were found: discovering, reporting, and living with the aftermath. In the discovery stage, parents reported using advice-giving in hopes of protecting their youth. As parents noticed negative psychosocial symptoms in their youth escalate, they shifted their focus to reporting the bullying to school officials. All but one parent experienced ongoing resistance from school officials in fully engaging the bullying problem. In the aftermath, 10 of the 11 parents were left with two choices: remove their youth from the school or let the victimization continue. One paradigm case illustrates how a school official met parental expectations of protection. This study highlights a parental sense of ambiguity of school officials' roles and procedures related to school reporting and intervention. The results of this study have implications in the development and use of school-wide bullying protocols and parental advocacy.
McCombie, Sally M.
The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…
Terry, Amanda; Zhang, Ning Jackie
Background: Developing and implementing policies to curb and prevent youth tobacco use is of the utmost importance. In Florida, public school districts were authorized to develop tobacco-free school policies through an amendment to the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act in 2011. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of tobacco-free school…
Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari
Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.
For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…
Morales Trejos Carol
Full Text Available Resumen:El presente documento es un artículo producto del Trabajo Final de Graduación para optar por el grado de Licenciatura en Orientación de la Universidad de Costa Rica, durante el periodo 2008-2009, que aborda el tema de la salida anticipada del Sistema Educativo Formal Costarricense, a partir del relato de dos jóvenes (un hombre y una mujer quienes en su adolescencia no concluyeron la Educación General Básica; ambos estudiantes viven en Río Frío, cantón de Sarapiquí, provincia de Heredia. Dichos casos fueron analizados por la autora y parten de la hipótesis de que en el fenómeno de la salida anticipada convergen tanto factores externos como internos al individuo. La historia de cada caso fue construida mediante un estudio de casos, que permitió concluir que factores externos, provenientes del contexto familiar y educativo, no permiten que se de un adecuado desarrollo de factores internos, como el interés y la motivación hacia el estudio, ocasionando a su vez un paulatino alejamiento del o la adolescente del centro educativo ya sea por exclusión, repulsión o expulsión.Abstract:The current document is an article and a byproduct of a final graduate work opting for the degree in a Counseling license at the University of Costa Rica, during the period of 2008-2009, it tackles the theme of early departure from the Formal Costa Rican Educational System, through the story of two youth (a man and a woman who during their adolescence did not finish high school; both students live near Río Frío, the Sarapiquí area, within the province of Heredia. These cases were analyzed by the author and shared their hypothesis as a part of this phenomenon of an early departure which converged with external as well as internal factors for the individual. The history of each case was constructed through a case study, which permitted the conclusion of external factors, providing a familiar and educational context, but not permitting an adequate
In the education of students who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH), there is much debate about how placement affects educational outcomes and quality of life. This study examined the relationship between quality of life and educational placement that include and do not include other DHH youth. Participants included 221 DHH youth, ages 11–18 with bilateral hearing loss. Results showed that there were few differences in quality of life related to school placement (with age, gender, depression symptoms, and hearing level as covariates). For both participation and perceived stigma, there was an interaction between school placement and parent hearing status, with no single school placement showing the best results. DHH youth with hearing parents in schools specifically for DHH students scored lower than DHH with deaf parents in some domains (Participation and Perceived Stigma). When the DHH youth were compared with the general population, those in schools that included DHH students scored lower in some aspects of quality of life, particularly Self and Relationships. This study demonstrates that DHH students may not differ much in terms of quality of life across schools placements, but that there may be differences in subsets of DHH youth. PMID:23184867
Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…
Varjas, Kris; Kiperman, Sarah; Meyers, Joel
Disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity is a milestone event for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth and can have both positive and negative mental health consequences. Twenty-nine urban, ethnically diverse LGBT high school students participated in face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Qualitative results revealed two…
Kiperman, Sarah; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Howard, Ali
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may endure adverse experiences related to their sexual orientation and gender identity/expression. While social supports are commonly described as protective factors, few researchers have investigated this phenomenon for LGBT youth. The current study used thematic coding to analyze…
Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter
Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…
Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.
It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…
Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather
Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…
Abreu, Roberto L.; McEachern, Adriana G.; Kenny, Maureen C.
Although schools are thought to be safe environments for all students, sexual minority and gender expansive (i.e., LGBTQ) students often feel unsafe and unwelcome as a result of misconceptions about their identity. This paper explores eight commonly held myths and misconceptions about LGBTQ youth. The role of professional school counselors (PSCs)…
Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.
This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…
Edet, Aniefiok Oswald; Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Uko, Esther Samuel
The study examined principals' management role effectiveness of secondary schools for youth leadership in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State. The study employed survey research design. The target population comprised all 158 principals in both public and private secondary schools in the study area. The sample selected through random…
Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda
A great deal has been written about immigrant children and youth. Drawing on work done in the USA, this paper focuses on implications for school improvement policy and practice. Discussed are (1) the increasing influx of immigrants into schools, (2) different reasons families migrate, (3) concerns that arise related to immigrant students, (4)…
Eidhof, Bram B. F.; ten Dam, Geert T. M.; Dijkstra, A. B.; van de Werfhorst, H. G.
Schools are expected to fulfil different types of goals, including citizenship development. An important question is to what extent schools can simultaneously promote different learning outcomes. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between language ability and youth citizenship. Using a representative sample of 2429 grade 6 pupils (age…
Årdal, Elisabeth; Holsen, Ingrid; Diseth, Åge; Larsen, Torill
The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of the Five Cs of Positive Youth Development (PYD) on the relationship between students' perceived school empowerment and school satisfaction, as well as gender differences in these relationships. The data stemmed from a cross-sectional survey of 997 adolescents from four upper secondary…
Nader, Kathleen, Ed.
Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…
Woodland, Malcolm H.
While after-school programs are plentiful, they are often developed arbitrarily with little attention given to theoretical underpinnings that may inform program interventions. In this article, after-school programs are situated in resilience theory as protective factors, which encourage resilience among young Black males and other urban youth. The…
Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik
Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…
Soriano, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C. C.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess and compare school well-being (SW) and emotional well-being (EW) among Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish youth, to determine the degree of relation between EW and scholar well-being. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employed cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and…
McFarland, Daniel; Starmanns, Carlos E.
Background/Context: Student governments are the first direct experience that youth have of representative government. However, very little research has been done on student councils in spite of their ubiquity in American high schools and consistent references to their positive effects on the political socialization of youth.…
Kumar, Gayathri S.; Bryan, Michael; Bayakly, Rana; Drenzek, Cherie; Merlo, Caitlin; Perry, Geraldine S.
Background: Understanding how youth perceive eating healthy foods can inform programs and policies that aim to improve healthy eating. We assessed the reasons for and the most common locations of eating healthy foods among Georgia's (GA) high school (HS) students. Methods: Using the 2013 GA HS Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we examined motivations…
Full Text Available Purpose: identify the factors affecting the effective performance of the Children and Youth Sports School at the initial and preliminary stage of basic training. Material and Methods: analysis of the literary base, pedagogical research methods, statistical methods, questionnaire. Results: the understanding of the factors influencing the motor skills formation of students is displayed. The author grounded three-dimensional understanding of dissimilar conditions and factors determining the functionality of a Children and Youth Sports School taking into account the motivation of students the scope of use of the skills and other factors which don’t deal with teaching science. Conclusions: it was found that miscellaneous factors, many of which are associated with the state of material and technical base and infrastructure of the school, the region and the country as a whole affect screening the contingent of a Children and Youth Sports School
Singh, Tushar; Marynak, Kristy; Arrazola, René A; Cox, Shanna; Rolle, Italia V; King, Brian A
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased considerably among U.S. youths since 2011. Tobacco use among youths in any form, including e-cigarettes, is unsafe. Tobacco product advertising can persuade youths to start using tobacco. CDC analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette advertisement exposure among U.S. middle school and high school students. The 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a school-based survey of middle school and high school students in grades 6-12, included 22,007 participants. Exposure to e-cigarette advertisements (categorized as "sometimes," "most of the time," or "always") was assessed for four sources: retail stores, Internet, TV and movies, and newspapers and magazines. Weighted exposure estimates were assessed overall and by school type, sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2014, 68.9% of middle and high school students (18.3 million) were exposed to e-cigarette advertisements from at least one source. Among middle school students, exposure was highest for retail stores (52.8%), followed by Internet (35.8%), TV and movies (34.1%), and newspapers and magazines (25.0%). Among high school students, exposure was highest for retail stores (56.3%), followed by Internet (42.9%), TV and movies (38.4%), and newspapers and magazines (34.6%). Among middle school students, 23.4% reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising from one source, 17.4% from two sources, 13.7% from three sources, and 11.9% from four sources. Among high school students, 21.1% reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising from one source, 17.0% from two sources, 14.5% from three sources, and 18.2% from four sources. Approximately seven in 10 U.S. middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette advertisements in 2014. Exposure to e-cigarette advertisements might contribute to increased use of e-cigarettes among youths. Multiple approaches are warranted to reduce youth e-cigarette use and exposure to e
Brown, Kelli McCormack; Perlmutter, Paula; McDermott, Robert J.
The recent proliferation of tattooing has prompted increased concern for safety and awareness of hazardous conditions. Transmission of infectious diseases can occur when proper sterilization and safety procedures are not followed. Adolescents are a critical high-risk group that need the attention of school health personnel to help them become…
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander
Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.
Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Thing, Lone Friis
In this paper we present results concerning how students in a Danish upper secondary school negotiate between sports culture and the prevailing norms of youth culture in a local school context. The study shows that it can be rather difficult for young people to combine sports culture with the local...... youth culture, because living a healthy and physically active life doesn’t fit very well with the prevailing norms of youth culture, which involve a dominant social arena characterized by parties and alcohol. By applying the figurational sociology of Norbert Elias, this article shows that being included...... in a sports figuration can result in exclusion from the youth figuration. Young athletic students are therefore in a constant process of negotiation, where they struggle to fit into both sport and non-sport related contexts, because it is important to belong within both. The study is based on 16 focus group...
Kohfeldt, Danielle; Chhun, Lina; Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day
In much of the youth empowerment literature, researchers focus on the relationship between youth and adults involved in empowerment programs while neglecting the broader social framework in which these relationships and the program itself functions. Utilizing an ecological model, the current research examines the tensions that surfaced in attempts to create an empowering setting in an after-school PAR program with fifth-graders. Challenging assumptions about youth, structural challenges, and conflicting theories of change are highlighted. Results examine the role of sociocultural context as PAR researchers attempt to create a setting in which students gain skills to become change agents within their school. The study suggests that youth empowerment is a context dependent process that requires attention to a multiplicity of factors that influence possibilities for empowerment via second order change.
The perspectives of migrant children and young people have been largely omitted in youth studies. Existing literature focuses predominantly on young people born to migrant parents in the host country, while the problems of first generation of migrant youth have received limited attention. This paper focuses on first-generation Polish migrants and their experiences in relation to school transition, new language learning and the changing family relationships in the new social environment. It dr...
Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth's exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles-area youth ages 11-14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school-age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth.
Pam Parrish; Mari Wilhelm; Yvette Florez-Urcadez; Daniel A. Jeffrey; James Roebuck; Bill B. Burnett
Arizona’s first Teen Institute (TI) program, Youth Empowered for Success, began in July 2004. It is the first TI-based project to focus on nurturing resilience via Health Realization (Pransky, 2007). The YES program’s design to “create conditions for success” in high schools is discussed. YES utilizes a strengths-based, multi-faceted approach of (1) teaching participants how to access their innate resilience and common sense (Health Realization), (2) training them in community development fo...
Maynard, Brandy R; Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Sharon
Bullying is a serious sociodevelopmental issue associated with a range of short- and long-term problems among youth who are bullied. Although race and ethnicity have been studied, less attention has been paid to examining prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Using data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (N = 12,098), we examined prevalence and correlates of bullying victimization among U.S. immigrant youth. After controlling for several demographic variables, findings indicate that immigrant youth are more likely to experience bullying victimization than native-born youth. Furthermore, immigrant youth who experience bullying victimization were more likely to report interpersonal, socioemotional, health, and substance use problems. Given the greater risk and unique challenges experienced by immigrant youth, prevention and intervention programs may need to be tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Further research is needed to understand the specific factors and mechanisms involved in bullying victimization among immigrant youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High school students in the San Francisco Bay Area have the opportunity to contribute to Earth sciences research during the summer at Stanford University. The School of Earth Sciences hosts about 25 high school students each summer to support ongoing research, through more than just washing glassware. To increase diversity in the geosciences, we select students from diverse backgrounds through an application process which lessens the burden on busy faculty. The students work for 15-20 hours per week under the supervision of graduate students or postdoctoral fellows. The supervisors come to value the interns for a few reasons: not only are they getting some extra help with their research, but they are getting teaching experience in an informal but powerful way and supervising the interns' work over the summer. Another key part of the internship is bringing all of the interns together regularly. Whether it is for career talks, lab tours or field trip, high school students find kindred spirits in the group. Another important reason for weekly gatherings is to introduce the students to the wide field of Earth sciences and the different approaches and paths that scientists take. The summer ends with a culminating event where interns make short informal presentations about their research which give them an opportunity to articulate the big questions they have been helping to answer. Some interns are also invited to present a poster in a session for high school students at the Fall AGU meeting. These experiences of working in the laboratory and communicating about the research are part of the world of Earth sciences that are absent for most youth. The high school internships foster good will between Stanford and the local communities, help develop a more Earth and environmentally knowledgeable public and may have a long-term affect on diversifying the geosciences by exposing more young people to these fields.
Marko, Terry-Lynne; Watt, Tyler
The "Drugged Driving Kills project: Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign was developed and implemented by youth leaders and adult facilitators from public and community health to increase youth awareness of the adverse effects of marijuana on driving. The youth-led adult-guided project was founded on the Holden's youth empowerment conceptual model. This article reports on the results of the focus group evaluation, conducted to determine to what extent the tailored youth-led adult-guided framework for the "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign provided an environment for youth leadership development.
Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning
Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are at disproportionate risk for HIV. Schools play an integral role in educating young people about sexual health in addition to providing sexual health services. This qualitative study examined SGM youths' perception of school sexual health education and services. A total of 42 self-identified African…
Palmer-Green, Deborah S; Stokes, Keith A; Fuller, Colin W; England, Michael; Kemp, Simon P T; Trewartha, Grant
All rugby training activities carry an injury risk, but in the training environment these injury risks should be more controllable than during matches. To (1) describe the incidence, severity, anatomic location, and type of youth rugby training injuries; (2) determine the injury events and type of training activities associated with injuries; and (3) compare 2 levels of play (professional academy vs school) within English youth rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A 2-season (2006-2007 and 2007-2008) study recorded exposure to training activities and time-loss injuries in male youth rugby union players (age range, 16-18 years) from 12 English Premiership academies (250 player-seasons) and 7 schools (222 player-seasons). Players from the Premiership academies, associated with the top-level professional clubs in England, represented the elite level of youth rugby; the school players were from established rugby-playing schools but were overall considered at a lower level of play. There was a trend for training injury incidence to be lower for the academy group (1.4/1000 player-hours; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7) compared with the school group (2.1/1000 player-hours; 95% CI, 1.4-2.9) (P = .06). Injuries to the ankle/heel and thigh were most common in academy players and injuries to the lumbar spine and ankle/heel region most common in school players. The training activities responsible for injury differed between the 2 groups: technical skills (scrummaging) for school players and contact skills (defense and ruck/maul drills) for academy players. For injury risk management in youth rugby, coaches of school players should focus on the development of the correct technique during practice of technical skills such as scrummaging, weight training, and skills training, and coaches of academy players should consider the extent to which contact drills are necessary during training. © 2014 The Author(s).
Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter
Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60]), Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58]), Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92]), and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]). American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]). Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked). Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or two years were more likely to smoke than those who
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Giga, Noreen M.; Villenas, Christian; Danischewski, David J.
The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) "National School Climate Survey" is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students' well-being. The survey has consistently indicated…
Crooks, Claire V.; Burleigh, Dawn; Snowshoe, Angela; Lapp, Andrea; Hughes, Ray; Sisco, Ashley
Schools are expected to promote social and emotional learning skills among youth; however, there is a lack of culturally-relevant programming available. The Fourth R: Uniting Our Nations programs for Aboriginal youth include strengths-based programs designed to promote healthy relationships and cultural connectedness, and improve school success…
Cohen, Deborah A; Taylor, Stephanie L; Zonta, Michela; Vestal, Katherine D; Schuster, Mark A
The Surgeon General has called for an expansion of school-based extracurricular sports programs to address the obesity epidemic. However, little is known about the availability of and participation in high school extracurricular sports and how participation in these sports is related to high-risk behaviors. We surveyed Los Angeles County public high schools in 2002 to determine the number of extracurricular sports programs offered and the percentage of students participating in those programs. We used community data on rates of arrests, births, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among youth to examine associations between risk behaviors and participation in sports programs. The average school offered 14 sports programs, and the average participation rate was 39% for boys and 30% for girls. Smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of disadvantaged students offered fewer programs. The average school offering 13 or fewer programs had 14% of its students participating, while the average school offering 16 or more programs had 31% of its students participating in sports. Controlling for area-level demographics, juvenile arrest rates and teen birth rates, but not STD rates, were lower in areas where schools offered more extracurricular sports. Opportunities for participation in high school extracurricular sports are limited. Future studies should test whether increased opportunities will increase physical activity and impact the increasing overweight problem in youths.
Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf
Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven school-based mental health care professionals and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Participants reported that they relied on a reactive strategy by responding to youths who were in crisis. They were challenged by a lack of support from faculty staff, lack of access to resources, and heavy caseloads. Findings highlight the need for a proactive and collaborative approach to suicide prevention among mental health care professionals, teachers and parents in South African schools and improved training and supervision.
Chapman, Stephanie; Ashack, Kurt; Bell, Eric; Sendelweck, Myra Ann; Dellavalle, Robert
Background: Understanding of associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among high school students across the United States is incomplete. Objective: To identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning and analyze differences between state specific data. Methods: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013 in...
Oakland, Thomas D.
International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....
Stinchcombe, Arthur L.
The premise of this book is that high school rebellion is an "expression of alienation from socially present authorities." Such rebellion is a manifestation of "expressive alienation" and has the quality of hatred or sullenness. Rebellious high school students are likely to be non-utilitarian, negativistic, hedonistic, and to stress group…
Full Text Available This article draws on a larger study that examined the ways in which out-of-school youth responded to a context of HIV/AIDS and how they themselves can be active participants in HIV/AIDS prevention. In addition, four out-of-school youths, trained as fieldworkers, interviewed 32 other out-of-school youths in the Shongweni area of KwaZulu-Natal about their attitudes towards VCT. The out-of-school youth displayed a very positive attitude towards VCT and 91% stated their intentions of getting tested. However this attitude was contradicted by the facts that only nine (28% had been for testing and that participants evidenced high levels of fear and stigma surrounding VCT. Of the participants, 43% stated a preference for a VCT site or hospital far from home, or, if they could afford it, a private doctor, to minimise the likelihood of being seen by someone they knew. This factor made it more difficult and costlier for outof-school youth to access VCT. For some, the fear of HIV infection is caught up with their existing social exclusion. In contrast, one reason for wanting to test amongst girls was the health of future children. While out-of-school youth understood the role of VCT in maintaining a healthy lifestyle, the obstacles to acting on those intentions included the context of poverty, gender inequalities, stigma and the fear of gossip. Campaigns have succeeded in raising awareness, but translating awareness into action remains a central problem.
In partnership with three universities, the Cooper Institute, Dallas, completed the Texas Youth Fitness Study from 2008 to 2009. The study explored three key questions: (1) Is physical fitness associated with academic performance?; (2) Can physical education teachers collect high-quality information on student fitness?; and (3) Are school policies…
Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.
The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…
Pearrow, Melissa M.; Pollack, Stanley
Empowerment of youth, particularly in urban settings, is critical to addressing issues of social injustice. Programs that support the development of empowerment, or action taken by an individual to facilitate his or her own ability to act in the face of oppression, have demonstrated great promise in dimensions such as creating stronger group…
Tyre, Ashli D.
Despite our knowledge of poor educational outcomes for youths in foster care, the literature on methods or models for addressing the needs of this vulnerable group of students remains extremely limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to describe a school-based educational support model that provides advocacy, tutoring, and…
Snyder, Susan M.; Smith, Rachel E.
This article describes a study that investigated whether child welfare-involved youths' school engagement affected delinquency after controlling for peer deviance, caregiver closeness, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study used data from 461 11- to 17-year-olds who had substantiated child maltreatment investigations and…
Goforth, Anisa N.; Nichols, Lindsey M.; Stanick, Cameo F.; Shindorf, Zachary R.; Holter, Olivia
Arab Americans are a culturally, linguistically, and religiously diverse group. Although there are an estimated 3.6 million Arab Americans in the USA, there is little discussion about how to best provide culturally responsive school-based mental health supports to Arab American youths. The purpose of this article is to (1) briefly describe the…
O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey
The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…
Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.
This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation forms…
Borrero, Noah E.; Yeh, Christine J.; Cruz, Crivir I.; Suda, Jolene F.
Background/Context: Schools are cultural contexts that have the power and potential to promote students' cultural assets or "other" youth in a way that keeps them from creating meaningful academic identities. In this study, we build on existing research and theory by defining "othering" as a personal, social, cultural, and…
Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.
Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…
Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2017
Suicide is a major public health issue that affects people of all ages, backgrounds, and racial and ethnic groups throughout the country. When a student commits suicide, it is not only a tragedy for his or her family, but it can also significantly affect other students and disrupt school learning environments. While the causes of youth suicide are…
Background Youth who begin early pre-marital sexual activity are more likely to be engaged in unsafe sex. Early sexual debut puts them at increased risk for acquiring or transmitting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV; and makes them highly vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy and its consequences. This study was conducted to assess premarital sexual practices and its predictors among in-school youths in North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried among 826 in school youths from December; 2011 to January; 2012 in Shendi town. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between premarital sexual practices and selected exposure variables. Results Nearly one fifth 157 (19%) of the participants reported having had premarital sexual intercourse, of which 91 (22.7%) were males and 66 (15.5%) were females. The mean (SD) age at first sexual intercourse was 16 .48 (1.59) for males and 15.89 (1.68) for females. More than three - fourth of sexually active in-school youths engaged in premarital sexual relationship before celebrating their 18th birthday. Being greater than 20 years (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI = 1.98, 6.82), living with friends or relatives (AOR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.46, 4.16), living alone (without parental control (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.38, 4.55) and watching pornographic movies (AOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.53) were found to be significantly associated with premarital sexual practices. Conclusion A significant number of in-school youths had started premarital sexual activity that might predispose them to different sexual and reproductive health risks. Therefore, various efforts need to be initiated through school-based information, education, and behavioral change communication, interventions, such as life skills education and negotiation. PMID:24961239
Gowen, L Kris; Winges-Yanez, Nichole
Sexuality education is perceived as one way to prevent unhealthy sexual behaviors. However, current sexuality education materials are not tailored to fit the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and many have been critiqued for disenfranchising these populations. This study solicited the perspectives of LGBTQ youth on their experiences with school-based sexuality education in order to create a framework of LGBTQ-inclusive sexuality education. Five semistructured focus groups (N = 30 LGBTQ participants) were conducted to investigate the sexuality education experiences of LGBTQ youth and to solicit youth suggestions for improving the inclusiveness of sexuality education curricula. Results indicate that LGBTQ youth perceive current sexuality education as primarily "exclusive," although examples of "inclusive" sexuality education were provided. In addition, participants provided suggestions for creating a more inclusive experience, such as directly discussing LGBTQ issues, emphasizing sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention over pregnancy prevention, and addressing healthy relationships. Educators and policymakers can use these ideas to help improve the quality of sexuality education-not only to make it more inclusive for LGBTQ youth but to make sexuality education more inclusive for all young people.
Full Text Available Smoking is the most spread modern, social disease worlwide. It is considered that efficient programs of cigarette smoking prevention implemented among adolescents would considerably lower the morbidity and mortality in adults reported for diseases caused by smoking.The aim of the research was to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among school children and youth in the municipality of Kladovo, as well as the nature of their smoking habit.The research, in the form of cross-sectional study, was conducted among the pupils of higher grades of elementary schools and all grades of high schools from the territory of the Municipality of Kladovo, during May and June, 2008. Five hundred and twenty-seven examinees aged 10-19 years (49.71% were boys and 50.28% girls were polled. Data collection was done by a modified form of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.15.9% of examinees declared to be smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence increases with aging: it is lowest at the age of 12 (2.4% and highest in the examinees aged 17 years or over (30.5%. There is high statistically significant association between age and prevalence of cigarette smoking. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among boys is 16.5%, and 15.3% among girls, without statistically significant difference among sexes. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is ten times higher (30.8% among adolescents whose best friends (45% are smokers. This prevalence is 4.5 times higher among adolescents whose boyfriends/ girlfriends (16.3% are smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence is proportional to the number of parents-smokers: in a group of children whose both parents are smokers, there is the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (26.2%. The majority of pupils consider that cigarette smoking can seriously damage health (96.8%. The distribution of smoking habit is statistically significantly higher in the group of pupils who are not aware that cigarette smoking is harmful (35
Lee, SoJung; Spector, Jenna; Reilly, Stephanie
Recently, there has been growing interest in high-intensity interval training (HIT) as a strategy to improve health. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility of a 4-week low-volume HIT and its effects on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure (BP) and enjoyment in overweight and obese youth. Twelve adolescents (body mass index (BMI): 34.8 ± 3.9 kg · m ‒ 2 , 14.9 ± 1.5 years) participated in 12 sessions of HIT (10 × 60 s cycling bouts eliciting ~90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 90 s recovery, 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week) over ~4 weeks. All the participants completed the study and exercise attendance averaged 92%. Despite no changes in body weight and total fat, HIT resulted in significant (P HIT and more than half of the participants (58%) reported that HIT is a more enjoyable form of exercise compared to other types of exercises. Low-volume HIT is a useful strategy to promote exercise participation and improve cardiovascular health in overweight and obese youth.
Howell, J. Emory
Literature Cited National Science Education Standards; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1996; http://www. nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: Washington, DC, 2000; http://standards.nctm.org/. Visit CLIC, an Online Resource for High School Teachers at http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/HS/
White, Michelle J; Loccoh, Emefah C; Goble, Monica M; Yu, Sunkyung; Duquette, Deb; Davis, Matthew M; Odetola, Folafoluwa O; Russell, Mark W
To assess automated external defibrillator (AED) distribution and cardiac emergency preparedness in Michigan secondary schools and investigate for association with school sociodemographic characteristics. Surveys were sent via electronic mail to representatives from all public high schools in 30 randomly selected Michigan counties, stratified by population. Association of AED-related factors with school sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated using Wilcoxon rank sum test and χ(2) test, as appropriate. Of 188 schools, 133 (71%) responded to the survey and all had AEDs. Larger student population was associated with fewer AEDs per 100 students (P schools. Schools with >20% students from racial minority groups had significantly fewer AEDs available per 100 students than schools with less racial diversity (P = .03). Schools with more students eligible for free and reduced lunch were less likely to have a cardiac emergency response plan (P = .02) and demonstrated less frequent AED maintenance (P = .03). Although AEDs are available at public high schools across Michigan, the number of AEDs per student varies inversely with minority student population and school size. Unequal distribution of AEDs and lack of cardiac emergency preparedness may contribute to outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Løes, A; Nolting, B; Kristensen, N
and other food serving outlets for youth, we will identify hindrances and promoting factors in the participating countries (Denmark, Finland, Italy and Norway). Policies, supply chains, certification systems, the young consumers’ perception and participation, and health effects of implementation of organic......One of eight pilot projects in the European CORE Organic programme, innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth, (iPOPY) will study efficient ways of implementing organic food in public serving outlets for young people (2007-10). By analysing practical cases of school meal systems...
Laursen, S. L.; Archie, T.; Thiry, H.
Out-of-school-time (OST) experiences promise to enrich young (K-12) people's experience of science, technology and engineering. Belief is widespread that OST programs are ideal locations to learn science, and that youth participation may enhance the science workforce and increase access to science for girls and minorities. Yet we know little about the scope or nature of science-focused OST youth programming. Variety poses a challenge for researchers, with OST sites in schools, museums, zoos, science and nature centers, aquariums, planetariums, and community centers; and formats including after-school clubs, camps, workshops, festivals, research apprenticeships, and more. Moreover, there is no single national network through which researchers might reach and recruit nationally representative samples of programs. Thus, to date there has been no systematic study of the broader national landscape of OST STEM programming. Our national study, Mapping Out-of-School-Time Science (MOST-Science), examines a national sample of OST programs focused on science, engineering, and/or technology. Here we describe first findings about the characteristics of these programs and their home organizations, including aspects of program design, structure, funding, staffing, and youth audience. Using an electronic survey, we collected data from 417 programs and classified their host institutions into eight organizational types: aquariums and zoos, museums, non-profits, national youth organizations, K-12 school districts, colleges and universities, government labs, and private sector organizations. We then examine key attributes of the youth programs hosted by these institution and discuss differences based on organizational types, including scientific organizations that are especially well equipped to offer research and field experiences. Programs engaging youth in research and field experiences are offered across all organizational types. Yet they vary notably in the size and demographics
Vaught, Sabina Elena
This article explores the processes of racialization imposed on Sa'moan youth through policy and practice in one urban, US school district and at one high school in particular. Specifically, I use the methodological practices of defamiliarization and counter-storytelling to examine the contradictory practices of racialization and the…
Johnson, Joy L.; Moffat, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan; Shoveller, Jean; Fischer, Benedikt; Haines, Rebecca J.
This ethnographic study aimed at developing a richer understanding of how youth, their schools, and the communities in which they are emplaced coincide to generate a set of local social processes that affect marijuana use. We trace the interplay between high school staff and students with regards to marijuana use in the proximity of a local high…
Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Raknes, Solfrid; Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Baste, Valborg; Himle, Joe; Rapee, Ron; Hoffart, Asle
Anxiety disorders are prevalent among adolescents and may have long-lasting negative consequences for the individual, the family and society. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment. However, many anxious youth do not seek treatment. Low-intensity CBT in schools may improve access to evidence-based services. We aim to investigate the efficacy of two CBT youth anxiety programs with different intensities (i.e., number and length of sessions), both group-based and administered as early interventions in a school setting. The objectives of the study are to examine the effects of school-based interventions for youth anxiety and to determine whether a less intensive intervention is non-inferior to a more intensive intervention. The present study is a randomized controlled trial comparing two CBT interventions to a waitlist control group. A total of 18 schools participate and we aim to recruit 323 adolescents (12-16 years). Youth who score above a cutoff on an anxiety symptom scale will be included in the study. School nurses recruit participants and deliver the interventions, with mental health workers as co-therapists and/or supervisors. Primary outcomes are level of anxiety symptoms and anxiety-related functional impairments. Secondary outcomes are level of depressive symptoms, quality of life and general psychosocial functioning. Non-inferiority between the two active interventions will be declared if a difference of 1.4 or less is found on the anxiety symptom measure post-intervention and a difference of 0.8 on the interference scale. Effects will be analyzed by mixed effect models, applying an intention to treat procedure. The present study extends previous research by comparing two programs with different intensity. A brief intervention, if effective, could more easily be subject to large-scale implementation in school health services. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02279251 . Registered on 15 October 2014. Retrospectively registered.
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey
This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…
Rubin, Beth C.; Hayes, Brian; Benson, Keith
One of the primary aims of education in the United States is to prepare youth to contribute to civic life in a democracy. Urban youth have daily school and community experiences with poverty, violence, and injustice that complicate their relationship with civic life. In this article the authors explore the ramifications of these experiences for…
Perfect, Michelle M.
This study examined parent and youth self-reports to test the hypothesis that perceived insufficient sleep duration, inconsistent sleep habits, reduced quality of life, less frequent blood glucose monitoring, and higher hemoglobin A1c would predict poorer school functioning among 50 youth with type 1 diabetes. The data suggested that a delay in…
Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory
This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…
Renshaw, Tyler L.; Olinger Steeves, Rachel M.
The development of gratitude in youth has received increasing attention during the past several years, and gratitude-based interventions have often been recommended for use in schools. Yet, the empirical status of the correlates of gratitude and the effects of gratitude-based interventions on youths' outcomes remains unclear. The present study…
Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy; Schnoll, Jessica; Simkins-Strong, Emily; Pepler, Debra; MacPherson, Alison; Weiser, Jessica; Moran, Michelle; Jiang, Depeng
Although youth-led programs (YLP) have been successful in many areas of public health, youth leadership is rarely used in the prevention of peer aggression. A YLP to reduce bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression was compared experimentally with the board-mandated usual practice (UP). Four middle schools in an urban Canadian school…
Muula Adamson S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Results Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60], Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58], Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92], and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]. American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]. Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked. Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or
Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian
The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (≥2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours.
Youth who smoke daily have diverse methods for obtaining cigarettes, which range from commercial sources to essentially black market transactions. This study examines access to cigarettes, attitudes toward tobacco, and the demographic characteristics of youth who are daily cigarette smokers. Biennial data from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of Florida public middle- and high-school students, were used. Daily smoking was categorized into ordinal categories of increasing intensity. Analysis was done with a logistic partial proportional odds model, which allowed the effects of the independent predictors to vary according to smoking intensity. The multivariate analysis revealed that males and females have different methods of obtaining cigarettes. Moreover, certain modes of access to cigarettes were related to daily smoking intensity. Males who obtained cigarettes from their parents or stole them from a store were much more likely to have a higher intensity of daily smoking. Females who gave someone money to buy their cigarettes or bought them from a person were more likely to smoke more cigarettes per day. Males, but not females, also perceived that increasing the number of cigarettes smoked per day provides social benefits in the form of more friends. Understanding how daily youth smokers obtain cigarettes is necessary if effective antitobacco policies are to be developed for these individuals. Daily youth smokers are at increased risk of becoming addicted to nicotine, making them more likely to transition to daily adult smoking.
Bullying and school violence are critical issues facing 21st century educational leaders. U.S. public schools have been scrambling to develop and implement anti-bullying programs with varying degrees of success. Bullying leads to disruption of learning, and its lasting effects of anxiety, depression, anger, and actual brain damage follow victims…
Strijbosch, E.L.L.; Huijs, J.A.M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Wissink, I.B.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; de Swart, J.J.W.; van der Veen, Z.
Objective: The outcome of institutional youth care for children is heavily debated. This multilevel meta-analysis aims to address the outcome of institutional youth care compared to non-institutional youth care for children of primary school age and early adolescence in economically developed
Akiva, Thomas; Cortina, Kai S; Smith, Charles
The strategy of sharing program decision-making with youth in youth programs, a specific form of youth-adult partnership, is widely recommended in practitioner literature; however, empirical study is relatively limited. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of youth program decision-making practices (e.g., asking youth to help decide what activities are offered), using single-level and multilevel methods with a cross-sectional dataset of 979 youth attending 63 multipurpose after-school programs (average age of youth = 11.4, 53 % female). The prevalence of such practices was relatively high, particularly for forms that involved low power sharing such as involving youth in selecting the activities a program offers. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed positive associations between youth program decision-making practices and youth motivation to attend programs. We also found positive correlations between decision-making practices and youth problem-solving efficacy, expression efficacy, and empathy. Significant interactions with age suggest that correlations with problem solving and empathy are more pronounced for older youth. Overall, the findings suggest that involving youth in program decision-making is a promising strategy for promoting youth motivation and skill building, and in some cases this is particularly the case for older (high school-age) youth.
Townsend, Lisa; Musci, Rashelle; Stuart, Elizabeth; Ruble, Anne; Beaudry, Mary B; Schweizer, Barbara; Owen, Megan; Goode, Carly; Johnson, Sarah L; Bradshaw, Catherine; Wilcox, Holly; Swartz, Karen
Although school climate is linked with youth educational, socioemotional, behavioral, and health outcomes, there has been limited research on the association between school climate and mental health education efforts. We explored whether school climate was associated with students' depression literacy and mental health stigma beliefs. Data were combined from 2 studies: the Maryland Safe Supportive Schools Project and a randomized controlled trial of the Adolescent Depression Awareness Program. Five high schools participated in both studies, allowing examination of depression literacy and stigma measures from 500 9th and 10th graders. Multilevel models examined the relationship between school-level school climate characteristics and student-level depression literacy and mental health stigma scores. Overall school climate was positively associated with depression literacy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78, p stigma (Est. = -3.822, p = .001). Subscales of engagement (OR = 5.30, p stigma (Est. = -6.610, p < .001), (Est. = -2.742, p < .001). Positive school climate was associated with greater odds of depression literacy and endorsement of fewer stigmatizing beliefs among students. Our findings raise awareness regarding aspects of the school environment that may facilitate or inhibit students' recognition of depression and subsequent treatment-seeking. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Ferrante, Daniel; Linetzky, Bruno; Ponce, Miguel; Goldberg, Lucila; Konfino, Jonathan; Laspiur, Sebastián
In 2007 and 2012, the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) were implemented to estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors and protection factors among 13 to 15 year-old adolescents. To assess changes in dietary, body weight, tobacco and physical activity indicators in the past five years. Cross-sectional study. A randomized, two-stage sampling with 600 schools selected at a national level was used. Students from randomly selected courses were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire (either the GSHS or the GYTS). In 2012, the GSHS was completed by 20 697 students from 544 schools, while the GYTS was completed by 2062 students from 73 schools. Between 2007 and 2012, overweight and obesity prevalence significantly increased (overweight: 24.5% in 2007, 28.6% in 2012; obesity 4.4% in 2007, 5.9% in 2012), while the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food remained high. A slight improvement was observed in the level of physical activity (12.7% in 2007, 16.7% in 2012), although it remains below what is recommended. The prevalence of tobacco use was reduced (24.5% in 2007, 19.6% in 2012), but access to tobacco products and exposure to secondhand smoke remains high in public places, including schools. The spread of the overweight and obesity epidemic calls for a need to consolidate actions tending towards a healthy diet and physical activity. Despite a decrease in the prevalence of tobacco use, it is necessary to continue strengthening tobacco control actions.
This study examines the effectiveness of a summer school credit recovery program in the Sun Valley High School District. Using logistic regression I assess the relationship between race, gender, course failure, school of origin and summer school participation for a sample of students that failed one or more classes in their first year of high…
The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…
Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of relations between juvenile game practices and control strategies in family andschool, as part of a larger study on game practices in the youth of Bogotá. Interviews of 155 participants between 10to 17 years of age and their parents were analysed. Participants were classified in two groups according to their level ofgame involvement, based on how long they have been playing as they actually do, frequency in terms of how many daysthey play in a week, and intensity in terms of how many hours they play daily. A descriptive and correlation analysiswere used through contingencies tables and Chi- square. Results show significant differences between high and lowinvolvement groups respect to the kind of restrictions imposed by parents on game playing, family relation quality,existence or not of school rules forbidding gambling, and the fact of having been sanctioned at school. Other nonsignificantdifferences result useful in functional terms and as indicators of tendencies, as were the case of the type ofrules at home, parental consistency, restrictions- following by the youth , reasons gave by parents for their children nonrestrictions-compliance, and the report of the family conflict-solving strategies. There were differences in the controlexerted by school on certain activities and in its use of observations and sanctions. This study permits the identificationof interesting relations to future research and to gambling prevention programs.
Löfgren, Johanna; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Tillgren, Per; Rubenson, Birgitta
This qualitative study explores how young Ugandans perceive and experience the role of parents in preventing the spread of HIV among youths. Data were gathered from semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 16 in-school youths, ages 18-20, residing in Kampala. A key finding is that the youths perceived parenting styles as influencing HIV prevention among youths. The participants identified several harmful consequences from a lack of parental guidance or inadequate parenting and they discussed the gains of parental support in terms of assisting HIV prevention among youths. The participants expressed the idea that parents can importantly contribute to preventing the spread of HIV among youths by supporting their own adolescent children and discussing topics like sex, relationships, and HIV in an age-appropriate way. However, the participants also felt that Ugandan parents in general are unable to support and talk to youths about sex and HIV in a way that helps protect them from exposure to HIV. The in-school youths felt that parents are unsupportive in terms of HIV prevention among youths by way of fear of talking about sex, parents' lack of time to engage with their children, and authoritarian or indulgent parenting. The participants also described how parents treat girls and boys differently; however, no significant association was found between how girls and boys conceptualised parents' roles.
The study sample consisted of 650 pupils from six secondary schools. Participants completed a .... Only a minority of the students perceived themselves as being at ... study of college student's knowledge and behaviours, J. Counseling and.
T. Wing Lo
Full Text Available This study was designed to explore the self and contextual factors for violence in two samples of school students and youth offenders in Macau. There were 3085 participants who were between 12 and 20 years old; 48.3% of them were male and 51.7% female. Findings revealed that youth offenders exhibited more violence than school students. For the self factors, while lower self-esteem and higher self-efficacy of school students were associated with more violent behavior, these two variables had no significant effects for youth offenders. For the contextual factors, family conflict was the strongest predictor of violence, and school commitment/attachment was the weakest predictor for both samples. For youth offenders, family conflict had the largest direct effect, followed by susceptibility to negative peer influence and influence of the Triad gangs, while school commitment/attachment had a significant though mild direct effect. For school students, family conflict mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. While Triad gangs’ influence was the second strongest predictor of violence, being exposed to Triad gangs’ influence also mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. It is recommended that youth outreach services with a focus on family support and gang detachment for at-risk youth be strengthened.
Lo, T. Wing; Cheng, Christopher H. K.
This study was designed to explore the self and contextual factors for violence in two samples of school students and youth offenders in Macau. There were 3085 participants who were between 12 and 20 years old; 48.3% of them were male and 51.7% female. Findings revealed that youth offenders exhibited more violence than school students. For the self factors, while lower self-esteem and higher self-efficacy of school students were associated with more violent behavior, these two variables had no significant effects for youth offenders. For the contextual factors, family conflict was the strongest predictor of violence, and school commitment/attachment was the weakest predictor for both samples. For youth offenders, family conflict had the largest direct effect, followed by susceptibility to negative peer influence and influence of the Triad gangs, while school commitment/attachment had a significant though mild direct effect. For school students, family conflict mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. While Triad gangs’ influence was the second strongest predictor of violence, being exposed to Triad gangs’ influence also mediated the effect of self-esteem and self-efficacy on violence. It is recommended that youth outreach services with a focus on family support and gang detachment for at-risk youth be strengthened. PMID:29401666
Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to have social dysfunction at school. The authors explored the role of key executive functions (EF, i.e., spatial working memory and spatial planning) on school and peer functions in 511 youths with persistent ADHD according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and 124 non-ADHD controls without any EF deficits. All the participants were assessed by a semi-structured psychiatric interview to confirm their previous and current diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders and by the Spatial Working Memory (SWM) and Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) tasks. The participants and their parents reported the participants' school functions and peer relationships. There were three ADHD subgroups: (1) ADHD with deficits in both SWM and SOC tasks (n=121); (2) ADHD with deficit in either SWM or SOC task (n=185); (3) ADHD without deficits in SWM or SOC task (n=205). All the three ADHD groups, regardless of EF deficits, had lower school grade, poorer attitude toward school work, poorer school interactions, more behavioral problems at school, and more severe problems in peer relationships than non-ADHD controls. Multivariate analyses revealed positive associations between deficit in the SWM task and school and peer dysfunctions, and between deficits in the SOC task and impaired peer interactions. Older age and psychiatric comorbidity also contributed to increased risk of school and peer dysfunctions. Our findings suggest that deficits in EF, such as spatial working memory and planning, might be associated with school and peer dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weaver, Kenneth A
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The third International youth scientific school-conference took place 10-13 April 2014 year in Moscow on the basis National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and RAS Lebedev P.N. Physical Institute. The actual scientific problems of current fundamental and applied physics as well as nuclear and physical technologies were discussed. This book of abstracts contains many interesting items devoted problems of theoretical physics and astrophysics, nuclear physics, nanotecnology, laser physics and plasma physics [ru
Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar
This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…
Nursel TÜRKMEN, Delia; Halis DOKGÖZ, Mihai; Semra AKGÖZ, Suzana; Bülent EREN, Bogdan Nicolae; Pınar VURAL, Horatiu; Oğuz POLAT, Horatiu
ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among 14-17 year-old adolescents in a sample of school children in Bursa, Turkey. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was conducted among class 1 and class 2 high school students for identification bullying. Results: Majority (96.7%) of the students were involved in bullying behaviours as aggressors or victims. For a male student, the likelihood of being involved in violent behaviours was detected to be nearly 8.4 times higher when compared with a female student. Conclusion: a multidisciplinary approach involving affected children, their parents, school personnel, media, non-govermental organizations, and security units is required to achieve an effective approach for the prevention of violence targeting children in schools as victims and/or perpetrators. PMID:24371478
Wheaton, Anne G; Jones, Sherry Everett; Cooper, Adina C; Croft, Janet B
Insufficient sleep among children and adolescents is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, attention and behavior problems, and poor academic performance (1-4). The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has recommended that, for optimal health, children aged 6-12 years should regularly sleep 9-12 hours per 24 hours and teens aged 13-18 years should sleep 8-10 hours per 24 hours (1). CDC analyzed data from the 2015 national, state, and large urban school district Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) to determine the prevalence of short sleep duration (school nights among middle school and high school students in the United States. In nine states that conducted the middle school YRBS and included a question about sleep duration in their questionnaire, the prevalence of short sleep duration among middle school students was 57.8%, with state-level estimates ranging from 50.2% (New Mexico) to 64.7% (Kentucky). The prevalence of short sleep duration among high school students in the national YRBS was 72.7%. State-level estimates of short sleep duration for the 30 states that conducted the high school YRBS and included a question about sleep duration in their questionnaire ranged from 61.8% (South Dakota) to 82.5% (West Virginia). The large percentage of middle school and high school students who do not get enough sleep on school nights suggests a need for promoting sleep health in schools and at home and delaying school start times to permit students adequate time for sleep.
Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben; Wall, Melanie; Haddad, Tarek; Kubik, Martha; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary
With the epidemic of childhood obesity, there is national interest in state-level school policies related to nutrition and physical activity, policies adopted by states, and relationships to youth obesity. This study develops a comprehensive state-level approach to characterize the overall obesity prevention policy environment for schools and links the policy environments to youth obesity for each state. Using 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) state data, qualitative and quantitative methods were used (2008-2009) to construct domains of state-level school obesity prevention policies and practices, establish the validity and reliability of the domain scales, and examine their associations with state-level obesity prevalence among youth aged 10-17 years from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Nearly 250 state-level obesity prevention-policy questions were identified from the SHPPS. Three broad policy topic areas containing 100 food service and nutrition (FSN) questionnaire items; 146 physical activity and education (PAE) items; and two weight assessment (WA) items were selected. Principal components analysis and content validity assessment were used to further categorize the items into six FSN, ten PAE, and one WA domain. Using a proportional scaled score to summarize the number of policies adopted by states, it was found that on average states adopted about half of the FSN (49%), 38% of the PAE, and 17% of the WA policies examined. After adjusting for state-level measures of ethnicity and income, the average proportion of FSN policies adopted by states was correlated with the prevalence of youth obesity at r =0.35 (p=0.01). However, no correlation was found between either PAE or WA policies and youth obesity (PAE policies at r =0.02 [p=0.53] and WA policies at r =0.16 [p=0.40]). States appear to be doing a better job adopting FSN policies than PA or WA policies, and adoption of policies is correlated with youth obesity. Continued
Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles
Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cantrell, Jennifer; Ganz, Ollie; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Harrell, Paul; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Xiao, Haijun; Pearson, Jennifer L; Vallone, Donna; Kirchner, Thomas R
This study examines lowest cigarette prices in all tobacco retail outlets in Washington D.C. (n=750) in relation to the type and number of high schools nearby, controlling for confounders. The lowest overall and Newport menthol prices were significantly lower at outlets near public non-charter and charter schools compared with outlets near private schools. Given higher smoking prevalence and more price-sensitive youth subgroups in U.S. public schools, exposure to low prices may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities in minority and low-income populations. Tobacco taxes combined with policies to minimize the increasing use of price as a marketing tool are critical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The politics of the Soviet authority in business of introduction physical training in an education system is shined. The condition of process of physical development is considered within the limits of school educational institutions. The place of physical training in structure of the general education of youth is found out. Diffculties of an initial stage are analyzed. Shift and dynamics of process are traced. It is marked, that already at the end of frst half of 1920 to process of physical development the most part of schools of Donbass has joined.
Spring, Kimberly; Dietz, Nathan; Grimm, Robert, Jr.
This brief is the second in the Youth Helping America Series, a series of reports based on data from the Youth Volunteering and Civic Engagement Survey, a national survey of 3,178 American youth between the ages of 12 and 18 that was conducted by the Corporation for National and Community Service in 2005 in collaboration with the U.S. Census…
A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…
Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A; Williamson, Douglas E; Dahl, Ronald E; Ryan, Neal D; Forbes, Erika E
Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for depression and recent evidence suggests that reduced positive affect (PA) may be a marker of risk. We investigated whether self-reports of PA and fMRI-measured striatal response to reward, a neural correlate of PA, are reduced in adolescent youth at high familial risk for depression (HR) relative to youth at low familial risk for depression (LR). Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments were conducted with 14 HR and 12 LR youth. All youth completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol to measure PA in natural settings and a self-report measure of depression symptomatology. Analyses found that HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth during both reward anticipation and outcome. However, after controlling for youth self-reports of depression, HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth only during reward anticipation. No significant differences were found between HR and LR youth on subjective ratings of PA or depressive symptoms. Results are consistent with previous findings that reduced reward response is a marker of risk for depression, particularly during reward anticipation, even in the absence of (or accounting for) disrupted subjective mood. Further examinations of prospective associations between reward response and depression onset are needed. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Thomas M. Olino
Full Text Available Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for depression and recent evidence suggests that reduced positive affect (PA may be a marker of risk. We investigated whether self-reports of PA and fMRI-measured striatal response to reward, a neural correlate of PA, are reduced in adolescent youth at high familial risk for depression (HR relative to youth at low familial risk for depression (LR. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments were conducted with 14 HR and 12 LR youth. All youth completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol to measure PA in natural settings and a self-report measure of depression symptomatology. Analyses found that HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth during both reward anticipation and outcome. However, after controlling for youth self-reports of depression, HR youth demonstrated lower striatal response than LR youth only during reward anticipation. No significant differences were found between HR and LR youth on subjective ratings of PA or depressive symptoms. Results are consistent with previous findings that reduced reward response is a marker of risk for depression, particularly during reward anticipation, even in the absence of (or accounting for disrupted subjective mood. Further examinations of prospective associations between reward response and depression onset are needed.
Savina, Elena; Mills, Jennifer L.; Atwood, Kelly; Cha, Jason
The growing proliferation of digital media over the past few decades has engendered both significant promise and significant concerns regarding children's development. Digital media have changed the ways young people learn, interact with others, and develop essential cognitive and social-emotional skills. This paper provides school psychologists…
UNESCO Bangkok, 2015
Despite government commitments to Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to improve access to education, more than 18 million primary-aged children remain out of school in the Asia-Pacific (UNESCO, 2014). Given the impact of education on individuals, societies, and economies, there is great urgency for governments to…
A study examined the roles of language and school in the lives of a group of five Indochinese friends, aged 10-12, in the same sixth-grade class. Two were born in the United States; three were born in Thai refugee camps. The ways in which the subjects defined themselves in relation to other students, particularly other Asian students, and to each…
In the midst of an information age and a global economy, people around the world continue to face significant inequities at school and in the workforce. Career counselling thus finds itself in a paradigm shift that increasingly stresses the influences of culture and sociopolitical context. One area in which the profession can ...
Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Howell, J. Emory
Chemistry and the Environment This issue contains more than 20 articles relating to the environment. Several articles of potential interest are indicated in the Table of Contents with the SSC mark (). Others are not so indicated because they depict use of expensive instrumentation or costly procedures, but if you have an interest in environmental chemistry you may wish to examine all the environmentally related articles. While many of the articles, both marked and unmarked, are targeted to college-level environmental chemistry curricula or to introductory courses for non-major, the methods described in several could be readily adapted to high school chemistry courses. One article likely to be of interest to teachers is found in News from Online, pp 1608-1609. The author explains how to use the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's EnviroMapper Web site to view and query environmental information. She mentioned finding a hazardous waste handler located near her home, so I decided to check the area near my home. I quickly located a natural gas salt dome storage facility marked on the map and, with a few more mouse clicks, I found information that included status of compliance with regulations, amounts of each compound released to the air in tons per year, and how to contact the corporation owning the site. Email and Web site addresses were included for the convenience of anyone wishing to contact the corporation. Students could learn a great deal about where they live that is relevant to chemistry by using the EPA site. Additional Web sites dealing with environmental issues and chemistry are cited in the sidebar at the bottom of p 1609. Among the articles that could be adapted to an advanced high school chemistry class or possibly even to an introductory class is one titled Bridge of Mandolin County (pp 1671-1672). It describes a case-study strategy similar to the scenarios used in ChemStudy. Students analyze information from various sources, including laboratory
The Courage to Critique Policies and Practices from within: Youth Participatory Action Research as Critical Policy Analysis. A Response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School"
This response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" by Jason G. Irizarry demonstrates how youth participatory action research (YPAR) as an instrument of subverting oppressive school policies and structures is a form of critical policy analysis (CPA). As an evolving method, CPA acknowledges the absent voices in…
Hutchins, Demetrees Lee
Fewer than 50% of all foster youth in the United States graduate from high school by the age of 18 and only 20% of those high school graduates attend college. There are many barriers that impact the college-going rates of foster youth. Past studies on college attendance among foster youth rarely look at college readiness experiences from the…
Ryom, Knud Eske; Maar Andersen, Mie; Stelter, Reinhard
The purpose of this study was to implement group coaching in a school setting and examine the participants’ experiences. Participants were all males (age 12–16 years), primarily with a Middle Eastern family background and from a socioeconomically deprived area. A 2-year intervention with regular...... coaching counselling during school hours was delivered. Qualitative longitudinal interviews (n = 6) and long-term fieldwork found that group coaching enhanced social cohesion and social resilience. The study concludes that group coaching can be a valid tool for addressing at-risk youth in schools. Even...... though this study was limited to one school in a certain context, the implications can be important knowledge in other settings. An important practical finding was that bodily experience incorporated as part of the coaching sessions was highlighted as beneficial, as well as the use of a group approach...
Gropp, Kathleen M; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian
Active transportation to school is a method by which youth can build physical activity into their daily routines. We examined correlates of active transportation to school at both individual- (characteristics of the individual and family) and area- (school and neighborhood) levels amongst youth living within 1 mile (1.6 km) of their school. Using the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey, we selected records of students (n = 3 997) from 161 schools that resided in an urban setting and lived within 1 mile from their school. Student records were compiled from: (1) individual-level HBSC student questionnaires; (2) area-level administrator (school) questionnaires; and (3) area-level geographic information system data sources. The outcome, active transportation to school, was determined via a questionnaire item describing the method of transportation that individual students normally use to get to school. Analyses focused on factors at multiple levels that potentially contribute to student decisions to engage in active transportation. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were employed. Approximately 18% of the variance in active transportation was accounted for at the area-level. Several individual and family characteristics were associated with engagement in active transportation to school including female gender (RR vs. males = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91), having ≥2 cars in the household (RR vs. no cars = 0.87, 0.74-0.97), and family socioeconomic status (RR for 'not well off' vs. 'very well off' = 1.14, 1.01-1.26). Neighborhood characteristics most strongly related to active transportation were: the length of roads in the 1 km buffer (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.23, 1.00-1.42), the amount of litter in the neighborhood (RR for 'major problem' vs. 'no problem' = 1.47, 1.16-1.57), and relatively hot climates (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.33 CI, 1.05-1.53). Engagement in active transportation to school was related
Agmon, Maayan; Zlotnick, Cheryl; Finkelstein, Anat
Although 10% of Israeli youth live in boarding schools, few studies, except for those focusing on mental health, have examined the well-being of this population subgroup. Thus, the aims of this study were to explore: (1) the prevalence rates of five aspects of well-being (i.e., healthy habits, avoidance of risky behaviors, peer relationships, adult relationships, and school environment) in youth residing at Israeli boarding schools; (2) the relationships between youth well-being and youth perception of their mentor; and (3) the different subgroups of youth with higher rates of risky and healthy behaviors. This study used a mixed-methods approach including a quantitative survey of youth (n = 158) to examine the association between youth behaviors and perception of their mentor; and a qualitative study consisting of interviews (n = 15) with boarding school staff to better understand the context of these findings. Greater proportions of boarding school youth, who had positive perceptions of their mentor (the significant adult or parent surrogate), believed both that their teachers thought they were good students (p boarding school had very similar healthy habits compared to other youth living in Israel; however, youth in the general population, compared to those in the boarding schools, were eating more sweets (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.02-1.90) and engaging in higher levels of television use (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.97-3.54). Mentors, the significant adult for youth living in residential education environments, have a major influence on school performance, the major focus of their work; mentors had no impact on healthy behaviors. Overall, there were many similarities in healthy behaviors between youth at boarding schools and youth in the general population; however, the differences in healthy habits seemed related to policies governing the boarding schools as well as its structural elements.
Duncan, Dennis W.; Collins, Ashley; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Knauft, David Alan; Berle, David C.
School gardens have been an active part of United States schools since 1890, when the first school garden was established in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Since the turn of the 20th century school gardens have greatly expanded to include inner city schools in some of the largest metropolitan areas of the country. Since the early 1990s, school gardens…
Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Moullec, Grégory; Aimé, Annie
The true extent of school bullying among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remains an underexplored area. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to: (a) assess the proportion of school-aged youth with ASD involved in school bullying as perpetrators, victims or both; (b) examine whether the observed prevalence estimates vary when different sources of heterogeneity related to the participants' characteristics and to the assessment methods are considered; and (c) compare the risk of school bullying between youth with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. The resulting pooled prevalence estimate for general school bullying perpetration, victimization and both was 10%, 44%, and 16%, respectively. Pooled prevalence was also estimated for physical, verbal, and relational school victimization and was 33%, 50%, and 31%, respectively. Moreover, subgroup analyses showed significant variations in the pooled prevalence by geographic location, school setting, information source, type of measures, assessment time frame, and bullying frequency criterion. Finally, school-aged youth with ASD were found to be at greater risk of school victimization in general, as well as verbal bullying, than their TD peers. Autism Res 2016, 9: 601-615. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available We are faced with chaotic processes in many segments of our life: meteorology, environmental pollution, financial and economic processes, sociology, mechanics, electronics, biology, chemistry. The spreading of high-performance computers and the development of simulation methods made the examination of these processes easily available. Regular, periodic motions (pendulum, harmonic oscillatory motion, bouncing ball, as taught at secondary level, become chaotic even due minor changes. If it is true that the most considerable achievements of twentieth century physics were the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and chaos theory, then it is presumably time to think about, examine and test how and to what extent chaos can be presented to the students. Here I would like to introduce a 12 lesson long facultative curriculum framework on chaos designed for students aged seventeen. The investigation of chaos phenomenon in this work is based on a freeware, “Dynamics Solver”. This software, with some assistance from the teacher, is suitable for classroom use at secondary level.
Campolettano, Eamon T.; Gellner, Ryan A.; Rowson, Steven
OBJECTIVE Even in the absence of a clinically diagnosed concussion, research suggests that neurocognitive changes may develop in football players as a result of frequent head impacts that occur during football games and practices. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific situations in which high-magnitude impacts (accelerations exceeding 40g) occur in youth football games and practices and to assess how representative practice activities are of games with regard to high-magnitude head impact exposure. METHODS A total of 45 players (mean age 10.7 ± 1.1 years) on 2 youth teams (Juniors [mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years; mean body mass 38.9 ± 9.9 kg] and Seniors [mean age 11.9 ± 0.6 years; mean body mass 51.4 ± 11.8 kg]) wore helmets instrumented with accelerometer arrays to record head impact accelerations for all practices and games. Video recordings from practices and games were used to verify all high-magnitude head impacts, identify specific impact characteristics, and determine the amount of time spent in each activity. RESULTS A total of 7590 impacts were recorded, of which 571 resulted in high-magnitude head impact accelerations exceeding 40g (8%). Impacts were characterized based on the position played by the team member who received the impact, the part of the field where the impact occurred, whether the impact occurred during a game or practice play, and the cause of the impact. High-magnitude impacts occurred most frequently in the open field in both games (59.4%) and practices (67.5%). “Back” position players experienced a greater proportion of high-magnitude head impacts than players at other positions. The 2 teams in this study structured their practice sessions similarly with respect to time spent in each drill, but impact rates differed for each drill between the teams. CONCLUSIONS High-magnitude head impact exposure in games and practice drills was quantified and used as the basis for comparison of exposure in the 2 settings. In
Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian
There is growing interest in how the physical environment influences obesity. Few studies have considered how the food retail environment surrounding schools influences overweight in students. To determine whether there is a relationship between food retailers surrounding schools and overweight among Canadian youth. Cross-sectional study. SETTING/METHODS/SUBJECTS: The number of food retailers was obtained within a 1 km and 5 km radius around 178 schools in Canada. Retailers included full-service restaurants, fast-food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, doughnut/coffee shops, convenience stores and grocery stores. An index of total food retailer exposure was also created. Multilevel analyses were used to control for individual- and area-level covariates. None of the individual food retailers was associated with an increased likelihood of overweight. The total food retailer index was most strongly related to overweight, but in the opposite direction to that hypothesized. At 1 km, students attending schools with at least one food retailer had a lower relative odds of overweight (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.61, 0.81). At 5 km, students attending schools with the highest exposure to the total food retailer index had a lower relative odds of overweight (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.47, 0.68) compared with students attending schools with no exposure. Exposure to various types of food retailers in school neighbourhoods was not associated with an increased likelihood of overweight in Canadian school-aged youth. The opportunity to make healthy choices from a variety of options and the unique Canadian context may explain the findings.
Benner, Aprile D; Boyle, Alaina E; Bakhtiari, Farin
The transition to high school is disruptive for many adolescents, yet little is known about the supportive relational processes that might attenuate the challenges students face as they move from middle to high school, particularly for students from more diverse backgrounds. Identifying potential buffers that protect youth across this critical educational transition is important for informing more effective support services for youth. In this study, we investigated how personal characteristics (gender, nativity, parent education level) and changes in support from family, friends, and school influenced changes in socioemotional adjustment and academic outcomes across the transition from middle to high school. The data were drawn from 252 students (50% females, 85% Latina/o). The results revealed declines in students' grades and increases in depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness across the high school transition, with key variation by student nativity and gender. Additionally, stable/increasing friend support and school belonging were both linked to less socioemotional disruptions as students moved from middle to high school. Increasing/stable school belonging was also linked to increases in school engagement across the high school transition. These findings suggest that when high school transitions disrupt supportive relationships with important others in adolescents' lives, adolescents' socioemotional well-being and, to a lesser extent, their academic engagement are also compromised. Thus, in designing transition support activities, particularly for schools serving more low-income and race/ethnic minority youth, such efforts should strive to acclimate new high school students by providing inclusive, caring environments and positive connections with educators and peers.
This brief report describes the development and implementation of a unique, full-year, credit-bearing, technology course in literary Braille transcription offered at a Long Island (New York) high school. It describes the program's goals, development, implementation, students, ongoing activities, outreach efforts, and student attitudes. Suggestions…
Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith
If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…
Emory Howell, J.
many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society within a 300-mile radius of Ann Arbor in providing support for high school
Quinn, G P; Bell-Ellison, B A; Loomis, W; Tucci, M
To identify the specific barriers and benefits of violent behaviours as noted by middle school youth and to develop a social marketing campaign that attends to the needs and wants of the target audience. A non-experimental, qualitative study design was used to assess youth perceptions of violence in a large, southeast urban school district. Using a social marketing approach, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted with middle school youths, to gain an understanding of perceived barriers and benefits of violent behaviours. Additionally, interviews assessed youth preferences for an effective spokesperson for an anti-violence campaign. Qualitative analysis of coded transcripts revealed key themes that were incorporated into a multi-media initiative. Critical themes of the research highlighted that the majority of violence occurs at school, during school hours and most of the youths believed the use of violence was necessary to defend themselves from other peers or to protect family members. Another key finding pertained to adolescent views on violent people; although the majority of respondents reported engaging in violent acts, they did not view themselves as violent. Results were used to inform the development of a social marketing campaign designed to reduce youth violence among middle school students in a large, urban central Florida school district. Findings from the formative research led to the creation and pre-testing of five potential campaign brands. The campaign slogan that tested best with the target audience emphasized the choice youth have to either engage in violent behaviour and suffer the consequences or to 'rise above' physical conflict and reap the benefits.
Schneider, Shari Kessel; O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Coulter, Robert W S
Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. In the fall of 2008, 20,406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health.
O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Kann, Laura; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; Kinchen, Steve; McManus, Tim
School-based victimization has short- and long-term implications for the health and academic lives of sexual minority students. This analysis assessed the prevalence and relative risk of school violence and bullying among sexual minority and heterosexual high school students. Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 10 states and 10 large urban school districts that assessed sexual identity and had weighted data in the 2009 and/or 2011 cycle were combined to create two large population-based data sets, one containing state data and one containing district data. Prevalence of physical fighting, being threatened or injured with a weapon, weapon carrying, and being bullied on school property and not going to school because of safety concerns was calculated. Associations between these behaviors and sexual identity were identified. In the state data, sexual minority male students were at greater risk for being threatened or injured with a weapon, not going to school because of safety concerns and being bullied than heterosexual male students. Sexual minority female students were at greater risk than heterosexual female students for all five behaviors. In the district data, with one exception, sexual minority male and female students were at greater risk for all five behaviors than heterosexual students. Sexual minority students still routinely experience more school victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. The implementation of comprehensive, evidence-based programs and policies has the ability to reduce school violence and bullying, especially among sexual minority students. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D
Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of school-based bullying and victimization and their use of SHCs. Data was analyzed from 2063 high school students in 5 Northern California school districts using the 2009-2010 California Healthy Kids Survey. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to measure associations. Students who were bullied or victimized at school had significantly higher odds of using the SHCs compared with students who were not, and were also significantly more likely to report confidentiality concerns. The magnitude of associations was largest for Asian/Pacific Islander students, though this was likely due to greater statistical power. African American students reported victimization experiences at approximately the same rate as their peers, but were significantly less likely to indicate they experienced bullying. Findings suggest that SHCs may be an important place to address bullying and victimization at school, but confidentiality concerns are barriers that may be more common among bullied and victimized youth. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Opportunity to participate in an out-of-school time program may be a meaningful support mechanism towards school success and healthy development for immigrant and refugee children. This study extends existing research on best practices by examining the on-the-ground experiences of supporting immigrant and refugee youth in out-of-school time programs. Findings from semi-structured interviews with program directors in 17 Massachusetts and New Hampshire programs suggest a number of program strategies that were responsive to the needs of immigrant and refugee students, including support for the use of native language as well as English, knowing about and celebrating the heritage of the students’ homeland, including on staff or in leadership individuals with shared immigrant background, and giving consideration to the academic priorities of parents. The development of such intentional approaches to working with immigrant and refugee youth during the out-of-school time hours will encourage enrollment of, and enhance effectiveness with, this vulnerable population.
Lyon, Aaron R.; Whitaker, Kelly; French, William P.; Richardson, Laura P.; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; McCauley, Elizabeth
Collaborative Care is an innovative approach to integrated mental health service delivery that focuses on reducing access barriers, improving service quality, and lowering healthcare expenditures. A large body of evidence supports the effectiveness of Collaborative Care models with adults and, increasingly, for youth. Although existing studies examining these models for youth have focused exclusively on primary care, the education sector is also an appropriate analog for the accessibility that primary care offers to adults. Collaborative Care aligns closely with the practical realities of the education sector and may represent a strategy to achieve some of the objectives of increasingly popular multi-tiered systems of supports frameworks. Unfortunately, no resources exist to guide the application of Collaborative Care models in schools. Based on the existing evidence for Collaborative Care models, the current paper (1) provides a rationale for the adaptation of Collaborative Care models to improve mental health service accessibility and effectiveness in the education sector; (2) presents a preliminary Collaborative Care model for use in schools; and (3) describes avenues for research surrounding school-based Collaborative Care, including the currently funded Accessible, Collaborative Care for Effective School-based Services (ACCESS) project. PMID:28392832
McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou
Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M = 15 years; range = 13–16 years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897
Full Text Available Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M= 15 years; range= 13-16 years; 60 males, 61 females within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home. Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence.
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.
The second year of operation of Hilo High School's "School-Within-A-School" [SWS] program is evaluated in this paper. Planning, training, and program implementation are described in the document. The following are the results of the program: There was an improvement in attendance among project students when compared to their record in…
Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Brownson, Amanda; Kahlert, Rahel; Sobel, Andrew
The results of a study conducted by the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Department of Education during the 2001-02 school year showed that elements of the middle school concept can lead to improved student performance, even in high-poverty schools. This article describes common elements of the middle school…
Wu, Szu-Ying; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with academic underachievement and school dysfunction. Little is known whether such association varies with the persistence of ADHD symptoms. The authors investigated school functioning among youths with and without persistent ADHD and identified the clinical correlates for…
Julianelle, Patricia F.; Foscarinis, Maria
Explores the school mobility of children and youth experiencing homelessness and the success of the McKinney-Vento Act (designed to limit the negative effects of school mobility on homeless students) in addressing this mobility. Proposes that affordable housing is the key to eliminating the mobility associated with homelessness and consequently…
Sharp, Jane; Rodas, Elizabeth Rivera; Sadovnik, Alan R.
Although the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires accommodations for individuals with disabilities in community settings, many out-of-school time (OST) programs struggle to successfully support youth with special needs. Programs that fully include children with special needs are less available for school-age children and…
Perra, Oliver; Fletcher, Adam; Bonell, Chris; Higgins, Kathryn; McCrystal, Patrick
Objective: To examine whether students' school engagement, relationships with teachers, educational aspirations and involvement in fights at school are associated with various measures of subsequent substance use. Methods: Data were drawn from the Belfast Youth Development Study (n = 2968). Multivariate logistic models examined associations…
Pasch, Keryn E; Lytle, Leslie A; Samuelson, Anne C; Farbakhsh, Kian; Kubik, Martha Y; Patnode, Carrie D
The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which vending offerings in 106 schools in the St. Paul-Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area, met criteria for types of beverages, fat, and calories based on selected criteria offered by the Institute of Medicine. Schools where youth participants were attending for the 2006-2007 school year were identified and invited to participate in the study (n = 143); 81% of schools (n = 116) agreed to participate. Of the 116 schools, 106 had vending machines. Across schools with vending machines (n = 106), 5085 food and 8442 beverage items were offered. Overall, only 18% of beverage items met criteria for calories and type of beverage; significantly more items in public schools met the criteria as compared to private schools (19% vs 12%; p schools as compared to middle schools (18% vs 22%; p schools (22% vs 18%; p = .01), while high schools (22%) and middle schools (21%) were similar. A very small proportion of foods (schools are doing a slightly better job of providing healthy foods as compared to private schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.
Gustat, Jeanette; Richards, Katherine; Rice, Janet; Andersen, Lori; Parker-Karst, Kathryn; Cole, Shalanda
Background: The prevalence of obesity in children is high, and many do not meet physical activity recommendations. The Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program encourages school-aged children to walk and bike to school. We assessed the condition of the walking/biking environment around schools in Louisiana prior to the state's first SRTS program.…
Donohue, Brad; Conway, Debbie; Beisecker, Monica; Murphy, Heather; Farley, Alisha; Waite, Melissa; Gugino, Kristin; Knatz, Danielle; Lopez-Frank, Carolina; Burns, Jack; Madison, Suzanne; Shorty, Carrie
Ninety-two adolescents, predominantly ethnic minority high school students, participated in a structured Summer Business Institute (SBI). Participating youth were randomly assigned to receive either job social skills or financial management skills training components. Students who additionally received the job social skills training component were more likely to recommend their employment agency to others than were youth who received the financial management component, rated their overall on-the-job work experience more favorably, and demonstrated higher scores in areas that were relevant to the skills that were taught in the job social skills workshops. The financial management component also appeared to be relatively effective, as youth who received this intervention improved their knowledge of financial management issues more than youth who received job social skills, and rated their workshops as more helpful in financial management, as well as insurance management. Future directions are discussed in light of these results.
Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer
The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R; Cornell, Dewey
This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high school dropout rates. Analyses controlled for school demographics of school enrollment size, percentage of low-income students, percentage of minority students, and urbanicity. Consistent with authoritative school climate theory, moderation analyses found that when students perceive their teachers as supportive, high academic expectations are associated with lower dropout rates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Moyer, Matthew B.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Lombardi, Emilia L.; Taylor, Christopher A.
Concerned about reports of a 15% decline in HIV testing among high-risk youth in an earlier study in Pittsburgh, this study was initiated to explore reasons why young people are not getting tested for HIV, while gathering data on their respective level of risk taking behaviors. A total of 580 surveys were collected from youth aged between 14 and…
SS is prevalent in secondary and high school students in Poland. Personal, social and environmental factors are strongly correlated with SS. When addressing the youth, efforts should be focused on the groups at risk, with a comprehensive approach including multiple factors and involving school personnel, parents and the group leaders in tobacco control activities. Projects aimed at changing social norms around smoking and providing the youth with knowledge and skills to resist smoking are also needed. This may help to implement an effective approach to prevent smoking susceptibility and initiation of tobacco use among the youth.
Jason R Randall
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.
Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M
Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.
Kevin D. Lam
Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.
Erika S. Deveza
Full Text Available Studies on youth media consumption and its effects on their being have always been the interest of many studies all over the globe. It is because of youth’s importance in the society and the roles they will play in the future, most specifically the educated ones. However, in the Philippines, there is only little information about the out of school youth. This study aims to determine the media consumption of the out of school youth since they are one of the most deprived individuals on having sufficient knowledge about media and its effects on individuals. Among other types of media, television has the highest percentage of consumption among the Filipino out of school youth more than the Internet and radio. Using statistical methods, we relate the relationship of consuming a specific media to their subjective wellbeing. Findings revealed that not all media affects the out of school youth’s feelings of being contented, joyful, and relaxed, only specific media types affects such feelings. Overall, the study shows that the out of school youth and their consumption of media are indeed related with each other.
Lawrence, Estelle; Struthers, Patricia; Van Hove, Geert
Despite an increase in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT), few young people have been tested. It has been suggested that they do not test because formal health services (where HCT is provided) are often not youth friendly. The World Health Organisation describes a youth-friendly health service (YFHS) as one which is accessible, equitable, acceptable, appropriate, and effective. A mobile school-based model has been implemented by a non-governmental organisation in Cape Town in an attempt to make HCT more youth friendly and accessible to young people. The objective of this study was to explore whether this mobile school-based HCT service is youth friendly. The study was descriptive, using three qualitative data collection methods: observation of the HCT site at two secondary schools; interviews with six service providers; and direct observation of 21 HCT counselling sessions. The mobile school-based HCT service fulfilled some of the criteria for being a YFHS. The service was equitable in that all students, irrespective of race, gender, age, or socio-economic status, were free to use the service. It was accessible in terms of location and cost, but students were not well informed to make decisions about using the service. The service was acceptable in that confidentiality was guaranteed and the service providers were friendly and non-judgemental, but it was not considered acceptable in that there was limited privacy. The service was appropriate in that HCT is recommended as an intervention for decreasing the transmission of HIV, based on evidence and expert opinion; however, in this case, HCT was provided as a stand-alone service rather than part of a full package of services. Moreover, studies have suggested that young people want to know their HIV status. The service was ineffective in that it identified students who are HIV positive; however, these students were not assisted to access care. Providing HCT in the school setting may make HCT more accessible for
Full Text Available Background: Despite an increase in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT, few young people have been tested. It has been suggested that they do not test because formal health services (where HCT is provided are often not youth friendly. The World Health Organisation describes a youth-friendly health service (YFHS as one which is accessible, equitable, acceptable, appropriate, and effective. A mobile school-based model has been implemented by a non-governmental organisation in Cape Town in an attempt to make HCT more youth friendly and accessible to young people. The objective of this study was to explore whether this mobile school-based HCT service is youth friendly. Methods: The study was descriptive, using three qualitative data collection methods: observation of the HCT site at two secondary schools; interviews with six service providers; and direct observation of 21 HCT counselling sessions. Key Results: The mobile school-based HCT service fulfilled some of the criteria for being a YFHS. The service was equitable in that all students, irrespective of race, gender, age, or socio-economic status, were free to use the service. It was accessible in terms of location and cost, but students were not well informed to make decisions about using the service. The service was acceptable in that confidentiality was guaranteed and the service providers were friendly and non-judgemental, but it was not considered acceptable in that there was limited privacy. The service was appropriate in that HCT is recommended as an intervention for decreasing the transmission of HIV, based on evidence and expert opinion; however, in this case, HCT was provided as a stand-alone service rather than part of a full package of services. Moreover, studies have suggested that young people want to know their HIV status. The service was ineffective in that it identified students who are HIV positive; however, these students were not assisted to access care. Conclusion: Providing HCT
Shin, Richard Q.; Rogers, Jennifer; Stanciu, Amalia; Silas, Melany; Brown-Smythe, Claudette; Austin, Brenda
The unique challenges faced by some youth of color living in high poverty contexts necessitate the creation of innovative, culturally relevant, group interventions. Framing the work of group counselors from a social justice perspective provides a structure for emphasizing the complex intersection of economic, political, and socio-historical issues…
Jensen, Niels Rosendal
The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2010
For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…
Howell, J. Emory
Care to Share? An Informal Syllabus Exchange A recent email message from Thomas Shiland, who teaches at Saratoga Springs Senior High School, noted that the process of revising the high school chemistry syllabus is underway in New York State. He expressed a strong interest in helping construct a chemistry syllabus that represents the best thinking about appropriate content. He wondered if it would be possible to develop a way in which different secondary chemistry syllabi could easily be exchanged. It is likely that readers from other states and countries are involved in a similar process and might also be interested in exchanging syllabi. Many states do not use the term syllabus to describe their guiding curricular document for chemistry but rather refer to it as a framework or as guidelines. In most cases, the document includes a list of key ideas or topics, performance indicators, and the major understandings associated with each key idea. Such documents would be appropriate for exchange among those of you involved in the revision process. If you are interested in arranging an exchange please contact me by email at email@example.com or by mail at J. E. Howell, Box 5043, USM, Hattiesburg, MS39406-5043, USA. High School Day Information The High School Chemistry Program at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana will be held Sunday, August 22, 1999, at the Doubletree Hotel, 300 Canal Street. If you wish to register only for the High School Day activities, which includes a pass to the ACS Exposition, a special registration form is available from Lillie Tucker-Akin, 2800 Reynard Dr., Tupelo, MS38801; firstname.lastname@example.org; fax: 662/566-7906. Advance registration is 25 and the cost of the High School Luncheon is 12. Register in advance by August 1, 1999, or from 7:45 to 8:30 a.m. at the High School Day table in the conference room area of the Doubletree. The workshop schedule is shown below. Secondary School Feature Articles * Exploring the
Gwon, Seok Hyun; Lee, Chung Yul
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence sexual intercourse among middle school students in South Korea. Using statistics from the 8th (2012) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted. The study sample comprised 37,297 middle school students aged primarily 12 to 15. The significant predictors of sexual intercourse were grade, ever smoking, ever drinking, habitual or purposeful drug use, economic status, weekly allowance, cohabitation with family, and type of school. The results suggest that intensified sex education is needed not only in the 1st grade of middle school, but also in the upper grades of elementary school. Sexual health interventions for high-risk groups may be needed, given the factors predicting sexual intercourse.
Gerard, Jean M; Booth, Margaret Zoller
Using a school-based sample of 675 adolescents, this short-term longitudinal investigation examined the relationships among individual, family, and school influences on adolescent adjustment problems. Adolescents' perceptions of school climate and their sense of connectedness to school were negatively associated with conduct problems. A significant interaction between parental academic support and adolescents' academic aspirations was detected for the total sample, boys, and White youth, indicating that parental support serves a protective function against conduct problems for students with low academic expectations. Adolescents' hopefulness, parental academic aspirations, and school connectedness were negatively associated with depression. Adolescents' hopefulness and their academic aspirations moderated associations between both family and school influences on adolescent adjustment with youth gender and race qualifying these interaction effects. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rachel C. F. Sun
Full Text Available This case study was based on a school where the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. was integrated into the formal curriculum. In this case study, an interview with the school principal, vice-principal, and social worker was conducted in order to understand their perceptions of administrative arrangements and issues in the school, implementation characteristics, program effectiveness, program success, and overall impression. Results showed that several positive school and classroom attributes were conducive to program success, including positive school culture and belief in students' potentials, an inviting school environment, an encouraging classroom environment, high involvement of school administrative personnel, and systematic program arrangement.
Howell, J. Emory
Secondary School Feature Articles * Super Science Connections, by Patricia B. McKean, p 916 * A pHorseshoe, by Roger Plumsky, p 935 National Conferences in Your Part of the Country For the past several months, considerable space in this column has been devoted to forthcoming national conferences and conventions and to highlights of conferences past. For some of us, location is fairly unimportant; but for most of us travel costs and time are both factors to consider when choosing a conference. The community of high school chemistry teachers is favored by the number of national conventions and conferences that are held each year in different locations. In 1999, for example, the spring National Meeting of the American Chemical Society was in Anaheim and the National Science Teachers Association National Convention was in Boston. This summer CHEMED '99 will be held in Fairfield, CT, August 1-5, and the fall National ACS Meeting will be in New Orleans. Teachers from the mid-South especially should consider attending the High School Program at New Orleans, described below by Lillie Tucker Akin, Chairperson of the Division's High School Program Committee. The event will be held on Sunday to minimize conflicts with the beginning of the school year. JCE at CHEMED '99 Stop by the JCE booth at CHEMED '99 in the exhibits area to learn more about the wide array of print and nonprint resources you can use in your classroom and laboratory. Members of the editorial staff will be on hand to talk with you. You are invited to participate in a workshop, "Promoting Active Learning through JCE Activity Sheets and Software", on Monday, August 1, 8:30-10:30. The free hands-on workshop is number WT11 and we encourage you to include it among your choices in the blanks provided on the third page of the registration form. We will also conduct an interactive session to listen to ideas for making the Journal more useful to you. Check the final program for location and time or inquire at the JCE
Full Text Available This investigation was deigned to develop a teacher’s handbook for desirable characteristic creation from heritable literature for Thai youth in schools in Bangkok. The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing four pieces of heritable literature: Ramayana (King Rama I Issue, I-nao (King Rama II Issue, Khun Chang – Khun Phan (National Library Issue and Phra Aphai Mani (Sunthorn Phu Issue. The research results found that there are nine current problems that need to be overcome in order to develop desirable characteristics for youths in schools. There are additionally eight desirable characteristics that need to be developed among youths, based on the statement of the Office of the Basic Education Commission. The investigation found that families, social media, community and religious leaders and schools all have an important role in promoting or creating desirable characteristics for youths. The content analysis found that all but one piece of heritable literature analysed contained content according to the eight desirable characteristics for youths. The handbook developed from the four pieces of heritable literature could be divided into four books for each piece of literature, which can be used as classroom teaching materials to create desirable characteristics for youths.
Stunkard, Cynthia Joyce
The data obtained in this qualitative study focused on the educational experiences of youth formerly in foster care after graduation from high school from the viewpoint of the youth. Data were gathered from interviews from 10 participants. Themes included: (a) How do youth emancipated from foster care perceive their educational experiences? (b)…
Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.
The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…
Fernando, Antonio T; Samaranayake, Chinthaka B; Blank, Christopher J; Roberts, Gareth; Arroll, Bruce
Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of households in the school catchment area. A total of 1388 students completed the ASQ. The median age was 17 years (range 14-23) and females represented 43.5% (n=604) of the total group. A total of 37.2% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than one month. Depression and anxiety were present in 51.7% and 44.8% of students reporting a sleep problem, respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between sleep problems and depression (r=0.34, psleep problems and anxiety (r=0.31, pstudents with sleep symptoms (12.2% and 5.5% respectively). No difference was found in the rate of sleep problems reported by different ethnic groups. A considerable proportion of students surveyed reported significant sleep symptoms. This study has the potential to aid physicians within New Zealand in better appreciating the burden of sleep disorders faced by young people and in effectively assessing and managing different causes of sleep symptoms in this demographic.
Strassberg, Donald S; Cann, Deanna; Velarde, Valerie
In the last 8 years, several studies have documented that many adolescents acknowledge having exchanged sexually explicit cell phone pictures of themselves, a behavior termed sexting. Differences across studies in how sexting was defined, recruitment strategies, and cohort have resulted in sometimes significant differences in as basic a metric as what percentage of adolescents have sent, received, or forwarded such sexts. The psychosocial and even legal risks associated with sexting by minors are significantly serious that accurate estimates of its prevalence, including over time, are important to ascertain. In the present study, students (N = 656) from a single private high school were surveyed regarding their participation in sexting. Students at this same school were similarly surveyed four years earlier. In this second survey, reported rates of sending (males 15.8%; females 13.6%) and receiving (males 40.5%; females 30.6%) sexually explicit cell phone pictures (revealing genitals or buttocks of either sex or female breasts) were generally similar to those reported at the same school 4 years earlier. Rates of forwarding sexts (males 12.2%; females 7.6%) were much lower than those previously acknowledged at this school. Correlates of sexting in this study were similar to those reported previously. Overall, our findings suggest that sexting by adolescents (with the exception of forwarding) remains a fairly common behavior, despite its risks.
Song, MinKyoung; Carroll, Dianna D; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E
Our study is the first to describe the prevalence and correlates (demographics, body mass index [BMI], sedentary behaviors, and physical activity) of high school youth who report active videogame playing (active gaming) in a U.S. representative sample. The National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study of 2010 provided data for this study. Active gaming was assessed as the number of days in the 7 days prior to the survey that students in grades 9-12 (14-18 years of age) reported participating in active videogames (e.g., "Wii™ Fit" [Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan], "Dance Dance Revolution" [Konami, Osaka, Japan]). Students reporting ≥1 days were classified as active gamers. Logistic regression was used to examine the association among active gaming and demographic characteristics, BMI, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity. Among 9125 U.S. high school students in grades 9-12 surveyed, 39.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval=37.9 percent, 42.0 percent) reported active gaming. Adjusting for covariates, the following characteristics were positively associated (Pblack, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity; being overweight or obese; watching DVDs >0 hours/day; watching TV >0 hours/day; and meeting guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity. Four out of 10 U.S. high school students report participating in active gaming. Active gamers tend to spend more time watching DVDs or TV, meet guidelines for physical activity, and/or be overweight or obese compared with nonactive gamers. These findings may serve to provide a baseline to track active gaming in U.S. youth and inform interventions that target sedentary behaviors and/or physical activity.
Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K
Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (pprevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu
Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a global crisis that represents a serious health threat, particularly among younger people. Various studies show that both orphan and non-orphan adolescents and youths experience vulnerability to HIV. Nevertheless, the findings hitherto are mixed and inconclusive. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the prevalence of parental death and its association with multiple sexual partners among secondary school students for evidence based interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 2,169 school youths. Sexual health behavior related data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was employed to examine the relation between parental death and multiple sexual partners. Among the 2,169 eligible study participants 1948 (90%) completed the self-administered questionnaires. Of those 1,182(60.7%) were females. The overall prevalence of parental death was 347(17.8%.) with 95% CI (16.2%, 19.6%). The HIV/AIDS proportionate mortality ratio was 28% (97/347).A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high HIV/AIDS related knowledge (AOR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.84), positive attitude towards HIV prevention methods (AOR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.97), being tested for HIV (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.87) and chewing Khat (AOR = 2.59; 95% CI,1.28-5.26)] were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners among secondary school youths. Significant proportion of secondary school youths had lost at least one parent due to various causes. High knowledge of HIV/AIDS, positive attitude towards 'ABC' rules for HIV prevention, being tested for HIV and chewing khat are more likely to be factors associated with multiple sexual partnership among secondary school students in Addis Ababa.Therefore, the school based interventions
Grobe, Terry; Martin, Nancy; Steinberg, Adria
The National Fund for Workforce Solutions and Jobs for the Future, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, launched the Youth/Industry Partnership Initiative (YIPI), to learn how employer-led industry partnerships could addressing the crisis of youth unemployment--7 percent of American youth (age 16-24) are neither in school or…
Van Yperen, N.W.
This study investigated whether the perception of disadvantageous inequity makes athletes more vulnerable to dropping out. Sixty five talented youth male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years), attending a prestigious soccer school, completed a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the
Isasi, Carmen R; Soroudi, Nafisseh; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
This study evaluated the feasibility of using the youth Weight, Activity, Variety, and Excess (WAVE) screener in a classroom setting for assessing student weight control intentions and the extent to which they used the WAVE strategies to control their weight. The Youth WAVE Screener was administered to fifth-grade students in an inner-city school located in the Bronx, New York. The study was conducted in part to increase student awareness of snack foods and sugary beverages in relation to weight. Of the 169 students who completed the survey, 45.5% (n = 77) were trying to lose weight. Students who were trying to lose weight were more likely to have low-fat dairy products, less likely to have sugary beverages, and less likely to eat junk foods than those who were not trying to lose weight. Students who reported exercising 3 times weekly were more likely to report healthier dietary patterns and less sedentary behaviors than were students who exercise less often. Feedback and dialogue with fifth graders addressed the relationship between TV viewing and eating behavior, advertisement, availability, and preferences of fruits and vegetables. The Youth WAVE Screener can be used to quickly identify children who are concerned about their weight as well as those with dietary and physical activity patterns that may increase the risk of obesity. Diabetes educators can use this screener to start a dialogue with children about their weight-related behaviors.
Full Text Available Alternative education in America has existed for several decades. Born from egalitarian ideology and calls for social progressivity during the Civil Rights Movement, alternative education has assumed many forms including institutions specifically established to assist students with disciplinary issues, attendance troubles, substance abuse problems, and learning difficulties. Through an in-depth analysis of one such alternative education institution (Youth Academy in West Virginia, this article aims to explain what alternative education is, what it has become, and why alternative education institutions are necessary to help combat problematic social and educational issues in America. The philosophy of re-education is discussed as a theoretical teaching tool and the significance of Youth Academy as a model alternative education institution within its state and nationally is stressed. It was concluded that those entrusted with decision- making power within Americas school systems would be wise to consider the potential benefits of establishing alternative education institutions by using Youth Academy as a possible blueprint.
High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.
Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Manoyosa, Veruree; Tarnkehard, Surapee; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat
Out-of-school youth in Thailand engage in risky sexual behavior that puts them at risk for contracting HIV infection and can have other negative sexual reproductive health outcomes. No study has examined risky sexual behaviors and compared them between Thai and non-Thai out-of-school youth. The current study compares sexual risk behavior and HIV testing behavior between out-of-school Thai and non-Thai youth. We conducted face-to-face interviews in this study population in urban Chiang Mai during 2014. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling from two main sources: non-formal education centers (NFECs) and social meeting places. We recruited 924 youth, aged 15-24 years, of whom 424 (45.9%) were Thai and 500 (54.1%) were non-Thai. The majority were attending NFECs (82.3%). Of the sexually experienced participants (57.7%), 75.4% did not use condoms consistently, and 50.3% had at least 2 lifetime sexual partners. Among the study participants, the Thai studied youth had significantly higher odds of ever having had sex (AOR=2.33; 95% CI: 1.56-3.49; p<0.001), having an earlier sexual debut (AOR=5.52; 95% CI: 2.71-11.25; p<0.001) and having a larger number of lifetime sexual partners (AOR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.37-3.88; p=0.002) than non-Thai participants. There was no significant difference between the Thai and non-Thai participants in terms of having HIV testing. The Thai studied youth were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than the non-Thai youth. However, both groups displayed risky sexual behaviors. Future research should explore indepth the drivers of risky sexual behaviors among both Thai and non-Thai youth.
Owens, Timothy J.
Presents a post-high school context choice schema that attempts to identify the factors that lead young U.S. males to enter the work force, the military, or college. Data are from the Youth in Transition Study, a longitudinal study beginning in 1966. Twenty-five potentially important predictors are identified. (SLD)
Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…
Franklin, Barry M.
This essay examines the April 1966 student walkout at Detroit's all-black Northern High School and what the boycott tells us about the conflict between blacks and whites in that city over the education of African-American youth. The protest was one event in an ongoing struggle between Detroit's black citizens and the city's largely white…
Hollands, Fiona; Bowden, A. Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.; Cheng, Henan; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Hanisch-Cerda, Barbara
In this article, we perform cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that improve the rate of high school completion. Using the What Works Clearinghouse to select effective interventions, we calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for five youth interventions. We document wide variation in cost-effectiveness ratios between programs and between…
A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict high school students' cigarette smoking behavior from selected predictors from 2009 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey. The specific target student behavior of interest was frequent cigarette use. Five predictor variables included in the model were: a) race, b) frequency of…
Epstein, Jennifer A.; Spirito, Anthony
Using the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (n = 13,917) of high school students, we examined the association between four domains of risk factors (alcohol/drug use, aggression, HIV risk-related behaviors, and health problems) and indicators of suicidality (considering a suicide attempt, making a plan to attempt suicide, and actually…
Ayres, Cynthia G.; Pontes, Nancy M.; Pontes, Manuel C. F.
The purpose of the study was to examine relationships between sleep insufficiency, depressive symptoms, demographic factors, and the nonmedical use of prescription medications (NMUPMs) in the U.S. high school students. Data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System were used (n = 13,570) and analyzed using IBM SPSS 23™ (complex…
de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal
Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…
Cho, Hyunyi; Sands, Laura P.; Wilson, Kari M.
To investigate the association between theoretically grounded psychosocial motivators and the sun safety practice intentions of rural youth. Method: A survey was given to 219 members of FFA (Future Farmers of America) at high schools in the rural Midwest (average age = 16). Results: Perceived self-efficacy, peer norms, response efficacy, and…
Rothman, Emily F.; Xuan, Ziming
Dating violence is a serious form of violence that places students at risk for injury, death, and negative mental health sequelae. The current analysis presents data on the prevalence of dating violence over a 12-year period among a nationally representative sample of high school-attending youth in the United States, stratified by race and gender.…
Pass, Susan; Willingham, Wendy
Working with two teachers and thirty-four high school seniors, the authors developed procedures and assessments to teach ethics in an American high school civics class. This approach requires high school students to discover an agreement or convergence between Kantian ethics and virtue ethics. The authors also created an instrument to measure…
Gilmour, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others
The college selection process used by high school students was studied and a paradigm that describes the process was developed, based on marketing theory concerning consumer behavior. Primarily college freshmen and high school seniors were interviewed, and a few high school juniors and upper-level college students were surveyed to determine…
This study reports on a qualitative analysis of data from interviews with 15 heterosexual males ages 16-18 in Canadian high schools. Findings indicate that gay male youth often occupy lower status positions in the school's social hierarchy. Heterosexual males did not typically want to associate with gay male peers for fear of being perceived as…
Full Text Available Recent youth trends in the prevalence of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use in Florida were examined in a cross-sectional, representative state sample from 2011 to 2014. Traditional cigarette use among youth declined during the study period. Experimentation with and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes among Florida youth tripled over 4 years. Past 30-day e-cigarette use exceeded traditional cigarette use in 2014; 10.8% of high school and 4.0% of middle school students reported recent e-cigarette use, compared with 8.7% of high school and 2.9% of middle school students for traditional cigarettes (P<0.001. By 2014, 20.5% of high school and 8.5% of middle school students reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among ever e-cigarette users in 2014, 30.3% of high school and 42.2% of middle school students had never smoked traditional cigarettes. Given the concern that significant rates of e-cigarette use by U.S. adolescents may have a negative effect on public health, further review of e-cigarette advertising, marketing, sales, and use among U.S. youth is warranted.
Marx, Robert A; Kettrey, Heather Hensman
Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) are school-based organizations for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) youth and their allies that often attempt to improve school climate for sexual and gender minority youth. This meta-analysis evaluates the association between school GSA presence and youth's self-reports of school-based victimization by quantitatively synthesizing 15 primary studies with 62,923 participants. Findings indicate GSA presence is associated with significantly lower levels of youth's self-reports of homophobic victimization, fear for safety, and hearing homophobic remarks, and these results are robust, controlling for a variety of study-level factors. The findings of this meta-analysis provide evidence to support GSAs as a means of protecting LGTBQ+ youth from school-based victimization.
Wilson, Dawn K.; Sweeney, Allison M.; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St. George, Sara M.
Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth’s behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family and social-environmental level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and health care providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth. PMID:28229248
Townsend, Lisa; Musci, Rashelle; Stuart, Elizabeth; Ruble, Anne; Beaudry, Mary B.; Schweizer, Barbara; Owen, Megan; Goode, Carly; Johnson, Sarah L.; Bradshaw, Catherine; Wilcox, Holly; Swartz, Karen
Background: Although school climate is linked with youth educational, socioemotional, behavioral, and health outcomes, there has been limited research on the association between school climate and mental health education efforts. We explored whether school climate was associated with students' depression literacy and mental health stigma beliefs.…
Taylor, Henry Louis; McGlynn, Linda Greenough
Universities, because of their vast human and fiscal resources, can play the central role in assisting in the development of school-centered community development programs that make youth development their top priority. The Futures Academy, a K-8 public school in the Fruit Belt, an inner-city neighborhood in Buffalo, New York, offers a useful model of community development in partnership with the Center for Urban Studies at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The goal of the project is to create opportunities for students to apply the knowledge and skills they learn in the classroom to the goal of working with others to make the neighborhood a better place to live. The efforts seek to realize in practice the Dewey dictum that individuals learn best when they have "a real motive behind and a real outcome ahead."
Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Behzadi, Pegah
Suicide in young people is a significant health concern, with numerous community- and school-based interventions promising to prevent suicide currently being applied across Canada. Before widespread application of any one of these, it is essential to determine its effectiveness and safety. We systematically reviewed the global literature on one of the most common community suicide prevention interventions in Canada and summarized data on 2 commonly applied school-based suicide prevention programmes. None of these has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing youth suicide or safety in application. Concurrently with their widespread distribution in Canada, the suicide rate in young women has increased-the first time in over 3 decades. Policy and regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.
Foster, Dawn W.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Wampler, Jeremy; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
Objective This study examined adolescent gambling on school grounds (GS+) and how such behavior was associated with gambling-related attitudes. Further, we examined whether GS+ moderated associations between at-risk problem-gambling (ARPG) and gambling behaviors related to gambling partners. Method Participants were 1988 high-school students who completed survey materials. Demographic, perceptions, attitudes, and gambling variables were stratified by problem-gambling severity (ARPG versus recreational gambling) and GS+ status. Chi-square and adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine relationships among study variables. Results Nearly 40% (39.58%) of students reported past-year GS+, with 12.91% of GS+ students, relative to 2.63% of those who did not report gambling on school grounds (GS), meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (pgambling behaviors. Weaker links in GS+ students, in comparison with GS-, students, were observed between problem-gambling severity and gambling with family members (interaction odds ratio (IOR)=0.60; 95%CI=0.39–0.92) and gambling with friends (IOR=0.21; 95%CI=0.11–0.39). Conclusions GS+ is common and associated with pathological gambling and more permissive attitudes towards gambling. The finding that GS+ (relative to GS-) youth show differences in how problem-gambling is related to gambling partners (friends and family) warrants further investigation regarding whether and how peer and familial interactions might be improved to diminish youth problem-gambling severity. The high frequency of GS+ and its relationship with ARPG highlight a need for school administrators and personnel to consider interventions that target school-based gambling. PMID:26232102
Smith, Douglas C.; Ito, Ayako; Gruenewald, John; Yeh, Hsiu-Ling
Students from the United States and Japan were surveyed with regard to their levels of satisfaction with school and factors that might facilitate or impede school satisfaction. Results indicated that females and younger students from both countries expressed greater satisfaction with school, with overall satisfaction declining in a linear fashion…
Schulz, Lisa L.
This article explores students at risk of academic non-completion. Schools and school counselors need to target the factors which put students at risk of academic non-completion to reduce the number of adolescents feeling a sense of alienation from school, from educators, and from learning. The construct of student alienation is examined based on…
In this article, Xin Xiang investigates what dushu, or "schooling," means for rural senior secondary school students in a high-poverty county in southwestern China. With the persistence of China's rural-urban education inequality and alarming reports about secondary school dropout rates, rural students' and their families' attitudes…
Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Duda, Joan; Hillman, Charles; Andersen, Lars Bo; Weiss, Maureen; Williams, Craig A; Lintunen, Taru; Green, Ken; Hansen, Peter Riis; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Ericsson, Ingegerd; Nielsen, Glen; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Schipperijn, Jasper; Dagkas, Symeon; Agergaard, Sine; von Seelen, Jesper; Østergaard, Charlotte; Skovgaard, Thomas; Busch, Henrik; Elbe, Anne-Marie
From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord on the effects of physical activity on children's and youth's fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with presentation of the state-of-the art in each domain followed by plenary and group discussions. Ultimately, Consensus Conference participants reached agreement on the 21-item consensus statement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K.; Foti, Kathryn; McKnight-Eily, Lela; Perry, Geraldine; Galuska, Deborah A.
Increasing attention is being focused on sleep duration as a potential modifiable risk factor associated with obesity in children and adolescents. We analyzed data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey to describe the association of obesity (self-report BMI ≥95th percentile) with self-reported sleep duration on an average school night, among a representative sample of US high school students. Using logistic regression to control for demographic and behavioral confounders, among female ...
Zarrett, Nicole; Bell, Bethany A
This study examined the longitudinal effects of out-of-school time (OST) activities on youth weight-status through mid-to-late adolescence. First, using pattern-centered methods, we identified the prominent ways in which youth allocate their OST across 12 common active and sedentary activities available to them. Second, through multi-level modeling procedures we examined the relation of OST activity patterns to: 1) BMI-status during the 11th grade, and; 2) within-person change in BMI-status across the adolescent years. After accounting for race, gender, SES, pubertal-status, and gaming, youth who participated in a sports-dominant activity pattern for 2 or more years had significantly lower 11th grade odds of being at-risk for overweight/obesity compared to youth in all other activity patterns. Youth of all other activity patterns had similar odds of being at-risk as Low-Activity youth and each other. Understanding the relations of OST to youth healthy weight is a critical first step in developing healthy OST settings. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Howell, J. Emory
Secondary School Feature Articles JCE Classroom Activity: #24. The Write Stuff: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate an Ink Mixture, p 176A Teaching Chemistry in the Midwinter Every year, forecasters around the world provide us with long-range predictions of what the seasons will afford us in the coming year. And each year, the weather provides a few surprises that the forecasters did not predict - such as a record amount of snow or record heat indexes, depending on where you live. Although the weatherman didn't predict it, we still must pull out our snow shovels or sun block and take the necessary steps to adapt to the situation. As teachers, we make predictions of teaching and learning goals that we aspire to achieve during a given year, and like the weather, the year brings surprises that aren't in line with our predictions. With that in mind, I would like to offer JCE as the scholastic snow shovel or sun shield you need to jump-start your class and reach the goals you have set. So find a warm (or cool) place, get comfortable, and spend some time with the February issue of JCE. Articles of General Interest in This Issue For readers living where snow falls, Williams's article on page 148 offers some historical background on the use of calcium chloride as a deicer. A diver that depends for its buoyancy upon gas given off by a chemical reaction is described by Derr, Lewis, and Derr in the article beginning on page 171. In her article appearing on pages 249-250, Wang describes a laboratory exercise that makes the mastery of solution preparation skills fun. The students' skill is tested by using the solutions they make to carry out the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. For high school class applications I recommend use of 3% hydrogen peroxide, described as an option in the article. A well-organized approach to separating an ink mixture, with some possibly new twists, is laid out in the student- and teacher-friendly format of JCE Classroom Activity: #24, pages
Hooven, Carole; Walsh, Elaine; Pike, Kenneth C; Herting, Jerald R
This study evaluated the effectiveness of augmenting a youth suicide-preventive intervention with a brief, home-based parent program. A total of 615 high school youth and their parents participated. Three suicide prevention protocols, a youth intervention, a parent intervention, and a combination of youth and parent intervention, were compared with an "intervention as usual" (IAU) group. All groups experienced a decline in risk factors and an increase in protective factors during the intervention period, and sustained these improvements over 15 months. Results reveal that the youth intervention and combined youth and parent intervention produced significantly greater reductions in suicide risk factors and increases in protective factors than IAU comparison group.
Aguirre, Moises G.
This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…
Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Oshri, Assaf; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel
Latino/a youth are at risk for symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking but this risk varies by acculturation and gender. To understand why some youth are at greater risk than others, we identified profiles of diverse community experiences (perceived discrimination, bullying victimization, social support, perceived school safety) and examined associations between profiles of community experience and depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, acculturation, and gender. Data came from Project Red (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a school-based longitudinal study of acculturation among 1,919 Latino/a adolescents (52% female; 84% 14 years old; 87% U.S. born). Latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed 4 distinct profiles of community experience that varied by gender and acculturation. Boys were overrepresented in profile groups with high perceived discrimination, some bullying, and lack of positive experiences, while girls were overrepresented in groups with high bullying victimization in the absence and presence of other community experiences. Youth low on both U.S. and Latino/a cultural orientation described high perceived discrimination and lacked positive experiences, and were predominantly male. Profiles characterized by high perceived discrimination and /or high bullying victimization in the absence of positive experiences had higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher risk of smoking, relative to the other groups. Findings suggest that acculturation comes with diverse community experiences that vary by gender and relate to smoking and depression risk. Results from this research can inform the development of tailored intervention and prevention strategies to reduce depression and/or smoking for Latino/a youth. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Singh, Tushar; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Marynak, Kristy L; Neff, Linda J; Rolle, Italia T; King, Brian A
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among US students increased significantly during 2011 to 2014. We examined the association between e-cigarette advertisement exposure and current e-cigarette use among US middle school and high school students. Data came from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 22 007), a survey of students in grades 6 through 12. The association between current e-cigarette use and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements via 4 sources (Internet, newspapers/magazines, retail stores, and TV/movies) was assessed. Three advertising exposure categories were assessed: never/rarely, sometimes, and most of the time/always. Separate logistic regression models were used to measure the association, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and other tobacco use. Compared with students who reported exposure to e-cigarette advertisements never/rarely, the odds of current e-cigarette use were significantly (P TV/movies (middle school, 1.25 [not significant] and 1.80; high school, 1.24 and 1.54). E-cigarette advertisement exposure is associated with current e-cigarette use among students; greater exposure is associated with higher odds of use. Given that youth use of tobacco in any form is unsafe, comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, including efforts to reduce youth exposure to advertising, are critical to prevent all forms of tobacco use among youth. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Howell, J. Emory
Ideas and Resources in This Issue This issue contains a broad spectrum of topics of potential interest to high school teachers, including chemical safety, history, demonstrations, laboratory activities, electrochemistry, small group learning, and instructional software. In his report on articles published recently in The Science Teacher, Steve Long includes annotated references from that journal, and also from JCE, that provide timely and practical information (pp 21-22). The chemical significance of several anniversaries that will occur in the year 2000 are discussed in an article by Paul Schatz (pp 11-14). Scientists and inventors mentioned include Dumas, Wöhler, Goodyear, Joliot-Curie, Krebs, Pauli, Kjeldahl, and Haworth. Several discoveries are also discussed, including development of the voltaic pile, the use of chlorine to purify water, and the discovery of element 97, berkelium. This is the fourth consecutive year that Schatz has written an anniversaries article (1-3). Although most readers probably do not plan to be teaching in the years 2097-3000, these articles can make a nice addition to your file of readily available historical information for use now in meeting NSES Content Standard G (4). In contrast to the short historical summaries, an in-depth account of the work of Herman Boerhaave is provided by Trinity School (NY) teacher Damon Diemente. You cannot recall having heard of Boerhaave? Diemente explains in detail how Boerhaave's scientific observations, imperfect though they were, contributed significantly to the understanding of temperature and heat by scientists who followed him. Chemical demonstrations attract the interest of most of us, and Kathy Thorsen discusses several that appeared in Chem 13 News during the past year (pp 18-20). Included are demonstrations relating to LeChâtelier's principle, electronegativity, and the synthesis and reactions of carbon monoxide. Ideas for investigating the hydrophobic nature of Magic Sand are given in JCE
Boydell, Katherine M; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Addington, Jean
This paper aims to identify the ways in which youth at ultra high risk for psychosis access mental health services and the factors that advance or delay help seeking, using the Revised Network Episode Model (REV NEM) of mental health care. A case study approach documents help-seeking pathways, encompassing two qualitative interviews with 10 young people and 29 significant others. Theoretical propositions derived from the REV NEM are explored, consisting of the content, structure and function of the: (i) family; (ii) community and school; and (iii) treatment system. Although the aspects of the REV NEM are supported and shape pathways to care, we consider rethinking the model for help seeking with youth at ultra high risk for psychosis. The pathway concept is important to our understanding of how services and supports are received and experienced over time. Understanding this process and the strategies that support positive early intervention on the part of youth and significant others is critical. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kowitt, Sarah D.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Huang, Li-Ling; Sutfin, Erin L.; Goldstein, Adam O.
Although cigarette use by adolescents is declining, emerging tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular and youth may use more than one type of tobacco product. The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess patterns of poly-tobacco use among a representative sample of high school students and (2) to determine how beliefs correlate with poly-tobacco use. Data came from the 2013 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 4092). SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Among all high school students in NC in 2013, 29.7% reported current any tobacco use, with 19.1% reporting current poly-tobacco use, and 10.6% reporting current use of only one product. Among poly-tobacco users, 59.3% reported that one of the products they currently used was cigarettes. Positive tobacco product beliefs were found to be significantly associated with poly-tobacco use. Communication campaigns, policy efforts, and future research are needed for prevention, regulation, and control of poly-tobacco use among adolescents, which represents a significant public health problem. PMID:26580636
Van Roosmalen, Erica; Krahn, Harvey
Examines normative, everyday gendered youth culture among a sample of 2,074 high school seniors in 3 Canadian cities. Findings reveal adolescent males participate more in drinking activities, hobbies, sports, and television watching than adolescent females, but in fewer indoor nonpaid work activities or social activities. The research does not…
Connelly, Mark; Bickel, Jennifer; Wingert, Tammie; Galemore, Cynthia
Migraine is a common health problem in youth that is ranked highest for disability among neurological conditions and is one of the leading reasons for school absences. Children with migraines frequently are seen by the school nurse for care, sometimes before ever being seen by another healthcare provider for evaluation and treatment. As such, school nurses have the unique opportunity to provide education and resources to children with migraines and their family. This article provides information on the Headache Action Plan Program for Youth (HAPPY), a project involving the provision of live and online migraine education and management resources to school nurses, children, families, and primary care providers in an effort to improve migraine recognition and care in the community.
Full Text Available The role of modern physical education is not only to develop motor abilities of the students, but most of all prevent them from epidemic youth diseases such as obesity or postural defects. Positive attitudes to swimming as a long-life physical activity, instilled in adolescence should be beneficial in adult life. The group of 130 boys and 116 girls of 7th grade junior high school (mean age 14.6 was asked in the survey to present their opinion of obligatory swimming lessons at school. Students of both sexes claimed that they liked swimming classes because they could improve their swimming skills (59% of answers and because of health-related character of water exercises (38%. 33% of students regarded swimming lessons as boring and monotonous, and 25% of them complained about poor pool conditions like chlorine smell, crowded lanes, too low temperature. Majority of the surveyed students saw practical role of swimming in saving others life.
Cobb, Tiffany R.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and further understand the ways in which middle school and high school students perceive their school experiences within the school environment. School has an important impact on the social development of children (Milsom, 2006). Learning is not done individually as classrooms are inherently social…
Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John
Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.
This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (school district poverty and adult educational attainment), and school district-level (district size and ratios of students to key school personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth.…
Howell, J. Emory
Secondary School Feature Articles * Building the Interest of High School Students for Science-A PACT Ambassador Program To Investigate Soap Manufacturing and Industrial Chemistry, by Matthew Lynch, Nicholas Geary, Karen Hagaman, Ann Munson, and Mark Sabo, p 191. * Promoting Chemistry at the Elementary Level, by Larry L. Louters and Richard D. Huisman, p 196. * Is It Real Gold? by Harold H. Harris, p 198. * The "Big Dog-Puppy Dog" Analogy for Resonance, by Todd P. Silverstein, p 206. * The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics, by Reed A. Howald, p 208. Staying on Top: Curricular Projects, Relativistic Effects, and Standard-State Pressure You may wonder why some articles are identified with the Secondary School Chemistry logo (*) this month even though at first glance they appear to be of greater interest to college faculty.1 The three articles discussed below are representative of three broad categories: (i) the interrelatedness of science teaching and learning, K-16+; (ii) new understandings of chemical phenomena; and (iii) information about the use of SI units. For each article I have highlighted the major point(s) and the reasons it may be of interest to high school teachers. First, the article "The NSF 'Systemic' Projects- A New Tradition" (G. M. Barrow, p 158) is a commentary on changes in post-secondary introductory chemistry courses in which a distinction is drawn between information management and individual understanding. The author is of the opinion that most students expect the former and that the NSF-funded systemic projects "will thrive only if they are consistent with their information-management mission". Three individuals provided responses to the commentary from their perspective. Has a student asked you why mercury is a liquid, or why gold is the most electronegative metal? "Gold Chemistry: The Aurophilic Attraction" by J. Bardají and A. Laguna (p 201) and "Why Gold and Copper Are Colored but Silver Is Not" by