Kilgariff, Lisa; Solomon, Mindy; Zanotti, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine
Peer helpers can act as liaisons to high school guidance departments by identifying problems, making appropriate referrals, and encouraging others to obtain professional help if necessary. An active program can help ensure that in the future students are better prepared to handle conflicts that arise within marriage, career, and family. This study…
Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda
This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…
Stader, David L.; Gagnepain, F. J.
Discusses what high schools can do to improve student relationships, highlighting a St. Louis area school's efforts to develop peer-mentoring and peer-mediation programs. Offers guidelines to help other schools develop a school culture that promotes caring, teaches constructive conflict resolution, and reduces potential for violence. (MLH)
Karakos, Holly L.
Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes…
Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.
This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…
The use of peer mentoring in a successful high school jazz band was explored during one academic year of instruction using ethnographic techniques. Participants included primary informants (student jazz band members, director, assistant director, adult mentors) and secondary informants (guidance counselor, principal, parents, non-jazz band member…
Cooper, Felicia Cecile
The dissertation is an initial investigation of a peer mentoring program in a suburban high school in the southeastern United States. Additionally, the Peer Mentoring Program (PMP) study examined whether the Program improves academic performance and attendance, and decreases referrals. Utilizing an experimental design, a Participant and a…
Fielding, Sarah; Pili, Chris; Chambliss, Catherine
Peer helping has recently been adopted by many schools, but use of these services remains mixed. The different ways in which peer helpers can be selected are described and examples of effective programs already in place are offered. The two types of cognitive processes used to evaluate advertising campaigns--automatic and strategic--are discussed…
Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah
This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…
Asmus, Jennifer M.; Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Born, Tiffany L.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Brock, Matthew E.; Cattey, Gillian N.; Cooney, Molly; Fesperman, Ethan S.; Hochman, Julia M.; Huber, Heartley B.; Lequia, Jenna L.; Lyons, Gregory L.; Vincent, Lori B.; Weir, Katie
This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of peer network interventions to improve the social connections of 47 high school students with severe disabilities. School staff invited, trained, and supported 192 peers without disabilities to participate in individualized social groups that met throughout one semester. Compared to…
Buchanan, Carie M; McDougall, Patricia
The aim of the present study was to compare recollections of sexual, physical, verbal, social, and cyber peer victimization experienced in high school in terms of depressed affect, self-esteem, and loneliness experienced in university. In all, 247 university students (70 males and 177 females; M = 20.62, SD = 2.54) completed online measures assessing retrospective accounts of their experiences of different forms of peer victimization during high school (i.e., sexual, physical, verbal, social, and cyber) and their current psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, depressed affect, and loneliness). Three separate hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine whether different indices of negative psychosocial adjustment are more strongly predicted by experiencing sexual or nonsexual forms of peer victimization. Although many university students recalled experiencing sexual peer victimization in high school at least once at an even higher percentage than verbal and social forms of peer victimization, the results of the present study suggest that social peer victimization in high school predicts higher levels of depressed affect and loneliness in university students than sexual peer victimization experienced in high school. Surprisingly, the young adults reporting higher levels of cyber peer victimization in high school were less lonely in university. Although the hypothesized relationships between each form of peer victimization and specific indices of psychosocial functioning were not consistently supported, these findings suggest that the form of peer victimization matters and may be differentially associated with well-being in emerging adulthood. It is important that future research explores how individual characteristics may further predict varied experiences of peer victimization and the long-term impact of those experiences.
McDougall, Janette; DeWit, David J.; King, Gillian; Miller, Linda T.; Killip, Steve
Negative peer attitudes are generally recognised as being a major barrier to full social inclusion at school for children and youth with disabilities. The present study examined the attitudes of 1,872 grade nine high school students in Ontario, Canada toward their peers with disabilities. A bioecological perspective and a structural equation…
Brown, B. Bradford
The extent of peer pressure in high school and its influences on behavior were examined in accounts from college undergraduates. One-third of both genders identified peer pressure as difficult, being stronger for females. Pressure areas included dating, sexual activity, and drug and alcohol use, but not parent-child relationships. (Author/CM)
Johnson, Valerie L; Simon, Patricia; Mun, Eun-Young
The present study investigated the impact of a manualized high school transition program, the Peer Group Connection (PGC) program, on the graduation rate at a low-income, Mid-Atlantic high school. The program utilized twelfth grade student peer leaders to create a supportive environment for incoming ninth grade students. Results of a randomized control trial demonstrated that male students who participated in the program during ninth grade were significantly more likely to graduate from high school within four years than male students in the control group (81% versus 63%). Findings suggest that peers can be effective in delivering a school-based, social emotional learning intervention and that it is possible to intervene in the ninth grade to influence the probability of high school graduation.
Hughes, Carolyn; Harvey, Michelle; Cosgriff, Joseph; Reilly, Caitlin; Heilingoetter, Jamie; Brigham, Nicolette; Kaplan, Lauren; Bernstein, Rebekah
Limited social interaction typically occurs between high school students with autism and their general education peers unless programming is introduced to promote interaction. However, few published social interaction interventions have been conducted among high school students with autism and their general education classmates. Such studies…
Tully, Carol A.
Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…
Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky
This investigation's aims were to map prevalence, normative trends, and patterns of continuity or change in school-based peer victimization throughout formal schooling (i.e., Grades K-12), and determine whether specific victimization patterns (i.e., differential trajectories) were associated with children's academic performance. A sample of 383…
Grant, Melva R.
The purpose of this study was to determine students' perspectives about productive peer culture (PPC) in general and for mathematics learning. The urban and rural high school students in this study have participated for at least one year in either an Algebra Project Cohort Model (APCM) for daily mathematics instruction and/or worked as mathematics…
Hochman, Julia M.; Carter, Erik W.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Harvey, Michelle N.; Gustafson, Jenny R.
Although peer interaction takes on increased salience during adolescence, such social connections remain elusive for many high school students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This social isolation can be particularly prevalent within unstructured school contexts. In this study, we examined the effects of a lunchtime peer network intervention…
Warner, Debra G.; Olney, Cynthia A.; Wood, Fred B.; Hansen, Lucille; Bowden, Virginia M.
Objectives: The objective was to introduce the MedlinePlus Website to the predominantly Hispanic residents of the Lower Rio Grande Valley region of Texas by partnering with a health professions magnet high school (known as Med High). Methods: Community assessment was used in the planning stages and included pre-project focus groups with students and teachers. Outreach methods included peer tutor selection, train-the-trainer sessions, school and community outreach, and pre- and posttests of MedlinePlus training sessions. Evaluation methods included Web statistics; end-of-project interviews; focus groups with students, faculty, and librarians; and end-of-project surveys of students and faculty. Results: Four peer tutors reached more than 2,000 people during the project year. Students and faculty found MedlinePlus to be a useful resource. Faculty and librarians developed new or revised teaching methods incorporating MedlinePlus. The project enhanced the role of school librarians as agents of change at Med High. The project continues on a self-sustaining basis. Conclusions: Using peer tutors is an effective way to educate high school students about health information resources and, through the students, to reach families and community members. PMID:15858628
Mora, Toni; Oreopoulos, Philip
In this paper we investigate how schoolmates influence high school dropout intentions in Catalonia, Spain. Our analysis uses self-reported friends to identify possible peers by assuming that peer influence flows in one direction in cases where one student identifies another as a friend, but the other does not reciprocate. We first estimate the…
Choi, Hyung Soo; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Oh, Je Hyeok
The inclusion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in formal education has been a useful approach to providing basic life support (BLS) services. However, because not all students have been able to learn directly from certified instructors, we studied the educational efficacy of the use of peer-assisted learning (PAL) to train high-school students to perform BLS services. This study consisted of 187 high-school students: 68 participants served as a control group and received a 1-hour BLS training from a school nurse, and 119 were included in a PAL group and received a 1-hour CPR training from a PAL leader. Participants' BLS training was preceded by the completion of questionnaires regarding their background. Three months after the training, the participants were asked to respond to questionnaires about their willingness to perform CPR on bystander CPR and their retention of knowledge of BLS. We found no statistically significant difference between the control and PAL groups in their willingness to perform CPR on bystanders (control: 55.2%, PAL: 64.7%, P=0.202). The PAL group was not significantly different from the control group (control: 60.78±39.77, PAL: 61.76±17.80, P=0.848) in retention of knowledge about BLS services. In educating high school students about BLS, there was no significant difference between PAL and traditional education in increasing the willingness to provide CPR to bystanders or the ability to retain knowledge about BLS.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steven; Black, David; Sun, Ping
Adolescent peer group self-identification refers to adolescents' affiliation with reputation-based peer groups such as "Goths" or "Jocks." These groups tend to vary on normative characteristics, including the group members' attitudes and behaviors. This article examined whether adolescents' baseline peer group self-identification predicted their self-reported relational and physical aggression 1 year later. Self-report data were collected from 1614 students from 9 regular and 9 continuation (alternative) high schools in Southern California, at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Subjects' mean baseline age was 15.21 years (SD = 1.18) and 51.6% of the subjects were female. Findings indicated that compared with self-identified "Regular" or "Normal" students, adolescents who identified with high-risk peer groups (eg, "Druggies,"Goths") tended to report higher relational and physical aggression 1 year later, controlling for baseline aggression and demographic variables. In addition, adolescents' self-identification with high-status peer groups (eg, "Jocks,"Populars") was predictive of higher relational aggression 1 year later. Gender and school type (ie, regular vs continuation) were not found to moderate these effects. It appears that peer group self-identification is a salient predictor of physical and relational aggression across gender and school type. Adolescents who identify with high-risk peer groups tend to report higher levels of physical as well as relational aggression in the future. In addition, adolescents who affiliate with elite groups tend to become more relationally aggressive over time. School-based prevention programs targeting aggression may benefit from addressing the impacts of peer group self-identification on adolescents' aggressive behavior.
Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Perry, Cheryl L
This study described peer harassment in a large, multiethnic sample of adolescents, and explored the relationship between experiencing peer harassment and both school connectedness and achievement. Survey data came from 4,746 students in grades 7-12 at 31 public schools in ethnically and socioeconomically diverse communities in a Midwestern state. Frequency of five types of harassment were analyzed with data on school connectedness and grades. Multivariate analysis controlled for gender, grade level, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that most students periodically experience mistreatment; 10% to 17% report being treated disrespectfully, having others act superior, or being insulted at least once per week, and an additional 14% to 22% of students report suffering these behaviors a few times per month. Girls, Whites, Native Americans, and middle school students reported more harassment than boys, other ethnic groups, and high school students, respectively. Peer harassment related significantly to both aspects of school life; those who disliked school tended to suffer more mistreatment, and "B" students reported the least harassment on average. Young people mistreated by peers may not want to be in school and may thereby miss out on the benefits of school connectedness as well as educational advancement. The high prevalence of peer harassment and its association with school connectedness and school achievement provide justification for interventions aimed at prevention of peer harassment. A schoolwide approach using educational and policy components may provide an appropriate prevention strategy.
Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; Reddy, Priscilla S; van den Borne, Bart
Suicide is a major public health problem for adolescents in South Africa, and also affects those associated with them. Peers become more important during adolescence and can be a significant source of social support. Because peers may be the first to notice psychological problems among each other, the present study's objectives were to assess students' knowledge about suicide, perceived risk factors, signs of poor mental health in adolescents who committed suicide, students' awareness of available mental health care and resources, and beliefs about prevention. This qualitative study used focus group discussions to elicit the thoughts and feelings of high school students who had a peer who committed or attempted suicide. Peers and class mates of suicide attempters and suicide completers were identified with the help of a social worker and school management and were invited to participate. All focus group discussions were audio taped and analyzed. A total of 56 adolescents (13-19 years of age) from Limpopo schools in South Africa participated in six focus group discussions. The data were analyzed by NVivo version 8, using an inductive approach. Participants reported to be affected by the suicide attempt or completed suicide. They felt guilty about their failure to identify and prevent the suicide and displayed little knowledge of warning signs for suicidal behaviour. They identified several risk factors for the suicide of their peers, such as poor relationship issues, teenage pregnancy, punishment, and attention seeking behaviour. Resources for students with mental health problems and survivors of suicide attempts were not perceived to be available at schools and elsewhere. School-based suicide prevention programs based on theory and evidence are necessary. Such interventions should also focus on detection of mental health problems by peers. Counseling services for students with mental health problems and suicide survivors should be available and made known to
Cross-age mentoring programs are peer helping programs in which high school students serve as mentors to younger children. The study in this article compared fall-to-spring changes on connectedness, attachment, and self-esteem between 46 teen mentors and 45 comparison classmates. Results revealed an association between serving as a cross-age peer…
Ciao, Anna C; Latner, Janet D; Brown, Krista E; Ebneter, Daria S; Becker, Carolyn B
This pilot study investigated the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a peer-led dissonance-based eating disorders (ED) prevention/risk factor reduction program with high school girls. Ninth grade girls (n = 50) received the peer-led program within the school curriculum. A quasi-experimental design was used to assess changes in ED risk factors preintervention and postintervention compared with waitlist control. Participants were followed through 3-month follow-up. Peer-leader adherence to an intervention manual tailored for this age group was high. The intervention was rated as highly acceptable, with a large proportion of participants reporting that they enjoyed the program and learned and applied new information. Intervention participants exhibited significantly greater pre-post reductions in a majority of risk-factor outcomes compared to waitlist controls. When groups were combined to assess program effects over time there were significant pre-post reductions in a majority of outcomes that were sustained through 3-month follow-up. This pilot study provides tentative support for the effectiveness of using peer leaders to implement an empirically supported ED risk factor reduction program in a high school setting. Additional research is needed to replicate results in larger, better-controlled trials with longer follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, Namauk; Yoo, Jina
The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents' drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy.
Hsia, Lu-Ho; Huang, Iwen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
In this paper, a web-based peer-assessment approach is proposed for conducting performing arts activities. A peer-assessment system was implemented and applied to a junior high school performing arts course to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. A total of 163 junior high students were assigned to an experimental group and a…
Full Text Available This cross-national scenario based study exam-ined fourth-grade students’ perceptions of high-performing classmates in terms of their ex-pected intellectual abilities, positive social qual-ities and popularity among their peers across seven countries. The overall results show that high academic achievements predominantly lead to positive expectations within the peer group. However, pronounced differences were found between the countries. The results indi-cated that students from Spanish-speaking countries viewed their potential high-perform-ing peers most favorably, followed by students from Australia, the United Kingdom and Ger-many. The least favorable expectations, but by no means negative attitude, were exhibited by students from the two East-Asian countries Ko-rea and Vietnam. In contrast, the respondents’ gender and the gender of the hypothetical suc-cessful classmates had less influence on student perceptions of high-performers. These findings have implications for the educational provision of high performing students in different cross-national contexts.
Carter, Erik W; Sisco, Lynn G; Brown, Lissa; Brickham, Dana; Al-Khabbaz, Zainab A
We examined the peer interactions and academic engagement of 23 middle and high school students with developmental disabilities within inclusive academic and elective classrooms. The extent to which students with and without disabilities interacted socially was highly variable and influenced by instructional format, the proximity of general and special educators, and curricular area. Peer interactions occurred more often within small group instructional formats, when students were not receiving direct support from a paraprofessional or special educator, and in elective courses. Academic engagement also varied, with higher levels evidenced during one-to-one or small group instruction and when in proximity of general or special educators. Implications for designing effective support strategies for students with autism and/or intellectual disability within general education classrooms are discussed.
Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…
Full Text Available This research report is an integral part of a larger research project focused on analyzing peer violence which is driven by gender stereotypes and prejudices (including sexual harassment and which is experienced by female and male students of Polish junior high schools. The present qualitative research results are the effect of eight interviews and group discussions carried out in the first half of 2013. The interviewees and discussion participants were students of four different junior high schools in different towns and villages. The discussions focused on the following issues: girls' and boys' strategies of enduring, resisting or confronting gender-based violence and harassment; their reactions and coping mechanisms as victims and/or witnesses of gender-based violence or harassment; how adolescents perceived the roles of adults (that is teachers, parents, professionals in the their experiences of violence.
Pittman, Jason M.; Pike, Ronald E.
This paper reports on the design and implementation of a cybersecurity camp offered as a cybersecurity learning experience to a group of female and male high school students. Students ranged in grade level from freshmen to senior. Student demographics, including any existing pre-requisite knowledge, were unknown to camp designers prior to the…
Gobbi, Erica; Greguol, Márcia; Carraro, Attilio
The purpose of this study was to explore possible benefits of a peer-tutored physical education programme (PTPE) in comparison with school physical education (SPE) in high school students with intellectual disability. Nineteen students with intellectual disabilities (15 boys, mean age 17.4 ± 1.7 years) were monitored during three PTPE and three SPE classes. A factorial RM-ANOVA was used to test differences on objective measured physical activity (PA), enjoyment and exertion during the two conditions, considering participants' weight condition as independent factor. During PTPE, participants reported higher light intensity PA, enjoyment and exertion than during SPE. Participants with overweight showed less inactive time and higher light intensity PA during PTPE than during SPE. The peer-tutored programme was beneficial for adolescents with intellectual disability, particularly for those in overweight condition. The higher enjoyment found during PTPE may encourage exercise participation of students with intellectual disability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
Educational tracking based on academic ability accounts for different school dynamics between vocational versus academically-oriented high schools in Taiwan. Many educational practitioners predict that the settings of vocational schools and academic schools mediate school violence in different ways. Alternatively, some researchers argue the actual…
Gardner, Karen F.; Carter, Erik W.; Gustafson, Jenny R.; Hochman, Julia M.; Harvey, Michelle N.; Mullins, Teagan S.; Fan, Hannah
Supporting social interactions and positive peer relationships is an important element of comprehensive secondary education and transition programming. For many adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), such social connections may be fairly limited apart from intentional programming. We examined the efficacy and social validity of peer…
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of high school students in the cycle of bullying, their selfconcept and the effect of family characteristics associated with the bullying. Methods: We conducted a descriptive, comparative and correlational study. The survey data were collected in the largest province of Turkey, Istanbul, with 1670 students in ninth and tenth grades in six (2 regular, 2 occupational and 2 private high schools, chosen to represent the types of schools affiliated to Ministry of Education. Data were collected through four different data collection tools: Multidimensional Scale of Peer Victimization, Self-Concept Scale Piers-Harris Children’s, Family Assessment Device and a personal information form. Results: According to the Victimization Scale, 17% of students were in the cycle of bullying (5.3% of aggressors, victims of 5.9%, 5.8% both aggressors as victims. The bullying was significantly more common in the mother-father separated group, in the group that had witnessed violence between family members and those who had been treated violently by family members. Bullying was significantly lower in students with healthy families compared with those who do not have healthy families and students with high average score on the selfconcept compared to those with low average score. Conclusions: This study shows the need to implement effective measures to prevent bullying in schools. Based on the results of the study, it should be emphasized that education can be directed to families through programs to prevent bullying. The focus of the implementation can be concentrated on the effect of family relations on students’ behavior. The existing programs of bullying prevention can be directed to increase the level of self-esteem of students with low self-esteem, because they are more likely to become involved in bullying incidents.
Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.
Donoghue, Christopher; Raia-Hawrylak, Alicia
Heightened attention to bullying in research and in the media has led to a proliferation of school climate surveys that ask students to report their level of involvement in bullying. In this study, the authors reviewed the challenges associated with measuring bullying and the implications they have on the reliability of school climate surveys.…
Studies have indicated that as many as 80% of students experience some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Such statistics are troublesome, considering that peer sexual harassment can have long-term psychological effects on student victims. Public schools have a responsibility to provide a safe educational environment free of peer sexual…
Alqahtani, Ragea Mohammed
A mixed methods research design was chosen for this study in order to examine the effectiveness of the Peer Buddy Program across one year on the social and academic skill acquisition of high school students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or emotional/behavioral disabilities (EBD). Specifically, this research focused on identifying the…
Baghianimoghadam, M H; Forghani, H; Zolghadr, R; Rahaei, Z; Khani, P
Peer-led programmes on AIDS prevention have shown a good level of effectiveness when tested among high-risk populations. This study compared peer-led and teacher-led methods of education about HIV/AIDS among female high-school students in Yazd city, Islamic Republic of Iran. In 2009 students in 3 high schools were trained by their classmates (peer-led), by the research team (teacher-led) or had no education (controls); 180 students completed a specially designed questionnaire based on the health belief model, before and after the intervention. Post-intervention mean knowledge scores increased 2-fold in the peer-led group, and this was significantly higher than the increase in the teacher-led group scores (1.5-fold). Control group scores were unchanged. In the peer-led programme all of the components of the model were significantly improved whereas in the teacher-led programme, only perceived severity and perceived barriers scored significantly higher after the intervention.
Full Text Available Peer bullying is a phenomenon present in all schools. The school as an institution has a major role in limiting peer bullying. The primary goal of the study was to determine how different groups of students perceived school climate in relation to peer bullying regarding their role in peer bullying (active participants: bullies, victims, bully-victims and non-active participants: observers. 414 students (from 18 primary and secondary schools responded to The School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS; Cornell, 2012, which measures the incidence of various forms of peer bullying and three dimensions of school climate (prevalence of teasing and bullying, aggressive attitudes, and willingness to seek help. The results showed that the active participants in peer bullying report a frequent presence of verbal and social bullying (54% and 40%, respectively and a significantly lower frequency of physical and cyber bullying (14%. The largest differences between the groups of students were found in their perceptions of the prevalence of aggressive attitudes and willingness to seek help in a school context. In the perceptions of both of these dimensions we found a high degree of similarity between the groups of bullies and victim-bullies, and between the groups of victims and observers. The first two groups, when compared to the victims and observers, perceived to a greater extent that school allows aggression as a way of affirmation among peers and in school in general, and that neither teachers nor peers do not stop the bullying, which discourages the victims from seeking help from them. The results confirmed the existence of the association between students’ perceived school climate by bullying and their behavior (roles in peer bullying.
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona
This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…
In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education ...
Valente, Thomas W; Fujimoto, Kayo; Soto, Daniel; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Unger, Jennifer B
Consistent evidence has shown that one of the most significant influences on adolescent smoking is peer influence. There is considerable variation, however, in how peer influence is measured. This study constructs social network influence and selection variables from egocentric and sociometric data to compare their associations with smoking, with considerations of perceived smoking norms and adolescent popularity. Longitudinal data were collected in the 9th and 10th grades in October 2006 and 2007 from predominantly Hispanic/Latino adolescents in seven Southern California schools; among these adolescents, 1,950 completed surveys at both waves. Both cross-sectional (separately for 9th and 10th graders) and longitudinal models were estimated. An egocentric measure of perceived friend smoking was strongly and consistently associated with individual smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ≈ 1.80, p peer influence and underscores the importance of perceptions and popularity as mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aragon, Steven R.; Poteat, V. Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian W.
A total of 11,447 high school students were surveyed to test the relation between victimization and the educational outcomes of truancy, post-high school intentions, and grades for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ students. LGBTQ students reported statistically higher truancy, lower grades, greater…
peer educators' experience of implementing the intervention, personal growth and experience with interacting with young people, and .... aimed to improve the knowledge of high school ..... peer leadership can result in changes of attitude in.
Bendixen, Mons; Daveronis, Josef; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
The paper examines how strongly non-physical peer sexual harassment is associated with a wide range of well-being outcomes from symptoms of depression and anxiety to self-esteem and body image. Two large community samples of high school students were analyzed (n = 1384 and n = 1485). Students responded to questionnaires on being subject to non-physical sexual harassment, sexual coercion and forced intercourse, and to well-being indicators ranging from anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image. Regression analyses suggest that being harassed by peers in a non-physical way was moderately associated with lower levels of well-being over and above the effect of other risk factors. This effect was present for all indicators of well-being. The effect of peer harassment on depressive symptoms was moderated by sex (affected women more) but not by sexual or ethnic minority status. The findings imply that although sticks and stones may break bones, it does seem that derogatory words and other forms of non-physical sexual harassment definitely harm high school students.
Al-Mandwee, Samir F.
The objective of this dissertation was to quantitatively study Iraqi students (N=90) who arrived in the U.S.A. in the last 20 years. A non-experimental, descriptive research design was used for this study, which took place in one of three high schools in a large Midwestern suburban school district, during the 2013--2014 academic year. Three factors, including the students' perception of the value of education, the parental support, and the peer support, were examined using the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire. The three subscales were part of a larger self-administered questionnaire used by McInerney (1997). In addition to the FCQ survey, a student demographic questionnaire was also used in the survey. Quantitative data from the FCQ survey reported that the students' perception of the value of education and their perception of peer support had a significant relationship with science academic achievement, which was measured for two semesters. Moreover, their peer support was the only predictor for science achievement.
Gema Martín Seoane
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.
This study investigated the influences of Acohol Consumption peer influence and secodnary school stuents attitudes towards schol in some selected secodnary shools in Katsit, Kafanchan, Kaduna State. The study adopted a correlational research design and the population of this study was 200 senior students from four (4) ...
Benner, Aprile D.; Crosnoe, Robert; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
Adolescents’ perceptions of the prejudice in their social environments can factor into their developmental outcomes. The degree to which others in the environment perceive such prejudice—regardless of adolescents’ own perceptions—also matters by shedding light on the contextual climate in which adolescents spend their daily lives. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study revealed that schoolwide perceptions of peer prejudice, which tap into the interpersonal climate of schools, appeared to be particularly risky for adolescents’ academic achievement. In contrast, adolescents’ own perceptions of peer prejudice at schools were associated with their feelings of alienation in school. Importantly, these patterns did not vary substantially by several markers of vulnerability to social stigmatization. PMID:25750496
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...
Castleman, Benjamin L.; Page, Lindsay C.
A report released in April 2013 by Benjamin L Castleman of Harvard University and Lindsay C. Page of the Center for Education Policy Research at Harvard University examines the implications of two forms of interventions during the summer between high school and the first year of college on college enrollment. "Summer Nudging: Can Personalized…
Gairns, Felicity; Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben
Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE), there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students’ relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students’ perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a) engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b) satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c) were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy). Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE. PMID:26157404
Gairns, Felicity; Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben
Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE), there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students' relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students' perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a) engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b) satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c) were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy). Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE.
Full Text Available Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE, there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students’ relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students’ perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy. Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE.
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten Visby; Skyt Nielsen, Helena
This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving schoolcohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...
Dawes, Molly; Chen, Chin-Chih; Farmer, Thomas W; Hamm, Jill V
Patterns of adjustment for youth victimized by peers vary depending on whether youth are identified as victims through self-reports, peer-reports, or both. In order to provide more targeted strategies that may help mitigate negative consequences associated with specific victimization groups, more information is needed about how these youth perceive their school ecology (bullying and academic ecology), their feelings of school belonging, and their valuing of school. Based on the convergence of self- and peer-reports of victimization, we identified four victim groups from a sample of students in 5th grade classrooms (N = 1360; 52.8% girls, 53.1% White, 34.6% Black or Hispanic, 12.2% Native American, Asian, or other) using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA): convergent victims (high self- and peer-reports), self-identified victims (high self-, low peer-reports), peer-identified victims (low self-, high peer-reports), and nonvictims (low self- and peer-reports). Convergent victims' perceptions were similar to nonvictims with key differences being convergent victims' greater willingness to protect peers being bullied but lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Peer-identified and self-identified victims perceived differences in the bullying and academic ecology including peer-identified victims' greater willingness to protect peers and expectations for more peers to encourage bulling against them compared to self-identified victims. However, both peer- and self-identified victims perceived greater emotional risk of participating in class and had lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Implications for supporting youth with divergent self- and peer-reported victimization status as they transition to middle school are discussed.
Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer; Moss, Colleen K.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Bolt, Dan M.; Born, Tiffany L.; Brock, Matthew E.; Cattey, Gillian N.; Chen, Rui; Cooney, Molly; Fesperman, Ethan; Hochman, Julia M.; Huber, Heartley B.; Lequia, Jenna L.; Lyons, Gregory; Moyseenko, Kerrie A.; Riesch, Lindsay M.; Shalev, Rebecca A.; Vincent, Lori B.; Weir, Katie
Enhancing the social and learning experiences of students with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms has been a long-standing focus of research, legislative, and advocacy efforts. The authors used a randomized controlled experimental design to examine the efficacy of peer support arrangements to improve academic and social outcomes for 51…
Suldo, Shannon M.; Gelley, Cheryl D.; Roth, Rachel A.; Bateman, Lisa P.
Modern definitions of complete mental health include both positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning. We examined the associations between peer relationships (victimization and receipt of prosocial acts) and multiple indicators of mental health that represent subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative…
Schmits, Emilie; Mathys, Cécile; Quertemont, Etienne
This study identified protective and risk factors of cannabis use initiation, including expectancies and social anxiety. A questionnaire was completed twice by 877 teenagers. Logistic regressions, mediation and moderation analyses were performed. Significant risk factors were alcohol use, peer users, perceptual enhancement, and craving expectancies. Protective factors were negative behavior expectancies and social anxiety. Social anxiety protected from initiation through the mediating role of perceptual enhancement and craving expectancies, whatever the role of peer users and alcohol use. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protection, in an overall approach including internalizing factors. Results support the identification of an internalizing profile of adolescents for prevention or treatment and the importance of social anxiety and expectancies in intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang
This study aims to examine the relationships between social withdrawal, peer rejection and peer victimization among Taiwanese middle school students as well as to explore the applicability of relevant models in an East Asia culture context. The sample of this study consists of 219 7th grade students from middle schools in Taiwan. Data from…
Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.
We examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical linear…
Full Text Available Statement of problem: Future orientation is a multidimensional and multistage phenomenon. Studies have indicated that how adolescents anticipate and plan for their future is greatly influenced by the particular context in which they are placed, but most of the research in this area has been conducted with adolescents from western cultures. Aim: This study examined the personal (getting married, moving with the partner, having a child and professional (having a job, starting a business future planning of adolescents in contemporary Romania and its relation with adolescents’ background and with parents and friends support. Method: We administered a questionnaire measuring their future orientation and support from parents and friends to 3524 high school seniors from Romania. Results: Adolescents’ personal future planning varies across different life domains. Females were more likely to plan moving with the partner and getting married, while males were more likely to plan a career option. Family had an effect on professional plans, but the effect is negative, while friends were positive associated with all the future planning
This study investigated the influence of peer group on the study habit of secondary school adolescents. A sample of two hundred and ninety two (292) students was randomly selected from nine schools in two Local Government Areas of Ogun State. Two instruments were used to collect data. They are: Adolescents' Peer ...
Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of the 10 peer educators. Information from the interviews was transcribed verbatim, analysed, and coded thematically. The themes that emerged from the a...
Senior Secondary School Students in Uromi Metropolis. Ojugo ... Key words: Peer victimization, Bullying, School Attendance, Students, Counselling ... challenges children face at school; as a growing number of students perceive their .... record in Secondary Schools in. Uromi Metropolis. Score Range. Grade. Interpretation.
Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy
School climate is widely recognized as an important influence on peer victimization in schools. The purpose of this study is to examine how authoritative school climate theory provides a framework for conceptualizing 2 key features of school climate--disciplinary structure and student support--that are associated with 3 measures of peer…
Frantz, J. M.
Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of…
Hale, Jason S.
Many professions recognize the benefits of peer reviews to assess processes and operations because peers can more easily identify one another's inefficiencies and provide some kind of intervention. Generally, the goal of the peer review process is to verify whether the work satisfies the standards set by the industry. A number of states have begun…
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May 2008. The sample consisted of 96 intervention (i.e. Teen PEP peer educators) and 61 comparison students from five high schools in New Jersey. Baseline a...
high-risk behaviour related to HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and various forms of crime. Peer supporters .... nator from the Gauteng Department of Education to implement the project in ..... and aggression, and being idealised by their peers.
Full Text Available Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of the 10 peer educators. Information from the interviews was transcribed verbatim, analysed, and coded thematically. The themes that emerged from the analysis of the informal discussion and in-depth interviews were grouped into categories, which included peer educators' experience of implementing the intervention, personal growth and experience with interacting with young people, and personal reflection on the presentation of the intervention. The role of peer educators was shown to be crucial to the success of peer-led programmes, but it is clear that equipping and supporting them through the process of implementation is essential.
The literature identifies three main types of peer associations: cliques, crowds, and dyadic friendships. When schools create learning communities, an additional type of peer association may emerge that is not based on interactions but instead is based on membership in a shared community. The aim of this study is to qualitatively explore the…
Tsivitanidou, Olia E.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Hovardas, Tasos
The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary school students' unmediated peer assessment skills. Specifically, 36 seventh graders, without receiving any kind of support, were anonymously assigned to reciprocally assess their peers' science web-portfolios. Additionally, students' attitudes towards and intentions about the use of…
Bucey, Janet C.; Provident, Ingrid M.
This article evaluates a peer mentoring experience for school-based practitioners and its effect on collaborative consultation practices. Best practice and public school policy promote the use of collaborative consultation services but school-based practitioners report significant barriers in achieving effective collaborative consultation…
Gloppen, Kari M.; Gower, Amy L.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.
Background: Peer harassment can have serious implications for students' success and well-being, and prevention programs need to consider the school context. This study aimed to: (1) identify groups of similar schools based on their risk and protective factors and demographic characteristics and (2) examine associations between school profiles and…
Santee, Jennifer; Garavalia, Linda
Peer tutoring programs may be one method of maintaining quality of pharmacy education in the face of growing student enrollment and a small faculty body. A critical review of the literature was performed to ascertain whether peer tutoring programs improve or maintain the academic performance of health care professional students. Various electronic databases and abstracts from past American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's annual meetings were searched to identify pertinent research. Only those articles with quantitative data, an experimental design, and comparative statistical analysis were included for review. Most studies found that peer tutoring had a positive impact on academic performance. These results may not be readily generalizable as there were numerous methodological flaws and limited descriptions of the programs and participants. Studies with better designs and more detail are needed to answer definitively whether peer tutoring is of benefit. Details of what resources were required should be included in the study to allow the reader to determine the feasibility of the intervention.
This study investigated test anxiety, attitude to schooling, parental influence, and peer pressure as predictors of cheating tendencies in examination among secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, 1200 senior ...
This study examined peer Influence on School Learning among students of varying socio-economic backgrounds. One hundred and twenty students (60 males and 60 females) with a mean age 15.1 years were randomly selected from four co-educational Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government area of Ogun State.
This study evaluated the effect of an AIDS education program on deaf secondary school students' knowledge, attitude and perceived susceptibility to AIDS using peer education. Two secondary schools matched for ownership (government), composition (mixture of hearing and deaf) and teaching arrangement (separate ...
Law, Ben; Shek, Daniel; Ma, Cecilia
Objective: This article examines the measurement invariance of "Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism Scale" (FSPV) across genders using the mean and covariance structure analysis approach. Method: A total of 2,845 Chinese high school adolescents aged 11 to 15 years completed the FSPV scale. Results: Results of the…
F.M. Weerman (Frank); P. Wilcox (Pamela); C.J. Sullivan (Christopher J.)
markdownabstract_Objectives:_ To analyze short-term changes in peer affiliations, offending behavior and routine activities in order to evaluate three different processes: peer selection, peer socialization and situational peer influences. _Methods:_ The short-term longitudinal TEENS study was
Grills, Amie E.
The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among peer victimization, global self-worth, social support, and internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety, social anxiety, and depression). Of particular interest were the potential mediating and moderating roles of global self-worth and social support in the anticipated relationships between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms. All sixth grade children from a public middle school completed self-report measur...
Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Perry, Cheryl L
Peer education has become a popular strategy for health promotion interventions with adolescents, but it has not been used widely in school-based nutrition education. This paper describes and reports on the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable intakes and lower fat foods. About 1,000 seventh-grade students in eight schools received the nutrition intervention. Of these, 272 were trained as peer leaders to assist the teacher in implementing the activities. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation based on peer leader and classroom student feedback, direct classroom observation, and teacher ratings and interviews are presented. Results show that peer-led nutrition education approaches in schools are feasible and have high acceptability among peer leaders, classroom students, and teachers.
Kopels, Sandra; Dupper, David R.
Describes extent and impact of harassment; responses of victims, school personnel, and perpetrators to harassment; and legal redress available to victims. Includes specific steps social workers and other school personnel should take to prevent or alleviate such problems. (LBT)
Jan, M A; Fraz, M M; Ali, A; Ali, Arshad; Fraz, Mohammad Moazam; Jan, Muhammad Asif; Zahid, Fahd Ali
This paper presents a prototype for redundant, highly available and fault tolerant peer to peer framework for data management. Peer to peer computing is gaining importance due to its flexible organization, lack of central authority, distribution of functionality to participating nodes and ability to utilize unused computational resources. Emergence of GRID computing has provided much needed infrastructure and administrative domain for peer to peer computing. The components of this framework exploit peer group concept to scope service and information search, arrange services and information in a coherent manner, provide selective redundancy and ensure availability in face of failure and high load conditions. A prototype system has been implemented using JXTA peer to peer technology and XML is used for service description and interfaces, allowing peers to communicate with services implemented in various platforms including web services and JINI services. It utilizes code mobility to achieve role interchange amo...
Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Masters, Dylan E; Vener, Margo; Wamsley, Maria; Poncelet, Ann
When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students' perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups. We invited students in clerkship program models with continuity (CMCs) and in traditional block clerkships (BCs) to complete a survey about peer relationships with open-ended questions based on a workplace learning framework, including themes of workplace-based relationships, the nature of work practices, and selection of tasks and activities. We conducted qualitative content analysis to characterize students' experiences. In both BCs and CMCs, peer groups provided rich resources, including anticipatory guidance about clinical expectations of students, best practices in interacting with patients and supervisors, helpful advice in transitioning between rotations, and information about implicit rules of clerkships. Students also used each other as benchmarks for gauging strengths and deficits in their own knowledge and skills. Students achieve many aspects of workplace learning in clerkships through formal or informal workplace-based peer groups. In these groups, peers provide accessible, real-time, and relevant resources to help each other navigate transitions, clarify roles and tasks, manage interpersonal challenges, and decrease isolation. Medical schools can support effective workplace learning for medical students by incorporating continuity with peers in the main clinical clerkship year.
Opp, Gunther; Unger, Nicola; Teichmann, Jana
The many sea-changes in German culture have given rise to a growing population of children and youth at risk. This article describes the creation of a Positive Peer Culture in a special school for students with emotional and behavioural problems. The authors review challenges facing youth in modern Germany, the implementation of the PPC program,…
Brix, Jacinta; Grainger, Peter; Hill, Angela
Accountability agendas are influencing the secondary education sector in Australian schools. Analysis of student achievement, student feedback mechanisms and personal reflection are forming part of these agendas as methods of teacher evaluation. Additionally, and more recently, teacher evaluation through "peer review" is emerging as a…
Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J
The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Audrey Menezes,1,2 Annette Burgess,1 Antonia J Clarke,1,3 Craig Mellis1 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney; 2Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital; 3Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods: All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 66 of 101 (65% Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40% students as tutors. The tutees' response rate was 53% (35/66. Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion: Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo
This study focused on the peer and teacher relationships of deaf children and the effects of these relationships on well-being in school during the transition from elementary school to junior high school. Differences due to gender and educational context were also considered. In Study 1, the predictive effects of peer acceptance, popularity, and…
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J
The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.
Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Background: Dating nowadays becomes life style of teenage and a common thing. Their dating style has tendency on risky behavior. Foundation of Sentra Informasi dan Komunikasi Orang Kito (SIKOK) Jambi conducted a survey of 1.182 students in Senior High School in Jambi yielding that 8% of women claimed to have conducted a conjugal relationship with her boyfriend. Free sex among teenagers is also compounded by the attitude of the parents who began to tend to loose oversight, and a perception tha...
De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Astor, Ron Avi; Gilreath, Tamika; Benbenishty, Rami; Berkowitz, Ruth
In the Iraq and Afghanistan war context, studies have found that military-connected youth- youth with parents and/or siblings serving in the military-have higher rates of school victimization than their nonmilitary-connected peers. A positive school climate-where students perceive high levels of school connectedness, caring relationships and high expectations from adults, and meaningful participation-is associated with lower rates of victimization in secondary public schools. Based on a survey of 7th, 9th, and 11th grade students (N =14,493) enrolled in 6 military-connected school districts (districts that have a significant proportion of military-connected students), this study explores victimization rates and the role of school climate, deployment, and school transitions in the victimization of military-connected students and their civilian peers. The findings indicate that deployment and school transitions were significant predictors of physical violence and nonphysical victimization. In addition, multiple school climate factors were significantly associated with physical violence and nonphysical victimization. The authors conclude with a discussion of future directions for research on school climate, victimization, and military-connected youth.
Graham, Sandra; Juvonen, Jaana
Examined peer groups and school ethnic composition as risk factors for peer harassment during early adolescence. Peers nominated aggressive and harassed students and reported self-perceived loneliness, social anxiety, and global self-esteem. Found that deviations from normative perceptions of a person's peer group were particularly detrimental to…
Engels, Maaike C; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bijttebier, Patricia; Den Noortgate, Wim Van; Claes, Stephan; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine
This accelerated longitudinal study examined how peer status (i.e., peer likeability and popularity) is involved in adolescents' school engagement trajectories. A large sample of students was followed from Grades 7 to 11 (N=1116; M age =13.79years). Students' school engagement and peer status were assessed using self-reports and peer nominations, respectively. Latent growth curve modeling revealed that different engagement dimensions were differentially associated with peer status. Likeability was positively related to both behavioral and emotional engagement in Grade 7, but not to behavioral and emotional disaffection. In contrast, popularity was related to less behavioral engagement and more behavioral disaffection at the start of secondary education, but not to emotional engagement and disaffection. Moreover, students' aggressive behavior moderated the relation between popularity and behavioral engagement in Grade 7, denoting the risk of popularity in combination with average and high levels of aggression. Results suggest that adolescents' popularity may interfere with meeting academic demands in general and with showing engagement in particular. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Méndez, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; López-García, J J
The main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between peer school victimization and some risk and protection factors and to compare the differences by role in victimization with those of non-involved bystanders. Our participants were 1,264 secondary students ( M = 14.41, SD = 1.43) who participated voluntarily, although an informed consent was requested. A logistic regression model (LR) was used in order to identify the victim's potential risks and protective factors related to non-involved bystanders. A multiple LR and a forward stepwise LR (Wald) were used. The results showed the variables related to the victim profile were: individual features (to be male, to be at the first cycle of compulsory Secondary Education and a few challenging behaviors), school environments (i.e., school adjustment), family environment (parental styles like authoritarianism) and social environment (i.e., friends who occasionally show a positive attitude toward drug consumption and easy access to drugs, access to drugs perceived as easy, rejection by peers or lack of social acceptance and social maladjustment). The results of the study will allow tackling prevention and intervention actions in schools, families, and social environment in order to improve coexistence at school and to assist the victimized students in the classroom.
Campolongo, Edward D.
This study investigated what Christian schools were doing with peer-mentoring programs. A total of 344 secondary schools accredited by the Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) received a 19-question electronic survey that focused on the specifics of their peer-mentoring programs. A total of 80 schools responded, with 55% reporting…
Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley
School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…
McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.
This cross-sectional study investigated the bivariate and more fully controlled (with socio-demographic measures) relationship between self-reported drinking behaviour and peer pressure susceptibility, desire for peer popularity and general conformity in a sample of 11-16-year-old school children in Northern Ireland. Self-reported drinking…
Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective
This article explores the role of the Deaf child as peer educator. In schools where sign languages were banned, Deaf children became the educators of their Deaf peers in a number of contexts worldwide. This paper analyses how this peer education of sign language worked in context by drawing on two examples from boarding schools for the deaf in…
This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…
Anderson, Kristen G; Tomlinson, Kristin; Robinson, Joanna M; Brown, Sandra A
The relation between social anxiety and alcohol consumption suggests aspects of both risk and protection, but most research has focused on late adolescents and emerging adults. We investigated the synergistic impact of social anxiety, a need for affiliation with others, and perceived peer alcohol use on drinking in a sample of more than 1,500 early adolescents from southern California (48% girls). Via school-wide surveys, middle school students completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised, a modified version of the Interpersonal Orientation Scale, as well as measures of perceived peer drinking and self-reported lifetime and current drinking. For socially anxious youths, high levels of perceived peer use in conjunction with high levels of affiliation need was associated with greater alcohol use on average and more frequent episodic drinking. Specific to heavy episodic drinking, the interaction of social anxiety and perceived peer drinking seemed to affect girls and boys differentially. Sex differences emerged for the moderation of social anxiety's influence on drinking initiation by perceived peer influence. These findings suggest that alcohol-related risks associated with social anxiety might be gender specific and more important in earlier stages of alcohol use than previously believed.
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Lai, Chiu-Lin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Chu, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Chin-Chung
In this study, a one-year program was conducted to investigate the relationships between students' perceptions of mobile learning and their tendencies of peer interaction and higher-order thinking in issue-based mobile learning activities. To achieve the research objective, a survey consisting of eight scales, namely, usability, continuity,…
Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.
Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley
School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne; Chen, Xinyin; Kinal, Megan; Boyko, Lisa
Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (M[subscript age] = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were…
Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Wilson, Nichola C; Singh, Primal P; Lemanu, Daniel P; Hawken, Susan J; Hill, Andrew G
Introduction International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL) during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice. Objective To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students. Method A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes. Results From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective contexts, achieves short-term learner outcomes that are comparable with those produced by faculty-based teaching. Furthermore, peer-teaching has beneficial effects on student-teacher learning outcomes. Conclusions Peer-teaching in undergraduate medical programs is comparable to conventional teaching when utilized in selected contexts. There is evidence to suggest
Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Smith, David; Bowen, François
We examine longitudinal relations among children's and parents' reports of peer victimization and their perceptions of school climate dimensions reflecting school interpersonal relationships (relationships among children and their teachers and peers, and of parents and principals) and values (fairness and equity of access to resources). Children were in Grades 3 and 4 at Time 1 (Mage = 9.32, SDage = .74; 49% boys). Bidirectional influences of school climate and reports of peer victimization were investigated in path models across grade (Time 1 to Time 2) and within a grade (Time 2 to Time 3). Child and parent reports of school climate dimensions showed considerable stability. Hypothesized reciprocal relationships between each of the school climate dimensions and peer victimization were significant. Child-reported frequency of parent involvement in school activities was associated with lower levels of peer victimization within a school year. Parent perceptions of involvement in school activities and the schools' connection with the community were unrelated to the children's reports of peer victimization. Children's negative cognitions or "worldviews" coupled with peer victimization may fuel problems with school connectedness, safety, and help seeking. Findings shed light on possible pathways for reducing peer victimization by leveraging specific aspects of the social climate within schools.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
Cooc, North; Kim, James S.
Research has found that peers influence the academic achievement of children. However, the mechanisms through which peers matter remain underexplored. The present study examined the relationship between peers' reading skills and children's own reading skills among 4,215 total second- and third-graders in 294 classrooms across 41 schools. One…
O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey
The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…
This study examines the links between students' reports of sexual harassment victimization by peers and a number of individual and school contextual factors. It is based on a nationally representative sample of 16,604 students in Grades 7 through 11 in 327 schools across Israel who completed questionnaires during class. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to examine the links. Overall, approximately one in four students (25.6%) were victims of at least one unwanted and unwelcome act of harassment by peers (such as being touched or pinched in sexual manner) in the prior month. The most vulnerable groups were Israeli-Arab boys and students with negative perceptions of their school climate. The school correlates associated with higher levels of victimization were a higher share of students with less-educated parents, larger schools and classrooms, and negative school climate. The interactions between gender and school-related factors indicate that the gender patterns are different for Israeli-Arab and Jewish schools and for schools with different concentrations of students' families with low socioeconomic status. The study emphasizes the need for an ecological perspective in addressing school-based sexual harassment.
Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Kosola, Silja; Degenhardt, Louisa; Allen, Nicholas B; Patton, George C
Peer victimization is a common antecedent of poor social and emotional adjustment. Its relationship with objectively measured academic performance is unclear. In this study we aimed to quantify the cross-sectional associations between peer victimization and academic performance in a large population sample of children. Eight- to 9-year-old children were recruited from a stratified random sample of primary schools in Australia. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test (1 year of learning equals 40 points). Physical and verbal victimization were measured according to child self-report. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were conducted. For female children, verbal victimization was associated with poorer academic performance on writing (β = 17.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -28.2 to -6.2) and grammar/punctuation (β = -20.8; 95% CI, -40.1 to -1.6). Physical victimization was associated with poorer performance on numeracy (male children: β = -29.0; 95% CI, -53.8 to -4.1; female children: β = -30.1; 95% CI, -56.6 to -3.5), and writing (female children: β = -21.5; 95% CI, -40.4 to -2.7). Verbal and physical victimization were associated with poorer performance on reading (male children: β = -31.5; 95% CI, -59.9 to -3.1; female children: β = -30.2; 95% CI, -58.6 to -1.8), writing (female children: β = -25.5; 95% CI, -42.8 to -8.2), spelling (female children: β = -32.3; 95% CI, -59.6 to -4.9), and grammar/punctuation (female children: β = -32.2; 95% CI, -62.4 to -2.0). Children who were physically victimized were 6 to 9 months behind their non-victimized peers on measures of academic performance. There are growing reasons for education systems to invest in the prevention of bullying and promotion of positive peer relationships from the earliest years of school. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann
This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…
Loke, A Y; Mak, Y W; Wu, C S T
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peer pressure and the health risk behaviors of secondary school students. Cross-sectional study using a self-completed questionnaire. Secondary school students in Year 3 were the target population of this study. Information was solicited from students on their perceptions of peer pressure using a questionnaire employing the Peer Pressure Inventory and their involvement in risk behaviors using a modified global school-based student health survey. A total of 840 secondary students from Hong Kong completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of secondary students who had ever smoked was 6.4%, consumed alcohol 39.2%, ever used drugs 0.5%, were sexually active 3.9%, and involved in bullying 20.5%. A higher proportion of secondary students involved in risk behaviors were affiliated with peers who were involved in the same activities: smoking (48.9%), drinking alcohol (86.5%), using drugs (18.2%), engaged in sexual activity (34.5%), and bullying (82.6%). The perception of peer conformity and peer involvement was found to be significantly correlated with the students' health risk behaviors, particularly with regard to smoking, drinking alcohol, and bullying. A logistic regression analysis showed that having friends who are involved in the same risk behaviors is the single most important factor associated with the participation of secondary students in those specific risk behaviors. The results of this study provided a better understanding of the association between peer pressure and the adoption of health behaviors. The development of effective peer-led prevention programs to reduce the uptake of health risk behaviors should therefore be promoted to prevent adolescents from developing serious health problems. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bilić, Vesna; Buljan Flander, Gordana; Rafajac, Branko
This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On...
Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.
Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicate...
Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan; Huang, Francis
Research indicates that a positive school climate is associated with higher levels of student engagement and lower rates of peer aggression. However, less attention has been given to whether such findings are consistent across racial/ethnic groups. The current study examined whether Black, Hispanic, and White high school students differed in their perceptions of school climate, student engagement, and peer aggression as measured by the Authoritative School Climate survey. In addition, the study tested whether the associations between school climate and both student engagement and peer aggression varied as a function of racial/ethnic group. The sample consisted of 48,027 students in grades 9-12 (51.4 % female; 17.9 % Black, 10.5 % Hispanic, 56.7 % White, and 14.9 % other) attending 323 high schools. Regression models that contrasted racial/ethnic groups controlled for the nesting of students within schools and used student covariates of parent education, student gender, and percentage of schoolmates sharing the same race/ethnicity, as well as school covariates of school size and school percentage of students eligible for free- or reduced-price meals. Perceptions of school climate differed between Black and White groups, but not between Hispanic and White groups. However, race/ethnicity did not moderate the associations between school climate and either engagement or peer aggression. Although correlational and cross-sectional in nature, these results are consistent with the conclusion that a positive school climate holds similar benefits of promoting student engagement and reducing victimization experiences across Black, Hispanic, and White groups.
Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.
Social systems, particularly family, school, and peer, are especially critical in influencing adolescents to participate in volunteer service; however, no objective measures of this construct exist. Objectives: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism scale (FSPV) among Chinese…
Joshua, Monday T.; Joshua, Akon M.; Bassey, Bassey A.; Akubuiro, Idorenyin M.
The study investigated the general attitude of Nigerian secondary school teachers toward peer evaluation of teachers. It also sought to determine whether teacher characteristics such as gender, school geographical location, academic qualification and teaching experience affected Nigerian teachers' attitude toward peer evaluation of teachers. To…
This article examines teachers' perceptions of, and experiences with, professional development opportunities involving a school-based project on peer observation of teaching. The study aims to reveal the ways in which seven teachers in one primary school in Cyprus see themselves as agents improving their own and peers' teaching through informal…
Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Lerner, Richard M.; Leventhal, Tama
During adolescence, peer groups present an important venue for socializing school-related behaviors such as academic achievement and school engagement. While a significant body of research emphasizes the link between a youth's immediate peer group and academic outcomes, the current manuscript expands on this idea, proposing that, in addition to…
The present review examined the effectiveness of three peer tutoring programs: cross-age peer tutoring, Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), for elementary students in the academic areas of math and reading. The research reviewed indicates students who participated in cross-age peer tutoring and CWPT had improved test scores on basic math facts as well as increased math scores on standardized assessments. Students also showed improvement in reading flu...
Discusses the shift from high school journalism to college journalism for students. Describes the role of the high school journalism advisor in that process. Offers checklists for getting to know a college publication. Outlines ways high school journalism teachers can take advantage of journalism resources available at local colleges and…
Thompson, Brett A.
Since its inception in 1997, Cisco's curriculum has entered thousands of high schools across the U.S. and around the world for two reasons: (1) Cisco has a large portion of the computer networking market, and thus has the resources for and interest in developing high school academies; and (2) high school curriculum development teams recognize the…
For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…
The purpose of this project was to implement a peer-to-peer drivers safety program designed for high school students. : This project builds upon an effective peer-to-peer outreach effort in Texas entitled Teens in the Driver Seat (TDS), the : nati...
Marcos Vinicius Francisco
Full Text Available A presente pesquisa, de natureza quali-quantitativa, teve como objetivo caracterizar o bullying em duas escolas públicas estaduais de Presidente Prudente-SP, através da aplicação de questionários semi-aberto, em duzentos e oitenta e três alunos de 5as e 8as séries, quanto à: freqüência, gênero, local e idades prevalecentes de acometimento do bullying, tipos, local de residência do aluno, efeitos sobre o comportamento e sentimentos do vitimizado, e opiniões dos participantes sobre o enfrentamento do problema. O questionário utilizado baseou-se em estudos de Elliott (1992 e Olweus (1991. Os resultados permitiram caracterizar as dimensões do bullying na realidade estudada, bem como constatar sua presença no ambiente escolar, o que requer mais atenção dos profissionais da educação para o enfrentamento do fenômeno.This research, of quali-quantitative nature, had the aim of characterizing the phenomenon of bullying in two state public schools of Presidente Prudente-SP through the use of questionnaires applied to two hundred eighty-three students of 5th and 8th grades. It was taken into consideration frequency, gender, most common places and ages of bullying prevalence, students' place of living, effects on the behavior and the feelings of the victim, as well as the opinion of the participants about facing the problem. The questionnaire used was based on studies of Elliot (1992 and Olweus (1991. The results were likely to characterize the dimensions of bullying in the studied reality, what allowed us to confirm its presence in the school environment, requesting more attention from the education professionals concerning the phenomenon.
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Olga A. Karabanova
Full Text Available The role of moral atmosphere(MA (L.Kolberg at school in the process of shaping the image of the reference peer in adolescents from the standpoint of the orienting activity theory ofP.Ya.Galperin is discussed. In the context of the developmental psychology approach (L.S. Vygotsky, D.B.El’konin the moral atmosphere of the school is viewed as a component of the social situation of development (SSR in adolescence. The construct «the image of the reference peer» (ORF is considered. The significant personality traits of the ORF as the I-ideal for modern adolescents are revealed on the basis of the typology of personality traits proposed by the authors (skills, communicative, activity, moral, external characteristics, which reflect the importance of self-presentation of adolescents and their focusing on the interpersonal relationships to achieve high intra-group status. The similarities and differences in the ORS of adolescents and their perceptions of the ORS pattern in peers are revealed. The age and gender characteristics of the ORS and ORS image «in peer-eyed» are revealed. The results of empirical study of the perception patterns of school MA by contemporary Russian adolescents are discussed. Differences in the structure of the ORS of adolescents with different perceptions of the school MA were revealed. It is shown that for teenagers with the perception of the MA of the school as democratic, the most important are the communicative and activity personality traits with the significance of moral traits. Adolescents with the perception of the MA school as authoritarian or ambivalent above all appreciate the value of external characteristics and skills and least of all moral traits. The orienting role of the school MA as a system of rules, norms and values of the school community for the formation of the ORS image of a modern teenager in the context of the level model of the orienting activity (A.I. Podolsky is proved.
Ganz, Jennifer B; Heath, Amy K; Lund, Emily M; Camargo, Siglia P H; Rispoli, Mandy J; Boles, Margot; Plaisance, Lauren
Although research has investigated the impact of peer-mediated interventions and visual scripts on social and communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorders, no studies to date have investigated peer-mediated implementation of scripts. This study investigated the effects of peer-implemented scripts on a middle school student with autism, intellectual impairments, and speech-language impairment via a multiple baseline single-case research design across behaviors. The target student demonstrated improvements in three communicative behaviors when implemented by a trained peer; however, behaviors did not generalize to use with an untrained typically developing peer.
Pulido Valero, Rosa; Martín Seoane, Gema; Lucas Molina, Beatriz
Though violence at school is by no means a new phenomenon, there has been growing social and scientific concern about this issue in recent years. The present study builds on prior analysis of the roles adolescents play in peer harassment, and the relationship between violence occurring at school and during free time. A representative sample of students between the ages of 14 and 18 was selected in the Community of Madrid (N = 1622) through random cluster sampling (school was the unit of analysis). Participants completed the C.E.V.E.O. questionnaire, which presents fifteen situations involving peer violence. The results reveal a relationship between violent situations occurring at school and during free time, and between the roles of aggressor and victim during free time. A profile analysis yielded three different categories: the "minimal violence exposure" type (1126 adolescents), the "psychological violence exposure" type (413 adolescents), and the "high risk of violence" type (83 adolescents). Judging from these results, we posit that interventions must be designed which tailor to each group and their respective risk situations.
Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan
Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Steinberg, Sarah E.
This two-phase study determined the landscape and intent of medical school peer mentoring programs in the U.S., U.S. Territories and Canada and, as far as can be determined, is the first of its kind. Insights from established peer mentoring programs, discovered by exploring their purpose, design, evaluations and outcomes, formed the evidence-based…
Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…
Professional development is important for all teachers, and in low socio-economic schools where the challenges of teaching are greater this need is crucial. A model involving a combination of one-on-one peer mentoring integrated with group peer mentoring was piloted with experienced mathematics teachers of senior students in low socio-economic…
Nishina, Adrienne; Juvonen, Jaana
Two studies examined daily incidents of peer harassment in urban middle schools. Sixth-grade students (M age=11 years) described their daily personal experiences and witnessed accounts of peer harassment, and rated their negative feelings across a 2-week period. In Study 1 (n=95), within-subject analyses across 4 days revealed that both personally…
Beran, Tanya N.; Lupart, Judy
The relationship between school achievement and peer harassment was examined using individual and peer characteristics as mediating factors. The sample consisted of adolescents age 12-15 years (n = 4,111) drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which is a stratified random sample of 22,831 households in Canada.…
Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in ... that addressing the risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as physical activity participation and diet, ..... Sport, Physical Education and Recreation,.
Reports from national education organizations in the US indicate the sorry state of high schools in the country that are accused of failing to adequately prepare their graduates for college or for the workforce, highlighting what is a serious problem in light of the troubled state of the US economy. The need to improve high schools is urgent and…
Peterson, Jane W.
A study asked selected high school principals to respond to statements about the value of high school journalism to the high school student and about the rights and responsibilities of the high school journalist. These responses were then checked against such information as whether or not the high school principal had worked on a high school…
Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to have social dysfunction at school. The authors explored the role of key executive functions (EF, i.e., spatial working memory and spatial planning) on school and peer functions in 511 youths with persistent ADHD according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and 124 non-ADHD controls without any EF deficits. All the participants were assessed by a semi-structured psychiatric interview to confirm their previous and current diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders and by the Spatial Working Memory (SWM) and Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) tasks. The participants and their parents reported the participants' school functions and peer relationships. There were three ADHD subgroups: (1) ADHD with deficits in both SWM and SOC tasks (n=121); (2) ADHD with deficit in either SWM or SOC task (n=185); (3) ADHD without deficits in SWM or SOC task (n=205). All the three ADHD groups, regardless of EF deficits, had lower school grade, poorer attitude toward school work, poorer school interactions, more behavioral problems at school, and more severe problems in peer relationships than non-ADHD controls. Multivariate analyses revealed positive associations between deficit in the SWM task and school and peer dysfunctions, and between deficits in the SOC task and impaired peer interactions. Older age and psychiatric comorbidity also contributed to increased risk of school and peer dysfunctions. Our findings suggest that deficits in EF, such as spatial working memory and planning, might be associated with school and peer dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
of acceptance was found in the group of boy students in non-inclusive schools. Conclusion: As the results indicate, students with physical disabilities are much highly accepted by their peers in inclusive schools as compared with those in regular schools. This greater level of acceptance in inclusive schools could be reflective of the reality that the experience of contact and familiarity with a child who has a special need may encourage his/her feeling of being accepted by regular students. The limitations of this investigation and the overall scarcity of research in this area (in our country points out more needs for further researches, specially in regard to appropriate interventions for enhancement of peer acceptance.
Lemkin, Allison; Kistin, Caroline J; Cabral, Howard J; Aschengrau, Ann; Bair-Merritt, Megan
Maltreated youth have higher rates of school dropout than their non-maltreated peers. School connectedness is a modifiable predictor of school success. We hypothesized maltreated youth's school connectedness (supportive relationships with adults at school and participation in school clubs) would be positively associated with high school graduation. We included youth with at least one Child Protective Services (CPS) report by age twelve from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect, a prospective cohort study. Participation in extracurricular activities and adult relationships reported at age 16, high school graduation/General Education Development (GED) status reported at age 18, and demographics were provided by youth and caregivers. Maltreatment data were coded from CPS records. The outcome was graduation/receipt of GED. Multivariable logistic regressions examined the association between school connectedness and graduation/receipt of GED, controlling for confounders. In our sample of 318 maltreated youth, 73.3% graduated. School club was the only activity with a statistically significant association with graduation in bivariate analysis. Having supportive relationships with an adult at school was not significantly associated with graduation, though only 10.7% of youth reported this relationship. Maltreated youth who participated in school clubs had 2.54 times the odds of graduating, adjusted for study site, gender, poverty status, caregiver high school graduation status, and age at first CPS report (95% CI: [1.02, 6.33]). Few maltreated youth reported relationships with adults at school, and additional efforts may be needed to support these vulnerable youth. School club participation may represent an opportunity to modify maltreated youth's risk for school dropout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Several benefits of peer tutoring in medical school teaching have been described. However, there is a lack of research on the perceptions of peer tutoring, particularly from tutees who partake in a long-term clinical skills scheme integrated into the medical school curriculum. This study evaluates the opinions of preclinical tutees at the end of a 2-year peer-tutored clinical skills program and peer tutors themselves. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a UK-based medical school that primarily utilizes peer tutoring for clinical skills teaching. A questionnaire was designed to assess the views of preclinical tutees and peer tutors. Likert scales were used to grade responses and comment boxes to collect qualitative data. Results Sixty-five questionnaires were collected (52 tutees, 13 peer tutors). Seventy-nine percent of students felt satisfied with their teaching, and 70% felt adequately prepared for clinical placements. Furthermore, 79% believed that peer tutoring is the most effective method for clinical skills teaching. When compared to faculty teaching, tutees preferred being taught by peer tutors (63%), felt more confident (73%), and were more willing to engage (77%). All peer tutors felt that teaching made them more confident in their Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance, and 91% agreed that being a tutor made them consider pursuing teaching in the future. Thematic analysis of qualitative data identified 3 themes regarding peer tutoring: a more comfortable environment (69%), a more personalized teaching approach (34%), and variation in content taught (14%). Conclusion Preclinical tutees prefer being taught clinical skills by peer tutors compared to faculty, with the peer tutors also benefitting. Studies such as this, looking at long-term schemes, further validate peer tutoring and may encourage more medical schools to adopt this method as an effective way of clinical skills teaching. PMID:29922105
Carr, Martha; Barned, Nicole; Otumfuor, Beryl
This study examined the impact of performance goals on arithmetic strategy use, and how same-sex peer groups contributed to the selection of strategies used by first-graders. It was hypothesized that gender differences in strategy use are a function of performance goals and the influence of same-sex peers. Using a sample of 75 first grade…
Lucas Molina, Beatriz; Pulido Valero, Rosa; Solbes Canales, Irene
During the last decade, there has been a change in peer harassment research from a focus on the characteristics of the Aggressor-Victim dyad to the recognition of peer harassment as a whole group process, with most of children playing some kind of role. This study uses a shortened adaptation of the Participant-Role Questionnaire approach to identify these roles in 2,050 Spanish children aged 8 to 13 years. These Participant Roles were related to belonging to one of the five sociometric status groups. Factor analysis revealed four different roles, indicating that the adapted scale remains a reliable way of distinguishing the Aggressor, Victim, Defender of the victim, and Outsider roles. Boys played the roles of Aggressor and Victim significantly more frequently. The children's Participant Role was found to be related to their sociometric status. Progress in the measurement of peer harassment as a group process and the success of intervention strategies may depend on finding clearer distinctions among the different peer roles, mobilizing peer pressure, and isolating aggressors from their social support.
Full Text Available Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools. All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a no violence, (b victimization only, or (c perpetration (with or without victimization. Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration.49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting
Corboz, Julienne; Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel
Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration. 49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting and
Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel
Background Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children’s physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children’s peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children’s peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. Methods A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls’ and four boys’ schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration. Results 49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed
Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories. The exploratory variables include individual-level (immigrant generation status, ethnic origin, co-ethnic and co-generational peers - peers from the same immigrant generation) as well as school-level measures (average school socio-economic status and school climate). Multilevel modeling (logistic and negative binomial regression) was used to estimate substance use. Results indicate that preference for co-generational friends is inversely associated with frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use and preference for co-ethnic peers is inversely associated with other illicit drug use. We also find that school climate is a strong and negative predictor of frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use as well as of heavy episodic drinking. In terms of policy, these findings suggest that Asian American students should benefit from co-ethnic and co-generational peer networks in schools and, above all, from improving school climate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Many secondary students have given up the joy of reading. When asked why they don't read for pleasure, students came up with many different reasons, the first being lack of time. High school students are busy with after school jobs, sports, homework, etc. With the growing number of students enrolled in AP classes, not only is there not much time…
Green, Daniel G.
Strapped for cash, a Massachusetts high school creates its own venture capital fund to incentivize teachers to create programs that improve student learning. The result has been higher test scores and higher job satisfaction. One important program is credited with helping close the achievement gap at the school, while others have helped ambitious…
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J.
The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interact...
Madjar, N; Ben Shabat, S; Elia, R; Fellner, N; Rehavi, M; Rubin, S E; Segal, N; Shoval, G
Recent studies regarding non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents have focused primarily on individual characteristics (e.g., depressive symptoms) and background factors (e.g., parental relationship), whereas less emphasis has been given to the role of school-related factors in NSSI. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to explore the relationships between teachers' support, peer climate, and NSSI within the school context. The sample consisted of 594 high school students nested within 27 regular classes (54.4% boys; mean age 14.96, SD=1.33 years). The students were evaluated for NSSI behaviors, perception of teacher support, peer climate, relationships with mothers, and depressive symptoms using validated scales. The primary analysis used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), controlling for gender and age. The main findings indicated that teacher support was positively associated with NSSI at the classroom-level (OR=6.15, 95% CI=2.05-18.5) but negatively associated at the student-level (OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49-0.89). There was a trend toward an association between positive peer climate and NSSI at the classroom-level (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.18-1.05), while negative peer climate was associated with NSSI at the student-level (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.00-1.87). School-related factors are associated with NSSI behaviors among students. Teachers and educators should focus on both individual-level and classroom-level perceptions of school context. Students who feel supported by their teachers and who are exposed to a positive peer climate are less likely to engage in NSSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
This study examined the influence of academic teaming (i.e., sharing academic classes with the same classmates) on the relationship between social preference and peer victimization among 6th grade students in middle school. Approximately 1,000 participants were drawn from 5 middle schools that varied in their practice of academic teaming. A novel methodology for measuring academic teaming at the individual level was employed, in which students received their own teaming score based on the unique set of classmates with whom they shared academic courses in their class schedule. Using both peer- and self-reports of victimization, the results of two path models indicated that students with low social preference in highly teamed classroom environments were more victimized than low preference students who experienced less teaming throughout the school day. This effect was exaggerated in higher performing classrooms. Implications for the practice of academic teaming were discussed. PMID:25937668
Laufer, Avital; Harel, Yossi
This study explored the relative importance of family, peers and school in predicting youth violence. The analysis was done on a nationally representative sample included 8,394 students from grade 6th-10th in Israel. Measures of youth violence included bullying, physical fights and weapon carrying. The findings suggested that all three social systems had significant relations with youth violence, respectively. Variables found to predict violence were: Family-lack of parental support regarding school; Peers-Lack of social integration or too many evenings out with friends; School-feeling of school alienation, low academic achievement and perceptions of frequent acts of violence in school. School perceptions had the strongest predicting power. Findings emphasized the importance of focusing on improving the daily school experience in reducing youth violence.
Menzer, Melissa M; Torney-Purta, Judith
The purpose of this study was to examine two aspects of context for peer aggression: national individualism and distributions of socioeconomic status in the school. School administrators for each school reported on their perceptions of the frequency of bullying and violence in their school. The sample comprised 990 school principals/headmasters from nationally representative samples of schools in 15 countries surveyed as part of the larger IEA Civic Education Study (Torney-Purta, Lehmann, Oswald, & Schulz, 2001). A national context of individualism was associated with violence but not bullying. Schools with high socioeconomic diversity had more bullying than homogeneously low or high socioeconomic status schools. In addition, diverse schools had more violence than affluent schools. Results suggest that bullying and violence should be investigated as separate constructs. Furthermore, contexts, such as national culture and school socioeconomic diversity, are important in understanding the prevalence of bullying and violence in schools internationally. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puspita Adhi Kusuma Wijayanti
Full Text Available Measuring school well-being in elementary school student is important. The experience of students at school will affect their perception, motivation and hope for their academic life in the future. We used Tripartite School Well-Being Model, based on the interaction among three aspects, namely school satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect. The aim of the study is to identify factors predicting the emergence of student’s positive affect and negative affect in elementary school. A total of 118 elementary school students of Class 6 in Bandung took a part in this study as respondent. The variables in this study were measured using three questionnaires: School Satisfaction, Positive Affect Student at School, and Negative Affect Student at School. Descriptive and inferential statistics through regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis. The results show that peer relationship, teacher-student relationship, and academic learning significantly contribute to build the positive affect of the student. Whereas, only the peer relationship predicted the negative affect of the student. This finding brings some practical implication for the educational process. The integrated multidimensional program which involves teacher, parents, peers, and student is crucial to promote student well-being at school.
Uslu, Fatma; Gizir, Sidika
This study examines the extent to which teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and family involvement can be used to predict a sense of school belonging among adolescents, according to gender. The sample of the study consists of 815 students enrolled in nine state primary schools in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey. The data was…
Kiefer, Sarah M.; Alley, Kathleen M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.
The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate teacher and peer support for young adolescents' academic motivation, classroom engagement, and school belonging within one large, urban, ethnically diverse middle school. In the initial quantitative phase, associations among aspects of teacher support (autonomy,…
Jeong-Ah Ahn, PhD, RN
Conclusions: Healthcare providers can promote the process of school adjustment in several ways, such as discussing this issue directly with adolescent patients, along with their parents and peers, examining how the organization and content of the treatment can be modified according to the adolescents' school life.
Humphrey, Neil; Symes, Wendy
The aim of the current study was to document the peer interaction patterns of students with autistic spectrum disorders in mainstream settings. Structured observations of a group of 38 adolescents with ASD drawn from 12 mainstream secondary schools were conducted over a two-day period and data compared with those of school, age, and gender matched…
This article presents the findings from research conducted at nine schools (seven primary, two secondary) in England, which had previously implemented a peer mediation service for students experiencing interpersonal conflict. This analysis was informed by themes from a previous stage of research conducted at one additional primary school, where…
This study explores differences and similarities between sexual harassment of students by teachers and by peers. Respondents were adolescents in 22 secondary schools, randomly selected in 2 regions in the Netherlands. Of the 2808 students 512 (18%) reported unwanted sexual experiences at school in
This article reports on a major action research program that experimented with the use of cross-age peer teaching in schools to assist teachers to manage conflict issues in their classrooms, and to re-engage disaffected students in learning. The research, which was conducted in a range of elementary and secondary schools in Australia, was part of…
Bennett, Paul N; Parker, Steve; Smigiel, Heather
Peer review of university classroom teaching can increase the quality of teaching but is not universally practiced in Australian universities. To report an evaluation of paired peer-review process using both paper and web based teaching evaluation tools. Twenty university teachers in one metropolitan Australian School of Nursing and Midwifery were randomly paired and then randomly assigned to a paper based or web-based peer review tool. Each teacher reviewed each other's classroom teaching as part of a peer review program. The participants then completed an 18 question survey evaluating the peer review tool and paired evaluation process. Responses were analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Regardless of the tool used, participants found this process of peer review positive (75%), collegial (78%), supportive (61%) and non-threatening (71%). Participants reported that the peer review will improve their own classroom delivery (61%), teaching evaluation (61%) and planning (53%). The web-based tool was found to be easier to use and allowed more space than the paper-based tool. Implementation of a web-based paired peer review system can be a positive method of peer review of university classroom teaching. Pairing of teachers to review each other's classroom teaching is a promising strategy and has the potential to improve teaching in teaching universities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
on the publicly available XHSTT format for modeling instances and solutions of the HSTP) and the Danish High School Timetabling Problem (DHSTP). For both problems a complex Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) model is developed, and in both cases are empirical tests performed on a large number of real-life datasets......High school institutions face a number of important planning problems during each schoolyear. This Ph.D. thesis considers two of these planning problems: The High School Timetabling Problem (HSTP) and the Consultation Timetabling Problem (CTP). Furthermore a framework for handling various planning....... The second part contains the main scienti_c papers composed during the Ph.D. study. The third part of the thesis also contains scienti_c papers, but these are included as an appendix. In the HSTP, the goal is to obtain a timetable for the forthcoming school-year. A timetable consists of lectures scheduled...
Harris, Douglas N.
Background: Interest among social scientists in peer influences has grown with recent resegregation of the nation's schools and court decisions that limit the ability of school districts to consider race in school assignment decisions. If having more advantaged peers is beneficial, then these trends may reduce educational equity. Previous studies…
Pornari, Chrisa D; Wood, Jane
This study investigated the relationship between cognitive mechanisms, applied by people to rationalize and justify harmful acts, and engagement in traditional peer and cyber aggression among school children. We examined the contribution of moral disengagement (MD), hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies, and we further explored the individual contribution of each MD mechanism. Our aim was to identify shared and unique cognitive factors of the two forms of aggression. Three hundred and thirty-nine secondary school children completed self-report measures that assessed MD, hostile attribution bias, outcome expectancies, and their roles and involvement in traditional and cyber aggression. We found that the MD total score positively related to both forms of peer-directed aggression. Furthermore, traditional peer aggression positively related to children's moral justification, euphemistic language, displacement of responsibility and outcome expectancies, and negatively associated with hostile attribution bias. Moral justification also related positively to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression and cyber victimization were associated with high levels of traditional peer aggression and victimization, respectively. The results suggest that MD is a common feature of both traditional and cyber peer aggression, but it seems that traditional forms of aggression demand a higher level of rationalization or justification. Moreover, the data suggest that the expectation of positive outcomes from harmful behavior facilitates engagement in traditional peer aggression. The differential contribution of specific cognitive mechanisms indicates the need for future research to elaborate on the current findings, in order to advance theory and inform existing and future school interventions tackling aggression and bullying. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The results of a study that examined the peer tutoring program at a middle school are discussed in this article. In an effort to determine ways to improve the peer tutoring program an action research (AR) mixed design study was developed. AR is practitioner based research. Its purpose is to examine the work of practitioners for effectiveness and…
Rudolph, Karen D.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Agoston, Anna M.; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children's social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K-7th grade; 5-12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd-6th grade; 8-12 years),…
The present paper, based on an ethnographic study of a government school and a low-cost private school in Andhra Pradesh, India, argues that the students of a government school and a private school have two different worlds and are socialised differently. As children progress from childhood to adolescence, the transition is accompanied by…
Andrew, Megan; Flashman, Jennifer
School transitions are a regular feature of the educational career. While they are of general interest as instances of academic change, they also represent instances of peer environment and influence change. Previous theoretical and empirical work suggests peer influence is important for students' academic and educational outcomes, especially for the complex decision-making processes leading up to those outcomes. In this manuscript, we study the impact of peers on educational expectation formation at the 8th-to-9th-grade school transition. In doing so, we test a theoretical model that links institutional settings, social influence, and individual decision-making. We find the 9th grade transition likely represents a negative shock for students' college attendance expectations. Independent of this transition, however, stable peer environments further depress expectations. A more equal mixture of new and old peers in the 9th grade likely increases students' educational expectations in contrast. These effects of peer perturbations and the re-organization of social ties they imply mainly apply to female students. But, both male and female students revise their educational expectations in light of changing peer intelligence comparisons, albeit in countervailing ways. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Muschkin, Clara G.; Glennie, Elizabeth; Beck, Audrey N.
Background: Many school systems have ended social promotion by implementing accountability systems where students who fail academic assessments are retained in grade. Additionally, some parents have delayed their children's entry into school, believing that older students have an advantage. While research has examined outcomes for students who…
Hanushevsky, A.; Trunov, A.; Cottrell, L.
The BaBar Copy Program (bbcp) is an excellent representative of peer-to-peer (P2P) computing. It is also a pioneering application of its type in the P2P arena. Built upon the foundation of its predecessor, Secure Fast Copy (sfcp), bbcp incorporates significant improvements performance and usability. As with sfcp, bbcp uses ssh for authentication; providing an elegant and simple working model--if you can ssh to a location, you can copy files to or from that location. To fully support this notion, bbcp transparently supports 3rd party copy operations. The program also incorporates several mechanism to deal with firewall security; the bane of P2P computing. To achieve high performance in a wide area network, bbcp allows a user to independently specify, the number of parallel network streams, tcp window size, and the file I/O blocking factor. Using these parameters, data is pipelined from source to target to provide a uniform traffic pattern that maximizes router efficiency. For improved recoverability, bbcp also keeps track of copy operations so that an operation can be restarted from the point of failure at a later time; minimizing the amount of network traffic in the event of a copy failure. Here, the authors present the bbcp architecture, it's various features, and the reasons for their inclusion
The BaBar Copy Program (bbcp) is an excellent representative of peer-to-peer (P2P) computing. It is also a pioneering application of its type in the P2P arena. Built upon the foundation of its predecessor, Secure Fast Copy (sfcp), bbcp incorporates significant improvements performance and usability. As with sfcp, bbcp uses ssh for authentication; providing an elegant and simple working model -- if you can ssh to a location, you can copy files to or from that location. To fully support this notion, bbcp transparently supports 3rd party copy operations. The program also incorporates several mechanism to deal with firewall security; the bane of P2P computing. To achieve high performance in a wide area network, bbcp allows a user to independently specify, the number of parallel network streams, tcp window size, and the file I/O blocking factor. Using these parameters, data is pipelined from source to target to provide a uniform traffic pattern that maximizes router efficiency. For improved recoverability, bbcp also keeps track of copy operations so that an operation can be restarted from the point of failure at a later time; minimizing the amount of network traffic in the event of a copy failure. Here, we preset the bbcp architecture, it's various features, and the reasons for their inclusion
Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert
Low-level violent behavior, particularly school bullying, remains a critical public health issue that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based prevention programs, while a valuable line of defense to stave off bullying, have shown inconsistent results in terms of decreasing bullying. This study explored whether school safety measures (eg, security guards, cameras, ID badges) were associated with student reports of different forms of peer victimization related to bullying. Data came from the 2007 School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey. Chi-square tests of independence were used to examine differences among categorical variables. Logistic regression models were constructed for the peer victimization outcomes. A count variable was constructed among the bullying outcomes (0-7) with which a Poisson regression model was constructed to analyze school safety measures' impacts on degree of victimization. Of the various school safety measures, only having adults in hallways resulted in a significant reduction in odds of being physically bullied, having property vandalized, or having rumors spread. In terms of degree of victimization, having adults and/or staff supervising hallways was associated with an approximate 26% decrease in students experiencing an additional form of peer victimization. Results indicated that school safety measures overall were not associated with decreased reports of low-level violent behaviors related to bullying. More research is needed to further explore what best promotes comprehensive safety in schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.
This report summarizes the Focus State Roadway Departure Safety Plans and High Friction Surface Treatments Peer Exchange, held in Birmingham, Alabama, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professi...
Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee
The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the National Youth Policy Institute to measure peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment. Multiple-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the difference of relations for peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment variable between adolescents with chronic illness and those without chronic illness. The model fit of a multiple-group structural equation modeling was good. The difference of the path from negative parenting style to self-concept between the two groups was significant, and a significant between-group difference in the overall path was found. This indicated that self-concept in adolescents with chronic illness was more negatively affected by negative parenting style than in adolescents without chronic illness. Healthcare providers can promote the process of school adjustment in several ways, such as discussing this issue directly with adolescent patients, along with their parents and peers, examining how the organization and content of the treatment can be modified according to the adolescents' school life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Tomczyk, Samuel; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner
Ample studies discuss the enhancing effects of peer drinking on student alcohol use. In addition, there is vast research on school climate impact on student alcohol use. Though these two areas are intertwined for most young adolescents, it is heretofore not completely clear, in what way these characteristics functionally interact and affect drinking behavior. In a longitudinal study, we analyzed a sample of 2490 German adolescents (Mage=13.32, SD=0.57, range=8-13) from 5th (fall 2010) to 8th (fall 2013) grade. We discerned mediating (class climate) and moderating (school organization variables) functions of school on the association between peer and adolescent alcohol use, and finally combined them in direct effect moderated mediation models for a variety of outcomes (lifetime alcohol use, frequency and amount of drinking, binge drinking), adjusting for possible confounders. Class climate mediated a small significant part of the association between peer and adolescent alcohol use (1.8-2.4%), with the exception of lifetime drinking. Student-teacher ratio and percentage of at-risk students significantly moderated the peer-adolescent association, with the latter having an enhancing and the first having a buffering effect. School life serves as an important context of adolescent development and as such, seems to have direct and indirect effects on behavior and health. Future research should pay attention to differentiating effects of school climate and include both forms of operationalization when analyzing school effects on student behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Clarke, Kelly; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Namy, Sophie; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen
Violence against children by peers is a global public health problem. We aimed to assess factors associated with peer violence victimization among primary school children in Uganda. We conducted multilevel multivariable logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional data from 3706 primary students in 42 Ugandan primary schools. Among primary school students, 29% and 34% had ever experienced physical and emotional violence perpetrated by their peers, respectively. Factors strongly associated with both physical and emotional violence were similar and overlapping, and included exposure to interparental violence, having an attitude supportive of violence against children from school staff, not living with biological parents, working for payment, and higher SDQ score. However, we found that younger age, sharing sleeping area with an adult and achieving a higher educational performance score, were specifically associated with physical violence. On the other hand, being female, walking to school, reporting disability and eating one meal on the previous day, were particularly associated with emotional violence. Interventions to reduce peer violence should focus on family contexts, school environments and those with poor socio-economic status may need extra support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Geven, Sara; O Jonsson, Jan; van Tubergen, Frank
Boys engage in notably higher levels of resistance to schooling than girls. While scholars argue that peer processes contribute to this gender gap, this claim has not been tested with longitudinal quantitative data. This study fills this lacuna by examining the role of dynamic peer-selection and influence processes in the gender gap in resistance to schooling (i.e., arguing with teachers, skipping class, not putting effort into school, receiving punishments at school, and coming late to class) with two-wave panel data. We expect that, compared to girls, boys are more exposed and more responsive to peers who exhibit resistant behavior. We estimate hybrid models on 5448 students from 251 school classes in Sweden (14-15 years, 49% boys), and stochastic actor-based models (SIENA) on a subsample of these data (2480 students in 98 classes; 49% boys). We find that boys are more exposed to resistant friends than girls, and that adolescents are influenced by the resistant behavior of friends. These peer processes do not contribute to a widening of the gender gap in resistance to schooling, yet they contribute somewhat to the persistence of the initial gender gap. Boys are not more responsive to the resistant behavior of friends than girls. Instead, girls are influenced more by the resistant behavior of lower status friends than boys. This explains to some extent why boys increase their resistance to schooling more over time. All in all, peer-influence and selection processes seem to play a minor role in gender differences in resistance to schooling. These findings nuance under investigated claims that have been made in the literature.
Full Text Available This paper presents the exploratory analysis of an action-research into dropout prevention in an Italian secondary school. By taking into account the representations of teachers, students and parents, different activities of peer education have been implemented during the school year in a city of Sardinia in order to promote school success. The study is based on a mixed-methods design, including focus groups with teachers, students and parents, as well as classroom observations. The action-research consists of different interventions: firstly, the participants’ representations of school dropout have been collected; then, a specific program of peer education has been proposed through activities of role-playing, simulations, brainstorming, and improvement of life skills (during training meetings with the participants. Thereafter, the action-research has been qualitatively analysed, with the findings indicating possible directions of re-creating school practices that could have potential benefits in preventing dropout.
Bilić, Vesna; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Rafajac, Branko
This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On the other hand, cyber bullying most often comprises harassment in forums, blogs, chats or social networks, then on the web, by e-mail and mobile phone. Almost half of the examinees knew the identity of the bully, while a minority believes that bullies are the same ones who also physically abuse them at school. We found that children exposed to all forms of both classic and cyber bullying, unlike their peers who do not have such experience, show less satisfaction with friends, while those exposed to physical and cyber bullying show dissatisfaction with their family, too. However no statistically significant difference was found in their satisfaction with school. Children exposed to physical bullying showed poorer school performance, poorer achievement in Croatian and math, while children exposed to verbal and cyber bullying and children who were not exposed to such forms of bullying showed no differences in their school achievement.
Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W
This study compares the network influences on adolescent substance use from peers who coparticipated in school-sponsored organized activities (affiliation-based peer influence) with the influence both from their "nominated" friends (i.e., the adolescent named the alter as a friend), and only "reciprocated" friends (i.e., both adolescents mutually named each other as friends). The study also attempts to parse affiliation-based peer influence into the influence of both activity members who are also friends and those who are not, to address the potential confounding of these sources of peer influence. The study data consisted of a nationally representative sample of 12,551 adolescents in Grades 7-12 within 106 schools from the Add Health data. Ordinal logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effects of affiliation-based and friends influence on alcohol use and drinking frequency. Peer influence via organized activities (sports or clubs) with drinkers and the influence of friends who drink had significant effects on adolescent drinking. Peer influence through club activities with drinkers had a stronger effect on any drinking behavior than through sports activities with drinkers. After decomposing peer influence through activities by friendship status, influence through sport activities had a significant effect on drinking only when coparticipant drinkers were also reciprocated friends (but not nominated friends), whereas influence through club activities had a significant effect on drinking, regardless of friendship reciprocation. The design and implementation of school based substance use prevention and treatment programs should consider the contextual effects of school-sponsored activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Carmen P. Mombourquette
Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.
Menzer, Melissa M.; Torney-Purta, Judith
The purpose of this study was to examine two aspects of context for peer aggression: national individualism and distributions of socioeconomic status in the school. School administrators for each school reported on their perceptions of the frequency of bullying and violence in their school. The sample comprised 990 school principals/headmasters…
This book takes up the question of what shape high school English studies should take in the coming years. It describes an English program that blends philosophical depth with classroom practicality. Drawing examples from commonly taught texts such as "Macbeth,""To Kill a Mockingbird," and "Lord of the Flies," the…
Galand, Benoît; Baudoin, Noémie; Hospel, Virginie; 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology
Rationale. Most studies about bullying focused on individual characteristics of bullies and victims. Only very few studies have investigated the effect of school and classroom factors on bullying. These studies indicated that between-classroom variance is higher than between-school variance. From theoretical and practical points of view, one key issue is to know if those school and classroom effects are related to educational practices rather than to the composition of the student body. At th...
Per E Gustafsson
Full Text Available While the importance of social relations for health has been demonstrated in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, few studies have examined the prospective importance of peer relations for adult health. The aim of this study was to examine whether peer problems in the school setting in adolescence relates to the metabolic syndrome in middle-age. Participants came from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 27-year cohort study of school leavers (effective n = 881, 82% of the original cohort. A score of peer problems was operationalized through form teachers' assessment of each student's isolation and popularity among school peers at age 16 years, and the metabolic syndrome was measured by clinical measures at age 43 according to established criteria. Additional information on health, health behaviors, achievement and social circumstances were collected from teacher interviews, school records, clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method. Results showed a dose-response relationship between peer problems in adolescence and metabolic syndrome in middle-age, corresponding to 36% higher odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 for each SD higher peer problems score at age 16. The association remained significant after adjustment for health, health behaviors, school adjustment or family circumstances in adolescence, and for psychological distress, health behaviors or social circumstances in adulthood. In analyses stratified by sex, the results were significant only in women after adjustment for covariates. Peer problems were significantly related to all individual components of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that unsuccessful adaption to the school peer group can have enduring consequences for metabolic health.
This study was performed to identify the influencing factors on alienation among high school students. Data was collected by questionnaires from 550 students of academic and vocational high schools in G city. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. The scores of alienation among students in financially lower middle class and lower class were higher than those of the upper middle class students, resulting in significant differences(F=6.87, p=.00). A sense of alienation showed a significantly negative correlation with the scores of responding parenting style(r=-.32), family cohesion(r=-.33), school attachment(r=-.51), academic performance(r=-.34), peer relationships(r=-.38), self-control (r=-.43), and social skills(r=-.33). The most powerful predictor of alienation among high school students was school attachment and the variance explained was 26%. A combination of school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance account for 40% of the variance in alienation among high school students. This study suggests that school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance are significant influencing factors on alienation in high school students. Therefore, nursing strategy is needed to manage these revealed factors.
Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually
Bondu, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert
Bullying, rejection, and social exclusion are often considered key contributing factors in school shootings, but recent studies have questioned their importance. One weakness in the previous research is its almost exclusive focus on U.S. American perpetrators. Therefore, we examined files of inquiry pertaining to seven school shootings in Germany…
Jeong-Ah Ahn, PhD, RN; Sunhee Lee, PhD, RN
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. Methods: A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the N...
Full Text Available The object of this research is a learning method that uses email correspondence to promote the development of narrative writing skills in year 4 and year 5 students. Focusing on the written production of episodes of adventure novels and peer review, this learning method was applied to four classes in the Paris region over a 1-year period. The classes were paired in such a way that some students were required to read and analyze texts produced by correspondents (advice givers while others carried out revisions using peer advice and suggestions (advice receivers. To describe the dynamics of writing, revision and learning, a qualitative analysis of the texts and suggestions given or received by the student partners is carried out. A statistical analysis comparing the texts produced by students in both groups is used to corroborate the findings of the initial analysis. Students showed an increasing awareness and consideration of the key characteristics of the practiced genre, resulting in an improvement of the quality of the texts in the course of the revision process and throughout the year. The texts produced by the advice givers improved more than the texts produced by the advice receivers. The findings are attributed to greater self-reflection and successive reformulations fostered by the elaboration of advice and suggestions.
Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.
Analyzes the Canadian National Survey data on woman abuse to compare results for geographic regions, types of schools, and whether the students took the survey in French or English. None of these factors influenced the results. Male peer support measures did strongly affect male behavior in both physical and sexual abuse. (Author/JDM)
Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cummings, E. Mark
This study examined children's peer information processing as an explanatory mechanism underlying the association between their insecure representations of interparental and parent-child relationships and school adjustment in a sample of 210 first graders. Consistent with emotional security theory (P. T. Davies & E. M. Cummings, 1994), results…
The past decade has seen an increase in the number of students with autism attending mainstream educational provision. Improving outcomes for this group is a complex issue given the deficit of evidence-based practice. A new peer mentoring programme developed for students with autism in mainstream secondary schools was evaluated using a combination…
Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Zhou, Annie J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Shih, Regina A.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.
Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1793 6-8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana…
Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle
Social goals are associated with behaviors and adjustment among peers. However, it remains unclear whether goals predict adolescent social development. We examined prospective associations among goals, physical and relational aggression, social preference, and popularity during middle school (N = 384 participants, ages 12-14 years). Agentic…
Phusavat, Kongkiti Peter; Delahunty, David; Kess, Pekka; Kropsu-Vehkapera, Hanna
Purpose: The study aims to examine the issues relating to workplace learning at the upper secondary school level. This study is based on the two questions. How should the professional/peer-learning community or PLC be developed and deployed to help strengthen in-service teacher training? The second question is what are the success factors which…
Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Vitaro, Frank; Pedersen, Sara; Tremblay, Richard E.
This 17-year longitudinal study tested whether low peer-perceived acceptance and association with aggressive-disruptive friends during preadolescence predicted students' failure to graduate from secondary school. Participants were 997 Caucasian, French-speaking boys from low-socioeconomic status, urban neighborhoods. The boys were recruited in…
King-Sears, Margaret E.
This article provides guidelines for knowing when to institutionalize peer-mediated instruction and interventions (PMII), and generalization techniques familiar to special educators are linked specifically to institutionalization of PMII. Barriers and promoters of sustained PMII in schools are identified, with implications for how stakeholders…
Goodwin, N.P.; Mrug, S.; Borch, C.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female)
The diploma is focused on social acceptance of pupils in primary school. I was interested in two aspects: the teachers’ opinions on interpersonal relations and how pupils choose their classmates for school activities and for socialising in their free time. In theoretical part I focused on social acceptance, social interaction and interpersonal relations. I also included social development of children and adolescents. I described their everyday life and the groups, in which they feel most conn...
Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara
Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.
Full Text Available This study is made to determine the predictive powers of the perceived social support, parental attitude, school success, school change and living in different area of residences variables in the students of 8.grade who are exposed to peer-victimization. T he data of the research has been procured from 550 students who are the eighth-grader in Diyarbakır and Kocaeli. The data related to the predicted variable has been collected by using Peer-victimization Scale (Mynard & Joseph, 2000 and the data related to the predictor variables has been gathered by using the Perceived Social Support Scale – Revised Form (Yıldırım, 2004, the Parental Attitude Scale (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg & Dornbush, 1991 and the Personal Information Form prepared by the researcher. The statistical analysis of the gathered data has been performed in computer by using SPSS 11.5 packaged software. Multiple Regression Analysis is used in determining the variables predicting peer-victimization exposure which is the purpose of the study. On the other hand, the Stepwise Regression Analysis is implemented in order to determine the explanatory variables having high correlation coefficient and the predicted variable. The findings obtained by the research can be summarized as the following: School success, perceived social support and authoritarian parental attitude are the variables predicting the peer-victimization exposure. It has been found out that the other variables in the analysis do not predict the exposure of the students to the peer-victimization. The findings obtained in the research are discussed and commented and suggestions have been made based on the facts.
Howell, J. Emory
exhibit booth. NSTA in Boston For the representatives of the Journal, the highlight of the National Science Teachers Association Convention was visiting with the many readers who stopped by the JCE booth. Among them were several who have authored an article or reviewed manuscripts. We hope that number increases from year to year. JCE exists for its readers and because many readers are willing to devote the time and effort necessary to write a manuscript and revise it based on peer review. The convention offered such a variety of opportunities to acquire useful information that it is impossible to name a single highlight, or even to list the top ten. Representative of the many outstanding chemistry-oriented sessions presented by high school teachers were "Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy in the Chemistry and Physics Laboratory", "Kool Conversions in a Block Schedule", and "Hot Packs, Cold Packs, and a Six-Pack of Chemistry Projects". Reports from Other Journals On pages 882-885, Steve Long and Kathy Thorsen have summarized interesting articles that have appeared recently in The Science Teacher and Chem 13 News, respectively. Even if you are a regular reader of one or both of these journals, you will enjoy reading these summaries. Steve and Kathy have done a great job of highlighting interesting and useful information. I thank both of them for these fine contributions to the Journal. High School Day in New Orleans Mark August 22, 1999, on your calendar now and plan to attend High School Chemistry Day at the National ACS Meeting in New Orleans. The High School Program Committee, with support from local ACS sections, has planned an extravaganza of workshops and presentations, including environmental programs and workshops conducted by Sargent-Welch; an afternoon of instrumentation by Buck Laboratories with the Alabama Science in Motion vans and drivers to show how to transport chemistry on wheels; 12 demonstrations by nationally recognized chemical demonstration
Nishigawa, Keisuke; Hayama, Rika; Omoto, Katsuhiro; Okura, Kazuo; Tajima, Toyoko; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Hosoki, Maki; Ueda, Mayu; Inoue, Miho; Rodis, Omar Marianito Maningo; Matsuka, Yoshizo
The aim of this study was to determine the validity of peer evaluation for team-based learning (TBL) classes in dental education in comparison with the term-end examination records and TBL class scores. Examination and TBL class records of 256 third- and fourth-year dental students in six fixed prosthodontics courses from 2013 to 2015 in one dental school in Japan were investigated. Results of the term-end examination during those courses, individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), group readiness assurance test (GRAT), group assignment projects (GAP), and peer evaluation of group members in TBL classes were collected. Significant positive correlations were found between all combinations of peer evaluation, IRAT, and term-end examination. Individual scores also showed a positive correlation with group score (total of GRAT and GAP). From the investigation of the correlations in the six courses, significant positive correlations between peer evaluation and individual score were found in four of the six courses. In this study, peer evaluation seemed to be a valid index for learning performance in TBL classes. To verify the effectiveness of peer evaluation, all students have to realize the significance of scoring the team member's performance. Clear criteria and detailed instruction for appropriate evaluation are also required.
Brady, Bernadine; Dolan, Pat; Canavan, John
Over the past decade, there has been greater attention placed on the potential value of peer support models, particularly in school contexts. This paper uses the case study of an Irish school-based peer mentoring programme to identify the added value that peer led models of social support for children and young people offer in a school setting.…
Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo
Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Botma, Yvonne; Hurter, Sarene; Kotze, Reneé
This article reports on the postgraduate critical care students' mentoring of the third-year undergraduate nursing students during integrated work-based learning in the critical care units. The purpose of the research was to describe what the nursing school could do to improve this mentoring programme. A qualitative descriptive design was used. The nominal group technique was used to gather data from the mentors and mentees. Data from the groups were combined and qualitatively analysed into themes. Thereafter the themes were quantitatively ranked. The themes, ranking from the highest to the lowest, were orientation, organisation, mentoring process, characteristics of the mentor, and feedback to the mentor. Findings suggest that the nursing school does not always optimally support the mentoring programme. It is recommended that more than one communication medium be used to disperse information among role-players. Nursing schools should develop mentors, monitor their interactions with mentees and give them feedback on their mentoring skills. It is also the responsibility of the nursing school to select mentors that match the desired profile of mentors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This research describes an observation study of 100 children, ages 9-13 years, on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. The children were in a French government boarding school in the main valley of the island. Complex, sophisticated group processes among the Marquesan children were observed. The role structures of the group…
Hart, Shayla L; Hodgkinson, Stacy C; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Hyman, Corine; Cooley-Strickland, Michele
Somatic symptoms are a common physical response to stress and illness in childhood. This study assessed 409, primarily African American (85.6 %), urban elementary school children to examine the association between: (1) somatic symptoms and potential external stressors (school and peer stress, family conflict, and community violence) and (2) parent and child agreement on children's self-report of somatic symptoms. The odds of self-report of somatic complaints were significantly associated with family conflict, school and peer stress, and community violence exposure (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.50; OR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.08-1.28; and OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05, respectively). Identifying the associations between social, family, and community based stress and somatic symptoms may improve the quality of life for children living in urban environments through early identification and treatment.
It has been suggested that the mental health of schoolchildren can be undermined by repeated bullying at school and further exacerbated by having inadequate social support. To evaluate this claim, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered anonymously to 845 adolescent schoolchildren attending coeducational secondary schools in South Australia, together with measures of the extent to which each reported being bullied at school and the social support available to them. Multiple regression analyses indicated that for both sexes frequent peer victimization and low social support contributed significantly and independently to relatively poor mental health. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…
. Discrepancies between self-reported and peer-nominated bullying involvement indicates that a person’s social reputation has a stronger association with moral disengagement than so far expected. Implications are discussed, highlighting the importance of further research and theory development.......This study examined the relation between moral disengagement and different self-reported and peer-nominated positions in school bullying. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate moral disengagement among children for whom self-reported and peernominated bully status diverged and (2) compare...... levels of disengagement among self-reported and peer-nominated pure bullies, pure victims, bully–victims, and children not involved in bullying. A sample of 739 Danish sixth grade and seventh grade children (mean age 12.6) was included in the study. Moral disengagement was measured using a Danish version...
Campbell, Wenonah N; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth
Peer victimization, or bullying, has been identified as a significant child health priority and children with language impairment (LI) are among those who are vulnerable. Given the mandate of educators to provide support for all students who are bullied regardless of language status, research is needed that integrates the study of risk factors for peer victimization among children who are developing typically and children who have LI. Accordingly, this preliminary study explored the degree to which one potential risk factor, peer conflict resolution knowledge, was related to peer victimization in children across the language continuum, and considered whether or not individual differences in language ability influenced that relationship. Participants included 17 girls and 15 boys aged 9-12 years with a wide range of language abilities, six meeting criteria for LI. Participants completed a hypothetical peer conflict resolution task and a measure of peer victimization. Correlational analyses revealed very different patterns of relationships for boys and girls. Whereas boys' reports of peer victimization were meaningfully related to how they responded to hypothetical peer conflicts, girls' reports were most strongly associated with language ability. These preliminary findings suggest that it is important to consider gender when conceptualizing how factors such as peer conflict resolution knowledge might influence children's risk of being bullied. Readers will be able to: (1) provide a definition of peer victimization and give examples of different forms of peer victimization; (2) recognize that inadequate peer conflict resolution knowledge may be a risk factor for peer victimization; (3) describe the relationships between peer conflict resolution knowledge, language ability, and peer victimization in this study, and explain how these relationships differed for boys and girls; and (4) identify at least three opportunities for future research that would help to clarify
Students with a disability in inclusive classes often face problems with peer acceptance, friendships and peer interactions. In this paper, the relationship between these difficulties in social participation and the attitudes that typically developing adolescents hold towards peers with a disability at the level of the class was explored. A…
This paper reports an exploratory study of a school peer mediation program implemented as an alternative way to manage bullying and other destructive conflict. The study explores the effects of the program on the well-being of members of the school community by examining perceptions of students, staff and a sample of parents and former students. Drawing on therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) the study explores whether the component parts of the program, separately or together, promote intended or unintended therapeutic effects. The preliminary findings of the study emphasise the importance of peer mediation training and suggest that existing scholarship in the area of school conflict resolution and peer mediation, when viewed through a TJ lens, may provide valuable insights into how to optimally configure programs for development and adoption in schools and other community settings. The study highlights the lack of attention paid by the legal system to valuable scholarship in the area of school conflict resolution and peer mediation, which may have implications for the understanding and development of legal processes and the law in general. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
COLOMBOTOS, JOHN L.
AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED OF THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS AS CONTRASTED WITH THEIR PEERS IN A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION. THE EFFECT OF THIS DISTINCTIVENESS ON THE PERSONAL NATURE OF TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS ASSOCIATED WITH JOB PERFORMANCE, CAREER GOALS, AND CAREER PATTERNS WAS ALSO STUDIED. ITS GENERAL OBJECTIVE WAS TO…
Turnuklu, Abbas; Kacmaz, Tarkan; Gurler, Selma; Turk, Fulya; Kalender, Alper; Zengin, Feza; Sevkin, Burcak
The effectiveness of conflict resolution and peer mediation (CRPM) training among 10- and 11-year-old elementary school students was examined. The CRPM training program consisted of skills, such as understanding the nature of interpersonal conflicts, communication, anger management, negotiation and peer mediation. The research was carried out…
White, Jacie; Caniglia, Cynthia; McLaughlin, T. F.; Bianco, LeAnn
One of the many challenges that children with learning disabilities (LD) experience, apart from academics, is severe deficits in the areas of social skills and peer relations. The learning of social skills and appropriate ways to interact with peers are crucial for school-aged children with learning disabilities. Without these skills, it can be…
Worldwide, most school peer aggression programs and interventions achieve inconsistent and very modest results which are often temporary at best. In this dissertation, we assumed that many of these peer aggression programs were not evidence-based in their development and were not properly put into
Ojanen, Tiina; Smith-Schrandt, Heather L.; Gesten, Ellis
This study examined associations among children's agentic (social influence, status, power) and communal (relationship, affiliation) goals for peer interaction, cognitive and affective responses to hypothetical peer conflict, and teacher-reported achievement and behavior at school ("N" = 367; "M" age = 9.9 years). Agentic goals…
Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar
This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…
Messiou, Kyriaki; Azaola, Marta Cristina
Immigration in Europe has increased rapidly over the last years. As a result, schools are accepting students arriving from other countries at various stages of the school year. This can be a challenging process both for students and for schools. This paper describes the introduction of a peer-mentoring scheme to support immigrant students in three…
Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.
The current study examined the impact of supportive social relationships (i.e., teacher support, adult support, school relatedness) and peer victimization on middle school students' substance use. Over 3,000 middle school students reported on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, supportive social relationships, and instances in which they were…
Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo
This study examined the peer relationships and social behaviors of deaf adolescents in the first 2 years of secondary school. Peer nominations and ratings of peer status and behavior were collected longitudinally with 74 deaf and 271 hearing adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 8. The predictions of deaf adolescents' peer status in Grade 8 from Grade…
Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa
In the past decade, various health care programs have implemented diverse types of peer-assisted learning (PAL) programs, in particularly peer teaching (PT), due to their reported benefits for students (both those undertaking teaching and those being taught), teachers, and educational institutes. Unfortunately, peer teaching is still under-recognized in pharmacy programs worldwide when compared to other health care programs. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the published literature centered on formal PT programs that are implemented in pharmacy schools. In addition, this review focuses on the methodologies adopted for peer teacher recruitment and training as well as the benefits gained by students (both those undertaking teaching and those being taught). The rationales behind PT implementation are recapitulated as well. Finally, a simple scheme for successful implementation of PT activity is provided to serve as a groundwork for educators. Pre-defined key terms were used to search for experimental peer teaching activities in pharmacy schools between January 2000 and June 2016. Titles were selected based on pre-set eligibility criteria. Only complete research articles with clear design and evaluation sections were included in this review. Studies about inter-professional peer teaching activities between pharmacy students and other healthcare professions were also included. Six relevant educational research articles containing peer teaching activities were included. A lot of variety exists between different pharmacy courses implementing PT, the format/setting of PT, how peer teachers are selected, and how training and evaluation are implemented. The studies reviewed confirmed that PT was well received by most of the students and had a positive impact on their learning outcome. These findings cannot be generalized due to the insufficient number of studies published beside their methodological limitations and inadequate descriptions of the PT format
Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Carrasco-Pons, Silvia
This paper presents some of the results of the study ‘Coexistence and Confrontation among Peers in Secondary Schools in Catalonia’ commissioned by the Ombudsman’s Office of the Catalan government and carried out at the Institute of Childhood and the Urban World (CIIMU) in Barcelona, Spain, in 2005-2006. It offers a description of the indicators of malaise and exclusion among students at nine public and private secondary schools serving varying social environments in Cataloni...
Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño
In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.
Full Text Available In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.
Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121
Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Investment Management hosted : a peer exchange on June 2 -4, 2009 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Representatives from four state DOTs and : two freight railroads joined representatives f...
Burgess, Annette; Dornan, Tim; Clarke, Antonia J; Menezes, Audrey; Mellis, Craig
Peer tutoring has been described as "people from similar social groupings who are not professional teachers helping each other to learn and learning themselves by teaching". Peer tutoring is well accepted as a source of support in many medical curricula, where participation and learning involve a process of socialisation. Peer tutoring can ease the transition of the junior students from the university class environment to the hospital workplace. In this paper, we apply the Experienced Based Learning (ExBL) model to explore medical students' perceptions of their experience of taking part in a newly established peer tutoring program at a hospital based clinical school. In 2014, all students at Sydney Medical School - Central, located at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital were invited to voluntarily participate in the peer tutoring program. Year 3 students (n = 46) were invited to act as tutors for Year 1 students (n = 50), and Year 4 students (n = 60) were invited to act as tutors for Year 2 students (n = 51). Similarly, the 'tutees' were invited to take part on a voluntary basis. Students were invited to attend focus groups, which were held at the end of the program. Framework analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. In total, 108/207 (52 %) students participated in the program. A total of 42/106 (40 %) of Year 3 and 4 students took part as tutors; and of 66/101 (65 %) of Year 1 and 2 students took part as tutees. Five focus groups were held, with 50/108 (46 %) of students voluntarily participating. Senior students (tutors) valued the opportunity to practice and improve their medical knowledge and teaching skills. Junior students (tutees) valued the opportunity for additional practice and patient interaction, within a relaxed, small group learning environment. Students perceived the peer tutoring program as affording opportunities not otherwise available within the curriculum. The peer teaching program provided a framework within the
Cross, Jennifer E.; Peisner, William
This article studied changes in rumor spreading and perceptions of peers' rumor spreading among students at one public junior high school following a social norms marketing campaign. Results of the study show that perceptions of peer rumor spreading fell following the campaign, but self-reports of rumor spreading did not decrease. Results suggest…
Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi
Full Text Available Introduction. Young people are at the centre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer education in improving HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods. This was an intervention study that was carried out among in-school adolescents attending mixed secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study was in three stages: before intervention, intervention, and after intervention. The impact of peer education was evaluated twelve weeks after intervention. Data were collected using pretested semistructured questionnaires and data analysis was done with SPSS version 16. Results. At the preintervention stage, the study and control groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices, including high risk behaviours for HIV/AIDS transmission. After the peer education intervention, those with good knowledge and positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly from 50.0% to 86.7% and from 49.0% to 85.6%, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics.
Georgiadi, Maria; Kalyva, Efrosini; Kourkoutas, Elias; Tsakiris, Vlastaris
This study explored typically developing children's attitudes towards peers with intellectual disabilities, with special reference to the type of school they attended. Two hundred and fifty-six Greek children aged 9-10 (135 in inclusive settings) completed a questionnaire and an adjective list by Gash (European Journal of Special Needs Education 1993; 8, 106) and drew a child with intellectual disabilities, commenting also on their drawings. Typically developing children expressed overall neutral attitudes towards peers with intellectual disabilities. Type of school differentiated their attitudes, with children from inclusive settings being more positive towards peers with intellectual disabilities and choosing less negative adjectives to describe them than children from non-inclusive settings. Girls and students who expressed more positive social, emotional and overall attitudes towards students with intellectual disabilities chose more positive adjectives to describe a child with intellectual disabilities. It was also found that children from inclusive settings drew children with intellectual disabilities as more similar to a child with Down syndrome in comparison with children from non-inclusive settings. Effective inclusive practices should be promoted to foster social acceptance of students with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S
Although harsh parenting and peer rejection are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (CP), these patterns are often informant specific, suggesting that their associations across contexts (i.e., home and school) should be considered. In a sample of 142 children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ages 5-10; 66% male), we used structural equation modeling to evaluate the structure of multi-informant (parent, teacher) and multimethod (semi-structured interview, questionnaire) rated aggressive, rule-breaking, and oppositional behavior. Next, we explored context-specific associations by modeling harsh parenting and peer rejection as simultaneous and independent predictors of home and school CP. We observed several key findings: (a) the structure of parent- and teacher-reported CP was best accounted by context-specific CP (i.e., home vs. school) and a second-order general CP factor; (b) harsh punishment and peer rejection each independently predicted the second-order general CP factor; and (c) peer rejection was uniquely associated with school CP, whereas harsh punishment was associated only with the second-order general CP factor and did not exhibit specificity with home CP. Whereas harsh parenting and peer rejection were each independently associated with generalized CP, peer rejection showed an additional, unique context-specific association with CP exclusively expressed at school. We discuss potential explanatory mechanisms underlying context-specific associations of CP, as well as address etiological and clinical implications for understanding informant-discrepancies in CP.
Altman, W.D.; Donnelly, J.P.; Kennedy, J.E.
This document provides guidance on the use of the peer review process in the high-level nuclear waste repository program. The applicant must demonstrate in the license application that the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations in 10 CFR Part 60 have been met. Confidence in the data used to support the license application is obtained through a quality assurance (AQ) program. Peer reviews may be used as part of the QA actions necessary to provide adequate confidence in the work being reviewed. Because of several unique conditions inherent to the geologic repository program, expert judgment will need to be utilized in assessing the adequacy of work. Peer reviews are a mechanism by which these judgments may be made. This document provides guidance on areas where a peer review is appropriate, the acceptability of peers, and the conduct and documentation of a peer review
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....
Stinchcombe, Arthur L.
The premise of this book is that high school rebellion is an "expression of alienation from socially present authorities." Such rebellion is a manifestation of "expressive alienation" and has the quality of hatred or sullenness. Rebellious high school students are likely to be non-utilitarian, negativistic, hedonistic, and to stress group…
Lin, Huang-Chi; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chin-Hung; Huang, Chi-Fen; Liu, Shu-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the prevalence of depression and its association with self-esteem, family, peer and school factors in a large-scale representative Taiwanese adolescent population. A total of 12,210 adolescent students were recruited into the present study. Subjects with a score >28 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale were defined as having significant depression; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Adolescent Family and Social Life Questionnaire and Family C-APGAR Index were applied to assess subjects' self-esteem, family, peer and school factors. The association between depression and correlates were examined on t-test and chi(2) test. The significant factors were further included in logistic regression analysis. Among 9586 participants (response rate: 86.3%), the prevalence of depression was 12.3%. The risk factors associated with depression in univariate analysis included female gender, older age, residency in urban areas, lower self-esteem, disruptive parental marriage, low family income, family conflict, poorer family function, less satisfaction with peer relationships, less connectedness to school, and poor academic performance. After adjusting the effects of sex, age and location, only subjects with lower self-esteem, higher family conflict, poorer family function, lower rank and decreased satisfaction in their peer group, and less connectedness to school were prone to depression on logistic regression. The prevalence of depression is high in Taiwanese adolescents, and the multiple factors of family, peer, school and individuals are associated with adolescent depression. The factors identified in the present study may be helpful when designing and implementing preventive intervention programs.
Full Text Available This paper presents a game design experience in primary schools, with children creating game design ideas and prototypes. Children were organized in cooperative groups. Game design tasks were organized following gamification principles, with ad-hoc gamified material. Cooperative learning and gamification served to elicit emotions and social inclusion. This paper measures them as follows. It operationalizes social inclusion with peer acceptance in three different social contexts, measured before and after the game design activity. It tracks achievement emotions experienced during game design at school. Then the paper examines the relationships between achievement emotions and peer acceptance. In this manner, it tackles an open problem in the literature concerning the links between emotions and social well-being in a game design experience. Path analyses indicate that, respectively for received choices and mutual friendships, positive emotions played a significant role in improving children’s social relations, and negative emotions were associated with a significant deterioration of social relations, but only for the extra-school leisure context. The paper concludes assessing the study limits and results in relation to game design with and for children.
Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W; Jackson, Daisy R
Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties-social network equity-had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools.
Early initiation of drinking increases the lifetime risk for substance abuse and other serious health and social problems. An understanding of the predictors of early initiation is needed if successful preventive interventions are to be developed. Surveys were completed by 1009 sixth grade students at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the school year in four schools in one suburban school district. At Time 1, 55/1009 (5.5%) reported drinking in the past 30 days. From Time 1 to Time 2, the percentage of drinkers increase to 127/1009 (10.9%) of whom 101 were new drinkers. In multiple logistic regression analyses, school engagement was negatively associated and peer influence and drinking expectancies were positively associated with drinking initiation. A significant interaction was found between drinking expectancies and parental expectations. Among sixth graders with high drinking expectancies, those with low parental expectations for their behavior were 2.6 times more likely to start drinking than those with parents with high expectations for their behavior. Positive drinking expectancies were significantly associated with drinking initiation only among teens who believed their parents did not hold strong expectations for them not to drink. This finding held for boys and girls, Blacks and Whites and was particularly strong for Black youth. This finding provides new information about the moderating effect of parental expectations on drinking expectancies among early adolescents.
Kornienko, Olga; Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao
This study examined longitudinal changes in peer network selection and influence associated with self-reported antisocial behavior (AB) and violent behavior (VB) over the course of middle school in a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents. Youth and families were randomly assigned to a school-based intervention focused on the prevention of…
Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco
Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang
This study examined the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on the relationships between bullying, peer acceptance, and school adjustment (rule-following behavior and academic performance) among 216 middle school 7th-graders in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants were divided into two groups according to their Machiavellianism. Multi-group path…
Galand, Benoît; Hospel, Virginie
Background: Peer victimization is associated with increased internalizing problems and reduced school adjustment. Research into the main effect and the buffering effect of social support on these internalizing problems has produced inconsistent findings, and none has tested the buffering effect of social support on school adjustment. Moreover,…
Liu, Ruth X.
This study assesses the effects of attachment to paternal grandparents on Chinese adolescent adjustment in the domains of school bonding, peer associations, and self-views, and whether such effects may differ for adolescent boys and girls. Drawing on survey responses of 2,117 middle school students from Fuzhou City, China, regression analyses…
Gray, Nancy L.; Gardiner, Mary E.
The purpose of the study was to examine educator-peer social relationships within the context of the organization and to consider the role of the school administrator in establishing collegial and caring relationships. The study was a critical collective case study of six educators--administrators and teachers--in U.S. schools. Through interviews,…
Odluyurt, Serhat; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Ersoy, Gulhan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of school counselor supervised peer tutoring intervention on meeting IEP outcomes of six inclusion students with developmental disabilities in a public elementary and secondary school. The effectiveness of this intervention was evaluated by using multiple probe design across students.…
Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten
Students with intellectual disabilities may lack sufficiently developed skills to initiate qualitatively good social interactions; thus, they might be in need of assistance. This study examined special education teachers' role in facilitating peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities in a mainstream school context. The study was based on qualitative semi-structured interviews with nine special education teachers who belong to special education groups in lower secondary schools. A thematic structural analysis was used to identify themes. The teachers made substantial efforts to promote social competence and ensure optimal conditions to foster peer interactions. An "academic-oriented" education, divergent attitudes, challenges in teacher collaboration, and organizational constraints may be barriers. In a mainstream school, the role of special education teachers appears to be dependent on the basic values of the school management in terms of real opportunities to foster peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities.
Full Text Available Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and
Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene
Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of healthy relationships
Rowe, Emma E.; Lubienski, Christopher
Market theory positions the consumer as a rational choice actor, making informed schooling choices on the basis of "hard" evidence of relative school effectiveness. Yet there are concerns that parents simply choose schools based on socio-demographic characteristics, thus leading to greater social segregation and undercutting the…
Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem
The present study examines school satisfaction among 1,090 Dutch and ethnic minority children aged between ten and twelve in relation to their school context. Data were gathered in 51 classes from 26 schools. Individual and classroom variables were examined simultaneously, using multilevel analysis.
Venezia, Andrea; Jaeger, Laura
The vast majority of high school students aspire to some kind of postsecondary education, yet far too many of them enter college without the basic content knowledge, skills, or habits of mind they need to succeed. Andrea Venezia and Laura Jaeger look at the state of college readiness among high school students, the effectiveness of programs in place to help them transition to college, and efforts to improve those transitions. Students are unprepared for postsecondary coursework for many reasons, the authors write, including differences between what high schools teach and what colleges expect, as well as large disparities between the instruction offered by high schools with high concentrations of students in poverty and that offered by high schools with more advantaged students. The authors also note the importance of noncurricular variables, such as peer influences, parental expectations, and conditions that encourage academic study. Interventions to improve college readiness offer a variety of services, from academic preparation and information about college and financial aid, to psychosocial and behavioral supports, to the development of habits of mind including organizational skills, anticipation, persistence, and resiliency. The authors also discuss more systemic programs, such as Middle College High Schools, and review efforts to allow high school students to take college classes (known as dual enrollment). Evaluations of the effectiveness of these efforts are limited, but the authors report that studies of precollege support programs generally show small impacts, while the more systemic programs show mixed results. Dual-enrollment programs show promise, but the evaluation designs may overstate the results. The Common Core State Standards, a voluntary set of goals and expectations in English and math adopted by most states, offer the potential to improve college and career readiness, the authors write. But that potential will be realized, they add, only if the
Howell, J. Emory
Literature Cited National Science Education Standards; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1996; http://www. nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: Washington, DC, 2000; http://standards.nctm.org/. Visit CLIC, an Online Resource for High School Teachers at http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/HS/
Hatchel, Tyler; Marx, Robert
Transgender youth experience elevated levels of victimization and may therefore report greater drug use than their cisgender peers, yet little is known about protective factors like school belonging that may mediate this relationship. Further, scant research has explored the experiences of youth at the intersection of transgender identity and youth of color status or low socioeconomic status, especially with respect to these multiple minority statuses’ associations with peer victimization, drug use, and school belonging. Using data from the California Healthy Kids Survey, the current study employs structural equation modeling to explore the relationships among school belonging, peer victimization, and drug use for transgender youth. Findings indicate that school belonging does mediate the pathway between peer victimization and drug use for transgender youth and that although youth of color experience greater victimization, they do not engage in greater drug use than their white transgender peers. Based on these results, those concerned with the healthy futures of transgender youth should advocate for more open and affirming school climates that engender a sense of belonging and treat transgender youth with dignity and fairness.
Howell, J. Emory
at 90° relative to each other, nitrogen contained three hooks at 120°, etc. The wires were sufficiently long and flexible that multiple bonding could be represented. Each player was dealt several game pieces and the first player received an extra carbon. The objective was to hook pieces together to make an acceptable molecule. Players took turns and the first player to use all his or her pieces was declared the winner. The first crossword puzzle to appear in JCE was written by a high school teacher from Hollywood, California (2). Ruth Van Vleet had observed that her students were caught up in the popularity of crossword puzzles of the time (1925) and used that interest to help students learn chemical facts. The puzzle published in the article was submitted by one of her students after completing one year of chemistry. The first article which carried the term "humor" in the title was published in 1974 (3). To meet the requirements of a class assignment to compare two elements, one student wrote an imaginary dialog between ytterbium and lutetium. Word play and puns were used to described similar and differing properties of the two elements. This article, however, was not the first account of using humor as a vehicle for stimulating student interest. Games, puzzles, and humor certainly can be overused. Usually they do not lead to the development of conceptual understanding. However, appropriate use, as many JCE readers have discovered, can stimulate student interest and reinforce factual knowledge. Some strategy games may help develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. The games, humor, and puzzles published in JCE are peer-reviewed so that inaccuracies and errors are not perpetuated. So why not take advantage of this resource? And look forward to next April, or whenever, for more games, puzzles, and humor. Feedback Requested for View from My Classroom Feature David Byrum, editor of the View From My Classroom feature, requests the assistance of readers
Jones, Linda D.
Research indicates there are significant differences in the academic performance of minorities and whites, particularly at the high school level. On average, Latino and African American high school students read and perform math on the same level as 13-year-old white students and trail their white peers by an average of 20 test points on math and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background While the HIV epidemic is levelling off in sub-Saharan Africa, it remains at an unacceptably high level. Young people aged 15-24 years remain particularly vulnerable, resulting in a regional HIV prevalence of 1.4% in young men and 3.3% in young women. This study assesses the effectiveness of a peer-led HIV prevention intervention in secondary schools in Rwanda on young people’s sexual behavior, HIV knowledge and attitudes. Methods In a non-randomized longitudinal controlled trial, fourteen schools were selected in two neighboring districts in Rwanda Bugesera (intervention and Rwamagana (control. Students (n = 1950 in eight intervention and six control schools participated in three surveys (baseline, six and twelve months in the intervention. Analysis was done using linear and logistic regression using generalized estimation equations adjusted for propensity score. Results The overall retention rate was 72%. Time trends in sexual risk behavior (being sexually active, sex in last six months, condom use at last sex were not significantly different in students from intervention and control schools, nor was the intervention associated with increased knowledge, perceived severity or perceived susceptibility. It did significantly reduce reported stigma. Conclusions Analyzing this and other interventions, we identified several reasons for the observed limited effectiveness of peer education: 1 intervention activities (spreading information are not tuned to objectives (changing behavior; 2 young people prefer receiving HIV information from other sources than peers; 3 outcome indicators are not adequate and the context of the relationship in which sex occurs and the context in which sex occurs is ignored. Effectiveness of peer education may increase through integration in holistic interventions and redefining peer educators’ role as focal points for sensitization and referral to experts and services. Finally, we argue that a
Dickerson, Jonathan; Paul, Katie; Vila, Pierre; Whiticar, Rebecca
Bedside ultrasonography has an increasing role in medicine yet medical students have limited exposure. Although countless hours are devoted to plain radiograph and electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation, ultrasound is frequently glossed over. Yet this imaging modality could enhance students' understanding of anatomy, physiology and pathology, and may increase their integration into hospital teams. We aimed to investigate whether a peer-assisted ultrasound course has a place within the undergraduate medical curriculum. We describe the implementation of a course and discuss its acceptability and utility in student education. Bedside ultrasonography has an increasing role in medicine yet medical students have limited exposure METHODS: Following consultation with the medical school, an improved ultrasonography course was developed with expert guidance from an ultrasonographer and with new equipment. Sessions involved peer-tutors teaching ultrasonography techniques to medical students during emergency medicine placements. Tutees completed questionnaires to assess the quality and perceived benefits of the course and of learning ultrasonography. Both quantitative and thematic analyses of the responses were conducted by the authors. Over a period of 8 months, 105 medical students received teaching across four sessions. A total of 103 students (98%) returned questionnaires on their evaluation of the course and tutors, and on their confidence in using ultrasound. Ninety-eight per cent felt that the teaching was well delivered, 100 per cent felt that their knowledge of ultrasound had improved and 100 per cent would recommend the course. The peer-assisted ultrasound course described here enabled the majority of students to feel confident gaining elementary ultrasound views, and performing abdominal aneurysm screening and trauma assessments: techniques that they could hopefully put to use during their placements. The peer-assisted model has an acceptable role in teaching
Helms, A. S.; Schmiegelow, K.; Brok, J.
Increased survival rates from childhood cancer call for efforts to reintegrate children with cancer back into their academic and social environments. The aims of this study were to: (1) review and analyse the existing literature on school re-entry interventions for children with cancer; and (2......) discuss the importance of peer involvement in the treatment. Relevant databases were searched using equivalent search algorithms and six studies were selected that target children with cancer and/or their classmates. Two authors independently reviewed the literature for data extraction. The articles were...... reviewed using the PRISMA model for reporting reviews. Statistical calculations for the meta-analyses were done using Review Manager 5.2. The metaanalyses showed significant effects of school re-entry programmes in terms of enhancing academic achievement in children with cancer (P = 0.008) and lowering...
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Many injuries to school-aged children occur during unsupervised peer activities, but peer influences on risky behavior in preadolescence remain under-investigated. We examined peer context effects on reported risk-taking, identified predictors of peer influence, and compared peer influence in high- and low-social-functioning groups. Forty-one boys aged 8-10 years listened to scenarios in which they encountered oppo...
Monika Priyadarshani Wijeratne
Full Text Available Violence among adolescents in schools is a relatively new research area in South Asian countries. Limited knowledge about factors associated with peer violence hinders the design of prevention programs. This study was carried out to assess correlates of peer violence among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in Gampaha district schools in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify “violent” and “non-violent” adolescents. Study and control populations were identified based on their participatory roles in violence, and an unmatched case–control (1 case: 1 control analysis was carried out to assess correlates of peer violence. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model was used, and correlates were determined for both physical and relational (verbal and non-verbal violence. Correlates of both physical and relational peer violence were male sex, being 13 years of age, mental health difficulties, dating relationships, school absenteeism, witnessing physical fights among neighbors, and crime-dense residence. Factors associated with peer violence operate at several levels: individual, family/peer relationships, community, and societal. Most of these factors are modifiable and can be targeted by prevention programs.
Byrne, Louise; Roennfeldt, Helena; O'Shea, Peri; Macdonald, Fiona
Mental health peer work is attracting growing interest and provides a potentially impactful method of service user involvement in mental health design and delivery, contributing to mental health reform. The need to effectively support this emerging workforce is consequently increasing. This study aimed to better understand the views of management in relation to peer work and specifically explores the value of peer work from the perspective of management. This qualitative research employed grounded theory methods. There were 29 participants in total, employed in both peer designated and non-peer designated management roles, in not for profit and public health organisations in Queensland, Australia. The value of peer work as described by participants is found to be partially dependent on practical supports and strategies from the organisation. There were high benefits for all facets of the organisation when effective recruitment and ongoing support for peer workers was prioritised and a higher perception of limitations when they were not. Due to some parallels, it may be useful to explore the potential for peer work to be conceptually and/or practically considered as a form of diversity and inclusion employment.
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey
This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…
When it comes to sports, everyone gets it; you have to play to really understand, experience, and learn what the game is all about. It would be ludicrous to teach basketball by practicing basketball fundamentals in the gym (layups, free throws, jump shots, dribbling, defense), reading about and attending professional basketball games, but never playing in a game. As important as classes and teaching laboratories may be in science education, there is simply no substitute for active engagement in scientific research to show students what science is all about and, perhaps even more importantly, to inspire and motivate them to become scientists or at least appreciate science. It is a widely held misconception that a student cannot really do meaningful, publishable scientific research until he/she is in graduate school. In actual fact, college undergraduates and even high school students can make original and significant scientific research contributions. Astronomical research, in particular, is very well suited to engage the beginning high school or college undergraduate researcher. The night sky’s inherent accessibility and also its inherent grandeur are natural draws for the curious student’s mind. And much can be learned and discovered using small telescopes. In sports, joining a team is a key aspect of the sports experience. Similarly in science, joining a research team and thereby entering a “community of scientific practice” is fundamental and transformational. As important as working with equipment and acquiring data happen to be in scientific research, this is only the beginning of the research process. Student researchers of all ages—particularly high school students and college undergraduates—have much to gain by giving presentations on their research, writing up their results for publication, and going through the peer review process. But this only works if the student researchers are imbedded within the community of practice.
Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth
Peer victimization, or bullying, has been identified as a significant child health priority and children with language impairment (LI) are among those who are vulnerable. Given the mandate of educators to provide support for "all" students who are bullied regardless of language status, research is needed that integrates the study of risk factors…
Betts, Lucy R; Spenser, Karin A; Gardner, Sarah E
Young people are spending increasing amounts of time using digital technology and, as such, are at great risk of being involved in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim. Despite cyber bullying typically occurring outside the school environment, the impact of being involved in cyber bullying is likely to spill over to school. Fully 285 11- to 15-year-olds (125 male and 160 female, M age = 12.19 years, SD = 1.03) completed measures of cyber bullying involvement, self-esteem, trust, perceived peer acceptance, and perceptions of the value of learning and the importance of school. For young women, involvement in cyber bullying as a victim, bully, or bully/victim negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school, and perceived peer acceptance mediated this relationship. The results indicated that involvement in cyber bullying negatively predicted perceived peer acceptance which, in turn, positively predicted perceptions of learning and school. For young men, fulfilling the bully/victim role negatively predicted perceptions of learning and school. Consequently, for young women in particular, involvement in cyber bullying spills over to impact perceptions of learning. The findings of the current study highlight how stressors external to the school environment can adversely impact young women's perceptions of school and also have implications for the development of interventions designed to ameliorate the effects of cyber bullying.
de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C
This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.
Howell, J. Emory
Secondary School Feature Articles * Authentic Research within the Grasp of High School Students, by Annis Hapkiewicz, p 1212 * JCE Classroom Activity #19: Blueprint Photography by the Cyanotype Process, by Glen D. Lawrence and Stuart Fishelson, p 1216A Author Recognition A new program has been instituted to recognize high school teachers who are authors or coauthors of manuscripts published in the Journal. In May, letters were sent to teachers who wrote articles published in JCE beginning with Volume 74 (1997). If you were an author, you should have received a letter from us in late May or early June stating that your high school principal has been sent a Certificate of High School Author Recognition to be presented to you at a suitable occasion. Because the letters were sent late in the school year, you may not see the certificate until fall, or you may not receive your letter until then if we had only your school address. If you have authored or coauthored an article published in JCE and did not receive a letter, please contact me using the information about the Secondary School Chemistry Editor appearing on the Information Page in this issue. Syllabus Swap In the August issue, this column contained an invitation to exchange high school syllabi. The day after my copy of the August issue arrived, I received an email from a teacher indicating an interest in participating in an exchange. If you are interested, check the August "Especially for High School Chemistry Teachers" column for a brief discussion of the informal exchange program, or contact me. Research Conducted by High School Students In his June 1999 editorial "Learning Is a Do-It-Yourself Activity", p 725, John Moore wrote about the need to engage students actively in the learning process. As I have mentioned in this column previously, research conducted by students is one means of accomplishing this goal. In this issue, p 1212, Annis Hapkiewicz explains how she has drawn her Okemos [Michigan] High School
Kanayama, Motoharu; Ono, Masahiko; Ohashi, Tsutomu; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Oi, Shizuyo; Matsui, Kayoko; Tsujimoto, Ikuhiro; Yoshida, Hatsuko
The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between social skills and loneliness, and to contribute to prevention and intervention of loneliness in junior high school students. Questionnaires were administered to 83 students (45 males and 38 females). Correlation analysis showed that loneliness score was negatively related to the scores of peer reinforcement, social initiation, conflict resolution and assertion skills, and also positively related to the score of withdrawal beh...
Gregg, David; Somers, Cheryl L; Pernice, Francesca Maria; Hillman, Stephen B; Kernsmith, Poco
Risks associated with teen sexting draw increasing concern from teachers and communities as developments in communication software and devices make sharing private content faster and simpler each year. We examined rates, recipients, and predictors of teen sexting to better plan education and preventative policies and strategies. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the most likely predictors of teen sexting using prior survey studies and theoretical conceptions. We surveyed 314 high school students in an urban area of a large Midwestern city. Males were found to more frequently report sexting. Impulsivity, frequency of electronic communication, peer pressure, peer sexting, and social learning significantly predicted sexting beyond age, race, and sex. Self-esteem did not moderate the effect of peer pressure to sext. Structural predictive models attained good fit to the data, and neither were moderated by sex. Sexting was highly associated with reported peer pressure, perceived norms, and impulsive decision making. Adolescents in relationships may be at particular risk of sexting. These findings will help parents, teens, and educators take appropriate measures to inform about and encourage the safe use of technology. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Alfoukha, Marwa M; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Banihani, Manar Ali
Prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) has increased among adolescents in Arabic and Western countries. The purposes are to identify the risk of ED and psychosocial correlates of risk of ED among high school girls in Jordan. The researchers employed a cross-sectional, correlational design using 799 high school girls from governmental and private schools in the central region of Jordan. The results indicate that prevalence of the risk of ED was 12%. The risk of ED had significant and positive correlation with body shape dissatisfaction, self-esteem, psychological distress, and pressure from family, peers, and media ( p self-esteem, negative peer pressure, and being young were significant predictors of the risk of EDs. Risk of ED is highly prevalent among high school girls, and school nurses need to adopt a model of care addressing the risk factors while caring for high school girls.
This study examines the effectiveness of a summer school credit recovery program in the Sun Valley High School District. Using logistic regression I assess the relationship between race, gender, course failure, school of origin and summer school participation for a sample of students that failed one or more classes in their first year of high…
The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…
Agnew, David T.
(G-PGCS) was designed and implemented for K-6 school counselors. G-PGCS began in the fall of 1994 and has continued to the present; however, there have been no studies on the effects of the program. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of G-PGCS. The evaluation participants included current Roanoke County K-5 school counselors, and selected administrators. The sources of data for the evalu...
Weaver, Kenneth A
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; He, Yunfeng; Liu, Hongyun
This 2-year longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age=11 years), the moderating effects of the peer group on relations between maternal supportive parenting and social and school adjustment. Data were collected from multiple sources including peer assessments, teacher ratings, school records, and maternal reports.…
Andre, Christine; Deerin, Jessica; Leykum, Luci
Effective mentoring is an important component of medical student professional development. We provide a description of the mentoring program at our institution. Our institution UTHSCSA implemented a student-advising program (Veritas) with clinical faculty mentors and senior students (MiMs). The MiMs provided vertical peer mentoring to more junior students as an adjunct to faculty advising. The MiMs lead small group discussions that foster camaraderie, share academic and career information and promote professional identity. An optional MiM elective more intensively develops mentorship and leadership skills through a formal curriculum. The authors used annual survey data of all students as well as student mentors to evaluate program effectiveness. Overall, student perception of the program improved each year across multiple domains, including feeling more prepared, supported and satisfied with their overall experience in medical school. Student mentors also found the process rewarding and helpful to their future careers as physicians. The authors suggest implementing a vertical peer-mentoring program can be an effective adjunct to faculty mentoring.
Baxter, Paul; Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony
The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.
Full Text Available The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.
Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony
The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time. PMID:28542648
Full Text Available This study aims at ascertaining the social factor causing the shifting of Bahasa Jawa Ngoko into Bahasa Indonesia among the elementary school students and confirming whether this phenomenon also occurs in all grades. The data were collected through observation and interview. Those data were analyzed using interactive analysis model (Milles & Huberman, 1994. There are two triangulations used in this research: source and method triangulations. Finally, the research found that peer-oriented intervention (Mrug et al,. 2001 functions as a social factor of language shift. However, this Javanese shift did not occur in the fifth grade students since they are from the same speech community. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor sosial yang menyebabkan pergeseran Bahasa Jawa Ngoko dalam Bahasa Indonesia di kalangan siswa sekolah dasar dan memastikan apakah fenomena ini juga terjadi di semua kelas. Data dikumpulkan melalui pengamatan dan wawancara. Selanjutnya, data tersebut dianalisis dengan menerapkan model analisis interaktif (Milles &Huberman, 1994. Selain itu, penelitian ini menggunakan triangulasi sumber dan metode. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa peer-oriented intervention berfungsi sebagai faktor sosial pergeseran bahasa. Namun, pergeseran Bahasa Jawa Ngoko ke Bahasa Indonesia ini tidak terjadi pada siswa kelas lima karena mereka berasal dari komunitas bahasa yang sama.
Nursel TÜRKMEN, Delia; Halis DOKGÖZ, Mihai; Semra AKGÖZ, Suzana; Bülent EREN, Bogdan Nicolae; Pınar VURAL, Horatiu; Oğuz POLAT, Horatiu
ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among 14-17 year-old adolescents in a sample of school children in Bursa, Turkey. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was conducted among class 1 and class 2 high school students for identification bullying. Results: Majority (96.7%) of the students were involved in bullying behaviours as aggressors or victims. For a male student, the likelihood of being involved in violent behaviours was detected to be nearly 8.4 times higher when compared with a female student. Conclusion: a multidisciplinary approach involving affected children, their parents, school personnel, media, non-govermental organizations, and security units is required to achieve an effective approach for the prevention of violence targeting children in schools as victims and/or perpetrators. PMID:24371478
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a high school peer educator training programme on the sexual behaviour and related psychosocial outcomes of peer educators. Method: A total of 728 students from 15 randomly selected public high schools in the Western Cape, South Africa, with a peer education programme and 15 ...
Alegre Ansuategui, Francisco José; Moliner Miravet, Lidón
This paper describes an experience of same-age peer tutoring conducted with 19 eighth-grade mathematics students in a secondary school in Castellon de la Plana (Spain). Three constructs were analysed before and after launching the program: academic performance, mathematics self-concept and attitude of solidarity. Students' perceptions of the method were also analysed. The quantitative data was gathered by means of a mathematics self-concept questionnaire, an attitude of solidarity questionnaire and the students' numerical ratings. A statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. The qualitative information was gathered by means of discussion groups and a field diary. This information was analysed using descriptive analysis and by categorizing the information. Results show statistically significant improvements in all the variables and the positive assessment of the experience and the interactions that took place between the students.
Stalmach, Magdalena; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna
Analyses concerning peer violence among girls and boys aged 13-17 years, in the context of socio- -economic characteristics of the family: family structure, parental employment status and perceived family wealth. Preliminary data from the recent HBSC studies conducted in 12 voivodeships in Poland in 2013 was used. The analyzes concerned 2300 students aged 13-17 years (45% boys) and focused on the following types of violence: being a perpetrator and a victim of bullying, participation in fights and cyberbullying. Chi-square test analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Significantly more boys than girls experienced bullying (28% vs. 22%) and was perpetrators of violence in the school (39% vs. 25%). The youth from single-parent families significantly more often than students from two-parent families, participated in fights and was the perpetrators of violence in the school. Being a perpetrator and a victim of violence concerned mostly students from poor families and boys, whose father was unemployed. The following risk factors was identified- among boys: low economic status of the family (victims of bullying) and single-parent family (victims of cyberbullying), father's unemployment (the perpetrator of bullying) and age 13-14 years (victims and perpetrators of bullying, participation in fights) and among girls: low economic status of the family (cyberbullying), mother's unemployment and age 13-14 years (victims of violence). The family socio-economic factors, gender and age determine the type and the prevalence of peer violence. Low economic status of the family and single-parent family increases the risk of experiencing violence. For the prevention of bullying the educational role of the father and his commitment to family budget are important.
Full Text Available Purpose: The majority of children and young people with disabilities live in developing countries where they face inequalities in education and other opportunities. Negative attitudes constitute one of the major barriers to the development of their potential. This study aimed to describe the attitudes of students without disability towards their peers with disability, and to assess the role that gender and interpersonal contact play in shaping these attitudes. Method: A cross-sectional study involving 107 students was carried out at an inclusive secondary school located in a peri-urban area in South Western Nigeria. Participants were recruited from a group of 118 students in the three junior classes and senior class one (JSS 1 to SSS 1. A semi-structured questionnaire containing items on the “Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes Towards Children with Handicaps (CATCH scale”, which elicits responses on a Likert scale numbered 0 to 4 (0-strongly disagree, 4-strongly agree, was administered. Data analysis was done using Stata version 12. Descriptive analysis was carried out and association between variables was determined using independent two-tailed t-tests.Results: The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.83. The attitudes of students in the school were generally positive (M = 22.55, SD = 3.79. Female students had higher total scores (M = 24.76, SD = 2.78 than their male contemporaries (M = 19.84, SD = 3.05, t (103 = 8.55, p = .000. Having a friend/relative with a disability was associated with more positive attitudes among female students.Conclusions: In this inclusive setting, the attitudes of students towards their peers with disability were generally positive. Since interpersonal contact was associated with positive attitudes towards students with disabilities, interventions should be directed towards promoting interpersonal relationships in order to build an integrated society.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.136
Yip, Calvin; Gates, Michelle; Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M.
To date, the impacts of school-based, peer-led nutrition education initiatives have not been summarized or assessed collectively. This review presents the current evidence, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides recommendations for future research. PubMed, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar were searched for refereed Canadian and American primary…
Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…
Korkmaz, Murat; Esen, Binnaz Kiran
The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a peer-training program about changing students' internet use habits. This study was conducted with students from two different elementary schools in Mersin, Turkey, who were enrolled in 7th or 8th grade in the 2009-2010 academic year. A total of 24 students participated in the program, 12 of whom…
Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.
The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…
Omollo, Atieno Evaline; Yambo, Onyango J. M.
The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of peer pressure on secondary school students' drop out in Rongo Sub-County, Migori County, Kenya. The statement of the problem showed that the sub-county had a dropout rate of 43 percent as compared to the neighboring sub counties like Uriri, Awendo, Nyatike, Kuria and Migori which had 25,…
Helwig, Charles C.; Arnold, Mary Louise; Tan, Dingliang; Boyd, Dwight
This study explored judgments and reasoning of Chinese 13- to 18-year-olds regarding making decisions involving children in peer, family, and school contexts. Findings indicated that judgments and reasoning about decision-making varied by social context and by the decision under consideration. Evaluations of procedures became more differentiated…
Staff and student surveys at Lane Elementary School (pseudonym) confirm that students lack motivation to complete class work and often struggle to interact appropriately with one another. Similar concerns are reported across the United States as indicated by national Gallup Poll results on student motivation, peer relationships, and feelings of…
Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.
Describes the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat consumption. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation involving participant feedback, observation, and teacher ratings and interviews indicated that…
A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…
Bugaj, Till Johannes
Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.
Krnjajić Stevan B.
Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.
Howell, J. Emory
Chemistry and the Environment This issue contains more than 20 articles relating to the environment. Several articles of potential interest are indicated in the Table of Contents with the SSC mark (). Others are not so indicated because they depict use of expensive instrumentation or costly procedures, but if you have an interest in environmental chemistry you may wish to examine all the environmentally related articles. While many of the articles, both marked and unmarked, are targeted to college-level environmental chemistry curricula or to introductory courses for non-major, the methods described in several could be readily adapted to high school chemistry courses. One article likely to be of interest to teachers is found in News from Online, pp 1608-1609. The author explains how to use the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's EnviroMapper Web site to view and query environmental information. She mentioned finding a hazardous waste handler located near her home, so I decided to check the area near my home. I quickly located a natural gas salt dome storage facility marked on the map and, with a few more mouse clicks, I found information that included status of compliance with regulations, amounts of each compound released to the air in tons per year, and how to contact the corporation owning the site. Email and Web site addresses were included for the convenience of anyone wishing to contact the corporation. Students could learn a great deal about where they live that is relevant to chemistry by using the EPA site. Additional Web sites dealing with environmental issues and chemistry are cited in the sidebar at the bottom of p 1609. Among the articles that could be adapted to an advanced high school chemistry class or possibly even to an introductory class is one titled Bridge of Mandolin County (pp 1671-1672). It describes a case-study strategy similar to the scenarios used in ChemStudy. Students analyze information from various sources, including laboratory
Full Text Available We are faced with chaotic processes in many segments of our life: meteorology, environmental pollution, financial and economic processes, sociology, mechanics, electronics, biology, chemistry. The spreading of high-performance computers and the development of simulation methods made the examination of these processes easily available. Regular, periodic motions (pendulum, harmonic oscillatory motion, bouncing ball, as taught at secondary level, become chaotic even due minor changes. If it is true that the most considerable achievements of twentieth century physics were the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and chaos theory, then it is presumably time to think about, examine and test how and to what extent chaos can be presented to the students. Here I would like to introduce a 12 lesson long facultative curriculum framework on chaos designed for students aged seventeen. The investigation of chaos phenomenon in this work is based on a freeware, “Dynamics Solver”. This software, with some assistance from the teacher, is suitable for classroom use at secondary level.
Spriggs, Aubrey L; Iannotti, Ronald J; Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L
Although bullying is recognized as a serious problem in the United States, little is known about racial/ethnic differences in bullying risk. This study examined associations between bullying and family, peer, and school relations for white, black and Hispanic adolescents. A nationally representative sample (n = 11,033) of adolescents in grades six to ten participated in the 2001 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey, self-reporting bullying involvement and information on family, peer and school relations. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, age and affluence were stratified by race/ethnicity. Nine percent of respondents were victims of bullying, 9% were bullies, and 3% were bully-victims. Black adolescents reported a significantly lower prevalence of victimization than white and Hispanic students. Multivariate results indicated modest racial/ethnic variation in associations between bullying and family, peer, and school factors. Parental communication, social isolation, and classmate relationships were similarly related to bullying across racial/ethnic groups. Living with two biological parents was protective against bullying involvement for white students only. Furthermore, although school satisfaction and performance were negatively associated with bullying involvement for white and Hispanic students, school factors were largely unrelated to bullying among black students. Although school attachment and performance were inconsistently related to bullying behavior across race/ethnicity, bullying behaviors are consistently related to peer relationships across black, white, and Hispanic adolescents. Negative associations between family communication and bullying behaviors for white, black, and Hispanic adolescents suggest the importance of addressing family interactions in future bullying prevention efforts.
Rodríguez-Medina, Jairo; Martín-Antón, Luis J; Carbonero, Miguel A; Ovejero, Anastasio
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, which manifest at school especially in less structured situations such as recess. Recess provides opportunities for relationship with peers in a natural context, for which students with ASD may not be equipped with the necessary skills to use without support. Using a single-case design, we evaluated an intervention applied in recess to improve the social interaction skills of a student with high-functioning ASD mediated by his peers without ASD, in second grade of elementary school. This intervention includes different strategies to initiate the peers without ASD, using direct instruction, modeling, and social reinforcement carried out in the recess setting. After 14 sessions, changes were observed in the rates of initiating and responding to interactions, and a negative trend in the percentage of time that the student maintained low-intensity interactions or was alone. Teachers and family perceived improvements in social skills, more peer acceptance, and increase in the frequency and duration of social interactions. This intervention can help teachers to apply research-based practices to improve some social interaction skills in high-functioning students with autism in inclusive school environments.
Rodríguez-Medina, Jairo; Martín-Antón, Luis J.; Carbonero, Miguel A.; Ovejero, Anastasio
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, which manifest at school especially in less structured situations such as recess. Recess provides opportunities for relationship with peers in a natural context, for which students with ASD may not be equipped with the necessary skills to use without support. Using a single-case design, we evaluated an intervention applied in recess to improve the social interaction skills of a student with high-functioning ASD mediated by his peers without ASD, in second grade of elementary school. This intervention includes different strategies to initiate the peers without ASD, using direct instruction, modeling, and social reinforcement carried out in the recess setting. After 14 sessions, changes were observed in the rates of initiating and responding to interactions, and a negative trend in the percentage of time that the student maintained low-intensity interactions or was alone. Teachers and family perceived improvements in social skills, more peer acceptance, and increase in the frequency and duration of social interactions. This intervention can help teachers to apply research-based practices to improve some social interaction skills in high-functioning students with autism in inclusive school environments. PMID:28066303
This brief report describes the development and implementation of a unique, full-year, credit-bearing, technology course in literary Braille transcription offered at a Long Island (New York) high school. It describes the program's goals, development, implementation, students, ongoing activities, outreach efforts, and student attitudes. Suggestions…
Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith
If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…
Emory Howell, J.
many of our readers. The High School/College Interface Luncheon was part of the very rich day-long High School Program at the New Orleans ACS Meeting. Shown here (from left) are Glenn Crosby, the luncheon speaker; Lillie Tucker-Akin, the High School Day program chair; and Fred Johnson, Assistant Superintendent of Shelby County (TN) schools and Immediate Past President of NSTA. The recipient of the James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching is Frank G. Cardulla, who taught for many years at Niles North High School, Skokie, Illinois. His extensive record of service to fellow teachers includes editing the JCE "View from My Classroom" feature for several years and writing several articles, as well as his recent appointment to the JCE Board of Publication. The recipient of the George C. Pimentel Award in Chemical Education is Jerry A. Bell of the American Chemical Society in Washington, DC. An author of numerous articles appearing in JCE and a member of the JCE Board of Publication for several years, he currently serves as Board Chair. The 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education Readers who attended the 15th BCCE in Waterloo, Ontario, know that much of the programming at these conferences is of interest to high school teachers. Many work shops, papers, and demonstrations are presented by high school teachers. There are many other outstanding papers and posters, plenary speakers, and exciting demonstrations. The 16th BCCE will be held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, July 30-August 3, 2000. Among the high school teachers already scheduled to present workshops at the 16th BCCE are George Hague, Lynn Hershey, and Jack Randall, and there will be many more before the program is completed. The High School Chemistry Program Chair is Tim Graham, Roosevelt High School (MI). The Organizing Committee is seeking the assistance of local sections of the American Chemical Society within a 300-mile radius of Ann Arbor in providing support for high school
One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6 - 12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.
Luis Jorge Martín-Antón
Full Text Available This study examined the social situations that are problematic for peer-rejected students in the first year of elementary school. For this purpose, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations for Children (TOPS, Dodge et al., 1985 in 169 rejected pupils, identified from a sample of 1457 first-grade students (ages 5-7 enrolled in 62 classrooms of elementary school. For each rejected student, another student of average sociometric status of the same gender was selected at random from the same classroom (naverage = 169. The model for the rejected students showed a good fit, and was also invariant in the group of average students. Four types of situations were identified in which rejected students have significantly more difficulties than average students. They are, in descending order: (a respect for authority and rules, (b being disadvantaged, (c prosocial and empathic behavior, and (d response to own success. Rejected boys have more problems in situations of prosociability and empathy than girls. The implications concerning the design of specific programs to prevent and reduce early childhood rejection in the classroom are discussed.
Sarah C. Fankhauser
Full Text Available Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.
Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S
Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.
The second year of operation of Hilo High School's "School-Within-A-School" [SWS] program is evaluated in this paper. Planning, training, and program implementation are described in the document. The following are the results of the program: There was an improvement in attendance among project students when compared to their record in…
Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Brownson, Amanda; Kahlert, Rahel; Sobel, Andrew
The results of a study conducted by the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Department of Education during the 2001-02 school year showed that elements of the middle school concept can lead to improved student performance, even in high-poverty schools. This article describes common elements of the middle school…
Steglich, Christian; Sinclair, Philip; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Sinclair, W
As shown by the success of network intervention studies that exploit the occurrence of peer influence in their target group, the reliable assessment of peer influence processes can be important for informing public health policy and practice. A recently developed tool for assessing peer influence in
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R; Cornell, Dewey
This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high school dropout rates. Analyses controlled for school demographics of school enrollment size, percentage of low-income students, percentage of minority students, and urbanicity. Consistent with authoritative school climate theory, moderation analyses found that when students perceive their teachers as supportive, high academic expectations are associated with lower dropout rates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Houlston, Catherine; Smith, Peter K
A variety of peer support schemes are now widely used in schools, notably to reduce bullying. However, there has been little systematic investigation of the impact and effectiveness of these approaches. To assess the impact of a peer counselling scheme on peer counsellors and the school community. The research was conducted in a North London all-girls state secondary school. Data were collected from all lower school classes (years 7, 8, and 9) and some staff members, in addition to year 10 peer counsellors and an age equivalent comparison group. A detailed 1-year longitudinal study combined qualitative and quantitative methods of assessment. Peer counsellors benefited from their involvement through an acquisition of transferable communication and interpersonal skills, and, compared to age-matched control pupils, had increased social self-esteem. There were no reductions in self-reported bullying and victimization, but in general pupils believed that there was less bullying in school and that the school was doing more about bullying, with year 7 students showing the most positive changes. Peer-counselling schemes can improve self-esteem of peer supporters, and also impact positively on perceptions of bullying in the school; but impact on actual experiences of bullying is less clear, and there may be problems with the acceptance and use of such programmes by older students.
Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D
Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of school-based bullying and victimization and their use of SHCs. Data was analyzed from 2063 high school students in 5 Northern California school districts using the 2009-2010 California Healthy Kids Survey. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to measure associations. Students who were bullied or victimized at school had significantly higher odds of using the SHCs compared with students who were not, and were also significantly more likely to report confidentiality concerns. The magnitude of associations was largest for Asian/Pacific Islander students, though this was likely due to greater statistical power. African American students reported victimization experiences at approximately the same rate as their peers, but were significantly less likely to indicate they experienced bullying. Findings suggest that SHCs may be an important place to address bullying and victimization at school, but confidentiality concerns are barriers that may be more common among bullied and victimized youth. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Howell, J. Emory
Care to Share? An Informal Syllabus Exchange A recent email message from Thomas Shiland, who teaches at Saratoga Springs Senior High School, noted that the process of revising the high school chemistry syllabus is underway in New York State. He expressed a strong interest in helping construct a chemistry syllabus that represents the best thinking about appropriate content. He wondered if it would be possible to develop a way in which different secondary chemistry syllabi could easily be exchanged. It is likely that readers from other states and countries are involved in a similar process and might also be interested in exchanging syllabi. Many states do not use the term syllabus to describe their guiding curricular document for chemistry but rather refer to it as a framework or as guidelines. In most cases, the document includes a list of key ideas or topics, performance indicators, and the major understandings associated with each key idea. Such documents would be appropriate for exchange among those of you involved in the revision process. If you are interested in arranging an exchange please contact me by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or by mail at J. E. Howell, Box 5043, USM, Hattiesburg, MS39406-5043, USA. High School Day Information The High School Chemistry Program at the American Chemical Society National Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana will be held Sunday, August 22, 1999, at the Doubletree Hotel, 300 Canal Street. If you wish to register only for the High School Day activities, which includes a pass to the ACS Exposition, a special registration form is available from Lillie Tucker-Akin, 2800 Reynard Dr., Tupelo, MS38801; email@example.com; fax: 662/566-7906. Advance registration is 25 and the cost of the High School Luncheon is 12. Register in advance by August 1, 1999, or from 7:45 to 8:30 a.m. at the High School Day table in the conference room area of the Doubletree. The workshop schedule is shown below. Secondary School Feature Articles * Exploring the
Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.
This study examines processes linking inner-city community violence exposure to subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. Hypothesized risk and protective factors from three ecological domains -- children's parent and peer relationships and individual characteristics -- were examined for mediating, moderating or independent roles in predicting problem behavior among 667 children over three years of middle school. Mediation was not found. However, parent and peer variables moderated the association between exposure and internalizing problems. Under high exposure, normally protective factors (e.g., attachment to parents) were less effective in mitigating exposure's effects than under low exposure; attachment to friends was more effective. Individual competence was independently associated with decreased internalizing problems. Variables from all domains, and exposure, were independently associated with externalizing problems. Protective factors (e.g., parent attachment) predicted decreased problems; risk factors (e.g., friends' delinquency) predicted increased problems. Results indicate community violence reduction as essential in averting inner-city adolescents' poor behavioral outcomes. PMID:21643493
Webster, Amanda A; Carter, Mark
One of the most commonly cited rationales for inclusive education is to enable the development of quality relationships with typically developing peers. Relatively few researchers have examined the features of the range of relationships that children with developmental disability form in inclusive school settings. Interviews were conducted with 25 children with developmental disability, aged 5 and 12 years, their 3 closest peers, and parents and teachers to examine 6 types of relationships. Behaviours associated with general friendship and acquaintance were the most commonly reported. Few dyads reported high rates of behaviour associated with special treatment, helping, ignoring, or intimate best friend relationships. The relationships of the majority of dyads were characterised by friendship or acceptance, but evidence of more intimate relationships was limited. An important direction for future research is the examination of ways to encourage more intimate relationships.
Oldfield, Jeremy; Stevenson, Andrew; Ortiz, Emily; Haley, Bethany
Adolescent attachment relationships formed with parents are salient predictors of mental health. Few studies, however, have demonstrated whether peer attachment or school connectedness can predict resilience to mental health difficulties when a young person is at risk due to poor parental attachment. Ninety adolescents (44 females and 46 males) living in economically disadvantaged areas and attending informal schooling projects in and around Guatemala City participated. Participants completed self-report measures of parental and peer attachment, school connectedness and mental health. Resilience to mental health difficulties was predicted by more secure school connectedness but lower levels of secure peer attachment. School connectedness may provide a role in promoting resilience for mental health for adolescents living in risk, whereas the potential negative influence that secure attachments to peers exerts, in context of poor parental attachment, needs to be explored further. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balsa, Ana I; Gandelman, Néstor; González, Nicolás
We estimate peer effects in risk attitudes in a sample of high school students. Relative risk aversion is elicited from surveys administered at school. Identification of peer effects is based on parents not being able to choose the class within the school of their choice, and on the use of instrumental variables conditional on school-grade fixed effects. We find a significant and quantitatively large impact of peers' risk attitudes on a male individual's coefficient of risk aversion. Specifically, a one standard deviation increase in the group's coefficient of risk aversion increases an individual's risk aversion by 43%. Our findings shed light on the origin and stability of risk attitudes and, more generally, on the determinants of economic preferences. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
Patalay, Praveetha; Annis, Jennifer; Sharpe, Helen; Newman, Robbie; Main, Dominic; Ragunathan, Thivvia; Parkes, Mary; Clarke, Kelly
Engaging young people in the design and delivery of mental health education could lead to more effective interventions; however, few of these interventions have been evaluated. This study aimed to gain preliminary evidence with regards to the efficacy and acceptability of OpenMinds: a peer-designed and facilitated mental health literacy programme for university and secondary school students. The programme involves a structured programme of education and training for university medical students, who then deliver workshops in secondary schools. Pre- and post-surveys were completed by 234 school students who received two workshops and 40 university medical students who completed the OpenMinds programme and delivered the workshops. The main outcomes in both groups were components of mental health literacy (non-stigmatising attitudes, knowledge, social distance and helping attitudes). Perceived teaching efficacy and interest in mental health careers (university medical students) and workshop acceptability (school students) were also examined. University and school student participation in OpenMinds was associated with significant improvements in three of four mental health literacy elements in both samples. Knowledge and attitudes improved in both samples, social distance improved only in the university sample and knowledge of helping behaviours increased in the school sample. University students' perceived teaching efficacy improved but there was no change in their reported interest in pursuing psychiatry in their career. Acceptability was high; over 70% of the school students agreed that they enjoyed the workshops and liked being taught by a university student. This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability and efficacy of OpenMinds as a sustainable peer-led model of mental health education for young people. The OpenMinds programme is ready for efficacy testing in a randomised trial.
Strassberg, Donald S; Cann, Deanna; Velarde, Valerie
In the last 8 years, several studies have documented that many adolescents acknowledge having exchanged sexually explicit cell phone pictures of themselves, a behavior termed sexting. Differences across studies in how sexting was defined, recruitment strategies, and cohort have resulted in sometimes significant differences in as basic a metric as what percentage of adolescents have sent, received, or forwarded such sexts. The psychosocial and even legal risks associated with sexting by minors are significantly serious that accurate estimates of its prevalence, including over time, are important to ascertain. In the present study, students (N = 656) from a single private high school were surveyed regarding their participation in sexting. Students at this same school were similarly surveyed four years earlier. In this second survey, reported rates of sending (males 15.8%; females 13.6%) and receiving (males 40.5%; females 30.6%) sexually explicit cell phone pictures (revealing genitals or buttocks of either sex or female breasts) were generally similar to those reported at the same school 4 years earlier. Rates of forwarding sexts (males 12.2%; females 7.6%) were much lower than those previously acknowledged at this school. Correlates of sexting in this study were similar to those reported previously. Overall, our findings suggest that sexting by adolescents (with the exception of forwarding) remains a fairly common behavior, despite its risks.
Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.
This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate...
Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J
Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking. Multinomial logistic regression show that, as adolescents get older, more of the pro-smoking factors come from peers and parents, the higher the risk gets of being a "heavy smoker" has compared against having no experience with smoking. Living in a context with no factor of normative influence toward smoking play a protective role against smoking, and this effect becomes more important than more harmful the smoking behavior in question is. Furthermore, peers' descriptive norms are more influential for adolescents to become "light" and "heavy smokers", while smoking being approved by peers is important for adolescents to become accustomed to smoking. Findings support the different influence of parents' and peers' norms on adolescents' smoking, and highlight the importance of peers' model behavior as the most important factor influencing smoking during adolescence. Such results have implications for programs that aim to prevent or reduce smoking in early adolescence when friendship choice starts to become crucial.
Dunne, Mairead; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia; Sabates, Ricardo; Owusu, Andrew
This monograph analyses the effects of bullying on school attendance among senior high school students in Ghana. A strong correlation is found between being bullied and having poor attendance. The effects of emotional problems and of peer friendships on this correlation are then examined. For both boys and girls, having emotional problems is…
Full Text Available Restorative Practices (RP in schools is a new and emerging field. Meeting in Circles to build friendships, develop emotional literacy skills, resolve conflict, or learn interactively are some of the core components of these programs. This article describes a 2-year study of 12 weekly Talking Circles organized under the auspices of a RP program in an urban high school with 60 adolescent girls. Primary data sources included 257 hr of participant observations in Talking Circles and individual, semi-structured interviews with 31 students. The Relational Cultural model, rooted in the work of Jean Baker Miller, served as the conceptual framework for understanding teens’ interactions within the Circle’s unique set of social conditions in a school environment. Findings demonstrated that Talking Circles provided a safe space for peers helping peers, and that the girls improved their listening, anger management, and empathic skills, which led to greater self-efficacy. It appears that Talking Circles could provide another venue for developing social-emotional literacy skills and growth-fostering relationships in schools.
Owen, Michael B; Kerner, Charlotte; Taylor, Sarah L; Noonan, Robert J; Newson, Lisa; Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Curry, Whitney B; Fairclough, Stuart J
Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA. The investigation aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel school three-tier peer-led mentoring model designed to improve PA levels and reduce sedentary time (ST) of adolescent girls. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13⁻15 years old) from three UK secondary schools were invited to participate in a peer-led mentoring intervention (Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) project). The peer-led mentoring model was delivered in all three schools. Two of the schools received an additional after-school PA component. PA and ST were assessed through wrist-worn accelerometry. Girls who received an exercise class after-school component significantly increased their whole day moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (3.2 min, p = 0.009, d = 0.33). Girls who received no after-school component significantly decreased their MVPA (3.5 min, p = 0.016, d = 0.36) and increased their ST (17.2 min, p = 0.006, d = 0.43). The G-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility of recruitment and data collection procedures for adolescent girls. The peer-led mentoring model shows promise for impacting girls' MVPA levels when combined with an after-school club PA opportunity.
Michael B. Owen
Full Text Available Regular physical activity (PA is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA. The investigation aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel school three-tier peer-led mentoring model designed to improve PA levels and reduce sedentary time (ST of adolescent girls. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13–15 years old from three UK secondary schools were invited to participate in a peer-led mentoring intervention (Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT project. The peer-led mentoring model was delivered in all three schools. Two of the schools received an additional after-school PA component. PA and ST were assessed through wrist-worn accelerometry. Girls who received an exercise class after-school component significantly increased their whole day moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA (3.2 min, p = 0.009, d = 0.33. Girls who received no after-school component significantly decreased their MVPA (3.5 min, p = 0.016, d = 0.36 and increased their ST (17.2 min, p = 0.006, d = 0.43. The G-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility of recruitment and data collection procedures for adolescent girls. The peer-led mentoring model shows promise for impacting girls’ MVPA levels when combined with an after-school club PA opportunity.
High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.
Audrey, Suzanne; Cordall, Kathleen; Moore, Laurence; Cohen, David; Campbell, Rona
Objective: To design, implement and evaluate a peer-led intervention to reduce smoking amongst secondary school students. Design: A health promotion intervention combining peer education with diffusion of innovation theory, to be rigorously evaluated by means of a cluster randomised controlled trial with concurrent process and economic…
Kyung Min Park, PhD, RN
Conclusions: The self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program.
Witkowska, Eva; Gillander Gådin, Katja
The aim of the study was to explore what behaviors experienced from peers and school staff at school are acknowledged as sexual harassment, and perceived as problematic, by female high school students, and what other factors may be relevant. Analyses were performed of responses (to 540 questionnaires) in an anonymous self-report mail survey from a random sample of female Swedish high-school students (59% response rate). Exposure to relevant behaviors, of varying levels of severity, alone, does not explain the acknowledgment of harassment. Many students were subjected to many of the potentially offensive behaviors without labeling them as sexual harassment, despite the fact that they saw many of them as problematic. Further, viewing the relevant behaviors as problems in one's school did not necessarily lead to acknowledging that sexual harassment in general was a problem. However, the behaviors seen as problems were less likely to be dismissed as sexual harassment than personal experiences. This was especially true of the most common behaviors, namely verbal ones. The results demonstrate female students' reluctance to label incidents as sexual harassment, despite the fact that actual behaviors are perceived as environmental problems. Potentially offensive sex-related behaviors become normalized in the school environment and are difficult to address, when little support is provided by schools.
Children’s skills of social interaction is a significant index of their following psychological development. Prosocial be-haviors which influenced by many factors are fundamental representatives of social interaction. Present essay illustrates an in-depth review of literature concerning the impacts of family,peers, school and media in Children ’s prosocial behaviors and also in-dicates the limitations of each research.
Yip, Calvin; Gates, Michelle; Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M.
To date, the impacts of school-based, peer-led nutrition education initiatives have not been summarized or assessed collectively. This review presents the current evidence, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides recommendations for future research. PubMed, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar were searched for refereed Canadian and American primary studies published between January 2000 and November 2013, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Sev...
Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui
School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency.
Pass, Susan; Willingham, Wendy
Working with two teachers and thirty-four high school seniors, the authors developed procedures and assessments to teach ethics in an American high school civics class. This approach requires high school students to discover an agreement or convergence between Kantian ethics and virtue ethics. The authors also created an instrument to measure…
Gilmour, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others
The college selection process used by high school students was studied and a paradigm that describes the process was developed, based on marketing theory concerning consumer behavior. Primarily college freshmen and high school seniors were interviewed, and a few high school juniors and upper-level college students were surveyed to determine…
Puskar, Kathryn R; Stark, Kirsti H; Northcut, Terri; Williams, Rick; Haley, Tammy
Anger could be an early warning signal of violent behavior. Early peer education health promotion in relation to anger management could help children before uncontrolled anger becomes a problem in adolescence and adulthood. Peer education has been identified as a viable intervention strategy worldwide with various prevention programs for youth. The purpose of this article is to describe an anger management program (Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger, TKC-A 4th-8th graders) co-led by high school peer educators in an urban school district's summer school enhancement program. A program of five modules will be described. This paper discusses the peer educator implementation and recommendations for future implementation.
Rubia R. Valente
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the consequences of peer victimization for the satisfaction with schooling (“happiness” of college-bound high school graduates in Brazil. Several types of victimization are explored including discrimination due to race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, and disability. We compare the satisfaction with their schooling of students planning to head to college straight from high school and older students applying for college later in life (“nontraditional students”. We conclude that students who perceived that they had been discriminated against were more dissatisfied with their school experience than those who did not, ceteris paribus, and we relate level of dissatisfaction to type of discrimination. The older student evidence reveals that this dissatisfaction wanes with time and age, however. Our conclusions are based upon ordered logistic analyses of data for 2.4 million current high school seniors and 78.7 thousand older students drawn from the Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio questionnaire (ENEM.
Stephan, Frederik; Groetschel, Hanjo; Büscher, Anja K; Serdar, Deniz; Groes, Kjell A; Büscher, Rainer
The outcome of children with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is still poor, but bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation can increase survival and minimise severe neurological sequelae. While teaching basic life support is standardised in emergency medicine classes, paediatric basic life support (PBLS) in neonates and toddlers is under-represented in paediatric curricula during university education. The appropriate mixture of E-learning and peer teaching lessons remains controversial in teaching paediatric basic skills. However, an increasing number of medical schools and paediatric classes switch their curricula to much cheaper and less tutor-dependent E-learning modules. We hypothesise that a peer teaching lesson is superior to a PBLS video demonstration with co-extensive contents and improves knowledge, skills and adherence to resuscitation guidelines. Eighty-eight medical students were randomly assigned to a video PBLS lesson (n = 44) or a peer teaching group (n = 44). An objective structured clinical examination was performed immediately after the class and at the end of the semester. Students taught by a peer teacher performed significantly better immediately after the initial course and at the end of the semester when compared to the video-trained group (P = 0.008 and P = 0.003, respectively). In addition, a borderline regression analysis also revealed a better resuscitation performance of students instructed in the peer teaching group. In our setting, peer teaching is superior and more sustainable than a co-extensive video demonstration alone when teaching PBLS to medical students. However, additional studies with combinations of different teaching methods are necessary to evaluate long-term outcomes. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
O'Sullivan, Edwin Duncan, Jr.
The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if wiki collaboration among Latino high school chemistry students can help reduce the science achievement gap between Latino and White students. The study was a quasi-experimental pre/post control group mixed-methods design. It used three intact sections of a high school chemistry course. The first research question asked if there is a difference in academic achievement between a treatment and control group on selected concepts from the topics of bonding, physical changes, and chemical changes, when Latino high school chemistry students collaborate on a quasi-natural wiki project. Overall results for all three activities (Bonding, Physical Changes, and Chemical Changes) indicated no significant difference between the wiki and control group. However, students performing the chemical changes activity did significantly better than their respective control group. Furthermore, there was a significant association, with large effect size, between group membership and ability to overcome the misconception that aqueous ionic reactants in precipitation reactions exist as molecular pairs of ions. Qualitative analysis of classroom and computer lab dialogue, discussion board communication, student focus groups, teacher interviews, and wiki content attributes the better performance of the chemical changes wiki group to favorable differences in intersubjectivity and calibrated assistance, as well as learning about submicroscopic representations of precipitation reactions in multiple contexts. Furthermore, the nonsignificant result overall points to an aversion to peer editing as a possible cause. Drawing considerably on Vygotsky and Piaget, the results are discussed within the context of how distributed scaffolding facilitated medium levels of cognitive conflict. The second research question asked what the characteristics of distributed metacognitive scaffolding are when Latino high school chemistry students collaborate on a quasi
As the Pokemon game craze illustrates, the combination of peer education and technology makes for powerful educational experiences. Educators need to accept technology-based peer education as a help rather than a hindrance to improve educational outcomes for students. (SLD)
Parkhurst, Jennifer T.; Asher, Steven R.
Studied patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Obtained data on seventh and eighth graders' loneliness, social dissatisfaction, and concerns. The combination of aggressiveness and submissiveness with low levels of prosocial behavior was associated with peer rejection. (GLR)
Manring, Sam; Christian Elledge, L; Swails, Lisette W; Vernberg, Eric M
This study examined whether social preference was a mechanism that explained the relation between proactive and reactive aggression and peer victimization. Participants were 494 children in grades 2-5. Proactive and reactive aggression was assessed via a self-report measure and indices of social preference and peer victimization were assessed via a peer nomination inventory. Data was collected during the fall and spring of two academic years. The relations among aggression, social preference, and peer victimization varied as a function of aggression and gender. For girls, reactive aggression was a significant negative predictor of social preference. Findings also revealed social preference mediated the relation between reactive aggression and peer victimization for girls. This pathway did not hold for boys. There was some evidence that proactive aggression was negatively associated with peer victimization, but only for girls. Findings from the current study suggest social preference may be a key mechanism through which reactive aggression is associated with future victimization for girls. Boys' aggression was not related to subsequent peer victimization. Future research and intervention efforts should consider gender differences and the function of aggression when investigating children's peer victimization experiences.
Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Simpkins, Sandra D.
The goal of this volume is to show how organized activities provide an ideal setting for developing a deeper understanding of peer relations, as well as offering a context for a more positive study of peers. The chapters in this volume focus on youth 10 to 18 years of age. In this introductory chapter we first describe the reasons why organized…
The purpose of this study was to investigate how different forms of peer relationships offer children unique support for loneliness and to examine the direct as well as indirect effects of social behaviours and academic performance through the mediation of peer relationships on the prediction of loneliness in Korean children. Four hundred and…
Finnish seventh and eighth graders (n=196) were surveyed about an antibullying campaign involving peer counseling. Among girls self- and peer-reported bullying decreased and power attitudes increased. Boys showed a slight decrease in self-reported bullying but pro-bullying attitudes increased. (SK)
Howell, J. Emory
Secondary School Feature Articles JCE Classroom Activity: #24. The Write Stuff: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate an Ink Mixture, p 176A Teaching Chemistry in the Midwinter Every year, forecasters around the world provide us with long-range predictions of what the seasons will afford us in the coming year. And each year, the weather provides a few surprises that the forecasters did not predict - such as a record amount of snow or record heat indexes, depending on where you live. Although the weatherman didn't predict it, we still must pull out our snow shovels or sun block and take the necessary steps to adapt to the situation. As teachers, we make predictions of teaching and learning goals that we aspire to achieve during a given year, and like the weather, the year brings surprises that aren't in line with our predictions. With that in mind, I would like to offer JCE as the scholastic snow shovel or sun shield you need to jump-start your class and reach the goals you have set. So find a warm (or cool) place, get comfortable, and spend some time with the February issue of JCE. Articles of General Interest in This Issue For readers living where snow falls, Williams's article on page 148 offers some historical background on the use of calcium chloride as a deicer. A diver that depends for its buoyancy upon gas given off by a chemical reaction is described by Derr, Lewis, and Derr in the article beginning on page 171. In her article appearing on pages 249-250, Wang describes a laboratory exercise that makes the mastery of solution preparation skills fun. The students' skill is tested by using the solutions they make to carry out the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction. For high school class applications I recommend use of 3% hydrogen peroxide, described as an option in the article. A well-organized approach to separating an ink mixture, with some possibly new twists, is laid out in the student- and teacher-friendly format of JCE Classroom Activity: #24, pages
Asthma is the most frequent reason for absence from school; it accounts for one-third of all days of missed instruction, placing students at risk for academic failure and social isolation. This study compared high school students with asthma with those without asthma, and examined the relationship of their attitudes toward school health services, absenteeism, academic achievement, and the supposition that school nurse services play an essential part in the academic process. Surveys were completed by all students who participated in the study. Twenty-eight students with asthma reported levels of illness and school nurse support in an additional survey. Data revealed that students with asthma were absent more frequently, scored lower in mathematics, and participated less in school activities than their peers without asthma. Their level of illness did not predict the number of days absent, which was negatively correlated with achievement and positively correlated with students' permissive attitudes toward absenteeism. Findings indicate that school nurse interventions were sources of physical, social, emotional, and academic support.
Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Jisha, Hunduma; Belachew, Tefera
Recent studies showed that poor personal hygiene practices play a major role in the increment of communicable disease burden in developing countries. In Ethiopia, 60% of the disease burden is related to poor sanitation practices. This school based study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of school-friendly and peer-led approach in improving personal hygiene practices of school adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest of Ethiopia. A total of 1000 students from 10 to 19 years were included into the study. The intervention was done using peer-led approach, health clubs and linking the school events with parents. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end-line using structured questionnaires. Repeated measurement analysis was done and statistical significance was considered at alpha 0.05. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference in personal hygiene practices and knowledge between the intervention and control groups (Ppersonal hygiene knowledge and practice of students in the intervention schools. Therefore, there is a need for proper health education intervention through the framework of schools for the students to improve their personal hygiene knowledge and practices.
Aguirre, Moises G.
This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…
Between 2 and 7 April eighteen American high school students were let loose at CERN armed with video cameras. Their mission? To take on the role of broadcast journalists and inspire their peers across the US with short documentaries and blogs illuminating the work happening at the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. Members of the teams of budding physicists and broadcast journalists pose in front of the ATLAS detector.Following in the footsteps of professional journalists around the world, six teams of American high school students recently travelled to CERN to experience the increasing excitement in the run-up to the switch-on of the LHC. The six teams are from five states across the US and were the winners of a competition sponsored and funded by the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation. Each team consists of three students plus a teacher, who combine their knowledge of ph...
Howell, J. Emory
Ideas and Resources in This Issue This issue contains a broad spectrum of topics of potential interest to high school teachers, including chemical safety, history, demonstrations, laboratory activities, electrochemistry, small group learning, and instructional software. In his report on articles published recently in The Science Teacher, Steve Long includes annotated references from that journal, and also from JCE, that provide timely and practical information (pp 21-22). The chemical significance of several anniversaries that will occur in the year 2000 are discussed in an article by Paul Schatz (pp 11-14). Scientists and inventors mentioned include Dumas, Wöhler, Goodyear, Joliot-Curie, Krebs, Pauli, Kjeldahl, and Haworth. Several discoveries are also discussed, including development of the voltaic pile, the use of chlorine to purify water, and the discovery of element 97, berkelium. This is the fourth consecutive year that Schatz has written an anniversaries article (1-3). Although most readers probably do not plan to be teaching in the years 2097-3000, these articles can make a nice addition to your file of readily available historical information for use now in meeting NSES Content Standard G (4). In contrast to the short historical summaries, an in-depth account of the work of Herman Boerhaave is provided by Trinity School (NY) teacher Damon Diemente. You cannot recall having heard of Boerhaave? Diemente explains in detail how Boerhaave's scientific observations, imperfect though they were, contributed significantly to the understanding of temperature and heat by scientists who followed him. Chemical demonstrations attract the interest of most of us, and Kathy Thorsen discusses several that appeared in Chem 13 News during the past year (pp 18-20). Included are demonstrations relating to LeChâtelier's principle, electronegativity, and the synthesis and reactions of carbon monoxide. Ideas for investigating the hydrophobic nature of Magic Sand are given in JCE
Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Hsieh, Hsin-Chin; Huang, Chih-Ling
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which social smoking expectations mediate the relationship between adolescent smoking behaviour and the smoking behaviour of family and peers. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Setting: Taiwan, Republic of China. Method: The participants were 921 senior high school students…
Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.
Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in education, women pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees at much lower rates than those of their male peers. This study extends existing explanations for these gender differences and examines the role of the high school context for plans to major in STEM fields.…
Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil
Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…
Smith, Matthew Lee; Wilson, Kelly; Menn, Mindy; Pulczinski, Jairus C.
Background: Intrapersonal and external factors, including social pressures and the desire for acceptance from peers, influence sexual activity among adolescents. This study examined how personal characteristics, risky behaviors, normative beliefs, household factors, and engagement in extracurricular activities were related to high school freshman…
Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung
The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…
Myers, Raquel; Chou, Chih-Ping; Sussman, Steve; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Pachon, Harry; Valente, Thomas W.
Research suggests that acculturation increases the risk of substance use among Hispanic youth. However, this process is not well understood. This study examined associations between acculturation and several substance use indicators among a sample of 714 Hispanic youth attending alternative high schools in southern California. Peer social…
Hillenbrand-Gunn, Theresa L.; Heppner, Mary J.; Mauch, Pamela A.; Park, Hyun-joo
This study investigated the effects of a Men as Allies--based intervention on high school students' rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. As hypothesized at posttest, the male and female experimental groups demonstrated a significant decrease in rape-supportive attitudes, which was maintained at follow-up. Male participants viewed peers'…
Cho, Hyunyi; Sands, Laura P.; Wilson, Kari M.
To investigate the association between theoretically grounded psychosocial motivators and the sun safety practice intentions of rural youth. Method: A survey was given to 219 members of FFA (Future Farmers of America) at high schools in the rural Midwest (average age = 16). Results: Perceived self-efficacy, peer norms, response efficacy, and…
Wijeratne, Monika; Seneviratne, Rohini; Gunawardena, Nalika; Østbye, Truls; Lynch, Catherine; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard
This study was designed to develop an inventory to measure peer violence among early teens (13-15 years of age) in schools in Sri Lanka. Development of SLETVI was carried out in two phases. In phase I, development of an operational definition for peer violence, identification, and finalizing violent acts for inventory was done by a combination of qualitative methods: a comprehensive literature review, focus group discussions among 13-15-year-old adolescents, their teachers and parents, and consultative meetings with experts in the field. Inventory was then pretested. In phase II, elaboration of SLETVI was carried out by administering it to a sample of 1700 adolescents (13-15 years old). Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis was performed separately for experiences of victimization and perpetration. Test-retest reliability of SLETVI was assessed. SLETVI included 37 items in three factors: "less severe violence," "severe physical," and "severe relational" violence. Combined use of qualitative and quantitative methods enabled development of a culturally valid and reliable operational inventory to assess early teenagers' peer violence in Sri Lankan and other South Asian schools.
Rodda, Amy; Estes, Annette
Social impairments are the sine qua non of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, children with ASD are capable of forming reciprocal friendships and many people with ASD have a strong desire for friends. Developing and maintaining friendships is associated with many important outcomes, including improved quality of life, mental health, and academic achievement. Children with ASD often attend groups to improve social skills, but strategies for building and maintaining friendships are not consistently addressed or measured following intervention. In this article, our objective is to build an understanding of peer relationships and friendships in school-aged children with ASD and how to best support them. In this article, we describe characteristics of peer relationships and friendships for children with ASD. We discuss current research findings on intervention to improve social skills, peer relationships, and friendships in school-aged children with ASD. Finally, we give suggestions for clinical practice and future research. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Ray (Arora Suranjana
Full Text Available Background: A Slow Learner (SL is one who has the ability to learn necessary academic skills but at a rate and depth below average of the same age peers. Aims: To identify SL we have to judge them not just by their grade level, but by the fact that they master skills slowly, have difficulty following multistep directives, live in the present and do not have long term goals. The remedial measures for these SL were repetition, peer tutoring, enhancing their self-esteem and improve confidence. With correct monitoring, support and feedback from a teacher facilitator peer tutoring can provide deeper learning, reduce dropout, and improve social behavior. Objective: The aim was to identify SL and to peer tutor them. Material and Methods: In a group of 106 students in the first year of MBBS in a college in Mauritius 20 students were identified as SL, out of the other 86 students 2 to 3 students were selected as peer tutors. The sample size on which the questionnaire was used to determine slow learners were 106 out of which 20 were found to be slow learners. The peer tutors were selected among the 106 students. The facilitator trained the tutors. Conclusion: In our Institute we found an alarming 15-18% of SL. The SL responded positively to the peer tutoring and a significant number improved their academic performance. Peer tutoring has significant cognitive gains for both tutor and tutees. Peer tutoring improves selfconfidence, academic achievement, improves their attitude towards the subject matter and encourages greater persistence in completing tasks. Identifying SL has many pitfalls as we should confirm that they are not 'reluctant' or 'struggling' learners but SL.
Cobb, Tiffany R.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and further understand the ways in which middle school and high school students perceive their school experiences within the school environment. School has an important impact on the social development of children (Milsom, 2006). Learning is not done individually as classrooms are inherently social…
Willis, Paul; Bland, Robert; Manka, Louise; Craft, Cec
Cross-age peer mentoring is an educational model that builds on peer support and mentoring to assist young people to enhance social relationships, develop cognitive skills, and promote positive identity development. In this article, we outline the evaluation process of a cross-age peer-mentoring program implemented in an Australian secondary…
Promotoras, Hispanic community health workers, are frequently employed to promote health behavioral change with culturally bound Hispanic lifestyle behaviors. Peer health mentors have been used in schools to promote healthy nutrition and physical activity behaviors among students. This study investi...
Howell, J. Emory
Secondary School Feature Articles * Building the Interest of High School Students for Science-A PACT Ambassador Program To Investigate Soap Manufacturing and Industrial Chemistry, by Matthew Lynch, Nicholas Geary, Karen Hagaman, Ann Munson, and Mark Sabo, p 191. * Promoting Chemistry at the Elementary Level, by Larry L. Louters and Richard D. Huisman, p 196. * Is It Real Gold? by Harold H. Harris, p 198. * The "Big Dog-Puppy Dog" Analogy for Resonance, by Todd P. Silverstein, p 206. * The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics, by Reed A. Howald, p 208. Staying on Top: Curricular Projects, Relativistic Effects, and Standard-State Pressure You may wonder why some articles are identified with the Secondary School Chemistry logo (*) this month even though at first glance they appear to be of greater interest to college faculty.1 The three articles discussed below are representative of three broad categories: (i) the interrelatedness of science teaching and learning, K-16+; (ii) new understandings of chemical phenomena; and (iii) information about the use of SI units. For each article I have highlighted the major point(s) and the reasons it may be of interest to high school teachers. First, the article "The NSF 'Systemic' Projects- A New Tradition" (G. M. Barrow, p 158) is a commentary on changes in post-secondary introductory chemistry courses in which a distinction is drawn between information management and individual understanding. The author is of the opinion that most students expect the former and that the NSF-funded systemic projects "will thrive only if they are consistent with their information-management mission". Three individuals provided responses to the commentary from their perspective. Has a student asked you why mercury is a liquid, or why gold is the most electronegative metal? "Gold Chemistry: The Aurophilic Attraction" by J. Bardají and A. Laguna (p 201) and "Why Gold and Copper Are Colored but Silver Is Not" by
This study reports on a qualitative analysis of data from interviews with 15 heterosexual males ages 16-18 in Canadian high schools. Findings indicate that gay male youth often occupy lower status positions in the school's social hierarchy. Heterosexual males did not typically want to associate with gay male peers for fear of being perceived as…
Chou, Calvin L; Johnston, C Bree; Singh, Bobby; Garber, Jonathan D; Kaplan, Elizabeth; Lee, Kewchang; Teherani, Arianne
The value of continuity in medical education, particularly during clerkships, is increasingly recognized. Previous clerkship-based models have described changes that emphasize continuity in patient care, learner supervision, and curriculum. The creation of continuous student peer groups can foster interactions that enhance mutual support through uncomfortable professional transitions during the clerkship years. Here, the authors describe a third-year clerkship model based at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center called VA Longitudinal Rotations (VALOR), designed explicitly to establish a supportive learning environment for small peer groups.Seven groups of medical students (42 total) completed VALOR across three academic years between 2007 and 2009. On clerkships during VALOR, one hour per week was designated for faculty-facilitated sessions amongst peer groups. Students' perceptions of peer group support and overall program satisfaction were determined with immediate post surveys and focus groups at the end of VALOR, and with follow-up surveys 5 to 27 months after completing VALOR. Students strongly valued several elements of VALOR peer groups, including support through clerkship challenges, meeting for facilitated reflection, and appreciating patient experiences across the continuum of care. Students' appreciation for their peer group experiences persisted well after the conclusion of VALOR. VALOR students performed the same as or better than traditional clerkship students on knowledge and skill-based outcomes. The authors demonstrate that their third-year clerkship program using peer groups has built supportive learning networks and facilitated reflection, allowing students to develop critical professional skills. Student communication around patient care was also feasible and highly valued.
Baker-Smith, E. Christine
Evidence is clear that discipline in high school is associated with negative outcomes across the life course. Not only are suspensions related to declining academic trajectories during high school in the form of attendance and academic achievement, students suspended once are also more likely to be suspended again and also substantially increase…
Howell, J. Emory
Writing Across the Curriculum The notion that student learning is enhanced through writing is widely accepted at all educational levels if the product is fairly assessed and the learner is provided with feedback. Finding the time to critically evaluate student papers is difficult at best and competes with time needed to prepare laboratory investigations. A few weeks ago a teacher who has extensive extracurricular responsibilities that include extensive interaction with parents and community members shared with me his frustration in not being able to grade written reports. This teacher is the head football coach at his school, but many readers experience the same difficulties due to a variety of duties. There are no easy or completely satisfying answers to this problem, but this issue contains an account of a successful approach (Writing in Chemistry: An Effective Learning Tool, pp 1399-1403). Although they are based on experience in college courses, several ideas described in the article could be applied in high school chemistry courses. In another article, the author of Precise Writing for a Precise Science (pp 1407-1408) identifies 20 examples of familiar, but incorrect, grammatical constructions and explains how to phrase each one correctly. Chemical Education Research: Improving Chemistry Learning The results from research on how students learn have greatly increased our understanding of cognition in recent years. However, the results are often published in the science education research literature and are not readily accessible to the classroom teacher. Additionally, the research reports are couched in specialized terminology. This issue contains a Viewpoints article (pp 1353-1361) that bridges the gap between research results and classroom application. It was written by two veteran chemical educators, Dudley Herron and Susan Nurrenbern. The shift from behaviorism to constructivism as the dominant theory of learning is described briefly to provide a context
Lonigro, Antonia; Baiocco, Roberto; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Laghi, Fiorenzo
The present study was designed to verify how school-aged children's persuasive tactics changed if the persuadee was the mother or the peer. One hundred and forty-nine children at two grade levels (4th and 5th) were enrolled in the study. Persuasive strategies were investigated using pictures representing two common situations in which each child had to convince his/her playmate and his/her mother to obtain a toy. As predicted, with mothers children engaged more frequently in strategies aimed at encouraging cognitive reappraisal of the situation and offering guarantees. Conversely, with the peers, children adopted a greater variety of persuasive strategies, engaging in lower-order tactics. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
Quinto Romani, Annette
In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate......, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...... of sports dedication. Our results indicate that sports participation increases peer relations in sports, however less for pupils involved in ‘energy’ and especially ‘time’ demanding training. From a policy perspective, on the basis of our results, it can be argued that elite sports classes reduces pupils...
Quinto Romani, Annette
, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...... of sports dedication. Our results indicate that sports participation increases peer relations in sports, however less for pupils involved in ‘energy’ and especially ‘time’ demanding training. From a policy perspective, on the basis of our results, it can be argued that elite sports classes reduces pupils......In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate...
Cairns, A M; Bissell, V; Bovill, C
To introduce and examine a pilot peer observation of teaching (POT) scheme within the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at Glasgow Dental School and its associated outreach centres. All tutors teaching paediatric dentistry were invited to be involved in evaluation of the POT scheme. Participants were randomly paired with a peer, who then observed their teaching and provided constructive feedback. For those consenting to be involved in the evaluation of the scheme, semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were carried out by the principal investigator. POT was found by all participants to be a beneficial process, reassuring those of their teaching styles and giving them ideas to adapt their teaching. POT is an effective method for engaging chair-side tutors in the reflection and development of their teaching practice via observations and scholarly discussion.
Anacker, Allison M J; Ryabinin, Andrey E
Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol) abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a). Adult prairie voles' drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified, by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.
Allison M.J. Anacker
Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.
Food and nutrition links us with social life. A balanced diet is particularly important during adolescence. Eating habits are largely dependent on society that surrounds us and represents established patterns or ways of eating of an individual, a group or a society. Nutrition is influenced by congenital and biological factors of the environment. Peers have a significant impact on the nutrition of adolescents because the opinion of peers is more important in the period of adolescence, but the ...
Howell, J. Emory
assigned as a take-home activity. JCE Classroom Activity #15, "Liver and Onions: DNA Extraction from Animal and Plant Tissues" (p 400A, March 1999) also integrates chemical and biological concepts. The JCE Software videotape HIV-1 Protease: An Enzyme at Work is another useful resource. It can be used in any classroom where kinetics, catalysis, proteins, or enzymes are discussed. Information about JCE Software products can be found in recent issues of the Journal or by accessing JCE Online (http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu). Because most high school students complete at least one year of biology before enrolling in chemistry, developing the connections between biology and chemistry can be especially productive. Connections between chemistry and biology often seem to be more real to students than do many of the phenomena we cite as applications. For example, students often are not able to make the connection between the excitation of electrons to produce electromagnetic radiation and anything that is personally relevant. The light given off by sodium or mercury vapor lights provides a common example of relating atomic emission to a useful process, but many students do not seem to find that particularly interesting. The need to make a connection between biology and chemistry becomes especially meaningful to students when the chemical change occurs within the human body. As an example, the interaction of emitted electromagnetic radiation with human cells to cause well-tanned skin seems more relevant to a greater number of students than the color of lights in a parking lot. This issue contains an article that describes a useful application of light to kill cancer cells through use of photosensitizers (p 592). The process of photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides another example that could help students make a connection between the emission of electromagnetic radiation and the challenge of killing cancer cells without harming healthy cells. Certainly this example is not a magic
Full Text Available
Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....
Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.
Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…
Young, Vicki L; Cole, Amy; Lecky, Donna M; Fettis, Dennis; Pritchard, Beth; Verlander, Neville Q; Eley, Charlotte V; McNulty, Cliodna A M
Delivering health topics in schools through peer education is known to be beneficial for all students involved. In this study, we have evaluated a peer-education workshop that aims to educate primary and secondary school students on hygiene, the spread of infection and antibiotics. Four schools in south-west England, in a range of localities, took part in peer-education workshops, with students completing before, after and knowledge-retention questionnaires. Mixed-effect logistic regression and mixed-effect linear regression were used to analyse the data. Data were analysed by topic, region and peer/non-peer-educator status. Qualitative interviews and focus groups with students and educators were conducted to assess changes in participants' skills, confidence and behaviour. Qualitative data indicated improvements in peer-educator skills and behaviour, including confidence, team-working and communication. There was a significant improvement in knowledge for all topics covered in the intervention, although this varied by region. In the antibiotics topic, peer-educators' knowledge increased in the retention questionnaire, whereas non-peer-educators' knowledge decreased. Knowledge declined in the retention questionnaires for the other topics, although this was mostly not significant. This study indicates that peer education is an effective way to educate young people on important topics around health and hygiene, and to concurrently improve communication skills. Its use should be encouraged across schools to help in the implementation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance that recommends children are taught in an age-appropriate manner about hygiene and antibiotics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Patra, Chanchala; Smith, Joshua H; Wolke, Dieter
In intrasexual competition (competition for reproductive resources), bullying can be viewed as a tool to devalue competitors, gain a high status and a powerful, dominant position in the peer group which may lead to beneficial gains such as access to potential romantic partners. This study investigated the relationship between intrasexual competition, bullying victimization and body-esteem, in single-sex versus mixed-sex schools. 420 participants completed a body-esteem scale, a retrospective bullying questionnaire, and intrasexual competition scales. Our results showed that relational victimization was associated with low body-esteem for both females and males. Females in single-sex schools experienced higher intrasexual competition which in turn was associated with their body-esteem directly and indirectly via relational victimization. In males, intrasexual competition was indirectly associated with body-esteem via relational victimization. Interventions to improve body esteem may focus on reducing intrasexual competition and peer victimization. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela
Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and engagement, which suggests that switching schools may be part of the same long-term developmental process of disengagement that leads to dropping out. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study uses propensity score matching to pair youth who switched high schools with similar youth who stayed in the same school. We find that while over half the association between switching schools and dropout is explained by observed characteristics prior to 9th grade, switching schools is still associated with dropout. Moreover, the relationship between switching schools and dropout varies depending on a youth's propensity for switching schools. PMID:25554706
Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Karremans, Johan C
Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed sociometric measures and eye-tracking recordings of visual fixations at pictures of high-status (popular) and low-status (unpopular) classmates. Automatic attention (first-gaze preference) and controlled attention (total gaze time) were measured. Target popularity was associated with both measures of attention. These associations were further moderated by perceiver popularity and perceiver and target gender. Popular adolescents attracted attention especially from other popular adolescents. Popular boys attracted attention especially from girls. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Moriña, David; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Prades-Tena, Jordi; Kettner-Høeberg, Helle; Puiggròs, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Davies, Amy; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa
Encouraging adolescents to adopt healthy lifestyles can be challenging. The aim of the "Som la Pera" study was to engage adolescents by applying new strategies to increase both their fruit and vegetable consumption and their physical activity (PA) while reducing their sedentary behavior. In disadvantaged neighborhoods of Reus (Spain), two high schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 170 adolescents 13- to 16-year-olds) and two were assigned to the control group (n = 223 adolescents 13- to 16-year-olds). The intervention, which lasted 12 months and spanned 2 academic years (2013-2015), used social marketing (SM) to improve healthy choices. The peer-led strategy involved 5 adolescents who designed and implemented 10 activities as challenges for their 165 school-aged peers. The control group received no intervention. To assess self-reported lifestyles in both groups, the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey was used at baseline and end of study. After 12 months, intervention adolescents showed an increase of 28.9% in ≥1 fruit/day (p < 0.01) and of 18.5% in ≥6 hours/week of PA (p < 0.01) compared with controls. Additionally, intervention group males had an increase of 28.8% in ≥1 vegetable/day (p < 0.01) and of 15.6% in ≤2 hours/day of sedentary activity (p = 0.01) compared with controls. A school-based, peer-led, SM intervention developed by adolescents attending high schools in low-income neighborhoods effectively improved the healthy choices of their school-aged peers, leading to increased fruit consumption and PA in adolescents of both genders. Furthermore, adolescent males were more sensitive to improvements in healthy choices, showing increased vegetable consumption and decreased sedentary behavior.
Leseyane, Monicca; Mandende, Peter; Makgato, Mary; Cekiso, Madoda
Inclusive education requires that the framework within which education is delivered should be broad enough to accommodate equally the needs and circumstances of every learner in the society. This includes learners with disabilities like dyslexia who have been excluded from the formal education system. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored and described the dyslexic learners' experiences with their peers and teachers in special and public schools in North-West Province of South Africa. The study adopted a qualitative methodology and used a phenomenology research design. The sample was purposively selected and comprised nine dyslexic learners. All the learners were in public schools previously and were later moved to a special school after being diagnosed as dyslexic. The participants were aged 9-12 years. The researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with the participants and content-analysed the data. The findings revealed that in public schools the dyslexic learners were exposed to ill-treatment by other learners who despised, ridiculed, bullied and undermined them. The findings further revealed that teachers in public schools were not patient with dyslexic learners, did not give them extra attention and that some teachers used negative comments that embarrassed them. The article spells out the barriers experienced by dyslexic learners in public schools and also recommends training of teachers so that they know how to deal with dyslexic learners, thereby eliminating the barriers. The study further recommended awareness campaigns among the student body about dyslexia.
Background Inclusive education requires that the framework within which education is delivered should be broad enough to accommodate equally the needs and circumstances of every learner in the society. This includes learners with disabilities like dyslexia who have been excluded from the formal education system. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored and described the dyslexic learners’ experiences with their peers and teachers in special and public schools in North-West Province of South Africa. Methods The study adopted a qualitative methodology and used a phenomenology research design. The sample was purposively selected and comprised nine dyslexic learners. All the learners were in public schools previously and were later moved to a special school after being diagnosed as dyslexic. The participants were aged 9–12 years. The researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with the participants and content-analysed the data. Findings The findings revealed that in public schools the dyslexic learners were exposed to ill-treatment by other learners who despised, ridiculed, bullied and undermined them. The findings further revealed that teachers in public schools were not patient with dyslexic learners, did not give them extra attention and that some teachers used negative comments that embarrassed them. Conclusion The article spells out the barriers experienced by dyslexic learners in public schools and also recommends training of teachers so that they know how to deal with dyslexic learners, thereby eliminating the barriers. The study further recommended awareness campaigns among the student body about dyslexia. PMID:29535918
Ahmad J. Abdulsalam
Full Text Available Background. Peer victimization (bullying is a universal phenomenon with detrimental effects. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors of bullying among grades 7 and 8 middle school students in Kuwait. Methods. The study is a cross-sectional study that includes a sample of 989 7th and 8th grade middle school students randomly selected from schools. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure different forms of bullying. After adjusting for confounding, logistic regression identified the significant associated factors related to bullying. Results. Prevalence of bullying was 30.2 with 95% CI 27.4 to 33.2% (3.5% bullies, 18.9% victims, 7.8% bully victims. Children with physical disabilities and one or both non-Kuwaiti parents or children with divorced/widowed parents were more prone to be victims. Most victims and bullies were found to be current smokers. Bullies were mostly in the fail/fair final school grade category, whereas victims performed better. The logistic regression showed that male gender (adjusted odds ration = 1.671, p=0.004, grade 8 student (adjusted odds ratio = 1.650, p=0.004, and student with physical disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.675, p=0.003, were independently associated with bullying behavior. Conclusions. There is a need for a school-wide professional intervention program and improvement in the students’ adjustment to school environment to control bullying behavior.
Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael E; Bettencourt, Amie; Tolan, Patrick H
This study examined the direct effects of beliefs about aggression and nonviolence on physical aggression and their role as protective factors that buffer adolescents from key risk factors in the peer, school, and parenting domains. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data from 5,581 adolescents representing two cohorts from 37 schools in four communities collected at the beginning and end of the sixth grade and at the end of the following 2 school years. Individual norms for aggression at Wave 1 moderated relations of delinquent peer associations and parental support for fighting with physical aggression. Self-efficacy for nonviolence at Wave 1 moderated relations of school risk, delinquent peer associations and parental support for fighting with physical aggression. There was clearer evidence for protective effects for self-efficacy for nonviolence for girls than for boys.
Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay
This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…
Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.
Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…
Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Recognizing the negative outcomes associated with experiences in bullying at school, educational researchers, school officials, and policy-makers have called for more rigorous research on bullying in school. Research on bullying behavior in school has primarily been examined using quantitative methods. Mixed methods research in the field of…
Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra
As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority.
Full Text Available In this research, attitudes of high school students towards geometry were investigated in terms of gender, grade, types of the field and school. Population of research includes students who were studying at high school in five distincs of Mersin in 2013-2014 academical year. Sample of research includes 935 students from twelve high schools. Attitude scale which was developed by Su-Özenir (2008 was used for data collection. For data analysis, mean, standart deviation, t test and ANOVA were used. A meaningful difference between students’ attitudes towards geometry and variance of gender and grade level wasn’t observed, on the other hand a meaningful difference according to field and school type is observed.Key Words: Attitudes towards geometry, high school geometry lesson, attitude scale
Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors.
Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.
Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other’s prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental “chat room” paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55 % female, 45 % male; Mage = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., “e-confederates”), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants’ intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent “public” and “private” experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates’ prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors. PMID:26525387
Ray (Arora) Suranjana; Ray Ujjani; Ray Manas Kanti
Background: A Slow Learner (SL) is one who has the ability to learn necessary academic skills but at a rate and depth below average of the same age peers. Aims: To identify SL we have to judge them not just by their grade level, but by the fact that they master skills slowly, have difficulty following multistep directives, live in the present and do not have long term goals. The remedial measures for these SL were repetition, peer tutoring, enhancing their self-esteem ...
Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the figure and role of high school counselor in the task of addressing conflict situations in which students are immersed. The existence of a rising tide of violence in school conflicts and how important it is to know what countries in Europe , Asia and Latin America is done to promote a culture of peace is recognized. What happened it is exposed in a high school in Germany and how questions from the critical eye that are applicable to our Mexican reality are issued. Finally, it highlights the importance of skills that the counselor must possess or develop to prevent school conflicts escalate to levels of violence.Finally experience working with the School counselors S033 about this subject area is described.
Bevelander, Kirsten E; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E
The present experimental study was the first to investigate the impact of a remote (non-existent) peer on children's food choice of familiar v. unfamiliar low- and high-energy-dense food products. In a computer task, children (n 316; 50·3 % boys; mean age 7·13 (SD 0·75) years) were asked to choose between pictures of familiar and unfamiliar foods in four different choice blocks using the following pairs: (1) familiar v. unfamiliar low-energy-dense foods (fruits and vegetables), (2) familiar v. unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods (high sugar, salt and/or fat content), (3) familiar low-energy-dense v. unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods and (4) unfamiliar low-energy-dense v. familiar high-energy-dense foods. Participants who were not in the control group were exposed to the food choices (either always the familiar or always the unfamiliar food product) of a same-sex and same-age fictitious peer who was supposedly completing the same task at another school. The present study provided insights into children's choices between (un)familiar low- and high-energy-dense foods in an everyday situation. The findings revealed that the use of fictitious peers increased children's willingness to try unfamiliar foods, although children tended to choose high-energy-dense foods over low-energy-dense foods. Intervention programmes that use peer influence to focus on improving children's choice of healthy foods should take into account children's strong aversion to unfamiliar low-energy-dense foods as well as their general preference for familiar and unfamiliar high-energy-dense foods.
Zendarski, Nardia; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona; Hiscock, Harriet
Students with attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to languish behind their peers with regard to academic achievement and education attainment. School engagement is potentially modifiable, and targeting engagement may be a means to improve education outcomes. To investigate school engagement for students with ADHD during the crucial high school transition period and to identify factors associated with low school engagement. Participants are adolescents (12-15 years) in the first and third year of high school with diagnosed ADHD (n = 130). Participants were recruited from 21 paediatric practices. Cross-sectional study assessing school engagement. Data were collected through direct assessment and child, parent, and teacher surveys. School engagement is measured as student attitudes to school (cognitive and emotional) and suspension rates (behavioural). Multivariable regression analyses examined student, family, and school factors affecting engagement. In comparison with state data, students with ADHD in the first year of high school were less motivated (p comparison to state-wide suspensions (21% vs. 6%, p < .01). Explanatory factors for poor attitudes include adolescent depression, poor adolescent supervision, and devaluing education. Conduct problems and increased hyperactivity were related to increased likelihood of being suspended, whilst higher cognitive ability, family socio-economic status, and independent schools reduced risk. Potentially modifiable individual and family factors including adolescent depression, behavioural problems, education values, and family supervision could be targeted to better manage the high school transition for students with ADHD. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Quinto Romani, Annette
In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate, it is rel......In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate......, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...
Romero, Lisa S.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on…
Adams, Caralee J.
President Barack Obama applauded high school redesign efforts in his State of the Union address and encouraged districts to look to successful models for inspiration. Last week, he followed up with a request in his fiscal 2014 budget proposal for a new, $300 million competitive-grant program. Recognition is widespread that high schools need to…
Yapici, Ibrahim Umit; Akbayin, Hasan
In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students' views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of "Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity" with 47 9[superscript th] grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of…
Edwards, Linsey; Hughes, Katherine
Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to enroll in college courses and potentially earn college credit. The term concurrent enrollment is sometimes used interchangeably with dual enrollment, and sometimes to refer to a particular model of dual enrollment. In some programs, students earn high school and college credit simultaneously;…
American Psychologist, 2013
The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best…
Ivan, Ion; Milodin, Daniel; Naie, Lucian
The article tries to tackle the issue of high-schools classification from one city, district or from Romania. The classification criteria are presented. The National Database of Education is also presented and the application of criteria is illustrated. An algorithm for high-school multi-rang classification is proposed in order to build classes of…
A high school is more than a building; it's a repository of memories for many community members. High schools built at the turn of the century are not only cultural and civic landmarks, they are also often architectural treasures. When these facilities become outdated, a renovation that preserves the building's aesthetics and character is usually…
del Carmen Salazar, Maria
This article presents a qualitative case study of the pedagogical stances of high school English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers, and the subsequent responses of resistance or conformity by their English Language Learners (ELLs). The participants include three high school ESL teachers and 60 high school ESL students of Mexican origin. Findings…
Megert, Diann Ackerman
This research examined the high school transcripts of honors scholarship recipients to identify a better criterion for awarding scholarships than high school grade point average (GPA) alone. Specifically, this study compared the honors scholarship retention rate when the scholarship was awarded based on completed advanced high school math classes…
Ragavan, Shamini K.
This qualitative study discusses the impact of a support network for international students of culturally diverse backgrounds using a peer mentoring scheme. The scheme focused on facilitating cultural integration in the international student community in Newcastle and sought to engender a cooperative community among new students. Data obtained…
Sugimura, Niwako; Berry, Daniel; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Rudolph, Karen D.
Research has established that long-term exposure to peer victimization is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral maladjustment. Yet, relatively little is known regarding predictors of stable versus declining victimization across extended periods of time. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study used latent growth curve…
Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Feng, Jui-Ying; Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Huang, Soar Ching-Yu
Students with physical symptoms and diseases may be at an increased risk of peer victimization. This study examined the associations of several medical conditions (obesity, asthma, allergy, epilepsy, and diabetes) with experience of physical, verbal, and relational victimization among children. A sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students from 314…
Norwalk, Kate E.
Research clearly shows that heterogeneity exists in the etiology, associated characteristics, and outcomes of social withdrawal/isolation. While individual level characteristics are thought to contribute to withdrawal and isolation, research suggests that peer relations may play an important role in the extent to which social withdrawal/isolation…
Howell, J. Emory
for You? The end of the school year is approaching quickly. In previous years, several readers have submitted manuscripts soon after the end of the school year, while ideas were fresh in their mind and there was relief from the demands of daily classes. If you have an idea for an article, I encourage you to think about writing as soon as the school term ends. I can probably guess what you are saying, "I don't have anything that readers would be interested in." This is a common reaction, to which we frequently respond by reminding high school teachers that this is "your journal" and the only way to ensure that topics of interest to you are considered or published is by your active participation. In this presidential election year I am reminded of the familiar sentiment, "I voted in the election, so I have earned the right to complain about the politicians." I do not wish to encourage complaining, but there is a relevant correlation. By submitting manuscripts to the Journal, you are ensuring that you will continue to get your money's worth because it will include topics of interest to you. When considering a submission, many prospective authors are overwhelmed at the thought of preparing a complete manuscript. Don't let that stop you. If you have an idea, an outline, or a rough draft, any of the feature editors or I would be happy to discuss it with you. This one-on-one interaction during the development process will help you express your ideas more effectively. Many teachers across the country who are faced with similar situations and problems each day would benefit from an article discussing innovative teaching strategies or a new way to look at principles we teach every year. As you begin to formulate your ideas, I would like to emphasize five features whose editors are fellow teachers: JCE Classroom Activities. An invitation for contributions was issued in the April issue of this column (JCE, 2000, 77, 431). Chemical Principles Revisited, edited by Cary Kilner
Legewie, Joscha; DiPrete, Thomas A.
Despite the striking reversal of the gender gap in education, women pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees at much lower rates than those of their male peers. This study extends existing explanations for these gender differences and examines the role of the high school context for plans to major in STEM fields. Building on recent gender theories, we argue that widely shared and hegemonic gender beliefs manifest differently across schools so that the gender-specific formation of study plans is shaped by the local environment of high schools. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study, we first show large variations between high schools in the ability to attract students to STEM fields conditional on a large set of pre–high school measures. Schools that are successful in attracting students to these fields reduce the gender gap by 25 percent or more. As a first step toward understanding what matters about schools, we then estimate the effect of two concrete high school characteristics on plans to major in STEM fields in college—a high school's curriculum in STEM and gender segregation of extracurricular activities. These factors have a substantial effect on the gender gap in plans to major in STEM: a finding that is reaffirmed in a number of sensitivity analyses. Our focus on the high school context opens concrete avenues for policy intervention and is of central theoretical importance to understand the gender gap in orientations toward STEM fields. PMID:27857451
Theory of origins of the paper starts from holistic and humanistic approach to upbringing and education, which has a goal of comprehensive development of student. An integral children's development can be encouraged by thoughtful planning of school activities in the school curriculum. Co-creators of the school curriculum (teachers, students and…
Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Mason, Kimberly L.
Supervision is vital for personal and professional development of counselors. Practicing school counselors (n = 1557) across the nation were surveyed to explore current supervision practices. Results indicated that 41.1% of school counselors provide supervision. Although 89% receive some type of supervision, only 10.3% of school counselors receive…
Wang, Yanhong; Wu, Anise M S; Lau, Joseph T F
Students are vulnerable to Internet addiction (IA). Influences of cognitions based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and perceived number of peers with IA (PNPIA) affecting students' IA, and mediating effects involved, have not been investigated. This cross-sectional study surveyed 9518 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students in the school setting. In this self-reported study, the majority (82.6%) reported that they had peers with IA. Based on the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (cut-off =63/64), the prevalence of IA was 16.0% (males: 17.6%; females: 14.0%). Among the non-IA cases, 7.6% (males: 8.7%; females: 6.3%) perceived a chance of developing IA in the next 12 months. Concurring with the HBM, adjusted logistic analysis showed that the Perceived Social Benefits of Internet Use Scale (males: Adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 1.19; females: ORa = 1.23), Perceived Barriers for Reducing Internet Use Scale (males: ORa = 1.26; females: ORa = 1.36), and Perceived Self-efficacy for Reducing Internet Use Scale (males: ORa = 0.66; females: ORa = 0.56) were significantly associated with IA. Similarly, PNPIA was significantly associated with IA ('quite a number': males: ORa = 2.85; females: ORa = 4.35; 'a large number': males: ORa = 3.90; females: ORa = 9.09). Controlling for these three constructs, PNPIA remained significant but the strength of association diminished ('quite a number': males: multivariate odds ratio (ORm) = 2.07; females: ORm = 2.44; 'a large number': males: ORm = 2.39; females: ORm = 3.56). Hence, the association between PNPIA and IA was partially mediated (explained) by the three HBM constructs. Interventions preventing IA should change these constructs. In sum, prevalence of IA was relatively high and was associated with some HBM constructs and PNPIA, and PNPIA also partially mediated associations between HBM constructs and IA. Huge challenges are expected, as social relationships and an imbalance of cost-benefit for reducing Internet use are
Karmaliani, Rozina; Mcfarlane, Judith; Somani, Rozina; Khuwaja, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed; Bhamani, Shireen Shehzad; Ali, Tazeen Saeed; Gulzar, Saleema; Somani, Yasmeen; Chirwa, Esnat D; Jewkes, Rachel
Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts health and education. There are few research studies available in Pakistan, or South Asia. We describe the prevalence of peer violence, associations, and pathways between socio-economic status, school performance, gender attitudes and violence at home. 1752 children were recruited into a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted on 40 fairly homogeneous public schools (20 for girls and 20 for boys), in Hyderabad, Pakistan. This was ranging from 20-65 children per school. All children were interviewed with questionnaires at baseline. Few children had no experience of peer violence in the previous 4 weeks (21.7% of girls vs.7% of boys). Some were victims (28.6%, of girls vs. 17.9% of boys), some only perpetrated (3.3% of girls vs. 2.5%) but mostly they perpetrated and were victims (46.4%.of girls vs 72.6%. of boys). The girls' multivariable models showed that missing the last school day due to work, witnessing her father fight a man in the last month and having more patriarchal gender attitudes were associated with both experiencing violence and perpetration, while, hunger was associated with perpetration only. For boys, missing two or more days of school in the last month, poorer school performance and more patriarchal attitudes were associated with both victimization and perpetration. Witnessing father fight, was associated with peer violence perpetration for boys. These findings are additionally confirmed with structural models. Peer violence in Pakistan is rooted in poverty and socialization of children, especially at home. A critical question is whether a school-based intervention can empower children to reduce their violence engagement in the context of poverty and social norms supportive of violence. In the political context of Pakistan, reducing all violence is essential and understanding the potential of schools as a platform for intervention is key.
Lubbers, MJ; Van Der Werf, MPC; Kuyper, H; Offringa, GJ
This article uses an ecological approach to predict students' peer acceptance within junior high school classes. The authors investigate whether various characteristics (self perception of physical attractiveness and athletic competence, cognitive ability, agreeableness, extraversion, age, parents'
Liss, Moe; Robinson, James C.
Describes the Human Relations Peer Group Leadership Training Program that has eliminated racial conflict in Carteret High School. The initial step was a four-day intensive training program that took place in a closed setting. (Author/IRT)
Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Nogle, Sally; Gould, Daniel; Kovan, Jeffrey
We determined differences in knowledge of concussion and reporting behaviors of high school athletes attending urban and suburban high schools, and whether a relationship exists between underreporting and access to an athletic trainer in urban schools. High school athletes (N = 715) from 14 high schools completed a validated knowledge of concussion survey consisting of 83 questions. The independent variable was school type (urban/suburban). We examined the proportion of athletes who correctly identified signs and symptoms of concussion, knowledge of concussion and reasons why high school athletes would not disclose a potential concussive injury across school classification. Data were analyzed using descriptive, non-parametric, and inferential statistics. Athletes attending urban schools have less concussion knowledge than athletes attending suburban schools (p urban schools without an athletic trainer have less knowledge than urban athletes at schools with an athletic trainer (p urban schools and 10 reasons for not reporting. Concussion education efforts cannot be homogeneous in all communities. Education interventions must reflect the needs of each community. © 2017, American School Health Association.
This study surveyed New Mexico high school principals on their current state of preparedness for serious school violence. The researcher surveyed 119 public high schools, receiving a 65% return rate from a 25-question survey. Specifically, this study analyzed the relationships of three predictor variables: prevention, response, and building of…
Carruth, Ann K.; Pryor, Susan; Cormier, Cathy; Bateman, Aaron; Matzke, Brenda; Gilmore, Karen
Background: Farming is a hazardous occupation posing health risks from agricultural exposures for the farm owner and family members. First Aid for Rural Medical Emergencies (F.A.R.M.E.) was developed to support a train-the-trainer (TTT) program to prepare high school students to teach first aid skills and risk reduction through peer interaction.…
Margolis, Lewis H; Canty, Greg; Halstead, Mark; Lantos, John D
A pediatrician is asked by her local school board to help them decide whether to discontinue their high school football program. She reviews the available evidence on the risks of football and finds it hopelessly contradictory. Some scholars claim that football is clearly more dangerous than other sports. Others suggest that the risks of football are comparable to other sports, such as lacrosse, ice hockey, or soccer. She finds very little data on the long-term sequelae of concussions. She sees claims that good coaching and a school culture that prioritizes the health of athletes over winning can reduce morbidity from sports injuries. In this paper, 3 experts also review the evidence about sports risks and discuss what is known and not known about the science and the ethics of high school football. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Armendáriz, Joyzukey; Tarango, Javier; Machin-Mastromatteo, Juan Daniel
This descriptive and correlational research studies 15,658 students from 335 secondary schools in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, through the results of the examination of admission to high school education (National High School Admission Test--EXANI I from the National Assessment Center for Education--CENEVAL) on logical-mathematical and verbal…
Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan
Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students’ science fair experiences or expectations were evident. PMID:28328976
Abdullah Faruk Kılıç; Cem Oktay Güzeller
This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school at...
Araújo, Joana; Gomes, Carlos Costa; Jácomo, António; Pereira, Sandra Martins
Objective: The Bioethics Teaching in Secondary Education (Project BEST) aims to promote the teaching of bioethics in secondary schools. This paper describes the development and implementation of the programme in Portugal. Design: Programme development involved two main tasks: (1) using the learning tools previously developed by the US Northwest…
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relations between multiple aspects of adolescents’ self-concept and various dimensions of their social status in the classroom and in the peer clique. It was found that there was a positive relationship (1) between physical abilities selfconcept and social preference, perceived popularity, and social dominance; (2) between physical appearance self-concept and perceived popularity and social dominance; (3) between oppositesex ...
Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti
Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…
Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012
What steps can be taken to assure that 8th graders make a successful transition to 9th grade? More students fail ninth grade than any other grade level. When middle school students took part in high school transition programs with a variety of different articulation activities, fewer students were retained in ninth grade. Ideally, these transition…
Klug, Joseph H.
Teachers who engage in reflective practice are more effective and may encourage higher student achievement. The purpose of this study is to explore and describe the methods that teachers use in order to engage in reflective practice. Further, it is essential to gain an understanding of how schools, including Jesuit high schools, promote reflective…
Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora
Purpose: Research indicates that a culture of learning is a key factor in building high schools that foster academic achievement in all students. Yet less is known about which elements of a culture of learning differentiate schools with higher levels of academic performance. To fill this gap, this comparative case study examined the cultures of…
Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Balkute, Asta; Vaughn, Erin; White, Shannon
Research suggests that teachers play a role in the type of citizenship education implemented in schools. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how two high school teachers understood and enacted their civic identities as a dimension of their teacher identities. Findings suggest that factors contributing to an individual's civic…
Lucas, Keith B.; Tulip, David F.
This investigation was undertaken in order to establish the status of scientific literacy among three groups of secondary school students in four Brisbane, Australia high schools, and to reduce the apparent reticence of science teachers to evaluate students' achievement in the various dimensions of scientific literacy by demonstrating appropriate…
Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley
This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…
Deniz, Levent; Gürültü, Ercan
Theaim of this study is to investigate high school students’ social mediaaddiction. The study was conducted with 473 students who were educated in2014-2015 academic year at 6 different schools in İstanbul, Eyüp disctrict.‘Social Media Addiction Scale’ developed by Tutgun, Ünal and Deniz (2015) wasused to determine the students’ social media addiction. The results in general showedthat high school students have a medium level social media addiction. Besides,it was also concluded that high scho...
Means, Barbara; Wang, Haiwen; Wei, Xin; Lynch, Sharon; Peters, Vanessa; Young, Viki; Allen, Carrie
Inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) (where STEM is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) admit students on the basis of interest rather than competitive examination. This study examines the central assumption behind these schools-that they provide students from subgroups underrepresented in STEM with experiences that equip them academically and attitudinally to enter and stay in the STEM pipeline. Hierarchical modeling was applied to data from student surveys and state longitudinal data records for 5113 students graduating from 39 ISHSs and 22 comprehensive high schools in North Carolina and Texas. Compared to peers from the same demographic group with similar Grade 8 achievement levels, underrepresented minority and female ISHS students in both states were more likely to undertake advanced STEM coursework. Hispanics in Texas and females in both states expressed more STEM career interest in Grade 12 if they attended an ISHS. Positive relationships between ISHS attendance and grade point average were found in the total sample and each subgroup in North Carolina. Positive ISHS advantages in terms of test scores for the total student sample were found for science in both states and for mathematics in Texas. For the various student subgroups, test score differences favored the ISHS samples but attained statistical significance only for African Americans' science achievement scores in the Texas study.
Gofin, Rosa; Avitzour, Malka
To examine the prevalence of traditional and Internet bullying and the personal, family, and school environment characteristics of perpetrators and victims. Students (12-14 years old) in 35 junior high schools were randomly selected from the Jerusalem Hebrew (secular and religious) and Arab educational system (n = 2,610). Students answered an anonymous questionnaire, addressing personal, family, and school characteristics. Traditional bullying and Internet bullying for perpetrators and victims were categorized as either occurring at least sometimes during the school year or not occurring. Twenty-eight percent and 8.9 % of students were perpetrators of traditional and Internet bullying, respectively. The respective proportions of victims were 44.9 and 14.4 %. Traditional bullies presented higher Odds Ratios (ORs) for boys, for students with poor social skills (those who had difficulty in making friends, were influenced by peers in their behavior, or were bored), and for those who had poor communication with their parents. Boys and girls were equally likely to be Internet bullies and to use the Internet for communication and making friends. The OR for Internet bullying victims to be Internet bullying perpetrators was 3.70 (95 % confidence interval 2.47-5.55). Victims of traditional bullying felt helpless, and victims of traditional and Internet bullying find school to be a frightening place. There was a higher OR of Internet victimization with reports of loneliness. Traditional bully perpetrators present distinctive characteristics, while Internet perpetrators do not. Victims of traditional and Internet bullying feel fear in school. Tailored interventions are needed to address both types of bullying.
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best of teachers to present all of psychology in a single course for students who begin with virtually no formal knowledge of psychology. The standards presented here constitute the first of two reports in this issue of the American Psychologist (January 2013) representing recent American Psychological Association (APA) policies that support high-quality instruction in the teaching of high school psychology. These standards provide curricular benchmarks for student learning in the high school course.
Medical students are exposed to various psychosocial problems and challenges. Specific consultations services and programs can support them. "Peer2Peer" is such a consultation program and was implemented at the Medical University of Graz. It focusses on crisis intervention, psychosocial stress management, junior mentoring as well as student education in this field. Besides, it also offers student tutors of the program practical skills trainings. The program was restructured in winter term 2014/15. On the one hand, "Peer2Peer" gives insights into topics such as the current state of research concerning the students' psychological strain and psychosocial crises in acutely stressful situations and preventive approaches for coping with these kinds of situations on the other hand. These aspects are taught by means of elective courses, lectures and workshops. Furthermore, "Peer2Peer" provides consultation services by student tutors who give face-to-face advice if required. These tutors receive ongoing training in organizational and professional issues. Since the summer term of 2015, 119 students have been trained (via lectures and elective courses), while 61 contacts (short consultation) and 33 contacts (full consultation) have been supervisied. In total, two psychotherapeutic and one psychosocial follow ups were recommended. There are seven students who participate as tutors in the program. The "Peer2Peer" program is intended to enable a low-threshold access for medical students facing psychosocial crises situations and to help them in dealing with stress and learning problems. An increase in support contacts from the summer term of 2015 to the winter term of 2015/16 can be considered a success. A first evaluation of the different components of the program started in the winter semester of 2015/16. The student tutors have not only acquired practical skills in dealing with students in crises situations but also various organizational skills.
Foster, Dawn W.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Wampler, Jeremy; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
Objective This study examined adolescent gambling on school grounds (GS+) and how such behavior was associated with gambling-related attitudes. Further, we examined whether GS+ moderated associations between at-risk problem-gambling (ARPG) and gambling behaviors related to gambling partners. Method Participants were 1988 high-school students who completed survey materials. Demographic, perceptions, attitudes, and gambling variables were stratified by problem-gambling severity (ARPG versus recreational gambling) and GS+ status. Chi-square and adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine relationships among study variables. Results Nearly 40% (39.58%) of students reported past-year GS+, with 12.91% of GS+ students, relative to 2.63% of those who did not report gambling on school grounds (GS), meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (pgambling behaviors. Weaker links in GS+ students, in comparison with GS-, students, were observed between problem-gambling severity and gambling with family members (interaction odds ratio (IOR)=0.60; 95%CI=0.39–0.92) and gambling with friends (IOR=0.21; 95%CI=0.11–0.39). Conclusions GS+ is common and associated with pathological gambling and more permissive attitudes towards gambling. The finding that GS+ (relative to GS-) youth show differences in how problem-gambling is related to gambling partners (friends and family) warrants further investigation regarding whether and how peer and familial interactions might be improved to diminish youth problem-gambling severity. The high frequency of GS+ and its relationship with ARPG highlight a need for school administrators and personnel to consider interventions that target school-based gambling. PMID:26232102
Mayeux, Lara; Kraft, Caroline
Although conducting psychological research within schools has always required effort, persistence, and the careful navigation of various interests, there is a consensus among child and adolescent researchers that, over the past 2 decades, it has become increasingly difficult to collect data within schools. In this chapter, we lay out common and…
Fisher, Sycarah; Middleton, Kyndra; Ricks, Elizabeth; Malone, Celeste; Briggs, Candyce; Barnes, Jessica
Although bullying is a prevalent issue in the United States, limited research has explored the impact of school diversity on types of bullying behavior. This study explores the relationship between school diversity, student race, and bullying within the school context. The participants were African American and Caucasian middle school students (n = 4,581; 53.4% female). Among the participants, 89.4% were Caucasian and 10.6% were African American. The research questions examined the relationship between school diversity, student race and bullying behaviors, specifically race-based victimization. The findings suggested that Caucasian middle school students experience more bullying than African American students generally, and specifically when minorities in school settings. Caucasian students also experienced almost three times the amount of race-based victimization than African American students when school diversity was held constant. Interestingly, African American students experienced twice the amount of race-based victimization than Caucasian students when in settings with more students of color. The present study provides insight into bullying behaviors across different contexts for different races and highlights the need to further investigate interactions between personal and environmental factors on the bulling experiences of youth.
Skov, Peter Rohde
In this paper, I investigate whether a social comparison mechanism affects the choice of secondary schooling. I investigate the theory of frog pond effects on choice of upper secondary education using school-by-grade fixed effects models and comprehensive administrative data. I examine the non...
Research on school bullying has its roots in the field of developmental and educational psychology, and appeals to the need for a theoretical and methodological widening in order to grasp its ambiguity and complexity. The article draws on ethnographic fieldwork in which 144 pupils and seven teachers participated from seven school classes in three…
The CERN particle-physics lab has hosted 22 high-school students from Hungary in a pilot programme designed to show teenagers how science, technology, engineering and mathematics is used at the particle-physics lab.
Abstract. The study examined Junior High School (JHS) pupils' ideas of the concept air. The ... Stavy (1991) reported that students in his physics class had ... Research studies found that even after having been taught the particulate theory and.
Collier, Crystal; Simpson, Shelly; Najera, John; Weiner, Lauren
Research has shown that peer influence can be negative, by increasing the likelihood that a youth will engage in high-risk behaviors and make risky decisions. However, peer influence can also be positive and protect a youth from these same high-risk activities. This article examines the extent of peer influence and then describes the Alternative…
Eskasasnanda, I Dewa Putu
Science and technology development causes a lot of changes in any fields including the form of popular games among the Junior and Senior High School students in Indonesia. The traditional games that are famous formerly have been replaced by the modern games like online video game. This article discusses the cause and effect of the online video game playing on the Junior and Senior High Schools students in Malang. This study reveal that students play video games online due to peers pressure; a...
Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert
Background: Low-level violent behavior, particularly school bullying, remains a critical public health issue that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based prevention programs, while a valuable line of defense to stave off bullying, have shown inconsistent results in terms of decreasing bullying. This…
Jacobs, Tricia Susan
As the responsibilities of principals become more complex and as accountability becomes more evident in K-12 cultures, it becomes increasingly important that high school principals be trained to empower teachers. This paper examined the research concerning the conditions of the empowerment of teachers. More specifically, it measured high school teachers' perspectives concerning their levels of empowerment by their principals based on the four domains of empowerment: meaning, competence, sel...
Amy J Pickering
Full Text Available In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods.Student hand cleaning behavior was monitored with video surveillance and in-person structured observation, both simultaneously and separately, at four primary schools in urban Kenya over a study period of 8 weeks.Video surveillance and in-person observation captured similar rates of hand cleaning (absolute difference <5%, p = 0.74. Video surveillance documented higher hand cleaning rates (71% when at least one other person was present at the hand cleaning station, compared to when a student was alone (48%; rate ratio = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01-1.28]. Students increased hand cleaning rates during simultaneous video and in-person monitoring as compared to single-method monitoring, suggesting reactivity to each method of monitoring. This trend was documented at schools receiving a handwashing with soap intervention, but not at schools receiving a sanitizer intervention.Video surveillance of hand hygiene behavior yields results comparable to in-person observation among schools in a resource-constrained setting. Video surveillance also has certain advantages over in-person observation, including rapid data processing and the capability to capture new behavioral insights. Peer influence can significantly improve student hand cleaning behavior and, when possible, should be exploited in the design and implementation of school hand hygiene programs.
This work is focussed on the integration of the children with ADHD into the peer group. Its target is to find out, if the integration proceeds and if it satisfies the children, the parents and the teachers. There's the issue of the ADHD, history of this term, the manifestations, the etiology, and the diagnostics by MKN-10 and DSM-IV and terminology explained. The applied part was realized through the use of the questionaries fullfiled bz the children with ADHD, their parents and the teachers ...
Big Picture Co., Cambridge, MA.
In October 1996, the Big Picture Company set out to find six urban high schools that use school-to-work strategies as a lever for whole-school reform. In the schools finally selected for the New Urban High Schools Project, and in others examined for the study, "school-to-work" is a misnomer, because the majority of students are entering…
West, Patrick; Sweeting, Helen; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona
This paper examines the relative importance of family socioeconomic status (SES) and school-based peer hierarchies for young people's psychoneuroendocrine response, represented by cortisol level. Data are drawn from a study of 2824, 15-year-olds in 22 Scottish secondary schools in 2006 who provided information on family SES (parental occupation, material deprivation and family affluence) and social position in school hierarchies, together with two morning salivary cortisol samples. School social position was assessed by participants placing themselves on seven 'ladders', from which three factors were derived, termed scholastic, peer and sports hierarchies. Controlling for confounds, there was little or no variation in cortisol by any SES measure. By contrast, each school hierarchy was independently associated with cortisol, but in different ways. For the scholastic hierarchy, an inverse linear relationship was found for females, cortisol increasing with lower position. For peer hierarchy, an opposite (direct) linear relationship occurred for males, while for females elevated cortisol was associated only with 'top' position. For sports, elevated cortisol among males was associated with 'bottom' position, among females with all except the 'top'. These results are interpreted in the context of Sapolsky's (Sapolsky, 2005) predictions for stress responses to hierarchical position in stable and unstable social systems, the former represented by the scholastic hierarchy involving elevated cortisol in lower positions, the latter by peer hierarchy with elevated cortisol in higher positions. Overall, the results highlight the greater importance of school-based peer groups than family SES for young people's psychoneuroendocrine response. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: to identify indicators of development of psychomotor function deaf children aged 7-10 years and find out the characteristic features of their manifestation. Material : the study involved 242 children aged 7-10 years, 128 of them deaf. Results : psychomotor development indicators defined functions deaf children aged 7-10 years. A comparative analysis with indicators of their peers with hearing preservation. Lagging indicators revealed psychomotor function deaf children ( ability to regulate spatio-temporal parameters and dynamic movements, orientation in space, coordination movements, the ability to preserve static and dynamic balance, motor memory, a sense of rhythm, the ability to arbitrarily relax muscles, hands and coordination micromovements fingers capable of simultaneously performing movements coordination ballistic movements averaging 14.6 % to 60.6 %. Conclusions : It was found that deaf children of primary school age the development of psychomotor function occurs more slowly compared with hearing children their age.
Benner, Aprile D; Boyle, Alaina E; Bakhtiari, Farin
The transition to high school is disruptive for many adolescents, yet little is known about the supportive relational processes that might attenuate the challenges students face as they move from middle to high school, particularly for students from more diverse backgrounds. Identifying potential buffers that protect youth across this critical educational transition is important for informing more effective support services for youth. In this study, we investigated how personal characteristics (gender, nativity, parent education level) and changes in support from family, friends, and school influenced changes in socioemotional adjustment and academic outcomes across the transition from middle to high school. The data were drawn from 252 students (50% females, 85% Latina/o). The results revealed declines in students' grades and increases in depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness across the high school transition, with key variation by student nativity and gender. Additionally, stable/increasing friend support and school belonging were both linked to less socioemotional disruptions as students moved from middle to high school. Increasing/stable school belonging was also linked to increases in school engagement across the high school transition. These findings suggest that when high school transitions disrupt supportive relationships with important others in adolescents' lives, adolescents' socioemotional well-being and, to a lesser extent, their academic engagement are also compromised. Thus, in designing transition support activities, particularly for schools serving more low-income and race/ethnic minority youth, such efforts should strive to acclimate new high school students by providing inclusive, caring environments and positive connections with educators and peers.
Lapp, Hendrik; Makowka, Philipp; Recker, Florian
Introduction: To better prepare young medical students in a thorough and competent manner for the ever increasing clinical, scientific, as well as psychosocial requirements, universities should enable a close, personal transfer of experience and knowledge. Structured mentoring programs are a promising approach to incorporate clinical subjects earlier into the preclinical training. Such a mentoring program facilitates the prioritization of concepts from a broad, theory-heavy syllabus. Here we report the experiences and results of the preclinical mentoring program of Bonn University, which was introduced in the winter semester of 2012/2013. Project desciption: The program is characterized by the concept of peer-to-peer teaching during the preclinical semesters of medical school. Regular, voluntary course meetings with different clinical case examples provide students the opportunity to apply knowledge acquired from the basic science curricula; furthermore, a personal contact for advice and support is ensured. Thus, an informal exchange of experiences is made possible, which provides to the students motivational and learning aids, in particular for the oral examination at the end of the premedical semesters as well as for other examinations during medical school. Results: Over the course of the preceding three years the number of participants and the interest in the program grew steadily. The analysis of collected evaluations confirms very good communication between mentors and students (>80%), as well as consistently good to very good quality and usefulness in terms of the mentors' subject-specific and other advice. The overall final evaluation of the mentoring program was always good to very good (winter semester: very good 64.8±5.0%, good 35.2±5.0%, summer semester: very good 83.9±7.5%, good 16.1±7.5%) Summary: In summary, it has been shown that the mentoring program had a positive impact on the development, education and satisfaction of students beginning
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.
Moore, Graham; Cox, Rebecca; Evans, Rhiannon; Hallingberg, Britt; Hawkins, Jemma; Littlecott, Hannah; Long, Sara; Murphy, Simon
Positive relationships with family, friends and school staff are consistently linked with health and wellbeing during adolescence, though fewer studies explore how these micro-systems interact to influence adolescent health. This study tests the independent and interacting roles of family, peer and school relationships in predicting substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms among 11–16 year olds in Wales. It presents cross-sectional analyses of the 2013 Health Behaviour i...
Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors. Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. A total of 47 fourth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The program was provided for 45 minutes once a week; a total of 12 sessions were completed with ...
Webster, Amanda A.; Carter, Mark
Background: One of the most commonly cited rationales for inclusive education is to enable the development of quality relationships with typically developing peers. Relatively few researchers have examined the features of the range of relationships that children with developmental disability form in inclusive school settings. Method: Interviews…
Lopez, Barbara; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Wang, Wei; Pantin, Hilda
This study examined correlates of early adolescent alcohol and drug use in a community sample of 217 eighth-grade adolescents with behavior problems and from Hispanic/Latino immigrant families. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships of multiple contexts (e.g., family, school, and peers) to alcohol and drug use. Results…
Jurkowski, Susanne; Hänze, Martin
Students' individual learning is supposed to be based on cognitive and social processes. Therefore, students' social skills are assumed to play an important role for school performance. This study set out to investigate the links between students' peer relations skills and assertion skills and their grades for written performances and oral…
Morris, Stephen P.; Edovald, Triin; Lloyd, Cheryl; Kiss, Zsolt
Based on the experience of evaluating 2 cross-age peer-tutoring interventions, we argue that researchers need to pay greater attention to causal mechanisms within the context of school-based randomised controlled trials. Without studying mechanisms, researchers are less able to explain the underlying causal processes that give rise to results from…
Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey; Marshall, Kelsey
This article examines a case out of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit: "Ridley School District v. M.R and J.R. ex rel. E.R." (2012). The case is the first circuit court case in which the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act requirement that special education services be based on peer-reviewed research…
This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J
Studies examining friendships among Mexican-American adolescents have largely focused on their potentially negative influence. The current study examined the extent to which deviant and achievement-oriented friend affiliations are associated with Mexican-American adolescents' school adjustment and also tested whether support from friends and parents moderates these associations. High school students (N = 412; 49 % male) completed questionnaires and daily diaries; primary caregivers also completed a questionnaire. Although results revealed few direct associations between friend affiliations and school adjustment, several moderations emerged. In general, the influence of friends' affiliation was strongest when support from friends was high and parental support was low. The findings suggest that only examining links between friend affiliations and school outcomes does not fully capture how friends promote or hinder school adjustment.
Dimensions of school climate: teachers' or principals' power styles and subjects' propensities to be climate vigilant as related to students' perceptions of satisfaction and of peers' abusive behavior.
Verhoek-Miller, Nancy; Miller, Duane I; Shirachi, Miyoko; Hoda, Nicholas
Two studies investigated teachers' and principals' power styles as related to college students' retrospective ratings of satisfaction and peers' abusive behavior. One study also investigated retrospective self-perception as related to students' sensitivity to the occurrence of physical and psychological abuse in the school environment. Among the findings were positive correlations between subjects' perceptions that their typical elementary school teacher used referent, legitimate, or expert power styles and subjects' reported satisfaction with their elementary school experience. Small but statistically significant correlations were found suggesting that principals' power style was weakly associated with ratings of psychological abuse in elementary school and physical abuse in middle school. Also, students who rated themselves as intelligent, sensitive, attractive, and depressive had higher ratings of perceived psychological and physical abuse at school. It was concluded that parameters of leaders' power styles and subjects' vigilance might be useful for understanding school climates. Experimentally designed studies are required.
Rasberry, Catherine N; Condron, D Susanne; Lesesne, Catherine A; Adkins, Susan Hocevar; Sheremenko, Ganna; Kroupa, Elizabeth
With HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates disproportionately high among adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM), it is important to understand how school-based sexual health education may relate to sexual risk-related behavior among this population. This analysis explores reported HIV/AIDS- and condom-related education and sexual risk-related behaviors among ASMM and their adolescent non-sexual-minority male (non-ASMM) peers. Students (n = 11,681) from seven Florida high schools completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires. A matched analytic sample of ASMM and non-ASMM students was created by using propensity score-matching techniques (n = 572). Logistic regressions controlling for individual and school characteristics examined reporting having been taught about AIDS or HIV in school, having been taught in school about using condoms, condom use at last sex, HIV/STD testing, and associations between these variables. Compared with matched non-ASMM peers, ASMM students were less likely to report having been taught about AIDS or HIV in school (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, P = 0.04) and having used a condom at last sex (OR = 0.39, P condoms. Among non-ASMM, reporting having been taught in school about using condoms was associated with a greater likelihood of condom use at last sex (OR = 4.78, P education and differential associations between condom-related education and condom use in ASMM and non-ASMM suggest that sexual health education in schools may not be resonating with ASMM and non-ASMM in the same way.
White, Susan; Tyler, John
During the 2012-13 school year, approximately 27,000 teachers taught at least one physics course in a U.S. high school. About one-third of those teachers have earned a degree in physics or physics education; the vast majority of the others have earned degrees in a variety of other science fields. About 53,000 physics classes were taught, ranging…
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Liang, Chaoyun; Chen, Yi-Hui
This study explored the reliability and validity of Web-based portfolio self-assessment. Participants were 72 senior high school students enrolled in a computer application course. The students created learning portfolios, viewed peers' work, and performed self-assessment on the Web-based portfolio assessment system. The results indicated: 1)…