WorldWideScience

Sample records for high safety standard

  1. Safety Standards Plan for Middlesex County Vocational & Technical High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Cy

    This vocational education safety standards plan outlines rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Education of Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools. The first of eleven chapters presents demographics and a safety organization table for Middlesex County Vocational and Technical Schools. In chapter 2, six safety program…

  2. Knowledge management for assuring high standards in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.

    2004-01-01

    The primary incentives for introducing knowledge management in organisations active in the nuclear field are the impending loss of knowledge due to an ageing workforce and the necessity to transfer knowledge to the next generation. However, knowledge management may reach much further, and it is shown that ultimately, the goals of knowledge management are congruent with establishing, maintaining and further developing high standards of safety. Knowledge-based activities to reach these goals are discussed, and examples given for producing, utilising and sharing knowledge in organisations and in national and international networks. (author)

  3. Safety management systems and their role in achieving high standards of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulston, D.J.; Baylis, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Achieving high standards of operational safety requires a robust management framework that is visible to all personnel with responsibility for its implementation. The structure of the management framework must ensure that all processes used to manage safety interlink in a logical and coherent manner, that is, they form a management system that leads to continuous improvement in safety performance. This Paper describes BNFL's safety management system (SMS). The SMS has management processes grouped within 5 main elements: 1. Policy, 2. Organisation, 3. Planning and Implementation, 4. Measuring and Reviewing Performance, 5. Audit. These elements reflect the overall process of setting safety objective (from Policy), measuring success and reviewing the performance. Effective implementation of the SMS requires senior managers to demonstrate leadership through their commitment and accountability. However, the SMS as a whole reflects that every employee at every level within BNFL is responsible for safety of operations under their control. The SMS therefore promotes a proactive safety culture and safe operations. The system is formally documented in the Company's Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Manual. Within in BNFL Group, the Company structures enables the Manual to provide overall SMS guidance and co-ordination to its range of nuclear businesses. Each business develops the SMS to be appropriate at all levels of its organisation, but ensuring that each level is consistent with the higher level. The Paper concludes with a summary of BNFL's safety performance. (author)

  4. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, Elena; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  5. Development of national standards related to the integrated safety and security of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenskaya Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of developing national standards for high-rise construction. The system of standards should provide industrial, operational, economic and terrorist safety of high-rise buildings and facilities. Modern standards of high-rise construction should set the rules for designing engineering systems of high-rise buildings, which will ensure the integrated security of buildings, increase their energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of resources in construction and operation.

  6. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  7. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  8. IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series comprises publications of a regulatory nature covering nuclear safety, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive material, the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and management systems. These publications are issued under the terms of Article III of the IAEA’s Statute, which authorizes the IAEA to establish “standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property”. Safety standards are categorized into: • Safety Fundamentals, stating the basic objective, concepts and principles of safety; • Safety Requirements, establishing the requirements that must be fulfilled to ensure safety; and • Safety Guides, recommending measures for complying with these requirements for safety. For numbering purposes, the IAEA Safety Standards Series is subdivided into General Safety Requirements and General Safety Guides (GSR and GSG), which are applicable to all types of facilities and activities, and Specific Safety Requirements and Specific Safety Guides (SSR and SSG), which are for application in particular thematic areas. This booklet lists all current IAEA Safety Standards, including those forthcoming

  9. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  10. The IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbassioun, Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the NUSS standards, wide consultation was carried out with all the Member States to obtain a consensus and the programme was supervised by a Senior Advisory Group consisting of senior safety experts from 13 countries. This group of senior regulators later became what is now known as the Nuclear Safety Standards Advisory Group (NUSSAG) and comprises of senior regulatory experts from 16 countries. The standards that were developed comprise of four types of documents: safety fundamentals; codes of practice; safety guides; and safety practices. The safety fundamentals set out the basic objectives, concepts and principles for nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The codes of practice, are of a legislative nature, and establish the general objectives that must be fulfilled to ensure adequate nuclear power plant safety. They cover five areas: governmental organization; siting, design, operation and quality assurance. The safety guides, administrative in character, recommend procedures and acceptable technical solutions to implement the codes and guides by presenting further details gained from Member States, on the application and interpretation of individual concepts in the NUSS codes and guides. In total in the NUSS series there is currently one Fundamentals document, five Codes of Practice and fifty-six Safety Guides

  11. Elevating standards, improving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2014-08-01

    In our latest 'technical guidance' article, Richard Clarke, sales and marketing director at one of the UK's leading lift and escalator specialists, Schindler, examines some of the key issues surrounding the specification, maintenance, and operation of lifts in hospitals to help ensure the highest standards of safety and reliability.

  12. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements

  13. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  14. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  15. Status and trends in IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipar, M.

    2004-01-01

    While safety is a national responsibility, international standards and approaches to safety promote consistency and facilitate international technical co-operation and trade, and help to provide assurance that nuclear and radiation related technologies are used safely. The standards also provide support for States in meeting their international obligations. One general international obligation is that a State must not pursue activities that cause damage in another State. More specific obligations on Contracting States are set out in international safety related conventions. The internationally agreed IAEA safety standards provide the basis for States to demonstrate that they are meeting these obligations. These standards are founded in the IAEA's Statute, which authorizes the Agency to establish standards of safety for nuclear and radiation related facilities and activities and to provide for their application. The safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment. (orig.) [de

  16. RADWASS update. Radioactive Waste Safety Standards Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, D.

    2000-01-01

    By the late 1980s, the issue of radioactive wastes and their management was becoming increasingly politically important. The IAEA responded by establishing a high profile family of safety standards, the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS). By this means, the IAEA intended to draw attention to the fact that well-established procedures for the safe management of radioactive wastes already were in place. The programme was intended to establish an ordered structure for safety documents on waste management and to ensure comprehensive coverage of all relevant subject areas. RADWASS documents are categorized under four subject areas - discharges, predisposal, disposal, and environmental restoration. The programme is overseen through a formalized review and approval mechanism that was established in 1996 for all safety standards activities. The Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC) is a standing body of senior regulatory officials with technical expertise in radioactive waste safety. To date, three Safety Requirements and seven Safety Guides have been issued

  17. The radiation safety standards programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the development of radiation safety standards by the IAEA which is a statutory function of the IAEA is presented. The latest editions of the basic safety standards published by the IAEA in cooperation with ICRP, FAO, ILO, NEA/OECD, PAHO and WHO are reviewed

  18. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  19. Rethinking wood dust safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasingam, Jega; Wai, Lim Tau; Ramasamy, Geetha; Ioras, Florin; Tadin, Ishak; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Buckinghamshire New University; Centre for Occupational Safety and Health Singapore

    2015-01-01

    The current universal work safety and health standards pertaining to wood dust in factories lack the localisation required. As a study has shown, there is a urgent need to reevaluate the current guidelines and practices.

  20. Development of fusion safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Dinneen, G.A.; Herring, J.S.; DeLooper, J.; Levine, J.D.; Gouge, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standards have been prepared to assist in the design and regulation of magnetic fusion facilities. They are DOE-STD-6002-96, 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Requirements,' and DOE-STD-6003-96 'Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities - Guidance.' The first standard sets forth requirements, mostly based on the Code of Federal Regulations, deemed necessary for the safe design and operation of fusion facilities and a set of safety principles to use in the design. The second standard provides guidance on how to meet the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96. It is written specifically for a facility such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the DOE regulatory environment. As technical standards, they are applicable only to the extent that compliance with these standards is included in the contracts of the developers. 7 refs., 1 fig

  1. Radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is a basic document with which all rules and regulations, etc., concerning protection from ionizing radiations of workers and the general population have to conform. Basic concepts, dimensions, units, and terms used in the area of radiation safety are defined. Radiation exposures are sorted out into three categories: A, to personnel; B, to individual members of the popul;tion; and C, to the general population. Critical organs, furthermore, comprise four groups, the first of them being applicable to the whole-body gonads and bone marrow. Category A maximum permissible dose (MPD) to first group critical organs is 5 rem/year; to second group, 15 rem/year; to thrid group, 3O rem/year; and to fourth group, 75 rem/year. These rate figures include doses from both external and internal radiation exposure. Quality factors needed in computing doses from various types of radiation are provided. Permissible planned exposure levels are specified and guidelines given for accidental exposures. A radiation accident is considered to have occurred if the relevant critical organ dose is 5 times the annual MPD for that organ. For individual members of the population (category B), annual somatic doses to first group critical organs shall not exceed 0,5 rem. Population exposure is controlled in terms of genetically significant dose, which shall not exceed 5 rem/30 years. (G.G.)

  2. General philosophy of safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Safety standards should be related to the form and magnitude of the risk they aim to limit. Because of the lack of direct information at the exposure levels experienced, radiation protection standards have to be based on risk assumptions that, while plausible, are not proven. The pressure for standards has come as much from public perceptions and fears as from the reality of the risk. (author)

  3. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  4. Status of the IAEA safety standards programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the status of the IAEA safety standards program to May 2002. The safety standards program overcome whole main nuclear implementations as General safety, Nuclear safety, Radiation safety, Radioactive waste safety, and Transport safety. Throughout this report the first column provides the list of published IAEA Safety Standards. The second gives the working identification number (DS) of standards being developed or revised. The bold type indicates standard issued under the authority the Board of Governors, others are issued under authority of the Director General. The last column provides the list of Committees, the first Committee listed has the lead in the preparation and review of the particular standard

  5. Radiation safety standards and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolina, E.P.; Ivanov, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection laws of Russia concerning medical application of ionizing radiation are considered. Main concepts of the documents and recommendations are presented. Attention was paid to the ALARA principle, safety standrds for paietients, personnel and population, radiation protection. Specific feature of the standardization of radiation factors is the establishment of two classes of norms: main dose limits and permissible levels. Maximum dose commitment is the main standard. Three groups of critical organs and three categories of the persons exposed to radiation are stated. Main requirements for radiation protection are shown

  6. Safety first. Status reports on the IAEA's safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Karbassioun, A.; Linsley, G.; Rawl, R.

    1998-01-01

    Documents in the IAEA's Safety Standards Series known as RASS (Radiation Safety Standards) are produced to develop an internally consistent set of regulatory-style publications that reflects an international consensus on the principles of radiation protection and safety and their application through regulation. In this article are briefly presented the Agency's programmes on Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS), Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), and Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials

  7. 78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ..., without the need for obtaining a waiver. In order to take advantage of high cant deficiency operations and... attention. In addition, to improve the process for analyzing data while vehicles are negotiating spiral... the last few decades, computer models of rail vehicles interacting with track have become practical...

  8. Safety standards and safety record of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of standards and the measurement and enforcement of these standards to achieve safe operation of nuclear power plants. Since a discussion of the safety standards that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) uses to regulate the nuclear power industry can be a rather tedious subject, this discussion will provide you with not only a description of what safety standards are, but some examples of their application, and various indicators that provide an overall perspective on safety. These remarks are confined to the safety standards adopted by the NRC. There are other agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the state regulatory agencies which impact on a nuclear power plant. The NRC has regulatory authority for the commercial use of the nuclear materials and facilities which are defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 to assure that the public health and safety and national security are protected

  9. Performance standards of road safety management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milenko R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety management controlling means the process of finding out the information whether the road safety is improving in a measure to achieve the objectives. The process of control consists of three basic elements: definition of performances and standards, measurement of current performances and comparison with the set standards, and improvement of current performances, if they deviate from the set standards. The performance standards of road safety management system are focused on a performances measurement, in terms of their design and characteristics, in order to support the performances improvement of road safety system and thus, ultimately, improve the road safety. Defining the performance standards of road safety management system, except that determines the design of the system for performances measurement, directly sets requirements whose fulfillment will produce a road safety improvement. The road safety management system, based on the performance standards of road safety, with a focus on results, will produce the continuous improvement of road safety, achieving the long-term 'vision zero', the philosophy of road safety, that human life and health take priority over mobility and other traffic objectives of the road traffic.

  10. Setting the standard: The IAEA safety standards set the global reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    2003-01-01

    For the IAEA, setting and promoting standards for nuclear radiation, waste, and transport safety have been priorities from the start, rooted in the Agency's 1957 Statute. Today, a corpus of international standards are in place that national regulators and industries in many countries are applying, and more are being encouraged and assisted to follow them. Considerable work is done to keep safety standards updated and authoritative. They cover five main areas: the safety of nuclear facilities; radiation protection and safety of radiation sources; safe management of radioactive waste; safe transport of radioactive material; and thematic safety areas, such as emergency preparedness or legal infrastructures. Overall, the safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment. All IAEA Member States can nominate experts for the Agency standards committees and provide comments on draft standards. Through this ongoing cycle of review and feedback, the standards are refined, updated, and extended where needed

  11. The international dimensions of nuclear safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reviews the activities of the major international organisations in the field of nuclear safety standards; the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Commission of the European Communities. Each organisation encourages the concept of international nuclear safety standards. After Chernobyl, there were calls for some form of binding international nuclear safety standards. Many Member States of IAEA accepted these Codes as a suitable basis for formulating their national safety standards, but the prevailing view was that voluntary compliance with the Codes was the preferred path. With few reactor vendors in a limited international market, the time may be approaching when an internationally licensable nuclear reactor is needed. Commonly accepted safety standards would be a prerequisite. The paper discusses the issues involved and the complexities of standards making in the international arena. (author)

  12. 77 FR 21311 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... preparedness, alcohol and drug testing, locomotive engineer certification, and workplace safety. In 1980, FRA... Association (ATDA) Amtrak AAR Association of Railway Museums (ARM) Association of State Rail Safety Managers... Administration 49 CFR Parts 229 and 238 Locomotive Safety Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77...

  13. Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteeg, J.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

  14. IAEA safety standards and approach to safety of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini, M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the IAEA safety standards including their overall structure and purpose. A detailed presentation is devoted to the general approach to safety that is embodied in the current safety requirements for the design of nuclear power plants. A safety approach is proposed for the future. This approach can be used as reference for a safe design, for safety assessment and for the preparation of the safety requirements. The method proposes an integration of deterministic and risk informed concepts in the general frame of a generalized concept of safety goals and defence in depth. This methodology may provide a useful tool for the preparation of safety requirements for the design and operation of any kind of reactor including small and medium sized reactors with innovative safety features.(author)

  15. IAEA safety standards for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Yehia, H.

    2007-01-01

    The general structure of the IAEA Safety Standards and the process for their development and revision are briefly presented and discussed together with the progress achieved in the development of Safety Standards for research reactor. These documents provide the safety requirements and the key technical recommendations to achieve enhanced safety. They are intended for use by all organizations involved in safety of research reactors and developed in a way that allows them to be incorporated into national laws and regulations. The author reviews the safety standards for research reactors and details their specificities. There are 4 published safety standards: 1) Safety assessment of research reactors and preparation of the safety analysis report (35-G1), 2) Safety in the utilization and modification of research reactors (35-G2), 3) Commissioning of research reactors (NS-G-4.1), and 4) Maintenance, periodic testing and inspection of research reactors (NS-G-4.2). There 5 draft safety standards: 1) Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for research reactors (DS261), 2) The operating organization and the recruitment, training and qualification of personnel for research reactors (DS325), 3) Radiation protection and radioactive waste management in the design and operation of research reactors (DS340), 4) Core management and fuel handling at research reactors (DS350), and 5) Grading the application of safety requirements for research reactors (DS351). There are 2 planned safety standards, one concerning the ageing management for research reactor and the second deals with the control and instrumentation of research reactors

  16. Safety standards of flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijling, J.K.; Schweckendiek, T.; Kanning, W.

    2011-01-01

    Current design codes like the Eurocode use safety or reliability classes to assign target reliabilities to different types of structures or structural members according to the potential consequences of failure. That, in essence, is a risk-based criterion. A wide range of structures is designed with

  17. IAEA Safety Standards on Management Systems and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Kerstin Dahlgren

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA has developed a new set of Safety Standard for applying an integrated Management System for facilities and activities. The objective of the new Safety Standards is to define requirements and provide guidance for establishing, implementing, assessing and continually improving a Management System that integrates safety, health, environmental, security, quality and economic related elements to ensure that safety is properly taken into account in all the activities of an organization. With an integrated approach to management system it is also necessary to include the aspect of culture, where the organizational culture and safety culture is seen as crucial elements of the successful implementation of this management system and the attainment of all the goals and particularly the safety goals of the organization. The IAEA has developed a set of service aimed at assisting it's Member States in establishing. Implementing, assessing and continually improving an integrated management system. (author)

  18. Safety standards of IAEA for management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, P.

    2005-01-01

    IAEA has developed a new series of safety standards which are assigned for constitution of the conditions and which give the instruction for setting up the management systems that integrate the aims of safety, health, life environment and quality. The new standard shall replace IAEA 50-C-Q - Requirements for security of the quality for safety in nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities as well as 14 related safety instructions mentioned in the Safety series No. 50-C/SG-Q (1996). When developing of this complex, integrated set of requirements for management systems, the IAEA requirements 50-C-Q (1996) were taken into consideration as well as the publications developed within the International organisation for standardization (ISO) ISO 9001:2000 and ISO14001: 1996. The experience of European Union member states during the development, implementation and improvement of the management systems were also taken into consideration

  19. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author)

  20. 24 CFR 51.203 - Safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.203 Safety standards. The following... facilities or areas shall not exceed 0.5 psi. (c) If a hazardous substance constitutes both a thermal...

  1. The IAEA safety standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It provides a historical overview of their development and also summarizes the standards' current preparation and review process. The final paragraphs offer an outlook on future developments. (author)

  2. Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    Pursuant to the provisions of its Statute relevant to the adoption and application of safety standards for protection against radiation, the Agency convened a panel of experts which formulated the Basic Safety Standards set forth in this publication. The panel met under the chairmanship of Professor L. Bugnard, Director of the French Institut National d'Hygiene, and representatives of the United Nations and of several of its specialized agencies participated in its work. The Basic Safety Standards thus represent the result of a most careful assessment of the variety of complex scientific and administrative problems involved. Nevertheless, of course, they will need to be revised from time to time in the light of advances in scientific knowledge, of comments received from Member States and of the work of other competent international organizations. The Agency's Board of Governors in June 1962 approved the Standards as a first edition, subject to later revision as mentioned above, and authorized Director General Sigvard Eklund to apply the Standards in Agency and Agency-assisted operations and to invite Governments of Member States to take them as a basis in formulating national regulations or recommendations on protection against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. It is mainly for this last purpose that the Basic Safety Standards are now being published in the Safety Series; but it is hoped that this publication will also interest a much wider circle of readers.

  3. Atomic power engineering under falsified safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    In July 1970 the United States Department of Justice accused the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act and of acting in restraint of trade by restricting the ASME Certificate of Authorization and the use of the Code Symbol Stamps to boilers and pressure vessels manufactured in the United States and Canada. During the succeeding two years attorneys for the parties in the case formulated a Consent Decree without a public confrontation in the Court. Furthermore, the membership of ASME was kept uninformed until October of 1972, after the Consent and Final Judgment had become effective and new procedures had been developed for allowing foreign manufacturers to apply the ASME Code Symbol Stamps to their products. As a consequence, a breakdown in engineered safety standards has been sanctioned and this is undermining the engineering profession's overriding reponsibility to protect the public health and safety. This breakdown of professional responsibility is especially serious in the new technology of atomic power. American insurance companies, which have traditionally written 100% insurance coverage for property damage and third party liability against explosions of high pressure steam boilers bearing the ASME Code Stamp, have refused to write such insurance coverage on nuclear reactors. In the author's opinion there is evidence that the Consent was formulated under collusive proceedings and he calls on the members and the Council of ASME to appeal for dismissal of the Consent Decree. 24 refs

  4. The Agency's Safety Standards and Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The Agency's Health and Safety Measures were first, approved by the Board of Governors on 31 March 1960 in implementation of Articles III.A.6 and XII of the Statute of the Agency. On the basis of the experience gained from applying those measures to projects carried out by Members under agreements concluded with the Agency, the Agency's Health and Safety Measures were revised in 1975 and approved by the Board of Governors on 25 February 1976. The Agency's Safety Standards and Measures as revised are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  5. Multi-domain comparison of safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baufreton, Ph.; Derrien, J.C.; Ricque, B.; Blanquart, J.P.; Boulanger, J.L.; Delseny, H.; Gassino, J.; Ladier, G.; Ledinot, E.; Leeman, M.; Quere, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of safety standards and their implementation in certification strategies from different domains such as aeronautics, automation, automotive, nuclear, railway and space. This work, performed in the context of the CG2E ('Club des Grandes Entreprises de l'Embarque'), aims at identifying the main similarities and dissimilarities, for potential cross-domain harmonization. We strive to find the most comprehensive 'trans-sectorial' approach, within a large number of industrial domains. Exhibiting the 'true goals' of their numerous applicable standards, related to the safety of system and software, is a first important step towards harmonization, sharing common approaches, methods and tools whenever possible. (authors)

  6. NUSS safety standards: A critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minogue, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The NUSS safety standards are based on systematic review of safety criteria of many countries in a process carefully defined to assure completeness of coverage. They represent an international consensus of accepted safety principles and practices for regulation and for the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power plants. They are a codification of principles and practices already in use by some Member States. Thus, they are not standards which describe methodologies at their present state of evolution as a result of more recent experience and improvements in technological understanding. The NUSS standards assume an underlying body of national standards and a defined technological base. Detailed design and industrial practices vary between countries and the implementation of basic safety standards within countries has taken approaches that conform with national industrial practices. Thus, application of the NUSS standards requires reconciliation with the standards of the country where the reactor will be built as well as with the country from which procurement takes place. Experience in making that reconciliation will undoubtedly suggest areas of needed improvement. After the TMI accident a reassessment of the NUSS programme was made and it was concluded that, given the information at that time and the then level of technology, the basic approach was sound; the NUSS programme should be continued to completion, and the standards should be brought into use. It was also recognized, however, that in areas such as probabilistic risk assessment, human factors methodology, and consideration of detailed accident sequences, more advanced technology was emerging. As these technologies develop, and become more amenable to practical application, it is anticipated that the NUSS standards will need revision. Ideally those future revisions will also flow from experience in their use

  7. The biological basis of plutonium safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since no radiation injury or cancer in man can, as yet, be directly attributed to Pu, all safety standards for Pu must be determined by reference to other safety standards, development of which is discussed. A system of safety standards must be based on links with real damage, such as the requirement for 226 Ra in bone. The type of biological information required for making standards realistic is considered in relation to Pu and Ra in bone. Also considered are the possible effects of Pu in soft tissue such as bone marrow. Not only dose, but also the number of cells exposed to the dose are important biologically and cellular aspects are examined. Since there is no positive evidence of Pu toxicity relevant information on other α emitters must be examined. The observed effectiveness of Ra, daughters of 222 Ra and 232 Th in causing mutations and cancer, is surveyed. Reference is made to the necessity of improving the ICRP system, currently based on the critical organ concept, by recognising the need for summation of risks in other organs where exposure to Pu is concerned. Improved biological understanding particularly that of hereditary damage, in recent years leads to less pessimistic thinking on the effects of ionizing radiations. The immediate need appears to be for consistency in safety standards. (U.K.)

  8. 76 FR 10246 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... public noted the importance of requiring facilities to meet up-to-date safety standards. The third... Affairs (VA) regulations concerning community residential care facilities, contract facilities for certain outpatient and residential services, and State home facilities. The final rule will clarify current...

  9. The nuclear safety standards of IAEA (NUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, H.

    1980-01-01

    The lecture will give an overview of the Agency's Safety Standards for Nuclear Power Plants: its range and its current state of development. The general contents of the documents will be presented, and the procedures used for their development will be briefly described. (orig.)

  10. Safety standards for near surface disposal and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    The report presents the safety standards for near surface disposal (ICRP guidance and IAEA standards) and the safety case and supporting safety assessment for demonstrating compliance with the standards. Special attention is paid to the recommendations for disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The requirements are based on the principle for the same level of protection of future individuals as for the current generation. Two types of exposure are considered: human intrusion and natural processes and protection measures are discussed. Safety requirements for near surface disposal are discussed including requirements for protection of human health and environment, requirements or safety assessments, waste acceptance and requirements etc

  11. Selecting safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Today, many thousands of documents are available describing the requirements, guidelines, and industrial standards which can be used as bases for a nuclear power plant programme. Many of these documents relate to nuclear safety which is currently the focus of world-wide attention. The multitude of documents available on the subject, and their varying status and emphasis, make the processes of selection and implementation very important. Because nuclear power plants are technically intricate and advanced, particularly in relation to the technological status of many developing countries, these processes are also complicated. These matters were the subject of a seminar held at the Agency's headquarters in Vienna last December. The IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme was outlined and explained at the Seminar. The five areas of the NUSS programme for nuclear power plants cover, governmental organization, siting, design; operation; quality assurance. In each area the Agency has issued Codes of Practice and is developing Safety Guides. These provide regulatory agencies with a framework for safety. The Seminar recognized that the NUSS programme should enable developing countries to identify priorities in their work, particularly the implementation of safety standards. The ISO activities in the nuclear field are carried out in the framework of its Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85). The work is distributed in sub-committees. Seminar on selection and implementation of safety standards for nuclear power plants, jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and held in Vienna from 15 to 18 December 1980 concerned with: terminology, definitions, units and symbols (SC-1), radiation protection (SC-2), power reactor technology (SC-3), nuclear fuel technology (SC-5). There was general agreement that the ISO standards are complementary to the NUSS codes and guides. ISO has had close relations with the IAEA for several years

  12. Oswer integrated health and safety standard operating practices. Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The directive implements the OSWER (Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response) Integrated Health and Safety Standards Operating Practices in conjunction with the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) Worker Protection Standards, replacing the OSWER Integrated Health and Safety Policy

  13. Standards in reliability and safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    This article explains how the highest 'world class' levels of reliability and safety are achieved, by adherence to the basic principles of excellence in design, production, support and maintenance, by continuous improvement, and by understanding that excellence and improvement lead to reduced costs. These principles are contrasted with the methods that have been developed and standardised, particularly military standards for reliability, ISO9000, and safety case regulations. The article concludes that the formal, standardised approaches are misleading and counterproductive, and recommends that they be replaced by a philosophy based on the realities of human performance

  14. Developments in safety standards and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbison, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explains, in broad terms, how regulatory control is exercised over licensed nuclear installations in the UK and how HSE has developed its safety standards to support its regulatory approach. It first sets out the scope of HSE's regulatory responsibilities, which NII exercises on its behalf, and briefly describes the licensing process and compliance monitoring through inspection over the life of a nuclear plant. It also refers to the role of assessment in NII's decision-making processes, and the part played in this by the consideration of costs and safety benefits. It then moves on to consider the challenges that HSE/NII are likely to face from the changing nuclear industry in the second half of the 1990s. (author)

  15. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  16. EPR meeting international safety standards with margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurkiewicz, S.M.; Brauns, J.; Blombach, J.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR provides technology that offers a solution to the market's need for safe, economic power. The EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product capable of international licensing. As such, the EPR is a global product with commercial units currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France, at the Flamanville site. Framatome ANP has recently proposed four EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids. In addition, Framatome ANP has announced their intent to pursue design certification in with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper discusses how EPR's innovative safety philosophy ensures compliance with international safety standards for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). (author)

  17. Radiation safety standards : an environmentalist's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated approach to the problem of environmental mutagenic hazards leads to the recommendation of a single dose-limit to the exposure of human beings to all man-made mutagenic agents including chemicals and radiation. However, because of lack of : (1) adequate information on chemical mutagens, (2) sufficient data on their risk estimates and (3) universally accepted dose-limites, control of chemical mutagens in the environment has not reached that advanced stage as that of radiation. In this situation, the radiation safety standards currently in use should be retained at their present levels. (M.G.B.)

  18. Technical bases for criticality safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. The technical basis, or foundation, on which the consensus rests, must in turn, be firmly established and documented for public review. The technical bases are discussed and reviewed of several standards in different stages of completion and acceptance: ANSI/ANS-8.12, 1978, Nuclear Criticality Control and Safety of Homogeneous Plutonium - Uranium Mixtures Outside Reactors (Approved July 17, 1978); ANS-815, Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements (Draft No. 5 of newly proposed standard); ANS-8.14, Use of Solutions of Neutron Absorbers for Criticality Control (Draft No. 4 of newly proposed standard); ANS-8.5 (Revision of N16.4, 1971), Use of Borosilicate-Glass Raschig Rings as a Neutron Absorber in Solutions of Fissile Material (Draft No. 5 as a result of prescribed five-year review and update of old standard). In each of the preceding, the newly proposed (or revised) limits are based on the extension of experimental data via well established calculations, or by means of independent calculations with adequate margins for uncertainties. The four cases serve to illustrate the insight of the work group members in the establishment of the technical bases for the limits and the level of activity required on their part in the preparation of ANSI Standards. A time span of from four up to seven years has not been uncommon for the preparation, review, and acceptance of an ANSI Standard. 8 figures. 7 tables

  19. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  20. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhalter, E. E.

    2000-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed

  1. Safety standards for wind turbines; Sicherheitsnormen fuer Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, K. [Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States)

    2012-08-15

    As the global wind infrastructure sustains rapid growth, compliance with relevant standards provide validation of design principles and establish due diligence in addressing critical attributes such as safety. The IEC 61400 series of standards provides important information for addressing safety and performance of wind turbine systems. Efforts to address unique issues within the United States market has led to development of two safety standards, UL 6141 for large wind turbines and UL 6142 for small wind turbines. These standards, which are being published as American National Standards, contain key safety requirements for the electrical system, electrical safety and controls system, grid connection, and related safety issues. In the future, collaborative efforts will lead to continued exchange of best practices and opportunities for broader harmonization. Development of these standards, and their use by the manufacturing community in design and development of wind turbine products, supports maximal safety and performance of the burgeoning wind infrastructure. (orig.)

  2. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Every contractor and subcontractor shall comply with the safety and health standards published in 41 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  3. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  4. 10 CFR 851.23 - Safety and health standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety and health standards. 851.23 Section 851.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.23 Safety and..., “Marine Terminals.” (6) Title 29 CFR, Part 1918, “Safety and Health Regulations for Longshoring.” (7...

  5. Evaluation of the safety of the operating nuclear power plants built to earlier standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menteseoglu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide practical assistance on judging the safety of a nuclear power plant, on the basis of a comparison with current safety standards and operational practices. For nuclear power plants built to earlier standards for which there are questions about the adequacy of the maintenance of the plant design and operational practices, a safety review against current standards and practices can be considered a high priority. The objective of reviewing nuclear power plants built to earlier standards against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The safety significance of the issues identified should be judged according to their implications for plant design and operation in terms of basic safety concepts such as defence in depth and safety culture. In addition, this paper provides assistance on the prioritization of corrective measures and their implementation so as to approach an acceptable level of safety

  6. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  7. Safety Criteria and Standards for Bearing Capacity of Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the evaluation standards of factor of safety for foundation stability analysis. The problem of foundation stability is analyzed via the methods of risk analysis of engineering structures and reliability-based design, and the factor of safety for foundation stability is determined by using bearing capacity safety-factor method (BSFM and strength safety-factor method (SSFM. Based on a typical example, the admissible factors of safety were calibrated with a target reliability index specified in relevant standards. Two safety criteria and their standards of bearing capacity of foundation for these two methods (BSFM and SSFM were established. The universality of the safety criteria and their standards for foundation reliability was verified based on the concept of the ratio of safety margin (RSM.

  8. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal motor vehicle safety standards. 12.80...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Manufactured on Or After January 1, 1968 § 12.80 Federal motor vehicle safety standards. (a) Standards...

  9. 76 FR 2199 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ..., alcohol and drug testing, locomotive engineer certification, and workplace safety. In 1980, FRA issued the...) Association of State Rail Safety Managers (ASRSM) Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Trainmen (BLET... desirable to minimize the health and safety effects of temperature extremes. Depending upon the workplace...

  10. Solar Passive Modification Increase Radiation Safety Standards Inside Accelerator Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, A. F.; Keshk, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation processing by accelerated electrons is considering one of the most important and useful industrial irradiation treatments. It is depending on two principle attachment elements which are architecture of irradiation building and the accelerator characteristic that was arranged inside irradiation building. Negative environmental measurements were recorded inside the main building and were exceeded the international standards (humidity, air speed, high thermal effects and ozone concentration). The study showed that it is essential to improve the natural environmental standards inside the main irradiation building in order to improve the work environment and to reduce ozone concentration from 220 ppb to international standard. The main goals and advantages were achieved by using environmental architecture (desert architecture) indoor the irradiation building. The work depends on passive solar system which is economic, same architectural elements, comfort / health, and radiation safety, and without mechanical means. The experimental work was accomplished under these modifications. The registered results of various environmental concentrations have proved their normal standards.

  11. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  12. Winning public confidence in radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelcher, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluations using cost/benefit analysis and the ALARA principle should take account of psychological as well as material considerations. Safety is a basic human need which has to be met. It is also subjective and therefore has to be understood by the individual. The professional health physicist has a duty to see that radiation safety is understood by the general public. (author)

  13. Standardization of Safety Checklists for Sport Fields in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arghami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays in all human societies, sport is considered as a human-training matter, which often occurs in sport fields. Many people, including students in schools, occasionally deal with these fields. Therefore, a standard tool is required to frequently inspection of sport fields. The aim of this study was to standardize checklists for sport fields in schools. .Material and Method: This study is a kind of tool and technique evaluation was done in Zanjan in 2013. The studied population included indoor and outdoor sport fields in governmental boys’ high schools in Zanjan city. The checklists’ items selected based on existing regulations, standards and relevant studies. Standardization of all tools was done applying the face and content validity and reliability tests. .Result: The primary checklist for outdoor sport fields in high schools, which considered by the expert panel, consisted of 75 items. Based on CVI (2 to 3.9 and CVR (.5 to .78, modifications were done and 6 more items were added. And the same process for the primary checklist for outdoor sports fields (85 items was repeated. Based on CVI (2 to 3.9 and CVR (.5 to .78, items increased to 92.  .Conclusion: The safety checklist for sport fields in schools are matched with the properties of them. The safety checklist developed in this study has an acceptable reliability and validity for useful applying in sport field inspections.

  14. Recent developments in the IAEA safety standards: design and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takehiko

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has been publishing a wide variety of safety standards for nuclear and radiation related facilities and activities since 1978. In 1996, a more rigorously structured approach for the preparation and review of its safety standards was introduced. Currently, based on the approach, revision of most of the standards is in completion or near completion. The latest versions of the Safety Requirements for ''Design'' and ''Operation'' of nuclear power plants were respectively published in 2000. Currently, along with this revision of the Safety Requirements, many Safety Guides have been revised. In order to clarify the complicated revision procedure, an example of the entire revision process for a Safety Guide is provided. Through actual example of the revision process, enormous amount of work involved in the revision work is clearly indicated. The current status of all of the Safety Standards for Design and that for Operation of nuclear power plants are summarized. Summary of other IAEA safety standards currently revised and available related IAEA publications, together with information on the IAEA Web Site from where these documents can be downloaded, is also provided. The standards are reviewed to determine whether revision (or new issue) is necessary in five years following publication. The IAEA safety standards will continue to be updated through comprehensive and structured approach, collaboration of many experts of the world, and reflecting good practices of the world. The IAEA safety standards will serve to provide high level of safety assurance. (author)

  15. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  16. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. 16 CFR 1115.8 - Compliance with product safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable mandatory consumer product safety standards and to report to the Commission any products which do.... 1115.8 Section 1115.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.8 Compliance with...

  18. New quantitative safety standards : Different techniques, different results?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouvroye, J.L.; Brombacher, A.C.; Lydersen, S.; Hansen, G.K.; Sandtor, H.

    1998-01-01

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are used in the process industry to perform safety functions. Many parameters can influence the safety of a SIS like system layout, diagnostics, testing and repair. In standards like the German DIN [DIN19250, DIN0801] no quantitative analysis was demanded. The

  19. Laser safety at high profile laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Laser safety has been an active concern of laser users since the invention of the laser. Formal standards were developed in the early 1970's and still continue to be developed and refined. The goal of these standards is to give users guidance on the use of laser and consistent safety guidance and requirements for laser manufacturers. Laser safety in the typical research setting (government laboratory or university) is the greatest challenge to the laser user and laser safety officer. This is due to two factors. First, the very nature of research can put the user at risk; consider active manipulation of laser optics and beam paths, and user work with energized systems. Second, a laser safety culture that seems to accept laser injuries as part of the graduate student educational process. The fact is, laser safety at research settings, laboratories and universities still has long way to go. Major laser facilities have taken a more rigid and serious view of laser safety, its controls and procedures. Part of the rationale for this is that these facilities draw users from all around the world presenting the facility with a work force of users coming from a wide mix of laser safety cultures. Another factor is funding sources do not like bad publicity which can come from laser accidents and a poor safety record. The fact is that injuries, equipment damage and lost staff time slow down progress. Hence high profile/large laser projects need to adapt a higher safety regimen both from an engineering and administrative point of view. This presentation will discuss all these points and present examples. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the University of California, Director, Office of Science.

  20. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  1. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...

  2. The main requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The main requirements of the new international basic safety standards are discussed, including such topics as health effects of ionizing radiations, the revision of basic safety standards, the requirements for radiation protection practices, the requirements for intervention,and the field of regulatory infrastructures. (A.K.)

  3. 76 FR 34890 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...-0007, Notice No. 3] RIN 2130-AC01 Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties AGENCY: Federal Railroad... effective concrete crossties, for rail fastening systems connected to concrete crossties, and for automated inspections of track constructed with concrete crossties. The Track Safety Standards were amended via final...

  4. Emerging standards with application to accelerator safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, K.L.; Robertson, H.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses international standards which can be applied to the requirements for accelerator personnel safety systems. Particular emphasis is given to standards which specify requirements for safety interlock systems which employ programmable electronic subsystems. The work draws on methodologies currently under development for the medical, process control, and nuclear industries

  5. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR Correction 0 In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations... read as follows: Sec. 571.119 Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of...

  6. Standardized safety management of AP1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingwen; Cao Zhiqiang; Cong Jiuyuan

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, China published and implemented the Law of the People's Republic of China on Work Safety and promulgated a series of guidelines and policies, which strengthened the safety management supervision. Standardization of safety, as another important step on safety supervision, comes after safety assesment and safety production licensing system, is also a permanent solution. Standardization of safety is a strategic, long term and fundamental work, which is also the basic access to achieving scientific safety management and increasing the inherent safety of an enterprise. Haiyang AP1000 nuclear power plant, adopting the modularized, 'open-top' and parallel construction means, overturned the traditional construction theory of installation work comes after the civil work and greatly shorten the construction period. At the same time, the notable increase of oversize module transportation and lifting and parallel construction raises higher demands for safety management. This article combines the characteristics and difficulties of safety management for Haiyang AP1000 nuclear power plant, puts forward ideas and methods for standardized safety management, and could also serve as reference to the safety management for other AP1000 projects. (authors)

  7. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under...

  8. Decoupling from international food safety standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercado, Geovana; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico; Honig, Benson

    2018-01-01

    rural producers who, grounded in culturally-embedded food safety conceptions, face difficulties in complying. We address this gap here through a multiple case study involving four public school feeding programs that source meals from local rural providers in the Bolivian Altiplan. Institutional logics...... in the market. These include: (1) partial adoption of formal rules; (2) selective adoption of convenient rules; and (3) ceremonial adoption to avoid compliance. Decoupling strategies allow local actors to largely disregard the formal food safety regulations while accommodating traditional cultural practices...

  9. 76 FR 70885 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State...; 64.018, Sharing Specialized Medical Resources; 64.019, Veterans Rehabilitation Alcohol and Drug...

  10. International safety standards in a technological age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Plant design, particularly plant involving pipework, is becoming more complex both in engineering sophistication and in scale of project. Simultaneously, the requirement from both environmental and legislative lobbies is in need of greater attention with regard to all aspects of safety. At the heart of both problems is the need for improved communication for speed, relevancy and accuracy. By the use of computer data banks and software specifically designed for the problem, it is shown how modern communications may be used. (author)

  11. New requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents new requirements on safety of nuclear power plants according to the IAEA safety standards. It is concluded that: - New set of IAEA Safety Standards is close to completion: around 40 standards for NPPs; - Different interpretation of IAEA Safety Standards at present: best world practices instead of previous 'minimum common denominator'; - A number of safety improvements required for NPPs; - Requirements related to BDBAs and severe accidents are the most demanding due to degradation of barriers: hardware modifications and accident management; - Large variety between countries in implementation of accident management programmes: from minimum to major hardware modifications; -Distinction between existing and new NPPs is essential from the point of view of the requirements; WWER 440 reactors have potential to reflect IAEA Safety Standards for existing NPPs; relatively low reactor power offers broader possibilities

  12. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, A

    2009-01-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes- Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone - Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  13. Recommendation for an European wind turbine safety standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjuler Jensen, P.; Hauge Madsen, P.; Winther-Jensen, M.; Machielse, L.; Stam, W.; Einsfeld, V.; Woelfel, E.; Elliot, G.; Wilde, L. de

    1988-09-15

    The objective is to establish an European standard for wind safety which should apply for all member countries of the European Communities. The document contains a list of recommended safety requirements in relation to the system, structure, electrical installations, operation and maintenance of wind turbines. The recommended safety standards cover electricity producing wind turbines connected to electricity grids in both single and cluster applications and with a swept area in excess of 25 square meters and/or a rated power of 10kW. The document should be used in combination with The European Standards for Wind Turbine Loads and other relevant European Standards. Environmental condition, with the emphasis of wind conditions and more extreme climatic conditions, are also considered in relation to safety requirements. (AB).

  14. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ..., locomotives, tenders, and other rail vehicles. New technologies such as power brakes and automatic couplers... interstate commerce to be equipped with automatic couplers, drawbars, and handholds. In 1903, Congress passed... approval of alternative standards for braking systems or passenger equipment. Given these factors, FRA has...

  15. Proposed English Standards Promote Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, Robert L.; Thomas, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Air Navigation's Commission approval of a task to develop minimum skill level requirements in English for air traffic control. The ICAO collaborated with the Defense Language Institute English Language Center to propose a minimum standard for English proficiency for international…

  16. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., 510, 511, 512, 520, 523, 525, 526, and 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0159] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers...

  17. Radiological and nuclear safety- evolution, standards and similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    With the realisation of potential for severe health affects after the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity, the radiation protection aspect became focus of interest for medical users from the beginning of this century. With the activities of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the standards evolved during all these years based on epidemiological data and radio-biological research. The current standards are the ICRP recommendations of 1990. Based on these, internationally harmonised standards for protection against ionising radiation and safety of radioactive sources were brought out by IAEA in 1994. The nuclear safety (implies safety of nuclear power plants) came into prominence when large scale units were designed and operated since mid 1950s. The philosophy in nuclear safety has evolved in past 2-3 decades taking into account the lessons learned from accidents, mainly Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl-4 (1986). These current nuclear safety standards are incorporated in INSAG reports, particularly INSAG-3. This paper brings out salient features of these evolutions, current standards and similarity of radiation and nuclear safety standards in their present form. (author). 7 refs., 10 tabs

  18. Antibody reactions methods in safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Sirasdinov, V.G.; Zasedatelev, A.A.; Kal'nitskij, S.A.; Livshits, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of determinations are presented of autoantibodies in white rats to which the radionuclides 137 Cs, 226 Ra, and 90 Sr that show different distribution patterns in the body, have been administered chronically. Autoantiboby production is found to increase when the absorbed doses are close to or exceeding seven- to tenfold the maximum permissible values. The results obtained point to the desirability of autoantibody determination in studies aimed at setting hygienic standards for the absorption of radioactive substances

  19. The development of international safety standards on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartin, T.

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA is developing a set of safety requirements for geologic disposal to be used by both developers and regulators for planning, designing, operating, and closing a geologic disposal facility. Safety requirements would include quantitative criteria for assessing safety of geologic disposal facilities as well as requirements for development of the facility and the safety strategy including the safety case. Geologic disposal facilities are anticipated to be developed over a period of at least a few decades. Key decisions, e.g., on the disposal concept, siting, design, operational management and closure, are expected to be made in a series of steps. Decisions will be made based on the information available at each step and the confidence that may be placed in that information. A safety strategy is important for ensuring that at each step during the development of the disposal facility, an adequate understanding of the safety implications of the available options is developed such that the ultimate goal of providing an acceptable level of operational and post closure safety will be met. A safety case for a geologic disposal facility would present all the safety relevant aspects of the site, the facility design and the managerial and regulatory controls. The safety case and its supporting assessments illustrates the level of protection provided and shall give reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. Overall, the safety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

  20. A new standard for multidisciplinary health and safety technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinoskey, P.A.; Fry, L.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Univ. of California, CA (United States); Egbert, W.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Allied Signal Technical Corporation (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Over the last two decades, a significant trend in health and safety has been toward greater specialization. However, compartmentalization of health and safety disciplines often leads to an inequity in resources, especially when appropriations overemphasize one risk to the detriment of others. For example, overemphasis on radiological safety can create an imbalance in overall worker protection. A multidisciplinary technical can help restore the balance and provide for a healthier and safer work environment. The key advantages of a multidisciplinary health and safety technician include: Broad coverage of the work area by one technician, More diverse use of the technician pool, Better coverage for off-shift or nonstandard hours, Balance of risks because all hazards are considered, Integrated emergency response, Ownership, Less time of identify the correct person with the requisite skills. We have developed a new standard that establishes the training and related qualifications for a multidisciplinary health and safety technician. The areas of training and qualification that are addressed include elements of industrial hygiene, industrial safety, fire protection, electrical safety, construction safety, and radiation safety. The initial core training program ensures that individuals are trained to the performance of requirements of the job. Initial training is in five areas: Fundamentals, Hazard recognition, Hazard assessment, Hazards controls, Hazards minimization. Core training is followed by formal qualification on specific tasks, including ventilation surveys, air monitoring, noise assessments, radiological monitoring, area inspections, work-area setups, and work coverage. The new standard addresses not only training topics and requirements, but also guidance to ensure that performance objectives are met. The standard applies to technicians, supervisors, technologists, and six specialty areas, including academic institutions and decontamination and decommissioning

  1. New quantitative safety standards: different techniques, different results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouvroye, J.L.; Brombacher, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are used in the process industry to perform safety functions. Many factors can influence the safety of a SIS like system layout, diagnostics, testing and repair. In standards like the German DIN no quantitative analysis is demanded (DIN V 19250 Grundlegende Sicherheitsbetrachtungen fuer MSR-Schutzeinrichtungen, Berlin, 1994; DIN/VDE 0801 Grundsaetze fuer Rechner in Systemen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Berlin, 1990). The analysis according to these standards is based on expert opinion and qualitative analysis techniques. New standards like the IEC 61508 (IEC 61508 Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems, IEC, Geneve, 1997) and the ISA-S84.01 (ISA-S84.01.1996 Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industries, Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, 1996) require quantitative risk analysis but do not prescribe how to perform the analysis. Earlier publications of the authors (Rouvroye et al., Uncertainty in safety, new techniques for the assessment and optimisation of safety in process industry, D W. Pyatt (ed), SERA-Vol. 4, Safety engineering and risk analysis, ASME, New York 1995; Rouvroye et al., A comparison study of qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques for the assessment of safety in industry, P.C. Cacciabue, I.A. Papazoglou (eds), Proceedings PSAM III conference, Crete, Greece, June 1996) have shown that different analysis techniques cover different aspects of system behaviour. This paper shows by means of a case study, that different (quantitative) analysis techniques may lead to different results. The consequence is that the application of the standards to practical systems will not always lead to unambiguous results. The authors therefore propose a technique to overcome this major disadvantage

  2. A new standard for multidisciplinary health and safety technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinoskey, P.A.; Fry, L.A.; Egbert, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last two decades, a significant trend in health and safety has been toward greater specialization. However, compartmentalization of health and safety disciplines often leads to an inequity in resources, especially when appropriations overemphasize one risk to the detriment of others. For example, overemphasis on radiological safety can create an imbalance in overall worker protection. A multidisciplinary technical can help restore the balance and provide for a healthier and safer work environment. The key advantages of a multidisciplinary health and safety technician include: Broad coverage of the work area by one technician, More diverse use of the technician pool, Better coverage for off-shift or nonstandard hours, Balance of risks because all hazards are considered, Integrated emergency response, Ownership, Less time of identify the correct person with the requisite skills. We have developed a new standard that establishes the training and related qualifications for a multidisciplinary health and safety technician. The areas of training and qualification that are addressed include elements of industrial hygiene, industrial safety, fire protection, electrical safety, construction safety, and radiation safety. The initial core training program ensures that individuals are trained to the performance of requirements of the job. Initial training is in five areas: Fundamentals, Hazard recognition, Hazard assessment, Hazards controls, Hazards minimization. Core training is followed by formal qualification on specific tasks, including ventilation surveys, air monitoring, noise assessments, radiological monitoring, area inspections, work-area setups, and work coverage. The new standard addresses not only training topics and requirements, but also guidance to ensure that performance objectives are met. The standard applies to technicians, supervisors, technologists, and six specialty areas, including academic institutions and decontamination and decommissioning

  3. Transporting spent fuel - considerations for safety. From the United States, a review of why the past promotes high standards for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Background information that might be useful to a broad range of individuals in developing their own perspectives about the transport of radioactive materials is presented. The safety of transporting spent fuel is addressed from a technical standpoint without the emotional content frequently a part of this argument. Three approaches are adopted. (1) Past history is examined and safety is evaluated on the basis of experience. (2) The subject is approached analytically by combining the various elements of risk involved and assessing them in light of consequences attached to each risk level. (3) Available safety research is reviewed to determine if it might reveal information that would either augment or alter the experience or analysis

  4. European standardization activities on safety of liquid helium cryostats

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This talk gives a general overview on the challenges of designing safety units for liquid helium cryostats with regard to existing industry standards. It reviews the work of a national working group that published the technical guideline DIN SPEC 4683 in April 2015, which is dedicated to the particular conditions in liquid helium cryostats. Based on both this guideline and equivalent documents from e.g. CEA, CERN, a working group is being formed at the European Committee for Standardization, associated to CEN/TC 268, which will work on a European standard on safety of liquid helium cryostats. The actual status and the schedule of this project are presented.

  5. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening

  6. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening.

  7. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards

  8. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  9. 76 FR 57635 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... ``Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors'' (76 FR 52231... of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct responsibility to inspect...

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of high-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine compared to standard-dose vaccine in children and young adults with cancer or HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hana; Allison, Kim J; Van de Velde, Lee-Ann; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Flynn, Patricia M; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2016-06-08

    Approaches to improve the immune response of immunocompromised patients to influenza vaccination are needed. Children and young adults (3-21 years) with cancer or HIV infection were randomized to receive 2 doses of high-dose (HD) trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or of standard-dose (SD) TIV. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers were measured against H1, H3, and B antigens after each dose and 9 months later. Seroconversion was defined as ≥4-fold rise in HAI titer comparing pre- and post-vaccine sera. Seroprotection was defined as a post-vaccine HAI titer ≥1:40. Reactogenicity events (RE) were solicited using a structured questionnaire 7 and 14 days after each dose of vaccine, and adverse events by medical record review for 21 days after each dose of vaccine. Eighty-five participants were enrolled in the study; 27 with leukemia, 17 with solid tumor (ST), and 41 with HIV. Recipients of HD TIV had significantly greater fold increase in HAI titers to B antigen in leukemia group and to H1 antigen in ST group compared to SD TIV recipients. This increase was not documented in HIV group. There were no differences in seroconversion or seroprotection between HD TIV and SD TIV in all groups. There was no difference in the percentage of solicited RE in recipients of HD TIV (54% after dose 1 and 38% after dose 2) compared to SD TIV (40% after dose 1 and 20% after dose 2, p=0.27 and 0.09 after dose 1 and 2, respectively). HD TIV was more immunogenic than SD TIV in children and young adults with leukemia or ST, but not with HIV. HD TIV was safe and well-tolerated in children and young adults with leukemia, ST, or HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Connoted hazard and perceived importance of fluorescent, neon, and standard safety colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, O A; Mayhorn, C B; Wogalter, M S

    2017-11-01

    The perceived hazard and rated importance of standard safety, fluorescent, and neon colors are investigated. Colors are used in warnings to enhance hazard communication. Red has consistently been rated as the highest in perceived hazard. Orange, yellow, and black are the next highest in connoted hazard; however, there is discrepancy in their ordering. Safety standards, such as ANSI Z535.1, also list colors to convey important information, but little research has examined the perceived importance of colors. In addition to standard safety colors, fluorescent colors are more commonly used in warnings. Understanding hazard and importance perceptions of standard safety and fluorescent colors is necessary to create effective warnings. Ninety participants rated and ranked a total of 33 colors on both perceived hazard and perceived importance. Rated highest were the safety red colors from the American National Standard Institute (ANSI), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) together with three fluorescent colors (orange, yellow, and yellow-green) from 3 M on both dimensions. Rankings were similar to ratings except that fluorescent orange was the highest on perceived hazard, while fluorescent orange and safety red from the ANSI were ranked as the highest in perceived importance. Fluorescent colors convey hazard and importance levels as high as the standard safety red colors. Implications for conveying hazard and importance in warnings through color are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of standards and investigation of safety examination items for advancement of safety regulation of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to prepare the fuel technical standard and the structure and materials standard of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), and to develop the requirements in a reactor establishment permission. The objects of this study are mainly the Monju high performance core and a demonstration FBR. In JFY 2012, the following results were obtained. As for the fuel technical standard, the fuel technical standard adapting the examination of integrity of the FBR fuels was prepared based on the information and data obtained in this study. As for the structure and material standard, the investigation of the revised parts of the standard was carried out. And as for the examination of the safety requirements, safety evaluation items for the future FBR plant and the fission products to be considered in a reactor establishment permission were investigated and examined. (author)

  13. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  14. Harrisburg and the ideology of the safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levidow, L.

    1979-01-01

    The events of three mile island one discussed in relation to safety standards. It was seen how the State operated with the contradictions that are inherited in the nuclear industry. The State used scientific categories to manipulate the people, while at the same time the impression was created that the people were being protected against the excesses of industry. The safety measures taken after the accident are critically outlined, particularly the late advice on evakuation. (C.F.)

  15. Harrisburg and the ideology of the safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levidow, L

    1979-07-01

    The events of Three Mile Island are discussed in relation to safety standards. It was seen how the State operated with the contradictions that are inherited in the nuclear industry. The State used scientific categories to manipulate the people, while at the same time the impression was created that the people were being protected against the excesses of industry. The safety measures taken after the accident are critically outlined, particularly the late advice on evacuation.

  16. Principles and standards of nuclear safety and their implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear safety starts with the design of a nuclear facility and is only completed with its decommissioning. In the various phases of a nuclear facility's lifetime, safety evaluations are required. The licensing prerequisites for construction, operation, modification, decommissioning are based on elements of the relevant national legislation and related ordinances as well as on international regulations. They should be expanded by a system of criteria and standards spelling out the proven practice as developed over the last decades in the industrialized countries and by international organizations such IAEA with its safety codes and guides. (NEA) [fr

  17. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  18. Technical standards in the law of technical safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marburger, P.

    1985-01-01

    Technical standards are of great importance for the closer definition of inexact terms of law, for instance ''generally accepted technical rules'', ''state of the art'', ''state of science and technology'' or similar normative terms, in the law of technical safety. The paper discusses with whom the authority for regulating this sector of law rests, deals with the different ways of how technical standards are used by the law (''anticipated expert opinion'', reference to such standards in law and administration) and points out demands on the procedure of standardization. (orig.) [de

  19. International standardization of safety requirements for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is conducting the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project in cooperation with Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) and Mitsubishi FBR systems inc. (MFBR), where an advanced loop-type fast reactor named JSFR (Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is being developed. It is important to develop software technologies (a safety guideline, safety design criteria, safety design standards etc.) of FBRs as well as hardware ones (a reactor plant itself) in order to address prospective worldwide utilization of FBR technology. Therefore, it is expected to establish a rational safety guideline applicable to the JSFR and harmonized with national nuclear-safety regulations as well, including Japan, the United States and the European Union. This report presents domestic and international status of safety guideline development for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), results of comparative study for safety requirements provided in existing documents and a proposal for safety requirements of future SFRs with a roadmap for their refinement and worldwide utilization. (author)

  20. Working group 1A - basis for the standard-safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the progress made by working group 1A (Basis for the Safety Standard) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group discussed the semantics of terms within the standard 40 CFR Part 191, the implementation of this standard, the advanced notice of rulemaking, the issue of emitting carbon-14 through a gaseous pathway, the strategy of dealing with standards for contamination of drinking water and groundwater, the 100,000 year time frame, and the analysis of specific comments. The specific comments dealt with the cost effectiveness of the standard, the dose histogram for populations and individuals, groundwater definition and the underlying technology driver for this standard

  1. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Safety assessment standards for modern plants in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbison, S.A.; Hannaford, J.

    1993-01-01

    The NII has revised its safety assessment principles (SAPs). This paper discusses the revised SAPs and their links with international standards. It considers the licensing of foreign designs of plant - a matter under active consideration in the UK -and discusses how the SAPs and the licensing process cater for that possibility. (author)

  4. 77 FR 73345 - Safety Standard for Bedside Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... durable infant or toddler products, in consultation with representatives of consumer groups, juvenile... Commission (Commission or CPSC) to promulgate consumer product safety standards for durable infant or toddler... marking, labeling, and instructional literature of the proposed rule should be directed to the Office of...

  5. OSHA Standard Time: Worker Safety Rules for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon E.; Roy, Kenneth R.

    1994-01-01

    Briefly describes six of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards applicable to school districts. Provides a suggested approach for compliance and discusses how one district has begun to meet the challenge. The mandated OSHA programs concern the following: (1) hazard communication; (2) chemical hygiene; (3) bloodborne…

  6. Regulatory practices and safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The International Symposium on Regulatory Practices and Safety Standards for Nuclear Power Plants was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany with the objective of providing an international forum for the exchange of information on regulatory practices and safety standards for nuclear power plants. The Symposium was held in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, from 7 to 10 November 1988. It was attended by 201 experts from some 32 Member States and 4 international organizations. Fifty-one papers from 19 Member States and 2 international organizations were presented and discussed in 5 technical sessions covering the following subjects: National Regulatory Practices and Safety Standards (14 papers); Implementation of Regulatory Practices - Technical Issues (8 papers); Implementation of Regulatory Practices - Operational Aspects (8 papers); Developments and Trends in Safety Standards and Practices (11 papers); International Aspects (10 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Prospective direct comparison of antihypertensive effect and safety between high-dose amlodipine or indapamide in hypertensive patients uncontrolled by standard doses of angiotensin receptor blockers and amlodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Keisuke; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Totake, Nao; Okuda, Tetsu; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    When hypertension is uncontrolled by routine treatment with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and the calcium channel blocker amlodipine (5 mg), the dose of amlodipine can be increased or a diuretic can be added. We investigated the more effective option in a prospective multicenter open-label study. Hypertensive patients were recruited if the target blood pressure (BP) in The Japanese Society of Hypertension 2009 guideline could not be achieved with standard-dose ARB therapy and amlodipine (5 mg). Patients were divided into three groups. Group-1 was switched to a combination of irbesartan (100 mg) and amlodipine (10 mg). Group-2A was changed to a combination of irbesartan (100 mg), amlodipine (5 mg), and indapamide, while Group-2B received a standard-dose ARB and amlodipine (5 mg) plus indapamide. Patients were assigned by their attending physicians and were followed for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the antihypertensive effect of each regimen. Group-1 contained 85 patients, Group-2A had 49 patients, and Group-2B had 4 patients. We only analyzed Group-1 and Group-2A due to the small size of Group-2B. In both groups, systolic BP and diastolic BP were significantly decreased up to 6 months (all p < 0.001). Reduction of systolic BP was greater in Group-1 than Group-2A after 1 month and 6 months (both p < 0.05). Uric acid was increased in Group-2A after 3 months, but not at 6 months. Although both regimens were effective for reducing BP, increasing amlodipine to 10 mg daily controlled hypertension without elevation of serum uric acid.

  8. New conducted electrical weapons: Electrical safety relative to relevant standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin; Nerheim, Max; Kroll, Mark W; Brave, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    We have previously published about TASER ® conducted electrical weapons (CEW) compliance with international standards. CEWs deliver electrical pulses that can inhibit a person's neuromuscular control or temporarily incapacitate. An eXperimental Rotating-Field (XRF) waveform CEW and the X2 CEW are new 2-shot electrical weapon models designed to target a precise amount of delivered charge per pulse. They both can deploy 1 or 2 dart pairs, delivered by 2 separate cartridges. Additionally, the XRF controls delivery of incapacitating pulses over 4 field vectors, in a rotating sequence. As in our previous study, we were motivated by the need to understand the cardiac safety profile of these new CEWs. The goal of this paper is to analyze the nominal electrical outputs of TASER XRF and X2 CEWs in reference to provisions of all relevant international standards that specify safety requirements for electrical medical devices and electrical fences. Although these standards do not specifically mention CEWs, they are the closest electrical safety standards and hence give very relevant guidance. The outputs of several TASER XRF and X2 CEWs were measured under normal operating conditions. The measurements were compared against manufacturer specifications. CEWs electrical output parameters were reviewed against relevant safety requirements of UL 69, IEC 60335-2-76 Ed 2.1, IEC 60479-1, IEC 60479-2, AS/NZS 60479.1, AS/NZS 60479.2, IEC 60601-1 and BS EN 60601-1. Our study confirmed that the nominal electrical outputs of TASER XRF and X2 CEWs lie within safety bounds specified by relevant standards.

  9. Radiobiological basis for setting neutron radiation safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.

    1985-01-01

    Present neutron standards, adopted more than 20 yr ago from a weak radiobiological data base, have been in doubt for a number of years and are currently under challenge. Moreover, recent dosimetric re-evaluations indicate that Hiroshima neutron doses may have been much lower than previously thought, suggesting that direct data for neutron-induced cancer in humans may in fact not be available. These recent developments make it urgent to determine the extent to which neutron cancer risk in man can be estimated from data that are available. Two approaches are proposed here that are anchored in particularly robust epidemiological and experimental data and appear most likely to provide reliable estimates of neutron cancer risk in man. The first approach uses gamma-ray dose-response relationships for human carcinogenesis, available from Nagasaki (Hiroshima data are also considered), together with highly characterized neutron and gamma-ray data for human cytogenetics. When tested against relevant experimental data, this approach either adequately predicts or somewhat overestimates neutron tumorigenesis (and mutagenesis) in animals. The second approach also uses the Nagasaki gamma-ray cancer data, but together with neutron RBEs from animal tumorigenesis studies. Both approaches give similar results and provide a basis for setting neutron radiation safety standards. They appear to be an improvement over previous approaches, including those that rely on highly uncertain maximum neutron RBEs and unnecessary extrapolations of gamma-ray data to very low doses. Results suggest that, at the presently accepted neutron dose limit of 0.5 rad/yr, the cancer mortality risk to radiation workers is not very different from accidental mortality risks to workers in various nonradiation occupations

  10. Standardization and improvement of safety for radioisotope equipped instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tetsuo

    1980-01-01

    The safety for radioisotope-equipped instruments is considered. The one is the safety for the source assembly. The radioisotopes employed for radioisotope-equipped instruments are sealed sources which are used in the state of being contained in the enclosures. Many of the enclosures are provided with shutter mechanism for the purpose of emitting radiation only during the period required. If the possible troubles that might lead to the accidents are sampled out of the results of field operation of radiation instruments, and the safety measures for source enclosures are considered in connection with these troubles, it is no exaggeration to say that the safety for source enclosures has been maintained by preventing the critical accidents by the management of users and the cooperation of manufactures though there were the chance for investigating the safety in the common field and the establishment of JIS Z 4614 standard. Another consideration is concerned with the measures to improve the safety. No accident in the past never guarantees no accident in the future. Accumulation of experience is most effective for those measures, and the more experiences the better. It may be most effective that the manufacturers disclose their experiences each other from the wide outlook overcoming the barrier of trade secret. Fortunately, such consciousness has risen since a few years ago, and the investigation group is doing the works in the Japan Radioisotope Association. On the other hand, the reasonable revision of the radiation injury prevention law is desired. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Basic safety standards for radiation protection. 1982 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organisation and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have undertaken to provide jointly a world-wide basis for harmonized and up-to-date radiation protection standards. The new Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection are based upon the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which are essentially contained in its Publication No.26. These new Basic Safety Standards have been elaborated by an Advisory Group of Experts which met in Vienna from 10-14 October 1977, from 23-27 October 1978 and from 1-12 December 1980 under the joint auspices of the IAEA, ILO, WHO and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. Comments on the draft Basic Safety Standards received from Member States and relevant organizations were taken into account by the Advisory Group in the process of preparation of the revised Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, which are published by the IAEA on behalf of the four sponsoring organizations. One of the main features of this revision is an increased emphasis on the recommendation to keep all exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; consequently, radiation protection should not only apply the basic dose limits but also comply with this recommendation. Detailed guidance is given to assist those who have to decide on the implementation of this recommendation in particular cases. Another important feature is the recommendation of a more coherent method for achieving consistency in limiting risks to health, irrespective of whether the risk is of uniform or non-uniform exposure of the body.

  12. The IAEA Promotes the Application of Safety Standards and Best Practices for the Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA works to promote a high level of safety as it facilitates peaceful uses of nuclear energy worldwide. The IAEA’s Statute authorizes it to establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for the application of these standards. The Statute also mandates the IAEA to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information to facilitate the peaceful uses of atomic energy. To this end, the IAEA develops safety standards on different topics, including on the safety of radioactive waste management. These standards, issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series, reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and protecting the environment

  13. Nuclear station safety standardization from a risk concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a method of standardizing safety-system reliability on an entirely new basis: all hypothetical accidents are approximated as groups, for each of which one proposes permissible frequencies on the basis of the risk concept. In this risk concept, the ''average person'' is a person living near a nuclear station or working in it, who is of average age, average state of health, and so on. Therefore, the risk can be found by summing the estimated individual risks for a particular group in the population followed by division by the number of people in that group. Basic assumptions in deriving permissible safety-system reliability are presented. Estimated permissible failure probabilities are given to illustrate the proposed method and to refine the initial data. The probabilities may also be used to lay down the reliability requirements for safety systems in particular nuclear stations on the risk basis

  14. Laser safety at high profile projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, K.

    2011-03-01

    Laser Safety at high profile laser facilities tends to be more controlled than in the standard laser lab found at a research institution. The reason for this is the potential consequences for such facilities from incidents. This ranges from construction accidents, to equipment damage to personnel injuries. No laser user wants to sustain a laser eye injury. Unfortunately, many laser users, most commonly experienced researchers and inexperienced graduate students, do receive laser eye injuries during their careers. . More unforgiveable is the general acceptance of this scenario, as part of the research & development experience. How do senior researchers, safety personnel and management stop this trend? The answer lies in a cultural change that involves institutional training, user mentoring, hazard awareness by users and administrative controls. None of these would inhibit research activities. As a matter of fact, proper implementation of these controls would increase research productivity. This presentation will review and explain the steps needed to steer an institution, research division, group or individual lab towards a culture that should nearly eliminate laser accidents. As well as how high profile facilities try to avoid laser injuries. Using the definition of high profile facility as one who's funding in the million to billions of dollars or Euros and derives form government funding.

  15. Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The document is presenting the idea of the CNGI Norm called The Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines and the way of using it by companies associated in the Chamber of the Natural Gas Industry in the business activity. It will be applied to improve the quality and reliability of gas transmission after full opening of Polish natural gas market. (author)

  16. New Radiation Safety Standards of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The new Radiation Safety Standards of the Russian Federation are a first step in an implementation of the 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP into the existing national system of providing a radiation safety of the public. In new System the radiation source is examined as a source of harm and danger for the public. So the System shall include not only the measures for limitation of actual exposures, but also an assessment of efficiency of radiation protection in the practical activity, based on the analysis of a distribution of doses received and on the assessment of actions initiated to restrict the probability of potential exposures. The occupational and public exposure doses are only the indices of the quality of management of the source. In this System a radiation monitoring is a feedback for assessing the stability of the source and how it is controllable. It is a tool for predicting the levels of potential exposure and the relevant danger associated with the source. It is important to underline that the System of Providing a Radiation Safety is an interrelated system. None of its parts may be individually used. In particular, the mere conformity with dose limits is not yet a sufficient evidence of the successful operation of the safety system, because the normal exposure doses reflect only a source-related harm. The problems of implementation of this System of radiation protection and safety into the contemporary practice in the Russia is discussed. (author)

  17. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We need well-founded means of determining whether software is t for use in safety-critical applications. While software in industries such as aviation has an excellent safety record, the fact that software aws have contributed to deaths illustrates the need for justi ably high con dence in software. It is often argued that software is t for safety-critical use because it conforms to a standard for software in safety-critical systems. But little is known about whether such standards `work.' Reliance upon a standard without knowing whether it works is an experiment; without collecting data to assess the standard, this experiment is unplanned. This paper reports on a workshop intended to explore how standards could practicably be assessed. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Ecacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software (AESSCS) was held on 13 May 2014 in conjunction with the European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). We summarize and elaborate on the workshop's discussion of the topic, including both the presented positions and the dialogue that ensued.

  18. Best Estimate plus Uncertainty (BEPU) Analyses in the IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusic, Milorad; )

    2013-01-01

    The Safety Standards Series establishes an essential basis for safety and represents the broadest international consensus. Safety Standards Series publications are categorized into: Safety Fundamental (Present the overall objectives, concepts and principles of protection and safety, they are the policy documents of the safety standards), Safety Requirements (Establish requirements that must be met to ensure the protection and safety of people and the environment, both now and in the future), and Safety Guides (Provide guidance, in the form of more detailed actions, conditions or procedures that can be used to comply with the Requirements). The incorporation of more detailed requirements, in accordance with national practice, may still be necessary. There should be only one set of international safety standards. Each safety standard will be reviewed by the relevant committee or by the commission every five years. Best Estimate plus Uncertainty (BEPU) Analyses are approached in the following IAEA Safety Standards: - Safety Requirements SSR 2/1 - Safety of NPPs, Design (Revision of NS-R-1); - General Safety Requirement GSR Part 4: Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities; - Safety Guide SSG-2 Deterministic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. NUSSC suggested that new safety guides should be accompanied by documents like TECDOCs or Safety Reports describing in detail their recommendations where appropriate. Special review is currently underway to identify needs for revision in the light of the Fukushima accident. Revision will concern, first, the Safety Requirements, and then, the Selected Safety Guides

  19. High temperature reactor safety and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbois, J.; Charles, J.

    1975-01-01

    High-temperature reactors are endowed with favorable safety and environmental factors resulting from inherent design, main-component safety margins, and conventional safety systems. The combination of such characteristics, along with high yields, prove in addition, that such reactors are plagued with few problems, can be installed near users, and broaden the recourse to specific power, therefore fitting well within a natural environment [fr

  20. Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection - 1967 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    This first revision of the Basic Safety Standards was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 1965. It was prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts chaired by Prof. L. Bugnard, Director of the French Institut National d'Hygiene, and attended by representatives of several international organizations. Comments from Member States were considered and changes were introduced on the basis of recommendations made by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 1966. The Director General of the IAEA has been authorized by the Board to apply the revised Standards to IAEA and IAEA-assisted operations. It has also been recommended that the national regulations of Member States should conform, as far as is practicable, to the revised Standards. (author)

  1. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... items of glazing are also defined according to their construction characteristics. For example, item 1... a boil and a bake test to determine whether safety glazing can withstand exposure to high... (150[emsp14][deg]F) water for three minutes and then placed in boiling water for three hours. The bake...

  2. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  3. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3 (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  4. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 3 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  5. 75 FR 57297 - Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations. DATES: All comments on the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  6. 76 FR 16640 - Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations. DATES: All comments on the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.2 - Variances from safety and health standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from safety and health standards. (a) Variances from standards which are, or may be, published in this... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Variances from safety and health standards. 1926.2 Section 1926.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  8. 76 FR 55825 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0139] RIN 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems..., amends a provision in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213, ``Child restraint systems,'' that... provision: When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political...

  9. Developing glovebox robotics to meet the national robot safety standard and nuclear safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, T.T.; Sievers, R.H.

    1991-09-01

    Development of a glove box based robotic system by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is reported. Safety issues addressed include planning to meet the special constraints of operations within a hazardous material glove box and with hostile environments, compliance with the current and draft national robotic system safety standards, and eventual satisfaction of nuclear material handling requirements. Special attention has been required for the revision to the robot and control system models which antedate adoption of the present national safety standard. A robotic test bed, using non-radioactive surrogates is being activated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop the material handling system and the process interfaces for future special nuclear material processing applications. Part of this effort is to define, test, and revise adequate safety controls to ensure success when the system is eventually deployed at a DOE site. The current system is primarily for demonstration and testing, but will evolve into the baseline configuration from which the production system is to be derived. This results in special hazards associated with research activities which may not be present on a production line. Nuclear safety is of paramount importance and has been successfully addressed for 50 years in the DOE weapons production complex. It carries its particular requirements for robot systems and manual operations, as summarized below: Criticality must be avoided (materials cannot consolidate or accumulate to approach a critical mass). Radioactive materials must be confined. The public and workers must be protected from accountable radiation exposure. Nuclear material must be readily retrievable. Nuclear safety must be conclusively demonstrated through hazards analysis. 7 refs

  10. Safety aspects in high-field magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlenweg, M.; Trattnig, S.; Schaefers, G.

    2008-01-01

    With more and more 3 Tesla high-field magnetic resonance (MR) scanners entering clinical routine, the safety notion in MR imaging has also reached a new dimension. The first part of this paper deals with the three most important sources of physical interaction (static magnetic field, gradient and HF fields). The paper discusses the differences compared with the traditional clinical 1.5 T standard scanners, the impact on human beings, the interactions with metallic objects and the relevant safety standards. The second part of the paper examines the issue of MR safety as seen in clinical practice and tries to demonstrate optimization potentials. This includes structural optimization in information distribution and hospital organization as well as test standards and labeling guidelines. (orig.) [de

  11. Transposition of the EU basic safety standards. The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, K.; Davidkova, J.; Kochanek, S. [State Office for Nuclear Safety (SUJB), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The proposal for a new Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the danger arising from exposure to ionizing radiation replacing a Council Directive 29/96 and recasting four other Directives - medical, outside workers, HASS (high activity sealed sources) and public information in emergency has been developed and it is prepared for adoption procedure. The Member States (MS) are requested to implement this Directive within 4 years after adoption of the final text. The Czech Republic has participated in the development of this new Directive actively from the beginning of the process. There could be expected an impact to the Czech legislation in several areas. Main changes will be presented in the Atomic Law and in the Radiation Protection Regulation which are currently under preparation and should substitute actual national legislation in the field. Also ICRP 103 is already as far as possible reflected by the new Czech legislation. A proposal of the Czech Atomic Law already includes a new ICRP terminology - e.g. planned, emergency, existing exposure situation, reference levels instead of intervention levels and it also reflects extension of optimization principle and more specifically a graded approach by introducing a registration as a specific level of authorization supplemented with a unique and simplified procedure. Regarding the regulatory infrastructure there is no identified urgent need for changes as far as the current Czech system already complies with the requirements of the Directive proposal (the EU BSS). In fact, there is a new structure of the Czech regulatory authority proposed, introducing a Council with a president as a head instead of the current structure headed solely by a president. The regulation of exposure from natural sources is already very well handled in the current Czech legislation - there exists a national radon program since 1992 and the legislation is also dealing with regulation of NORM workplaces

  12. Standardizing central line safety: lessons learned for physician leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeff T; Wright, Alan J; Fedraw, Leslie A; Murad, M Hassan; Brown, Daniel R; Thompson, Kristine M; Flick, Randall; Seville, Maria Teresa A; Huskins, W Charles

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive central venous catheter (CVC) safety program reduces mechanical and infectious complications and requires an integrated multidisciplinary effort. A multistate health care system implemented a discovery and diffusion project addressing CVC insertion, maintenance, and removal. Process and outcome measures were collected before and after the intervention. The project was completed in 12 months. It was associated with statistically significant improvement in 6 process measures and reduction in the rate of ICU central line-associated bloodstream infection (from 1.16 to 0.80 infections/1000 catheter days; incidence rate ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval = 0.51, 0.93). A comprehensive CVC standardization project increased compliance with several established best practices, was associated with improved outcomes, produced a refined definition of discovery and diffusion project components, and identified several discrete leadership principles that can be applied to future clinical improvement initiatives.

  13. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  14. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  15. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated-the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both the regulator and the transporter can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they cooperate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated-there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. It is suggested, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  16. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, L. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  17. Existing and future international standards for the safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the essential features of the current international safety standards are summarised and the issues being raised for inclusion in future standards are discussed. The safety standards of the IAEA are used as the basis for the review and discussion. The IAEA has established a process for establishing international standards of safety for radioactive waste management through its Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme. The RADWASS documents are approved by a comprehensive process involving regulatory and other experts from all concerned IAEA Member States. A system of committees for approving the IAEAs safety standards has been established. For radioactive waste safety the committee for review and approval is the Waste Safety Standards Advisory Committee (WASSAC). In 1995 the IAEA published 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management' as the top level document in the RADWASS programme. The report sets out the basis principles which most experts believe are fundamental to the safe management of radioactive wastes

  18. China's High-technology Standards Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  19. Radiation cancer, safety standards and current levels of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Cancer can be induced by radiation in any tissue where cancer occurs naturally. The observation that antenatal diagnostic radiography causes a small but definite increase in childhood cancer is as good evidence as could be expected in support of the scientific expectation that there would be no threshold of dose for carcinogenesis. A linear relation between radiation dose and frequency of induced cancer is a necessary assumption for a system of radiological protection but is not necessarily a reasonable basis for realistic assessments of cancer risk. Indeed there are radiobiological and epidemiological reasons to the contrary. If the linear hypothesis is accepted then at the present time in the UK the routine practice of medicine is of about 2 orders of magnitude more important in causing cancer than environmental pollution by discharge of radio-activity. The acceptability of radiation safety standards for occupational exposure may be justified by comparison of radiation cancer risks with risks from fatal accidents in the safer industries. The acceptability of the corresponding standards for members of the public seems to require more public discussion of the concept of negligible risk. Emotional reactions to uncontrolled releases of radio-activity are based at least in part on a failure to appreciate the hypothesis of linearity

  20. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  1. Improving the safety and quality of nursing care through standardized operating procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Rakic, Severin; Novo, Ahmed; Dropic, Emira; Fisekovic, Eldin; Sredic, Ana; Van Malderen, Greet

    2016-06-01

    We explored how selected 'positive deviant' healthcare facilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina approach the continuous development, adaptation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of nursing-related standard operating procedures. Standardized nursing care is internationally recognized as a critical element of safe, high-quality health care; yet very little research has examined one of its key instruments: nursing-related standard operating procedures. Despite variability in Bosnia and Herzegovina's healthcare and nursing care quality, we assumed that some healthcare facilities would have developed effective strategies to elevate nursing quality and safety through the use of standard operating procedures. Guided by the 'positive deviance' approach, we used a multiple-case study design to examine a criterion sample of four facilities (two primary healthcare centres and two hospitals), collecting data via focus groups and individual interviews. In each studied facility, certification/accreditation processes were crucial to the initiation of continuous development, adaptation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of nursing-related SOPs. In one hospital and one primary healthcare centre, nurses working in advanced roles (i.e. quality coordinators) were responsible for developing and implementing nursing-related standard operating procedures. Across the four studied institutions, we identified a consistent approach to standard operating procedures-related processes. The certification/accreditation process is enabling necessary changes in institutions' organizational cultures, empowering nurses to take on advanced roles in improving the safety and quality of nursing care. Standardizing nursing procedures is key to improve the safety and quality of nursing care. Nursing and Health Policy are needed in Bosnia and Herzegovina to establish a functioning institutional framework, including regulatory bodies, educational systems for developing nurses' capacities or the

  2. Administrative goals and safety standards for hazard control on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1973-01-01

    For efficient control of tree hazard on recreation sites, a specific administrative goal must be selected. A safety standard designed to achieve the selected goal and a uniform hazard-rating procedure will then promote a consistent level of safety at an acceptable cost. Safety standards can be established with the aid of data for past years, and dollar evaluations are...

  3. 76 FR 52231 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... its implementation of safety management systems, issued its report titled, ``Managing Risks in Civil... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... responsible for the oversight of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct...

  4. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. (a) Where employees of different agencies...

  5. 48 CFR 1371.113 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1371.113 Section 1371.113 Federal Acquisition... CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.113 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-82, Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health...

  6. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary for... officials that it meets implicit standards of safety and quality adopted by the industry or as later...

  7. National standards for high school psychology curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best of teachers to present all of psychology in a single course for students who begin with virtually no formal knowledge of psychology. The standards presented here constitute the first of two reports in this issue of the American Psychologist (January 2013) representing recent American Psychological Association (APA) policies that support high-quality instruction in the teaching of high school psychology. These standards provide curricular benchmarks for student learning in the high school course.

  8. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulmeister, K [Div. of Life Sciences, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations (IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  9. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulmeister, K.

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  10. Study of the effectiveness of the US safety standard for child resistant cigarette lighters

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, L; Greene, M; Singh, H

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters, which requires that disposable cigarette lighters be resistant to operation by children younger than age 5.

  11. National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best…

  12. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  13. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and recommendations on radioactive waste and transport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.; Rawl, R.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publishes standards and recommendations on all aspects of nuclear safety in its Safety Series, which includes radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials. Safety Series documents may be adopted by a State into its national legal framework. Most of the States used the IAEA transport regulations (Safety Series No. 6) as a basis for their national regulation. The two highest ranking documents of the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme, the Safety Fundamentals and the Safety Standard on the national waste management system, have been published. Both provide impetus into the waste management safety convention, a legally binding document for signatory states, which is being drafted. The already existing Convention on Nuclear Safety covers the management of radioactive waste at land-based civil nuclear power plants. (author) 1 fig., 18 refs

  14. The international standard for protection from ionizing radiation and safety of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1995-06-01

    This document is a review in hebrew of the new 1994 international standard of the IAEA. The new standard title is `Basic safety standards for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources`, which were published in the ICRP Pub. 9.

  15. Compliance of Iranian dentists with safety standards of oral radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, S; Kavosi, A; Nazarinia, H; Mehralizadeh, S; Mohammadpour, M; Emami, M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Dentists use radiographs in their daily practice. Their knowledge and behaviour towards radiographic examination can affect patients' exposure to radiation. The aim of this study was to survey the knowledge and behaviour of Iranian dentists regarding oral radiology safety standards. Methods 1000 questionnaires were given to the participants of the 48th Annual Congress of the Iranian Dental Association, of which 700 were returned. The participants were asked about demographic data, primary knowledge of radiation protection, selection criteria, radiographic equipment and technique, methods of patient and personnel protection and management of radiographic waste. Descriptive analysis of data was performed. Results 44% of respondents said the initial radiograph they took was of the periapical view of a limited area. 12% preferred the periapical paralleling technique. F-speed film was used by 9% and E-speed film by 62%. Only 2% had digital receptors. Proper exposure time was selected by 26.5%. The use of long and rectangular collimators was 15% and 6%, respectively. 34% occasionally covered their patients with both thyroid shields and lead aprons. 36% used the position and distance rule correctly for their own protection. Proper disposal of the used processing solutions and the lead foils were done by only 1% and 3%, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the majority of dentists in the study group did not select the proper method, material and equipment in order to minimize the exposure of their patient to unnecessary radiation in dental radiography. PMID:22301640

  16. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development

  17. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development.

  18. Legal status of minister's notices and technology standards of 'Korea institute of nuclear safety'(KINS) to regulate nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. K.; Jung, M. M.; Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    Concerning nuclear safety or technology standards, each of 'notices' issued by minister of science and technology(MOST) empowered by law of its regulation is obviously forceful as a law, if not all. But the standards made by the chief of Korea institute of nuclear safety(KINS) to meet the tasks entrusted to KINS by MOST is only conditionally forceful as a law, that is, on the condition that law or regulation empowered the chief of KINS to make nuclear safety and/or technology standards

  19. Preliminary Safety Information Document for the Standard MHTGR. Volume 1, (includes latest Amendments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-01-01

    With NRC concurrence, the Licensing Plan for the Standard HTGR describes an application program consistent with 10CFR50, Appendix O to support a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review and design certification of an advanced Standard modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design. Consistent with the NRC's Advanced Reactor Policy, the Plan also outlines a series of preapplication activities which have as an objective the early issuance of an NRC Licensability Statement on the Standard MHTGR conceptual design. This Preliminary Safety Information Document (PSID) has been prepared as one of the submittals to the NRC by the US Department of Energy in support of preapplication activities on the Standard MHTGR. Other submittals to be provided include a Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a Regulatory Technology Development Plan, and an Emergency Planning Bases Report.

  20. A preliminary study on the design in architecture of nuclear and radiation safety standard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Dahu; Zhang Chi; Yang Lili; Li Bin; Liu Yingwei; An Hongzhen; Gao Siyi; Liu Ting; Meng De

    2014-01-01

    The connotation and function of nuclear and radiation safety standards are analyzed, and their relationships with the relevant laws and regulations are discussed in the paper. Some suggestions and blue print of overall architecture to build nuclear and radiation safety standard system are proposed, on the basis of researching the application status quo, existing problems and needs for nuclear and radiation safety standards in China. This work is a beneficial exploration and attempt to establish China's nuclear and radiation safety standards. (authors)

  1. Rail Safety/Equipment Crashworthiness : Volume 3. Proposed Engineering Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The document, the third of four volumes, contains recommended Engineering Standards prepared in the format of the standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 49, Transportation, Parts 200). The standards proposed provide improved oc...

  2. Nuclear fuels with high burnup: safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam authorities foresees to build 3 reactors from Russian design (VVER AES 2006) by 2030. In order to prepare the preliminary report on safety analysis the Vietnamese Agency for Radioprotection and Safety has launched an investigation on the behaviour of nuclear fuels at high burnups (up to 60 GWj/tU) that will be those of the new plants. This study deals mainly with the behaviour of the fuel assemblies in case of loss of coolant (LOCA). It appears that for an average burnup of 50 GWj/tU and for the advanced design of the fuel assembly (cladding and materials) safety requirements are fulfilled. For an average burnup of 60 GWj/tU, a list of issues remains to be assessed, among which the impact of clad bursting or the hydrogen embrittlement of the advanced zirconium alloys. (A.C.)

  3. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  4. Preliminary safety information document for the standard MHTGR. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-01-01

    This report contains information concerning: operational radionuclide control; occupational radiation protection, conduct of operations; initial test program; safety analysis; technical specifications; and quality assurance. (JDB)

  5. New aspects from legislation, guidelines and safety standards for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlenweg, M.; Schaefers, G.; Trattnig, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of magnetic resonance (MR) operation are not directly regulated by law but in standards, guidelines and the operating instructions of the MR scanner. The mandatory contents of the operating instructions are regulated in a central standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60601-2-33. In this standard, the application of static magnetic fields in MRI up to 8 Tesla (T) in the clinical routine (first level controlled mode) has recently been approved. Furthermore, the equally necessary CE certification of ultra-high field scanners (7-8 T) in Europe is expected for future devices. The existing installations will not be automatically certified but will retain their experimental status. The current extension of IEC 60601-2-33 introduces a new add-on option, the so-called fixed parameter option (FPO). This option might also be switched on in addition to the established operating modes and defines a fixed device constellation and certain parameters of the energy output of MR scanners designed to simplify the testing of patients with implants in the future. The employment of pregnant workers in an MRI environment is still not generally regulated in Europe. In parts of Germany and Austria pregnant and lactating employees were prohibited from working in the MR control zone (0.5 mT) in 2014. This is based on the mostly unresolved question of the applicability of limits for employees (exposure of extremities to static magnetic fields up to 8 T allowed) or the thresholds for the general population (maximum 400 mT). According to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), the discarding of breast milk after i.v. administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in the case of a breastfeeding woman is only recommended when using contrast agents in the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) high-risk category. (orig.) [de

  6. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  7. American National Standards and the DOE - A cooperative effort to promote nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothleder, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) new criticality safety order, DOE Order 420.1 (open-quotes Facility Safety,close quotes October 13, 1995), Sec. 4.3 (open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safetyclose quotes), invokes, as an integral part, 12 appropriate American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) Series-8 standards for nuclear criticality safety, but with modifications. (The order that 420.1/4.3 replaced also invoked some ANSI/ANS Series-8 standards.) These modifications include DOE operation-specific exceptions to the standards and elaborations on some of the wording in the standards

  8. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ...: Stephen J. Carullo, Railroad Safety Specialist, Office of Safety, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE..., Office of Chief Counsel, FRA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 10, Washington, DC 20590 (telephone... government (FRA and Transport Canada participate as non-voting members), as well as ergonomics experts. The...

  9. Using standardized insulin orders to improve patient safety in a tertiary care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mary-Anne; Brez, Sharon; Sicoli, Silvana; De Sousa, Filomena; Keely, Erin; Malcom, Janine C

    2014-04-01

    To standardize insulin prescribing practices for inpatients, improve management of hypoglycemia, reduce reliance on sliding scales, increase use of basal-bolus insulin and improve patient safety. Patients with diabetes were admitted to 2 pilot inpatient units followed by corporate spread to all insulin-treated patients on noncritical care units in a Canadian tertiary care multicampus teaching hospital. Standardized preprinted insulin and hypoglycemia management orders, decision support tools and multidisciplinary education strategies were developed, tested and implemented by way of the Model for Improvement and The Ottawa Model for Research Process. Clinical and balance measures were evaluated through statistical process control. Patient safety was improved through a reduction in hypoglycemia and decreased dependence on correctional scales. Utilization of the preprinted orders approached the target of 70% at the end of the test period and was sustained at 89% corporately 3 years post-implementation. The implementation of a standardized, preprinted insulin order set facilitates best practices for insulin therapy, improves patient safety and is highly supported by treating practitioners. The utilization of formal quality-improvement methodology promoted efficiency, enhanced sustainability, increased support among clinicians and senior administrators, and was effective in instituting sustained practice change in a complex care centre. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Education and training requirements in the revised European Basic Safety Standards Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, S.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission is currently developing a modified European Basic Safety Standards Directive covering two major objectives: the consolidation of existing European Radiation Protection legislation, and the revision of the European Basic Safety Standards. The consolidation will merge the following five Directives into one single Directive: the Basic Safety Standards Directive, the Medical Exposures Directive, the Public Information Directive, the Outside Workers Directive, and the Directive on the Control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources. The revision of the European Basic Safety Standards will take account of the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and shall improve clarity of the requirements where appropriate. It is planned to introduce more binding requirements on natural radiation sources, on criteria for clearance, and on the cooperation between Member States for emergency planning and response, as well as a graded approach for regulatory control. One additional goal is to achieve greater harmonisation between the European BSS and the international BSS. Following a recommendation from the Article 31 Group of Experts, the current draft of the modified BSS will highlight the importance of education and training by dedicating a specific title to radiation protection education, training and information. This title will include a general requirement on the Member States to ensure the establishment of an adequate legislative and administrative framework for providing appropriate radiation protection education, training and information. In addition, there will be specific requirements on training in the medical field, on information and training of workers in general, of workers potentially exposed to orphan sources, and to emergency workers. The revised BSS directive will include requirements on the competence of a radiation protection expert (RPE) and of a radiation protection

  11. OIE philosophy, policy and procedures for the development of food safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppers, W F G L

    2006-08-01

    Food safety was identified as a high priority area in the 2001-2005 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Strategic Plan. Member Countries of the OIE considered that the organisation should be more active in issues of public health and consumer protection and that this should include more involvement in the area of diseases or pathogens transmissible through food, whether or not animals are affected by such diseases or pathogens. A permanent Working Group on Animal Production Food Safety was established in 2002 to coordinate the OIE's activities in food safety. The Working Group was requested to focus on food safety measures applicable at farm level and to monitor the ongoing cooperation between the OIE and Codex Alimentarius. More emphasis is now placed on the public health aspects of a disease when OIE standards are developed or revised. For example, the revised chapter on bovine tuberculosis in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code includes food safety recommendations for meat and meat products and for milk and milk products. The revised chapter was approved by the OIE International Committee of Member Countries at their 73rd General Session in May 2005. More chapters will follow, beginning with a chapter addressing bovine brucellosis.

  12. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1 of 2: Technical standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities

  13. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... [Docket No. FAA-2012-0953] Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin... announced a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The...

  14. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... [Docket No.: FAA-2012-0953] Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This policy statement will enhance...

  15. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... unrelated to the barrier's safety. Lift-U also questioned the agency's statement that it could be difficult... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0039] RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for...

  16. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  17. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  18. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... fully develop improved brake systems and also to ensure vehicle control and stability while braking... [Docket No. NHTSA 2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial improvements in...

  19. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring... between Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems and Dana Corporation; and ArvinMeritor. The agency received four...

  20. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... initial speeds, vehicle manufacturers will need to develop unique or complicated braking systems to comply... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0011] RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring...

  1. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  2. 77 FR 15351 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0174] RIN 2127-AK88 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and... (NPRM) to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 114, Theft Protection and Rollaway... requesting that certain information, including vehicle owner questionnaires (VOQs) referenced in the NPRM, be...

  3. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0030] RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims... Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be... also proposes to exclude these trailers from a vehicle testing requirement that a tire must be retained...

  4. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  5. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 2543... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.84 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. Where applicable, all contracts awarded by recipients in excess of $2000 for construction...

  6. 75 FR 6123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political subdivision of a... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0156] RIN 2127-AK57 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash...'s response to petitions for reconsideration of a November 12, 2008 final rule that amended the child...

  7. R&D for Safety Codes and Standards: Materials and Components Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFleur, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Marchi, Chris San [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project addresses the following technical barriers from the Safety, Codes and Standards section of the 2012 Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan (section 3.8): (A) Safety data and information: limited access and availability (F) Enabling national and international markets requires consistent RCS (G) Insufficient technical data to revise standards.

  8. Radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.; Barinov, A.; Prozorov, L.

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose to construct a radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety and reliable containment, MosNPO 'Radon' specialists have developed an advanced type repository - large diameter well (LBD) one. A project is started for the development of a technology for LDW repository construction and pilot operation of the new repository for 25-30 years. The 2 LDW repositories constructed at the 'Radon' site and the developed monitoring system are described

  9. Inspection of radiation sources and regulatory enforcement (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depends on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for carrying out regulatory inspections, and taking necessary enforcement actions. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the processes for carrying out regulatory inspections and taking enforcement actions. It includes information on the development and use of procedures and standard review plans (i.e. checklists) for inspection. Specific procedures for inspection of radiation practices and sources are provided in the Appendices

  10. Inspection of radiation sources and regulatory enforcement (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depends on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for carrying out regulatory inspections, and taking necessary enforcement actions. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the processes for carrying out regulatory inspections and taking enforcement actions. It includes information on the development and use of procedures and standard review plans (i.e. checklists) for inspection. Specific procedures for inspection of radiation practices and sources are provided in the Appendices

  11. Revision of AESJ standard 'the code of implemnetation of periodic safety review of nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Masashi; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review (PSR) was launched in June 1992, when the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy issued a notification that required licensees to conduct comprehensive review on the safety of each existing nuclear power plant (NPP) once approximately every ten years based on the latest technical findings for the purpose of improving the safety of the NPP. In 2006, the Standard Committee of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the first version of 'The Standard of Implementation for Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants: 2006'. Taking into account developments in safety regulation of PSR after the issuance of the first version, the Standard Committee has revised the Standard. This paper summarizes background on PSR, such developments are major contents of the Standard as well as the focal points of the revision. (author)

  12. 2016 Updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards, Including Standards for Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, Michael N; Gilmore, Terry R; Belderson, Kristin M; Billett, Amy L; Conti-Kalchik, Tara; Harvey, Brittany E; Hendricks, Carolyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Mangu, Pamela B; McNiff, Kristen; Olsen, MiKaela; Schulmeister, Lisa; Von Gehr, Ann; Polovich, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To update the ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and to highlight standards for pediatric oncology. Methods The ASCO/ONS Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards were first published in 2009 and updated in 2011 to include inpatient settings. A subsequent 2013 revision expanded the standards to include the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy. A joint ASCO/ONS workshop with stakeholder participation, including that of the Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Nurses and American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, was held on May 12, 2015, to review the 2013 standards. An extensive literature search was subsequently conducted, and public comments on the revised draft standards were solicited. Results The updated 2016 standards presented here include clarification and expansion of existing standards to include pediatric oncology and to introduce new standards: most notably, two-person verification of chemotherapy preparation processes, administration of vinca alkaloids via minibags in facilities in which intrathecal medications are administered, and labeling of medications dispensed from the health care setting to be taken by the patient at home. The standards were reordered and renumbered to align with the sequential processes of chemotherapy prescription, preparation, and administration. Several standards were separated into their respective components for clarity and to facilitate measurement of adherence to a standard. Conclusion As oncology practice has changed, so have chemotherapy administration safety standards. Advances in technology, cancer treatment, and education and training have prompted the need for periodic review and revision of the standards. Additional information is available at http://www.asco.org/chemo-standards .

  13. Vocational High School Effectiveness Standard ISO 9001: 2008 for Achievement Content Standards, Standard Process and Competency Standards Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Ratih Pratiwi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Efektivitas Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Berstandar ISO 9001:2008 terhadap Pencapaian Standar Isi, Standar Proses dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of the achievement of the content standards, process standards, and competency standards in vocational already standard ISO 9001: 2008 with CMS that has not been standardized ISO 9001: 2008 both in public schools and private schools. Data collection using the questionnaire enclosed Likert scale models. Analysis of data using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. The results showed: (1 there is no difference in effectiveness between public SMK ISO standard ISO standards with private SMK (P = 0.001; (2 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK SMK ISO standards with ISO standards have not (P = 0.000; (3 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK ISO standards with private vocational yet ISO standards (P = 0.000; (4 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational school with vocational standard ISO standard ISO country has not (P = 0.015; (5 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational bertandar ISO with private vocational yet standardized ISO (P = 0.000; (6 there was no difference in the effectiveness of public SMK has not been standardized by the ISO standard ISO private SMK yet. Key Words: vocational high school standards ISO 9001: 2008, the standard content, process standards, competency standards Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan efektivitas pencapaian standar isi, standar proses, dan standar kompetensi lulusan pada SMK yang sudah berstandar ISO 9001:2008 dengan SMK yang belum berstandar ISO 9001:2008 baik pada sekolah negeri maupun sekolah swasta. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner tertutup model skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way menggunakan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 ada perbedaan

  14. A new standard for core training in radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    A new American National Standard for radiation worker training was recently developed. The standard emphasizes performance-based training and establishing a training program rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. This paper presents an overview of the new standard and the philosophy behind it. The target audience includes radiation workers, management and supervisory personnel, contractors, students, emergency personnel, and visitors

  15. Standards - the common element in providing the safety, quality and performance of the medical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greabu, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    Knowing and applying standards is an opportunity of the years 2007-2008 in any kind of field where a successful activity is intended and this assures a certain way towards competence and quality. The most recent German studies highlighted, to the surprise of the specialists, that standardization holds the second place, after the material means, in the row of the elements considered to be decisive for the success of a business. The existence of standards and the concern for their implementation in the activity provides a high technical and quality level of the products services offered to the clients and the increase in the level of competence of the personnel, who will be able to cope with all the challenges. This need comes from the process of Romania’s accession to the European Union. There are a lot of reasons why standards represent a fundamental part of our daily life. Practically, we are surrounded by standards. Everything is „working” well and it is efficient if the standards used as a base for manufacturing „things” have been correctly developed and applied. Standards open communication channels and commercial channels, promote the understanding of technical products, the compatibility of products and services, facilitate mass production and, most importantly, they are the necessary base for the achievement of the objectives in the fields of health and safety and a better quality of life. The transition towards the global market needs an instrument for the removal of the barriers to the application of the latest discoveries in the field of medical instruments, materials and manual labor. Each medical device, equipment and material used in the Dental and General Medicine is standardized, in fact that leads to their better knowing and provides controllable treatment for manual labor with predictable and repeatable results. This presentation intends to make a survey of some general aspects on standardization as well as a review of the standards in

  16. A German perspective on advances in safety standards and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Herttrich, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    At present, different proposals for evolutionary or innovative reactors are under consideration. Therefore, it is necessary that the regulators give guidance on the required safety characteristics of future designs of nuclear power plants. On the one hand, existing regulations have to be updated according to the current state of science and technology. Best available and adequately approved technology has to be used as a yardstick for the acceptability of future basic design features. On the other hand, potential safety features of innovative or revolutionary designs must be considered as serious competitors and potential technical solutions taking the state of maturity of the concepts, the extent of practical experience and the level of effort needed for realization into due account. On this background, recent developments of the Atomic Energy Act, of safety regulations and investigations of requirements for future designs in the Federal Republic of Germany and current projects of international cooperation are presented. (author)

  17. Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators

  18. IEEE Std 382-1980: IEEE standard for qualification of safety-related valve actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the qualification of all types of power-driven valve actuators, including damper actuators, for safety-related functions in nuclear power generating stations. This standard may also be used to separately qualify actuator components. This standard establishes the minimum requirements for, and guidance regarding, the methods and procedures for qualification of all safety-related functions of power-driven valve actuators

  19. GASSAR-6 (General Atomic Standard Safety Analysis Report). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A standard nuclear steam system for a 3000 MW(t), 1160 MW(e) high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear power station is described. The HTGR operates on a uranium-235/thorium-232 cycle. Spherical fuel pellets are coated with multiple layers of pyrolytic carbon, bonded into rods, and encased in hexagonal graphite fuel elements. The core is nuclear-purity-grade, near isotropic graphite machined in hexagonal blocks, which serves as moderator and the heat transfer medium between the fuel and the coolant. Forced helium is the primary coolant and water is the secondary coolant. A prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) houses the reactor core, primary coolant system and portions of the secondary coolant system, steam generators and circulators. A continuous internal steel liner in the PCRV acts as the primary coolant boundary and sealing membrane. The control rods contain boron carbide in a graphite matrix sheathed in Incoloy 800 cans. Boron constitutes about 40 percent of the absorber material by volume. The control rod drives provide insertion and withdrawal rates consistent with the required reactivity changes for operational load fluctuations and reactor shutdown. Control rods have shim and trip capability. (U.S.)

  20. C. F. Braun. Standard turbine island design, safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard turbine island used with a BWR is described. It consists of the turbine-generator; steam system; condensate storage, cleanup, and transfer systems; control and instrumentation; water treatment plant; make-up demineralizer; potable and waste water systems; and a compressed air system. The turbine-generator is a tandem-compound nuclear-type turbine with one double-flow high-pressure section and a six-flow low-pressure section in three double-flow low-pressure casings. The turbine is direct connected to an 1800 rpm synchronous a-c generator. A combined moisture separator and two-stage reheater is provided. The main steam system delivers the steam generated in a BWR to the main turbine stop valves. The condensate system maintains proper water inventory. Protective features prevent loss of the system due to electrical failure of a component and isolates faults to ensure continuity of a power supply from alternate sources. (U.S.)

  1. Consensus standards utilized and implemented for nuclear criticality safety in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1996-01-01

    The fundamental framework for the criticality safety of nuclear fuel facilities regulations is, in many advanced countries, generally formulated so that technical standards or handbook data are utilized to support the licensing safety review and to implement its guidelines. In Japan also, adequacy of the safety design of nuclear fuel facilities is checked and reviewed on the basis of licensing safety review guides. These guides are, first, open-quotes The Basic Guides for Licensing Safety Review of Nuclear Fuel Facilities,close quotes and as its subsidiaries, open-quotes The Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facility Licensing Safety Review Guidesclose quotes and open-quotes The Reprocessing Facility Licensing Safety Review Guides.close quotes The open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook close-quote of Japan and the Technical Data Collection are published and utilized to supply related data and information for the licensing safety review, such as for the Rokkasho reprocessing plant. The well-established technical standards and data abroad such as those by the American Nuclear Society and the American National Standards Institute are also utilized to complement the standards in Japan. The basic principles of criticality safety control for nuclear fuel facilities in Japan are duly stipulated in the aforementioned basic guides as follows: 1. Guide 10: Criticality control for a single unit; 2. Guide 11: Criticality control for multiple units; 3. Guide 12: Consideration for a criticality accident

  2. 77 FR 52272 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... for Laboratory Sciences, Consumer Product Safety Commission, 5 Research Place, Rockville, MD 20850.... Introduction The Regulatory Flexibility Act (``RFA''), 5 U.S.C. 601-612, requires agencies to consider the... political subdivision of a state may establish or continue in effect a requirement dealing with the same...

  3. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the model building codes that the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC...) Uniform Building Code (UBC); (2) The 1992 Supplement to the Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA) National Building Code (NBC); and (3) The 1992 Amendments to the Southern Building Code...

  4. 75 FR 22291 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Kiss, Division of Human Factors, Directorate for Engineering Sciences, Consumer Product Safety... testing requirements to address those types of incidents. Accordingly, the Commission proposes a new 16.... With this in mind, the Commission proposes two alternative labels that address the entrapment hazard...

  5. Safety and quality management at the high flux reactor Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, A.; Ahlf, J.

    1995-01-01

    The High Flux Reactor (HFR) is one high power multi-purpose materials testing research reactor of the tank-in-pool type, cooled and moderated by light-water. It is operated at 45 MW at a prescribed schedule of 11 cycles per year, each comprising 25 operation days and three shut-down days. Since the licence for the operation of HFR was granted in 1962, a total of 14 amendments to the original licence have been made following different modifications in the installations. In the meantime, international nuclear standards were developed, especially in the framework of the NUSS programme of the IAEA, which were adopted by the Dutch Licensing Authorities. In order to implement the new standards, the situation at the HFR was comprehensively reviewed in the course of an audit performed by the Dutch Licensing Authorities in 1988. This also resulted in formulating the task of setting-up an 'HFR - Integral Quality Assurance Handbook' (HFR-IQAD) involving both organizations JRCIAM and ECN, which had the unique framework and basic guideline to assure the safe and efficient operation and exploitation of the HFR and to promote safety and quality in all aspects of HFR related activities. The assurance of safe and efficient operation and exploitation of the HFR is condensed together under the concepts of safety and quality of services and is achieved through the safety and quality management. (orig.)

  6. Verification Results of Safety-grade Optical Modem for Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jangyeol; Son, Kwangseop; Lee, Youngjun; Cheon, Sewoo; Cha, Kyoungho; Lee, Jangsoo; Kwon, Keechoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    We confirmed that the coverage criteria for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator is satisfactory using a traceability analysis matrix between high-level requirements and lower-level system test case data set. This paper describes the test environment, test components and items, a traceability analysis, and system tests as a result of system verification and validation based on Software Requirement Specifications (SRS) for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator (CPC) in a Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP), and Software Design Specifications (SDS) for a safety-grade optical modem of a CPC in a KSNP. All tests were performed according to the test plan and test procedures. Functional testing, performance testing, event testing, and scenario based testing for a safety-grade optical modem of a Core Protection Calculator in a Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant as a thirty-party verifier were successfully performed.

  7. Safety management of a high energy accelerator used in the production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.M.; Brown, N.W.; Allen C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in a high energy accelerator for producing tritium raises considerations regarding facility Safety Management. Accelerator facility hazards require safety analysis to consider factors such as: safe management of a large flux of very high energy neutrons, sustained operation in a very high energy proton and neutron field, neutron irradiation of a variety of materials, and handling and processing of significant quantities of tritium. Safety considerations of support systems and potential effects of magnetic fields must also be included. Existing Safety Management techniques, safety standards, and criteria for operation of high energy accelerators provide considerable guidance. These must, however, be reviewed to determine their appropriate use for safe operation of a very large, tritium-producing accelerator. New or revised safety standards may be required to establish and maintain the safe operating-envelope. The goal will be to develop a set of tailored standards and criteria that provide a reasonable operational envelope and assure adequate public, worker, and environmental safety. The generation of an appropriate set of safety standards and criteria will include several activities. One activity will involve evaluation of proposed facility designs to determine possible hazards. Another activity will involve a detailed review of existing accelerator safety management systems. A third activity will involve the review of operating histories of existing facilities. Facilities approximating the characteristics of the anticipated tritium production facility will be considered. Following completion of these activities a proposed Safety Management System and criteria for application to these facilities will be drafted. The need for new analytical methods and for additional safety standards will be identified. The draft document will then be reviewed and revised to establish the standards and criteria within the appropriate Department of Energy framework

  8. Standardization of Safety Checklists for Sport Fields in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    S. Arghami; G. Zahirian; T. Allahverdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays in all human societies, sport is considered as a human-training matter, which often occurs in sport fields. Many people, including students in schools, occasionally deal with these fields. Therefore, a standard tool is required to frequently inspection of sport fields. The aim of this study was to standardize checklists for sport fields in schools. .Material and Method: This study is a kind of tool and technique evaluation was done in Zanjan in 2013. The studied populat...

  9. High dose gamma-ray standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrin, R.; Moraru, R.

    1999-01-01

    The high gamma-ray doses produced in a gamma irradiator are used, mainly, for radiation processing, i.e. sterilization of medical products, processing of food, modifications of polymers, irradiation of electronic devices, a.s.o. The used absorbed doses depend on the application and cover the range 10 Gy to 100 MGy. The regulations in our country require that the response of the dosimetry systems, used for the irradiation of food and medical products, be calibrated and traceable to the national standards. In order to be sure that the products receive the desired absorbed dose, appropriate dosimetric measurements must be performed, including the calibration of the dosemeters and their traceability to the national standards. The high dose gamma-ray measurements are predominantly based on the use of reference radiochemical dosemeters. Among them the ferrous sulfate can be used as reference dosemeter for low doses (up to 400 Gy) but due to its characteristics it deserves to be considered a standard dosemeter and to be used for transferring the conventional absorbed dose to other chemical dosemeters used for absorbed doses up to 100 MGy. The study of the ferrous sulfate dosemeter consisted in preparing many batches of solution by different operators in quality assurance conditions and in determining for all batches the linearity, the relative intrinsic error, the repeatability and the reproducibility. The principal results are the following: the linear regression coefficient: 0.999, the relative intrinsic error: max.6 %, the repeatability (for P* = 95 %): max.3 %, the reproducibility (P* = 95%): max.5 %. (authors)

  10. IEEE standard for design qualification of safety systems equipment used in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This standard is written to serve as a general standard for qualification of all types of safety systems equipment, mechanical and instrumentation as well as electrical. It also establishes principles and procedures to be followed in preparing specific safety systems equipment standards. Guidance for qualifying specific safety systems equipment may be found in various specific equipment qualification standards that are now available or are being prepared. It is required that safety systems equipment in nuclear power generating stations meet or exceed its performance requirements throughout its installed life. This is accomplished by a disciplined program of design qualification and quality assurance of design, production, installation, maintenance and surveillance. This standard is for the design qualification section of the program only. Design qualification is intended to demonstrate the capability of the equipment design to perform its safety function(s) over the expected range of normal, abnormal, design basis event, post design basis event, and in-service test conditions. Inherent to design qualification is the requirement for demonstration, within limitations afforded by established technical state-of-the-art, that in-service aging throughout the qualified life established for the equipment will not degrade safety systems equipment from its original design condition to the point where it cannot perform its required safety function(s), upon demand. The above requirement reflects the primary role of design qualification to provide reasonable assurance that design- and age-related common failure modes will not occur during performance of safety function(s) under postulated service conditions

  11. A generic standard for assessing and managing activities with significant risk to health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, T.S.; Sandquist, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some operations and activities in industry, business, and government can present an unacceptable risk to health and safety if not performed according to established safety practices and documented procedures. The nuclear industry has extensive experience and commitment to assessing and controlling such risks. This paper provides a generic standard based upon DOE Standard DOE-STD-3007- 93, Nov 1993, Change Notice No. 1, Sep 1998. This generic standard can be used to assess practices and procedures employed by any industrial and government entity to ensure that an acceptable level of safety and control prevail for such operations. When any activity and operation is determined to involve significant risk to health and safety to workers or the public, the organization should adopt and establish an appropriate standard and methodology to ensure that adequate health and safety prevail. This paper uses DOE experience and standards to address activities with recognized potential for impact upon health and safety. Existing and future assessments of health and safety issues can be compared and evaluated against this generic standard for insuring that proper planning, analysis, review, and approval have been made. (authors)

  12. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  13. Appraisal for Japan of the safety of transport of radioactive material. Provision for the application of the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes it to provide for the application of its standards at the request of any State. The objective of a TranSAS appraisal is to assist any requesting State to achieve a high level of safety in the transport of radioactive material by reviewing its implementation of the Transport Regulations and by making recommendations for improvement where appropriate.The IAEA discharges this statutory function through a number of mechanisms, including rendering independent peer review appraisal services to determine the status of compliance with its standards. The appraisal for Japan in December 2005 on the safety of the transport of radioactive material is the seventh TranSAS mission since the inception of the service. This report presents its findings. The TranSAS appraisal team completed a comprehensive appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations in Japan. The cooperation of the authorities in Japan, and of all those who participated in the discussions, was excellent and contributed to the success of the appraisal. The comprehensive legal framework, with responsibilities identified in considerable detail and with clear lines of authority to minimize overlap of responsibilities, provides a sound basis for the implementation of the Transport Regulations. Generally, the Transport Regulations are implemented in accordance with IAEA requirements. Some areas for possible improvement have been identified. These areas relate mainly to reduction of regulations, quality management systems, training, compliance assurance and lessening the administrative burden for incorporating amendments to the IMDG Code. The findings include a considerable number of good practices, in particular in the area of maritime transport

  14. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig

  15. Irradiation hazards and safety standards for patients in dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, B D.P.

    1975-07-01

    The historical developments which have led to a reduction in the hazards or potential hazards to patients in dental radiography are reviewed. Based on a simple risk estimate, the safety of present-day techniques employed in routine dental radiography is assessed. Also included in the review is a description of techniques used and results obtained from the National Radiation Laboratory's (NRL) surveillance programme of patients' exposure to irradiation in dental radiography. The possibilities of and need for achieving further reductions of irradiation are discussed.

  16. Safety standards for express roads : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the SAFESTAR project is the formulation of design standards or recommendations exclusively based on safety arguments. Workpackage 3 (WP3) of SAFESTAR, of which this report is the concluding report, should result in design recommendations for single and dual-carriageway express roads

  17. 75 FR 39871 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... (ANSI A208.2-2004) and would require no change in existing technology for either product to achieve the... certificates required by this section would be amended to refer to the 1997 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of... for Bathing Facilities. U--ASTM C564 1997 Standard Specification for Rubber 3280.611(d) Gaskets for...

  18. 78 FR 73965 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ...-free number). Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling... Steel, and Seals. U--ASTM D4635 2001 Standard Specification 3280.611(d). for Polyethylene Films Made... reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the public. This rule is not a...

  19. Safety supervision on high-pressure gas regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Il

    1991-01-01

    The first part lists the regulation on safety supervision of high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on high-pressure gas safety supervision and enforcement regulations about high-pressure gas safety supervision. The second part indicates safety regulations on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement ordinance of safety on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement regulation of safety supervision over liquefied petroleum gas and business. The third part lists regulation on gas business, enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations on gas business. Each part has theory and explanation for questions.

  20. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's title is: Crash Prevention Effectiveness in Light-Vehicle...

  1. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  2. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Approval Handbook for Japanese Certification, Safety Regulations for Road Vehicles, Technical Standards For... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act... vehicle safety, Motor vehicles, Rubber and rubber products, and Tires. In consideration of the foregoing...

  3. 76 FR 55056 - Toy Safety Standard: Strategic Outreach and Education Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... to test and certify to the toy safety standard. We plan to use traditional and social media to... testing and certification requirements for children's toys and toy chests and their compliance with ASTM... manufacturers of children's toys must ensure that covered toys are tested for compliance with the toy safety...

  4. Forest management practices and the occupational safety and health administration logging standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; David Elton Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established safety and health regulations for the logging industry. These new regulations move beyond the prior OSHA pulpwood harvesting standard by including sawtimber harvesting operations. Because logging is a major tool used by forest managers to meet silvicultural goals, managers must be aware of what...

  5. Safety implications of standardized continuous quality improvement programs in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Ho, Certina; Mackinnon, Neil J; Mahaffey, Thomas; Taylor, Jeffrey M

    2013-06-01

    Standardized continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs combine Web-based technologies and standardized improvement processes, tools, and expectations to enable quality-related events (QREs) occurring in individual pharmacies to be shared with pharmacies in other jurisdictions. Because standardized CQI programs are still new to community pharmacy, little is known about how they impact medication safety. This research identifies key aspects of medication safety that change as a result of implementing a standardized CQI program. Fifty-three community pharmacies in Nova Scotia, Canada, adopted the SafetyNET-Rx standardized CQI program in April 2010. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Canada's Medication Safety Self-Assessment (MSSA) survey was administered to these pharmacies before and 1 year into their use of the SafetyNET-Rx program. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to explore where changes in patient safety occurred as a result of SafetyNETRx use. Significant improvements occurred with quality processes and risk management, staff competence, and education, and communication of drug orders and other information. Patient education, environmental factors, and the use of devices did not show statistically significant changes. As CQI programs are designed to share learning from QREs, it is reassuring to see that the largest improvements are related to quality processes, risk management, staff competence, and education.

  6. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory... have accepted the revised ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy Safety. Pursuant to section 106 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, ASTM F963-11 will...

  7. American National Standard administrative practices for nuclear criticality safety, ANSI/ANS-8.19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Carson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    American National Standard Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety, ANSI/ANS-8.19, provides guidance for the administration of an effective program to control the risk of nuclear criticality in operations with fissile material outside reactors. The several sections of the standard address the responsibilities of management, supervisory personnel, and the criticality safety staff, as well as requirements and suggestions for the content of operating procedures, process evaluations, material control procedures, and emergency procedures

  8. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all

  9. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  10. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  11. Radiation safety standards: space hazards vs. terrestrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    Policies regarding the setting of standards for radiation exposure for astronauts and other workers in space are discussed. The first recommendations for dose limitation and the underlying philosophy of these recommendations, which were put out in 1970, are examined, and consequences for the standards if the same philosophy of allowing a doubling in overall cancer risk for males aged 30-35 over a 20-year period were applied to more recent risk estimates are calculated, leading to values about a factor of 4 below the 1970 recommendation. Standards set since 1930 for terrestrial occupational exposures, which lead to a maximum lifetime risk of about 2.3 percent, are then considered, and the space and terrestrial exposure risks for fatal cancers at maximum lifetime dose are compared with industrial accidental death rates. Attention is also given to the question of the potential effects of HZE particles in space and to the possibility that HZE particle effects, rather than radiation carcinogenesis, might be the limiting factor. 17 references

  12. 77 FR 76003 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Safety Standard for Omnidirectional Citizens Band Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Request--Safety Standard for Omnidirectional Citizens Band Base Station Antennas AGENCY: Consumer Product... information associated with the Commission's safety standard for omnidirectional citizens band base station... information required in the Safety Standard for Omnidirectional Citizens Band Base Station (16 CFR Part 1204...

  13. 48 CFR 1352.271-82 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1352.271-82 Section 1352.271-82 Federal Acquisition... of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-82 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Ship Repair (APR 2010) The contractor, in performance of all work...

  14. 78 FR 73692 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Infant Bath Seats, Toddler Beds, and Full-Size Baby Cribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... standard issued under the Danny Keysar Child Product Safety Notification Act was based, the revision... standard. Section 26(c) of the CPSA also provides that states or political subdivisions of states may apply... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1215, 1217 and 1219 Revisions to Safety Standards...

  15. Promoting safety in nuclear installations. The IAEA has established safety standards for nuclear reactors and provides expert review and safety services to assist Member States in their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    More than 430 nuclear power plants (NPPs) are currently operating in 30 countries around the world. The nuclear share of total electricity production ranges from about 20 percent in the Czech Republic and United States to nearly 78 percent in France and Lithuania. Worldwide, nuclear power generates about 16% of the total electricity. The safety of such nuclear installations is fundamental. Every aspect of a power plant must be closely supervised and scrutinized by national regulatory bodies to ensure safety at every phase. These aspects include design, construction, commissioning, trial operation, commercial operation, repair and maintenance, plant upgrades, radiation doses to workers, radioactive waste management and, ultimately, plant decommissioning. Safety fundamentals comprise defence-in-depth, which means having in place multiple levels of protection. nuclear facilities; regulatory responsibility; communicating with the public; adoption of the international convention on nuclear safety including implementation of IAEA nuclear safety standards. This publication covers topics of designing for safety (including safety concepts, design principles, and human factors); operating safety (including safety culture and advance in operational safety); risk assessment and management

  16. A novel standard to evaluate the impact of therapeutic agents on patient safety – The BURDEN OF THERAPY™©∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad K. Abdulahad

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: BOTh is a highly sensitive method to evaluate the comparative burden experienced by patients during treatment, and can facilitate better informed treatment selection. We propose BOTh as the new standard for analyzing safety during clinical studies.

  17. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bailey, Bruce [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  18. Impact of New Radiation Safety Standards on Licensing Requirements of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohal, P.; Subasic, D.; Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    As the outcomes of the newly introduced safety philosophies, new and more strict safety design requirements for nuclear installation are expected to be introduced. New in-depth defence measures should be incorporated into the design and operation procedure for a nuclear installation, to compensate for potential failures in protection or safety measures. The new requirements will also apply to licensing of NPP's operation as well as to licensing of nuclear sites, especially for radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper intends to give an overview of possible impacts of new internationally agreed basic safety standards with respect to NPP and related technologies. Recently issued new basic safety standards for radiation protection are introducing some new safety principles which may have essential impact on future licensing requirements regarding nuclear power plants and radioactive waste installations. These new standards recognize exposures under normal conditions ('practices') and intervention conditions. The term interventions describes the human activities that seek to reduce the existing radiation exposure or existing likelihood of incurring exposure which is not part of a controlled practice. The other new development in safety standards is the introduction of so called potential exposure based on the experience gained from a number of radiation accidents. This exposure is not expected to be delivered with certainty but it may result from an accident at a source or owing to an event or sequence of events of a probabilistic nature, including equipment failures and operating errors. (author)

  19. American National Standard: for safety in conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard provides safety guidance for conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements where physical protection of personnel against the consequences of a criticality accident is not provided. The objectives of in-situ measurements are either to confirm an adequate safety margin or to improve an estimate of such a margin. The first objective may constitute a test of the criticality safety of a design that is based on calculations. The second may effect improved operating conditions by reducing the uncertainty of safety margins and providing guidance to new designs

  20. Research on the management and endorsement of nuclear safety standards in the United States and its revelation for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Tian, Yu; Yang, Lili; Gao, Siyi; Song, Dahu

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces the American standard system, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)’s responsibility, NRC nuclear safety regulations and standards system, studies on NRC’s standards management and endorsement mode, analyzes the characteristics of NRC standards endorsement management, and points out its disadvantages. This paper draws revelation from the standard management and endorsement model of NRC and points suggestion to China’s nuclear and radiation safety standards management.The issue of the “Nuclear Safety Law”plays an important role in China’s nuclear and radiation safety supervision. Nuclear and radiation safety regulations and standards are strong grips on the implementation of “Nuclear Safety Law”. This paper refers on the experience of international advanced countriy, will effectively promote the improvement of the endorsed management of China’s nuclear and radiation safety standards.

  1. 78 FR 21850 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... to the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04, ``Test Methods for Rating Motor, Diesel... for Rating Motor, Diesel, Aviation Fuels, A2. Reference Materials and Blending Accessories, (``ASTM... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0185] RIN 2127-AL25 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by...

  2. 78 FR 29384 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... modify the application of any mandatory safety standard to a coal or other mine if the Secretary of Labor... running conveyor belt when a water sprinkler is activated. 9. Each automatic sprinkler will be a standard... the gauge indicates 10 psi or more. f. Verify that the water flow switch is activated and the dispatch...

  3. Referring to IAEA system to improve Chinese standards system on nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhaorong; Wang Wenhai

    2010-01-01

    Referring to the standards system of IAEA, to build and improve the Chinese standards system of nuclear and radiation safety is a long term infrastructure work and an assurance to keep sustainable development of nuclear industry and nuclear technology application in China. The paper analyses the current main problem, and gives some suggestions on developing and improving the system. (authors)

  4. 77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... revise the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for accelerator control systems (ACS) in two ways. First... Standard (FMVSS) No. 124, Accelerator Control Systems,\\2\\ in two ways. First, we are proposing to update... February 2011 final report ``Technical Assessment of Toyota Electronic Throttle Control Systems,'' the...

  5. Experience with nuclear safety standards development in non-governmental international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1985-01-01

    Besides the IAEA as a 'governmental' organization dealing with basic safety recommendations addressed primarily to the national regulatory bodies in developing countries, two closely related non-governmental international standards organizations have gained extensive experience in the field of nuclear standardization. Over more than 25 years since their formation, both (a) the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Technical Committee 85 'Nuclear Energy', in particular in its Sub-Committee 3 'Reactor Technology and Safety' and (b) the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 45 'Nuclear Instrumentation' have published numerous standards. A brief review is given of these, draft standards, and other documents planned to become international standards. Many of them deal with rather specialized topics typical for 'industrial' standards such as standardized procedures, instruments, methods, materials, test methods, terminology, and signs and symbols, but others are directly related to more basic safety issues. In some areas such as quality assurance, seismic aspects of siting and terminology, there has been in the past occasional overlap in the activities of the NUSS programme, IEC and ISO. Letters of Understanding have since 1981 contributed to clarifying the borderlines and to avoiding redundant efforts. Also, some experiences and problems are described arising, for example, from the harmonization of different national safety philosophies and traditions into universally accepted international standards, and the transfer of international standards into national standards systems. Finally, based on a recent comprehensive compilation of some 3300 nuclear standards and standards projects, an attempt is made to present a cost/benefit analysis and an outlook on future developments. (author)

  6. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Towards Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety-Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Safe use of software in safety-critical applications requires well-founded means of determining whether software is fit for such use. While software in industries such as aviation has a good safety record, little is known about whether standards for software in safety-critical applications 'work' (or even what that means). It is often (implicitly) argued that software is fit for safety-critical use because it conforms to an appropriate standard. Without knowing whether a standard works, such reliance is an experiment; without carefully collecting assessment data, that experiment is unplanned. To help plan the experiment, we organized a workshop to develop practical ideas for assessing software safety standards. In this paper, we relate and elaborate on the workshop discussion, which revealed subtle but important study design considerations and practical barriers to collecting appropriate historical data and recruiting appropriate experimental subjects. We discuss assessing standards as written and as applied, several candidate definitions for what it means for a standard to 'work,' and key assessment strategies and study techniques and the pros and cons of each. Finally, we conclude with thoughts about the kinds of research that will be required and how academia, industry, and regulators might collaborate to overcome the noted barriers.

  7. Safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines safety standards, legislation and codes of practice for fuel cell manufacture and operation in the UK, Europe and internationally. Management of health and safety in the UK is discussed, and the characteristics of phosphoric acid (PAFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MCFC), solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells are described. Fuel cell power plant standards and manufacture in the UK, design and operational considerations, end of life disposal, automotive fuel cell system, and fuelling and vehicular concerns are explored, and standards, legislation and codes of practice are explained in the appendix.

  8. Safety Signs Perception and Adoption with the ISO and ANSI Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Davoudian Talab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One way of controlling hazards in the work environment is a use of safety signs. Safety signs are among the safe information group; hence, if these signs are not understood properly it could cause an injury or even death. Objectives The aim of this study is surveying perception of safety signs and adoption with ISO and ANSI standards. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2013 to 2014 in the 3 provinces of Khuzestan, Fars, and Tehran. The study population included 370 non-monochromatic employees working in the industries. For collecting information, the standard questionnaire of the international organization for standard (ISO 9186-1 and demographic information was used. A total of 13 safety signs were utilized for determination of perception. Stratified - Random sampling method was used, then, the obtained data were utilized using SPSS-16 software and applying descriptive statistics. Results In this study, the overall rate of perception of safety signs was 78.4% with a standard deviation of 15.1%. The lowest percentage of perception was related to the sign “face shield must be worn” (53.5%. In the assessment of safety signs based on ANSI Z5353 and ISO 9186-1 standard, 62.5% and 69.2% of signs can be reached to limit of acceptable perception. Conclusions The perception patterns of safety signs are different. Assessing perception of signs show a moderate level of perception in accordance with ISO standard; however, to reach ANSI standard, implementation of intervention programs (Judgment test is suggested due to perceptual adaptation with target population and redesign of sign with low perception.

  9. “The Safety of Tourist” - Required Community Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olguta Ludmila Benescu

    2010-06-01

    be forgotten which would attract tourists.The Romanian State, in order to have had an attractive and profitable tourism it must turn into a leading provider of safety.

  10. 75 FR 4703 - Track Safety Standards; Continuous Welded Rail (CWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... regulations that have ``substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national... not have substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government... can result in the track being laterally displaced due to high compression forces caused by critical...

  11. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  12. Issues and relationships among software standards for nuclear safety applications. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.; Preckshot, G.G.; Lawrence, J.D.; Johnson, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the development of draft regulatory guides for selected software engineering standards. This report describes the results of the initial task in this work. The selected software standards and a set of related software engineering standards were reviewed, and the resulting preliminary elements of the regulatory positions are identified in this report. The importance of a thorough understanding of the relationships among standards useful for developing safety-related software is emphasized. The relationship of this work to the update of the Standard Review Plan is also discussed

  13. DS424: A Roadmap for the Implementation of the IAEA Safety Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yllera, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Many countries interested in developing nuclear power programmes for the first time need to have experience in using and regulating radioactive source materials. They need to have experience in building and operating large non-nuclear construction projects. Nuclear power has unique attributes and commitments associated with it that other industries do not. Although undertaken as a national endeavour with many national implications, building and operating a nuclear facility also has global implications (financial, political, safety, etc.). DG’s 2008 General Conference speech: “Every country has the right to introduce nuclear power, as well as the responsibility to do it right.”. The development of IAEA Safety Standards is an statutory function of the IAEA (article III of the IAEA Statute): “The Agency is authorized to establish or adopt… standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property…”. New guide (DS 424) constitutes a “Road-map” to apply the entire suite of IAEA Safety Standards progressively during the early phases of the implementation of a nuclear power programme. IAEA safety review missions based on internationally agreed safety standards are well established and are the best tools to build up confidence on the capacity of a country to develop nuclear energy in a safe way

  14. Complete analysis of a nuclear building to nuclear safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, T A

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear standards impose on the designer the necessity of examining the loads, stresses, and strains in a nuclear building even under extreme loading conditions, both due to plant malfunctions and environmental accidents. It is necessary then to generate, combine, and examine a tremendous amount of data; really the lack of symmetry and general complication of the structures and the large number of loading combinations make an automatic analysis quite necessary. A largely automated procedure is presented in view of solving the problem by a series of computer programs linked together. After the seismic analysis has been performed by (SADE CODE) these data together with the data coming from thermal specifications, weight, accident descriptions etc. are fed into a finite element computer code (SAP4) for analysis. They are processed and combined by a computer code (COMBIN) according to the loading conditions (the usual list in Italy is given and briefly discussed), so that for each point (or each selected zone) under each loading condition the applied loads are listed. These data are fed to another computer code (DTP), which determines the amount of reinforcing bars necessary to accommodate the most severe of the loading conditions. The Aci 318/71 and Italian regulation procedures are followed; the characteristics of the program are briefly described and discussed. Some particular problems are discussed, e.g. the thermal stresses due to normal and accident conditions, the inelastic behavior of some frame elements (due to concrete cracking) is considered by means of an 'ad hoc' code. Typical examples are presented and the results are discussed showing a relatively large benefit in considering this inelastic effect.

  15. Patient safety principles in family medicine residency accreditation standards and curriculum objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Aliya; Sharma, Nishan; Harvie, Margot; O’Beirne, Maeve; Topps, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a thematic analysis of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s (CFPC’s) Red Book accreditation standards and the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum objectives with respect to patient safety principles. Design Thematic content analysis of the CFPC’s Red Book accreditation standards and the Triple C curriculum. Setting Canada. Main outcome measures Coding frequency of the patient safety principles (ie, patient engagement; respectful, transparent relationships; complex systems; a just and trusting culture; responsibility and accountability for actions; and continuous learning and improvement) found in the analyzed CFPC documents. Results Within the analyzed CFPC documents, the most commonly found patient safety principle was patient engagement (n = 51 coding references); the least commonly found patient safety principles were a just and trusting culture (n = 5 coding references) and complex systems (n = 5 coding references). Other patient safety principles that were uncommon included responsibility and accountability for actions (n = 7 coding references) and continuous learning and improvement (n = 12 coding references). Conclusion Explicit inclusion of patient safety content such as the use of patient safety principles is needed for residency training programs across Canada to ensure the full spectrum of care is addressed, from community-based care to acute hospital-based care. This will ensure a patient safety culture can be cultivated from residency and sustained into primary care practice. PMID:27965349

  16. Refurbishment of PSI-Hotlaboratory to comply with requested safety standards after 40 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, G.; Hofer, R.; Wiezel, L.

    2001-01-01

    The PSI Hotlaboratory has started its operation in 1962. From the very beginning the hotcell wing served for handling and gross PIE analysis of reactor core internals and highly active material from accelerator target stations. In the radiochemistry wing micro structural and chemical analyses of small, highly active samples were subsequently performed with equipment installed in individual lead shielded cells. The radiochemistry wing also served for radiopharmaceutical nuclide dispatching and actinide ceramics preparation. Several constructions and building enlargements have been added since 1962 and similarly, the safety infrastructure was improved case wise. In the course of reevaluating the principal safety documentation for the Hotlaboratory, during 1994-95 it was realized that the building concept with its class A radioactive areas did not comply any more with modern safely standards, in particular with fire protection regulations and operator safety. In accident scenario analyses it was further demonstrated that radio nuclide release to the environment could cause intolerable health risks to the surrounding population. It was therefore decided to principally refurbish the building infrastructure particularly with respect to fire protection, media, and laboratory instrumentation and control. The chosen concept consists in adding a so called media installation corridor on top and along the radiochemistry wing from which the individual labs, on two floors are reached by vertical media access channels. Since the reconstruction outage time had to be minimized and there was not enough storage capacity to remove the whole Hotlaboratory equipment at once, a stepwise reconstruction was planned with separation of specified blocks of labs which are freed from samples (but still contain specially encapsulated, internally contaminated glove boxes and lead shielded cells) and which are accessed from the building outside, while the rest of the labs are still (or again) in

  17. 75 FR 17529 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... of high-voltage continuous mining machines in underground coal mines. It also revises MSHA's design...-- Underground Coal Mines III. Section-by-Section Analysis A. Part 18--Electric Motor-Driven Mine Equipment and...

  18. Improved safety of the system 80+TM standard plants design through increased diversity and redundancy of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, Regis A.; Carpentino, Frederick L.; Robertson, James E.

    1996-01-01

    Safely systems in the System 80+ TM Standard Plant are designed with more redundancy, diversity and simplicity than earlier nuclear power plant designs. These gains were accomplished by an evolutionary process that preserved the desirable and proven features in currently operating nuclear plants, while improving reliability and defense-in-depth. The System 80+ safety systems are the primary contributors to a core damage frequency that is more than 100 times lower than 1980's vintage U. S. designs, including the predecessor System 80 R standard nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design. The System 80+ design includes significant improvements to the safety injection system, emergency feedwater system, shutdown cooling system, containment spray system, reactor coolant gas vent system, and to their vital support systems. These improvements enhance performance for traditional design basis events and significantly reduce the probability of a severe accident. The System 80+ design also incorporates safety systems to mitigate a severe accident. The added systems include the rapid depressurization system, the in-containment refueling water storage tank, the cavity flooding system. These systems fully address the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (US NRC) severe accident policy. The System 80+ safety systems are integrated with the System 80+ Nuclear Island (NI) design. The NI general arrangement provides quadrant separation of the safety systems for protection from fire and flooding, and large equipment pull spaces and lay down areas for maintenance. This paper will describe the System 80+ safety systems advanced design features, the improved accident prevention and mitigation capabilities, and startup, operating and maintenance benefits

  19. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  20. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  1. Standards Interoperability: Application of Contemporary Software Safety Assurance Standards to the Evolution of Legacy Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meacham, Desmond J

    2006-01-01

    .... The proposed formal model is then applied to the requirements for RTCA DO-178B and MIL-STD-498 as representative examples of contemporary and legacy software standards. The results provide guidance on how to achieve airworthiness certification for modified legacy software, whilst maximizing the use of software products from the previous development.

  2. The approaches of safety design and safety evaluation at HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saikusa, Akio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Honma, Fumitaka; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Kawasaki, Kozo; Baba, Osamu

    2006-06-01

    Gas Cooled Reactor has long history of nuclear development, and High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been expected that it can be supply high temperature energy to chemical industry and to power generation from the points of view of the safety, the efficiency, the environment and the economy. The HTGR design is tried to installed passive safety equipment. The current licensing review guideline was made for a Low Water Reactor (LWR) on safety evaluation therefore if it would be directly utilized in the HTGR it needs the special consideration for the HTGR. This paper describes that investigation result of the safety design and the safety evaluation traditions for the HTGR, comparison the safety design and safety evaluation feature for the HTGT with it's the LWR, and reflection for next HTGR based on HTTR operational experiment. (author)

  3. New standard on safety for hydrogen systems in spanish. Keys for understanding and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Aprea, Jose [CNEA, Argentine Atomic Energy Commission - AAH - IRAM - Comahue University, CC 805 - Neuquen (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    The present paper approaches all the preliminary, normative and additional elements observed during the work carried out by the Argentine standardization board to count in the country with a normative document that covers the expectations of the local community of users and other Spanish-speaking user, about the integral safety for the hydrogen systems. The antecedents and the process of adoption of an international standard and its adaptation to the local media are analyzed. The result has been the Standard IRAM/ISO 15916 that intends to offer, to all the users and especially to those who are not familiar with the technology, a base to understand the subject of safety, thus enhancing the education of the general public in hydrogen safety matters. (author)

  4. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... No. NHTSA-2010-0158 Regulation Identifier No. (RIN) 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... (SNPRM). SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213...

  5. 77 FR 22564 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2012-0019] Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Full- Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs; Compliance Form AGENCY... safety standards for full-size and non-full-size baby cribs in response to the direction under section...

  6. EMPLOYEE PERCEPTIONS OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mojapelo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The inability to follow occupational health and safety standards typically resultsin accidents that place severe financial burdens on both employees as well asorganisations. The aim of this studyis to explore the perceptionsof employees inthe steel industry towards occupational health and safety standards in the steelindustry in South Africa. A survey was conducted in which a structuredquestionnaire was distributed to a purposive sample of 165 employees employedby a largesteel processing company in Gauteng Province. The collected data wereanalysed using SPSS (Version 22.0. A combination of descriptive statistics andanalysis of mean scores was applied to meet the aim of the study. The resultsreveal that employees in the steel industry perceived that occupational health andsafety standards were satisfactory in all seven occupational health and safetydimensions considered in this study. These are (1 information and training, (2health and safety awareness, (3 employee behaviour (4 role of the supervisor, (5health and safety reporting mechanisms, (6 workplace inspection, and (7workplace environment. Among these dimensions, safety awareness emerged asthe most important dimension to employees. The results may be utilised bymanagers in the steel industry to identify and direct their attention to the keyoccupational health and safety factors in their different contexts.

  7. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization

  8. Present status and improvement approach of atomic energy laws and safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, B. J.; An, H. J.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, C. B.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.

    2000-01-01

    Major revision to the atomic energy act, which is currently undergoing are introduced: increase of members of nuclear safety commission, adoption of standard design certification, periodic safety review, production license system of radioactive isotope facilities, preparation for implementation of IAEA convention. Improvement of the notice of ministry of science and technology are discussed in accordance with the new atomic energy act, enforcement detect, and enforcement regulations, whose revision were completed in May 2000. Allocation of the code number to the notice, development procedures for the safety and regulatory guides are also introduced

  9. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  10. Safety of reactors built according to earlier standards (WWER 440/V230 type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.; Rohar, S.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of safety of WWER-440/V-230 type reactors are discussed, and the following conclusions are made. (1) The reactors have a very good operational record. (2) The reactors have serious design shortcomings, which should be eliminated by safety upgrading. Core damage frequency should be further reduced. (3) PSA methods constitute an appropriate tool for assessment of plant vulnerability to some initiating events and malfunctions, for prioritization of upgrading measures and for tolerability of deviations from current safety standards. (4) The most important safety merits, such as a large thermal inertia and low rupture probability, should be properly taken into account in the analysis. (5) Extensive safety upgrading is feasible and can lead to a considerable risk reduction. In certain circumstances such upgrading is the least expensive option even though the total cost is much higher than the initial plant construction cost. (6) Properly upgraded, the reactor units may be operable until better power resources are available within the country. (7) The existing gap between the technological and political judgements of nuclear safety should be reduced continuously by information exchange improvements. (8) A unified approach to nuclear safety should be adopted for all nuclear reactors (not just WWERs) built to earlier standards. 5 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper

  12. 25 CFR 36.23 - Standard VIII-Junior high/middle school instructional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... curriculum. (1) Career exploration and orientation. (2) Environmental and safety education. (3) Metric... vocational exploration class shall be consistent with applicable health and safety standards. ...

  13. Safety analyses for high-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.

    1978-01-01

    The safety evaluation of HTRs may be based on the three methods presented here: The licensing procedure, the probabilistic risk analysis, and the damage extent analysis. Thereby all safety aspects - from normal operation to the extreme (hypothetical) accidents - of the HTR are covered. The analyses within the licensing procedure of the HTR-1160 have shown that for normal operation and for the design basis accidents the radiation exposures remain clearly below the maximum permissible levels as prescribed by the radiation protection ordinance, so that no real hazard for the population will avise from them. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Radiation Safety Analysis In The NFEC For Assessing Possible Implementation Of The ICRP-60 Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yowono, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation safety analysis of the 3 facilities in the nuclear fuel element center (NFEC) for assessing possible implementation of the ICRP-60 standard has been done. The analysis has covered the radiation dose received by workers, dose rate in the working area, surface contamination level, air contamination level and the level of radioactive gas release to the environment. The analysis has been based on BATAN regulation and ICRP-60 standard. The result of the analysis has showed that the highest radiation dose received has been found to be only around 15% of the set value in the ICRP-60 standard and only 6% of the set value in the BATAN regulation. Thus the ICRP-60 as radiation safety standard could be implemented without changing the laboratory design

  15. Special technology with high safety-related standards for the repair of the wellhead damage of a gas filled cavern at storage site Stassfurt; Spezialtechnologie mit hohen Sicherheitsvorkehrungen zur Beseitigung des Bohrlochkopfschadens einer Gaskaverne des Kavernenspeichers Stassfurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, S.; Klafki, M. [ESK-Erdgasspeicher Kalle GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    For the completion of the cavern Stassfurt S 106 which was leached by the so called ''solution mining under gas'' technology, the leaching strings 6 5/8''-4 1/2'' should be pulled out by using a snubbing unit. Due to an unexpected damage at the wellhead, the job could not be realized as projected. Therefore the snubbing work was stopped. For solving the technical damage different repair concepts were investigated, for example partial flooding of the cavern with brine or water, sealing of wellhead components by freezing or cutting of the lower leaching string section and setting plugs afterwards. All concepts had been evaluated concerning feasibility and risks. The most favourable technology was selected on the basis of a comparison of pros and cons and was planned for realization according to a detailed working programme. The specialized contractors as well as the fire brigade have guaranteed the required safety measures. The essential planning and working steps will be described as well as the acquired experiences will be explained in the following section. Finally, it can be stated that all jobs were realized according to the projected programme and all involved persons perfectly worked with the special technologies. (orig.)

  16. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Standard Criticality Safety Requirements #1-520 g Operations in PF-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Alan Joseph Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Guidance has been requested from the Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) regarding processes that involve 520 grams of fissionable material or less. This Level-3 evaluation was conducted and documented in accordance with NCS-AP-004 (Ref. 1), formerly NCS-GUIDE-01. This evaluation is being written as a generic evaluation for all operations that will be able to operate using a 520-gram mass limit. Implementation for specific operations will be performed using a Level 1 CSED, which will confirm and document that this CSED can be used for the specific operation as discussed in NCS-MEMO-17-007 (Ref. 2). This Level 3 CSED updates and supersedes the analysis performed in NCS-TECH-14-014 (Ref. 3).

  17. Cross-index to DOE-prescribed occupational safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A compilation of detailed information from more than three hundred and fifty DOE-prescribed or OSHA-referenced industrial safety codes and standards is presented. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph and page. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents whose codes or standards are contained in this Cross-Index, is listed

  18. Implications of new policies on protection of the environment for the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, some of the safety standards that will be affected by the advent of a new environmental protection framework are examined and the implications for the control strategies contained in the Standards are explored. By this means it is possible to comment on the form that the protection framework might take so that it can be most effectively applied to real environmental control issues. (author)

  19. The Road to Psychological Safety: Legal, Scientific, and Social Foundations for a Canadian National Standard on Psychological Safety in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin; Arnold, Ian; GermAnn, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    In Part 1 of this article, the legal and scientific origins of the concept of psychological safety are examined as background to, and support for, the new Canadian National Standard on Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (CSA Z1003/BNQ 9700). It is shown that five factors influencing psychological safety can be identified as being…

  20. Standards for the High School Psychology Course. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganett, L. Lee

    The latest contribution to the content standards boom that began in the 1990s comes from the American Psychological Association (APA), which recently published "National Standards for the Teaching of High School Psychology." This Digest discusses: (1) the origin and purposes of the project to develop standards for high school psychology…

  1. Safety analysis of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Akira; Morimoto, Toshio

    1975-01-01

    In recent years, in order to satisfy the social requirements of environment and safety and also to cope with the current energy stringency, the installation of safe nuclear power plants is indispensable. Herein, safety analysis and evaluation to confirm quantitatively the safety design of a nuclear power plant become more and more important. The safety analysis and its methods for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor are described, with emphasis placed on the practices by Fuji Electric Manufacturing Co. Fundamental rule of securing plant safety ; safety analysis in normal operation regarding plant dynamic characteristics and radioactivity evaluation ; and safety analysis at the time of accidents regarding plant response to the accidents and radioactivity evaluation are explained. (Mori, K.)

  2. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  3. Standard model for safety analysis report of hexafluoride power plants from natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The standard model for safety analysis report for hexafluoride production power plants from natural uranium is presented, showing the presentation form, the nature and the degree of detail, of the minimal information required by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. (E.G.) [pt

  4. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  5. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ....121) mandates antilock braking systems (ABS) on all new air-braked vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000...-0116] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock Braking Systems in Heavy Truck Tractors and Trailers AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...

  6. Basic safety standards for radiation protection in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The aim of these standards is to insure safety and protection from ionizing radiation in the Syrian Arab Republic. Licensing regulations, dose limits,maximum permissible dose and all kinds of exposure such as occupational, medical and public exposure are presented

  7. 77 FR 73354 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    .... Edwards, Project Manager, Directorate for Engineering Sciences, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 5..., allergic reactions and near- choking episodes are the most common injuries reported in the remaining 58... modification of the ASTM standard to address the requirements for flammability, surface chemicals, cords...

  8. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-26851] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter... occupants. IIHS stated that on-board electronic engine control modules (ECM) will maintain the desired speed... be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) that is capable of limiting the maximum speed of...

  9. Basic safety standards for radiation protection and their application to internal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, M.

    Following a summary of the basic concepts on radiation protection units, the safety standards now in effect in France and those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 9, 1965) to be used as a basis to the next Euratom regulations are developed [fr

  10. 75 FR 35286 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... the retail package. There are seven known firms supplying walkers to the United States market. Four of... instructional literature requirements in the Safety Standard for Infant walkers. DATES: Submit written or... for marking and instructional literature. We estimate the burden of this collection of information as...

  11. 75 FR 30783 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... product and the retail package. There are three known firms supplying bath seats to the United States... marking and instructional literature requirements in the Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats. DATES... for marking and instructional literature. We estimate the burden of this collection of information as...

  12. Basic safety standards for radiation protection in the Syrian Arab Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    The aim of these standards is to insure safety and protection from ionizing radiation in the Syrian Arab Republic. Licensing regulations, dose limits,maximum permissible dose and all kinds of exposure such as occupational, medical and public exposure are presented.

  13. 76 FR 41181 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... to restore the blue and green color boundaries to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No... number in the heading of this document, by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's...

  14. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... petitions for reconsideration from Harley-Davidson Motor Company (January 18, 2008) and Ford Motor Company... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-28322] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and... part, the petitions for reconsideration of the December 4, 2007, final rule reorganizing Federal Motor...

  15. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayabo, Lynette B.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, G overnment, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, R adiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards . The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and

  16. American National Standards Institute ANSI N 43.1 Radiological Safety in the Design and Operation of Particle Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Walker, L.; Liu, J.

    2004-01-01

    The ANSI N43 committee established a writing committee to re-write the ANSI N43.1 accelerator safety standard in 1994. James Liu and Scott Walker were appointed as co-chairman. Compared to the old standard, the new standard is aimed to have a broader application, up-to-date requirements, and recommendations for best practices. The new standard uses a hazard based graded approach to address radiation safety programs for accelerators with various energies, beam currents and applications (excluding medical accelerators which are covered by another standard). Thus, the standard fulfills the goal of the committee to prepare a standard with unlimited application to industrial and research accelerators. The standard is largely complete with chapters as follows: 1) Scope. 2) Definitions. 3) Radiation Safety Program (facility safety program, radiation safety planning, organizational considerations, safety assessment, review and performance evaluation). 4) Radiation Safety System (prompt radiation, safety system features, reliability and fail-safety, tamper resistance, quality control, configuration control, adventitious production of radiation, and induced radioactivity). 5) Personnel Access Control System (including graded approach, postings, barriers, beam inhibiting devices and interlocks). 6) Radiation Control System, (passive shielding, and active systems). 7) Accelerator Operation (including readiness reviews, maintenance and testing, bypasses and deviation from procedure, operating practices, emergencies). 8) Operational Health Physics, and 9) Training. The document also has appendices regarding how to determine the Safety and Operations Envelope, Guidance for Computer Based Access Control Systems, and Radiation Measurements at Accelerators. (Author)

  17. High safety in the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    Presents an interview in question and answer format with the deputy chairman of Gosgortekhnadzor (Committee for Supervision of Industrial Work Safety and Mining Supervision) in which he discusses two recent fatal accidents in the Yasinovskaya-Glubokaya and Chaikino coal mines and identifies areas where safety needs to be improved (more automation, protective devices, ventilation etc.). Discusses the particular problems involved with deep mining (20% of mines are now deeper than 700 m and 27 mines are deeper than 1000 m), such as fires, dust, methane, rock falls, insufficient maintenance and strata control and poor ventilation. Confirms that a large number of accidents is due to poor organization and stresses the fact the coal industry must be subjected to perestroika (restructuring) as much as other areas of society.

  18. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page 17529 in the issue of Tuesday, April 6, 2010, make the following correction...

  19. Safety management as a foundation for evidence-based aeromedical standards and reporting of medical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Anthony D; Watson, Dougal B; Evans, Sally A; Hastings, John; Singh, Jarnail; Thibeault, Claude

    2009-06-01

    The different interpretations by States (countries) of the aeromedical standards established by the International Civil Aviation Organization has resulted in a variety of approaches to the development of national aeromedical policy, and consequently a relative lack of harmonization. However, in many areas of aviation, safety management systems have been recently introduced and may represent a way forward. A safety management system can be defined as "A systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies, and procedures" (1). There are four main areas where, by applying safety management principles, it may be possible to better use aeromedical data to enhance flight safety. These are: 1) adjustment of the periodicity and content of routine medical examinations to more accurately reflect aeromedical risk; 2) improvement in reporting and analysis of routine medical examination data; 3) improvement in reporting and analysis of in-flight medical events; and 4) support for improved reporting of relevant aeromedical events through the promotion of an appropriate culture by companies and regulatory authorities. This paper explores how the principles of safety management may be applied to aeromedical systems to improve their contribution to safety.

  20. Development of High-Level Safety Requirements for a Pyroprocessing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seok Jun; Jo, Woo Jin; You, Gil Sung; Choung, Won Myung; Lee, Ho Hee; Kim, Hyun Min; Jeon, Hong Rae; Ku, Jeong Hoe; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing a pyroproceesing technology to reduce the waste volume and recycle some elements. The pyroprocessing includes several treatment processes which are related with not only radiological and physical but also chemical and electrochemical properties. Thus, it is of importance to establish safety design requirements considering all the aspects of those properties for a reliable pyroprocessing facility. In this study, high-level requirements are presented in terms of not only radiation protection, nuclear criticality, fire protection, and seismic safety but also confinement and chemical safety for the unique characteristics of a pyroprocessing facility. Several high-level safety design requirements such as radiation protection, nuclear criticality, fire protection, seismic, confinement, and chemical processing were presented for a pyroprocessing facility. The requirements must fulfill domestic and international safety technology standards for a nuclear facility. Furthermore, additional requirements should be considered for the unique electrochemical treatments in a pyroprocessing facility.

  1. Preparation of high purity plutonium oxide for radiochemistry instrument calibration standards and working standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-04-01

    Due to the lack of suitable high level National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable plutonium solution standards from the NIST or commercial vendors, the CST-8 Radiochemistry team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has prepared instrument calibration standards and working standards from a well-characterized plutonium oxide. All the aliquoting steps were performed gravimetrically. When a 241 Am standardized solution obtained from a commercial vendor was compared to these calibration solutions, the results agreed to within 0.04% for the total alpha activity. The aliquots of the plutonium standard solutions and dilutions were sealed in glass ampules for long term storage

  2. THE CONFORMITY OF MACHINE TOOLS WITH RESPECT TO EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/TE

    2001-01-01

    European regulations require that all motorized machine tools conform to the latest safety standards by the end of the year 2000. CERN must follow these regulations and has already modified most of its machine tools accordingly. However, there is still a small number of machine tools which have not yet been modified as required. These machines should not be used until they are brought up to the required safety standards, failing which the machines should be discarded. One can recognise which machine tools conform with the latest standards by the indication 'CS' on the identification plate of the machine, see foto below. In cases of doubt about the status of a machine tool you should contact K. Altherr/EST or C. Margaroli/TIS for advice.

  3. THE CONFORMITY OF MACHINE TOOLS WITH RESPECT TO EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/TE

    2000-01-01

    European regulations require that all motorized machine tools conform to the latest safety standards by the end of the year 2000. CERN must follow these regulations and has already modified most of its machine tools accordingly. However, there is still a small number of machine tools which have not yet been modified as required. These machines should not be used until they are brought up to the required safety standards, failing which the machines should be discarded. One can recognise which machine tools conform with the latest standards by the indication 'CS' on the identification plate of the machine, see foto below. In cases of doubt about the status of a machine tool you should contact K. Altherr/EST or C. Margaroli/TIS for advice.

  4. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations. Metrics development and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aaron P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  5. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities

  6. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  7. Standardized System of Nuclear Safety Information for the Promotion of Transparency and Openness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gihyung; Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Gyehwi; Yoon, Yeonhwa; Song, Song Hyerim; Jeong, Jina [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jaehyung; Seo, Jonghwan [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    There has been an increasing emphasis on the need for increased disclosure of information through the home page of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), responsible for nuclear safety regulations, and the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) to enhance public understanding of nuclear safety. However, due to the dazzled structure of the existing KINS and NSIC home pages, improvements in accessibility and convenience are necessary. At the same time, content standardization is required to increase operational efficiency and provide coherent information. In this study, the Delphi method was used to select the major contents to make available on the home page as well as the main user base definition for the home page layout development. Also, internal and external expert groups were created to conduct AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis and develop the comparative analysis items for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC)/KINS/NSIC home pages. Afterwards, problems and points of improvements for the home page system, design, and profile were derived using heuristic analysis. The implications arising from the Delphi analysis results were applied to the home page layout. In the nuclear safety information standardized system construction process, the comparative analysis conducted using the AHP and heuristic analyses of the NRC home page resulted in deriving improvements for the Guidance, Organization, and Trustworthy items of the KINS/NSIC home page. Furthermore, through the Delphi analysis, a clear purpose and core values were set for the KINS web site, and the needs of the main user base were identified. By developing the home page layout, user interest and utility were raised to improve the organization method and layout. Through this study, KINS was able to construct a nuclear safety information standardized system and increase transparency and openness by providing feature enhancements in information provision as well as user accessibility and

  8. Standardized System of Nuclear Safety Information for the Promotion of Transparency and Openness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gihyung; Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Gyehwi; Yoon, Yeonhwa; Song, Song Hyerim; Jeong, Jina; Byun, Jaehyung; Seo, Jonghwan

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing emphasis on the need for increased disclosure of information through the home page of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), responsible for nuclear safety regulations, and the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) to enhance public understanding of nuclear safety. However, due to the dazzled structure of the existing KINS and NSIC home pages, improvements in accessibility and convenience are necessary. At the same time, content standardization is required to increase operational efficiency and provide coherent information. In this study, the Delphi method was used to select the major contents to make available on the home page as well as the main user base definition for the home page layout development. Also, internal and external expert groups were created to conduct AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis and develop the comparative analysis items for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC)/KINS/NSIC home pages. Afterwards, problems and points of improvements for the home page system, design, and profile were derived using heuristic analysis. The implications arising from the Delphi analysis results were applied to the home page layout. In the nuclear safety information standardized system construction process, the comparative analysis conducted using the AHP and heuristic analyses of the NRC home page resulted in deriving improvements for the Guidance, Organization, and Trustworthy items of the KINS/NSIC home page. Furthermore, through the Delphi analysis, a clear purpose and core values were set for the KINS web site, and the needs of the main user base were identified. By developing the home page layout, user interest and utility were raised to improve the organization method and layout. Through this study, KINS was able to construct a nuclear safety information standardized system and increase transparency and openness by providing feature enhancements in information provision as well as user accessibility and

  9. High-heat tank safety issue resolution program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to provide a guide for selecting corrective actions that will mitigate and/or remediate the high-heat waste tank safety issue for single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This program plan also outlines the logic for selecting approaches and tasks to mitigate and resolve the high-heat safety issue. The identified safety issue for high-heat tank 241-C-106 involves the potential release of nuclear waste to the environment as the result of heat-induced structural damage to the tank's concrete, if forced cooling is interrupted for extended periods. Currently, forced ventilation with added water to promote thermal conductivity and evaporation cooling is used to cool the waste. At this time, the only viable solution identified to resolve this safety issue is the removal of heat generating waste in the tank. This solution is being aggressively pursued as the permanent solution to this safety issue and also to support the present waste retrieval plan. Tank 241-C-106 has been selected as the first SST for retrieval. The program plan has three parts. The first part establishes program objectives and defines safety issues, drivers, and resolution criteria and strategy. The second part evaluates the high-heat safety issue and its mitigation and remediation methods and alternatives according to resolution logic. The third part identifies major tasks and alternatives for mitigation and resolution of the safety issue. Selected tasks and best-estimate schedules are also summarized in the program plan

  10. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. THESEUS - a research project to improve the safety standard of tank vehicles for dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, B.

    1992-01-01

    A research project reffered to as THESEUS was initiated by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology of Germany. The intent of the investigation is to generate measures designed to enhance the safety standard of commercial transports of dangerous goods in tank vehicles. Hereby, the analysis of real accidents by teams within the project will provide the relevant parameters for the experimental and theoretical investigation of vehicles, tank components and safety devices. The project started in summer 1990. This paper will focus main features and the work done so far. Special consideration will be made to the failure behaviour of tank components as the authors field of activity. (orig.)

  12. Working Towards Unified Safety Design Criteria for Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik; Silady, Fred; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Development Section of the IAEA recently received approval for a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to investigate and make proposals on modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) Safety design criteria. It is expected that these criteria would consider past experience and existing safety standards in the light of modular HTGR material and design characteristics to propose safety design criteria. It will consider the deterministic and risk-informed safety design standards that apply to the wide spectrum of Off- normal events under development worldwide for existing and planned HTGRs. The CRP would also take into account lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, clarifying the safety approach and safety evaluation criteria for design and beyond design basis events, including those events that can affect multiple reactor modules and/or are dependent on the application proximate to the plant site. (e. g., industrial process steam/heat). The logical flow of criteria is from the fundamental inherent safety characteristics of modular HTGRs and associated expected performance characteristics, to the safety functions required to ensure those characteristics during the wide spectrum of Off-normal events, and finally to specific criteria related to those functions. This is detailed in the paper with specific examples included of how it may be applied. The results of the CRP will be made available to the member states and HTGR community. (author)

  13. Common basis of establishing safety standards and other safety decision-making levels for different sources of health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Current approaches in establishing safety standards and other decision-making levels for different sources of health risk are critically analysed. To have a common basis for this decision-making a specific risk index R is recommended. In the common sense R is quantitatively defined as LLE caused by the annual exposure to the risk source considered: R = annual exposure, damage (LLE) from the exposure unit. This common definition is also rewritten in specific forms for a set of different risk sources (ionising radiation, chemical pollutants, etc): for different risk sources the exposure can be measured with different quantities (the probability of death, the exposure dose, etc.). R is relative LLE: LLE in years referred to 1 year under the risk. The dimension of this value is [year/year]. In the statistical sense R is conditionally the share of the year, which is lost due to exposure to a risk source during this year. In this sense R can be called as the relative damage. Really lifetime years are lost after the exposure. R can be in some conditional sense considered as a dimensionless quantity. General safety standards R n for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index: R n = 0.0007 and 0.01 accordingly. Secondary safety standards are derived for a number of risk sources (ionising radiation, environmental chemical pollutants, etc). Values of R n are chosen in such a way that to have the secondary radiation BSS being equivalent to the current one's. Other general and derived levels for safety decision-making are also proposed including the de-minimus levels. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data (HDD) is considered. Such issues as the ways of the integration and averaging of risk indices considered through the national or regional HDD for different risk sources and the use of non-threshold linear exposure - response relationships for ionising radiation and chemical pollutants are analysed

  14. Public and Private Food Safety Standards: Facilitating or Frustrating Fresh Produce Growers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mei Soon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global private food safety and quality standards have undergone some major overhauls during the past two decades, and these will continue to evolve with the recent emphasis on harmonization. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI attempts to ensure that harmonize retail standards are commendable and elegant in principle, but in practice, retailers continue to demand their own standard, whilst supporting GFSI’s benchmarking program. It is difficult to see such retailers giving up their own standards and the control they currently exert as chain captains. There is also the risk that too much harmonization will result in these standards losing their individuality and uniqueness. Amidst the struggle for private standard dominance, alternative approaches to risk management (e.g., self-assessment of risk, independent audits and risk ranking may be the way forward, similar to how insurance risks are calculated for businesses. Furthermore, this risk-based approach could also lead to the effective implementation of co-regulation, where both public and private sector compliances are addressed together—a win-win situation. This paper considers the implications and future trends of fresh produce farming, and identifies five interventions (i.e., assurance schemes, which include the do-nothing scenario to underpinning one’s brand or label with an existing scheme.

  15. The impact of safety standards updating for design purposes in nuclear power plants licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Rabello, Sidney Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian experience of nuclear power plants licensing was consolidated by the use of the Brazilian, American, German and IAEA standards. Independently of the set of norms, standards or guides to be used, this set should be in consonance with the state-of-art or the current state of knowledge in science and technology. In the general design criteria of US NRC or German BMI, or in the Brazilian norms (CNEN) or even, in the IAEA standards, this aspect is always emphasized. On the other hand, the international operational experience of nuclear reactors (for example, TMI accident) also contributes to the updating of norms and standards. The use of new technologies (for example, digital technology) impels the norms and standards to adopt new design criteria related to the new technological context. Moreover, we must add the particular vision that each country can have concerning to specific topics in nuclear safety. This work discusses how the norms, standards and guides used in the nuclear licensing are being reviewed to cope with the requirement of the state-of-art. In order to accomplish this aim we took some general design criteria to exemplify how they are fulfilled, mainly those related directly with the protection of the defense-in-depth barriers: primary coolant system, containment vessel and containment systems, including external events and severe accidents. In complement to the deterministic analysis, it is also discussed the design criteria related to the human factors engineering and probabilistic safety analysis, including severe accidents aspects. (author)

  16. Integrated protection model: ISO 45001 as a future of safety and health standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increase in awareness of the importance of human resources and their contribution to the value of the organization, there is a growing awareness of the need for their management. The fact that modern society prescribes by the law that organizations must identify dangers and hazards, risk level that may arise, as well as their management and implementation of consistent measures to reduce their impact, shows the importance that is attributed to this issue. For the effective implementation of laws in the field of health and safety at work and other necessary protective measures, there has been a need for a systematic approach to management in this area. Systematic approach to management in the field of health and safety at work ensures the implementation of all measures necessary for the safe operation thus protecting both employees and organization. This systematic approach is reflected in the current standard OHSAS 18001, which aims to establish control over the risks that carry harmful potentials, and thus ensuring the continuity of operation of the organization. The focus of the scientific community which is actively working on improving the existing standards in the field of safety and health of employees is focused on the upcoming standard that will replace OHSAS 18001. The upcoming standard places a greater emphasis on the risk management and the ongoing assessment of risks and opportunities to prevent or reduce side effects. The innovations in this standard are reflected in the strengthening of the role of top management and top management as well as in the context of the 'organization' itself. ISO 45001 provides for active participation of management in all processes of health and safety at work and tends to reduce the usage of process of delegated responsibility to one manager, while, on the other hand, the organization looks at the broader, i.e., the requirements of the wider community are taken into account.

  17. A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-15

    To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10{sup -6} per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective

  18. A probabilistic safety assessment of the standard French 900MWe pressurized water reactor. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    To situate the probabilistic safety assessment of standardized 900 MWe units made by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), it is necessary to consider the importance and possible utilization of a study of this type. At the present time, the safety of nuclear installations essentially depends on the application of the defence in-depth approach. The design arrangements adopted are justified by the operating organization on the basis of deterministic studies of a limited number of conventional situations with corresponding safety margins. These conventional situations are grouped in categories by frequency, it being accepted that the greater the consequences the lesser the frequency must be. However in the framework of the analysis performed under the control of the French safety authority, the importance was rapidly recognized of setting an overall reference objective. By 1977, on the occasion of appraisal of the fundamental safety options of the standardized 1300 MWe units, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCSIN) set the following global probabilistic objective: 'Generally speaking, the design of installations including a pressurized water nuclear reactor must be such that the global probability of the nuclear unit being the origin of unacceptable consequences does not exceed 10 -6 per year...' Probabilistic analyses making reference to this global objective gradually began to supplement the deterministic approach, both for examining external hazards to be considered in the design basis and for examining the possible need for additional means of countering the failure of doubled systems in application of the deterministic single-failure criterion. A new step has been taken in France by carrying out two level 1 probabilistic safety assessments (calculation of the annual probability of core meltdown), one for the 900 MWe series by the IPSN and the other for the 1300 MWe series by Electricite de France. The objective of

  19. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to comply...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.4 - Rules of practice for administrative adjudications for enforcement of safety and health standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be the same as those published in part 6 of this title with respect to safety and health... with the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health who shall publish a notice in... enforcement of safety and health standards. 1926.4 Section 1926.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...

  1. The 3rd ATLAS Domestic Standard Problem for Improvement of Safety Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ki-Yong; Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Yusun; Kim, Jongrok; Bae, Byoung-Uhn; Choi, Nam-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The third ATLAS DSP (domestic standard problem exercise) was launched at the end of 2012 in response to the strong need for continuation of the ATLAS DSP. A guillotine break of a main steam line without LOOP at a zero power condition was selected as a target scenario, and it was successfully completed in the beginning of 2014. In the 3 rd ATLAS DSP, comprehensive utilization of the integral effect test data was made by dividing analysis with three topics; 1. scale-up where extrapolation of ATLAS IET data was investigated 2. 3D analysis where how much improvement can be obtained by 3D modeling was studied 3. 1D sensitivity analysis where the key phenomena affecting the SLB simulation were identified and the best modeling guideline was achieved. Through such DSP exercises, it has been possible to effectively utilize high-quality ATLAS experimental data of to enhance thermal-hydraulic understanding and to validate the safety analysis codes. A strong human network and technical expertise sharing among the various nuclear experts are also important outcomes from this program

  2. Failure trend analysis for safety related components of Korean standard NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Han, Sang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    The component reliability data of Korean NPP that reflects the plant specific characteristics is required necessarily for PSA of Korean nuclear power plants. We have performed a project to develop the component reliability database (KIND, Korea Integrated Nuclear Reliability Database) and S/W for database management and component reliability analysis. Based on the system, we have collected the component operation data and failure/repair data during from plant operation date to 2002 for YGN 3, 4 and UCN 3, 4 plants. Recently, we provided the component failure rate data for UCN 3, 4 standard PSA model from the KIND. We evaluated the components that have high-ranking failure rates with the component reliability data from plant operation date to 1998 and 2000 for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3, 4 respectively. We also identified their failure mode that occurred frequently. In this study, we analyze the component failure trend and perform site comparison based on the generic data by using the component reliability data which is extended to 2002 for UCN 3, 4 and YGN 3, 4 respectively. We focus on the major safety related rotating components such as pump, EDG etc

  3. Activity of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for compiling the consensus standard on nuclear criticality safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Tadakuni

    2003-01-01

    Activity of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for compiling the consensus standard on nuclear criticality safety control is presented. The standard recommends an enhancement of nuclear criticality safety throughout a life cycle of facility in terms of a concept of 'barriers against criticality'. (author)

  4. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care Contract...

  5. Technical Standards on the Safety Assessment of a HLW Repository in Other Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The basic function of HLW disposal system is to prevent excessive radio-nuclides being leaked from the repository in a short time. To do this, many technical standards should be developed and established on the components of disposal system. Safety assessment of a repository is considered as one of technical standards, because it produces quantitative results of the future evolution of a repository based on a reasonably simplified model. In this paper, we investigated other countries' regulations related to safely assessment focused on the assessment period, radiation dose limits and uncertainties of the assessment. Especially, in the investigation process of the USA regulations, the USA regulatory bodies' approach to assessment period and peak dose is worth taking into account in case of a conflict between peak dose from safety assessment and limited value in regulation.

  6. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  7. Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Blumberg, Bruce; Antoniou, Michael N; Benbrook, Charles M; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Myers, John Peterson

    2017-06-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ∼100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs. We conclude that current safety standards for GBHs are outdated and may fail to protect public health or the environment. To improve safety standards, the following are urgently needed: (1) human biomonitoring for glyphosate and its metabolites; (2) prioritisation of glyphosate and GBHs for hazard assessments, including toxicological studies that use state-of-the-art approaches; (3) epidemiological studies, especially of occupationally exposed agricultural workers, pregnant women and their children and (4) evaluations of GBHs in commercially used formulations, recognising that herbicide mixtures likely have effects that are not predicted by studying glyphosate alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.

  9. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Xu, Zhengping

    2010-01-27

    There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  10. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczynski Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  11. Preclinical Safety Assessment of Standardized Extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Pallavi O.; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Context: Centella asiatica (CA) leaves extract has been shown therapeutic potential. However, safety information is lacking. Aims: To evaluate acute oral toxicity (AOT), sub-chronic toxicity, and mutagenic potential of standardized extract of CA (L.) Urban leaves (INDCA). Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, INDCA was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose range of 0?2000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the rats of either sex were orally administered...

  12. Standards of care for students with type 1 diabetes: Ensuring safety, health and inclusion in school

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Genevie

    2005-01-01

    Parents of children with type 1 diabetes commonly worry about the ability of school personnel to respond to their child’s diabetes needs, and may feel anxious about the health, safety and inclusion of their child in school. Physicians may be confronted by parents’ fears, anxieties and apprehension, and need to know how to make recommendations based on current best practice. The present article describes the school standards from the position paper of the Canadian Diabetes Association titled, ...

  13. Wilderness Education Association certification and safety, ecological impact, and curriculum standardization of graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Detzel, David

    1985-01-01

    Graduates of the Wilderness Education Association (W.E.A.) were surveyed by mail to investigate the effects of their certification on safety, ecological impact, and curriculum standardization of their subsequent leadership activities. Self-reports showed a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease in the number of post- W.E.A. course evacuations and rescues. Graduates reported a moderate W.E.A. influence on their accident records, and knowledge of W.E.A. stan...

  14. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.; Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1985-02-01

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  15. Degradation of fluorescent high-visibility colors used in safety garments for the Australian railway industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Arun; Islam, Saniyat; Jones, Michael; Padhye, Rajiv; Arnold, Lyndon

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the compliance of four fluorescent orange high-visibility garment substrates that are predominantly used in the Australian railway industry. While Special Purpose Orange (SPO), a shade of the Fluorescent orange (Fl-orange) is recommended by most Australian states as the high-visibility background color of a safety garment, there appear to be variations in the background color of clothing used by line-workers and rail contractors. The color of the garment was assessed for compliance with the Australian Standard AS/NZS 1906.2.2010 for high-visibility materials for safety garments. The results were also compared with ANSI Z535.2011 and BS EN ISO 20471.2013 Standards. Photometric and colorimetric assessments of the background color of the garment substrates were performed using a spectrophotometer and were evaluated for compliance with the Standards after washing and exposure to UV. The spectrophotometry measurements showed that Fl-orange background color for all samples except one complied with the AS/NZS 1906.2 Standard for daytime high-visibility garments after 20 washes but failed to comply after exposure to UV. It was also found that the chromaticity coordinates of the corners of the Fl-orange color space, specified in the AS/NZS 1906.4.2010 Standard are much wider and yellower when compared with the ANSI Z535.1.2011 and BS EN ISO 20471.2013 Standards. The sample that failed to comply with the Australian and American Standards however complied with the ISO Standard. Irrespective of the Standard used, the research has shown the degrading effect of washing and light exposure and raises the questions as to how regularly, and under what conditions high-visibility garments need to be replaced. These findings will provide information for safety garment manufacturers about the characteristics and performance of high-visibility safety garments which make them conspicuous during daytime use. This research recommends that colors for railway workers

  16. Development of format and contents of safety analysis report for the KNGR standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Yun, Y. K. and others

    1999-01-01

    Referring to the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70 which has been used in the preparation of the SAR for conventional nuclear power plants, the draft guide for format and contents of the SAR for the KNGR standard design was developed based on new regulatory information related to advanced reactors. The draft guide will enable the regulator to make an effective and consistent review on the safety of the KNGR, when this draft guide is used, since the draft guide requires more specific and additional safety information for the standardized NPPs than RG 1.70. In addition, it is expected that the guide for the format and contents of the COL's SAR will be more easily developed using the draft guide suggested in this report. Also, the draft guide can serve as the Korean national guide, with the exception to some industry codes and standards. The experts' review will be performed during the next stage of the project to ensure the objectivity and consistency of the draft guide developed in this study. After reflecting the experts' comments in the guide and revising the contents, it will be utilized in the licensing activities for the KNGR standard design

  17. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  18. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety

  19. Key elements on implementing an occupational health and safety management system using ISO 45001 standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabont Doru Costin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health and safety (OHS management system is one of the main elements of the company’s general management system. During last decade, Romanian companies gained a valuable experience on implementing this type of management systems, using OHSAS 18001 referential and standard. However, the projected release of the ISO 45001 represents a new approach which requires the companies to take in consideration new key elements for a successful implementation of the OHS management system. The aim of the paper is to identify and analyse these key elements, by integration of the following issues: standard requirements, Romanian OHS legislation and good practice examples, including the general control measures for new and emerging risks such as psycho-social risks, workforce ageing and new technologies. The study results represent an important work instrument for each company interested to implement or upgrade its OHS management system using ISO 45001 standard and could be used regardless the company size or activity domain.

  20. Living up to high standards and psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    We argue and demonstrate that setting high standards, an essential aspect of perfectionism, is not associated with maladaptive responses in and of itself. Rather, our findings suggest that people's responses to their perceptions that they consistently fail to meet their own standards are

  1. A Study on the Improvement of Safety Testing Standards and Methods for Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Jung, Ah Young; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Jang, Gi Won; Cha, Sang Hoon; Jo, Sang Won; Park, Ji Koon

    2012-01-01

    To establish the improved national safety testing standards and methods for mammography. We investigated and compared the current status of mammographic equipment installation with the national and international safety and quality control programs and methods. We established and verified the draft for safety testing standards and methods. We propose that the investigations of the conductor system, hardware leakage radiation profile, illumination intensity test, comparison between X-ray and light photon exposure, X-ray dose exposure on the chest wall, compression equipment size, timing equipment, and the average effective radiation dose, should all be maintained as they are in the present state without any changes. However, the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp and mAs, and the half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised. Moreover, compression pressure and autonomic exposure control system (AEC) tests should be included as new criteria. Other parameter controls included in the phantom image analysis which overlap with total quality assurance should be excluded. We recommend that AEC and compression pressure tests should be included as new criteria and the methods for the exposure radiation dose reproducibility, kVp, and mAs, and half value layer tests should be reconsidered and revised.

  2. Co-operative development of nuclear safety regulations, guides and standards based on NUSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachner, J.; Boyd, F.C.; Yaremy, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    A major need of developing Member States building nuclear power plants (NPPs) of foreign origin is to acquire a capability to regulate such nuclear plants independently. Among other things, this requires the development of national nuclear safety regulations, guides and standards to govern the development and use of nuclear technology. Recognizing the importance and complexity of this task, it seems appropriate that the NPP-exporting Member States share their experience and assist the NPP-importing Member States in the development of their national regulations and guides. In 1983, the Atomic Energy Control Board and Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. conducted a study of a possible joint programme involving Canada, an NPP-importing Member State and the IAEA for the development of the national nuclear safety regulations and guides based on NUSS documents. During the study, a work plan with manpower estimates for the development of design regulations, safety guides and a guide for regulatory evaluation of design was prepared as an investigatory exercise. The work plan suggests that a successful NUSS implementation in developing Member States will require availability of significant resources at the start of the programme. The study showed that such a joint programme could provide an effective mechanism for transfer of nuclear safety know-how to the developing Member States through NUSS implementation. (author)

  3. Reliability study: digital engineered safety feature actuation system of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarno; Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-04-01

    The usage of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) in a nuclear power plant becomes more extensive, including safety related systems. The PSA application of these new designs are very important in order to evaluate their reliability. In particular, Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPPs), typically Ulchin 5 and 6 (UCN 5 and 6) reactor units, adopted the digital safety-critical systems such as Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System (DESFAS). In this research, we developed fault tree models for assessing the unavailability of the DESFAS functions. We also performed an analysis of the quantification results. The unavailability results of different DESFAS functions showed that their values are comprised from 5.461E-5 to 3.14E-4. The system unavailability of DESFAS AFAS-1 is estimated as 5.461E-5, which is about 27% less than that of analog system if we consider the difference of human failure probability estimation between both analyses. The results of this study could be utilized in risk-effect analysis of KSNPP. We expect that the safety analysis result will contribute to design feedback

  4. Standard review plan for reviewing safety analysis reports for dry metallic spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Cask Standard Review Plan (CSRP) has been prepared as guidance to be used in the review of Cask Safety Analysis Reports (CSARs) for storage packages. The principal purpose of the CSRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of storage cask reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The CSRP also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the NRC staff in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a CSAR does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the CSRP. However, applicants should recognize that the NRC staff has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches

  5. The prospect of food irradiation and the contribution of radiation chemistry to enact the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Yuan Rongyao

    1986-01-01

    Now, it is said that we are at the dawn of food irradiation application both nationally and internationally. However, referring to the acceptability of customers the labeling of irradiated foods has been a nightmare to the food processors. On the other hand the recommended international standard has the shortcomings of thinking in absolute terms. In this paper a proposal which puts special emphasis on enacting hygienic safety standard of individual irradiated food is recommended. The hygienic safety standard of the irradiated food may be classified in three classes: 1) its hygienic safety standard is similar to that of common food; 2) the maximum permissible quantities of harmful compounds induced by radiation must be controlled; and 3) the quantity of unique radiolysis products may by dutermined. Radiation chemistry plays an important role in enacting the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods. For international cooperation in this field some suggestions are made

  6. The comparison of high and standard definition computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparison of high and standard definition computed tomography techniques regarding coronary artery imaging. A Aykut, D Bumin, Y Omer, K Mustafa, C Meltem, C Orhan, U Nisa, O Hikmet, D Hakan, K Mert ...

  7. Investigating the influence on safety of retrofitting Italian motorways with barriers meeting a new EU standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Carmelo; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2017-04-03

    A new European Union (EU) regulation for safety barriers, which is based on performance, has encouraged road agencies to perform an upgrade of old barriers, with the expectation that there will be safety benefits at the retrofitted sites. The new class of barriers was designed and installed in compliance with the 1998 (European Norm) EN 1317 standards for road restraint systems, which lays down common requirements for the testing and certification of road restraint systems in all countries of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Both the older and new barriers are made of steel and are installed in such a way as to avoid vehicle intrusion, but the older ones are thought to be only effective at low speeds and large angles of impact. The new standard seeks to remedy this by providing better protection at higher speeds. This article seeks to quantify the effect on the frequency of fatal and injury crashes of retrofitting motorways with barriers meeting the new standards. The estimation of the crash modification was carried out by performing an empirical Bayes before-after analysis based on data from the A18 Messina-Catania motorway in Italy. The methodology has the great advantage to account for the regression to the mean effects. Besides, to account for time trend effects and dispersion of crash data, a modified calibration methodology of safety performance was used. This study, based on data collected on 76 km of motorway in the period 2000-2012, derived Crash Modification Factor point estimates that indicate reductions of 72% for run-off-road fatal and injury crashes and 38% in total fatal and injury crashes that could be expected by upgrading an old safety barrier by complying with new EU 1317 standards. The estimated benefit-cost ratio of 5.57 for total crashes indicates that the treatment is cost effective. The magnitude of this benefit indicates that the retrofits are cost-effective even for total crashes and should continue in any European country

  8. Safety of High Speed Ground Transportation Systems : Analytical Methodology for Safety Validation of Computer Controlled Subsystems : Volume 2. Development of a Safety Validation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a methodology designed to assure that a sufficiently high level of safety is achieved and maintained in computer-based systems which perform safety cortical functions in high-speed rail or magnetic levitation ...

  9. Revision of the Euratom basic safety standards directive-current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundig, S.

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission is currently developing a revised Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive covering two major objectives: the consolidation of existing Euratom Radiation Protection legislation and the revision of the Euratom BSS. The consolidation will merge the following five Directives into one single Directive: the BSS Directive, the Medical Exposures Directive, the Public Information Directive, the Outside Workers Directive and the Directive on the Control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources. The revision of the Euratom BSS will take account of the latest recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and shall improve clarity of the requirements where appropriate. It is planned to introduce more binding requirements on natural radiation sources, on criteria for exemption and clearance, and on the cooperation between Member States for emergency planning and response. The provisions for regulatory control of planned exposure situations foresee a graded approach commensurate to the magnitude and likelihood of exposures from a practice. Finally, the new BSS shall take account of recent scientific developments. One additional goal is to achieve greater harmonisation between the Euratom BSS and the international BSS. While the requirements on the protection of workers, apprentices and students remain nearly unchanged, the revised BSS will clarify the roles and responsibilities of services and experts involved in technical and practical aspects of radiation protection, such as the occupational health services, the dosimetry services, the radiation protection expert and the medical physics expert. The requirements in the BSS on individual monitoring of category A workers remain unchanged, but the existing guidance on individual monitoring was revised and updated-the technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation are published by the European

  10. Proposals for the Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 and the Radioactive Substances (Basic Safety Standards) (England and Wales) Direction 2000. Consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains proposals for changes to the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 (RSA 93) and proposals for a Direction to be given to the Environment Agency in order to implement aspects of the European Directive 96/29/Euratom concerned with the control of radioactive waste. The Directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation. With the Government pledged to making government more accessible and responsive, an important feature of this approach is effective consultation with all interested organisations. This leads to more realistic and robust proposals, which is particularly important when dealing with proposed legislation. In March this year, the Government published a consultation paper 'The Radioactive Substances Act 1993: Implementing the Revised Basic Safety Standards Directive Euratom 96/29.' This sought comments on the basic principles for change - including the setting of levels of radioactivity below which radioactive material should be considered outside the framework of regulatory control. This document forms the second stage of the consultation process with the aim of gathering views on the proposed legal instruments to implement the Directive. This document: explains the background to the proposed regulations (paragraphs 8-13); summarises the results of the consultation on principles (paragraphs 14-24); describes the proposed changes (paragraphs 25-36); includes draft Regulations (paragraphs 27-29); includes a draft Direction to the Environment Agency (paragraphs 30-36); describes the next steps (paragraphs 37-39); includes a draft Regulatory Impact Assessment (paragraphs 40-41). In general, the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have assumed responsibility for environmental issues and hence management of radioactive waste policies and legislation affecting their respective countries. However, this

  11. 78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... single event, due in part to the high occupancy rate of the vehicles, the speed at which they travel, and..., ``NHTSA's Approach to Motorcoach Safety.'' \\2\\ In the plan, the term ``motorcoach'' referred to intercity... the first priority area of the NHTSA plan, to minimize intercity bus passenger and driver ejection by...

  12. National and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Experience feedback from events in nuclear facilities worldwide has shown that fire can represent a safety significant hazard. Thus, the primary objectives of fire protection programmes are to minimize both the probability of occurrence and the consequences of a fire. The regulator body expects that the licensees justify their arrangements for identifying how fires can occur and spread, assess the vulnerability of plant equipment and structures, determine how the safe operation of a plant is affected, and introduce measures to prevent a fire hazard from developing and propagating as well as to mitigate its effects in case the fire cannot be prevented. For that purpose usually a comprehensive regulatory framework for fire protection has been elaborated, based on national industrial regulations, nuclear specific regulations as well as international recommendations or requirements. Examples of such national and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment as well as ongoing activities in this field are described. (orig.)

  13. Developing necessary and sufficient sets of environmental, safety, and health standards at the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.B.; Troy, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to protect its workers, the public, and the environment. To do this, we must understand our work and its potential hazards and tailor our protection to those hazards. Until now, the DOE has regulated environmental, safety, and health aspects of our work through orders and, more recently, through rules. However, it has become apparent that our current approach suffers from several disadvantages. Most notably, it has been difficult to craft orders that recognize and deal effectively with the wide diversity in our work; this can lead to inappropriate requirements and can even compromise safety. Also, the current approach does not easily incorporate the benefits of experience; our practices can become obsolete or ineffectual. This report describes efforts of DOE towards the development of an integrated standards program as the basis for ensuring the protection of workers, public and the environment

  14. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  15. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist

  16. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for stroke prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Dan; Li, Da-Bing; Yu, Xin; Shi, Guo-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous study indicated that high-dose statin treatment might increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke and adverse reactions. We aim to compare the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for preventing stroke in high-risk patients. Methods: A thorough search was performed of multiple databases for publications from 1990 to June 2015. We selected the randomized clinical trials comparing standard-dose statin with placebo and intensive-dose statin with standard-dose statin or placebo for the prevention of stroke events in patients. Duplicate independent data extraction and bias assessments were performed. Data were pooled using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model if significant heterogeneity was present. Results: For the all stroke incidences, intensive-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment and standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment showed a significant 21% reduction in relative risk (RR) (RR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.71, 0.87], P statin treatment compared with standard dose or placebo was effective reducing fatal stroke (RR 0.61, 95% CI [0.39, 0.96], P = 0.03) and the RR was 1.01 (95% CI [0.85, 1.20], P = 0.90) in standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that intensive-dose statin treatment might be more favorable for reducing the incidences of all strokes than standard-dose statin treatment, especially for patients older than 65 years in reducing the incidences of all stroke incidences. PMID:27684837

  17. How meaningful are risk determinations in the absence of a complete dataset? Making the case for publishing standardized test guideline and ‘no effect’ studies for evaluating the safety of nanoparticulates versus spurious ‘high effect’ results from single investigative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, David B.; Donner, E. Maria

    2015-06-01

    A recent review article critically assessed the effectiveness of published research articles in nanotoxicology to meaningfully address health and safety issues for workers and consumers. The main conclusions were that, based on a number of flaws in study designs, the potential risk from exposures to nanomaterials is highly exaggerated, and that no ‘nano-specific’ adverse effects, different from exposures to bulk particles, have been convincingly demonstrated. In this brief editorial we focus on a related tangential issue which potentially compromises the integrity of basic risk science. We note that some single investigation studies report specious toxicity findings, which make the conclusions more alarming and attractive and publication worthy. In contrast, the standardized, carefully conducted, ‘guideline study results’ are often ignored because they can frequently report no adverse effects; and as a consequence are not considered as novel findings for publication purposes, and therefore they are never considered as newsworthy in the popular press. Yet it is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) type test guideline studies that are the most reliable for conducting risk assessments. To contrast these styles and approaches, we present the results of a single study which reports high toxicological effects in rats following low-dose, short-term oral exposures to nanoscale titanium dioxide particles concomitant with selective investigative analyses. Alternatively, the findings of OECD test guideline 408, standardized guideline oral toxicity studies conducted for 90 days at much higher doses (1000 mg kg-1) in male and female rats demonstrated no adverse effects following a very thorough and complete clinical chemical, as well as histopathological evaluation of all of the relevant organs in the body. This discrepancy in study findings is not reconciled by the fact that several biokinetic studies in rats and humans demonstrate little or

  18. How meaningful are risk determinations in the absence of a complete dataset? Making the case for publishing standardized test guideline and ‘no effect’ studies for evaluating the safety of nanoparticulates versus spurious ‘high effect’ results from single investigative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warheit, David B; Donner, E Maria

    2015-01-01

    A recent review article critically assessed the effectiveness of published research articles in nanotoxicology to meaningfully address health and safety issues for workers and consumers. The main conclusions were that, based on a number of flaws in study designs, the potential risk from exposures to nanomaterials is highly exaggerated, and that no ‘nano-specific’ adverse effects, different from exposures to bulk particles, have been convincingly demonstrated. In this brief editorial we focus on a related tangential issue which potentially compromises the integrity of basic risk science. We note that some single investigation studies report specious toxicity findings, which make the conclusions more alarming and attractive and publication worthy. In contrast, the standardized, carefully conducted, ‘guideline study results’ are often ignored because they can frequently report no adverse effects; and as a consequence are not considered as novel findings for publication purposes, and therefore they are never considered as newsworthy in the popular press. Yet it is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) type test guideline studies that are the most reliable for conducting risk assessments. To contrast these styles and approaches, we present the results of a single study which reports high toxicological effects in rats following low-dose, short-term oral exposures to nanoscale titanium dioxide particles concomitant with selective investigative analyses. Alternatively, the findings of OECD test guideline 408, standardized guideline oral toxicity studies conducted for 90 days at much higher doses (1000 mg kg −1 ) in male and female rats demonstrated no adverse effects following a very thorough and complete clinical chemical, as well as histopathological evaluation of all of the relevant organs in the body. This discrepancy in study findings is not reconciled by the fact that several biokinetic studies in rats and humans demonstrate

  19. Opinions on Fresh Produce Food Safety and Quality Standards by Fresh Produce Supply Chain Experts from the Global South and North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Nanyunja, Jessica; Jordaan, Danie; Luning, Pieternel; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types of food safety and quality standards and legislation: Codex Alimentarius standards, European Union legislation, national legislation, and private standards. The results reflect the different circumstances under which the Southern and Northern producers operate in relation to the local organization, regulation, and support of the sector; but they also indicate similar challenges, in particular, the challenge of private standards, which were perceived to demand a higher implementation effort than the other three types of standards. Private standards were also strongly perceived to exclude Southern and Northern small- and medium-scale producers from high-value markets, whereas European Union legislation was perceived to strongly exclude, in particular, small- and medium-scale Southern producers. The results further highlight concerns about costly control measures and third-party certification that are required by downstream buyers but that are mostly paid for by upstream suppliers. Food standards are seen in their dual role as a catalyst for implementation of structured food safety management systems on the one hand and as a nontariff barrier to trade on the other hand. The results of the survey also pointed up the advantages of enforcing food safety and food quality standards in terms of knowledge spillover to noncertified activities, increased revenues, and improved food safety of delivered produce. Survey results highlight the importance of technical assistance and support of producers by governments and producer cooperatives or trade associations in the implementation and certification of food standards, along with increased awareness of and training of individuals in

  20. Draft of standard for graphite core components in high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Eto, Motokuni; Kunimoto, Eiji; Shiozawa, Shusaku; Oku, Tatsuo; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    For the design of the graphite components in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the graphite structural design code for the HTTR etc. were applied. However, general standard systems for the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) have not been established yet. The authors had studied on the technical issues which is necessary for the establishment of a general standard system for the graphite components in the HTGR. The results of the study were documented and discussed at a 'Special committee on research on preparation for codes for graphite components in HTGR' at Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). As a result, 'Draft of Standard for Graphite Core Components in High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor.' was established. In the draft standard, the graphite components are classified three categories (A, B and C) in the standpoints of safety functions and possibility of replacement. For the components in the each class, design standard, material and product standards, and in-service inspection and maintenance standard are determined. As an appendix of the design standard, the graphical expressions of material property data of 1G-110 graphite as a function of fast neutron fluence are expressed. The graphical expressions were determined through the interpolation and extrapolation of the irradiated data. (author)

  1. Long-term safety profile of belimumab plus standard therapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Joan T; Ginzler, Ellen M; Wallace, Daniel J; McKay, James D; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Aranow, Cynthia; Wellborne, Frank R; Burnette, Michael; Condemi, John; Zhong, Z John; Pineda, Lilia; Klein, Jerry; Freimuth, William W

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the safety profile of long-term belimumab therapy combined with standard therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in patients with active disease. Patients who were randomized to receive intravenous placebo or belimumab 1, 4, or 10 mg/kg, plus standard therapy, and completed the initial 52-week double-blind treatment period were then allowed to enter a 24-week open-label extension phase. During the extension period, patients in the belimumab group either received the same dose or were switched to 10 mg/kg and patients in the placebo group were switched to belimumab 10 mg/kg. Patients who achieved a satisfactory response during the 24-week extension period were allowed to participate in the long-term continuation study of monthly belimumab 10 mg/kg. Adverse events (AEs) and abnormal laboratory results were analyzed per 100 patient-years in 1-year intervals. Of the 364 patients who completed the 52-week double-blind treatment period, 345 entered the 24-week extension, and 296 continued treatment with belimumab in the long-term continuation study. Safety data through 4 years of belimumab exposure (1,165 cumulative patient-years) are reported. Incidence rates of AEs, severe/serious AEs, infusion reactions, infections, malignancies, grades 3/4 laboratory abnormalities, and discontinuations due to AEs were stable or declined during 4-year belimumab exposure. The most common AEs included arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, fatigue, and nausea. Serious infusion reactions were rare: only 1 occurred during the 4-year followup period. Rates of serious infection decreased from 5.9/100 patient-years to 3.4/100 patient-years, and no specific type of infection predominated. Belimumab added to standard therapy was generally well-tolerated over the 4-year treatment period in patients with SLE, which suggests that belimumab can be administered long term with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. High impact  =  high statistical standards? Not necessarily so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Giofré, David; Sella, Francesco; Cumming, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    What are the statistical practices of articles published in journals with a high impact factor? Are there differences compared with articles published in journals with a somewhat lower impact factor that have adopted editorial policies to reduce the impact of limitations of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing? To investigate these questions, the current study analyzed all articles related to psychological, neuropsychological and medical issues, published in 2011 in four journals with high impact factors: Science, Nature, The New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet, and three journals with relatively lower impact factors: Neuropsychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied and the American Journal of Public Health. Results show that Null Hypothesis Significance Testing without any use of confidence intervals, effect size, prospective power and model estimation, is the prevalent statistical practice used in articles published in Nature, 89%, followed by articles published in Science, 42%. By contrast, in all other journals, both with high and lower impact factors, most articles report confidence intervals and/or effect size measures. We interpreted these differences as consequences of the editorial policies adopted by the journal editors, which are probably the most effective means to improve the statistical practices in journals with high or low impact factors.

  3. High Impact = High Statistical Standards? Not Necessarily So

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Giofré, David; Sella, Francesco; Cumming, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    What are the statistical practices of articles published in journals with a high impact factor? Are there differences compared with articles published in journals with a somewhat lower impact factor that have adopted editorial policies to reduce the impact of limitations of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing? To investigate these questions, the current study analyzed all articles related to psychological, neuropsychological and medical issues, published in 2011 in four journals with high impact factors: Science, Nature, The New England Journal of Medicine and The Lancet, and three journals with relatively lower impact factors: Neuropsychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied and the American Journal of Public Health. Results show that Null Hypothesis Significance Testing without any use of confidence intervals, effect size, prospective power and model estimation, is the prevalent statistical practice used in articles published in Nature, 89%, followed by articles published in Science, 42%. By contrast, in all other journals, both with high and lower impact factors, most articles report confidence intervals and/or effect size measures. We interpreted these differences as consequences of the editorial policies adopted by the journal editors, which are probably the most effective means to improve the statistical practices in journals with high or low impact factors. PMID:23418533

  4. Standard Review Plan for the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants: LWR edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) is prepared for the guidance of staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation in performing safety reviews of applications to construct or operate nuclear power plants. The principal purpose of the SRP is to assure the quality and uniformity of staff reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. It is also a purpose of the SRP to make information about regulatory matters widely available and to improve communication and understanding of the staff review process by interested members of the public and the nuclear power industry. The safety review is primarily based on the information provided by an applicant in a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The SAR must be sufficiently detailed to permit the staff to determine whether the plant can be built and operated without undue risk to the health and safety of the public. The SAR is the principal document in which the applicant provides the information needed to understand the basis upon which this conclusion has been reached. The individual SRP sections address, in detail, who performs the review, the matters that are reviewed, the basis for review, how the review is accomplished, and the conclusions that are sought. The safety review is performed by 25 primary branches. One of the objectives of the SRP is to assign the review responsibilities to the various branches and to define the sometimes complex interfaces between them. Each SRP section identifies the branch that has the primary review responsibility for that section. In some review areas the primary branch may require support, and the branches that are assigned these secondary review responsibilities are also identified for each SRP section

  5. Thermal safety analysis of a dry storage cask for the Korean standard spent fuel - 16159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jeonghun; Kim, S.N.; Choi, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A conceptual dry storage facility, which is based on a commercial dry storage facility, was designed for the Korea standard spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and preliminary thermal safety analysis was performed in this study. To perform the preliminary thermal analysis, a thermal analysis method was proposed. The thermal analysis method consists of 2 parts. By using the method, the surface temperature of the storage canister corresponding to the SNF clad temperature was calculated and the adequate air duct area was decided using the calculation result. The initial temperature of the facility was calculated and the fire condition and half air duct blockage were analyzed. (authors)

  6. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  7. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  8. Confidence improvement of disosal safety bydevelopement of a safety case for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Ko, Nak Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Many countries have developed a safety case suitable to their own countries in order to improve the confidence of disposal safety in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste as well as to develop a disposal program and obtain its license. This study introduces and summarizes the meaning, necessity, and development process of the safety case for radioactive waste disposal. The disposal safety is also discussed in various aspects of the safety case. In addition, the status of safety case development in the foreign countries is briefly introduced for Switzerland, Japan, the United States of America, Sweden, and Finland. The strategy for the safety case development that is being developed by KAERI is also briefly introduced. Based on the safety case, we analyze the efforts necessary to improve confidence in disposal safety for high-level radioactive waste. Considering domestic situations, we propose and discuss some implementing methods for the improvement of disposal safety, such as construction of a reliable information database, understanding of processes related to safety, reduction of uncertainties in safety assessment, communication with stakeholders, and ensuring justice and transparency. This study will contribute to the understanding of the safety case for deep geological disposal and to improving confidence in disposal safety through the development of the safety case in Korea for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

  9. Summary of component reliability data for probabilistic safety analysis of Korean standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Han, S. H.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability data of Korean NPP that reflects the plant specific characteristics is necessary for PSA of Korean nuclear power plants. We have performed a study to develop the component reliability DB and S/W for component reliability analysis. Based on the system, we had have collected the component operation data and failure/repair data during plant operation data to 1998/2000 for YGN 3,4/UCN 3,4 respectively. Recently, we have upgraded the database by collecting additional data by 2002 for Korean standard nuclear power plants and performed component reliability analysis and Bayesian analysis again. In this paper, we supply the summary of component reliability data for probabilistic safety analysis of Korean standard nuclear power plant and describe the plant specific characteristics compared to the generic data

  10. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais

    2013-01-01

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  11. R&D for Safety Codes and Standards: Materials and Components Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A principal challenge to the widespread adoption of hydrogen infrastructure is the lack of quantifiable data on its safety envelope and concerns about additional risk from hydrogen. To convince regulatory officials, local fire marshals, fuel suppliers, and the public at large that hydrogen refueling is safe for consumer use, the risk to personnel and bystanders must be quantified and minimized to an acceptable level. Such a task requires strong confidence in the safety performance of high pressure hydrogen systems. Developing meaningful materials characterization and qualification methodologies in addition to enhancing understanding of performance of materials is critical to eliminating barriers to the development of safe, low-cost, high-performance high-pressure hydrogen systems for the consumer environment.

  12. Research on Safety Factor of Dam Slope of High Embankment Dam under Seismic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant development of construction technology of embankment dam, the constructed embankment dam becomes higher and higher, and the embankment dam with its height over 200m will always adopt the current design criteria of embankment dam only suitable for the construction of embankment dam lower than 200m in height. So the design criteria of high embankment dam shall be improved. We shall calculate the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam under different dam height, slope ratio and different seismic intensity based on ratio of safety margin, and clarify the change rules of stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m. We calculate the ratio of safety margin of traditional and reliable method by taking the stable, allowable and reliability index 4.2 of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m as the standard value, and conduct linear regression for both. As a result, the conditions, where 1.3 is considered as the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m under seismic condition and 4.2 as the allowable and reliability index, are under the same risk control level.

  13. 76 FR 11415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0027] RIN 2127-AK52 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department... automatic reversal systems (ARS) for power windows and to make a final decision. The agency has decided not...

  14. Safety philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji Katanishi; Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Shusaku Shiozawa

    2002-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has undertaken the study of an original design concept of gas turbine high temperature reactor, the GTHTR300. The general concept of this study is development of a greatly simplified design that leads to substantially reduced technical and cost requirements. Newly proposed design features enable the GTHTR300 to be an efficient and economically competitive reactor in 2010's. Also, the GTHTR300 fully takes advantage of its inherent safety characteristics. The safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is developed based on the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) of JAERI which is the first HTGR in Japan. Major features of the newly proposed safety philosophy for the GTHTR300 are described in this article. (authors)

  15. Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references

  16. Surveying wearable human assistive technology for life and safety critical applications: standards, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2014-05-23

    In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people's safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  17. Does compliance to patient safety tasks improve and sustain when radiotherapy treatment processes are standardized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Pascale A M; Houben, Ruud; Benders, Jos; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Vandijck, Dominique; Marneffe, Wim; Backes, Huub; Groothuis, Siebren

    2014-10-01

    To realize safe radiotherapy treatment, processes must be stabilized. Standard operating procedures (SOP's) were expected to stabilize the treatment process and perceived task importance would increase sustainability in compliance. This paper presents the effects on compliance to safety related tasks of a process redesign based on lean principles. Compliance to patient safety tasks was measured by video recording of actual radiation treatment, before (T0), directly after (T1) and 1.5 years after (T2) a process redesign. Additionally, technologists were surveyed on perceived task importance and reported incidents were collected for three half-year periods between 2007 and 2009. Compliance to four out of eleven tasks increased at T1, of which improvements on three sustained (T2). Perceived importance of tasks strongly correlated (0.82) to compliance rates at T2. The two tasks, perceived as least important, presented low base-line compliance, improved (T1), but relapsed at T2. The reported near misses (patient-level not reached) on accelerators increased (P improvements sustained after 1.5 years, indicating increased stability. Perceived importance of tasks correlated positively to compliance and sustainability. Raising the perception of task importance is thus crucial to increase compliance. The redesign resulted in increased willingness to report incidents, creating opportunities for patient safety improvement in radiotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fundamental challenging problems for developing new nuclear safety standard computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.; Wong, A.E.; Wong, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the claims of the US Basic patents number 5,084,232; 5,848,377 and 6,430,516 that can be obtained from typing the Patent Numbers into the Box of the Web site http://164.195.100.11/netahtml/srchnum.htm and their associated published technical papers having been presented and published at International Conferences in the last three years and that all these had been sent into US-NRC by E-mail on March 26, 2003 at 2:46 PM., three fundamental challenging problems for developing new nuclear safety standard computer codes had been presented at the US-NRC RIC2003 Session W4. 2:15-3:15 PM. at the Washington D.C. Capital Hilton Hotel, Presidential Ballroom on April 16, 2003 in front of more than 800 nuclear professionals from many countries worldwide. The objective and scope of this paper is to invite all nuclear professionals to examine and evaluate all the current computer codes being used in their own countries by means of comparison of numerical data from these three specific openly challenging fundamental problems in order to set up a global safety standard for all nuclear power plants in the world. (authors)

  19. Cross-Index to DOE-prescribed industrial safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Cross-Index volume is the 1980 compilation of detailed information from more than two hundred and ninety Department of Energy (DOE) prescribed or Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) referenced industrial safety codes and standards. The compilation of this material was conceived and initiated in 1973, and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph, and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the Contents section. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of Cross-Index page; in order to the right of the listing are the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph, and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing. Simplified How to Use directions are listed. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents, whose codes or standards are contained in this Cross-Index, is included

  20. The revision of the safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li Chen; Hsiao Ping Wang; Chia Chun Liao; Chin Shiun Yeh

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation was issued on July 29, 1970, and has been used for more than thirteen years. In 1983, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) decided to revise it accordingly to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the experiences of regulation enforcement in Taiwan and other countries. The AEC assembled a task group of eight members from academic institutions, licensees, government agency, and senior health physics to be in charge of the revision. In this presentation the major changes of the Safety Standards are summarized. They refer to the adoption of the system of dose limitation recommended by ICRP publication 26 and 30, the use of the units of the International System as the primary units with the old units being noted in parentheses, the adoption of the minimums levels recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the setting up of an executive regulatory system for the implementation of the ALARA concept. 6 refs

  1. Ensuring safety of fuel cell applications and hydrogen refuelling. Legislation and standards; Polttokennosovellusten ja vetytankkauksen turvallisuuden varmistaminen. Saeaedoeksiae ja standardeja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.; Sarsama, J.

    2013-09-15

    Fuel cell technology is considered a promising alternative in terms of viable energy systems. The advantages of fuel cell systems include a good efficiency rate and the lack of harmful environmental emissions. Factors which may slow down the commercialisation of fuel cell technology, e.g. fuel cell vehicles, include the high price of hydrogen and the insufficiency of the infrastructure required for the distribution of hydrogen. A large proportion of major car manufacturers are committed to introducing fuel cell cars to the market by 2014-2016. In order to ensure a successful market introduction of fuel cell vehicles, this has to be aligned with the development of the necessary hydrogen infrastructure. In the early commercialisation stages of a new technology, it is important to give the public correct, justified and understandable information on the safety of the fuel cell applications, and also on the measures taken to ensure the safety of applications. A lack of necessary information, inaccurate perceptions and prejudices can have an adverse effect on the public acceptance of fuel cell applications. Hazards and potential accidents related to fuel cell systems are mainly associated with the flammable substances (e.g. hydrogen, methane) used as fuel, the high pressure of hydrogen, electrical hazards, and dangers concerning technical systems in general. The fuel cell applications reviewed in this publication are transport applications and stationary applications and the refuelling system of gaseous hydrogen. The publication concentrates on fuel cells using hydrogen as fuel. The publication gives an overview of how EU-legislation (mainly various directives) and Finnish legislation applies to fuel cell systems and applications, and what kind of safety requirements the legislation sets. In addition, a brief overview of safety standards concerning fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling is presented. (orig.)

  2. Rural Teacher's Perceptions of Safety on Texas High School Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ronald J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the perceptions of safety of rural Texas high school teachers as it related to a campus intruder or active shooter. The investigator utilized Creswell's (2012) six steps in analyzing and interpreting the qualitative data. The results of the study showed that…

  3. Potential safety features and safety analysis aspects for high performance light water reactor (HPLWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, N.; Schulenberg, T.; Squarer, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research Activities are ongoing worldwide to develop advanced nuclear power plants with high thermal efficiency for the purpose to improve their economical competitiveness. Within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, a project has been launched with the main objective to assess the technical and economical feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at super critical pressure conditions. Several European research institutions, industrial partners and the University of Tokyo participated and worked in this common research project. Within the aims of the development of the HPLWR is to use both passive and active safety systems for performing safety related functions in the event of transients or accidents. Consequently substantial effort has been invested in order to define the safety features of the plant in a European environment, as well as to incorporate passive safety features into the design. Throughout this process, the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and requirements known from Generation IV initiative were considered as a guideline in general terms in order to include further advanced ideas. The HPLWR general features were compared to both requirements, indicating a potential to meet these. Since, the supercritical HPLWR represents a challenge for best-estimate safety codes like RELAP5, CATHARE and TRAB due to the fact that these codes were developed for two-phase or single-phase coolant at pressures far below critical point, work on the preliminary assessment of the appropriateness of these codes have been performed for selected relevant phenomena, and application of the codes to the selected transients on the basis of defined 'reference design'. An overview on their successful upgrade to supercritical pressures and application to some plant safety analysis are provided in the paper. Further elaborations in relation to future needs are also discussed. (author)

  4. Notification and authorization for the use of radiation sources (Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depend on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for notification and authorization for control over radiation sources, including a system for review and assessment of applications for authorization. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the process for dealing with applications for authorization and accepting notifications to regulatory bodies. Examples of guidelines that may be used by persons required to notify or apply for authorization and of the regulatory body's review and assessment procedures are provided in the Appendices. The TECDOC is oriented towards national regulatory infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. The IAEA

  5. International safety standards and regulatory practices and their application to Brazilian nuclear power plants - a realistic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Claudio; Camargo, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    An international nuclear safety regime is being established through a series of binding safety conventions, voluntarily adopted international safety standards and an accompanying peer review process. The basis for the evaluation of each country performance within this international regime should be the international practices. However, local conditions should be taken into account to avoid undue stress of the limited resources available to countries with a limited nuclear power programme. This work reviews the current international nuclear safety and discusses the application of some international practices to the Brazilian situation, considering the peculiarities of the national nuclear power programme and the limitations of the available financial and human resources. (author)

  6. Verification of implementation of the radiological safety standards through the regulatory inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Gonzalez, Francisco; Fornet Rodriguez, Ofelia M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: As an element of the updating process of the legal framework on radiological safety in Cuba, a new rule was put into force; the Radiological Basic Safety Standards (RBSS) in January 2002. Five years after the application of these new safety requirements, it was considered appropriate to assess the effectiveness of its implementation. Therefore, in this work the authors analysed the outcomes of the regulatory inspections conducted in this period upon medical and industrial practices in a sample of facilities representative of those with the highest radiological risks in the territory under supervision of a Territorial Delegation of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. For better understanding of this presentation, a summary explanation of the structure of the rule is given in its introduction. The work was to identify for each deficiency, or finding, or counter-measure; out of the relevant inspections; the corresponding requirement/Article of the RBSS that shows difficulties in implementation. For each installation an analysis is made with regard to the relevant articles difficult to implement. Finally, the appraisal is shown separately for the medical practice, and for the industrial practice, and also in general for the whole sample of installations under review. The study showed that the implementation of the Standards has been satisfactory and uniform in the practices under review. So far it seems that there have not been major difficulties with the implementation of the Titles; III On Intervention, IV Dose Limits, as well as with the Especial, Final, and Transitory Dispositions. On the other hand, it is shown there is a need for continued work only with regard to the implementation of the requirements in Section IV Verification of Safety and in Section V On the responsibilities with regard to occupational exposure in Chapter III Title I, and correspondingly in Chapter II Occupational Exposure in Title II. It is recommended to conduct this kind of

  7. Preliminary standard review guide for Environmental Restoration/Decontamination and Decommissioning safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The review guide is based on the shared experiences, approaches, and philosophies of the Environmental Restoration/Decontamination and Decommissioning (ER/D ampersand D) subgroup members. It is presented in the form of a review guide to maximize the benefit to both the safety analyses practitioner and reviewer. The guide focuses on those challenges that tend to be unique to ER/D ampersand D cleanup activities. Some of these experiences, approaches, and philosophies may find application or be beneficial to a broader spectrum of activities such as terminal cleanout or even new operations. Challenges unique to ER/D ampersand D activities include (1) consent agreements requiring activity startup on designated dates; (2) the increased uncertainty of specific hazards; and (3) the highly variable activities covered under the broad category of ER/D ampersand D. These unique challenges are in addition to the challenges encountered in all activities; e.g., new and changing requirements and multiple interpretations. The experiences in approaches, methods, and solutions to the challenges are documented from the practitioner and reviewer's perspective, thereby providing the viewpoints on why a direction was taken and the concerns expressed. Site cleanup consent agreements with predetermined dates for restoration activity startup add the dimension of imposed punitive actions for failure to meet the date. Approval of the safety analysis is a prerequisite to startup. Actions that increase expediency are (1) assuring activity safety; (2) documenting that assurance; and (3) acquiring the necessary approvals. These actions increase the timeliness of startup and decrease the potential for punitive action. Improvement in expediency has been achieved by using safety analysis techniques to provide input to the line management decision process rather than as a review of line management decisions. Expediency is also improved by sharing the safety input and resultant decisions with

  8. Instrumentation Standard Architectures for Future High Availability Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Architectures for next-generation modular instrumentation standards should aim to meet a requirement of High Availability, or robustness against system failure. This is particularly important for experiments both large and small mounted on production accelerators and light sources. New standards should be based on architectures that (1) are modular in both hardware and software for ease in repair and upgrade; (2) include inherent redundancy at internal module, module assembly and system levels; (3) include modern high speed serial inter-module communications with robust noise-immune protocols; and (4) include highly intelligent diagnostics and board-management subsystems that can predict impending failure and invoke evasive strategies. The simple design principles lead to fail-soft systems that can be applied to any type of electronics system, from modular instruments to large power supplies to pulsed power modulators to entire accelerator systems. The existing standards in use are briefly reviewed and compared against a new commercial standard which suggests a powerful model for future laboratory standard developments. The past successes of undertaking such projects through inter-laboratory engineering-physics collaborations will be briefly summarized

  9. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  10. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given

  11. Application of safety standards and rules in the Shelter Implementation Plan at the destroyed power unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, A.; Bogorinski, P.; Bykov, V.; Redko, V.; Erickson, L.; Kadkin, Ye.; Kondratiev, S.; Simonov, I.; Smyshliaieva, S.; Yesipenko, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with the application of safety standards and rules to the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) measures. Since 1998 this plan is being implemented at the Chornobyl NPP destroyed unit (which is now known as the Shelter). It includes a set of various tasks whose performance will help partially achieve the established safety objectives. The Regulatory Authority should establish for the Shelter safety goals, principles, and criteria in general, while the Operator of the Shelter is free to independently select the optimum method for their implementation. The Operator of the Shelter must demonstrate (in safety analysis report) that established safety goals are achieved and safety principles and criteria are met. Safety goals, principles, and criteria established for radioactive waste management are reasonable to apply in measures provided for by SIP. However, due to the unique nature of the Shelter, some criteria should not be applied directly and in full scope. Norms and rules on radiation protection should be applied in full scope. The specifics of radiation protection during each Shelter-related activity are considered individually. Safety standards and rules related to technical aspects are reasonable only as a basis. Effective resolution of specific technical issues associated with safety assurance is achieved through interaction between the Operator and the Regulatory Authority during design of SIP structures and systems. Hence, effectiveness of the licensing process plays an important role in the success of the SIP.(author)

  12. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianmin; Qian Yinge

    1988-08-01

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  13. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  14. Notification and authorization for the use of radiation sources (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depend on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for notification and authorization for control over radiation sources, including a system for review and assessment of applications for authorization. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the process for dealing with applications for authorization and accepting notifications to regulatory bodies. Examples of guidelines that may be used by persons required to notify or apply for authorization and of the regulatory body's review and assessment procedures are provided in the Appendices. The TECDOC is oriented towards national regulatory infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  15. Notification and authorization for the use of radiation sources (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depend on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for notification and authorization for control over radiation sources, including a system for review and assessment of applications for authorization. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the process for dealing with applications for authorization and accepting notifications to regulatory bodies. Examples of guidelines that may be used by persons required to notify or apply for authorization and of the regulatory body's review and assessment procedures are provided in the Appendices. The TECDOC is oriented towards national regulatory infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  16. Cross-index to DOE-prescribed occupational safety codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Cross-Index volume is the 1981 compilation of detailed information from more than three hundred and fifty DOE prescribed or OSHA referenced industrial safety codes and standards and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the Contents section (pages C to L) of this volume. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of Cross-Index page; in order to the right of the listing are the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing

  17. Considerations in the development of safety requirements for innovative reactors: Application to modular high temperature gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    Member States of the IAEA have frequently requested this organization to assess, at the conceptual stage, the safety of the design of nuclear reactors that rely on a variety of technologies and are of a high degree of innovation. However, to date, for advanced and innovative reactors and for reactors with characteristics that are different from those of existing light water reactors, widely accepted design standards and rules do not exist. This TECDOC is an outcome of the efforts deployed by the IAEA to develop a general approach for assessing the safety of the design of advanced and innovative reactors, and of all reactors in general including research reactors, with characteristics that differ from those of light water reactors. This publication puts forward a method for safety assessment that is based on the well established and accepted principle of defence in depth. The need to develop a general approach for assessing the safety of the design of reactors that applies to all kinds of advanced reactors was emphasized by the request to the IAEA by South Africa to review the safety of the South African pebble bed modular reactor. This reactor, as other modular high temperature gas cooled reactors (MHTGRs), adopts very specific design features such as the use of coated particle fuel. The characteristics of the fuel deeply affect the design and the safety of the plant, thereby posing several challenges to traditional safety assessment methods and to the application of existing safety requirements that have been developed primarily for water reactors. In this TECDOC, the MHTGR has been selected as a case study to demonstrate the viability of the method proposed. The approach presented is based on an extended interpretation of the concept of defence in depth and its link with the general safety objectives and fundamental safety functions as set out in 'Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design', IAEA Safety Standards No. NS-R.1, issued by the IAEA in 2000. The objective

  18. Differences in safety margins between nuclear and conventional design standards with regards to seismic hazard definition and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Saudy, A.; Orbovic, N.; Dejan, D.

    2006-01-01

    With the surging interest in new build nuclear all over the world and a permanent interest in earthquake resistance of nuclear plants, there is a need to quantify the safety margins in nuclear buildings design in comparison to conventional buildings in order to increase the public confidence in the safety of nuclear power plants. Nuclear (CAN3-N289 series) and conventional (NBCC 2005) seismic standards have different approaches regarding the design of civil structures. The origin of the differences lays in the safety philosophy behind the seismic nuclear and conventional standards. Conventional seismic codes contain the minimal requirement destined primarily to safeguard against major structural failure and loss of life. It doesn't limit damage to a certain acceptable degree or maintain function. Nuclear seismic code requires that structures, systems and components important to safety, withstand the effects of earthquakes. The requirement states that for equipment important to safety, both integrity and functionality should be ascertained. The seismic hazard is generally defined on the basis of the annual probability of exceedence (return period). There is a major difference on the return period and the confidence level for design earthquakes between the conventional and the nuclear seismic standards. The seismic design criteria of conventional structures are based on the use of Force Modification Factors to take into account the energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain and the reserve of strength. The use of such factors to lower intentionally the seismic input is consistent with the safety philosophy of the conventional seismic standard which is the 'non collapse' rather than the integrity and/or the operability of the structures or components. Nuclear seismic standard requires that the structure remain in the elastic domain; energy dissipation by incursion in non-elastic domain is not allowed for design basis earthquake conditions. This is

  19. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  20. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  1. Description of the food safety system in hotels and how it compares with HACCP standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie M; Maharaj, Satnarine R; James, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Tourism is an important earner of foreign exchange in Jamaica; hence, the protection of the visitors' health is very important. A study of travelers to Jamaica in 1996 to 1997 found that travelers' diarrhea (TD) affected almost 25% of visitors. The Ministry of Health (Jamaica) initiated a program for the prevention and control of TD aimed at reducing attack rates from 25.0% to 12.0% over a 5-year period through environmental health and food safety standards of hotels. This article examines the food safety systems in Jamaican hotels located in a popular resort area to find out how comparable they are with the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) strategy. A cross-sectional study was done of hotels in St. Mary and St. Ann. Quantitative data were obtained from food and beverage/sanitation staff and qualitative data through in-depth interviews with hotel managers. Observation of the food safety operations was also done. The majority (75%) of larger hotels used a combination of HACCP and Ministry of Health food safety strategies (p = 0.02) and offered all-inclusive services (r =-0.705, p = 0.001). Larger hotels were more likely to have a better quality team approach, HACCP plan, and monitoring of critical control points (CCPs) and more likely to receive higher scores (p hotel staff were knowledgeable of HACCP. Significantly smaller hotels (87.5%) received less than 70% in overall score (r = 0.75, p = 0.01). Identification of CCPs and monitoring of CCPs explained 96.6% of the change in the overall HACCP scores (p = 0.001). Hotel managers felt that some hotels' systems were comparable with HACCP and that larger properties were ready for mandatory implementation. Conclusions. While some components of the HACCP system were observed in larger hotels, there were serious shortcomings in its comparison. Mandatory implementation of HACCP would require that sector-specific policies be developed for smaller hotels and implemented on a phased basis.

  2. Evaluating the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule Standard for Microbial Quality of Agricultural Water for Growing Produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Vazquez, Kathleen M; Topalcengiz, Zeynal; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined standards for the microbial quality of agricultural surface water used for irrigation. According to the FDA produce safety rule (PSR), a microbial water quality profile requires analysis of a minimum of 20 samples for Escherichia coli over 2 to

  3. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  4. Standards for digital computers used in non-safety nuclear power plant applications: objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorer, D.C.; Long, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    There are currently a number of efforts to develop standards which would apply to digital computers used in nuclear power plants for functions other than those directly involving plant protection (for example, ANS: 4.3.3 Subworking Group in the U.S., IEC 45A/WGA1 Subcommittee in Europe). The impetus for this activity is discussed and generally attributed to the realization that nonsafety systems computers may affect the assumptions used as the design bases for safety systems, the sizable economic loss which can result from the failure of a critical computer application, and the lingering concern about the misapplication of a still-new technology. At the same time, it is pointed out that these standards may create additional obstacles for the use of this new technology which are not present in the application of more conventional instrumentation and control equipment. Much of the U.S. effort has been directed toward the problem of validation of computer systems in which the potential exists for unplanned interactions between various functions in a multiprogram environment, using common hardware in a time-sharing mode. The goal is to develop procedures for the specification, development implementation, and documentation of testable, modular systems which, in the absence of proven quantitative techniques for assessing software reliability, are felt to provide reasonable assurance that the computer system will function as planned

  5. Relative safety profiles of high dose statin regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escobar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Escobar, Rocio Echarri, Vivencio BarriosDepartment of Cardiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Recent clinical trials recommend achieving a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <100 mg/dl in high-risk and <70 mg/dl in very high risk patients. To attain these goals, however, many patients will need statins at high doses. The most frequent side effects related to the use of statins, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and increased levels of transaminases, are unusual. Although low and moderate doses show a favourable profile, there is concern about the tolerability of higher doses. During recent years, numerous trials to analyze the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of statins have been published. This paper updates the published data on the safety of statins at high doses.Keywords: statins, high doses, tolerability, liver, muscle

  6. Efficacy and safety of totally tubeless standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with kidney stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Aydın

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first- line treatment for large and complex renal calculi. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of the totally tubeless PNL versus the standard PNL. Methods:Between January 2012 and July 2013, 73 selected patients were treated standard or totally tubeless PNL, nephrostomy tube and ureteral stent was not placed at the end of the operation in 35 (39.7% (Group 1 of them and 38 (43.1% (Group 2 patient underwent standard PNL. Stone disintegration was performed with a pneumatic lithotripter. We retrospectively compared patient and stone characteristics, operation time, duration of hospitalization, analgesia requirements, stone-free rate, operative findings, blood loss, and perioperative complications between two groups. Results:The mean operation time, excluding the preparation course, was 38,3±15,4 minutes vs 51,2±12,9 minutes and mean fluoroscopy time was 4,5±2,4 minutes vs 4,8±2,1 minutes, respectively. No significant intraoperative complication or indication additional access or second-look PNL due to residual stones was observed. In both groups none of the patients demonstrated a urinoma, hemorrhage or residual stones in postoperative ultrasonography and plain radiograph. Blood transfusion was needed only in a patient vs two patients for group 1 and 2, respectively. There were no significant differences in preoperative patient characteristics, postoperative complications between two groups, but the totally tubeless PNL group showed a shorter hospitalization and a lesser analgesic requirement compared with other group. Conclusion: Absence of the nephrostomy tube and ureteral stent may help in keeping the patient comfortable after the operation and reduction in the analgesia requirement and length of hospital stay. We believe totally tubeless PNL is safe and effective management option in properly selected cases.

  7. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Standard-chemorefractory Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Survival, Efficacy, and Safety Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafi, Shoaib; Piduru, Sarat M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel; Kauh, John S. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology (United States); Kooby, David A.; Sarmiento, Juan M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Surgical Oncology in Surgery (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    To assess the overall survival, efficacy, and safety of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90) for unresectable standard-chemorefractory intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients with unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC treated with Y90 were studied. Survival was calculated from the date of first Y90 procedure. Tumor response was assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria on follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI CTCAE), version 3, were used for complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier estimator by the log rank test. Nineteen patients underwent a total of 24 resin-based Y90 treatments. Median survival from the time of diagnosis and first Y90 procedure was 752 {+-} 193 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 374-1130] and 345 {+-} 128 (95 % CI 95-595) days, respectively. Median survival with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 1 (n = 15) and ECOG performance status 2 (n = 4) was 450 {+-} 190 (95 % CI 78-822) and 345 {+-} 227 (95 % CI 0-790) days, respectively (p = .214). Patients with extrahepatic metastasis (n = 11) had a median survival of 404 {+-} 309 (95 % CI 0-1010) days versus 345 {+-} 117 (95 % CI 115-575) days for patients without metastasis (n = 8) (p = .491). No mortality was reported within 30 days from first Y90 radioembolization. One patient developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia as assessed by NCI CTCAE. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain were observed in 4 (21 %) and 6 (32 %) patients, respectively. Y90 radioembolization is effective for unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC.

  8. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  9. 77 FR 43811 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs; Compliance Form AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... standards for full-size and non-full-size baby cribs in response to the direction under section 104(b) of...

  10. Primary break with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordelle, F.; Champ, M.; Pochard, R.

    1988-10-01

    The probabilitic safety assessment of a 900 MW plant has displayed the potential importance, with regard to the risk, of intermediate primary breaks with failure of the high pressure safety injection system. The probability of such sequence is about 10 -6 /plant X year. Therefore, it is necessary to establish: - if this sequence can lead to core melt down, - if clad ruptures can occur. This event must be taken into account to determine the repair time of contaminated systems. For these studies, a three inch equivalent diameter break is considerd, as this is the most sensitive in its category with regard to these phenomena. In addition to the above objectives, the purpose of these studies is to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the following parameters: - the time limit at which the operator starts cooling down the plant via the steam generators. Two calculations have been made with the RELAP code (1 and 2) and two with the CATHARE code (3 and 4) - the pump trip time. Four calculations have been made with the CATHARE code (5, 6, 7 and 8). In the case of failure of only one high pressure safety injection file, 6 calculations have been made with the CATHARE code, concerning the influence of pump trip time (9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14)

  11. Study on Oxygen Supply Standard for Physical Health of Construction Personnel of High-Altitude Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of air density and equivalent PIO2. In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on the relationship between construction labor intensity and oxygen consumption.

  12. Safety handling manual for high dose rate remote afterloading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This manual is mainly for safety handling of 192 Ir-RALS (remote afterloading system) of high dose rate and followings were presented: Procedure and document format for the RALS therapy and for handling of its radiation source with the purpose of prevention of human errors and unexpected accidents, Procedure for preventing errors occurring in the treatment schedule and operation, and Procedure and format necessary for newly introducing the system into a facility. Consistency was intended in the description with the quality assurance guideline for therapy with small sealed radiation sources made by JASTRO (Japan Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology). Use of the old type 60 Co-RALS was pointed out to be a serious problem remained and its safety handling procedure was also presented. (K.H.)

  13. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  14. Evaluating the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule Standard for Microbial Quality of Agricultural Water for Growing Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Vazquez, Kathleen M; Topalcengiz, Zeynal; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2017-10-09

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined standards for the microbial quality of agricultural surface water used for irrigation. According to the FDA produce safety rule (PSR), a microbial water quality profile requires analysis of a minimum of 20 samples for Escherichia coli over 2 to 4 years. The geometric mean (GM) level of E. coli should not exceed 126 CFU/100 mL, and the statistical threshold value (STV) should not exceed 410 CFU/100 mL. The water quality profile should be updated by analysis of a minimum of five samples per year. We used an extensive set of data on levels of E. coli and other fecal indicator organisms, the presence or absence of Salmonella, and physicochemical parameters in six agricultural irrigation ponds in West Central Florida to evaluate the empirical and theoretical basis of this PSR. We found highly variable log-transformed E. coli levels, with standard deviations exceeding those assumed in the PSR by up to threefold. Lognormal distributions provided an acceptable fit to the data in most cases but may underestimate extreme levels. Replacing censored data with the detection limit of the microbial tests underestimated the true variability, leading to biased estimates of GM and STV. Maximum likelihood estimation using truncated lognormal distributions is recommended. Twenty samples are not sufficient to characterize the bacteriological quality of irrigation ponds, and a rolling data set of five samples per year used to update GM and STV values results in highly uncertain results and delays in detecting a shift in water quality. In these ponds, E. coli was an adequate predictor of the presence of Salmonella in 150-mL samples, and turbidity was a second significant variable. The variability in levels of E. coli in agricultural water was higher than that anticipated when the PSR was finalized, and more detailed information based on mechanistic modeling is necessary to develop targeted risk management strategies.

  15. The new Basic Safety Standards Directive and its implications for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Augustin; Necheva, Christina; Tanner, Vesa; Turai, István

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the environment is enshrined in Chapter 3 of the Euratom Treaty, in particular its Articles 35 and 36. These requirements in primary law have had an important impact on the importance of monitoring in Europe but have not been worked out in much detail in secondary legislation. The consolidation and revision of the Basic Safety Standards Directive was an opportunity for doing so. The requirements in Directive 96/29/Euratom had remained rather general. Now, more specific text is introduced on the establishment of discharge authorisations for radioactive effluents, and on monitoring these discharges. Requirements on estimation of public exposures and on environmental monitoring programmes have largely been copied from the old basic safety standards (BSS), however. The main novelty of the new BSS is the introduction of exposure situations, as defined by the ICRP in Publication 103 (2007). Environmental monitoring as part of the management of an emergency exposure situation is now addressed more clearly. As for existing exposure situations, indoor exposure to radon requires extensive surveys of indoor air or soil concentrations, and precise requirements are made on the management of residues from industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) as well as on the monitoring of building materials. Although the BSS do not address specific monitoring issues, studies have been undertaken on effluents from hospitals and on long-term management of uranium mining areas. The proposal for the new Basic Safety Standards Directive is examined in the light of experience of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant disabled by the terrible tsunami on 11 March 2011. The arrangements for information exchange in a normal situation and in an emergency exposure situation need to be looked at from this perspective as well as from the perspective of smaller incidents such as the release of 131 I in Hungary in autumn

  16. Japanese standard method for safety evaluation using best estimate code based on uncertainty and scaling analyses with statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizokami, Shinya; Hotta, Akitoshi; Kudo, Yoshiro; Yonehara, Tadashi; Watada, Masayuki; Sakaba, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Current licensing practice in Japan consists of using conservative boundary and initial conditions(BIC), assumptions and analytical codes. The safety analyses for licensing purpose are inherently deterministic. Therefore, conservative BIC and assumptions, such as single failure, must be employed for the analyses. However, using conservative analytical codes are not considered essential. The standard committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan(AESJ) has drawn up the standard for using best estimate codes for safety analyses in 2008 after three-years of discussions reflecting domestic and international recent findings. (author)

  17. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  18. The SISIFO project: Seismic Safety at High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzza, Laura; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Dusi, Alberto; Grimaz, Stefano; Malisan, Petra; Saraò, Angela; Mucciarelli, Marco

    2014-05-01

    For many years, the Italian scientific community has faced the problem of the reduction of earthquake risk using innovative educational techniques. Recent earthquakes in Italy and around the world have clearly demonstrated that seismic codes alone are not able to guarantee an effective mitigation of risk. After the tragic events of San Giuliano di Puglia (2002), where an earthquake killed 26 school children, special attention was paid in Italy to the seismic safety of schools, but mainly with respect to structural aspects. Little attention has been devoted to the possible and even significant damage to non-structural elements (collapse of ceilings, tipping of cabinets and shelving, obstruction of escape routes, etc..). Students and teachers trained on these aspects may lead to a very effective preventive vigilance. Since 2002, the project EDURISK (www.edurisk.it) proposed educational tools and training programs for schools, at primary and middle levels. More recently, a nationwide campaign aimed to adults (www.iononrischio.it) was launched with the extensive support of civil protection volounteers. There was a gap for high schools, and Project SISIFO was designed to fill this void and in particular for those schools with technical/scientific curricula. SISIFO (https://sites.google.com/site/ogssisifo/) is a multidisciplinary initiative, aimed at the diffusion of scientific culture for achieving seismic safety in schools, replicable and can be structured in training the next several years. The students, helped by their teachers and by experts from scientific institutions, followed a course on specialized training on earthquake safety. The trial began in North-East Italy, with a combination of hands-on activities for the measurement of earthquakes with low-cost instruments and lectures with experts in various disciplines, accompanied by specifically designed teaching materials, both on paper and digital format. We intend to raise teachers and students knowledge of the

  19. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements

  20. Engineering safety features for high power experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doval, A.; Villarino, E.; Vertullo, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the present analysis we will focus our attention in the way engineering safety features are designed in order to prevent fuel damage in case of abnormal or accidental situations. To prevent fuel damage two main facts must be considered, the shutdown of the reactor and the adequate core cooling capacity, it means that both, neutronic and thermohydraulic aspects must be analysed. Some neutronic safety features are common to all power ranges like negative feedback reactivity coefficients and the required number of control rods containing the proper absorber material to shutdown the reactor. From the thermohydraulic point of view common features are siphon-breaker devices and flap valves for those powers requiring cooling in the forced convection regime. For the high power reactor group, the engineering safety features specially designed for a generic reactor of 20 MW, will be presented here. From the neutronic point of view besides the common features, and to comply with our National Regulatory Authority, a Second Shutdown System was designed as a redundant shutdown system in case the control plates fail. Concerning thermohydraulic aspects besides the pump flywheels and the flap valves providing the natural convection loop, a metallic Chimney and a Chimney Water Injection System were supplied. (author)

  1. Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above ≃ 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ≃ 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF. If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological

  2. The IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre and IAEA safety standards for site evaluation and design of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, A.; Sollogoub, P; )

    2009-01-01

    This presentation covers the following topics: 'Lessons learned' from the occurrence of strong natural events, (tsunamis, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.) The International Seismic Safety Centre as a global focal point for the nuclear engineering community in those fields. A need for international cooperation, openness and transparency – Sharing of experience

  3. 75 FR 49536 - Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... wells utilizing the following terms and conditions: 1. District Manager Approval; (a) a safety barrier.... After District Manager approval, the mine operator will then mine within the safety barrier of the well... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification of Existing...

  4. Proposed American National Standard ANS 8.22: Nuclear criticality safety based on limiting and controlling moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullington, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    This proposed standard features guidance for dealing with the combination of fissile material and moderators in moderator control areas. The main points include nuclear criticality safety practices, encompassing administrative practices and process evaluations, and engineering practices, encompassing moderator control area barriers, equipment and containers, penetrations, fire prevention and suppression, and active engineered controls. Four appendixes follow the standard; the subject of these appendixes are typical moderating materials, potential sources of moderators, moderator control measurements, and engineered barriers to control moderators

  5. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  6. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  7. US EPA's experiences implementing environmental safety standards at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - 16103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, R. Thomas; Byrum, Charles; Feltcorn, Ed; Lee, Raymond; Joglekar, Rajani; Ghose, Shankar; Eagle, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) developed environmental standards for the disposal of defense-related transuranic wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE or the Department) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). EPA implements these standards for WIPP, which has been in operation for over ten years. The general environmental standards are set forth in the Agency's 40 CFR Part 191 Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes [1]. These standards are implemented by site-specific compliance criteria [2]. The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act requires DOE to submit a re-certification application every five years after the initial receipt of waste. DOE submitted the latest WIPP re-certification application in March 2009. For re-certification, DOE must identify changes that have occurred over the previous five years and analyze their impact on the potential long-term performance of the repository. Once EPA determines that the re-certification application is complete, the Agency has six months to review the application and make a final decision. During this review, EPA solicits and incorporates public comment where appropriate. During the first re-certification in 2004, several stakeholder groups brought up issues (e.g., karst) that were addressed in the original certification. EPA has received comments again raising some of these same issues for the 2009 re-certification. In addition, DOE must submit proposed changes to the WIPP repository to EPA for review and approval. This paper describes selected issues of concern to WIPP and highlights interactions between EPA as the regulatory authority and DOE as the implementing organization. In general EPA's experience points out the importance of communication, documentation and the regulator's responsibility in determining 'how much is enough'. (authors)

  8. Future high precision experiments and new physics beyond Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Mingxing.

    1993-01-01

    High precision (< 1%) electroweak experiments that have been done or are likely to be done in this decade are examined on the basis of Standard Model (SM) predictions of fourteen weak neutral current observables and fifteen W and Z properties to the one-loop level, the implications of the corresponding experimental measurements to various types of possible new physics that enter at the tree or loop level were investigated. Certain experiments appear to have special promise as probes of the new physics considered here

  9. Standard Review Plan for the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants, Revision No. 7 to Section 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Revision No. 1 to Section 9 of the Standard Review Plan incorporates changes that have been developed since the original issuance in September 1975, many of which are editorial in nature, to reflect current staff practice in the review of safety analysis reports for nuclear power plants

  10. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... evaluates resistance to heat buildup when the tire is run at stepped-up loads at or near its rated load... that involves a tire running on the roadwheel under specified conditions to allow for tire growth. The... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0132] RIN 2127-AK17 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for...

  11. Issues relating to safety standards on the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Proceedings of a specialists meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency focus is currently being placed on establishing safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This is a challenging task and a Specialists Meeting was held from 18 to 22 June 2001 with the intention of providing a mechanism for promoting discussion on some of the associated scientific and technical issues and as a means of developing the consensus needed for establishing the standards. The meeting used, as its basis, a number of position papers developed in recent years with the help of a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, together with selected relevant regional and national papers. The report contains the summaries of the sessions of the Specialists Meeting together with the conclusions drawn relevant to the establishment of standards. The sessions of the Meeting addressed the following topics: Common framework for radioactive waste disposal; Making the safety case - demonstrating compliance; Safety indicators; Reference critical groups and biospheres; Human intrusion; Reversibility and retrievability; Monitoring and institutional control. The publication contains 26 individual presentations delivered by participants. Each of these presentations was indexed separately

  12. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I of... working conditions of participants in activities under title I of WIA? 667.274 Section 667.274 Employees... working conditions of employees are equally applicable to working conditions of participants engaged in...

  13. Standard practice for design and use of safety alert system for hazardous work locations in the coatings and lining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice covers a safety alert system for hazardous work locations and materials for the coatings and lining application industry. This practice is designed for multi-employer work sites. Limitations--This practice does not identify specific hazardous materials or work locations but provides a means for rating each. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  14. Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control systems important for safety - Classification (International Electrotechnical Commission Standard Publication 1226:1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1996-01-01

    This international standard established a method of classification of the information and command functions for nuclear power plants, and the I and C and equipment that provide those functions, into categories that designate the importance for safety of the functions, and the associated systems and equipment. The resulting classification then determines relevant design criteria. The design criteria are the measures of quality by which the adequacy of each functions, and the associated systems and equipment in relation to its importance to plant safety is ensured. In this standard, the criteria are those of functionality, reliability, performance, environmental durability and quality assurance. This standard is applicable to all the information and command functions, and the instrumentation and control systems and equipment that provide those functions. The functions, systems and equipment under consideration provide automated protection, closed or open loop control, and information to the operating staff. They keep the NPP conditions inside the safe operating envelope and provide automatic actions, or enable manual actions, that mitigate accidents or prevent or minimize radioactive releases to the site or wider environment. The functions, and the associated systems and equipment that fulfill these roles safeguard the health and safety of the NPP operators and the public. This standard complements, and does not replace or supersede, the Safety Guides and Codes of Practice published by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  15. Monograph on safety in high power and high energy advanced technologies and medical applications of lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is intended for creating awareness amongst the safety and health professionals of nuclear and radiation facilities on hazards involved in high power and high energy advanced technologies as well as on how development of advanced technologies can benefit the common people

  16. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  17. Radiation safety aspects of high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiah, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are widely used for various applications in industry, medicine and research. These accelerators are capable of accelerating both ions and electrons over a wide range of energy and subsequently are made to impinge on the target materials. Apart from generating intended reactions in the target, these projectiles can also generate highly penetrating radiations such as gamma rays and neutrons. Over exposure to these radiations will cause deleterious effects on the living beings. Various steps taken to protect workers and general public from these harmful radiations is called radiation safety. The primary objective in establishing permissible values for occupational workers is to keep the radiation worker well below a level at which adverse effects are likely to be observed during one's life time. Another objective is to minimize the incidence of genetic effects for the population as a whole. Today's presentation on radiation safety of accelerators will touch up on the following sub-topics: Types of particle accelerators and their applications; AERB directives on dose limits; Radiation Source term of accelerators; Shielding Design-Use of Transmission curves and Tenth Value layers; Challenges for accelerator health physicists

  18. Proceedings of the High Consequence Operations Safety Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Many organizations face high consequence safety situations where unwanted stimuli due to accidents, catastrophes, or inadvertent human actions can cause disasters. In order to improve interaction among such organizations and to build on each others` experience, preventive approaches, and assessment techniques, the High Consequence Operations Safety Symposium was held July 12--14, 1994 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The symposium was conceived by Dick Schwoebel, Director of the SNL Surety Assessment Center. Stan Spray, Manager of the SNL System Studies Department, planned strategy and made many of the decisions necessary to bring the concept to fruition on a short time scale. Angela Campos and about 60 people worked on the nearly limitless implementation and administrative details. The initial symposium (future symposia are planned) was structured around 21 plenary presentations in five methodology-oriented sessions, along with a welcome address, a keynote address, and a banquet address. Poster papers addressing the individual session themes were available before and after the plenary sessions and during breaks.

  19. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  20. Safety of High Speed Magnetic Levitation Transportation Systems: Preliminary Safety Review of the Transrapid Maglev System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible : implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad : Administration. This report, one in a series of planned reports on maglev safety, ...

  1. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  2. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-01-01

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  3. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  4. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms

  5. Re-Conceptualizing Extra Help for High School Students in a High Standards Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James; Shaw, Alta

    The push for higher academic standards has resulted in an increase in the numbers of high school students needing extra help. The need for extra help is most pervasive in high-poverty areas and most high school students need extra help not in traditional basic elementary skills but in reading, mathematics, and advanced reasoning skills. Most…

  6. Catalogue of standards at the Safety Analysis department library, the first of March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is a compilation of ANS and ANSI/ANS, ANSI/ASME american standards, Regulatory guides (Power Reactor Division), IEEE standards, to which are added ANSI american standards, AFNOR french standards, all of them being updated until to day. This computed compilation is divided into three parts: 1) main descriptor categories; 2) list of american standards in chronological order, list of AFNOR french standards, list of Regulatory guides in numerical order. 3) list of descriptors in alphabetic order [fr

  7. Trends in food safety standards and regulation implications for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Caswell, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    "Food safety is affected by the decisions of producers, processors, distributors, food service operators, and consumers, as well as by government regulations. In developed countries, the demand for higher levels of food safety has led to the implementation of regulatory programs that address more types of safety-related attributes (such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), microbial pathogens, environmental contaminants, and animal drug and pesticide residues) and impose stricter standa...

  8. Assessing risks and regulating safety standards in the oil and gas industry: the Peruvian experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Leonardo Vásquez Cordano; Julio Salvador Jácome; Raúl Lizardo García Carpio; Victor Fernández Guzman

    2013-01-01

    Environmental regulation has usually focused on controlling continuous sources of pollution such as CO2 emissions through carbon taxes. However, the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has shown that accidents associated to safety failures can also generate bursts of pollution with serious environmental consequences. Regulating safety conditions to prevent accidents in the oil and gas industry is challenging because public regulators cannot perfectly observe whether firms comply with safety ...

  9. Introducing standardized “readbacks” to improve patient safety in surgery: a prospective survey in 92 providers at a public safety-net hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Hari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication breakdowns represent the main root cause of preventable complications which lead to harm to surgical patients. Standardized readbacks have been successfully implemented as a main pillar of professional aviation safety for decades, to ensure a safe closed-loop communication between air traffic control and individual pilots. The present study was designed to determine the perception of staff in perioperative services regarding the role of standardized readbacks for improving patient safety in surgery at a single public safety-net hospital and level 1 trauma center. Methods A 12-item questionnaire was sent to 180 providers in perioperative services at Denver Health Medical Center. The survey was designed to determine the individual participants’ perception of (1 appropriateness of current readback processes; (2 willingness to attend a future training module on this topic; (3 specific scenarios in which readbacks may be effective; and (4 perceived major barriers to the implementation of standardized readbacks. Survey results were compared between departments (surgery versus anesthesia and between specific staff roles (attending or midlevel provider, resident physician, nursing staff, using non-parametric tests. Results The response rate to the survey was 50.1 % (n = 92. Respondents overwhelmingly recognized the role of readbacks in reducing communication errors and improving patient safety. There was a strong agreement among respondents to support participation in a readbacks training program. There was no difference in the responses between the surgery and anesthesia departments. There was a statistically significant difference in the healthcare providers willingness to attend a short training module on readbacks (p  The main challenge for respondents, which emanated from their responses, appeared to relate to determining the ideal scenarios in which readbacks may be most appropriately used. Overall

  10. Draft questions of 5S pre-audit with regard to health and safety standards for tires retreating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pacana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A continuous technological progress forces an improvement of the production process. The article describes the sole beginning of changes in the process of tires retreading on the 5S management method with regard to health and safety standards. The authors point out that the process of the production of retreaded tires is associated with the relationship between a man and a machine. The process improvement can dispense only by improving the machines but it should also pay attention to the man. The improvement of the production process must precede the audit, which can show areas that require intervention. Any such change in the production process cannot be performed without the participation of health and safety inspector, because his knowledge, skills and competence are able to determine whether the proposed changes interfere with the level of safety at the workplace. The authors emphasize that the process of production improvement production should be compatible with the process of improving the health and safety of workers involved in the production process. The combination of 5S audit with health and safety standards results in a holistic approach to the improvement process.

  11. Overview of the U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes and Standards Program. Part 4: Hydrogen Sensors; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J.; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Brosha, Eric; Mukundan, Rangachary; James, C. Will; Keller, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as a critical element in the safety design for any hydrogen system. In this role, sensors can perform several important functions including indication of unintended hydrogen releases, activation of mitigation strategies to preclude the development of dangerous situations, activation of alarm systems and communication to first responders, and to initiate system shutdown. The functionality of hydrogen sensors in this capacity is decoupled from the system being monitored, thereby providing an independent safety component that is not affected by the system itself. The importance of hydrogen sensors has been recognized by DOE and by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Safety and Codes Standards (SCS) program in particular, which has for several years supported hydrogen safety sensor research and development. The SCS hydrogen sensor programs are currently led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current SCS sensor program encompasses the full range of issues related to safety sensors, including development of advance sensor platforms with exemplary performance, development of sensor-related code and standards, outreach to stakeholders on the role sensors play in facilitating deployment, technology evaluation, and support on the proper selection and use of sensors.

  12. The case of the high-risk safety product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, W B; Blodgett, T B; Wallin, W R; Meyers, G C; Holden, B; Johnson, E W; Smith, N C; Ducker, W

    1992-01-01

    After several days of meetings, J.F. Winchester, president of MDC Industries, felt no closer to a decision. MDC, a manufacturer of wall and ceiling panels, was considering whether to exercise an option to buy a new and safer wallboard technology. The product was being touted as revolutionary, but, Winchester wondered, could MDC afford to carry the flag? According to its inventor, Robert Goerner, Smoke-Safe would be a vast improvement over standard safety-rated wallboard. With almost the same flame-retardant properties, Smoke-Safe had the advantage of giving off almost no fumes or smoke in fire tests. And, Winchester knew, most fire-related deaths are from smoke, not flames. Indeed, the numbers were grimly persuasive: 82% of fire-related injuries involving standard panels were caused by smoke inhalation. What's more, Smoke-Safe would cost about the same to manufacture as MDC's current wallboard. But MDC had several other good options for spending the $5 million Goerner was asking; building plastics was only one of its profit centers. And the prospect of launching a campaign to change building codes in order to market Smoke-Safe, which could spark a fight with competitors, was daunting. Since its current wallboard gave MDC only 18% of the wallboard market, many industry insiders speculated whether MDC had the market clout to influence major cities to revise their codes. Six experts in marketing, law, and ethics advise MDC Industries on how it can balance ethical and business imperatives in making its decision.

  13. Computer-aided safety systems of industrial high energy objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolsky, N.G.; Gordeev, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Modern objects of fuel and energy, chemical industries are characterized by high power consumption; by presence of large quantities of combustible and explosive substances used in technological processes; by advanced communications of submission systems of initial liquid and gasiform reagents, lubricants and coolants, the products of processing, and wastes of production; by advanced ventilation and pneumatic transport; and by complex control systems of energy, material and information flows. Such objects have advanced infrastructures, including a significant quantity of engineering buildings intended for storage, transportation, and processing of combustible liquids, gasiform fuels and materials, and firm materials. Examples of similar objects are nuclear and thermal power stations, chemical plants, machine-building factories, iron and steel industry enterprises, etc. Many tasks and functions characterizing the problem of fire safety of these objects can be accomplished only upon the development of special Computer-Aided Fire Safety Systems (CAFSS). The CAFSS for these objects are intended to reduce the hazard of disastrous accidents both causing fires and caused by them. The tasks of fire prevention and rescue work of large-scale industrial objects are analyzed within the bounds of the recommended conception. A functional structure of CAFSS with a list of the main subsystems forming a part of its composition has been proposed

  14. Review of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for Automated Vehicles : Identifying Potential Barriers and Challenges for the Certification of Automated Vehicles Using Existing FMVSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The purpose of this work is to identify instances where the existing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards may pose challenges to the introduction of automated vehicles. It identifies standards requiring further review - both to ensure that existing...

  15. Employers' perceptions and attitudes toward the Canadian national standard on psychological health and safety in the workplace: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyk, Diane; Craig-Broadwith, Morgan; Morris, Heather; Diaz, Ruth; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Wang, JianLi

    2016-01-01

    The estimated societal and economic costs of mental illness and psychological injury in the workplace is staggering. Governments, employers and other stakeholders have been searching for policy solutions. This qualitative, exploratory study sought to uncover organizational receptivity to a voluntary comprehensive standard for dealing with psychological health and safety in the workplace. A series of five focus groups were conducted in a large Western Canadian city in November 2013. The seventeen participants were from the fields of healthcare, construction/utilities, manufacturing industries, business services, and finance. They worked in positions of management, consulting, human resources, health promotion, health and safety, mediation, and occupational health and represented organizations ranging in size from 20 to 100,000 employees. The findings confirm and illustrate the critical role that psychological health and safety plays across workplaces and occupations. This standard resonated across the represented organizations and fit with their values. This alignment posed challenges with articulating its added value. There appears to be a need for simplified engagement and implementation strategies of the standard that can be tailored to the nuanced differences between types and sizes of industries. It appears that organizations in the most need of improving psychological health and safety may be the least receptive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 27033 - Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and would not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that might... the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan. The safety zone has been effective and enforced since April 18...

  17. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0078] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... integration of electrical signals from vehicle crash sensors would work with the requested mechanical seat... (350,000) of the vehicles were stopped in the traffic lane prior to the crash event (pg. 22, Table 7...

  18. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  19. Improvement of Safety Features in Standard Operation Procedure of Tc-99m Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisah Saedon; Mohd Khairul Hakimi; Shyen, A.K.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements proposed to the original production procedures for Tc-99m generators. Improvements are intended to add safety and health features for workers into the existing procedures. The difference between the new safe work procedures from the original work procedures; is the concern about the safety and health of employees other than the product safety. One of the suggested safety characteristics is by using the visual aid so that the workers can easily see and read the procedures when they perform their duties, whereas the previous procedures are kept in the manual and difficult to access. The purpose of this paper is to share information about the importance of safety and health features for the workers in the procedures established in addition to provide awareness to all parties involved. (author)

  20. Multiphoton production at high energies in the standard model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlon, G.

    1993-01-01

    We examine multiphoton production in the electroweak sector of the standard model in the high-energy limit using the equivalence theorem in combination with spinor helicity techniques. We utilize currents consisting of a charged scalar, spinor, or vector line that radiates n photons. Only one end of the charged line is off shell in these currents, which are known for the cases of like-helicity and one unlike-helicity photons. We obtain a wide variety of helicity amplitudes for processes involving two pairs of charged particles by considering combinations of four currents. We examine the situation with respect to currents which have both ends of the charged line off shell, and present solutions for the case of like-helicity photons. These new currents may be combined with two of the original currents to produce additional amplitudes involving Higgs bosons, longitudinal Z, or neutrino pairs

  1. Simulant Basis for the Standard High Solids Vessel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daniel, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant and a non-Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the Most Adverse Design Conditions (in development) with respect to mixing performance as specified by WTP. The majority of the simulant requirements are specified in 24590-PTF-RPT-PE-16-001, Rev. 0. The first step in this process is to develop the basis for these simulants. This document describes the basis for the properties of these two simulant types. The simulant recipes that meet this basis will be provided in a subsequent document.

  2. Intensive care unit nurses' perceptions of safety after a highly specific safety intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, N C; Brungs, S M; Nagy, M; Kudel, I; Render, M L

    2008-02-01

    It is unknown if successful changes in specific safety practices in the intensive care unit (ICU) generalize to broader concepts of patient safety by staff nurses. To explore perceptions of patient safety among nursing staff in ICUs following participation in a safety project that decreased hospital acquired infections. After implementation of practices that reduced catheter-related bloodstream infections in ICUs at four community hospitals, ICU nurses participated in focus groups to discuss patient safety. Audiotapes from the focus groups were transcribed, and two independent reviewers categorised the data which were triangulated with responses from selected questions of safety climate surveys and with the safety checklists used by management leadership on walk rounds. Thirty-three nurses attended eight focus groups; 92 nurses and managers completed safety climate surveys, and three separate leadership checklists were reviewed. In focus groups, nurses predominantly related patient safety to dangers in the physical environment (eg, bed rails, alarms, restraints, equipment, etc.) and to medication administration. These areas also represented 47% of checklist items from leadership walk rounds. Nurses most frequently mentioned self-initiated "double checking" as their main safety task. Focus-group participants and survey responses both noted inconsistency between management's verbal and written commitment compared with their day-to-day support of patient safety issues. ICU nurses who participated in a project to decrease hospital acquired infections did not generalize their experience to other aspects of patient safety or relate it to management's interest in patient safety. These findings are consistent with many adult learning theories, where self-initiated tasks, combined with immediate, but temporary problem-solving, are stronger learning forces than management-led activities with delayed feedback.

  3. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection

  4. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  5. A holistic strategy for quality and safety control of traditional Chinese medicines by the “iVarious” standard system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhen Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An effective quality control system is the key to ensuring the quality, safety and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs. However, the current quality standard research lacks the top-design and systematic design, mostly based on specific technologies or evaluation methods. To resolve the challenges and questions of quality control of TCMs, a brand-new quality standard system, named “iVarious”, was proposed. The system comprises eight elements in a modular format. Meaning of every element was specifically illustrated via corresponding research instances. Furthermore, frankincense study was taken as an example for demonstrating standards and research process, based on the “iVarious” system. This system highlighted a holistic strategy for effectiveness, security, integrity and systematization of quality and safety control standards of TCMs. The establishment of “iVarious” integrates multi-disciplinary technologies and progressive methods, basis elements and key points of standard construction. The system provides a novel idea and technological demonstration for regulation establishment of TCMs quality standards.

  6. A holistic strategy for quality and safety control of traditional Chinese medicines by the "iVarious" standard system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anzhen; Sun, Lei; Yuan, Hang; Wu, Aiying; Lu, Jingguang; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2017-10-01

    An effective quality control system is the key to ensuring the quality, safety and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, the current quality standard research lacks the top-design and systematic design, mostly based on specific technologies or evaluation methods. To resolve the challenges and questions of quality control of TCMs, a brand-new quality standard system, named "iVarious", was proposed. The system comprises eight elements in a modular format. Meaning of every element was specifically illustrated via corresponding research instances. Furthermore, frankincense study was taken as an example for demonstrating standards and research process, based on the "iVarious" system. This system highlighted a holistic strategy for effectiveness, security, integrity and systematization of quality and safety control standards of TCMs. The establishment of "iVarious" integrates multi-disciplinary technologies and progressive methods, basis elements and key points of standard construction. The system provides a novel idea and technological demonstration for regulation establishment of TCMs quality standards.

  7. Standards for high level waste disposal: A sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, W.W.; Powers, V.; Johnson, F.X.; Cornland, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel from commercial power stations contains high levels of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and fission products, all of which pose serious challenges for permanent disposal because of the very long half-lives of some isotopes. The 'nuclear nations' have agreed on the use of permanent geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of high-level nuclear waste. However, it is premature to claim that a geologic repository offers permanent isolation from the biosphere, given high levels of uncertainty, nascent risk assessment frameworks for the time periods considered, and serious intergenerational equity issues. Many have argued for a broader consideration of disposal options that include extended monitored retrievable storage and accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes. In this paper we discuss and compare these three options relative to standards that emerge from the application of sustainable development principles, namely long-lasting technical viability, intergenerational equity, rational resource allocation, and rights of future intervention. We conclude that in order to maximise the autonomy of future generations, it is imperative to leave future options more open than does permanent disposal

  8. The safety of high activity long life nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The article concerns the deep geological storage for managing high activity long life nuclear waste. He puts forward a context giving a structure to the discussions of those involved concerning an assessment of the safety of a deep geological deposit project. Three main aspects are put forward. The risks for future generations and the time scales to be considered: briefly, the deposit needs to satisfy two functions for protecting man and the environment, namely firstly isolating high activity radionuclides from the biosphere during the time required for their radioactive decay (about ten thousands years), and secondly delay and dilute long life radionuclides without any a priori time limit so as to reduce their effects in the biosphere to extremely low levels. The risks are linked to possible failures of the containment barriers whose causes need to be analysed and be provided against by suitable provisions concerning their design. The definition of these design provisions requires an in depth examination of uncertain elements. The main causes of uncertainty are listed according to the scale of time in question, that is O-10,000 years, 10,000-100,000 years and beyond 100,000 years, stressing the importance of selecting a stable geological site and more generally a solid concept that is not very sensitive in uncertainties. Beyond 100,000 years the extent of uncertainties no longer makes it possible to make realistic predictions. It is thus necessary to consider the alternative scenarios concerning geological and climatic changes and the corresponding increasing risks of radionuclides. The risks in question may be relativized by realizing that on this time scale, the residual activities of soluble and insoluble alpha and beta emitters are comparable to those of a storage centre located on the surface at the end of the monitoring period. Finally, the article considers the approach put forward concerning the safety of a deep geological storage advocated by the French

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  10. 33 CFR 165.121 - Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: High... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.121 Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode...

  11. Development in France of nuclear safety technical regulations and standards used in the licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebouleux, P.

    1983-04-01

    Initially, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique was the overall structure which encompassed all nuclear activities in France, including those connected with radiological protection and nuclear safety. As other partners appeared, the Authorities have laid down national regulations relative to nuclear installations since 1963. These regulations more particularly provide for the addition of prescriptions with which the applicant must comply to obtain the necessary licenses and the establishment of General Technical Regulations pertaining to nuclear safety. The technical regulation related to nuclear safety in France is made of a set of regulation texts, of a different nature, that define the requirements for the construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear facilities. Simultaneously, the safety authorities (Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires: SCSIN) issue recommendations or guides which are not strictly speaking regulations in the juridical sense; they are called ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (RFS). The RFS set up and detail the conditions, the respect of which is deemed to be complying with the French regulation practice, for the subject to which they relate. Their purpose is to make known rules judged acceptable by safety authorities, thus making the safety review easier. A RFS, or a letter, can also give the result of the examination of the constructor and operator codes (RCC) by safety authorities

  12. Transposition of the basic safety standards. Potential impact on French laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.M.; Saad, N.; Bardelay, C. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The new proposal for a Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation is about to be adopted. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive within 4 years after adoption of the final text. As far as France is concerned, these evolutions will mainly impact the labour code (for occupational issues) and the public health code for both legal and regulatory requirements. The most significant improvements of the current version of the project are the introduction of graded approach to regulatory control and the enhancement of requirements for protection against natural radiation sources (in particular exposure to radon and naturally occurring radioactive material). This project also aims at achieving a better harmonisation between Member States for topics such as the organization of radiation protection for workers, the justification of medical devices and non-medical imaging exposure situations. ASN has already identified major issues for the transposition of the Directive concerning both French laws and regulations. Main topics should concern the impact of ICRP terminology (planned exposure situation, existing exposure situation versus lasting exposure situation, reference level versus maximum activity level for exposure to radon..) and the extension of both justification and optimisation principles to new activities involving natural radiation sources, such as industries processing naturally occurring radioactive material. Furthermore, France will have to decide whether it will adjust some positions about the prohibition of nonmedical imaging exposures and the release of materials from regulatory control according to generic values. Indeed, the project mentions the possibility to introduce derogations to those major principles. Finally, and according to the graded approach, the project introduces a new

  13. Authorization request for potential non-compliance with the American Standard Safety Code for Elevators Dumbwaiters and Escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, J.E.

    1964-09-28

    A Third Party inspection of the reactor work platforms was conducted by representatives of the Travelers Insurance Company in 1958. An inspection report submitted by these representatives described hazardous conditions noted and presented a series of recommendations to improve the operational safety of the systems. Project CGI-960, ``C`` & ``D`` Work Platform Safety Improvements -- All Reactors, vas initiated to modify the platforms in compliance with the Third Party recommendations. The American Standard Safety Code for Elevators Dumbwaiters and Escalators (A-17.1) is used as a guide by the Third Party in formulating their recommendations. This code is used because there is no other applicable code for this type of equipment. While the work platforms do not and in some cases can not comply with this code because of operational use, every effort is made to comply with the intent of the code.

  14. Standard for administration of stable iodine pilulae. Standard of the nuclear safety commission, action for accident in TEPCO Fukushima-1 and recent European trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Preventive taking of stable-iodine tablets is effective to avoid thyroid gland disorder due to internal exposure to the radioactive iodine if radioactive iodine is released outside by any nuclear accident. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission proposed the standard of the preventive taking in 2002, and, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the head of the local task force instructed to take on the recommendation from the Commission. Author described the action principle of stable-iodine tablets, present concept for the preventive taking, recent change of the concept in Europe for the preventive taking, and some precepts which have shown in past Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. (J.P.N.)

  15. Standard High Solids Vessel Design De-inventory Simulant Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Linn, Diana T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is working to develop a Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD) process vessel. To support testing of this new design, WTP engineering staff requested that a Newtonian simulant be developed that would represent the de-inventory (residual high-density tank solids cleanout) process. Its basis and target characteristics are defined in 24590-WTP-ES-ENG-16-021 and implemented through PNNL Test Plan TP-WTPSP-132 Rev. 1.0. This document describes the de-inventory Newtonian carrier fluid (DNCF) simulant composition that will satisfy the basis requirement to mimic the density (1.18 g/mL ± 0.1 g/mL) and viscosity (2.8 cP ± 0.5 cP) of 5 M NaOH at 25 °C.1 The simulant viscosity changes significantly with temperature. Therefore, various solution compositions may be required, dependent on the test stand process temperature range, to meet these requirements. Table ES.1 provides DNCF compositions at selected temperatures that will meet the density and viscosity specifications as well as the temperature range at which the solution will meet the acceptable viscosity tolerance.

  16. Appraisal for France of the safety of the transport of radioactive material. Provision for the application of the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has the specific statutory function within the United Nations system of establishing standards of safety for the protection of health against exposure to ionizing radiation. As part of this mandate, the IAEA has issued Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and has also established the Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) to carry out, at the request of States, appraisals of the implementation of these regulations. The IAEA carried out such an appraisal in France from 27 March to 8 April 2004. The appraisal addressed all relevant transport activities in France, both national and international, for all modes of transport, with special emphasis on the maritime transport and air transport of radioactive material. This report summarizes the findings of the 13 independent experts who participated in the appraisal

  17. 75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... indication either in the text of the K.T. Safety Act or its associated legislative history that Congress... why a decision was made to operate these vehicles in this fashion. In short, we are not convinced that...

  18. Role of criticality models in ANSI standards for nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods used in nuclear criticality safety evaluations in the area of neutron interaction among subcritical components of fissile materials are the solid angle and surface density techniques. The accuracy and use of these models are briefly discussed

  19. 34 CFR 75.683 - Health or safety standards for facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.683 Health or safety... to the facilities that the grantee uses for the project. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474) ...

  20. Vehicle safety performance improvements using a performance-based standards approach: four case studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available programme is to gain practical experience in the PBS approach and to quantify and evaluate the potential infrastructure preservation, safety and productivity benefits for road freight transport. The Smart Truck demonstration vehicles have been designed...