WorldWideScience

Sample records for high risk persons

  1. Personality differences in high risk sports amateurs and instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alison E; Pulford, Briony D

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the personality differences of 21 amateurs and 20 instructors who participated in the high risk sports of skydiving, hang-gliding, paragliding, scuba diving, microlighting, and rock climbing, versus those who did not. 38 men and 28 women (M age=32.6 yr., SD= 10.0) were assessed using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, the General Health Questionnaire, the Generalised Self-efficacy Scale, and a Type A/B personality measure. Instructors and Amateurs scored significantly higher on Extroversion and lower on Neuroticism than Nonparticipants; however, they differed from each other on the General Health Questionnaire and Type A/B personality scores. Amateurs scored significantly higher on Psychoticism and Self-efficacy than Instructors and Nonparticipants. In conclusion, these test scores suggest that people who are attracted to high risk sports tend to be at the extroverted and emotionally stable end of the scale, with a tendency to exhibit Type A characteristics; however, Instructors' scores on Psychoticism and Self-efficacy are more akin to those of Nonparticipants.

  2. Who Takes Risks in High-Risk Sports? A Typological Personality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the risk-taking behaviors of 302 men involved in high-risk sports (downhill skiing, mountaineering, rock climbing, paragliding, or skydiving). The sportsmen were classified using a typological approach to personality based on eight personality types, which were constructed from combinations of neuroticism, extraversion, and…

  3. Facial emotion perception differs in young persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Christian G; Richard, Jan A; Brensinger, Colleen M; Borgmann-Winter, Karin E; Conroy, Catherine G; Moberg, Paul J; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Calkins, Monica E

    2014-05-15

    A large body of literature has documented facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia. More recently, emotion perception has been investigated in persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis. This study compared emotion perception abilities in groups of young persons with schizophrenia, clinical high-risk, genetic risk and healthy controls. Groups, ages 13-25, included 24 persons at clinical high-risk, 52 first-degree relatives at genetic risk, 91 persons with schizophrenia and 90 low risk persons who completed computerized testing of emotion recognition and differentiation. Groups differed by overall emotion recognition abilities and recognition of happy, sad, anger and fear expressions. Pairwise comparisons revealed comparable impairments in recognition of happy, angry, and fearful expressions for persons at clinical high-risk and schizophrenia, while genetic risk participants were less impaired, showing reduced recognition of fearful expressions. Groups also differed for differentiation of happy and sad expressions, but differences were mainly between schizophrenia and control groups. Emotion perception impairments are observable in young persons at-risk for psychosis. Preliminary results with clinical high-risk participants, when considered along findings in genetic risk relatives, suggest social cognition abilities to reflect pathophysiological processes involved in risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyroid hormones and carcinoembryonic antigen in persons with a high risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetukhina, E.S.; Bukhteeva, N.F.; Sapozhkova, L.P.; Maripova, Eh.M.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made to study CEA and thyroid hormones in high risk groups as there is evidence of their change in lung cancer patients. A questionnaire to distinguish between 4 types of the probability of lung cancer development and a method of radioimmunoassay to study the concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones in the blood serum were used. A high risk group included 320 practically healthy persons, a control group 108 patients with verified lung cancer. The results of the study have shown that the concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones increases more often in persons of the high risk group with noncancerous diseases than in persons without pathological pulmonary changes. With an increase in the degree of probability the frequency of a high concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones grows. The older the persons with a high risk of lung cancer, the higher the frequency of concentration of the thyroid hormones. Studies of CEA and thyroid hormones can be used for dynamic observation of persons with a high risk of lung cancer

  5. Relationship of child abuse with personality features and high risk behaviors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghezelseflo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of the society and are constantly threatened by different people in their family or society. The aim of this study was investigating the correlation of child abuse with personality features and high risk behavior in high school students of Islamshahr, Iran. Methods: This study cross-sectional analytical was conducted on the high school girls and boys of Islamshahr in spring 2014.528 students were selected by cluster random sampling among 4 high schools (two female and two male high schools. Childhood trauma questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Youth Risk-Taking Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by independence t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results: The results of independence t-test indicated significant differences between girls and boys in terms of child abuse and high risk experience (t=-2.16,p=0.03 and t=-5.03, P=0.001, respectively. Also, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between child abuse and personality characteristics, high risk behavior and all its subscales (P<0.05. The findings of multiple linear regressionindicated that child abuse could explain 14% total risk-taking, 25% neurotic personality feature , 14% extroversion, 10% agreeableness, 1% flexibility and 13% conscientiousness (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the research findings, appropriate behavior with children is of great importance. Therefore, child abuse would form inappropriate personality features and increase risk behaviors among children.

  6. Borderline personality pathology in young people at ultra high risk of developing a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jaymee; Graham, Anne; Nelson, Barnaby; Yung, Alison

    2017-06-01

    The association between borderline personality disorder and the ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis state is unclear. The following study aimed to investigate the type of attenuated psychotic symptoms and prevalence of borderline personality pathology in a sample of UHR young people. Additionally, the study aimed to explore whether borderline personality pathology influenced the transition rate to psychosis. Medical records from Orygen Youth Health between 2007 and 2009 were examined. There were 180 patients who met UHR criteria and were included for analysis. Most patients were females (62.8%) and age ranged from 15 to 24 years. A quarter (25.2%) of UHR patients endorsed items consistent with borderline personality pathology. UHR patients with borderline personality pathology experienced a range of attenuated psychotic symptoms and could not be statistically differentiated from UHR patients with less significant or without borderline personality pathology. Borderline personality pathology did not increase or decrease the risk of developing a psychotic disorder. The absence of depression was the only predictor of psychosis. Many UHR patients present with concurrent borderline personality features. The psychotic experiences reported by UHR patients with borderline personality features were not limited to paranoid ideation, supporting the idea that borderline personality disorder may include a wider range of psychotic symptoms than previously thought. It is further possible that the psychotic symptoms experienced in this group could also be indicative of an emerging psychotic disorder. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Influenza vaccination coverage and reasons to refrain among high-risk persons in four European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, M.; Essen, G.A. van; Paget, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines influenza vaccine coverage using a population base of an average of 2300 persons in each of four European countries (Germany, Spain, Poland and Sweden). The reasons for non-vaccination of those in the high-risk groups were explored by questionnaire. The vaccine coverage rate

  8. [High-grade pressure sores in frail older high-risk persons. A retrospective postmortem case-control-study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Renteln-Kruse, W; Krause, T; Anders, J; Kühl, M; Heinemann, A; Püschel, K

    2004-04-01

    Some old persons at risk do develop, but others, at comparable risk, do not develop high-grade pressure sores. To evaluate potentially different risk factors, we performed a post mortem case-control study in old persons who developed high-grade pressure sores within six months until 14 days before death. Consecutive cases with pressure sores grade >/=3 and potential controls at comparably high risk for pressure sores were examined before cremation. After written informed consent had been obtained by the next relatives, all available nursing and medical records of the deceased were thoroughly evaluated. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender, immobility, and cachexia.A total of 100 cases with 71 pressure sores grade 3 and 29 pressure sores grade 4 were compared to 100 controls with 27 pressure sores grade pressure sores in frail older high-risk persons. Sedative drug effects and impaired patient compliance with preventive and therapeutic measures may also be associated with the development of high-grade pressure sores in old persons at high risk.

  9. Low intensity vibration of ankle muscles improves balance in elderly persons at high risk of falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane

    2018-01-01

    In our study we examined postural performance of young healthy persons (HY), elderly healthy persons (HE), and elderly persons at high risk of falling (FR). Anterio-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) ankle and hip angular deviations, as well as linear displacements of the center of mass (COM) were assessed in persons standing with eyes either open or closed, while none, and 40 and 30 Hz vibrations were applied bilaterally to the ankle muscle gastrocnemius. During quiet standing with eyes open, balance parameters in FR group differed from those in healthy groups. ML ankle and hip angular deviations, as well as COM linear displacements were noticeably larger in FR group. During quiet standing with eyes closed, all balance parameters in participants of all groups had a clear trend to increase. During standing with eyes open, 40 Hz vibration increased all but one balance parameter within HY group, ankle angular deviations in HE group, but none in FR group. In response to 30 Hz vibration, only ankle angular deviations and COM linear displacements increased in HY group. There were no changes in both elderly groups. During standing with eyes closed, 40 and 30 Hz vibrations did not produce consistent changes in balance parameters in HY and HE groups. In FR persons, 40 Hz vibration did not change balance parameters. However, in FR groups, 30 Hz vibration decreased ankle and hip angular deviations, and COM linear displacements. The major result of the study is a finding that low intensity vibration of ankle muscles makes balance better in elderly persons at high risk of falling. This result is clinically relevant because it suggests that applying mild vibration to ankle muscles while standing and walking might benefit elderly persons, improving their postural performance and reducing a risk of unexpected falls. PMID:29579098

  10. Thyroid hormones, interpersonal violence and personality traits : clinical studies in high-risk psychiatric cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Cave

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal and violent behaviors as well as early life adversity are prevalent in clinical high-risk populations. Early life adversity is related to developmental dysregulation of behavioral and emotional traits. The neuroendocrine systems involved in the development of dysfunctional behavior and impulsive aggressive traits are not fully known. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and personality traits, as well as to exposur...

  11. Personal protective equipment and improving compliance among healthcare workers in high-risk settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hitoshi; Iwata, Kentaro

    2016-08-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) from infection by highly virulent pathogens via exposure to body fluids and respiratory droplets. Given the recent outbreaks of contagious infectious diseases worldwide, including Ebola virus and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, there is urgent need for further research to determine optimal PPE use in high-risk settings. This review intends to provide a general understanding of PPE and to provide guidelines for appropriate use based on current evidence. Although previous studies have focused on the efficacy of PPE in preventing transmission of pathogens, recent studies have examined the dangers to HCWs during removal of PPE when risk of contamination is highest. Access to adequate PPE supplies is crucial to preventing transmission of pathogens, especially in resource-limited settings. Adherence to appropriate PPE use is a challenge due to inadequate education on its usage, technical difficulties, and tolerability of PPE in the workplace. Future projects aim at ameliorating this situation, including redesigning PPE which is crucial to improving the safety of HCWs. PPE remains the most important strategy for protecting HCW from potentially fatal pathogens. Further research into optimal PPE design and use to improve the safety of HCWs is urgently needed.

  12. Personal, family and social functioning among older couples concordant and discordant for high-risk alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Moos, Bernice S

    2011-02-01

    This study compares the personal, family and social functioning of older husbands and wives concordant or discordant for high-risk alcohol consumption and identifies predictors of changes in concordance and high-risk consumption. Three groups of couples were identified at baseline and followed 10 years later: (i) concordant couples in which husbands and wives engaged in low-risk alcohol consumption (n = 54); (ii) concordant couples in which husbands and wives engaged in high-risk alcohol consumption (n = 38); and (iii) discordant couples in which one partner engaged in high-risk alcohol consumption and the other partner did not (n = 75). At each follow-up, husbands and wives completed an inventory that assessed their personal, family and social functioning. Compared to the low-risk concordant group, husbands and wives in the high-risk concordant group were more likely to rely on tension-reduction coping, reported more friend approval of drinking, and were less involved in religious activities; however, they did not differ in the quality of the spousal relationship. The frequency of alcohol consumption declined among husbands in discordant couples, but not among husbands in concordant couples. Predictors of high-risk drinking included tension-reduction coping, friend approval of drinking and, for husbands, their wives' level of drinking. High-risk and discordant alcohol consumption do not seem to be linked to decrements in family functioning among older couples in long-term stable marriages. The predictors of heavy alcohol consumption among older husbands and wives identify points of intervention that may help to reduce their high-risk drinking. © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to US government works.

  13. The relation of personality to alcohol abuse/dependence in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, A; Krull, J L; Chassin, L; Carle, A C

    2000-12-01

    The current study had two goals. The first goal was to test the mediational role of young adult personality in the relation between parental alcoholism and young adult alcoholism. The second was to examine the associations between personality and alcohol use motives and reasons to limit drinking in order to explore possible mechanisms by which personality may influence alcohol abuse/dependence. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to analyze data obtained from a community sample of young adult children of alcoholics and demographically matched controls. Results revealed that young adult neuroticism and agreeableness each, in part, mediated the effect of parental alcoholism on young adult alcoholism. Moreover, individuals high in neuloticism reported stronger coping motives to use alcohol, individuals low in agreeableness reported stronger coping motives and weaker upbringing reasons to limit drinking, and individuals low in conscientiousness reported stronger coping and enhancement motives to use alcohol, and weaker performance reasons to limit drinking.

  14. Conscientious personality and young drivers’ crash risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method: Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes...

  15. Linguistic parameters of Russian texts by suicides and persons with a high risk of self-destructive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinova Tatiana Aleksandrovna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of identifying the features of speech (both oral and written of persons in different mental states and constructing mathematical models for classifying texts depending on the author's mental state is one of the topical and actively developed problems of modern computer and psychiatric linguistics. Most of these studies are based on the material of the English language. The work presents a review of the research devoted to the analysis of written texts of persons who commit suicide as well as persons with a high risk of self-destructive behaviour, with special attention paid to work done on the material of the Russian language. Prospects for further research are also outlined.

  16. LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF THE RUSSIAN TEXTS OF PERSONS WHO COMMITTED SUICIDE AND PERSONS WITH A HIGH RISK OF AUTOAGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorovskaya, O.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising areas of modern research is speech analysis for the purpose of identifying the mental state and assessing the mental health of the speaker / writer. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in solving problems of this kind with the use of methods and tools for computer linguistics and data mining. A separate scientific problem far from its solution and, undoubtedly, requiring consolidation of the efforts of psychologists, linguists and experts in the intellectual analysis of data, is the problem of diagnosing a propensity for autoaggressive behavior (and suicide as an extreme form of it based on linguistic analysis of writing. This problem has not only theoretical, but also obvious practical significance. Using the methods of natural language processing, scientists analyze the texts (mostly English of suiciders and build models that classify the text as belonging or not belonging to the suicider, and reveal the characteristics of such texts. At the same time, if earlier mainly the fiction texts of suiciders were analyzed, then in the newest works scientists study Internet texts (blogs, tweets, Facebook posts etc. of persons who committed suicide or express their intention to commit it. The Russian language has long remained on the periphery of such studies. The article presents the results of studies aimed at identifying the linguistic features of Russian-language texts of persons who committed suicide, as well as persons prone to autoaggressive behavior. The studies used methods and techniques of corpus linguistics, computer linguistics, statistical analysis. Prospects for further research are indicated.

  17. Personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling among high school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Tariku A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Adal, Tamirie A

    2015-03-01

    Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among students (N = 422) ranging from 12 to 21 years of age. Results from the cross-sectional survey showed that personal feelings (e.g., self-esteem, false perceptions about winning, drug abuse), social factors (e.g., peer influence, parental gambling), and environmental factors (e.g., accessibility of gambling venues, advertisements) were significant correlates of problematic gambling. The study also revealed that men were more at risk for severe problematic gambling than females. Among the identified types of gambling activities, the most prevalent ones were playing cards followed by flipping coin and pool gambling while internet gambling was among the least reported gambling activities. By identifying personal, social and environmental correlates of risky gambling activities this study provides evidence-based information for the systematic design and evaluation of educational interventions to prevent problematic gambling in young people.

  18. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  19. Is the effect of alcohol on risk of stroke confined to highly stressed persons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Truelsen, T; Barefoot, J C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory...... setting. We aimed to examine whether the association between alcohol and stroke depends on level of self-reported stress in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: The 5,373 men and 6,723 women participating in the second examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983 were asked at baseline...... about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total...

  20. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors of falls in inpatients and their practical use in identifying high-risk persons at admission: Fukushima Medical University Hospital cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hirano, Noriko; Kurihara, Yumi; Kawashima, Takako; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the risk factors for falls in hospital settings and to propose the use of such factors to identify high-risk persons at admission. Prospective cohort study. Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Japan, from August 2008 and September 2009. 9957 adult consecutive inpatients admitted to our hospital. Information was collected at admission from clinical records obtained from a structured questionnaire conducted in face-to-face interviews with subjects by nurses and doctors and fall events were collected from clinical records. The proportion of patients who fell during follow-up was 2.5% and the incidence of falls was 3.28 per 100 person-days. There were significant differences in age, history of falling, cognitive dysfunction, planned surgery, wheelchair use, need for help to move, use of a remote caring system, rehabilitation, use of laxative, hypnotic or psychotropic medications and need for help with activities of daily living (ADL) between patients who did and did not fall. Multivariable adjusted ORs for falls showed that age, history of falls and need for help with ADL were common risk factors in both men and women. Using psychotropic medication also increased the risk of falling in men while cognitive dysfunction and use of hypnotic medication increased the risk of falling in women. Planned surgery was associated with a low risk of falls in women. To prevent falls in inpatients it is important to identify high-risk persons. Age, history of falling and the need for help with ADL are the most important pieces of information to be obtained at admission. Care plans for patients including fall prevention should be clear and considered.

  2. Personalized comprehensive molecular profiling of high risk osteosarcoma: Implications and limitations for precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Vivek; Wagner, Michael J; McGuire, Mary F; Sarwari, Nawid M; Devarajan, Eswaran; Lewis, Valerae O; Westin, Shanon; Kato, Shumei; Brown, Robert E; Anderson, Pete

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in molecular medicine over recent decades, there has been little advancement in the treatment of osteosarcoma. We performed comprehensive molecular profiling in two cases of metastatic and chemotherapy-refractory osteosarcoma to guide molecularly targeted therapy. Hybridization capture of >300 cancer-related genes plus introns from 28 genes often rearranged or altered in cancer was applied to >50 ng of DNA extracted from tumor samples from two patients with recurrent, metastatic osteosarcoma. The DNA from each sample was sequenced to high, uniform coverage. Immunohistochemical probes and morphoproteomics analysis were performed, in addition to fluorescence in situ hybridization. All analyses were performed in CLIA-certified laboratories. Molecularly targeted therapy based on the resulting profiles was offered to the patients. Biomedical analytics were performed using QIAGEN's Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis. In Patient #1, comprehensive next-generation exome sequencing showed MET amplification, PIK3CA mutation, CCNE1 amplification, and PTPRD mutation. Immunohistochemistry-based morphoproteomic analysis revealed c-Met expression [(p)-c-Met (Tyr1234/1235)] and activation of mTOR/AKT pathway [IGF-1R (Tyr1165/1166), p-mTOR [Ser2448], p-Akt (Ser473)] and expression of SPARC and COX2. Targeted therapy was administered to match the P1K3CA, c-MET, and SPARC and COX2 aberrations with sirolimus+ crizotinib and abraxane+ celecoxib. In Patient #2, aberrations included NF2 loss in exons 2-16, PDGFRα amplification, and TP53 mutation. This patient was enrolled on a clinical trial combining targeted agents temsirolimus, sorafenib and bevacizumab, to match NF2, PDGFRα and TP53 aberrations. Both the patients did not benefit from matched therapy. Relapsed osteosarcoma is characterized by complex signaling and drug resistance pathways. Comprehensive molecular profiling holds great promise for tailoring personalized therapies for cancer. Methods for such profiling are

  3. Highly dominating, highly authoritarian personalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemeyer, Bob

    2004-08-01

    The author considered the small part of the population whose members score highly on both the Social Dominance Orientation scale and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale. Studies of these High SDO-High RWAs, culled from samples of nearly 4000 Canadian university students and over 2600 of their parents and reported in the present article, reveal that these dominating authoritarians are among the most prejudiced persons in society. Furthermore, they seem to combine the worst elements of each kind of personality, being power-hungry, unsupportive of equality, manipulative, and amoral, as social dominators are in general, while also being religiously ethnocentric and dogmatic, as right-wing authoritarians tend to be. The author suggested that, although they are small in number, such persons can have considerable impact on society because they are well-positioned to become the leaders of prejudiced right-wing political movements.

  4. Personality and the prediction of high-risk trajectories of alcohol use during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Monshouwer, K.; van de Schoot, R.; Janssen, T.; Vollebergh, W.A.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early onset of alcohol use and persistent use of alcohol during adolescence have been associated with later problem behavior, such as heavy drinking and the use of other substances. Several personality characteristics have been related to the onset and persistent use of alcohol during

  5. Humoral immunity in tuberculin skin test anergy and its role in high-risk persons exposed to active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinales, Liliana; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Yunis, Maria; Granados, Julio; Almeciga, Ingrid; Clavijo, Olga; Awad, Carlos; Collazos, Vilma; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Bañales-Mendez, José Luis; Vazquez-Castañeda, Lilia; Stern, Joel N; Romero, Viviana; Fridkis-Hareli, Masha; Frindkis-Hareli, Masha; Terreros, Daniel; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Yunis, Edmond J

    2010-02-01

    The most common test to identify latent tuberculosis is the tuberculin skin test that detects T cell responses of delayed type hypersensitivity type IV. Since it produces false negative reactions in active tuberculosis or in high-risk persons exposed to tuberculosis patients as shown in this report, we studied antibody profiles to explain the anergy of such responses in high-risk individuals without active infection. Our results showed that humoral immunity against tuberculin, regardless of the result of the tuberculin skin test is important for protection from active tuberculosis and that the presence of high antibody titers is a more reliable indicator of infection latency suggesting that latency can be based on the levels of antibodies together with in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the purified protein derivative. Importantly, anti-tuberculin IgG antibody levels mediate the anergy described herein, which could also prevent reactivation of disease in high-risk individuals with high antibody titers. Such anti-tuberculin IgG antibodies were also found associated with blocking and/or stimulation of in vitro cultures of PBMC with tuberculin. In this regard, future studies need to establish if immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can generate a broad spectrum of reactions either toward Th1 responses favoring stimulation by cytokines or by antibodies and those toward diminished responses by Th2 cytokines or blocking by antibodies; possibly involving mechanisms of antibody dependent protection from Mtb by different subclasses of IgG. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Conscientious personality and young drivers’ crash risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method Participants’ driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18 months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants’ KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Results Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c = −0.034, p = .09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a = −0.040, p = .09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a = −0.053, p = .03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b = 0.376, p = .02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c’ = −0.025, p = .20). Conclusions Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, suffered fewer CNC. Practical Applications Part of the variability in crash-risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage

  7. Conscientious personality and young drivers' crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Fox Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne; Perlus, Jessamyn G; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G

    2015-09-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate, and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants' KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c=-0.034, p=.09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a=-0.040, p=.09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a=-0.053, p=.03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b=0.376, p=.02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c'=-0.025, p=.20). Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, and suffered fewer CNC. Part of the variability in crash risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage drivers' personality into account when providing guidance, and establishing norms and

  8. Behavioral intervention to reduce opioid overdose among high-risk persons with opioid use disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Oliver Coffin

    Full Text Available The United States is amidst an opioid epidemic, including synthetic opioids that may result in rapid death, leaving minimal opportunity for bystander rescue. We pilot tested a behavioral intervention to reduce the occurrence of opioid overdose among opioid dependent persons at high-risk for subsequent overdose.We conducted a single-blinded randomized-controlled trial of a repeated dose motivational interviewing intervention (REBOOT to reduce overdose versus treatment as usual, defined as information and referrals, over 16 months at the San Francisco Department of Public Health from 2014-2016. Participants were 18-65 years of age, had opioid use disorder by Structured Clinical Interview, active opioid use, opioid overdose within 5 years, and prior receipt of naloxone kits. The intervention was administered at months 0, 4, 8, and 12, preceded by the assessment which was also administered at month 16. Dual primary outcomes were any overdose event and number of events, collected by computer-assisted personal interview, as well as any fatal overdose events per vital records.A total of 78 persons were screened and 63 enrolled. Mean age was 43 years, 67% were born male, 65% White, 17% African-American, and 14% Latino. Ninety-two percent of visits and 93% of counseling sessions were completed. At baseline, 33.3% of participants had experienced an overdose in the past four months, with a similar mean number of overdoses in both arms (p = 0.95; 29% overdosed during follow-up. By intention-to-treat, participants assigned to REBOOT were less likely to experience any overdose (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.62 [95%CI 0.41-0.92, p = 0.019 and experienced fewer overdose events (IRR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24-0.90, p = 0.023, findings that were robust to sensitivity analyses. There were no differences between arms in days of opioid use, substance use treatment, or naloxone carriage.REBOOT reduced the occurrence of any opioid overdose and the number of overdoses

  9. Definition and Validation of “Favorable High-Risk Prostate Cancer”: Implications for Personalizing Treatment of Radiation-Managed Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, Vinayak; Chen, Ming-Hui; Reznor, Gally; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Beard, Clair J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Martin, Neil E.; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To define and validate a classification of favorable high-risk prostate cancer that could be used to personalize therapy, given that consensus guidelines recommend similar treatments for all radiation-managed patients with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: We studied 3618 patients with cT1-T3aN0M0 high-risk or unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radiation at a single institution between 1997 and 2013. Favorable high-risk was defined as T1c disease with either Gleason 4 + 4 = 8 and prostate-specific antigen 20 ng/mL. Competing risks regression was used to determine differences in the risk of prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) after controlling for baseline factors and treatment. Our results were validated in a cohort of 13,275 patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Results: Patients with favorable high-risk disease had significantly better PCSM than other men with high-risk disease (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.996, P=.049) and similar PCSM as men with unfavorable intermediate-risk disease (AHR 1.17, 95% CI 0.50-2.75, P=.710). We observed very similar results within the SEER-Medicare cohort (favorable high-risk vs other high-risk: AHR 0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.41, P<.001; favorable high-risk vs unfavorable intermediate-risk: AHR 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-1.36, P=.268). Conclusions: Patients with favorable high-risk prostate cancer have significantly better PCSM than other patients with high-risk disease and similar PCSM as those with unfavorable intermediate-risk disease, who are typically treated with shorter-course androgen deprivation therapy. This new classification system may allow for personalization of treatment within high-risk disease, such as consideration of shorter-course androgen deprivation therapy for favorable high-risk disease.

  10. Definition and Validation of “Favorable High-Risk Prostate Cancer”: Implications for Personalizing Treatment of Radiation-Managed Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, Vinayak [Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States); Reznor, Gally [Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, Illinois (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sweeney, Christopher J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Trinh, Quoc-Dien [Department of Urology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L., E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To define and validate a classification of favorable high-risk prostate cancer that could be used to personalize therapy, given that consensus guidelines recommend similar treatments for all radiation-managed patients with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: We studied 3618 patients with cT1-T3aN0M0 high-risk or unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radiation at a single institution between 1997 and 2013. Favorable high-risk was defined as T1c disease with either Gleason 4 + 4 = 8 and prostate-specific antigen <10 ng/mL or Gleason 6 and prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL. Competing risks regression was used to determine differences in the risk of prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) after controlling for baseline factors and treatment. Our results were validated in a cohort of 13,275 patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Results: Patients with favorable high-risk disease had significantly better PCSM than other men with high-risk disease (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.996, P=.049) and similar PCSM as men with unfavorable intermediate-risk disease (AHR 1.17, 95% CI 0.50-2.75, P=.710). We observed very similar results within the SEER-Medicare cohort (favorable high-risk vs other high-risk: AHR 0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.41, P<.001; favorable high-risk vs unfavorable intermediate-risk: AHR 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-1.36, P=.268). Conclusions: Patients with favorable high-risk prostate cancer have significantly better PCSM than other patients with high-risk disease and similar PCSM as those with unfavorable intermediate-risk disease, who are typically treated with shorter-course androgen deprivation therapy. This new classification system may allow for personalization of treatment within high-risk disease, such as consideration of shorter-course androgen deprivation therapy for favorable high-risk disease.

  11. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  12. Explaining suicide attempt with personality traits of aggression and impulsivity in a high risk tribal population of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Piyoosh Kumar; Rao, V R

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a spectrum of behavior including suicide ideation and suicidal attempt and is undoubtedly the outcome of the interaction of several factors. The role of two main constructs of human nature, aggression and impulsivity, has been discussed broadly in relation to suicide, as endophenotypes or traits of personality, in research and in clinical practice across diagnoses. The objective of our study was to assess impulsive and aggressive behaviors among primitive people of the Idu Mishmi tribe, who are known for high suicide completer and attempter rates. The study group was comprised of 177 unrelated Idu Mishmi participants divided into two sets: 39 suicide attempters and 138 non-attempters. Data on demographic factors and details of suicide attempts were collected. Participants completed a set of instruments for assessment of aggression and impulsivity traits. In the Idu Mishimi population we screened (n = 177), 22.03% of the individuals had attempted suicide, a high percentage. The suicide attempters also showed a significant sex difference: 35.9% were male and 64.10% were female (p = .002*). The suicide attempters (A) scored significantly higher than non-attempters (NA) on aggression (A = 23.93,NA = 18.46) and impulsivity (A = 75.53,NA = 71.59, with p value = 0.05). The trait impulsiveness showed a significantly higher difference (F (1, 117) = 7.274) in comparison to aggression (F (1, 117) = 2.647), suggesting a profound role of impulsiveness in suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population. Analysis of sub-traits of aggression and impulsivity revealed significant correlations between them. Using different models, multivariate logistic regression implied roles of gender (OR = 1.079 (0.05)) and impulsiveness (OR = 3.355 (0.013)) in suicide attempts. Results demonstrate that gender and impulsivity are strong risk factors for suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population.

  13. Explaining suicide attempt with personality traits of aggression and impulsivity in a high risk tribal population of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyoosh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Suicide is a spectrum of behavior including suicide ideation and suicidal attempt and is undoubtedly the outcome of the interaction of several factors. The role of two main constructs of human nature, aggression and impulsivity, has been discussed broadly in relation to suicide, as endophenotypes or traits of personality, in research and in clinical practice across diagnoses. The objective of our study was to assess impulsive and aggressive behaviors among primitive people of the Idu Mishmi tribe, who are known for high suicide completer and attempter rates.The study group was comprised of 177 unrelated Idu Mishmi participants divided into two sets: 39 suicide attempters and 138 non-attempters. Data on demographic factors and details of suicide attempts were collected. Participants completed a set of instruments for assessment of aggression and impulsivity traits.In the Idu Mishimi population we screened (n = 177, 22.03% of the individuals had attempted suicide, a high percentage. The suicide attempters also showed a significant sex difference: 35.9% were male and 64.10% were female (p = .002*. The suicide attempters (A scored significantly higher than non-attempters (NA on aggression (A = 23.93,NA = 18.46 and impulsivity (A = 75.53,NA = 71.59, with p value = 0.05. The trait impulsiveness showed a significantly higher difference (F (1, 117 = 7.274 in comparison to aggression (F (1, 117 = 2.647, suggesting a profound role of impulsiveness in suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population. Analysis of sub-traits of aggression and impulsivity revealed significant correlations between them. Using different models, multivariate logistic regression implied roles of gender (OR = 1.079 (0.05 and impulsiveness (OR = 3.355 (0.013 in suicide attempts.Results demonstrate that gender and impulsivity are strong risk factors for suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population.

  14. Thrombocalc: implementation and uptake of personalized postpartum venous thromboembolism risk assessment in a high-throughput obstetric environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Fergal; Donnelly, Jennifer C; Cooley, Sharon M; Deering, Mary; Raman, Ajita; Gannon, Geraldine; Hickey, Jane; Holland, Alan; Hayes, Niamh; Bennett, Kathleen; Ní Áinle, Fionnuala; Cleary, Brian J

    2017-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism risk assessment (VTERA) is recommended in all pregnant and postpartum women. Our objective was to develop, pilot and implement a user-friendly electronic VTERA tool. We developed "Thrombocalc", an electronic VTERA tool using Microsoft EXCEL ™ . Thrombocalc was designed as a score-based tool to facilitate rapid assessment of all women after childbirth. Calculation of a total score estimated risk of venous thromboembolism in line with consensus guidelines. Recommendations for thromboprophylaxis were included in the VTERA output. Implementation was phased. Uptake of the VTERA tool was assessed prospectively by monitoring the proportion of women who gave birth in our institution and had a completed risk assessment. Factors affecting completion and accuracy of risk assessments were also assessed. Thrombocalc was used prospectively to risk-assess 8380 women between September 2014 and December 2015. Compliance with this tool increased dramatically throughout the study period; over 92% of women were risk-assessed in the last quarter of data collection. Compliance was not adversely affected if delivery took place out of working hours [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.14]. Risk assessment was less likely in the case of cesarean deliveries (aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.60-0.73) and stillborn infants (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.79). Misclassification of risk factors led to approximately 207 (2.5%) inaccurate thromboprophylaxis recommendations. Our electronic, score-based VTERA tool provides a highly effective mechanism for rapid assessment of individual postpartum venous thromboembolism risk in a high-throughput environment. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Impact of high-intensity concurrent training on cardiovascular risk factors in persons with multiple sclerosis - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keytsman, Charly; Hansen, Dominique; Wens, Inez; O Eijnde, Bert

    2017-10-27

    High-intensity concurrent training positively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Because this was never investigated in multiple sclerosis, the present pilot study explored the impact of this training on cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Before and after 12 weeks of high-intense concurrent training (interval and strength training, 5 sessions per 2 weeks, n = 16) body composition, resting blood pressure and heart rate, 2-h oral glucose tolerance (insulin sensitivity, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose and insulin concentrations), blood lipids (high- and low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels) and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Twelve weeks of high-intense concurrent training significantly improved resting heart rate (-6%), 2-h blood glucose concentrations (-13%) and insulin sensitivity (-24%). Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipids and C-reactive protein did not seem to be affected. Under the conditions of this pilot study, 12 weeks of concurrent high-intense interval and strength training improved resting heart rate, 2-h glucose and insulin sensitivity in multiple sclerosis but did not affect blood C-reactive protein levels, blood pressure, body composition and blood lipid profiles. Further, larger and controlled research investigating the effects of high-intense concurrent training on cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis is warranted. Implications for rehabilitation High-intensity concurrent training improves cardiovascular fitness. This pilot study explores the impact of this training on cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis. Despite the lack of a control group, high-intense concurrent training does not seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis.

  16. Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention Program among Persons at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in a Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadheim, Liane M.; Brewer, Kari A.; Kassner, Darcy R.; Vanderwood, Karl K.; Hall, Taryn O.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Harwell, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of translating the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention into practice in a rural community. Methods: In 2008, the Montana Diabetes Control Program worked collaboratively with Holy Rosary Healthcare to implement an adapted group-based DPP lifestyle intervention. Adults at high risk for…

  17. Improving subjective perception of personal cancer risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of educational interventions for people with cancer or at high risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Mbathio; Watts, Caroline G; Kasparian, Nadine A; Morton, Rachael L; Mann, Graham J; Cust, Anne E

    2014-06-01

    Newly diagnosed patients with cancer require education about the disease, the available treatments and potential consequences of treatment. Greater understanding of cancer risk has been found to be associated with greater health-related quality of life, improved psychological adjustment and greater health-related behaviours. The aim of this sytematic review was to assess the effectiveness of educational interventions in improving subjective cancer risk perception and to appraise the quality of the studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective observational studies. Eligible studies were identified via Medline, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL and Embase databases. After screening titles and abstracts, two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of 206 full-text articles. Forty papers were included in the review; the majority of studies were conducted among breast cancer patients (n = 29) and evaluated the effect of genetic counselling on personal perceived risk (n = 25). Pooled results from RCTs (n = 12) showed that, both in the short and long term, educational interventions did not significantly influence risk perception level (standardised mean difference 0.05, 95% CI -0.24-0.34; p = 0.74) or accuracy (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% CI: 0.61-6.25; p = 0.26). Only one RCT reported a short-term difference in risk ratings (p = 0.01). Of prospective observational studies (n = 28), many did demonstrate changes in the level of perceived risk and improved risk accuracy and risk ratings in both the short and long term. However, only one (of three) observational studies reported a short-term difference in risk ratings (p < = 0.003). Further development and investigation of educational interventions using good quality, RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Checking the predictive accuracy of basic symptoms against ultra high-risk criteria and testing of a multivariable prediction model: Evidence from a prospective three-year observational study of persons at clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, M P; Heekeren, K; Dvorsky, D; Walitza, S; Rössler, W; Theodoridou, A

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to critically examine the prognostic validity of various clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria alone and in combination with additional clinical characteristics. A total of 188 CHR positive persons from the region of Zurich, Switzerland (mean age 20.5 years; 60.2% male), meeting ultra high-risk (UHR) and/or basic symptoms (BS) criteria, were followed over three years. The test battery included the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), verbal IQ and many other screening tools. Conversion to psychosis was defined according to ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia (F20) or brief psychotic disorder (F23). Altogether n=24 persons developed manifest psychosis within three years and according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the projected conversion rate was 17.5%. The predictive accuracy of UHR was statistically significant but poor (area under the curve [AUC]=0.65, Pthinking of binary at-risk criteria is necessary in order to improve the prognosis of psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Fleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT. An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  20. Dialectical behavior therapy for high suicide risk in individuals with borderline personality disorder: a randomized clinical trial and component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M; Korslund, Kathryn E; Harned, Melanie S; Gallop, Robert J; Lungu, Anita; Neacsiu, Andrada D; McDavid, Joshua; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Murray-Gregory, Angela M

    2015-05-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for suicidal individuals. However, DBT consists of multiple components, including individual therapy, skills training, telephone coaching, and a therapist consultation team, and little is known about which components are needed to achieve positive outcomes. To evaluate the importance of the skills training component of DBT by comparing skills training plus case management (DBT-S), DBT individual therapy plus activities group (DBT-I), and standard DBT which includes skills training and individual therapy. We performed a single-blind randomized clinical trial from April 24, 2004, through January 26, 2010, involving 1 year of treatment and 1 year of follow-up. Participants included 99 women (mean age, 30.3 years; 69 [71%] white) with borderline personality disorder who had at least 2 suicide attempts and/or nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) acts in the last 5 years, an NSSI act or suicide attempt in the 8 weeks before screening, and a suicide attempt in the past year. We used an adaptive randomization procedure to assign participants to each condition. Treatment was delivered from June 3, 2004, through September 29, 2008, in a university-affiliated clinic and community settings by therapists or case managers. Outcomes were evaluated quarterly by blinded assessors. We hypothesized that standard DBT would outperform DBT-S and DBT-I. The study compared standard DBT, DBT-S, and DBT-I. Treatment dose was controlled across conditions, and all treatment providers used the DBT suicide risk assessment and management protocol. Frequency and severity of suicide attempts and NSSI episodes. All treatment conditions resulted in similar improvements in the frequency and severity of suicide attempts, suicide ideation, use of crisis services due to suicidality, and reasons for living. Compared with the DBT-I group, interventions that included skills training resulted in greater improvements in the frequency of NSSI

  1. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation; Ueber den aerztlichen Umgang mit Hochrisikopersonen. Erfahrungen bei Personen mit chronischer interner Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, E010 - Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.) [German] Die aerztliche Fuehrung von Personen, die noch nicht erkrankt sind, aber ein deutlich hoeheres Risiko fuer bestimmte Tumorerkrankungen aufgrund exogener oder endogener Ursachen haben, stellt den Arzt und speziell den diagnostischen Radiologen vor neue Herausforderungen. Dem Beitrag zugrunde liegen die Erfahrungen bei der Betreuung und Beratung so genannter Thorotrastpatienten, d. h. Personen, die nach lange zurueckliegender (vor 1950) intravasaler Injektion eines weltweit eingesetzten Roentgenkontrastmittels zeitlebens einer Alphastrahlung v. a. der Leber (bis 0,4 Gy/a), der Milz (1,2 Gy/a) und des Knochenmarks (0,1 Gy/a) ausgesetzt waren. Fuer die Thorotrastpatienten und die Aerzte stand im Vordergrund die Sorge der Entstehung primaerer, maligner Lebertumoren, die bei mehr als 20% der Betroffenen und damit im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe 100-fach haeufiger auftraten. Die allgemeinen aerztlichen und speziell radiologischen Erfahrungen sind grundsaetzlicher Art und lassen

  2. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.

  3. Vibrotactile Feedback Alters Dynamics Of Static Postural Control In Persons With Parkinson's Disease But Not Older Adults At High Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Carleigh M; McHugh, Hannah F; Mills, Stephen C; Amano, Shinichi; Freund, Jane E; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2018-06-01

    Aging and Parkinson's disease are often associated with impaired postural control. Providing extrinsic feedback via vibrotactile sensation could supplement intrinsic feedback to maintain postural control. We investigated the postural control response to vibrotactile feedback provided at the trunk during challenging stance conditions in older adults at high fall risk and individuals with Parkinson's disease compared to healthy older adults. Nine older adults at high fall risk, 9 persons with Parkinson's disease and 10 healthy older adults performed 30s quiet standing on a force platform under five challenging stance conditions with eyes open/closed and standing on firm/foam surface with feet together, each with and without vibrotactile feedback. During vibrotactile feedback trials, feedback was provided when participants swayed >10% over the center of their base of support. Participants were instructed vibrations would be in response to their movement. Magnitude of postural sway was estimated using center of pressure path length, velocity, and sway area. Dynamics of individuals' postural control was evaluated using detrended fluctuation analysis. Results showed that vibrotactile feedback induced a change in postural control dynamics among persons with Parkinson's disease when standing with intact intrinsic visual input and altered intrinsic somatosensory input, but there was no change in sway magnitude. However, use of vibrotactile feedback did not significantly alter dynamics of postural control in older adults with high risk of falling or reduce the magnitude of sway. Considering the effects of vibrotactile feedback were dependent on the population and stance condition, designing an optimal therapeutic regimen for balance training should be carefully considered and be specific to a target population. Furthermore, our results suggest that explicit instructions on how to respond to the vibrotactile feedback could affect training outcome. Copyright © 2018 The

  4. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  5. Older Persons at Risk of Hospital Readmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi

    Hospital readmission is common and considered an adverse health outcome in older persons. Acute readmission of recently discharged patients puts additional pressure on clinical resources within health care services and support. Despite the frequency of readmissions, affecting health and wellbeing...... of older persons, there is still a relatively incomplete understanding of the broader array of factors pertaining to hospital readmission. The current evidence on risk factors for hospital readmission is not adequate to identify person at risk of readmission in a heterogeneous population of older persons....... Few studies have explored patients’ experiences of circumstances and incidents leading to readmission. This thesis uses a mixed methods approach and combines quantitative as well as qualitative data to explore and identify risk factors and predictors of hospital readmission. Use of health care...

  6. Personality features in ultra-high risk for psychosis: a comparative study with schizophrenia and control subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ana; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Robles-García, Rebeca; Azcárraga, Mariana; Guizar, Diana; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Several variables have been identified as risk factors for conversion to overt psychosis in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals. Although almost two-thirds of them do not experience a transition to psychosis, they still exhibit functional disabilities. Other subjective developmental features may be useful for a more precise identification of individuals at UHR. Avoidant behaviors are consistently reported in schizophrenia and in UHR individuals and may be the reflection of a pattern of personality. Thus, personality features in UHR individuals deserves further research. The objective of the present study was to compare temperament and character dimensions between UHR individuals, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. One hundred participants (25 UHR individuals, 25 schizophrenia patients and 50 control subjects) where evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Univariate ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni tests were used. UHR individuals and schizophrenia patients exhibited higher levels of Harm Avoidance (HA) when compared to control subjects. For HA1 Anticipatory worry vs Uninhibited optimism and HA4 Fatigability & asthenia, UHR and schizophrenia groups showed similar scores and both groups were higher compared to control subjects. With respect to Cooperativeness (CO), UHR and schizophrenia reported lower scores than control subjects, in particular CO2 Empathy vs Social disinterest and CO3 Helpfulness vs unhelpfulness. This study replicates and extends the consideration of HA as a psychopathological related endophenotype and gives us further information of the possible role of personality features in the expression of some of the social dysfunctions observed both in prodromal subjects and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial risk factors and personality disorders in outpatient cardiology setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2015-01-01

    Psychological risk factors and personality disorders comorbidities are more frequent than psychological risk factors only or personality disorders only in outpatient cardiology setting without cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Personality and risk perception in transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhri, Aslak; Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe

    2012-11-01

    Within research on individual variations in risk perception, personality has been suggested as one important factor. In the present study, personality traits (44 items from the Big Five inventory) were investigated in relation to risk perception in transport and transport behavioural adaptations. In a sample of 312 participants, we found that the personality trait 'emotional stability versus neuroticism' was negatively correlated with risk perception (operationalised as "thinking about the possibility") of an accident (-0.38) and an unpleasant incident, such as crime, violence, robbery (-0.25). 'Agreeableness' was also negatively related to risk perception, however first and foremost in relation to perceived risk for unpleasant incidents on transport modes in which one interacts with other people (0.25). Moreover, regression analyses showed that 'emotional stability' was a significant predictor of behavioural adaptations on bus. Regression analyses explained between 17 and 26 percent of variance in behavioural adaptations. The results show that different groups of people vary systematically in their perception of risk in transport. Furthermore, these differences are manifest as a difference in risk-preventive behaviour at a strategic level, i.e. as decisions about avoiding risky situations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Usefulness of a single item in a mail survey to identify persons with possible dementia: a new strategy for finding high-risk elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Kathleen K; Maslow, Katie; Perrin, Nancy A; Crooks, Valerie; DellaPenna, Richard; Kuang, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of elderly persons who responded positively to a question about "severe memory problems" on a mailed health questionnaire yet were missed by the existing health risk algorithm to identify vulnerable elderly persons. A total of 324,471 respondents aged 65 and older completed a primary care health status questionnaire that gathered clinical information to quickly identify members with functional impairment, multiple chronic diseases, and higher medical care needs. The respondents were part of a large, integrated, not-for-profit managed care organization that implemented a model of care for elders using a uniform risk identification method across eight regions. Respondents with severe memory problems were compared to general respondents by morbidity, geriatric syndromes, functional impairments, service utilization, sensory impairments, sociodemographic characteristics, and activities of daily living. Of the respondents, 13,902 persons (4.3%) reported severe memory problems; the existing health risk algorithm missed 47.1% of these. When severe memory problems were included in the risk algorithm, identification increased from 11% to 13%, and risk prevalence by age groups ranged from 4.4% to 40.5%; one third had severe memory problems, a finding that was fairly consistent within age groups (28.4% to 36.5%). A question about severe memory problems should be incorporated into population risk-identification techniques. While false-negative rates are unknown, the false-positive rate of a self-report mail survey appears to be minimal. Persons reporting severe memory problems clearly have multiple comorbidities, higher prevalence of geriatric syndromes, and greater functional and sensory impairments.

  10. Personality prototype as a risk factor for eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Sanchez-Guarnido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To establish whether the risk of suffering from an eating disorder (ED is associated with the high-functioning, undercontrolled, or overcontrolled personality prototype groups.Method:The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 were administered to 69 patients diagnosed as suffering from EDs (cases and 89 people free of any ED symptoms (control group. A cluster analysis was carried out to divide the participants into three groups based on their scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. A logistic regression model was then created.Results:Participants in the undercontrolled group had a risk of suffering from an ED 6.517 times higher than those in the high-functioning group (p = 0.019; odds ratio [OR] = 6.517, while those in the overcontrolled subgroup had a risk of ED 15.972 times higher than those in the high-functioning group.Conclusions:Two personality subtypes were identified in which the risk of EDs was six times higher (the undercontrolled group and almost 16 times higher (the overcontrolled group. Prevention and treatment programs for ED could benefit from focusing on the abovementioned personality profiles.

  11. Cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Boyd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5% predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events.We included all participants with complete risk factor (covariate data, baseline eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and a confirmed (>3 months apart eGFR 1%-5%, >5% and fitted Poisson models to assess whether CVD and CKD risk group effects were multiplicative. A total of 27,215 participants contributed 202,034 person-years of follow-up: 74% male, median (IQR age 42 (36, 49 years, median (IQR baseline year of follow-up 2005 (2004, 2008. D:A:D risk equations predicted 3,560 (13.1% participants at high CVD risk, 4,996 (18.4% participants at high CKD risk, and 1,585 (5.8% participants at both high CKD and high CVD risk. CVD and CKD event rates by predicted risk group were multiplicative. Participants at high CVD risk had a 5.63-fold (95% CI 4.47, 7.09, p < 0.001 increase in CKD events compared to those at low risk; participants at high CKD risk had a 1.31-fold (95% CI 1.09, 1.56, p = 0.005 increase in CVD events compared to those at low risk. Participants' CVD and CKD risk groups had multiplicative predictive effects, with no evidence of an interaction (p = 0.329 and p = 0.291 for CKD and CVD, respectively. The main study limitation is the difference in the ascertainment of the clinically defined CVD endpoints and the laboratory-defined CKD endpoints.We found that people at high predicted risk for both CVD and CKD have substantially greater risks for both CVD and CKD events compared with those at low predicted risk for both outcomes, and compared to those at high predicted risk for only CVD or CKD events. This suggests that CVD and

  12. High-Risk List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    economy. The World Bank has said that “corruption creates an unfavorable business environment by undermining the operation efficiency of firms and... Bank Began as ‘Ponzi Scheme,’” 11/27/2012. 64 Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring and Evaluation Committee, Unfinished Business : The Follow...HIGH RISK AREA 7: Oversight 51 HIGH-RISK AREA 8: Strategy and Planning 55 CONCLUSION HIGH RISK LIST I JANUARY 11, 2017 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  13. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  14. The potential risk of personal stereo players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The technological development within personal stereo systems,such as MP3 players, e. g. iPods, has changed music listening habits from home entertainment to everyday and everywhere use. The technology has developed considerably, since the introduction of cassette players and CD walkmen. High......-level low-distortion music is produced by minimal devices which can play for long periods. In this paper, the existing literature on effects of personal stereo systems is reviewed, incl. studies of exposure levels, and effects on hearing. Generally, it is found that the levels being used are of concern......, which in one study is demonstrated to relate to the specific use in situations with high levels of background noise. Another study demonstrates that the effect of using personal stereo is comparable to that of being exposed to noise in industry. The results are discussed in view of the measurement...

  15. Atherogenic Risk Assessment among Persons Living in Rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Wekesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease and commonly coexist. Cardiovascular risk can be reliably predicted using lipid ratios such as the atherogenic index, a useful prognostic parameter for guiding timely interventions. Objective. We assessed the cardiovascular risk profile based on the atherogenic index of residents within a rural Ugandan cohort. Methods. In 2011, a population based survey was conducted among 7507 participants. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical measurements (blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumference, and blood sampling for nonfasting lipid profile were collected for each participant. Atherogenic risk profile, defined as logarithm base ten of (triglyceride divided by high density lipoprotein cholesterol, was categorised as low risk (0.24. Results. Fifty-five percent of participants were female and the mean age was 49.9 years (SD±20.2. Forty-two percent of participants had high and intermediate atherogenic risk. Persons with hypertension, untreated HIV infection, abnormal glycaemia, and obesity and living in less urbanised villages were more at risk. Conclusion. A significant proportion of persons in this rural population are at risk of atherosclerosis. Key identified populations at risk should be considered for future intervention against cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality. The study however used parameters from unfasted samples that may have a bearing on observed results.

  16. An Explorative Study on the Efficacy and Feasibility of the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Improve Footwear Adherence in Persons with Diabetes at High Risk for Foot Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keukenkamp, Renske; Merkx, Maarten J; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa E; Bus, Sicco A

    2018-03-01

    In this explorative study, we assessed the effect and feasibility of using motivational interviewing to improve footwear adherence in persons with diabetes who are at high risk for foot ulceration and show low adherence to wearing prescribed custom-made footwear. Thirteen individuals with diabetes, ulcer history, and low footwear adherence (ie, motivational interviewing. Adherence was objectively measured over 7 days using ankle- and shoe-worn sensors and was calculated as the percentage of total steps that prescribed footwear was worn. Adherence was assessed at home and away from home at baseline and 1 week and 3 months after the intervention. Feasibility was assessed for interviewer proficiency to apply motivational interviewing and for protocol executability. Median (range) baseline, 1-week, and 3-month adherence at home was 49% (6%-63%), 84% (5%-98%), and 40% (4%-80%), respectively, in the motivational interviewing group and 35% (13%-64%), 33% (15%-55%), and 31% (3%-66%), respectively, in the standard education group. Baseline, 1-week, and 3-month adherence away from home was 91% (79%-100%), 97% (62%-99%) and 92% (86%-98%), respectively, in the motivational interviewing group and 78% (32%-97%), 91% (28%-98%), and 93% (57%-100%), respectively, in the standard education group. None of the differences were statistically significant. Interviewer proficiency was good, and the protocol could be successfully executed in the given time frame. Footwear adherence at home increases 1 week after motivational interviewing to clinically relevant but not statistically significant levels (ie, 80%) but then returns over time to baseline levels. Away from home, adherence is already sufficient at baseline and remains so over time. The use of motivational interviewing seems feasible for the given purpose and patient group. These findings provide input to larger trials and provisionally suggest that additional or adjunctive therapy may be needed to better preserve adherence.

  17. Suicide risk among persons with foreign background in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, V; Qin, Ping; Zøllner, L.

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about factors correlated with suicide risk among minority groups in Western societies. In the present study we compared suicide risk among persons with foreign background with that of the majority population to determine whether certain minority groups...... are at a particular risk for suicide, as well as to illuminate gender differences herein. Suicide risk was generally higher among persons with foreign background compared with the majority population and the risk was highest among Nordic-born persons. Overall, suicide risk was significantly lower among Asian......-born persons; however, there were gender differences in correlations between ethnicity and suicide risk...

  18. Cardiovascular risk estimation in older persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooney, Marie Therese; Selmer, Randi; Lindman, Anja

    2016-01-01

    .73 to 0.75). Calibration was also reasonable, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test: 17.16 (men), 22.70 (women). Compared with the original SCORE function extrapolated to the ≥65 years age group discrimination improved, p = 0.05 (men), p women). Simple risk charts were constructed. On simulated...... risk estimation systems, that risk factors function similarly in all age groups. We aimed to derive and validate a risk estimation function, SCORE O.P., solely from data from individuals aged 65 years and older. METHODS AND RESULTS: 20,704 men and 20,121 women, aged 65 and over and without pre...... model and were included in the SCORE O.P. model were: age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and diabetes. SCORE O.P. showed good discrimination; area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0...

  19. Self-criticism, dependency, and stress reactivity: an experience sampling approach to testing Blatt and Zuroff's (1992) theory of personality predispositions to depression in high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Philippe; Abela, John R Z; Auerbach, Randy; Skitch, Steven

    2009-11-01

    S. J. Blatt and D. C. Zuroff's 1992 theory of personality predispositions to depression posits that individuals who possess high levels of self-criticism and/or dependency are vulnerable to developing depression following negative events. The current study used experience sampling methodology to test this theory in a sample of 49 children ages 7 to 14. Children completed measures of dependency, self-criticism, and depressive symptoms. Subsequently, children were given a handheld computer that signaled them to complete measures of depressive symptoms and negative events at randomly selected times over 2 months. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that higher levels of both self-criticism and dependency were associated with greater elevations in depressive symptoms following negative events. Furthermore, each personality predisposition remained a significant predictor of such elevations after controlling for the interaction between the other personality predisposition and negative events. The results suggest that dependency and self-criticism represent distinct vulnerability factors to depression in youth.

  20. The Brain Games study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of computerised cognitive training for preventing mental illness in adolescents with high-risk personality styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewton, Louise; Hodge, Antoinette; Gates, Nicola; Visontay, Rachel; Teesson, Maree

    2017-09-25

    A broad range of mental disorders are now understood as aberrations of normal adolescent brain development. In both adolescents and adults, executive dysfunction has been implicated across a range of mental illnesses, and enhancing executive functioning may prove to be a useful prevention strategy for adolescents at risk for a range of psychopathology. This study will consist of a double-blind, randomised controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up period. Participants will consist of 200 people aged 16-24 years who are at risk for a range of mental disorders based on personality risk factors, but have not experienced a lifetime mental illness as determined by a structured diagnostic interview. Participants will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group who complete an online cognitive training programme specifically targeting executive functioning ability or a control group who complete an online cognitive training programme that has limited executive functioning training potential. Superiority of the executive functioning training programme compared with the control training programme will be assessed at baseline, post-training and at 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. All assessments will be conducted online. The primary outcome of the study will be general psychopathology as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include executive functioning ability, day-to-day functioning and alcohol consumption. All analyses will be undertaken using mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variance with planned contrasts. Ethics approval has been obtained from the University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee (HC15094). Results of the trial immediately post-treatment and at 12 months follow-up will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12616000127404; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  1. [Detecting high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.

  2. Personalized risk communication for personalized risk assessment: Real world assessment of knowledge and motivation for six mortality risk measures from an online life expectancy calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Douglas G; Abdulaziz, Kasim E; Perez, Richard; Beach, Sarah; Bennett, Carol

    2018-01-01

    In the clinical setting, previous studies have shown personalized risk assessment and communication improves risk perception and motivation. We evaluated an online health calculator that estimated and presented six different measures of life expectancy/mortality based on a person's sociodemographic and health behavior profile. Immediately after receiving calculator results, participants were invited to complete an online survey that asked how informative and motivating they found each risk measure, whether they would share their results and whether the calculator provided information they need to make lifestyle changes. Over 80% of the 317 survey respondents found at least one of six healthy living measures highly informative and motivating, but there was moderate heterogeneity regarding which measures respondents found most informative and motivating. Overall, health age was most informative and life expectancy most motivating. Approximately 40% of respondents would share the results with their clinician (44%) or social networks (38%), although the information they would share was often different from what they found informative or motivational. Online personalized risk assessment allows for a more personalized communication compared to historic paper-based risk assessment to maximize knowledge and motivation, and people should be provided a range of risk communication measures that reflect different risk perspectives.

  3. Risk profiles of personality traits for suicidality among mood disorder patients and community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M-H; Chen, H-C; Lu, M-L; Feng, J; Chen, I-M; Wu, C-S; Chang, S-W; Kuo, P-H

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations between personality traits and suicidal ideation (SI) and attempt (SA) in mood disorder patients and community controls. We recruited 365 bipolar, 296 major depressive disorder patients, and 315 community controls to assess their lifetime suicidality. Participants filled out self-reported personality questionnaires to collect data of personality traits, including novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), extraversion (E), and neuroticism (N). We used logistic regression models adjusted for diagnoses to analyze combinational effects of personality traits on the risk of suicide. Additionally, radar charts display personality profiles for suicidal behaviours by groups. All personality traits were associated with the risk of suicidality with various effect size, except for E that showed protective effect. High N or HA had prominent and independent risk effects on SI and SA. Combinations of high N and low E, or high HA and NS were the risk personality profiles for suicidality. Higher N scores further distinguished SA from SI in mood disorder patients. Introvert personality traits showed independent risk effects on suicidality regardless of diagnosis status. Among high-risk individuals with suicidal thoughts, higher neuroticism tendency is further associated with increased risk of suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  5. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  6. Personal Factors That Influence Audit Manager’s Risk Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Iancu Octavian; Turlea Eugeniu

    2011-01-01

    Risk is a fundamental concept in audit as well as in the business world at large. Yet, little is known about the personal factors that might influence the risk attitude of a decision maker. The business decision makers are usually faced with a degree of uncertainty when they have to assess risk and make decisions. This paper examines risk behaviour from an audit firm manager perspective and from an academic perspective. The emphasis is on the managerial risk behaviour in business decision mak...

  7. Differentiating risk for mania and borderline personality disorder: The nature of goal regulation and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Daniel; Eisner, Lori R; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-06-30

    Researchers and clinicians have long noted the overlap among features and high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. The shared features of impulsivity and labile mood in both disorders make them challenging to distinguish. We tested the hypothesis that variables related to goal dysregulation would be uniquely related to risk for mania, while emotion-relevant impulsivity would be related to risk for both disorders. We administered a broad range of measures related to goal regulation traits and impulsivity to 214 undergraduates. Findings confirmed that risk for mania, but not for borderline personality disorder, was related to higher sensitivity to reward and intense pursuit of goals. In contrast, borderline personality disorder symptoms related more strongly than did mania risk with threat sensitivity and with impulsivity in the context of negative affect. Results highlight potential differences and commonalities in mania risk versus borderline personality disorder risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving Access to Eye Care among Persons at High-Risk of Glaucoma in Philadelphia — Design and Methodology: The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan S.; Henderer, Jeffrey; Crews, John E.; Saaddine, Jinan B.; Molineaux, Jeanne; Johnson, Deiana; Sembhi, Harjeet; Stratford, Shayla; Suleiman, Ayman; Pizzi, Laura; Spaeth, George L.; Katz, L. Jay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Wills Eye Glaucoma Research Center initiated a 2-year demonstration project to develop and implement a community-based intervention to improve detection and management of glaucoma in Philadelphia. Methods The glaucoma detection examination consisted of: ocular, medical, and family history; visual acuity testing; corneal pachymetry; biomicroscopy of the anterior segment; intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement; gonioscopy; funduscopy; automated visual field testing; and fundus-color photography. Treatment included laser surgery and/or IOP-lowering medication. A cost analysis was conducted to understand resource requirements. Outcome measures included; prevalence of glaucoma-related pathology and other eye diseases among high-risk populations; the impact of educational workshops on level of knowledge about glaucoma (assessed by pre- and post-test evaluation); and patient satisfaction of the glaucoma detection examinations in the community (assessed by satisfaction survey). Treatment outcome measures were change in IOP at 4–6 weeks and 4–6 months following selective laser trabeculoplasty treatment, deepening of the anterior chamber angle following laser-peripheral iridotomy treatment, and rate of adherence to recommended follow-up examinations. Cost outcomes included total program costs, cost per case of glaucoma detected, and cost per case of ocular disease detected. Results This project enrolled 1649 participants (African Americans aged 50+ years, adults 60+ years and individuals with a family history of glaucoma). A total of 1074 individuals attended a glaucoma educational workshop and 1508 scheduled glaucoma detection examination appointments in the community setting. Conclusions The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project aimed to improve access and use of eye care and to provide a model for a targeted community-based glaucoma program. PMID:26950056

  9. Improving Access to Eye Care among Persons at High-Risk of Glaucoma in Philadelphia--Design and Methodology: The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Lisa; Waisbourd, Michael; Myers, Jonathan S; Henderer, Jeffrey; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Molineaux, Jeanne; Johnson, Deiana; Sembhi, Harjeet; Stratford, Shayla; Suleiman, Ayman; Pizzi, Laura; Spaeth, George L; Katz, L Jay

    2016-01-01

    The Wills Eye Glaucoma Research Center initiated a 2-year demonstration project to develop and implement a community-based intervention to improve detection and management of glaucoma in Philadelphia. The glaucoma detection examination consisted of: ocular, medical, and family history; visual acuity testing; corneal pachymetry; biomicroscopy of the anterior segment; intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement; gonioscopy; funduscopy; automated visual field testing; and fundus-color photography. Treatment included laser surgery and/or IOP-lowering medication. A cost analysis was conducted to understand resource requirements. Outcome measures included; prevalence of glaucoma-related pathology and other eye diseases among high-risk populations; the impact of educational workshops on level of knowledge about glaucoma (assessed by pre- and post-test evaluation); and patient satisfaction of the glaucoma detection examinations in the community (assessed by satisfaction survey). Treatment outcome measures were change in IOP at 4-6 weeks and 4-6 months following selective laser trabeculoplasty treatment, deepening of the anterior chamber angle following laser-peripheral iridotomy treatment, and rate of adherence to recommended follow-up examinations. Cost outcomes included total program costs, cost per case of glaucoma detected, and cost per case of ocular disease detected. This project enrolled 1649 participants (African Americans aged 50+ years, adults 60+ years and individuals with a family history of glaucoma). A total of 1074 individuals attended a glaucoma educational workshop and 1508 scheduled glaucoma detection examination appointments in the community setting. The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project aimed to improve access and use of eye care and to provide a model for a targeted community-based glaucoma program.

  10. Personal Genomic Testing for Cancer Risk: Results From the Impact of Personal Genomics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stacy W; Gollust, Sarah E; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Chen, Clara A; Cronin, Angel; Kalia, Sarah S; Rana, Huma Q; Ruffin, Mack T; Wang, Catharine; Roberts, J Scott; Green, Robert C

    2017-02-20

    Purpose Significant concerns exist regarding the potential for unwarranted behavior changes and the overuse of health care resources in response to direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (PGT). However, little is known about customers' behaviors after PGT. Methods Longitudinal surveys were given to new customers of 23andMe (Mountain View, CA) and Pathway Genomics (San Diego, CA). Survey data were linked to individual-level PGT results through a secure data transfer process. Results Of the 1,042 customers who completed baseline and 6-month surveys (response rate, 71.2%), 762 had complete cancer-related data and were analyzed. Most customers reported that learning about their genetic risk of cancers was a motivation for testing (colorectal, 88%; prostate, 95%; breast, 94%). No customers tested positive for pathogenic mutations in highly penetrant cancer susceptibility genes. A minority of individuals received elevated single nucleotide polymorphism-based PGT cancer risk estimates (colorectal, 24%; prostate, 24%; breast, 12%). At 6 months, customers who received elevated PGT cancer risk estimates were not significantly more likely to change their diet, exercise, or advanced planning behaviors or engage in cancer screening, compared with individuals at average or reduced risk. Men who received elevated PGT prostate cancer risk estimates changed their vitamin and supplement use more than those at average or reduced risk (22% v 7.6%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.44 to 8.18). Predictors of 6-month behavior include baseline behavior (exercise, vitamin or supplement use, and screening), worse health status (diet and vitamin or supplement use), and older age (advanced planning, screening). Conclusion Most adults receiving elevated direct-to-consumer PGT single nucleotide polymorphism-based cancer risk estimates did not significantly change their diet, exercise, advanced care planning, or cancer screening behaviors.

  11. Health risk perception, optimistic bias, and personal satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    To examine change in risk perception and optimistic bias concerning behavior-linked health threats and environmental health threats between adolescence and young adulthood and how these factors related to personal satisfaction. In 1996 and 2002, 1624 adolescents responded to a mailed questionnaire. Adolescents showed strong positive optimistic bias concerning behaviorlinked risks, and this optimistic bias increased with age. Increase in optimistic bias over time predicted increase in personal satisfaction. The capacity to process and perceive potential threats in a positive manner might be a valuable human ability positively influencing personal satisfaction and well-being.

  12. A summary risk score for the prediction of Alzheimer disease in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane; Tang, Ming-Xin; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J; Mayeux, Richard; Luchsinger, José A

    2010-07-01

    To develop a simple summary risk score for the prediction of Alzheimer disease in elderly persons based on their vascular risk profiles. A longitudinal, community-based study. New York, New York. Patients One thousand fifty-one Medicare recipients aged 65 years or older and residing in New York who were free of dementia or cognitive impairment at baseline. We separately explored the associations of several vascular risk factors with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) using Cox proportional hazards models to identify factors that would contribute to the risk score. Then we estimated the score values of each factor based on their beta coefficients and created the LOAD vascular risk score by summing these individual scores. Risk factors contributing to the risk score were age, sex, education, ethnicity, APOE epsilon4 genotype, history of diabetes, hypertension or smoking, high-density lipoprotein levels, and waist to hip ratio. The resulting risk score predicted dementia well. According to the vascular risk score quintiles, the risk to develop probable LOAD was 1.0 for persons with a score of 0 to 14 and increased 3.7-fold for persons with a score of 15 to 18, 3.6-fold for persons with a score of 19 to 22, 12.6-fold for persons with a score of 23 to 28, and 20.5-fold for persons with a score higher than 28. While additional studies in other populations are needed to validate and further develop the score, our study suggests that this vascular risk score could be a valuable tool to identify elderly individuals who might be at risk of LOAD. This risk score could be used to identify persons at risk of LOAD, but can also be used to adjust for confounders in epidemiologic studies.

  13. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mark A; Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV...

  14. Assessing personality risks using the Surps for alcohol and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing personality risks using the Surps for alcohol and other drug problems in Cape Town, South Africa. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... In this crosssectional study, the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) was applied to measure these traits and assess the questionnaire's reliability from a ...

  15. Nutrigenetics, metabolic syndrome risk and personalized nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Phillips, Catherine M; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its increasing prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for MetS, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve its control. However the question arises as to whether dietary therapy may require a more personalised approach. In this regard improvements in genetic analysis have enhanced our understanding of the role of genetics in this dietrelated condition. In this review we will present recent data highlighting the importance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of MetS risk.

  16. Personality traits and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Stephan, Yannick; Luchetti, Martina; Albanese, Emiliano; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the association between five factor model personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and risk of dementia, cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND), and conversion from CIND to dementia in a large national cohort. Participants from the Health and Retirement Study (N > 10,000) completed a personality scale in 2006-2008 and their cognitive status was tracked for up to 8 years using the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICSm). Adjusting for age, sex, education, race, and ethnicity, lower conscientiousness and agreeableness and higher neuroticism were independently associated with increased risk of dementia. These associations remained significant after adjusting for other risk factors for dementia, including income, wealth, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and blood biomarkers. These associations were not modified by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and education, suggesting that the associations of personality with risk of dementia were similar across demographic groups. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were also associated with risk of CIND. Low conscientiousness predicted conversion from CIND to dementia. Using brief assessments of personality and cognition, we found robust evidence that personality is associated with risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in a large national sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress risk in clinicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Dinglun; Yao, Yongcheng; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To analyze the job burnout and mental health status of clinicians and the relationship of personality with job burnout and psychological stress, and to investigate the direct or indirect effects of personality on psychological stress. Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), and Kessler 10 Scale were administered to 775 clinicians. Of all clinicians, 29.5% had mild burnout, with a score of 22.7 ± 8.18 for psychological stress risk. The effect of personality on emotional exhaustion and cynicism was greater than that on personal accomplishment. Clinicians with a personality of introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism suffered a higher risk of psychological stress. Personality had both direct and indirect effects on psychological stress. Neuroticism had the strongest effect on psychological stress, with an effect size of 0.55. Clinicians have a high level of both job burnout and mental psychological stress risk. Personality is significantly correlated with job burnout and psychological stress risk. Measures depending on personality should be taken for effective intervention.

  18. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Impact of Personalized Risk Feedback on Mexican Americans' Perceived Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of personalized risk information on risk perceptions over time, particularly among ethnically diverse subpopulations. The present study examines Mexican American's (MAs) risk perceptions for heart disease and diabetes at baseline and following receipt of risk feedback based on family health history. Participants…

  20. The Association of Childhood Personality on Sexual Risk Taking during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…

  1. Animated randomness, avatars, movement, and personalization in risk graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly O; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Exe, Nicole; Dickson, Mark; Holtzman, Lisa; Kahn, Valerie C; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2014-03-18

    Risk communication involves conveying two inherently difficult concepts about the nature of risk: the underlying random distribution of outcomes and how a population-based proportion applies to an individual. The objective of this study was to test whether 4 design factors in icon arrays-animated random dispersal of risk events, avatars to represent an individual, personalization (operationalized as choosing the avatar's color), and a moving avatar-might help convey randomness and how a given risk applies to an individual, thereby better aligning risk perceptions with risk estimates. A diverse sample of 3630 adults with no previous heart disease or stroke completed an online nested factorial experiment in which they entered personal health data into a risk calculator that estimated 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease based on a robust and validated model. We randomly assigned them to view their results in 1 of 10 risk graphics that used different combinations of the 4 design factors. We measured participants' risk perceptions as our primary outcome, as well as behavioral intentions and recall of the risk estimate. We also assessed subjective numeracy, whether or not participants knew anyone who had died of cardiovascular causes, and whether or not they knew their blood pressure and cholesterol as potential moderators. Animated randomness was associated with better alignment between risk estimates and risk perceptions (F1,3576=6.12, P=.01); however, it also led to lower scores on healthy lifestyle intentions (F1,3572=11.1, P<.001). Using an avatar increased risk perceptions overall (F1,3576=4.61, P=.03) and most significantly increased risk perceptions among those who did not know a particular person who had experienced the grave outcomes of cardiovascular disease (F1,3576=5.88, P=.02). Using an avatar also better aligned actual risk estimates with intentions to see a doctor (F1,3556=6.38, P=.01). No design factors had main effects on recall, but animated

  2. Personality disorder is an excess risk factor for physical multimorbidity among women with mental state disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Stuart, Amanda L; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan Olsen, Sharon L; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkanen, Risto; Lukkala, Pyry S; Chanen, Andrew M; Kotowicz, Mark; Williams, Lana J

    2017-11-01

    We examined whether mental state disorders (lifetime mood, anxiety, eating, substance misuse) with comorbid personality disorder are associated with physical multimorbidity in a population-based sample of women. Mental state and personality disorders were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Clinical measures were performed and medical conditions, medication use and lifestyle factors were documented by questionnaire. Mental state disorders were associated with higher odds of physical multimorbidity; risk was especially high for those with comorbid personality disorder. These findings suggest that mental state and physical comorbidity might be worsened by the additional comorbidity of personality disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated triglycerides and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Kamara, David Alim; Reiss, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between elevated triglyceride levels and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV-positive persons after adjustment for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-C) and nonlipid risk factors. Background: Although elevated...... triglyceride levels are commonly noted in HIV-positive individuals, it is unclear whether they represent an independent risk factor for MI. Methods: The incidence of MI during follow-up was stratified according to the latest triglyceride level. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to describe...... the independent association between the latest triglyceride level and MI risk after adjusting for TC and HDL-C, nonlipids cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, HIV and treatment-related factors. Results: The 33 308 persons included in the study from 1999 to 2008 experienced 580 MIs over 178 835 person...

  4. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in persons with paraplegia: the Stockholm spinal cord injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahman, Kerstin; Nash, Mark S; Westgren, Ninni; Lewis, John E; Seiger, Ake; Levi, Richard

    2010-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular disease risk factors and risk clusters in Swedish persons with traumatic wheelchair-dependent paraplegia. Prospective examination. A total of 135 individuals aged 18-79 years with chronic (>or= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Cardiovascular disease risk factors; dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, overweight, smoking, and medication usage for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, were analyzed according to authoritative guidelines. Stepwise regression tested the effects of age, gender, and injury characteristics on cardiovascular disease risks. High-prevalence risk factors were dyslipidemia (83.1%), hypertension (39.3%), and overweight (42.2%) with pervasive clustering of these risks. Being older was related to increased cardiovascular disease risk, except for dyslipidemia. Hypertension was more common in low-level paraplegia. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower than previously reported after paraplegia. A high percentage of persons being prescribed drug treatment for dyslipidemia and hypertension failed to reach authoritative targets for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Swedish persons with paraplegia are at high risk for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and overweight. Impaired fasting glucose was not as common as reported in some previous studies. Pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia and hypertension often failed to achieve recommended targets. Population-based screening and therapeutic countermeasures to these cardiovascular disease risks are indicated.

  5. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Person-Centered Fall Risk Awareness Perspectives: Clinical Correlates and Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-12-01

    To identify clinical correlates of person-centered fall risk awareness and their validity for predicting falls. Prospective cohort study. Community. Ambulatory community-dwelling older adults without dementia (N = 316; mean age 78, 55% female). Fall risk awareness was assessed using a two-item questionnaire that asked participants about overall likelihood of someone in their age group having a fall and their own personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (κ = 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on either fall risk awareness question. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. Although person-centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies because they may influence participation and behaviors. © 2016, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Personality, risk aversion and speeding: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Stephen P; Ellison, Adrian B

    2011-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in addition to demographics, there are strong relationships between facets of drivers' personality (e.g., aggression, thrill-seeking, altruism), aversion to risk and driving behaviour, particularly speeding. However, evidence is muted by the reliance on self-reported driving behaviour, which is thought to not accurately reflect actual driving behaviour. This paper reports on a study of 133 drivers in Sydney, who were asked to complete a short survey to develop their personality and risk aversion profiles and self-reported speeding behaviour. A Global Positioning System (GPS) device was then installed in their vehicle for several weeks as part of a major investigation of driving behaviour from which empirical measures of speeding are derived. Among the most pertinent findings are: (1) the tendency for drivers to both under and over-estimate their propensity to speed, (2) significant heterogeneity in speeding with a small, but notable number of drivers exceeding the limit for more than 20 percent of the distance driven, (3) weak relationships between the personality/risk-aversion measures and actual speeding, and (4) the suggestion that different personality traits appear to influence behaviour in different situations both from self-reported and actual speeding behaviour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Personalized Risk Stratification Platform for Population Lifetime Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowd, Ali; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abusharekh, Ashraf; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. It is well understood that if modifiable risk factors are targeted, most chronic diseases can be prevented. Lifetime health is an emerging health paradigm that aims to assist individuals to achieve desired health targets, and avoid harmful lifecycle choices to mitigate the risk of chronic diseases. Early risk identification is central to lifetime health. In this paper, we present a digital health-based platform (PRISM) that leverages artificial intelligence, data visualization and mobile health technologies to empower citizens to self-assess, self-monitor and self-manage their overall risk of major chronic diseases and pursue personalized chronic disease prevention programs. PRISM offers risk assessment tools for 5 chronic conditions, 2 psychiatric disorders and 8 different cancers.

  9. Childhood Misfortune, Personality, and Heart Attack: Does Personality Mediate Risk of Myocardial Infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Patricia M; Turiano, Nicholas A; Mroczek, Daniel K; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2016-03-12

    Previous research has revealed a link between childhood experiences and adult health, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clear. To elucidate this relationship, we investigated the pathway from childhood misfortune to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) via individual differences in personality. Longitudinal data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, which sampled 3,032 men and women aged 25-74 years at baseline. Big 5 personality traits and multiple measures of childhood misfortune were used to assess whether personality mediated the effect of childhood misfortune on MI risk. A series of proportional hazards models revealed that neuroticism mediated the effect of additive childhood misfortune on adult MI risk. Childhood misfortune may be formative in the development of personality, which, subsequently, can be consequential to health. These findings highlight the salient roles of early-life experiences and personality to shape health and aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Social Support and Personal Agency in At-Risk Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rodrigo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated: a mothers´ use and satisfaction with informal and formal supports in at-risk psychosocial contexts, and b the relationships between satisfaction with help and the mothers´ perception of their role (personal agency. Self-report data about the use and satisfaction with sources of help, and levels of internal control, self-efficacy, couple agreement, role difficulty and motivation for change were obtained from 519 mothers referred by Social Services and 519 non-referred mothers. Results indicated that at-risk mothers relied less upon close informal support and more on formal support than non atrisk mothers. They were also more satisfied with the formal sources of support and had lower levels of personal agency. There were beneficial effects of satisfaction with informal help and school support on several aspects of personal agency for both groups. However, satisfaction with school and social services support had a detrimental effect on couple agreement in the at-risk group. Implications of the results for providing social support to at-risk families are discussed.

  11. Personal risk factors associated with burnout among psychotherapists: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionato, Gabrielle K; Simpson, Susan

    2018-03-24

    Emotionally taxing job demands place psychotherapists at risk for burnout, often to the detriment of the therapist, clients, and the profession of psychotherapy (Maslach, 2007). The aim of the present systematic review was to (a) explore the levels of both burnout and job stress in psychotherapists, (b) identify tools used to measure work-related stress and burnout, and (c) identify personal risk factors for developing burnout among psychotherapists. Databases PsycINFO, Medline, EMBASE, ASSIA, and CINHAL were searched. Forty articles met inclusion criteria. Over half of sampled psychotherapists reported moderate-high levels of burnout, with the majority of results based on quantitative cross-sectional self-report surveys. Younger age, having less work experience, and being overinvolved in client problems were the most common personal risk factors for moderate-high levels of stress and burnout among psychotherapists. It appears that psychotherapists commonly experience some burnout, and personal factors influence burnout development. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Associations between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors and Personality Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The first objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with the following modifiable health-risk behaviors: smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, nutrition, sleep, depression-related stress, anxiety-related stress, healthcare professional usage, and self-discipline. The second objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type are associated with (1 the quality of patient-physician relationships, (2 patient-physician communication, and (3 preferred method for receiving information. Methods: Data were collected from 10,500 adult individuals residing in the United States via an on-line, self-administered survey coordinated by Qualtrics Panels from March 14-30, 2016. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and items related to health-risk behaviors. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. However, chi-square analysis with large sample sizes (e.g. 10,500 in this study readily yields statistical significance. Practical significance was set at four or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Regarding objective 1, personality type was associated with all nine health-risk behaviors studied. Personality types within the Experiencer temperament (17% of the U.S. population accounted for 46% of the undesirable scores we computed for health-risk behaviors. The Idealist temperament (17% of population accounted for 32% of the undesirable scores. Conceptualizers (10% of population accounted for 17% of the undesirable scores and Traditionalists (46% of population accounted for 5% of the undesirable scores. Regarding objective 2, the findings showed that personality type was associated with (1 the importance people place on the patient-physician relationship, (2 which characteristics of that relationship are most desirable, (3 desire for

  13. Increase in condom use and decline in prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgender persons in Maharashtra, India: Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Deshpande, Sucheta; Gautam, Abhishek; Pardeshi, Dilip B; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Mainkar, Mandar M

    2014-08-03

    The present study assessed coverage, changes in condom use, and prevalence of HIV and other STIs among high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM; highly visible, recruited from cruising sites/sex venues) and transgender (TG; male-to-female transgender persons, also called hijras) in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Data from Avahan's computerized management information system; two rounds of integrated behavioral and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys (Round 1 with 653 HR-MSM/TG and Round 2 with 652 HR-MSM/TG); and project-supported condom social marketing was used for the present analysis. Logistic regression models were used to assess changes in key indicators over these two rounds and to explore the association between exposure to Avahan interventions and condom use and STI prevalence in HR-MSM/TG. By December 2007, Avahan had reached about 90% of the estimated HR-MSM/TG population, and 83% of the estimated total population had visited STI clinics by March 2009. Free direct condom distribution by Avahan program NGOs and social marketing outlets in Maharashtra increased from about 2.7 million condoms in 2004 to 15.4 million in 2008. HR-MSM/TG were more likely to report higher consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.58) with regular male partners (spouse/lover/boyfriend) in Round 2 of IBBA, compared to Round 1. HR-MSM/TG exposed to Avahan interventions were more likely to report consistent condom use with regular male partners (AOR: 2.46; CI 1.34-4.52) than those who were unexposed. Prevalence of reactive syphilis serology declined significantly from 8.8% in Round 1 to 1.1% in Round 2 (p = 0.001), while the observed change HIV prevalence (12.3% to 6.3%, p = 0.16) was insignificant. The current evaluation provides evidence for successful scale up and coverage of target population by Avahan interventions in Maharashtra. The assessment findings showed improved accessibility to condoms and reduced risk

  14. Personal computers in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarrie, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of personal computers within HEP is expanding as their capabilities increase and their cost decreases. Already they offer greater flexibility than many low-cost graphics terminals for a comparable cost and in addition they can significantly increase the productivity of physicists and programmers. This talk will discuss existing uses for personal computers and explore possible future directions for their integration into the overall computing environment. (orig.)

  15. Narcissistic personality and risk perception among Chinese aviators: The mediating role of promotion focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Ji, Ming; Lan, Jijun; You, Xuqun

    2017-12-01

    Optimism bias is a crucial feature of risk perception that leads to increased risk-taking behaviour, which is a particularly salient issue among pilots in aviation settings due to the high-stakes nature of flight. The current study sought to address the roles of narcissism and promotion focus on optimism bias in risk perception in aviation context. Participants were 239 male flight cadets from the Civil Aviation Flight University of China who completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13, the Work Regulatory Focus Scale, and an indirect measure of unrealistic optimism in risk perception, which measured risk perception for the individual and the risk assumed by other individuals performing the same task. Higher narcissism increased the likelihood of underestimating personal risks, an effect that was mediated by high promotion focus motivation, such that high narcissism led to high promotion focus motivation. The findings have important implications for improving the accuracy of risk perception in aviation risks among aviators. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Buchman, Aron S; Laibson, David I; Bennett, David A

    2011-09-11

    Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE) = 0.39, p risk aversion. Thus, a lower level of global cognitive function and female sex were associated with greater risk aversion. Moreover, performance on four out of the five cognitive domains was negatively related to risk aversion (i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed); performance on visuospatial abilities was not. A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater

  17. Workplace mavericks: how personality and risk-taking propensity predicts maverickism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Elliroma; Jackson, Chris J

    2012-11-01

    We examine the relationship between lateral preference, the Five-Factor Model of personality, risk-taking propensity, and maverickism. We take an original approach by narrowing our research focus to only functional aspects of maverickism. Results with 458 full-time workers identify lateral preference as a moderator of the neuroticism-maverickism relationship. Extraversion, openness to experience, and low agreeableness were also each found to predict maverickism. The propensity of individuals high in maverickism to take risks was also found to be unaffected by task feedback. Our results highlight the multifaceted nature of maverickism, identifying both personality and task conditions as determinants of this construct. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Inflammatory potential of the diet and colorectal tumor risk in persons with Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Jesca G.M.; Makama, Maureen; Woudenbergh, Van Geertruida J.; Vasen, Hans F.A.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Kampman, Ellen; Duijnhoven, Van Fränzel J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Persons with Lynch syndrome (LS) have high lifetime risk of developing colorectal tumors (CRTs) because of a germline mutation in one of their mismatch repair (MMR) genes. An important process in the development of CRTs is inflammation, which has been shown to be modulated by diet.

  19. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts.

  20. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Renate L. E. P.; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents’ perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13–20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  1. From 'Image Gently' to image intelligently: a personalized perspective on diagnostic radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerman, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging has been a popular topic in the radiology literature and lay press. Communicating the magnitude of risk to patients and caregivers is problematic because of the uncertainty in estimates derived principally from epidemiological studies of large populations, and alternative approaches are needed to provide a scientific basis for personalized risk estimates. The underlying patient disease and life expectancy greatly influence risk projections. Research into the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair challenges the linear no-threshold dose-response assumption and reveals that individuals vary in sensitivity to radiation. Studies of decision-making psychology show that individuals are highly susceptible to irrational biases when judging risks. Truly informed medical decision-making that respects patient autonomy requires appropriate framing of radiation risks in perspective with other risks and with the benefits of imaging. To follow the principles of personalized medicine and treat patients according to their specific phenotypic and personality profiles, diagnostic imaging should optimally be tailored not only to patient size, body region and clinical indication, but also to underlying disease conditions, radio-sensitivity and risk perception and preferences that vary among individuals. (orig.)

  2. An Overview. High Risk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report provides an overview of efforts undertaken by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in 1990 to review and report on federal program areas its work identified as high risk because of vulnerabilities to waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement. It reviews the current status of efforts to address these concerns. The six categories of…

  3. Applying personal genetic data to injury risk assessment in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle T Goodlin

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries.

  4. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchman Aron S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Methods Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15 versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. Results In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE = 0.39, p i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed; performance on visuospatial abilities was not. Conclusion A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater risk aversion in advanced age.

  5. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted

  6. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted.

  7. Clinical high risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Steen, Y; Gimpel-Drees, J; Lataster, T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess associations between momentary stress and both affective and psychotic symptoms in everyday life of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR), compared to chronic psychotic patients and healthy controls, in search for evidence of early stress...... and 26 healthy controls. RESULTS: Multilevel models showed significantly larger associations between negative affect (NA) and activity-related stress for CHR patients than for psychotic patients (P = 0.008) and for CHR compared to controls (P

  8. Personality disorders are important risk factors for disability pensioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, Kristian Amundsen; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind; Gjerde, Line C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased risk of disability pensioning in young adults, independent of other common mental disorders. 2,770 young adults from the general population were assessed for PDs by the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality, and for common mental disorders by the Composite of International Diagnostic Interview. These data were linked to the Norwegian National Insurance Administration's recordings of disability benefits for a 10-year period. Logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between PDs and disability pensioning. The analyses were conducted for three types of PD measures: categorical diagnoses (any PD), dimensional scores of individual PDs and higher order components retrieved by principal component analyses. Having any PD was strongly associated with disability pensioning, regardless of disability diagnosis. The estimated odds ratio (OR) was substantially higher for PDs [OR 4.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-8.5)] than for mood disorders [OR 1.3 (CI 0.7-2.3)] and anxiety disorders [OR 2.3 (CI 1.3-4.3)]. Measured dimensionally, all PD traits except antisocial traits were significantly associated with disability pensioning. After adjusting for co-occurring traits of other PDs, only schizoid, dependent and borderline PD traits showed a significant positive association with disability pension, while antisocial traits showed a significant negative association. The principal component analyses showed that negative affectivity, psychoticism, and detachment was associated with an increased risk of disability pensioning, while antagonism/disinhibition and obsessivity were not. PDs are strongly associated with disability pensioning in young adults, and might be more important predictors of work disability than anxiety and depressive disorders. Certain aspects of pathologic personalities are particularly important predictors of disability.

  9. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation.

  10. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M. P.; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation. PMID:29494705

  11. Binge Eating Disorder (BED) in Relation to Addictive Behaviors and Personality Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline; Mackew, Laura; Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter, Jacqueline C; Kennedy, James L

    2017-01-01

    While there is good evidence that binge eating disorder (BED) is linked to higher-than-expected use of a broad range of addictive behaviors, mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. Using a mediation-analytical approach with three age- and gender-matched groups - overweight/obese adults with ( n = 42) and without ( n = 104) BED, and normal-weight control participants ( n = 73) - we tested the hypothesis that adults with BED would engage in more addictive behaviors and have higher scores on a personality-risk index than the two control groups. We also anticipated that the relationship between BED and addictive behaviors would be mediated by a high-risk personality profile. The predicted mediation effect was strongly supported. Contrary to expectation, BED participants did not engage in more addictive behaviors or have higher personality-risk scores than their weight-matched counterparts. However, both overweight/obese groups did have significantly higher scores than the normal-weight group. The relationships among personality risk, elevated body mass index (BMI), and addictive behaviors have important clinical implications, especially for treatments that target psycho-behavioral intervention for compulsive overeating and substance-use disorders.

  12. Binge Eating Disorder (BED in Relation to Addictive Behaviors and Personality Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Davis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While there is good evidence that binge eating disorder (BED is linked to higher-than-expected use of a broad range of addictive behaviors, mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. Using a mediation-analytical approach with three age- and gender-matched groups – overweight/obese adults with (n = 42 and without (n = 104 BED, and normal-weight control participants (n = 73 – we tested the hypothesis that adults with BED would engage in more addictive behaviors and have higher scores on a personality-risk index than the two control groups. We also anticipated that the relationship between BED and addictive behaviors would be mediated by a high-risk personality profile. The predicted mediation effect was strongly supported. Contrary to expectation, BED participants did not engage in more addictive behaviors or have higher personality-risk scores than their weight-matched counterparts. However, both overweight/obese groups did have significantly higher scores than the normal-weight group. The relationships among personality risk, elevated body mass index (BMI, and addictive behaviors have important clinical implications, especially for treatments that target psycho-behavioral intervention for compulsive overeating and substance-use disorders.

  13. Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through

  14. Social interaction anxiety and personality traits predicting engagement in health risk sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm-Knigge, Ryan L; Prince, Mark A; Conner, Bradley T

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with social interaction anxiety, a facet of social anxiety disorder, withdraw from or avoid social encounters and generally avoid risks. However, a subset engages in health risk sexual behavior (HRSB). Because sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, and impulsivity predict engagement in HRSB among adolescents and young adults, the present study hypothesized that latent classes of social interaction anxiety and these personality traits would differentially predict likelihood of engagement in HRSB. Finite mixture modeling was used to discern four classes: two low social interaction anxiety classes distinguished by facets of emotion dysregulation, positive urgency, and negative urgency (Low SIAS High Urgency and Low SIAS Low Urgency) and two high social interaction anxiety classes distinguished by positive urgency, negative urgency, risk seeking, and facets of emotion dysregulation (High SIAS High Urgency and High SIAS Low Urgency). HRSB were entered into the model as auxiliary distal outcomes. Of importance to this study were findings that the High SIAS High Urgency class was more likely to engage in most identified HRSB than the High SIAS Low Urgency class. This study extends previous findings on the heterogeneity of social interaction anxiety by identifying the effects of social interaction anxiety and personality on engagement in HRSB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Designing a High Performance Parallel Personal Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Kapanova, K. G.; Sellier, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, many scientific and engineering areas require high performance computing to perform computationally intensive experiments. For example, many advances in transport phenomena, thermodynamics, material properties, computational chemistry and physics are possible only because of the availability of such large scale computing infrastructures. Yet many challenges are still open. The cost of energy consumption, cooling, competition for resources have been some of the reasons why the scientifi...

  16. Using technology to assess and intervene with illicit drug-using persons at risk for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Lammert, Sara; LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E; Bauermeister, José A

    2017-09-01

    This review describes recent literature on novel ways technology is used for assessment of illicit drug use and HIV risk behaviours, suggestions for optimizing intervention acceptability, and recently completed and ongoing technology-based interventions for drug-using persons at risk for HIV and others with high rates of drug use and HIV risk behaviour. Among studies (n = 5) comparing technology-based to traditional assessment methods, those using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) had high rates of reported drug use and high concordance with traditional assessment methods. The two recent studies assessing the acceptability of mHealth approaches overall demonstrate high interest in these approaches. Current or in-progress technology-based interventions (n = 8) are delivered using mobile apps (n = 5), text messaging (n = 2) and computers (n = 1). Most intervention studies are in progress or do not report intervention outcomes; the results from one efficacy trial showed significantly higher HIV testing rates among persons in need of drug treatment. Studies are needed to continually assess technology adoption and intervention preferences among drug-using populations to ensure that interventions are appropriately matched to users. Large-scale technology-based intervention trials to assess the efficacy of these approaches, as well as the impact of individual intervention components, on drug use and other high-risk behaviours are recommended.

  17. Internet Addiction Disorder: Personality characteristics and risk of pathological overuse in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munno, Donato; Cappellin, Flora; Saroldi, Marta; Bechon, Elisa; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Passera, Roberto; Zullo, Giuseppina

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have investigated Internet Addiction (IA) in adolescents in relation to personality characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine whether personality differences exist between adolescents with problematic/pathological Internet use and those with normal Internet use. Our hypothesis was that certain psychopathological personality traits may predispose to the development of maladaptive Internet use. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) were administered to a sample of 224 high school students. Analysis of IAT scores showed that 24.6% of the students had problematic Internet use and 1.6% had IA. Comparison of the MMPI-A scores between subjects with normal Internet use and those with problematic or pathological use based on the IAT score showed that some subscales, including schizophrenia and bizarre mentation, were strongly associated with problematic/pathological Internet use. Also, male sex, attending a vocational school, and unhappy childhood were found to be risk factors for IA. Certain psychological dimensions regarding mood and the psychotic area, as well as low self-esteem, family, school and conduct problems could represent risk factors. Taken together, our data suggest a personality profile, with problems at various levels in subjects with problematic or pathological Internet use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Disclosing Genetic Risk for Coronary Heart Disease: Attitudes Toward Personal Information in Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sherry-Ann; Jouni, Hayan; Marroush, Tariq S; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2017-04-01

    Incorporating genetic risk information in electronic health records (EHRs) will facilitate implementation of genomic medicine in clinical practice. However, little is known about patients' attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information as a component of personal health information in EHRs. This study investigated whether disclosure of a genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease influences attitudes toward incorporation of personal health information including genetic risk in EHRs. Participants aged 45-65 years with intermediate 10-year coronary heart disease risk were randomized to receive a conventional risk score (CRS) alone or with a GRS from a genetic counselor, followed by shared decision making with a physician using the same standard presentation and information templates for all study participants. The CRS and GRS were then incorporated into the EHR and made accessible to both patients and physicians. Baseline and post-disclosure surveys were completed to assess whether attitudes differed by GRS disclosure. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyzed in 2015-2016. GRS and CRS participants reported similar positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in the EHR. Compared with CRS participants, participants with high GRS were more concerned about the confidentiality of genetic risk information (OR=3.67, 95% CI=1.29, 12.32, p=0.01). Post-disclosure, frequency of patient portal access was associated with positive attitudes. Participants in this study of coronary heart disease risk disclosure overall had positive attitudes toward incorporation of genetic risk information in EHRs, although those who received genetic risk information had concerns about confidentiality. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a novel risk assessment method for self-harm associated with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sathya; Broadbear, Jillian H; Thompson, Katherine; Correia, Anna; Preston, Martin; Katz, Paul; Trett, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with frequent self-harm and suicidal behaviours. This study compared physician-assessed self-harm risk and intervention choice according to a (i) standard risk assessment and (ii) BPD-specific risk assessment methods. Forty-five junior and senior mental health physicians were assigned to standard or BPD-specific risk training groups. The assessment utilized a BPD case vignette containing four scenarios describing high/low lethality self-harm and chronic/new patterns of self-harm behaviour. Participants chose from among four interventions, each corresponding to a risk category. Standard and BPD-specific groups were alike in their assessment of self-harm risk. Divergence occurred on intervention choice for assessments of low lethality, chronic risk ( pself harm-associated risk, BPD-specific training raised awareness of BPD-appropriate interventions, particularly in the context of chronic patterns of self-harm behaviour. Wider dissemination of BPD-specific risk training may enhance the confidence of mental health clinicians in identifying the nature of self-harm risk as well as the most clinically appropriate interventions for clients with BPD.

  20. Prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma: new tools to personalize risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casulo, Carla

    2016-12-02

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma, and it has a long median overall survival (OS). However, the recent discovery of clinical and biological prognostic biomarkers in FL is shedding light on FL heterogeneity and the need for a precise and risk-stratified individual approach at diagnosis and relapse. Many FL patients who are asymptomatic with indolent disease can be vulnerable to the toxicity, emotional distress, and financial burden of overtreatment. Yet a subset of FL patients develop chemoresistance to standard chemoimmunotherapy, experience transformation to aggressive lymphoma and rapid progression, and represent the population most in need of novel therapies and curative approaches. Novel biomarkers that incorporate both clinical and genetic determinants of poor risk are being developed with the hope of identifying high-risk patients at diagnosis in order to offer biologically rational targeted therapies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  1. Women and stroke patients are more at risk for fall- related injury among older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko

    2016-05-01

    Women and stroke sufferers were at higher risk of fall-related injury among older persons. Prevention of fall-related injury should be done by older persons through periodic control of their health condition.

  2. Differences in risk behaviors, care utilization, and comorbidities in homeless persons based on HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R David; Dykema, Shana

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional pilot project measured differences by HIV status in chronic health conditions, primary care and emergency department use, and high-risk behaviors of homeless persons through self-report. Using selective random sampling, 244 individuals were recruited from a homeless shelter. The reported HIV prevalence was 6.56% (n = 16), with the odds of HIV higher in persons reporting crack cocaine use. HIV-infected persons were more likely to report a source of regular medical care and less likely to use the emergency department than uninfected persons. Validation of findings through exploration of HIV and health care access in homeless persons is needed to confirm that HIV-infected homeless persons are more likely to have primary care. Distinctions between primary care and specialty HIV care also need to be explored in this context. If findings are consistent, providers who care for the homeless could learn more effective ways to engage homeless patients. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors for hip fracture in elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Olivi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this observational study, promoted by the Health Authorities of the Regione Veneto (Italy, is to assess the prevalence of the most relevant environmental and individual risk factors in subjects with a recent hip fracture. Methods: Patients aged more than 60 years of both genders with a recent hip fracture not associated with malignancies, were administered questionnaires on dietary habits, sun exposure, and disability score. A complete family, pharmacological and pathology history was collected together with information on previous falls, details of the fracture index, and anthropometric data. In all subjects, blood was taken for the measurement of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD. Results: The study included 704 patients (573 women and 131 men. Mean age was 81±8 years (range 60-102. Severe pre-fracture disability was a common feature (58% associated with multiple co-morbidities (84%, more frequently cardio- vascular and neurological diseases, and specific medications. In a large proportion (86% of the patients, environmental or individual risk factors for falling were found. Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD levels <75 nmol/l was quite common (70%, particularly in the regional Health Districts were strategies for preventing vitamin D deficiency were not implemented (91%. Only a small proportion (17% of the study population had been evaluated and treated for osteoporosis. Conclusions: In senile patients with a recent hip fracture, pre-existing disability, multiple co-morbidities, high risk of falling and inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is relatively common. Community and case-finding interventions aimed at selecting subjects at high risk of osteoporosis, preventing vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency, and increasing awareness on the environmental risks of falling are highly warranted.

  4. Risk personality traits of Internet addiction: a longitudinal study of Internet-addicted Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Jiangyang; Yang, Xuelong; Zhou, Hui

    2013-12-01

    As the world's fastest growing "addiction", Internet addiction is still controversial. The present study aimed to examine the potential personality predictors of Internet addicts. Eight hundred and sixty-eight students were tested using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire after they had just entered university. Two years later, 49 were found to be addicted to the Internet as defined by high Internet addiction test scores. Comparisons of means and logistic regression analysis were used to explore their relationship. Students addicted to the Internet showed higher Neuroticism/Stability scores, higher Psychoticism/Socialization scores, and lower Lie scores than their normal peers before their addiction. Regression results showed that Internet addiction was accounted by three independent variables: Neuroticism/Stability, Psychoticism/Socialization, and Lie. These results suggest that the risk personality traits of Internet addiction include neuroticism, psychoticism, and immaturity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Risk of Suicide and Dysfunctional Patterns of Personality among Bereaved Substance Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masferrer, Laura; Caparrós, Beatriz

    2017-03-20

    Background : Research has shown that suicide is a phenomenon highly present among the drug dependent population. Different studies have demonstrated an upraised level of comorbidity between personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to describe which PDs are more frequent among those patients with a risk of suicide. Methods : The study was based on a consecutive non-probabilistic convenience sample of 196 bereaved patients attended to in a Public Addiction Center in Girona (Spain). Sociodemographic data, as well as suicide and drug related characteristics were recorded. The risk of suicide was assessed with the Spanish version of "Risk of suicide". Personality disorders were measured with the Spanish version of Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory. Results : The PDs more associated with the presence of risk of suicide were depressive, avoidant, schizotypal and borderline disorders. However, the histrionic, narcissistic and compulsive PDs are inversely associated with risk of suicide even though the narcissistic scale had no statistical correlation. Conclusions : The risk of suicide is a significant factor to take into account related to patients with SUD and especially with the presence of specific PDs. These findings underline the importance of diagnosing and treating rigorously patients with SUD.

  6. Risk of Suicide and Dysfunctional Patterns of Personality among Bereaved Substance Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Masferrer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that suicide is a phenomenon highly present among the drug dependent population. Different studies have demonstrated an upraised level of comorbidity between personality disorders (PD and substance use disorders (SUD. This study aimed to describe which PDs are more frequent among those patients with a risk of suicide. Methods: The study was based on a consecutive non-probabilistic convenience sample of 196 bereaved patients attended to in a Public Addiction Center in Girona (Spain. Sociodemographic data, as well as suicide and drug related characteristics were recorded. The risk of suicide was assessed with the Spanish version of “Risk of suicide”. Personality disorders were measured with the Spanish version of Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory. Results: The PDs more associated with the presence of risk of suicide were depressive, avoidant, schizotypal and borderline disorders. However, the histrionic, narcissistic and compulsive PDs are inversely associated with risk of suicide even though the narcissistic scale had no statistical correlation. Conclusions: The risk of suicide is a significant factor to take into account related to patients with SUD and especially with the presence of specific PDs. These findings underline the importance of diagnosing and treating rigorously patients with SUD.

  7. Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A; Begg, D; Dickson, N; Harrington, H; Langley, J; Moffitt, T E; Silva, P A

    1997-11-01

    In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into distinct temperament groups. Results showed that a similar constellation of adolescent personality traits, with developmental origins in childhood, is linked to different health-risk behaviors at 21. Associations between the same personality traits and different health-risk behaviors were not an artifact of the same people engaging in different health-risk behaviors; rather, these associations implicated the same personality type in different but related behaviors. In planning campaigns, health professionals may need to design programs that appeal to the unique psychological makeup of persons most at risk for health-risk behaviors.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Persons Living With HIV: Treatment Development, Feasibility, and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioe, Patricia A; Guthrie, Kate M; Freiberg, Matthew S; Williams, David M; Kahler, Christopher W

    Persons living with HIV (PLWH) have elevated risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our goal was to develop and pilot test a tailored intervention to improve CVD risk perception and the adoption of heart-healthy behaviors. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 PLWH participants to examine learning needs and preferences. An intervention manual was developed and tested in an open pilot with eight participants. Participants were stable on antiretroviral therapy and were recruited from two urban HIV clinics in the northeastern United States. Thematic analysis identified five major themes: (a) tailored structure and design for PLWH, (b) learning needs (specific to HIV), (c) desire for prompts/reminders (to exercise), (d) importance of participant resources, and (e) need for personal evaluation and goal setting. Feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were demonstrated with high session attendance and treatment satisfaction. Further testing is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The moderating role of personal relevance on differential priming of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Chien-Lung

    2009-04-01

    Raghunathan and Pham conducted a pioneer study in 1999 on the motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making and indicated that anxiety would motivate individuals to be risk averse, whereas sadness would motivate individuals to be risk taking. A replication study was employed in the domain of perceived travel risk. Compared to participants in a neutral mood, anxious participants showed higher perceived travel risk than sad participants. Moreover, the differential effect of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk was only pronounced under the high personal relevance condition, in which participants made personal decisions and expected that they would be affected by the outcomes. In general, the results extend the notion proposed by Raghunathan and Pham suggesting that travelers' implicit goals primed by anxiety or sadness used for mood-repair purposes appear to be moderated by personal relevance.

  10. Predicting risk of school refusal: Examining the incremental role of trait EI beyond personality and emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippello Pina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has not yet been deepened in the link between personality factors and risk of school refusal. Furthermore, previous studies fail to verify the direct relation between trait EI and the risk of school refusal. The present study examined personality traits, emotion regulation and trait EI for the contributory role they may play in predicting the risk of school refusal. The sample consisted of 311 participants, 112 males (36% and 199 females (64% with an average age of 14.19 (SD = .60, from a high school in the city of Messina (Sicily, Italy. Results show that the risk of school refusal is positively related to neuroticism and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, while it is negatively related to the extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness and trait EI. Moreover, trait EI can be considered as a strong incremental negative predictor of risk of school refusal over and above personality traits and emotion regulation.

  11. Petroleum business of high risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the economic risk and of the geologic risk that assist the industry of the petroleum; an analysis of these types of risk, possibilities of success and investments to carry out in the search of hydrocarbons are made

  12. Rationale and design of the Baptist Employee Healthy Heart Study: a randomized trial assessing the efficacy of the addition of an interactive, personalized, web-based, lifestyle intervention tool to an existing health information web platform in a high-risk employee population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Janisse M; Ali, Shozab S; Roberson, Lara L; Aneni, Ehimen C; Shaharyar, Sameer; Younus, Adnan; Jamal, Omar; Ahmad, Rameez; Aziz, Muhammad A; Malik, Rehan; Spatz, Erica S; Feldman, Theodore; Fialkow, Jonathan; Veledar, Emir; Cury, Ricardo C; Agatston, Arthur S; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes confer a high risk for developing subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Persons with MetS constitute 24-34 % of the employee population at Baptist Health South Florida (BHSF), a self-insured healthcare organization. The Baptist Employee Healthy Heart Study (BEHHS) aims to assess the addition of a personalized, interactive, web-based, nutrition-management and lifestyle-management program to the existing health-expertise web platform available to BHSF employees in reducing and/or stabilizing CVD and lifestyle risk factors and markers of subclinical CVD. Subjects with MetS or Type II Diabetes will be recruited from an employee population at BHSF and randomized to either an intervention or a control arm. The intervention arm will be given access to a web-based personalized diet-modification and weight-modification program. The control arm will be reminded to use the standard informational health website available and accessible to all BHSF employees. Subjects will undergo coronary calcium testing, carotid intima-media thickness scans, peripheral arterial tonometry, and advanced lipid panel testing at visit 1, in addition to lifestyle and medical history questionnaires. All tests will be repeated at visits 2 and 4 with the exception of the coronary calcium test, which will only be performed at baseline and visit 4. Visit 3 will capture vitals, anthropometrics, and responses to the questionnaires only. Results of this study will provide information on the effectiveness of personalized, web-based, lifestyle-management tools in reducing healthcare costs, promoting healthy choices, and reducing cardiovascular risk in an employee population. It will also provide information about the natural history of carotid atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic but high-risk populations. ClinicalTrials.gov registry, NCT01912209 . Registered on 3 July 2013.

  13. [Personalization in the medicine of the future : Opportunities and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, N P

    2017-07-01

    Personalized medicine is not a new concept. The renaissance of the term is due to the enormous progress in gene sequencing technology and functional imaging, as well as the development of targeted therapies. Application of these technologies in clinical medicine will necessitate infrastructural as well as organizational and educational changes in the healthcare system. An important change required already in the short-term is the introduction of centralized structures, preferably in university clinics, which adopt these innovations and incorporate them into clinical care. Simultaneously, the collation and use of large quantities of relevant data from highly variable sources must be successfully mastered, in order to pave the way for disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence.

  14. Correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Richard F; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Garfein, Richard S; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    We identified correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. PWID ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past month were recruited between 2006-2007 and completed risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with high-perceived risk of HIV infection. Among 974 PWID, HIV prevalence was 4.4%; 45.0% of participants perceived themselves to be more likely to become HIV infected relative to other PWID in Tijuana. Participants who reported high-perceived risk of HIV infection participated in high-risk behaviors such as injecting with used syringes, transactional sex, and were less likely to have had an HIV test. Recognition of HIV infection risk was associated with high risk behaviors and markers of vulnerability. Findings support efforts to encourage HIV testing and access to health care for this vulnerable population.

  15. The Contribution of Personality Traits, Motivation, Academic Risk-Taking and Metacognition to the Creative Ability in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Bas, Selda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, motivation, academic risk-taking, and metacognition explain the mathematical creative ability of high school students. The participants were 217 9th-grade students that were exceptionally high achievers. The participants responded to a set of measures about…

  16. The influence of surgeon personality factors on risk tolerance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Suarez, Luis; Kyriakides, Tassos; Nadzam, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the association between surgeon personality factors (measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality inventory (MBTI(®))) and risk tolerance (measured by the Revised Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty (PRU) and Physician Risk Attitude (PRA) scales). Instrument assessing surgeon personality profile (MBTI) and 2 questionnaires measuring surgeon risk tolerance and risk aversion (PRU and PRA). Saint Raphael campus of Yale New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut. Twenty categorical surgery residents and 7 surgical core faculty members. The following findings suggest there might be a relationship between surgeon personality factors and risk tolerance. In certain areas of risk assessment, it appears that surgeons with personality factors E (Extravert), T (Thinking), and P (Perception) demonstrated higher tolerance for risk. Conversely, as MBTI(®) dichotomies are complementary, surgeons with personality factors I (Introvert), F (Feeling), and J (Judgment) suggest risk aversion on these same measures. These findings are supported by at least 2 studies outside medicine demonstrating that personality factors E, N, T, and P are associated with risk taking. This preliminary research project represents an initial step in exploring what may be considered a fundamental component in a "successful" surgical personality. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The dynamics of injection drug users' personal networks and HIV risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenbader, Elizabeth C; Astone, Nan M; Latkin, Carl A

    2006-07-01

    While studies of the social networks of injection drug users (IDUs) have provided insight into how the structures of interpersonal relationships among IDUs affect HIV risk behaviors, the majority of these studies have been cross-sectional. The present study examined the dynamics of IDUs' social networks and HIV risk behaviors over time. Using data from a longitudinal HIV-intervention study conducted in Baltimore, MD, this study assessed changes in the composition of the personal networks of 409 IDUs. We used a multi-nomial logistic regression analysis to assess the association between changes in network composition and simultaneous changes in levels of injection HIV risk behaviors. Using the regression parameters generated by the multi-nomial model, we estimated the predicted probability of being in each of four HIV risk behavior change groups. Compared to the base case, individuals who reported an entirely new set of drug-using network contacts at follow-up were more than three times as likely to be in the increasing risk group. In contrast, reporting all new non-drug-using contacts at follow-up increased the likelihood of being in the stable low-risk group by almost 50% and decreased the probability of being in the consistently high-risk group by more than 70%. The findings from this study show that, over and above IDUs' baseline characteristics, changes in their personal networks are associated with changes in individuals' risky injection behaviors. They also suggest that interventions aimed at reducing HIV risk among IDUs might benefit from increasing IDUs' social contacts with individuals who are not drug users.

  18. Risk perception in women with high-risk pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects the decisions they make about antenatal care and so may therefore influence the wellbeing of mother and baby. This article addresses the factors which influence women when making risk assessments and how these assessments may differ from those of healthcare professionals.\\ud \\ud Women use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status including advice from professionals, from other trusted sources, and their own intui...

  19. Reduced risk avoidance and altered neural correlates of feedback processing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Tanja; Schuermann, Beate; Roepke, Stefan; Kessler-Scheil, Sonia; Kathmann, Norbert

    2016-09-30

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show deficits in reward-guided decision making and learning. The present study examined risk-taking behavior in combination with feedback processing. Eighteen BPD patients and 18 healthy controls performed a probabilistic two-choice gambling task, while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Options differed in risk, but were identical in expected value and outcome probability. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the feedback-related P300 were analyzed. Healthy controls preferred low-risk over high-risk options, whereas BPD patients chose both option with equal probability. FRN amplitudes were reduced in BPD, but effects of feedback valence and risk did not differ between groups. This suggests attenuated outcome processing in the anterior cingulate cortex, but intact reward prediction error signaling. Furthermore, the modulation of the feedback-related P300 with feedback valence and risk was smaller in BPD patients, and decreased P300 amplitudes were associated with increased behavioral risk-taking behavior. These findings could relate to the reduced ability of BPD patients to learn and adequately adjust their behavior based on feedback information, possibly due to reduced significance of negative feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High Heels: A Study of Personality and Fashion Conscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Strehlau

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between the use of high heels, personality traits, and fashion consciousness of adult women. The theory of consumer behavior states that the personality of the consumer is a psychological factor that affects consumer decisions, as well as the attitude towards fashion. A survey with 83 women was conducted with two questionnaires. One questionnaire was about fashion consciousness and the use of high heels, and the other utilized the HumanGuide test. The analysis used univariate and multivariate techniques with the aid of SPSS software and Partial Least Squares. The results indicate that 60% of respondents feel pain when wearing high heels. Although designers indicate that a high heel height is above 8 cm, this research indicates that women consider a high heel from 5 cm. Only 27.3% of the responders over 50 years of age use high heels over 8.5 cm. The HumanGuide proved to be useful for Marketing in the sense that the respondents had no difficulty in answering the questions. The use of high heels is mostly explained by fashion consciousness. The most influential factor was the stability of personality, individuals described as conservative, traditional, economical, stable, cautious, steady, and serious. Thus, it appears that these respondents wear high heels because they are related to an elegant traditional dress.DOI: 10.5585/remark.v12i2.2563

  1. The role of positive and negative childhood events in the risk of developing personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, M

    2015-01-01

    Existing research has predominantly focused on a limited range of childhood events and personality disorders, such as childhood maltreatment and borderline personality disorder. Moreover, researchers rarely account for multiple risk factors within the same study, despite the reality that childhood events do not occur in isolation. Therefore, the current research aims to contribute to the knowledge on childhood events and personality disorder symptoms by investigating a wider range of risk and...

  2. Academic Discipline and Personal Finance Instruction in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Cäzilia; Fisher, Patti J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite public support for personal finance instruction in high school, its effectiveness has not been firmly established. The current study investigates instructional approaches as a reason for these inconsistent outcomes by comparing survey responses of business education, family and consumer sciences, and social studies/economics teachers. The…

  3. San Diego Met High School: Personalization as a Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of San Diego Met High School is to prepare students for college and the workforce through active learning, academic rigor, and community involvement in a small school setting. Because personalization is a key component of the school culture, advisories of 20-25 students work with the same teachers for all four years. Advisers, parents,…

  4. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  5. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of fractures in French older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feart, C; Lorrain, S; Ginder Coupez, V; Samieri, C; Letenneur, L; Paineau, D; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2013-12-01

    Prevention of fractures is a considerable public health challenge. In a population-based cohort of French elderly people, a diet closer to a Mediterranean type had a borderline significant deleterious effect on the risk of fractures, in part linked to a low consumption of dairy products and a high consumption of fruits. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is linked to a lower risk of several chronic diseases, but its association with the risk of fractures is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between MeDi adherence and the risk of fractures in older persons. The sample consisted of 1,482 individuals aged 67 years or older, from Bordeaux, France, included in the Three-City Study in 2001-2002. Occurrences of hip, vertebral and wrist fractures were self-reported every 2 years over 8 years, and 155 incident fractures were recorded. Adherence to the MeDi was evaluated at baseline by a MeDi score, on a 10-point scale based on a food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall. Multivariate Cox regression tests were performed to estimate the risk of fractures according to MeDi adherence. Higher MeDi adherence was associated with a non-significant increased risk of fractures at any site (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-point increase of MeDi score = 1.10, P = 0.08) in fully adjusted model. Among MeDi components, higher fruits consumption (>2 servings/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of hip fractures (HR = 1.95, P = 0.04), while low intake of dairy products was associated with a doubled risk of wrist fractures (HR = 2.03, P = 0.007). An inverse U-shaped association between alcohol intake and risk of total fracture was observed (HR high vs. moderate = 0.61, P for trend = 0.03). Greater MeDi adherence was not associated with a decreased risk of fractures in French older persons. The widely recognized beneficial effects of the MeDi do not seem to apply to bone health in these people.

  6. Personality Predicts Mortality Risk: An Integrative Data Analysis of 15 International Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Eileen K; Rutsohn, Joshua P; Turiano, Nicholas A; Bendayan, Rebecca; Batterham, Philip J; Gerstorf, Denis; Katz, Mindy J; Reynolds, Chandra A; Sharp, Emily S; Yoneda, Tomiko B; Bastarache, Emily D; Elleman, Lorien G; Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Johansson, Boo; Kuh, Diana; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Deeg, Dorly J H; Lipton, Richard B; Pedersen, Nancy L; Piccinin, Andrea M; Spiro, Avron; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Willis, Sherry L; Schaie, K Warner; Roan, Carol; Herd, Pamela; Hofer, Scott M; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were consistent predictors of mortality across studies. Smoking had a small mediating effect for neuroticism. Country and baseline age explained variation in effects: studies with older baseline age showed a pattern of protective effects (HReffects for extraversion. This study demonstrated coordinated analysis as a powerful approach to enhance replicability and reproducibility, especially for aging-related longitudinal research.

  7. Personality differences in two minnow populations that differ in their parasitism and predation risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine eKortet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Animals are often individually consistent in their behavior, not only over time, but also across different functional contexts. Recent research has focused on phenotypic and evolutionary mechanisms explaining such personality differences through selection. Parasitism and predation induce important mortality and fitness costs, and are thus the main candidates to create and maintain personality differences in the wild. Here, we present data on the behavioral consistency of the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus from two populations that live in different tributaries of the same river, but whose ecological environment differs fundamentally with regard to predation and parasitism. We experimentally demonstrate that minnow in both study populations are consistent in their boldness and activity. However, the two study populations differ notably: in the high predation and parasitism risk population fish show higher mean boldness, but tend to be less active than fish in low predation and parasitism risk population. Parasite (Diplostomum phoxini load was negatively, but not statistically significantly, associated with fish activity level. Our study suggests that parasitism and predation are likely important agents in the ecology and evolution of animal personalities.

  8. List of High risk countries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    2013-07-26

    Higher Risk Countries and Territories. Reviewed regularly. Last update: July 26, 2013. Country/Territory. Note (1). Sources of Concern. Canadian. Law or. Policy. Knowledge of research setting. Ability to monitor research activities. (Note 2). Operational. Issues. (Note 3). Banking. Restrictions. (Note 4). Afghanistan. X. X.

  9. Effectiveness of personalized and interactive health risk calculators: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Christopher A; Downs, Julie S; Padman, Rema

    2012-01-01

    Risk calculators are popular websites that provide individualized disease risk assessments to the public. Little is known about their effect on risk perceptions and health behavior. This study sought to test whether risk calculator features-namely, personalized estimates of one's disease risk and feedback about the effects of risk-mitigating behaviors-improve risk perceptions and motivate healthy behavior. A web-based experimental study using simple randomization was conducted to compare the effects of 3 prediabetes risk communication websites. Setting The study was conducted in the context of ongoing health promotion activities sponsored by a university's human resources office. Patients Participants were adult university employees. Intervention The control website presented nonindividualized risk information. The personalized noninteractive website presented individualized risk calculations. The personalized interactive website presented individualized risk calculations and feedback about the effects of hypothetical risk-mitigating behaviors. Measurements Pre- and postintervention risk perceptions were measured in absolute and relative terms. Health behavior was measured by assessing participant interest in follow-up preventive health services. On average, risk perceptions decreased by 2%. There was no general effect of personalization or interactivity in aligning subjective risk perceptions with objective risk calculations or in increasing healthy behaviors. However, participants who previously overestimated their risk reduced their perceptions by 16%. This was a significantly larger change than the 2% increase by participants who underestimated their risk. Limitations Results may not generalize to different populations, different diseases, or longer-term outcomes. Compared to nonpersonalized information, individualized risk calculators had little positive effect on prediabetes risk perception accuracy or health behavior. Risk perception accuracy was improved in

  10. Personalized Risk Assessment in Never, Light, and Heavy Smokers in a prospective cohort in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang; Ye, Yuanqing; Tsai, MinKwang; Wen, Christopher; Roth, Jack A; Pu, Xia; Chow, Wong-Ho; Huff, Chad; Cunningham, Sonia; Huang, Maosheng; Wu, Shuanbei; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Gu, Jian; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-11-02

    The objective of this study was to develop markedly improved risk prediction models for lung cancer using a prospective cohort of 395,875 participants in Taiwan. Discriminatory accuracy was measured by generation of receiver operator curves and estimation of area under the curve (AUC). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, age, gender, smoking pack-years, family history of lung cancer, personal cancer history, BMI, lung function test, and serum biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), bilirubin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and c-reactive protein (CRP) were identified and included in an integrative risk prediction model. The AUC in overall population was 0.851 (95% CI = 0.840-0.862), with never smokers 0.806 (95% CI = 0.790-0.819), light smokers 0.847 (95% CI = 0.824-0.871), and heavy smokers 0.732 (95% CI = 0.708-0.752). By integrating risk factors such as family history of lung cancer, CEA and AFP for light smokers, and lung function test (Maximum Mid-Expiratory Flow, MMEF 25-75% ), AFP and CEA for never smokers, light and never smokers with cancer risks as high as those within heavy smokers could be identified. The risk model for heavy smokers can allow us to stratify heavy smokers into subgroups with distinct risks, which, if applied to low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening, may greatly reduce false positives.

  11. Risks of Stigmatisation Resulting from Assistive Technologies for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fiachra O’Brolcháin; Bert Gordijn

    2018-01-01

    Assistive technologies (ATs) are currently being developed for cohorts of vulnerable people, including persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper focuses on the risks that the development of ATs for persons with ASD might lead to increased risks of stigmatisation. Firstly, we assess the ways in which the use of ATs might result in the stigmatisation of users, alongside the corollary question of risks associated with a refusal to use ATs in the event of their being socially expect...

  12. Third-Person Self-Talk Reduces Ebola Worry and Risk Perception by Enhancing Rational Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Ethan; Vickers, Brian D; Orvell, Ariana; Gainsburg, Izzy; Moran, Tim P; Boyer, Margaret; Jonides, John; Moser, Jason; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2017-11-01

    During the fall of 2014, the threat of an Ebola outbreak gripped the United States (Poll, 8-12 October 2014; see Harvard School of Public Health & SSRS, 2014), creating a unique opportunity to advance basic knowledge concerning how emotion regulation works in consequential contexts and translate existing research in this area to inform public health and policy. We addressed these issues by examining whether third-person self-talk, a simple technique that promotes emotion regulation, could nudge people into reasoning about Ebola more rationally. In all, 1,257 people from across the United States were asked to write about their feelings about Ebola using their name or I (i.e. third-person self-talk vs. first-person self-talk) as concerns about Ebola swelled (24 October 2014-26 October 2014). Third-person self-talk led participants who scored high on Ebola worry at baseline to generate more fact-based reasons not to worry about Ebola, which predicted reductions in their Ebola worry and risk perception. These findings held when controlling for several theoretically relevant covariates, highlighting their robustness. These results demonstrate how a simple linguistic technique can enhance rational thinking and quell worry about a pressing public health threat. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  14. Durable Viral Suppression and Transmission Risk Potential Among Persons With Diagnosed HIV Infection: United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaz, Nicole; Tang, Tian; Marks, Gary; Mugavero, Michael J; Espinoza, Lorena; Hall, H Irene

    2016-10-01

    We examined durable viral suppression, cumulative viral load (VL) burden, and transmission risk potential among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-diagnosed persons in care. Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System from 17 jurisdictions with complete reporting of VL test results, we determined the percentage of persons in HIV care who achieved durable viral suppression (all VL results suppression. The remaining 38% had high VL burden (geometric mean of viremia copy-years, 7261) and spent an average of 438 days, 316 days, and 215 days (60%, 43.2%, and 29.5% of the 2-year period) above 200, 1500, and 10 000 copies/mL. Women, blacks/African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, persons with HIV infection attributed to transmission other than male-to-male sexual contact, younger age groups, and persons with gaps in care had higher viral burden and transmission risk potential. Two-thirds of persons in HIV care had durable viral suppression during a 2-year period. One-third had high VL burden and spent substantial time above VL levels with increased risk of onward transmission. More intervention efforts are needed to improve retention in care and medication adherence so that more persons in HIV care achieve durable viral suppression. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Personalized Genetic Risk Counseling to Motivate Diabetes Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Richard W.; O’Brien, Kelsey E.; Waxler, Jessica L.; Vassy, Jason L.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Bissett, Laurie G.; Green, Robert C.; Stember, Katherine G.; Guiducci, Candace; Park, Elyse R.; Florez, Jose C.; Meigs, James B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether diabetes genetic risk testing and counseling can improve diabetes prevention behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of diabetes genetic risk counseling among overweight patients at increased phenotypic risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly allocated to genetic testing versus no testing. Genetic risk was calculated by summing 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes. Participants in the top an...

  16. Psychiatric Severity and HIV-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M.; Komer, Anne C.; Jason, and Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship between mental illness and human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders is not well established because of differences in assessing psychiatric factors (types, symptoms, severity), substance use (diagnosis, survey responses, past substance use) and HIV-risk sexual behaviors (individual measures, combination of sex/drug use risk behaviors) across studies. This study utilized a more global and dimensional aspect of psychiatric issues (problem severity), to examine the relationship with HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use among persons with substance use disorders. Methods Participants included 224 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 9.5). The most common substances were heroin/opiates, with 41.4% reporting use of these substances (n = 110, 110/266), while 27.8% reported using cocaine (n = 74, 74/266) and 12.8% reported using alcohol (n = 34, 34/266). Of all participants, 39 (14.4%) were identified as having high psychiatric severity (defined using the psychiatric severity score from the Addiction Severity Index), which was used as an indication of probable comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Among these participants likely to have comorbid disorders, hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine HIV-risk sexual behaviors (number of partners and unprotected sexual behaviors in the past 30 days) in relation to psychiatric severity, substance use, and gender. Results Gender (women) and psychiatric severity (higher) were significantly related to greater HIV-risk sexual behaviors. After entering gender and substance use into the regression model, psychiatric severity accounted for another 21.9% of the variance in number of partners and 14.1% of the variance in unprotected sexual behaviors. Overall, the models accounted for 55.5% and 15.6% of the variance, respectively. A significant interaction was found for number of partners (but not

  17. [A model list of high risk drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrina Luque, J; Guerrero Aznar, M D; Alvarez del Vayo Benito, C; Jimenez Mesa, E; Guzman Laura, K P; Fernández Fernández, L

    2013-12-01

    «High-risk drugs» are those that have a very high «risk» of causing death or serious injury if an error occurs during its use. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) has prepared a high-risk drugs list applicable to the general population (with no differences between the pediatric and adult population). Thus, there is a lack of information for the pediatric population. The main objective of this work is to develop a high-risk drug list adapted to the neonatal or pediatric population as a reference model for the pediatric hospital health workforce. We made a literature search in May 2012 to identify any published lists or references in relation to pediatric and/or neonatal high-risk drugs. A total of 15 studies were found, from which 9 were selected. A model list was developed mainly based on the ISMP one, adding strongly perceived pediatric risk drugs and removing those where the pediatric use was anecdotal. There is no published list that suits pediatric risk management. The list of pediatric and neonatal high-risk drugs presented here could be a «reference list of high-risk drugs » for pediatric hospitals. Using this list and training will help to prevent medication errors in each drug supply chain (prescribing, transcribing, dispensing and administration). Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  19. Association of Personality Traits and Risk of Internet Addiction in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Candan; Bektas, Murat; Ayar, Dijle; Özgüven Öztornacı, Beste; Yağcı, Dilek

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive study analyzes the association between personality traits and internet addiction in adolescents. The study was conducted with 328 adolescents attending two high schools in the Aegean region of Turkey. The data were collected using a sociodemographic information questionnaire, the Internet Addiction Scale and the Adjective Based Personality Scale from students who gave their informed consent to participate. Data were assessed by descriptive statistics, t tests, and logistic regression analysis, using SPSS software. The students had an average age of 16.43 ± 1.47 years and 40.5% were female. The percentage of subjects at risk of internet addiction was 15.9% (n = 52), and 42.4% (n = 22) of them reported that the amounts of time they spent online was acceptable. We found statistically significant differences in the average subdimensional scores for extraversion (t = 2.310, p internet addiction (n = 52) and those who were not (n = 276). Adolescents who were found to be at risk of internet addiction nevertheless reported on the survey questionnaires that the amount of time they spent online was acceptable. The study determined that participants' risk of internet addiction was associated with their levels of extraversion and openness to experience. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A Study on Musculoskeletal Disorders and Personal and Occupational Risk Factors among Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tirgar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Surgery is a high risk profession owing to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. Fine and precise operations cause surgeons to adopt prolonged fixed posture. As there is limited information in this region, the purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of MSDs and personal and occupational risk factors among surgeons in Babol (a northern city in Iran. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 surgeons during 2011 using a questionnaire in three parts including: Demographic and occupational data, Nordic standardized musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire (NMQ, and Body Discomfort Assessment technique. The working posture during operation was assessed by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical indexes and chi- square test, and a p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: According to the data, the mean of work experience was 19.9±6 years, and the mean of work hours was 54.2±14 (ranged 20-80 hours per week. Ninety five percent of surgeons reported experiencing one or more MSDs symptoms during the previous year. Neck pain (66.7% and low back pain (LBP (51% was the more frequent reported complaint. The results showed a significant statistical difference between LBP with weekly regular exercise and work experience. Conclusion: The results indicate that MSDs are the common problems among the surgeons and they are at risk because of their personal and occupational conditions. So, ergonomics interventions in order to prevent MSDs are recommended.

  1. Adolescents' perceived risk and personal experience with natural disasters: an evaluation of cognitive heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, L; Dollinger, S J; Pitz, G

    1996-02-01

    Elevated risk judgments for negative life events have been linked to personal experience with events. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive heuristics are the underlying cognitive mechanism for this relation. The availability (i.e., memory for incidents) and simulation (i.e., imagery) heuristics were evaluated as possible mediators for the relation between personal experience and risk estimates for fatal weather events. Adolescents who had experienced weather disasters estimated their personal risk for weather events. Support was obtained for the simulation heuristic (imagery) as a mediator for the relation. Availability for lightning disaster experience was also found to be a mediator for the relation between personal lightning disaster experience and risk estimate for future events. The implications for risk perception research are discussed.

  2. Sexual risk behaviours and sexual abuse in persons with severe mental illness in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Lundberg

    Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1 casual sex during illness episodes, (2 rape by non-partners, (3 exploitation by partners, (4 non-monogamous partners, and (5 sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.

  3. Mexican American Adolescents' Profiles of Risk and Mental Health: A Person-Centered Longitudinal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Although Mexican American adolescents experience multiple risk factors in their daily lives, most research examines the influences of risk factors on adjustment independently, ignoring the additive and interactive effects of multiple risk factors. Guided by a person-centered perspective and utilizing latent profile analysis, this study identified…

  4. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  5. From 'Image Gently' to image intelligently: a personalized perspective on diagnostic radiation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerman, R.P. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The risk of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging has been a popular topic in the radiology literature and lay press. Communicating the magnitude of risk to patients and caregivers is problematic because of the uncertainty in estimates derived principally from epidemiological studies of large populations, and alternative approaches are needed to provide a scientific basis for personalized risk estimates. The underlying patient disease and life expectancy greatly influence risk projections. Research into the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair challenges the linear no-threshold dose-response assumption and reveals that individuals vary in sensitivity to radiation. Studies of decision-making psychology show that individuals are highly susceptible to irrational biases when judging risks. Truly informed medical decision-making that respects patient autonomy requires appropriate framing of radiation risks in perspective with other risks and with the benefits of imaging. To follow the principles of personalized medicine and treat patients according to their specific phenotypic and personality profiles, diagnostic imaging should optimally be tailored not only to patient size, body region and clinical indication, but also to underlying disease conditions, radio-sensitivity and risk perception and preferences that vary among individuals. (orig.)

  6. Effects of providing personalized feedback of child's obesity risk on mothers' food choices using a virtual reality buffet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, C M; Persky, S; Wagner, L K; Faith, M S; Ward, D S

    2013-10-01

    Providing personalized genetic-risk feedback of a child's susceptibility to adult-onset health conditions is a topic of considerable debate. Family health history (FHH), specifically parental overweight/obesity status, is a useful assessment for evaluating a child's genetic and environmental risk of becoming obese. It is unclear whether such risk information may influence parents' efforts to reduce their child's risk of obesity. To evaluate whether telling mothers the magnitude of their child's risk of becoming obese based on personal FHH influenced food choices for their young child from a virtual reality-based buffet restaurant. Overweight/obese mothers of a child aged 4-5 years who met eligibility criteria (N=221) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental arms, which emphasized different health information: arm 1, food safety control (Control); arm 2, behavioral-risk information (BRI) alone or arm 3, behavioral-risk information plus personal FHH-based risk assessment (BRI+FHH). Mothers donned a head-mounted display to be immersed in a virtual restaurant buffet, where they selected virtual food and beverages as a lunch for their child. Mothers who were randomized to BRI+FHH filled the index child's plate with an average of 45 fewer calories than those in the Control arm (Prisk message (that is, only one overweight parent). The influence of communicating a child's inherited risk of obesity on mothers' feeding practices may vary by the risk level conveyed. High-risk messages may best be coupled with strategies to increase mother's perceptions that efforts can be undertaken to reduce risk and build requisite behavioral skills to reduce risk.

  7. Resuscitation of newborn in high risk deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, U.F.; Hayat, S.

    2015-01-01

    High risk deliveries are usually associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neonatal resuscitation can appreciably affect the outcome in these types of deliveries. Presence of personnel trained in basic neonatal resuscitation at the time of delivery can play an important role in reducing perinatal complications in neonates at risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of newborn resuscitation on neonatal outcome in high risk deliveries. Methods: This descriptive case series was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Ninety consecutive high risk deliveries were included and attended by paediatricians trained in newborn resuscitation. Babies delivered by elective Caesarean section, normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries and still births were excluded. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in babies who failed to initiate breathing in the first minute after birth. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16.0. Results: A total of 90 high risk deliveries were included in the study. Emergency caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 94.4% (n=85) cases and spontaneous vaginal delivery in 5.6% (n=5). Preterm pregnancy was the major high risk factor. Newborn resuscitation was required in 37.8% (n=34) of all high risk deliveries (p=0.013). All the new-borns who required resuscitation survived. Conclusion: New-born resuscitation is required in high risk pregnancies and personnel trained in newborn resuscitation should be available at the time of delivery. (author)

  8. Fracture risk in hepatitis C virus infected persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection and fracture risk is not well characterized. We compared fracture risk between HCV-seropositive (HCV-exposed) patients and the general population and between patients with cleared and chronic HCV-infection. METHODS...

  9. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  10. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  11. Using the SAPAS to identify risk for personality disorders among psychiatric outpatients in India: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Simeon; Podder, Priyanka; Ram, Jai Ranjan; Barnicot, Kirsten; Sen, Piyal

    2018-02-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are common among psychiatric outpatients and are associated with increased morbidity and worse treatment outcomes. Epidemiological research conducted among this population in Asian countries is limited, reflecting a significant gap in the current literature. One barrier to this research is the lack of appropriate screening tools. The current research assessed the feasibility of using the SAPAS (Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale) screening tool to identify individuals at high risk of PD in an Indian psychiatric outpatient population and provides an initial estimate of PD prevalence by using a validated diagnostic interview, the ICD-10 International Personality Disorder Examination. The findings suggest that whilst use of the SAPAS was feasible, acceptable to patients and led to clinically useful findings, when using the recommended cut-off score of 4, the SAPAS largely overdiagnoses the risk for PD in psychiatric outpatients in India (positive predictive value = 26.3%). The estimated prevalence of personality disorder in the sample was 11.1%, based on administering the International Personality Disorder Examination diagnostic interview to high-risk patients scoring 4 and above on the SAPAS, which is higher than previous estimates for this population and still likely to be an underestimation. Future studies should translate the measure into Bengali and evaluate its sensitivity and specificity at different cut-off points in order to optimize its use in Indian populations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Interaction of Occupational and Personal Risk Factors in Workforce Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandalai, Sudha; Wulsin, Victoria; Chun, HeeKyoung

    2012-01-01

    Most diseases, injuries, and other health conditions experienced by working people are multifactorial, especially as the workforce ages. Evidence supporting the role of work and personal risk factors in the health of working people is frequently underused in developing interventions. Achieving a longer, healthy working life requires a comprehensive preventive approach. To help develop such an approach, we evaluated the influence of both occupational and personal risk factors on workforce health. We present 32 examples illustrating 4 combinatorial models of occupational hazards and personal risk factors (genetics, age, gender, chronic disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, prescription drug use). Models that address occupational and personal risk factors and their interactions can improve our understanding of health hazards and guide research and interventions. PMID:22021293

  13. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92%) used an observational design and focused on women (70%) with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups) and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although evolving, is still

  14. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  15. The distressed (Type D) personality. A risk marker for poor health outcomes in ICD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Schiffer, A A

    2011-01-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality is an emerging risk marker for poor health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Patients with this personality disposition are typified by a general propensity to experience psychological distress. The contribution focuses on the impact of Type D p...

  16. Impact of gender and personality traits (BFI-10) on risk-aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlicek, Antonin; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates impact of gender and personality traits on risk-aversion. The research was conducted in the Czech Republic using an on-line questionnaire. Data were collected between December 2016 and January 2017. Big Five Inventory-10 was used to measure personality traits. A validated...

  17. Sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive persons in Jamaica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    positive status potentially place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. The study findings highlight the need to promote safe sexual behaviors and a positive social environment for people living with ...

  18. A comparison of mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors between rural and non-rural transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.

  19. A primary care audit of familial risk in patients with a personal history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Paul; Ahluwalia, Aneeta; Chorley, Wendy

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, both in the UK and worldwide. A small proportion of women are at very high risk of breast cancer, having a particularly strong family history. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has advised that practitioners should not, in most instances, actively seek to identify women with a family history of breast cancer. An audit was undertaken at an urban primary care practice of 15,000 patients, using a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire sent to patients identified with a personal history of breast cancer. The aim of this audit was to determine whether using targeted screening of relatives of patients with breast cancer to identify familial cancer risk is worthwhile in primary care. Since these patients might already expected to have been risk assessed following their initial diagnosis, this audit acts as a quality improvement exercise. The audit used a validated family history questionnaire and risk assessment tool as a screening approach for identifying and grading familial risk in line with the NICE guidelines, to guide referral to the familial cancer screening service. The response rate to family history questionnaires was 54 % and the majority of patients responded positively to their practitioner seeking to identify familial cancer risks in their family. Of the 57 returned questionnaires, over a half (54 %) contained pedigrees with individuals eligible for referral. Patients and their relatives who are often registered with the practice welcome the discussion. An appropriate referral can therefore be made. The findings suggest a role for primary care practitioners in the identification of those at higher familial risk. However integrated systems and processes need designing to facilitate this work.

  20. Improving antenatal risk assessment in women exposed to high risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Muralidhar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA 20 ng/ml. Material and methods: We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results : EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258, and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270. Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022. Conclusions : Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease.

  2. Familial risk for mood disorder and the personality risk factor, neuroticism, interact in their association with frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Vibe Gedsø; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    Life stress is a robust risk factor for later development of mood disorders, particularly for individuals at familial risk. Likewise, scoring high on the personality trait neuroticism is associated with an increased risk for mood disorders. Neuroticism partly reflects stress vulnerability...... stress reactivity in individuals at high familial risk for mood disorders might enhance the effect of neuroticism in shaping the impact of potential environmental stress and thereby influence serotonergic neurotransmission....... and is positively correlated to frontolimbic serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor binding. Here, we investigate whether neuroticism interacts with familial risk in relation to frontolimbic 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. Twenty-one healthy twins with a co-twin history of mood disorder and 16 healthy twins without a co...

  3. Running on a high: parkrun and personal well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunseit, Anne; Richards, Justin; Merom, Dafna

    2017-07-25

    Sporting or physical recreation event participation can affect different domains of mental and social well-being if sufficiently frequent, yet previous research has focused mainly on the physical health benefits of single-location or infrequent mass-participation events. We examined overall and domain specific subjective well-being of adult participants of "parkrun", a weekly, community-based, highly accessible and widespread running event. Data were from a national online survey of 865 adult Australian parkrunners. Scores on nine individual measures and the global Personal Well-being Index (PWI) were compared to national, normative data. Regression models tested associations between personal well-being and perceived benefits of parkrun (mental health and connection to community). Of 100 scores, 28% of means for parkrunners fell outside overall and age and gender subgroups normative ranges. Satisfaction with health was higher for male, those aged over 45 and overall parkrunners; only parkrunners aged 18-24 fell below their age group norm. Satisfaction with life as a whole was positively associated with perceived mental health benefits of parkrun, but not perceived community connection for women, and neither measure for men. PWI was positively associated with perceived community connection for men and with mental health benefit for women. Australian parkrunners mostly reflect the general population on personal well-being, except report superior satisfaction with physical health. Women's personal well-being may benefit from parkrun through improved mental health and men's from community connectedness. parkrun may facilitate positive expression of identity and continuation of healthy habits among athletes, and non-demanding, health enhancing activity and social interaction for non-athletes.

  4. Risk Aversion is Associated with Decision Making among Community-Based Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A

    2012-01-01

    Risk aversion is associated with many important decisions among younger and middle aged persons, but the association of risk aversion with decision making has not been well studied among older persons who face some of the most significant decisions of their lives. Using data from 606 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the association of risk aversion with decision making. Risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $20 to $300 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. Decision making was measured using a 12 item version of the Decision Making Competence Assessment Tool. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, education, and income, greater risk aversion was associated with poorer decision making [estimate = -1.03, standard error (SE) = 0.35, p = 0.003]. Subsequent analyses showed that the association of risk aversion with decision making persisted after adjustment for global cognitive function as well as executive and non-executive cognitive abilities. Similar to findings from studies of younger persons, risk aversion is associated with poorer decision making among older persons who face a myriad of complex and influential decisions.

  5. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...

  6. Predicting reattendance at a high-risk breast cancer clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormseth, Sarah R; Wellisch, David K; Aréchiga, Adam E; Draper, Taylor L

    2015-10-01

    The research about follow-up patterns of women attending high-risk breast-cancer clinics is sparse. This study sought to profile daughters of breast-cancer patients who are likely to return versus those unlikely to return for follow-up care in a high-risk clinic. Our investigation included 131 patients attending the UCLA Revlon Breast Center High Risk Clinic. Predictor variables included age, computed breast-cancer risk, participants' perceived personal risk, clinically significant depressive symptomatology (CES-D score ≥ 16), current level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and survival status of participants' mothers (survived or passed away from breast cancer). A greater likelihood of reattendance was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, p = 0.004), computed breast-cancer risk (AOR = 1.10, p = 0.017), absence of depressive symptomatology (AOR = 0.25, p = 0.009), past psychiatric diagnosis (AOR = 3.14, p = 0.029), and maternal loss to breast cancer (AOR = 2.59, p = 0.034). Also, an interaction was found between mother's survival and perceived risk (p = 0.019), such that reattendance was associated with higher perceived risk among participants whose mothers survived (AOR = 1.04, p = 0.002), but not those whose mothers died (AOR = 0.99, p = 0.685). Furthermore, a nonlinear inverted "U" relationship was observed between state anxiety and reattendance (p = 0.037); participants with moderate anxiety were more likely to reattend than those with low or high anxiety levels. Demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors were found to be independently associated with reattendance to a high-risk breast-cancer clinic. Explication of the profiles of women who may or may not reattend may serve to inform the development and implementation of interventions to increase the likelihood of follow-up care.

  7. The high-risk plaque initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Erling; Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The High-Risk Plaque (HRP) Initiative is a research and development effort to advance the understanding, recognition, and management of asymptomatic individuals at risk for a near-term atherothrombotic event such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Clinical studies using the newest technologies...... have been initiated, including the BioImage Study in which novel approaches are tested in a typical health plan population. Asymptomatic at-risk individuals were enrolled, including a survey-only group (n = 865), a group undergoing traditional risk factor scoring (n = 718), and a group in which all...

  8. 'Risking enchantment': how are we to view the smoking person?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Jane; Carro-Ripalda, Susana; Russell, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    The idea of the smoking person portrayed in public health has been criticised as being based on too narrow a view of human nature. This article discusses that view: that of a person with a stable core and epiphenomenal 'behaviours' that can be removed by rational persuasion or Pavlovian manipulation, and examines social scientific critiques of it. The social sciences explore the meanings smoking has for individuals and portray human identity as malleable, the result of ongoing interactions with human and non-human others. Aspects of smokers' experience revealed in qualitative research - descriptions of cigarettes as 'companions' or 'friends', deep reliance, sensual pleasure - are sometimes difficult to articulate but can be given full voice in the context of the literary arts. We explore some examples of these sources and argue that a complete picture of smoking meanings is impossible without reference to them. We take a pragmatic approach, following the philosopher William James, who argued that emotional and spiritual experiences contribute to the truth of human existence as much as material explanations, to suggest that this understanding should be part of a critical but supportive engagement with public health research in order to develop more nuanced and humane approaches to smoking cessation.

  9. Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2008-01-01

    Background: Serotonergic dysfunction has been associated with affective disorders. High trait neuroticism, as measured on personality inventories, is a risk factor for major depression. In this study we investigated whether neuroticism is associated with serotonin 2A receptor binding in brain...... regions of relevance for affective disorders. Methods: Eighty-three healthy volunteers completed the standardized personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and underwent [F-18]altanserin positron emission tomography imaging for assessment of serotonin 2A receptor binding...... remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (r = .35, p = .009). Conclusions: In healthy subjects the personality dimension neuroticism and particularly its constituent trait, vulnerability, are positively associated with frontolimbic serotonin 2A binding. Our findings point...

  10. Targeting LDL Cholesterol: Beyond Absolute Goals Toward Personalized Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Morton; Cohen-Stavi, Chandra; Basu, Sanjay; Balicer, Ran D

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to review and assess the evidence for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals as presented in current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Different sets of guidelines and clinical studies for secondary prevention have centered on lower absolute LDL-C targets [achieve greater reductions in cardiovascular risk. Population-based risk models serve as the basis for statin initiation in primary prevention. Reviews of current population risk models for primary prevention show moderate ability to discriminate [with c-statistics ranging from 0.67 to 0.77 (95% CIs from 0.62 to 0.83) for men and women] with poor calibration and overestimation of risk. Individual clinical trial data are not compelling to support specific LDL-C targets and percent reductions in secondary prevention. Increasing utilization of electronic health records and data analytics will enable the development of individualized treatment goals in both primary and secondary prevention.

  11. Personality disorder traits, risk factors, and suicide ideation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Poindexter, Erin K; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2015-11-01

    Personality disorder traits are relatively prevalent among older adults, and can be associated with complex and chronic difficulties, including suicide risk. However, there is a lack of research regarding personality disorders and suicide ideation in older adults. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness may be important to the relation between personality disorders and suicide risk. Additionally, variables from the interpersonal theory of suicide, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, may be critical risk factors for suicide in this population. We hypothesized that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, theory-based variables, would act as parallel mediators of the relation between personality disorder traits and suicide ideation, whereas depressive symptoms and hopelessness would not. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 143 older adults recruited from a primary care setting. Participants completed self-report questionnaires of personality traits, suicide ideation, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness. Findings from a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure indicated that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms mediated the relation between total personality disorder traits and suicide ideation. Hopelessness did not act as a mediator. These findings indicate that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms are likely important risk factors for suicide ideation among older adults. Clinicians should be aware of these issues when assessing and treating suicide risk among older adults.

  12. Personality and risk of addiction to Internet in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Mainé Astonitas Villafuerte

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The articles studies the frequency and purpose of Internet use, the indicators of risk for Internet addiction and the persona lit y of 66 university students from a private university in Lima. These variables are analyzed together with the dimensions and facets of the NEOPI-R, based in the big five model. An association was found between the facets values (04 and actions (06, which belong to the Openness dimension (O, and the risk of Internet addiction. A deeper analysis reveals a positive relationship between the number of symptoms of Internet addiction and the Neuroticism (N dimensiono Additionally, there is a negative relationship between the number of symptoms and the Consciousness (C dimension,especially on the facets self-discipline (CS, dutifulness (C3, achievement-striving (C4 and deliberation (C6.

  13. Risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Catherine A; Denny, Clark H; Greenlund, Kurt J; Benjamin, Stephanie M; Strine, Tara W; Balluz, Lina S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether disabled diabetic persons have a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and stroke than do diabetic persons without disability. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: Data were analyzed for noninstitutionalized adults in 27 states and the District of Columbia that participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 and/or 2003. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios of disabled diabetic persons, by sociodemographic characteristics. The logit form of each model was used to estimate conditional marginal probabilities of risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status. Diabetic persons with disability were more likely than those without disability to have more risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including insufficient leisure-time physical activity or inactivity (adjusted prevalence: 75.2% vs. 63.3%; Pvs. 43.3%; Pvs. 48.4%; P=.038), and hypertension (63.9% vs. 56.6%; Ptwo or more, three or more, and four or more risk factors (97.2% vs. 95.6%, 83.5% vs. 74.0%, 56.5% vs. 41.1%, and 22.2% vs. 13.6%, respectively; Pstroke. Health care guidelines specifically targeting diabetic patients with disability may be needed to aid health care providers in addressing these risk factors.

  14. Personality disorder risk factors for suicide attempts over 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Emily B; Wright, Aidan G C; Markowitz, John C; Sanislow, Charles A; Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C; Yen, Shirley; Pinto, Anthony; McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-04-01

    Identifying personality disorder (PD) risk factors for suicide attempts is an important consideration for research and clinical care alike. However, most prior research has focused on single PDs or categorical PD diagnoses without considering unique influences of different PDs or of severity (sum) of PD criteria on the risk for suicide-related outcomes. This has usually been done with cross-sectional or retrospective assessment methods. Rarely are dimensional models of PDs examined in longitudinal, naturalistic prospective designs. In addition, it is important to consider divergent risk factors in predicting the risk of ever making a suicide attempt versus the risk of making an increasing number of attempts within the same model. This study examined 431 participants who were followed for 10 years in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Baseline assessments of personality disorder criteria were summed as dimensional counts of personality pathology and examined as predictors of suicide attempts reported at annual interviews throughout the 10-year follow-up period. We used univariate and multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regression models to simultaneously evaluate PD risk factors for ever attempting suicide and for increasing numbers of attempts among attempters. Consistent with prior research, borderline PD was uniquely associated with ever attempting. However, only narcissistic PD was uniquely associated with an increasing number of attempts. These findings highlight the relevance of both borderline and narcissistic personality pathology as unique contributors to suicide-related outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Childhood Maltreatment, Pathological Personality Dimensions, and Suicide Risk in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgares, Giorgio; Marchetti, Daniela; Manna, Giovanna; Musso, Pasquale; Oasi, Osmano; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; De Santis, Sandro; Verrocchio, Maria C

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that child maltreatment (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and neglect) may be a significant factor in the development of pathological personality traits that increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior from adolescence to adulthood. Currently, the challenge is to understand how different forms of early negative experiences render an individual prone to develop specific personality traits and, in turn, be more vulnerable to suicide risk. To understand the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality dimensions in suicide risk, our study aims to explore the role of self-criticism and dependency, two different pathological personality traits, as potential mediators of the link between different types of childhood maltreatment and suicide risk in young adults. For this purpose, 306 students from three Italian public universities were recruited. We used the Italian version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) to assess experiences of lack of care by parents (i.e., antipathy and neglect) as well as psychological and physical abuse before the age of 17 years. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) was used to assess the personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency, and the Suicide History Self-Rating Screening Scale was administered to assess suicide risk. Results revealed that lack of care and psychological abuse were significantly associated with suicide risk and this association was partially mediated by the maladaptive personality dimension of self-criticism. These findings suggest that the combined effect of specific forms of dysfunctional parental behavior during childhood and the development of rigid and dysfunctional negative personality traits may increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior during adulthood.

  16. A Knowledge-Base for a Personalized Infectious Disease Risk Prediction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarti, Retno; Hederman, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    We present a knowledge-base to represent collated infectious disease risk (IDR) knowledge. The knowledge is about personal and contextual risk of contracting an infectious disease obtained from declarative sources (e.g. Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases). Automated prediction requires encoding this knowledge in a form that can produce risk probabilities (e.g. Bayesian Network - BN). The knowledge-base presented in this paper feeds an algorithm that can auto-generate the BN. The knowledge from 234 infectious diseases was compiled. From this compilation, we designed an ontology and five rule types for modelling IDR knowledge in general. The evaluation aims to assess whether the knowledge-base structure, and its application to three disease-country contexts, meets the needs of personalized IDR prediction system. From the evaluation results, the knowledge-base conforms to the system's purpose: personalization of infectious disease risk.

  17. Vitaly Ginzburg and high temperature superconductivity: Personal reminiscences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazin, Igor I.

    2008-01-01

    This article is an attempt to give Western readers, as well as young researchers in Russia, a glance at the atmosphere in one of the leading physics institutions in the USSR from 1977-1988, through the eye of a graduate student and later a posdoc in the theory group led by Vitaly Ginzburg, arguably the most enthusiatic proponent of high-temperature superconductivity before the discovery of Bednorz and Muller. This is a very personal narration, wherein the events of my own life and career are inevitably intertwined with scientific events and with my reminiscences of great Russian physicists whom I had the pleasure to meet with while working in the 'High-Temperature Superconductivity Section' at the Lebedev Institute within the aforementioned 12 years

  18. Chronic kidney disease and bleeding risk in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, G; Rookmaaker, M B; Algra, A; de Borst, G J; Doevendans, P A; Kappelle, L J; Verhaar, M C; Visseren, F L

    2018-01-01

    Essentials The association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding is unknown. We followed 10 347 subjects at high cardiovascular risk for bleeding events. Chronic kidney disease was associated with a 1.5-fold increased bleeding risk. Especially albuminuria rather than decreased kidney function was associated with bleeding events. Background There are indications that patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased bleeding risk. Objectives To investigate the association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 10 347 subjects referred to the University Medical Center Utrecht (the Netherlands) from September 1996 to February 2015 for an outpatient visit with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease (Second Manifestation of Arterial disease [SMART] cohort). Patients were staged according to the KDIGO guidelines, on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria, and were followed for the occurrence of major hemorrhagic events until March 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for bleeding were calculated with Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results The incidence rate for bleeding in subjects with chronic kidney disease was 8.0 per 1000 person-years and that for subjects without chronic kidney disease was 3.5 per 1000 person-years. Patients with chronic kidney disease (n = 2443) had a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.2-1.9) increased risk of bleeding as compared with subjects without chronic kidney disease (n = 7904) after adjustment. Subjects with an eGFR of Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for bleeding in patients with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease, especially in the presence of albuminuria. © 2017 University Medical Center Utrecht. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Perception and communication of risk in decision making by persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mabel; Savage, Beverley; Taylor, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    Communication of risks must involve people with dementia meaningfully to ensure informed and inclusive decision-making processes. This qualitative study explored concepts of risk from the perspective of persons with dementia and their experiences of communicating risk with family members and professionals. Data was analysed using grounded theory. Seventeen people in Northern Ireland with mild-moderate dementia who had recently made a decision about their daily life or care involving consideration of risks were interviewed between November 2015 and November 2016. A wide range of actual or feared risks were identified relating to: daily activities; hobbies and socialising; mental health and medicines; and risks to and from others. 'Risk' often held emotional rather than probability connotations. Constructive communications to address issues were presented. Problem-solving models of both active and passive decision-making about risks were evident. Effective risk communication in informed decision-making processes about health and social care is discussed.

  20. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Shen, Li-xiao; Yan, Chong-huai; Hu, Howard; Yang, Fang; Wang, Lu; Kotha, Sudha Rani; Zhang, Li-na; Liao, Xiang-peng; Zhang, Jun; Ouyang, Feng-xiu; Zhang, Jin-song; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2012-12-22

    Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young's Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p 100 RMB (all p-values internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.

  1. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8% were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p p 100 RMB (all p-values p Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.

  2. Personality correlates of caffeine dependence: the role of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heather A; Lejuez, C W

    2005-08-01

    The consumption of caffeine has become a growing concern, partially because of the withdrawal properties of the drug. The current study examined personality correlates of caffeine consumption and dependence in 60 university students. Self-report and behavioral measures of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and risk taking were administered to 2 groups, identified as caffeine dependent-high consuming or caffeine nondependent-low consuming. Scores on self-report measures of sensation seeking and impulsivity were related to group status, and only sensation seeking evidenced a significant relationship with group status when both variables were considered in a regression analysis. Implications of these findings and future directions are discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Personality factors and suicide risk in a representative sample of the German general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Blüml

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. METHOD: Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555 in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10 and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality.

  4. Reduction of Perceived Social Distance as an Explanation for Media's Influence on Personal Risk Perceptions: A Test of the Risk Convergence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Nabi, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The risk convergence model proposes reduction of perceived social distance to a mediated personality as a mechanism through which the mass media can influence audiences' personal risk perceptions. As an initial test of the model, this study examined whether 5 audience variables known to facilitate media effects on personal risk…

  5. Evaluation of bullying in persons with different risk for psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emerging research suggests that being exposed to bullying during childhood can increase the risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood. Aggressive peer relations among adolescents are more frequent in boys, both for being victims or perpetrators. Aim: To evaluate whether bullying was more prevalent among Serbian clinical population of patients with psychosis in comparison to their healthy siblings and controls, and to analyze gender differences regarding bullying. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 52, age = 29.3 ± 5.9 yrs, in remission, illness duration <10 yrs, their healthy siblings (n = 55, age = 28.6 ± 6.8 yrs and controls (n=50, age=25.3±1.5 yrs. The subjects fulfilled the bullying questionnaire, five item self-rating scale. Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney nonparametric test were used to analyze the data. Results: Compared to their healthy siblings, the patients were more likely to report that they were bullied (patients: 7.0 ± 3.5, siblings: 5.2 ± 2.0, p = 0.000, but patients also bullied others more (patients: 1.4 ± 0.8, siblings: 1.1 ± 0.4, p = 0.02. Comparing the group of patients and controls, we did not find statistically significant difference in any category. The male gender brings higher risk of being physically bullied which has been proven for all examined groups (patients- p = 0.03, controls and siblings- p = 0.00. Conclusion: Aggressive peer relations possibly contribute to the evolution of psychosis, as they were more prevalent in patients in comparison to their healthy siblings, particularly in males. Improved prevention of bullying and use of treatments against its psychological consequences might be one of the possible methods to ameliorate the course of psychosis.

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Severity and Sexually Transmitted Infection and HIV Risk in African American Incarcerated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Hobbs, Marcia M; Wohl, David A; Adimora, Adaora A; Khan, Maria R

    2016-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV rates are disproportionately high among men involved in the criminal justice system. Mental health disorders, including personality disorders, are also elevated among inmates. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be an important risk factor for STI/HIV, yet remains relatively understudied, particularly among inmates. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study of African American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in heterosexual relationships at prison entry (n=189), to assess their STI/HIV risk in the 6 months before incarceration and BPD symptoms focused on emotional lability and relationship dysfunction. We created a continuous BPD symptom severity score and a dichotomous BPD indicator split at the top quartile of the score (BPD-TQ) to examine associations between BPD and STI/HIV outcomes using logistic regression. We also examined associations between individual symptoms and outcomes. After adjustment for sociodemographics and antisocial personality disorder, BPD-TQ was associated with sexual risk behaviors including multiple partnerships (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.36) and sex with nonmonogamous partners (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.51). Prevalence of previous STI (47.5% vs. 29.6%) and prevalent chlamydial infection (6.9% vs. 3.1%) seemed higher in those in BPD-TQ, although the associations were not statistically significant. Associations were similar to those with the continuous score. Borderline personality disorder symptoms most associated with STI/HIV risk were abandonment worry, mood swings, and shifts in opinions. Borderline personality disorder is strongly associated with STI/HIV risk in this sample. Researchers should further evaluate the relationship between STI/HIV and BPD, in addition to mood disorders.

  7. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  8. Perceptions of Active Versus Passive Risks, and the Effect of Personal Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, Ruty; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella

    2017-07-01

    Not getting vaccinated or not backing up computer files are examples of passive risk taking: risk brought on or magnified by inaction. We suggest the difficulty in paying attention to absences, together with the reduced agency and responsibility that is associated with passive choices, leads to the perception of passive risks as being less risky than equivalent active risks. Using scenarios in which risk was taken either actively or passively, we demonstrate that passive risks are judged as less risky than equivalent active risks. We find the perception of personal responsibility mediates the differences between the perception of passive and active risks. The current research offers an additional explanation for omission or default biases: The passive nature of these choices causes them to appear less risky than they really are.

  9. [The real-world effectiveness of personal protective equipment and additional risks for workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, É I; Morozova, T V; Adeninskaia, E E; Kur'erov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) of hearing, respiratory organs and hands is considered. It is shown that real effect of PPE is twice lower than declared by supplier; this presumes some derating system. The aspects of discomfort and additional risks are analyzed. The hygienic and physiologic evaluation of PPE is required along with elaboration of an official document (OSH standard or sanitary regulation) on selection, personal fit, organization of use and individual training of workers and their motivation.

  10. Renal transplantation in high cardiovascular risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Julio; Arenas, Paula; Chiurchiu, Carlos; de la Fuente, Jorge; de Arteaga, Javier; Douthat, Walter; Massari, Pablo U

    2009-10-01

    Current transplant success allows recipients with previous contraindications to transplant to have access to this procedure with more frequency and safety. The concept of high-risk patient has changed since the first stages of transplantation. In the first studies, the high-risk concept was based on probability of early graft failure or on a patient's clinical condition to cope with high perioperatory morbimortality. Later on, this concept implied immunological factors that were crucial to ensure transplant success because hypersensitized or polytransfused patients experienced a higher risk of acute rejection and subsequent graft loss. Afterward, the presence of various comorbidities would redefine the high-risk concept for renal transplant mainly considering recipient's clinical aspects. Currently, the change in epidemiological characteristics of patients starting dialysis causes that we now deal with a greater increase of elderly patients, diabetic patients, and patients with history of cardiovascular disease. Today, high-risk patients are those with clinical features that predict an increase in the risk of perioperative morbimortality or death with functioning graft. In this review, we will attempted to analyze currents results of renal transplant outcomes in terms of patients and graft survival in elderly patients, diabetic patients, and patients with previous cardiovascular disease from the most recent experiences in the literature and from experiences in our center. In any of the groups previously analyzed, survival offered by renal transplant is significantly higher compared to dialysis. Besides, these patients are the recipient group that benefit the most with the transplant because their mortality while remaining on dialysis is extremely high. Hence, renal transplantation should be offered more frequently to older patients, diabetic patients, and patients with pretransplant cardiac and peripheral vascular disease. A positive attitude toward renal

  11. The impact of using visual images of the body within a personalized health risk assessment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-05-01

    To examine the motivational impact of the addition of a visual image to a personalized health risk assessment and the underlying cognitive and emotional mechanisms. An online experimental study in which participants (n = 901; mean age = 27.2 years; 61.5% female) received an assessment and information focusing on the health implications of internal body fat and highlighting the protective benefits of physical activity. Participants were randomized to receive this in either (a) solely text form (control arm) or (b) text plus a visual image of predicted internal body fat (image arm). Participants received information representing one of three levels of health threat, determined by how physically active they were: high, moderate or benign. Main outcome measures were physical activity intentions (assessed pre- and post-intervention), worry, coherence and believability of the information. Intentions to undertake recommended levels of physical activity were significantly higher in the image arm, but only amongst those participants who received a high-threat communication. Believability of the results received was greater in the image arm and mediated the intervention effect on intentions. The addition of a visual image to a risk assessment led to small but significant increases in intentions to undertake recommended levels of physical activity in those at increased health risk. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. What is already known on this subject? Health risk information that is personalized to the individual may more strongly motivate risk-reducing behaviour change. Little prior research attention has been paid specifically to the motivational impact of personalized visual images and underlying mechanisms. What does this study add? In an experimental design, it is shown that receipt of visual images increases intentions to engage in risk-reducing behaviour, although only when a significant level of threat is presented. The

  12. Elicitation of cognitions related to HIV risk behaviors in persons with mental illnesses: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennille, Julie; Solomon, Phyllis; Fishbein, Martin; Blank, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An important step in research using the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB) is conducting an elicitation process to identify topic and population specific cognitions. This study explored HIV risk behaviors in persons with mental illnesses and introduces findings from focus groups conducted during the development phase of an HIV primary and secondary prevention intervention study. Researchers held four focus groups with persons with mental illnesses focused on HIV risks and condom use. Participants discussed sexual side effects of psychotropic medications as a potential cause of both medication non-adherence and HIV risk behaviors. The intersection of these two issues is specific to this population. We conclude with the recommendation that HIV primary and secondary prevention intervention for persons with mental illnesses must incorporate the promotion of healthy sexuality, including attention to sexual side effects of psychotropic medications.

  13. Can Personality Account for Differences in Drinking between College Athletes and Non-Athletes? Explaining the Role of Sensation Seeking, Risk-Taking, and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Scaglione, Nichole; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Collegiate athletes are an at-risk population for high risk drinking and related consequences when compared to the general college student population. However, little is known about how aspects of an individual's personality contribute to this relationship, making intervention efforts challenging. The current study examined sensation seeking,…

  14. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  15. Risk management profile of etoricoxib: an example of personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patrignani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Paola Patrignani, Stefania Tacconelli, Marta L CaponeDepartment of Medicine and Center of Excellence on Aging, “G. D’Annunzio” University School of Medicine, and “Gabriele D’Annunzio” University Foundation, CeSI, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The development of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs selective for cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (named coxibs has been driven by the aim of reducing the incidence of serious gastrointestinal (GI adverse events associated with the administration of traditional (t NSAIDs – mainly dependent on the inhibition of COX-1 in GI tract and platelets. However, their use has unravelled the important protective role of COX-2 for the cardiovascular (CV system, mainly through the generation of prostacyclin. In a recent nested-case control study, we found that patients taking NSAIDs (both coxibs and tNSAIDs had a 35% increase risk of myocardial infarction. The increased incidence of thrombotic events associated with profound inhibition of COX-2-dependent prostacyclin by coxibs and tNSAIDs can be mitigated, even if not obliterated, by a complete suppression of platelet COX-1 activity. However, most tNSAIDs and coxibs are functional COX-2 selective for the platelet (ie, they cause a profound suppression of COX-2 associated with insufficient inhibition of platelet COX-1 to translate into inhibition of platelet function, which explains their shared CV toxicity. The development of genetic and biochemical markers will help to identify the responders to NSAIDs or who are uniquely susceptible at developing thrombotic or GI events by COX inhibition. We will describe possible strategies to reduce the side effects of etoricoxib by using biochemical markers of COX inhibition, such as whole blood COX-2 and the assessment of prostacyclin biosynthesis in vivo.Keywords: etoricoxib, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, COX-2, gastrointestinal toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, prostacyclin

  16. Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Correia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal, aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg−1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg−1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day−1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available.

  17. New information on high risk breast screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, C.C.; Ponhold, L.; Gruber, R.; Pinker, K.; Helbich, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Women with an elevated risk for breast cancer require intensified screening beginning at an early age. Such high risk screening differs considerably from screening in the general population. After an expert has evaluated the exact risk a breast MRI examination should be offered at least once a year and beginning latest at the age of 30 depending on the patients risk category. Complementary mammograms should not be performed before the age of 35. An additional ultrasound examination is no longer recommended. To ensure a high sensitivity and specificity high risk screening should be performed only at a nationally or regionally approved and audited service. Adequate knowledge about the phenotypical characteristics of familial breast cancer is essential. Besides the common malignant phenotypes, benign morphologies (round or oval shape and smooth margins) as well as a low prevalence of calcifications have been described. Using MRI benign contrast media kinetics as well as non-solid lesions with focal, regional and segmental enhancement can often be visualized. (orig.) [de

  18. Not all risks are equal: the risk taking inventory for high-risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Barlow, Matt; Bandura, Comille; Hill, Miles; Kupciw, Dominika; Macgregor, Alexandra

    2013-10-01

    Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI's good model-data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.

  19. Correlates of MSW Students’ Perceptions of Preparedness to Manage Risk and Personal Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Kane

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in the discipline of social work have identified correlates of preparedness to manage risk and personal liability among practitioners or students. This study investigated predictors of MSW students’ perceptions of managing personal risk and liability (N=116. Four correlates were identified from the standard regression model that accounts for 43% of the adjusted variance. These predictor variables included: (a concern and worry about lawsuits (Beta=-.458, p=.00, (b understanding the fit between client advocacy and managed care (Beta=.328,p=.00, (c understanding agency documentation requirements (Beta=-.164, p=.05, and (d perceptions of field preparation for documentation (Beta=.162, p=.05. Implications are discussed.

  20. Use of antidementia drugs and risk of pneumonia in older persons with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampela, Pasi; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tanskanen, Antti; Tiihonen, Jari; Lavikainen, Piia; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Taipale, Heidi

    2017-05-01

    Persons with Alzheimer's disease are at an increased risk of pneumonia, but the comparative risks during specific antidementia treatments are not known. We compared the risk of pneumonia in the use of donepezil, rivastigmine (oral, transdermal), galantamine and memantine. We used data from a nationwide cohort of community-dwelling individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during 2005-2011 in Finland, who initiated monotherapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor or memantine (n = 65,481). The risk of hospitalization or death due to pneumonia was investigated with Cox proportional hazard models. The risk of pneumonia was higher in persons using rivastigmine patch (n = 9709) (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.27) and memantine (n = 11,024) (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.48-1.71) compared with donepezil users (n = 26,416) whereas oral rivastigmine (n = 7384) (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.98-1.19) and galantamine (n = 10,948) (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83-1.00) were not associated with an increased risk. These results did not change when adjusting for comorbid conditions, use of psychotropic drugs or with inverse probability of treatment weighting. The increased risk of pneumonia in this fragile group of aged persons should be taken into account. Memantine is associated with the highest risk in the comparison of antidementia drugs. KEY Message Pneumonia risk is increased in persons with Alzheimer's disease who use memantine or rivastigmine patches.

  1. Posturography and risk of recurrent falls in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Séverine; Gueguen, René; Gauchard, Gérome C; Benetos, Athanase; Perrin, Philippe P

    2006-01-01

    A poor postural stability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. The posturographic tool has widely been used to assess balance control; however, its value in predicting falls remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the predictive value of posturography in the estimation of the risk of recurrent falls, including a comparison with standard clinical balance tests, in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65. Two hundred and six healthy non-institutionalized volunteers aged over 65 were tested. Postural control was evaluated by posturographic tests, performed on static, dynamic and dynamized platforms (static test, slow dynamic test and Sensory Organization Test [SOT]) and clinical balance tests (Timed 'Up & Go' test, One-Leg Balance, Sit-to-Stand-test). Subsequent falls were monitored prospectively with self-questionnaire sent every 4 months for a period of 16 months after the balance testing. Subjects were classified prospectively in three groups of Non-Fallers (0 fall), Single-Fallers (1 fall) and Multi-Fallers (more than 2 falls). Loss of balance during the last trial of the SOT sensory conflicting condition, when visual and somatosensory inputs were distorted, was the best factor to predict the risk of recurrent falls (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10.11). Multi-Fallers showed no postural adaptation during the repetitive trials of this sensory condition, contrary to Non-Fallers and Single-Fallers. The Multi-Fallers showed significantly more sway when visual inputs were occluded. The clinical balance tests, the static test and the slow dynamic test revealed no significant differences between the groups. In a sample of non-institutionalized older persons aged over 65, posturographic evaluation by the SOT, especially with repetition of the same task in sensory conflicting condition, compared to the clinical tests and the static and dynamic posturographic test, appears to be a more sensitive tool to

  2. Risk of suicide in high risk pregnancy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Jorge, Vanessa Marques Ferreira; Nonnenmacher, Daniele; Fráguas Junior, Renério; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    To identify the risk of suicidal behavior in high-risk pregnant women at a public hospital in São Paulo. We conducted a semi-structured interview with each of the participants (n = 268) through a previously prepared questionnaire. Risk of suicidal behavior was assessed by the Portuguese version of PRIME-MD. The mean age of patients was 29 years (SD = 0.507) and gestation period was 30 weeks (SD = 0.556). Of the total sample, specific risk of suicide was found in 5% (n = 14). Of these, 85% have a stable relationship (married or cohabitating), the pregnancy was planned in 50% of cases, and 71% have no religion or professional activities. The correlation of risk of suicide with data from marital status, planned birth, age, education, professional practice, risk of prematurity, and religion showed that having a religion is statistically significant (p = 0.012). There were no positive associations for any of the other selected variables when compared with the risk of suicide. By correlating the risk of suicide with other characteristic symptoms of major depression, there was statistical significance in the sample with regard to insomnia or hypersomnia (p = 0.003), fatigue or loss of energy (p = 0.001), decreased or increased appetite (p = 0.005), less interest in daily activities (p = 0.000), depressed mood (p = 0.000), feelings of worthlessness or guilt (p = 0.000), decreased concentration (p = 0.002), and agitation or psychomotor retardation (p = 0.002). We found that religion can be a protective factor against suicidal behavior. Besides providing a social support network needed by women during pregnancy, religion supports belief in life after death and in a loving God, giving purpose to life and self esteem and providing models for coping with crises. The results show the importance of prevention and early diagnosis of suicidal behavior, since suicide is an attempt to move from one sphere to another by force, seeking to solve what seems impossible.

  3. Relation of borderline personality features to preincarceration HIV risk behaviors of jail inmates: Evidence for gender differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Leah M; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Tangney, June P

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and preincarceration HIV risk behaviors in a sample of 499 (70% male) jail inmates, as well as gender differences in these associations. Elevated levels of BPD symptomatology were present among male and female participants, though there was considerable variance observed in participants' BPD symptoms and HIV risk behaviors. In the full sample, BPD features were positively associated with a variety of HIV risk behaviors, including injection drug use and frequency of unprotected sex with high risk partners and under high risk circumstances. Gender moderated only 2 relationships between BPD features and HIV risk behaviors, with a stronger association between BPD features and number of sexual partners, and BPD features and frequency of unprotected sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs for women, relative to men. Taken together, these findings suggest that programs targeting HIV risk within correctional populations may benefit from considering the role of BPD features, particularly emotion regulation difficulties and impulsivity, in influencing HIV risk behaviors among both women and men. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Laser prostatectomy in high-risk patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayib, Abdulmalik M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the short-term tolerability and outcome of high power green light potassium titanyl phosphate laser prostatectomy in high-risk patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eleven high risk operative patients were included in this study at the International Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January and September 2007. Patients enrolled in this study underwent preoperative and postoperative, cardiac and anesthesia evaluation. Clinical presentations, ultrasound of urinary tract and preoperative laboratory investigation were recorded. All patients underwent high power green light laser prostatectomy using the green light photo vaporization system with setting of 120 watts. The intraoperative and postoperative complications and follow-up were recorded. The patient's age varied between 65-82 years with a mean age of 75.3+-8.6 years old. Seven patients presented with refractory acute urinary retention and 4 patients presented with severe lower urinary tract symptoms. The average prostate volume was 61.22 cc. All patients had uneventful intra- and postoperative course, without the intensive care. The average blood loss was insignificant and only one of the patients required blood transfusion. Foley catheters were removed one day after the procedure. All patients voided satisfactorily after removal of catheter and 8 patients complained of urgency. High power green light laser prostatectomy is a safe and effective method of treating symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with high operative risk. (author)

  5. Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Donroe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52, absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26, high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54, high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55, and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56. Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82 and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99.Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

  6. Estimate of person-years at risk among A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubec, Z

    1964-11-19

    Using information from the Supplementary Schedules of the 1950 National Census and from the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, cumulative person-years at risk in 1950 to 1960 were estimated by age ATB, sex, distance from hypocenter, radiation dose and symptoms for A-bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. The number of person-years at risk in 1951 to 1958 was estimated by applying the survivorship in each age group of the Adult Health Study sample during the period 1951 to 1958 to the number of survivors in 1950. To determine the number of person-years at risk from 1959 to 1960, the average yearly loss was evaluated for each exposure group for the period 1955 to 1958 in Hiroshima and for 1953 to 1958 in Nagasaki which was then applied to 1959 and 1960, respectively. The estimate of person-years among the nonexposed groups for this period was obtained from the above estimates, the total population of both cities, and the number of persons born after the A-bombing. Estimates by other associated factors were obtained by the same procedure. 20 references, 25 tables.

  7. Personal history of rosacea and risk of incident cancer among women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W-Q; Zhang, M; Danby, F W; Han, J; Qureshi, A A

    2015-07-28

    Rosacea is an inflammatory skin disease. We examined the association between personal history of rosacea and risk of incident cancers. A total of 75 088 whites were included from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011). Information on clinician-diagnosed rosacea and diagnosis year was collected in 2005. All cancers other than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were confirmed. During 1 447 205 person-years, we identified 5194 cases with internal malignancies and 5788 with skin cancers. We did not observe significant associations between personal history of rosacea and internal malignancies, except for thyroid cancer (hazard ratio (HR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-2.36). Among skin cancers, personal history of rosacea was associated with an elevated risk of BCC (HR=1.50, 95% CI=1.35-1.67). We suggest possible associations between personal history of rosacea and an increased risk of thyroid cancer and BCC. Further studies are warranted to replicate our findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  8. Protective personality traits: High openness and low neuroticism linked to better memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Inglese, Matilde; Sumowski, James F

    2017-11-01

    Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, although few risk/protective factors are known. To examine relationships of personality to memory/non-memory cognition in MS. 80 patients completed a cognitive battery and a personality scale measuring the "Big 5" traits: openness, neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Memory was most related to openness, with higher openness linked to better memory and lower risk for memory impairment, controlling for age, atrophy, education, and intelligence quotient (IQ). Lower neuroticism was also related to better memory, and lower conscientiousness to memory impairment. Non-memory cognition was unrelated to personality. Personality may inform predictive models of memory impairment in MS.

  9. Job risk and employee substance use: the influence of personal background and work environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E K; Bennett, Joel B

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have noted that employees who work in jobs with physical risk report more substance use than employees working in nonrisky jobs. This study examined the extent to which this relationship could be explained by personal background, specifically general deviance or psychosocial functioning, or work characteristics, including job stressors, organizational bonding, or work group drinking climate. Results from two worksites (ns = 943, 923) indicated that the relationship of job risk and alcohol problems could be fully explained by personal characteristics, particularly deviant behavior styles. Interaction effects were also found. Employees with more deviance indicators were particularly susceptible to recent drug use and problem drinking when they worked in drinking climates or exposed to co-worker drinking. These results suggest the joint influence of personal and job factors and support prevention programs that target the workplace social environment.

  10. Identifying Risk Factors for the Prediction of Hospital Readmission among Older Persons with Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Renee Annette

    Older persons (55 years and older) with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for hospital readmission when compared to other subgroups of our population. This issue presents an economic problem, a concern for the quality and type of care provided, and an urgent need to implement innovative strategies designed to reduce the rising cost of…

  11. Risk and protective factors of different functional trajectories in older persons : Are these the same?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I.; Ranchor, A.V.; van Sonderen, E.; van Jaarsveld, C.H.; Sanderman, R.

    We examined whether risk and protective factors of different functional trajectories were the same in 1,765 Dutch older persons. We assessed disability in 1993 and reassessed it in 2001. For 2001 as compared with 1993, we distinguished three trajectory groups: substantially poorer, somewhat poorer,

  12. Personality patterns predict the risk of antisocial behavior in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel A; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C; Revuelta-Menéndez, Javier; Ramírez-Lira, Ezequiel

    2017-05-01

    There is a renewed interest in incorporating personality variables in criminology theories in order to build models able to integrate personality variables and biological factors with psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The aim of this article is the assessment of personality dimensions that contribute to the prediction of antisocial behavior in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico, and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from a forensic population (those who committed a crime) and 585 adolescents from the normal population (no crime committed). All of participants answered personality tests about neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and violence risk. Principal component analysis of the data identified two independent factors: (i) the disinhibited behavior pattern (PDC), formed by the dimensions of neuroticism, psychoticism, impulsivity and risk of violence; and (ii) the extrovert behavior pattern (PEC), formed by the dimensions of sensation risk and extraversion. Both patterns significantly contributed to the prediction of adolescent antisocial behavior in a logistic regression model which properly classifies a global percentage of 81.9%, 86.8% for non-offense and 72.5% for offense behavior. The classification power of regression equations allows making very satisfactory predictions about adolescent offense commission. Educational level has been classified as a protective factor, while age and gender (male) have been classified as risk factors.

  13. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  14. Predicting risk-taking behavior from prefrontal resting-state activity and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Studer

    Full Text Available Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants' trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers' brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior.

  15. Predicting Risk-Taking Behavior from Prefrontal Resting-State Activity and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Bettina; Pedroni, Andreas; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants’ trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers’ brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior. PMID:24116176

  16. Operationalization of the Russian Version of Highly Sensitive Person Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Регина Вячеславовна Ершова

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to operationalize a Russian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS. The empirical data were collected in two ways: active, through oral advertising and inviting those who wish to take part in the study (snowball technique and passive (placement of ads about taking part in a research in social networks VKontakte and Facebook. As a result, 350 university students (117 men, 233 women, an average age of 18,2 (± 1,7 applied to a research laboratory and filled out the HSPS questionnaire, and another 510 respondents (380 women, 130 men, average age 22,6 ( ± 7,9 filled the HSPS online. The results of the study did not confirm the one-dimensional model of the construct, proposed by Aron & Aron (1997, as well as the most commonly used in the English-language studies three-factor solution. The hierarchical claster and confirmatory analyses used in the operationalization procedure allowed us to conclude that the variance of the Russian version of HSPS is best described in the framework of a two-factor model including the two separate subscales: Ease of Excitation (EOE, Low threshold of sensitivity (LTS. Sensory Processing Sensitivity may be defined as an increased susceptibility to external and internal stimuli, realized through negative emotional responses and deep susceptibility (distress to excessive stimulation.

  17. Musculoskeletal pain in Europe: role of personal, occupational and social risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli, Andrea; Mattioli, Stefano; Quaglieri, Anna; Curti, Stefania; Violante, Francesco S; Coggon, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in European countries varies considerably. We analyzed data from the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) to explore the role of personal, occupational, and social risk factors in determining the national prevalence of musculoskeletal pain. Methods During 2010, 43,816 subjects from 34 countries were interviewed. We analyzed the one-year prevalence of back and neck/upper limb pain. Personal risk factors studied were: sex; age; educational level; socio-economic status; housework or cooking; gardening and repairs; somatising tendency; job demand-control; six physical occupational exposures; and occupational group. Data on national socio-economic risk factors were obtained from eurostat and were available for 29 countries. We fitted Poisson regression models with random intercept on country. Results 35,550 workers entered the main analysis. Among personal risk factors, somatising tendency was the strongest predictor of the symptoms. Major differences were observed by country with back pain more than twice as common in Portugal (63.8%) as Ireland (25.7%), and prevalence rates of neck/upper limb pain ranging from 26.6% in Ireland to 67.7% in Finland. Adjustment by personal risk factors slightly reduced the large variation of prevalence between countries. For back pain, the rates were more homogenous after adjustment for social risk factors. Conclusions Our analysis indicates substantial variation between European countries in the prevalence of back and neck/upper limb pain. This variation is unexplained by established individual risk factors. It may be attributable in part to socio-economic differences between countries, with higher prevalence where there is less poverty and more social support. PMID:24009006

  18. Pathways and processes of risk in associations among maternal antisocial personality symptoms, interparental aggression, and preschooler's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E

    2012-08-01

    Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems.

  19. Personality traits and the risk for Parkinson disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Johanna; Gustavsson, Petter; Weibull, Caroline Elise; Feldman, Adina Leiah; Petzinger, Giselle Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy Lee; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we explored the association between the personality traits, neuroticism and introversion, and risk of Parkinson disease (PD). A population-based cohort study was conducted using questionnaire data from the Swedish Twin Registry for twins born 1926-1958 (n > 29,000). Personality traits were assessed in 1973 by a short form of Eysenck's Personality Inventory. The cohort was followed from 1974 to 2012 through Swedish patient and cause of death registers for PD ascertainment. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate subsequent risk of PD, adjusting for attained age, sex and smoking. A mediation analysis was performed to further explore the role of smoking in the relationship between personality trait and PD. Confounding by familial factors was explored using a within-pair analysis. During a mean follow-up time of 36.8 years, 197 incident PD cases were identified. Both neuroticism and introversion were associated with an increased risk of PD after adjustment. Smoking was a significant mediator in the relationship between personality traits and PD that partly accounted for the effect of introversion, whereas it acted as a suppressor for the effect of neuroticism on PD risk. In the within-pair analyses, associations for neuroticism and introversion were attenuated. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that neuroticism is associated with an increased risk of PD that is in part suppressed by smoking. There was a weak association between introversion and PD and this effect was at least partly mediated through smoking. The observed effects may partly be explained by familial factors shared by twins.

  20. Development and Evaluation of an Online Fall-Risk Questionnaire for Nonfrail Community-Dwelling Elderly Persons: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Seraina; Rogan, Slavko; Hilfiker, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Falls are frequent in older adults and may have serious consequences but awareness of fall-risk is often low. A questionnaire might raise awareness of fall-risk; therefore we set out to construct and test such a questionnaire. Methods. Fall-risk factors and their odds ratios were extracted from meta-analyses and a questionnaire was devised to cover these risk factors. A formula to estimate the probability of future falls was set up using the extracted odds ratios. The understandability of the questionnaire and discrimination and calibration of the prediction formula were tested in a cohort study with a six-month follow-up. Community-dwelling persons over 60 years were recruited by an e-mail snowball-sampling method. Results and Discussion. We included 134 persons. Response rates for the monthly fall-related follow-up varied between the months and ranged from low 38% to high 90%. The proportion of present risk factors was low. Twenty-five participants reported falls. Discrimination was moderate (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81). The understandability, with the exception of five questions, was good. The wording of the questions needs to be improved and measures to increase the monthly response rates are needed before test-retest reliability and final predictive value can be assessed. PMID:27247571

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Online Fall-Risk Questionnaire for Nonfrail Community-Dwelling Elderly Persons: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraina Obrist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Falls are frequent in older adults and may have serious consequences but awareness of fall-risk is often low. A questionnaire might raise awareness of fall-risk; therefore we set out to construct and test such a questionnaire. Methods. Fall-risk factors and their odds ratios were extracted from meta-analyses and a questionnaire was devised to cover these risk factors. A formula to estimate the probability of future falls was set up using the extracted odds ratios. The understandability of the questionnaire and discrimination and calibration of the prediction formula were tested in a cohort study with a six-month follow-up. Community-dwelling persons over 60 years were recruited by an e-mail snowball-sampling method. Results and Discussion. We included 134 persons. Response rates for the monthly fall-related follow-up varied between the months and ranged from low 38% to high 90%. The proportion of present risk factors was low. Twenty-five participants reported falls. Discrimination was moderate (AUC: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81. The understandability, with the exception of five questions, was good. The wording of the questions needs to be improved and measures to increase the monthly response rates are needed before test-retest reliability and final predictive value can be assessed.

  2. Risky business: risk perception and the use of medical services among customers of DTC personal genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David J; Bollinger, Juli M; Dvoskin, Rachel L; Scott, Joan A

    2012-06-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic testing has generated speculation about how customers will interpret results and how these interpretations will influence healthcare use and behavior; however, few empirical data on these topics exist. We conducted an online survey of DTC customers of 23andMe, deCODEme, and Navigenics to begin to address these questions. Random samples of U.S. DTC customers were invited to participate. Survey topics included demographics, perceptions of two sample DTC results, and health behaviors following DTC testing. Of 3,167 DTC customers invited, 33% (n = 1,048) completed the survey. Forty-three percent of respondents had sought additional information about a health condition tested; 28% had discussed their results with a healthcare professional; and 9% had followed up with additional lab tests. Sixteen percent of respondents had changed a medication or supplement regimen, and one-third said they were being more careful about their diet. Many of these health-related behaviors were significantly associated with responses to a question that asked how participants would perceive their colon cancer risk (as low, moderate, or high) if they received a test result showing an 11% lifetime risk, as compared to 5% risk in the general population. Respondents who would consider themselves to be at high risk for colon cancer were significantly more likely to have sought information about a disease (p = 0.03), discussed results with a physician (p = 0.05), changed their diet (p = 0.02), and started exercising more (p = 0.01). Participants' personal health contexts--including personal and family history of disease and quality of self-perceived health--were also associated with health-related behaviors after testing. Subjective interpretations of genetic risk data and personal context appear to be related to health behaviors among DTC customers. Sharing DTC test results with healthcare professionals may add perceived utility to the tests.

  3. Avoidant personality disorder as a social anxiety phenotype: risk factors, associations and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies research trends and synthesizes information from recent studies of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). AVPD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share genetic vulnerability, but may have distinct environmental risk factors that shape qualitative differences. Negative self-concept, shame proneness, and interpersonal hypersensitivity are characteristic of AVPD and may be predisposed to by heritable traits of high negative affectivity and low positive affectivity, and experiences of neglectful or emotionless parents. The interpersonal difficulties of AVPD may be associated with both anxious and avoidant attachment. Most individuals with AVPD do not also meet criteria for SAD. Integrative treatments incorporating cognitive behavioral strategies effective in SAD but also targeting shame aversion and avoidance may be most helpful for AVPD. Therapy adapted to both anxious attachment, associated with heightened interpersonal sensitivity and distress, and avoidant attachment, associated with experiential avoidance, may be optimal, though this is yet to be tested. Effective treatment of AVPD may enhance the outcome of comorbid conditions. More research is needed which compares three social anxiety groups (SAD alone, AVPD alone, and SAD plus AVPD) to further explore these disorders which are highly related, but which may have differences that are clinically relevant for individuals.

  4. High-Risk Series: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    the Medicare Trustees, the Office of the Actuary , and the Congressional Budget Office have raised concerns about whether some of the Medicare... actuarially sound. For more information, see the National Flood Insurance Program section of this High-Risk report. Among other things, the report...and mathematics (STEM) functional community. In addition to the efforts of the Working Group, the President’s Fiscal Year 2013 budget—released in

  5. The link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Gavan

    2011-09-15

    Personality type has a very important impact on many occupations and on day-to-day life. A 2006 survey found that over 80% of all electricians have an extrovert profile which is related to risk-bearing (agreeableness) and risk-taking. Non-critical, occupational electrical and powerline accidents doubled from 1998 to 2006. Other trade workers (not electricians) suffer 80% of all occupational deaths due to electrical contact. And young, single, male, extroverted, electrical apprentices are the most vulnerable workers when around electricity. Electricians are vulnerable to electrical accidents. They lack in-depth, day-to-day, supervised training around electricity. By researching the link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury, we can determine which types of workers' profile we need on the job site. Training, education, communications and rehabilitation plans can be modified to safeguard workers' safety.

  6. Personality risk profile for conduct disorder and substance use disorders in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen G; Tapert, Susan F; Moadab, Ida; Crowley, Thomas J; Brown, Sandra A

    2007-10-01

    The five factor model of personality is a useful metric to describe personality profiles associated with maladaptive functioning. Using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), we examined a conceptually based profile of high neuroticism, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness among 243 youth (aged 13-18 years) with varying degrees of conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Comparisons of the NEO-FFI personality dimensions between CD/SUD youth and adolescent siblings (N=173), and relations between the personality dimensions and behavioral indicators of conduct disorder and substance involvement were examined. Youth with CD and SUD had greater neuroticism, lower agreeableness, and lower conscientiousness than siblings of a similar age. The NEO-FFI scales predicted aggression and substance involvement for both probands and siblings in this cross-sectional investigation. These findings support the role for personality in models of the etiology and persistence of conduct disorder and substance use disorders.

  7. Likelihood ratio-based integrated personal risk assessment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriko; Htun, Nay Chi; Daimon, Makoto; Tamiya, Gen; Kato, Takeo; Kubota, Isao; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa; Muramatsu, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate personalized health care for multifactorial diseases, risks of genetic and clinical/environmental factors should be assessed together for each individual in an integrated fashion. This approach is possible with the likelihood ratio (LR)-based risk assessment system, as this system can incorporate manifold tests. We examined the usefulness of this system for assessing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our system employed 29 genetic susceptibility variants, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension as risk factors whose LRs can be estimated from openly available T2D association data for the Japanese population. The pretest probability was set at a sex- and age-appropriate population average of diabetes prevalence. The classification performance of our LR-based risk assessment was compared to that of a non-invasive screening test for diabetes called TOPICS (with score based on age, sex, family history, smoking, BMI, and hypertension) using receiver operating characteristic analysis with a community cohort (n = 1263). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the LR-based assessment and TOPICS was 0.707 (95% CI 0.665-0.750) and 0.719 (0.675-0.762), respectively. These AUCs were much higher than that of a genetic risk score constructed using the same genetic susceptibility variants, 0.624 (0.574-0.674). The use of ethnically matched LRs is necessary for proper personal risk assessment. In conclusion, although LR-based integrated risk assessment for T2D still requires additional tests that evaluate other factors, such as risks involved in missing heritability, our results indicate the potential usability of LR-based assessment system and stress the importance of stratified epidemiological investigations in personalized medicine.

  8. [German Language Version and Validation of the Risk-Taking Behaviour Scale (RBS-K) for High-Risk Sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühauf, Anika; Niedermeier, Martin; Ruedl, Gerhard; Barlow, Matthew; Woodman, Tim; Kopp, Martin

    2017-11-23

    Background  High-risk sports, particularly climbing, kayaking and extreme skiing, have become increasingly popular. The most widely used psychological survey instrument with regard to risk behaviour in sports is the Sensation Seeking Model, mostly assessed by the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V). Until recently, the literature discussed risk behaviour solely through this model. However, this scale does not measure risk-taking behaviours. In contrast, the Risk-Taking Behaviour Scale (RBS-K) is a three-item scale that measures risk behaviour in high-risk sports. This study aimed to validate a German language version of the RBS-K. Methods  The RBS-K was translated and back-translated between English and German. High-risk sports participants (n = 2399) completed the German version of the RBS-K. Of those participants, 820 completed the RBS-K in person as part of a field survey and 1579 participated in an online survey. To validate the questionnaire, the SSS-V, accident involvement, age and sex were evaluated. The RBS-K divides the sample into deliberate risk takers (mean + standard deviation) and risk-averse persons (mean - standard deviation). We tested for internal consistency and correlations with SSS-V, age, sex and accident involvement. Group differences were calculated between deliberate risk takers and risk-averse persons. Results  For internal consistency, we obtained a Cronbach's alpha of 0.56 and a McDonald's omega of 0.63. Significant correlations were shown between RBS-K and SSS-V as well as age and sex. Compared to risk-averse persons (n = 643, 26.8 %), deliberate risk takers (n = 319, 13.3 %) scored significantly higher in sensation seeking, were significantly younger and primarily male and had a significantly higher accident involvement. Conclusion  The RBS-K discriminates well for age, sex and accident involvement. Also, correlations between the RBS-K and the well-established SSS-V are acceptable. With regard to the results and its

  9. Personality profiles and risk diet behaviors--a case-control study on teenagers from Timis County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Cristina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2014-01-01

    In the study we conducted we aimed at investigating the relation between personality profiles and risk diet behaviors in teenagers. This study was a case-control one and we applied 2 questionnaires (Freiburg Personality Inventory--FPI with 212 items) and CORT 2004 (items Q94-Q116 of diet behavior) on a sample of 2908 teenagers (51.5% girls and 48.5% boys). Cronbach's alpha index was 0.802 for FPI and 0.730 for items Q101-Q109 of CORT. Personality profiles were built by an Excel 2003 Program. Statistical analysis was realized with SPSS 16 program applying Chi square (chi2) and gamma (gamma) correlation. Personality features of teenagers with high and without risk diet behavior were analyzed. Results obtained: personality profiles and statistical results indicated the existence of a significant statistical difference of aggressiveness and domination between teenagers with high and no consumption of butter and/or lard (Q103) (chi2 = 6.872, Sig. 0.032 and chi2 = 6.922, Sig. 0.031 respectively), of juices from the market (Q106) (chi2 = 9.055, Sig. 0.011 and chi2 = 14.571, Sig. 0.001 respectively). Aggressiveness correlated with consumption of fried potatoes (Q109) (chi2 = 6.144, Sig. 0.046) too. Correlation gamma indicated direct proportional relations of aggressiveness with: Q103 (gamma = 0.215, Sig. 0.017), Q106 (gamma = 0.224, Sig. 0.004), Q109 (gamma = 0.242, Sig. 0.012); and of domination with: Q103 (gamma = 0.234, Sig. 0.008), Q106 (gamma = 0.073, Sig. 0.000). In conclusion, there is a direct proportional relation between consumption of: butter/lard, juices from the market and teenagers' aggressiveness, domination; and a similar relation between consumption of fried potatoes and aggressiveness.

  10. Personality as a risk factor in large bowel cancer: data from the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kune, G A; Kune, S; Watson, L F; Bahnson, C B

    1991-02-01

    In a case control study which formed one arm of a large, population-based investigation of colorectal cancer incidence, aetiology and survival. 'The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study', among others, 22 psychosocially orientated questions were asked by personal interview of 637 histologically confirmed new cases of colorectal cancer and 714 age/sex frequency matched community controls, from Melbourne (population 2.81 million). Self-reported childhood or adult life 'unhappiness' was statistically significantly more common among the cancer cases, while 'unhappiness with retirement' was similarly distributed among cases and controls. Questions which were formulated to test a particular personality profile as a cancer risk, and which included the elements of denial and repression of anger and of other negative emotions, a commitment to prevailing social norms resulting in the external appearance of a 'nice' or 'good' person, a suppression of reactions which may offend others and the avoidance of conflict, showed a statistically significant discrimination between cases and controls. The risk of colorectal cancer with respect to this model was independent of the previously found risk factors of diet, beer intake, and family history of colorectal cancer, and was also independent of other potential confounding factors of socioeconomic level, marital status, religion and country of birth. Although the results must be interpreted with caution, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that this personality type may play a role in the clinical expression of colorectal cancer and merits further study.

  11. European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits relative to other personal health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Valli, Veronica; Mazzocchi, Mario; Traill, W Bruce; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Poor eating habits are a key priority on the European public health agenda due to their large health and economic implications. Healthy eating interventions may be more effective if consumers perceive their eating habits as a more serious personal health risk. This study investigates European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits, its determinants and relative importance among other potential personal health risks including weight, stress and pollution. A quantitative survey was conducted during Spring 2011 among samples representative for age, gender and region in five European countries (n=3003). Participants were neutral towards the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. Eating habits were ranked third after stress and weight. Gender, age, country, health motive, body mass index, and subjective health status were important determinants of the perceived seriousness of their eating habits, whereas perceived financial condition, smoking and education were insignificant. Eating habits were perceived more seriously by women, Italians, obese, and younger individuals with stronger health motives and fair subjective health status. Nevertheless, other health risks were often considered more important than eating habits. More or specific efforts are required to increase Europeans' awareness of the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. © 2013.

  12. The development and implementation of stroke risk prediction model in National Health Insurance Service's personal health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Lim, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Shin, Soon-Ae; Kim, Jinkwon; Yoo, Bora; Cho, Kyung-Hee

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build a 10-year stroke prediction model and categorize a probability of stroke using the Korean national health examination data. Then it intended to develop the algorithm to provide a personalized warning on the basis of each user's level of stroke risk and a lifestyle correction message about the stroke risk factors. Subject to national health examinees in 2002-2003, the stroke prediction model identified when stroke was first diagnosed by following-up the cohort until 2013 and estimated a 10-year probability of stroke. It sorted the user's individual probability of stroke into five categories - normal, slightly high, high, risky, very risky, according to the five ranges of average probability of stroke in comparison to total population - less than 50 percentile, 50-70, 70-90, 90-99.9, more than 99.9 percentile, and constructed the personalized warning and lifestyle correction messages by each category. Risk factors in stroke risk model include the age, BMI, cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and intensity, physical activity, alcohol drinking, past history (hypertension, coronary heart disease) and family history (stroke, coronary heart disease). The AUC values of stroke risk prediction model from the external validation data set were 0.83 in men and 0.82 in women, which showed a high predictive power. The probability of stroke within 10 years for men in normal group (less than 50 percentile) was less than 3.92% and those in very risky group (top 0.01 percentile) was 66.2% and over. The women's probability of stroke within 10 years was less than 3.77% in normal group (less than 50 percentile) and 55.24% and over in very risky group. This study developed the stroke risk prediction model and the personalized warning and the lifestyle correction message based on the national health examination data and uploaded them to the personal health record service called My Health Bank in the health information website - Health

  13. Living in single person households and the risk of isolation in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Banks

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from the International Social Survey Programme (2001 was used to analyse the social networks of older people and whether living in single person households increased the risk of isolation. When comparing respondents with one or more adult children, there was no significant difference in the likelihood of experiencing familial isolation between people living in single person households and those living in larger households. A majority of those living in single person households had at least regular contact with a sibling, adult child or close friend and participated in a social organisation. Friends compensate to some extent for a lack of support from the family, although in southern and eastern European countries, other relatives appeared to be more important in support networks. People living in single person households were more likely to experience isolation, but this was largely related to advanced age and childlessness. Whilst a very small minority in Japan were living in single person households, they were significantly more likely to be severely isolated than those living in single person households in other countries.

  14. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  15. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  16. Association of Type D personality with unhealthy lifestyle, and estimated risk of coronary events in the general Icelandic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svansdóttir, E.; Denollet, J.; Thorsson, B.; Gudnason, T.; Halldorsdottir, S.; Gudnason, V.; van den Broek, K.C.; Karlsson, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing

  17. Type A personality and mortality: Competitiveness but not speed is associated with increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Richard, Aline; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2017-07-01

    Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing evidence is conflicting, also because studies did not examine underlying traits separately. In this study, we investigated whether all-cause and CVD mortality were associated with the Bortner Scale, a measure of TABP, in particular with its subscales competitiveness and speed. Information on Bortner Scale and covariates of 9921 participants was collected at baseline in two cross-sectional studies that were linked with mortality information, yielding a follow-up of up to 37 years. We analyzed the Bortner Scale and its two subscales competitiveness and speed. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, CVD, and specific CVD type mortality. During follow-up, 3469 deaths were observed (1118 CVD deaths). The total Bortner Scale was not associated with mortality, only its subscales. In women, competitiveness was positively associated with all-cause mortality (highest category vs. the lowest, HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.08,1.44]), CVD mortality (1.39 [1.07,1.81]), and ischemic heart disease mortality (intermediate category vs. the lowest, 1.46 [1.02,2.10]). In men, CVD mortality was inversely associated with speed (highest category vs. the lowest, 0.74 [0.59,0.93]). The subscales of the Bortner Scale may be associated with CVD in an opposed manner and may therefore have to be analyzed separately. More studies are needed to further investigate this association, also considering differences by sex. Persons scoring high in the competitiveness subscale ought to be screened and counselled in order to reduce their CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors among patients with schizophrenia, bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Piñar, M; Mathur, R; Foguet, Q; Ayis, S; Robson, J; Ayerbe, L

    2016-05-01

    The evidence informing the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with psychiatric disorders is weak. This cohort study used data from all patients, aged≥30, registered in 140 primary care practices (n=524,952) in London to estimate the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, tobacco consumption, obesity, and physical inactivity, between 2005 and 2015, for patients with a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, bipolar or personality disorder. The role of antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation in these associations was also investigated. The age at detection of cardiovascular risk factor was compared between patients with and without psychiatric disorders. Variables, for exposures and outcomes, defined from general practitioners records, were analysed using multivariate regression. Patients with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk for cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes, with hazard ratios: 2.42 (2.20-2.67) to 1.31 (1.25-1.37), hyperlipidemia, with hazard ratios: 1.78 (1.60-1.97) to 1.25 (1.23-1.28), and obesity. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation did not change these associations, except for smoking and physical inactivity. Antidepressants were associated with higher risk of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Antipsychotics were associated with a higher risk of diabetes. Antidepressants and antipsychotics were associated with lower risk of other risk factors. Patients with psychiatric conditions have later detection of cardiovascular risk factors. The interpretation of these results should acknowledge the lower rates of detection of risk factors in mentally ill patients. Cardiovascular risk factors require special clinical attention among patients with psychiatric disorders. Further research could study the effect of antidepressants and antipsychotics on cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A Cloud Computing Approach to Personal Risk Management: The Open Hazards Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, W. R.; Holliday, J. R.; Rundle, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    According to the California Earthquake Authority, only about 12% of current California residences are covered by any form of earthquake insurance, down from about 30% in 1996 following the 1994, M6.7 Northridge earthquake. Part of the reason for this decreasing rate of insurance uptake is the high deductible, either 10% or 15% of the value of the structure, and the relatively high cost of the premiums, as much as thousands of dollars per year. The earthquake insurance industry is composed of the CEA, a public-private partnership; modeling companies that produce damage and loss models similar to the FEMA HAZUS model; and financial companies such as the insurance, reinsurance, and investment banking companies in New York, London, the Cayman Islands, Zurich, Dubai, Singapore, and elsewhere. In setting earthquake insurance rates, financial companies rely on models like HAZUS, that calculate on risk and exposure. In California, the process begins with an official earthquake forecast by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities. Modeling companies use these 30 year earthquake probabilities as inputs to their attenuation and damage models to estimate the possible damage factors from scenario earthquakes. Economic loss is then estimated from processes such as structural failure, lost economic activity, demand surge, and fire following the earthquake. Once the potential losses are known, rates can be set so that a target ruin probability of less than 1% or so can be assured. Open Hazards Group was founded with the idea that the global public might be interested in a personal estimate of earthquake risk, computed using data supplied by the public, with models running in a cloud computing environment. These models process data from the ANSS catalog, updated at least daily, to produce rupture forecasts that are backtested with standard Reliability/Attributes and Receiver Operating Characteristic tests, among others. Models for attenuation and structural damage

  20. A lifestyle intervention program for successfully addressing major cardiometabolic risks in persons with SCI: a three-subject case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigford, Gregory E; Mendez, Armando J; Betancourt, Luisa; Burns-Drecq, Patricia; Backus, Deborah; Nash, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    This study is a prospective case series analyzing the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program in three patients with chronic paraplegia having major risks for the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). Individuals underwent an intense 6-month program of circuit resistance exercise, nutrition using a Mediterranean diet and behavioral support, followed by a 6-month extension (maintenance) phase involving minimal support. The primary goal was a 7% reduction of body mass. Other outcomes analyzed insulin resistance using the HOMA-IR model, and plasma levels of fasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. All participants achieved the goal for 7% reduction of body mass and maintained the loss after the MP. Improvements were observed in 2/3 subjects for HOMA-IR and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. All participants improved their risk for plasma triglycerides. We conclude, in a three-person case series of persons with chronic paraplegia, a lifestyle intervention program involving circuit resistance training, a calorie-restrictive Mediterranean-style diet and behavioral support, results in clinically significant loss of body mass and effectively reduced component risks for CMS and diabetes. These results were for the most part maintained after a 6-month MP involving minimal supervision.

  1. HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors in Male to Female (MTF) Transgender Persons in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Espinoza, Kristian Jesús; Menchaca-Diaz, Rufino; Patterson, Thomas L; Urada, Lianne A; Smith, Davey; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V

    2017-12-01

    Compared to HIV research on men who have sex with men, less is known about the risks and vulnerabilities for HIV among Male to Female (MTF) transgender persons, particularly in different geographic regions like Mexico. In Tijuana, Mexico, a border city experiencing a dynamic HIV epidemic, no precedent data exists on the MTF transgender population. Our aims were to estimate HIV prevalence and examine the behaviors and characteristics of the population. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 MTF transgender persons recruited through time location sampling in 2012. Participants underwent interviewer-administered (paper and pen) surveys and rapid tests for HIV. Descriptive univariate analyses were conducted on various factors, including sociodemographics, substance use, accessing social services (requested vs. received), stigma, and sex behaviors. A total of 22% tested positive for HIV, a prevalence higher than other key populations at risk for HIV in Tijuana.

  2. An updated prediction model of the global risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Ryom, Lene; Smith, Colette

    2016-01-01

    ,663 HIV-positive persons from 20 countries in Europe and Australia, who were free of CVD at entry into the Data-collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. Cox regression models (full and reduced) were developed that predict the risk of a global CVD endpoint. The predictive performance...... significantly predicted risk more accurately than the recalibrated Framingham model (Harrell's c-statistic of 0.791, 0.783 and 0.766 for the D:A:D full, D:A:D reduced, and Framingham models respectively; p models also more accurately predicted five-year CVD-risk for key prognostic subgroups...... to quantify risk and to guide preventive care....

  3. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  4. An Inexpensive High-Temporal Resolution Electronic Sun Journal for Monitoring Personal Day to Day Sun Exposure Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Downs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sunlight, specifically solar ultraviolet (UV radiation contributes to lifetime risks of skin cancer, eye disease, and diseases associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Improved knowledge of personal sun exposure patterns can inform public health policy; and help target high-risk population groups. Subsequently, an extensive number of studies have been conducted to measure personal solar UV exposure in a variety of settings. Many of these studies, however, use digital or paper-based journals (self-reported volunteer recall, or employ cost prohibitive electronic UV dosimeters (that limit the size of sample populations, to estimate periods of exposure. A cost effective personal electronic sun journal (ESJ built from readily available infrared photodiodes is presented in this research. The ESJ can be used to complement traditional UV dosimeters that measure total biologically effective exposure by providing a time-stamped sun exposure record. The ESJ can be easily attached to clothing and data logged to personal devices (including fitness monitors or smartphones. The ESJ improves upon self-reported exposure recording and is a cost effective high-temporal resolution option for monitoring personal sun exposure behavior in large population studies.

  5. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in waters: occurrence, toxicity, and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cizmas, Leslie; Sharma, Virender K.; Gray, Cole M.; McDonald, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are compounds with special physical and chemical properties that address the care of animal and human health. PPCP have been detected in surface water and wastewater in the ng/L to ��g/L concentration range worldwide. PPCP ecotoxicity has been studied in a variety of organisms, and multiple methods have been used to assess the risk of PPCP in the environment to ecological health. Here we review the occurrence, effects, and risk assessment of P...

  6. Personalized Risk Scoring for Critical Care Prognosis Using Mixtures of Gaussian Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaa, Ahmed M; Yoon, Jinsung; Hu, Scott; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a personalized real-time risk scoring algorithm that provides timely and granular assessments for the clinical acuity of ward patients based on their (temporal) lab tests and vital signs; the proposed risk scoring system ensures timely intensive care unit admissions for clinically deteriorating patients. The risk scoring system is based on the idea of sequential hypothesis testing under an uncertain time horizon. The system learns a set of latent patient subtypes from the offline electronic health record data, and trains a mixture of Gaussian Process experts, where each expert models the physiological data streams associated with a specific patient subtype. Transfer learning techniques are used to learn the relationship between a patient's latent subtype and her static admission information (e.g., age, gender, transfer status, ICD-9 codes, etc). Experiments conducted on data from a heterogeneous cohort of 6321 patients admitted to Ronald Reagan UCLA medical center show that our score significantly outperforms the currently deployed risk scores, such as the Rothman index, MEWS, APACHE, and SOFA scores, in terms of timeliness, true positive rate, and positive predictive value. Our results reflect the importance of adopting the concepts of personalized medicine in critical care settings; significant accuracy and timeliness gains can be achieved by accounting for the patients' heterogeneity. The proposed risk scoring methodology can confer huge clinical and social benefits on a massive number of critically ill inpatients who exhibit adverse outcomes including, but not limited to, cardiac arrests, respiratory arrests, and septic shocks.

  7. Personal Risk and Resilience Factors in the Context of Daily Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Chui, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role that personal risk and resilience factors play as adults of all ages cope with the stressors encountered in everyday life. Theorists have suggested that researchers should focus on the effects of daily stress and coping rather than focusing exclusively on major life events and chronic stress and have proposed that understanding how adults cope with daily stress is a key aspect of understanding long-term well-being and adaptation in adulthood. After presenting a conceptual model outlining the major components of the daily stress process, the chapter reviews the existing empirical literature on personal risk and resilience factors in the context of daily stress. This research clearly suggests that there is no universal generalization that can be made regarding whether chronological age, in and of itself, confers greater vulnerability or resilience onto adults. Instead, we argue that researchers should ask when and under what conditions is age associated with greater vulnerability to daily stress and when and under what conditions is age associated with greater resilience to daily stress. Age differences in reactivity to daily stress are clearly embedded within a complex system of factors—structural, individual, and situational—that influence stress reactivity and stress recovery in several ways. This complexity should not be taken to mean that stress reactivity and recovery cannot be charted or understood. Researchers, however, will need to approach this complexity with a great deal of theoretical, methodological, and statistical rigor to move our understanding of the importance of age in shaping risk and resilience to daily stress forward. The final section of the chapter outlines several directions for future research in the area of aging and resilience. In particular, we argue that a focus on personal risk and resilience factors in the context of daily stress, in combination with the application of sophisticated statistical

  8. Potential Risks of Ecological Momentary Assessment Among Persons Who Inject Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Rossi, John; Goldshear, Jesse L; Truong, Quan; Armenta, Richard F; Lankenau, Stephen E; Garfein, Richard S; Simmons, Janie

    2017-06-07

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA)-which often involves brief surveys delivered via mobile technology-has transformed our understanding of the individual and contextual micro-processes associated with legal and illicit drug use. However, little empirical research has focused on participant's perspective on the probability and magnitude of potential risks in EMA studies. To garner participant perspectives on potential risks common to EMA studies of illicit drug use. We interviewed 38 persons who inject drugs living in San Diego (CA) and Philadelphia (PA), United States. They completed simulations of an EMA tool and then underwent a semi-structured interview that systematically explored domains of risk considered within the proposed revisions to the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects or the "Common Rule." Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded systematically to explore psychological, physical, social, legal, and informational risks from participation. Participants perceived most risks to be minimal. Some indicated that repetitive questioning about mood or drug use could cause psychological (i.e., anxiety) or behavioral risks (i.e., drug use relapse). Ironically, the questions that were viewed as risky were considered motivational to engage in healthy behaviors. The most cited risks were legal and social risks stemming from participant concerns about data collection and security. Improving our understanding of these issues is an essential first step to protect human participants in future EMA research. We provide a brief set of recommendations that can aid in the design and ethics review of the future EMA protocol with substance using populations.

  9. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The extreme risk of personal data breaches and the erosion of privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Spencer; Maillart, Thomas; Sornette, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Personal data breaches from organisations, enabling mass identity fraud, constitute an extreme risk. This risk worsens daily as an ever-growing amount of personal data are stored by organisations and on-line, and the attack surface surrounding this data becomes larger and harder to secure. Further, breached information is distributed and accumulates in the hands of cyber criminals, thus driving a cumulative erosion of privacy. Statistical modeling of breach data from 2000 through 2015 provides insights into this risk: A current maximum breach size of about 200 million is detected, and is expected to grow by fifty percent over the next five years. The breach sizes are found to be well modeled by an extremely heavy tailed truncated Pareto distribution, with tail exponent parameter decreasing linearly from 0.57 in 2007 to 0.37 in 2015. With this current model, given a breach contains above fifty thousand items, there is a ten percent probability of exceeding ten million. A size effect is unearthed where both the frequency and severity of breaches scale with organisation size like s0.6. Projections indicate that the total amount of breached information is expected to double from two to four billion items within the next five years, eclipsing the population of users of the Internet. This massive and uncontrolled dissemination of personal identities raises fundamental concerns about privacy.

  11. [Effects of message and personal involvement on risk perception and acceptance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuchi, A; Takigawa, T

    1999-10-01

    The present study analyzed people's risk perception regarding driving a car with studded or non-studded winter tires. Subjects were 252 residents of Sapporo, where a recent municipal ordinance prohibited studded tires, allowing only non-studded ones. Questionnaire data were examined concerning (1) the relationship between risk perception and its acceptance, (2) the effect of an inserted message, which was either positive or negative about the use of non-studded tires, and (3) the role of personal involvement, assessed with Personal Involvement Inventory (Zaichkowsky, 1985), regarding winter driving. Results were as follows: (1) The use of non-studded tires was favorably judged because of social benefit, but subjects hesitated to choose them because of a higher perceived possibility of an accident. (2) The inserted message had significant effects on benefit evaluation and perceived accident possibility. The effects were weaker for drivers who had experienced driving a car with studded tires. And (3) personal involvement had a weak correlation with risk judgements of the present study.

  12. Perinatal risk factors in offenders with severe personality disorder: a population-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Bakiyeva, Liliya; Cnattingius, Sven; Grann, Martin; Hultman, Christina M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Geddes, John R

    2012-10-01

    Although perinatal factors are associated with the development of several psychiatric disorders, it is unknown whether these factors are linked with personality disorder. Cases of personality disorder were drawn from a national registry of all forensic psychiatric evaluations (n = 150). Two control groups were used: (1) A sample of forensic evaluations without any psychiatric disorder (n = 97) allowing for a nested case-control investigation; and (2) A population-based sample matched by age and gender with no history of psychiatric hospitalization (n = 1498). Prematurity (personality disorder, both in the nested and the population-based case-control comparisons with adjusted odds ratios (OR) for this risk factor ranging from 2 to 4. Asphyxia (adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.1) and complicated delivery (adjusted OR = 1.5, 1.0-2.1) were associated with personality disorder in the population-based study, and the former remained significant in multivariate models. Overall, perinatal complications were found to be associated with a later diagnosis of personality disorder in this selected sample. As with other psychiatric disorders where such associations have been demonstrated, changes during the perinatal period may lead to abnormal brain development and function.

  13. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  15. Interventions to Address Medical Conditions and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E.; Baller, Julia; Azrin, Susan T.; Juliano-Bult, Denise; Daumit, Gail L.

    2016-01-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) have mortality rates 2 to 3 times higher than the overall US population, largely due to cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus and other conditions, such as HIV/AIDS, is heightened in this group. Based on the recommendations of a National Institute of Mental Health stakeholder meeting, we conducted a comprehensive review examining the strength of the evidence surrounding interventions to address major medical conditions and health-risk behaviors among persons with SMI. Peer-reviewed studies were identified using 4 major research databases. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies testing interventions to address medical conditions and risk behaviors among persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. Information was abstracted from each study by 2 trained reviewers, who also rated study quality using a standard tool. Following individual study review, the quality of the evidence (high, medium, low) and the effectiveness of various interventions were synthesized. 108 studies were included. The majority of studies examined interventions to address overweight/obesity (n = 80). The strength of the evidence was high for 4 interventions: metformin and behavioral interventions had beneficial effects on weight loss; and bupropion and varenicline reduced tobacco smoking. The strength of the evidence was low for most other interventions reviewed. Future studies should test long-term interventions to cardiovascular risk factors and health-risk behaviors. In addition, future research should study implementation strategies to effectively translate efficacious interventions into real-world settings. PMID:26221050

  16. Personal and family history of cancer and the risk of Barrett's esophagus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, N; Ramsey, D; Kramer, J R; El-Serag, H B

    2015-04-01

    The association between Barrett's esophagus (BE) and a personal or family history of cancer other than gastroesophageal remains unknown. To evaluate the effect of personal and family history of certain cancers and cancer treatments on the risk of BE, we analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs case-control study that included 264 men with definitive BE (cases) and 1486 men without BE (controls). Patients with history of esophageal or gastric cancer were excluded. Patients underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy or a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy concurrently with screening colonoscopy to determine BE status. Personal and family history of several types of cancer was obtained from self-reported questionnaires, supplemented and verified by electronic medical-record reviews. We estimated the association between personal and family history of cancer or radiation/chemotherapy, and BE. Personal history of oropharyngeal cancer (1.5% vs. 0.4%) or prostate cancer (7.2% vs. 4.4%) was more frequently present in cases than controls. The association between BE and prostate cancer persisted in multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio 1.90; 95% confidence interval 1.07-3.38, P = 0.028) while that with oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio 3.63; 95% confidence interval 0.92-14.29, P = 0.066) was attenuated after adjusting for retained covariates of age, race, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, and proton pump inhibitor use. Within the subset of patients with cancer, prior treatment with radiation or chemotherapy was not associated with BE. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the proportions of subjects with several specific malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives. In conclusion, the risk of BE in men may be elevated with prior personal history of oropharyngeal or prostate cancer. However, prior cancer treatments and family history of cancer were not associated with increased risk of BE. Further studies are needed

  17. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found...... among the 31 seronegative high-risk subjects, either by virus isolation of by PCR (97.5% confidence limits, 0-11). Our results indicate that ongoing HIV infection in seronegative persons at high risk of infection is a rare event....

  18. Personal support networks, social capital, and risk of relapse among individuals treated for substance use issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Daria; Gallupe, Owen; Carrington, Peter J; Colozzi, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The success of treatment for substance use issues varies with personal and social factors, including the composition and structure of the individual's personal support network. This paper describes the personal support networks and social capital of a sample of Italian adults after long-term residential therapeutic treatment for substance use issues, and analyses network correlates of post-treatment substance use (relapse). Using a social network analysis approach, data were obtained from structured interviews (90-120 min long) with 80 former clients of a large non-governmental therapeutic treatment agency in Italy providing voluntary residential treatments and rehabilitation services for substance use issues. Participants had concluded the program at least six months prior. Data were collected on socio-demographic variables, addiction history, current drug use status (drug-free or relapsed), and the composition and structure of personal support networks. Factors related to risk of relapse were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. A main goal of this study was to identify differences between the support network profiles of drug free and relapsed participants. Drug free participants had larger, less dense, more heterogeneous and reciprocal support networks, and more brokerage social capital than relapsed participants. Additionally, a lower risk of relapse was associated with higher socio-economic status, being married/cohabiting, and having network members with higher socio-economic status, who have greater occupational heterogeneity, and reciprocate support. Post-treatment relapse was found to be negatively associated with the socioeconomic status and occupational heterogeneity of ego's support network, reciprocity in the ties between ego and network members, and a support network in which the members are relatively loosely connected with one another (i.e., ego possesses "brokerage social capital"). These findings suggest the

  19. Individual Risk and Prevention of Complications: Doctors' Advice to Persons Wishing a New Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Doctors who are consulted about health and tattoo risks have an important role in the prevention of an individual's tattoo complications. Tattooing is a tremendous exposure of the human body to needle operation, particles, and chemicals. The risk is related to a person's health condition, level of insight, decision-making, and to the operation of tattooing, tattoo inks and utensils, tattoo parlour, and the aftercare. Tattooing is painful minor surgery performed without anesthesia. It can be associated with syncope. It is major needle trauma with histamine release and wheal and flare in the operation field. The skin barrier is broken. Bacterial infections come early. Chronically intermittent and mild complaints affect 4/10 of all the tattooed, and 2/10 have sensitivity to sun. Chronic complications with allergy in red tattoos and nodules due to pigment agglomeration and foreign body formation in black tattoos are less common but certainly at the level of cumbersome skin disease. Reactions to black tattoos are strongly associated with sarcoidosis. There are many other distinct entities of tattoo complications. A campaign called 'Tattoo - know your risk' is presented with detailed fact sheets about tattoos, tattoo problems, how to reduce risk, and a checklist for the tattoo customer before decision-making. The sheets with keynote information are useful aids for doctors giving advice to persons curious about acquiring a tattoo. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Migration Status, Familial Risk for Mental Disorder, and Schizotypal Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odin van der Stelt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Markedly raised incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been observed in several migrant and ethnic minority groups. To contribute to a better understanding of the elevated risk for psychotic disorders that is conferred by migration status, the present study examined effects associated with migration risk status on schizotypal personality traits, which are thought to reflect an underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorder. Effects of migration status were also compared to effects associated with a family history of psychopathology, which represents a robust nonspecific risk factor. We assessed schizotypal traits, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, in a community-based sample of 62 Moroccan migrants and 41 Dutch nonmigrants, who were classified by the presence or absence of a family history of psychopathology. Overall, Moroccan migrants obtained higher SPQ scores than Dutch nonmigrants. However, migrants who had been classified as having a familial load of psychopathology displayed higher SPQ scores than migrants without such a family history, who in turn did not differ from Dutch nonmigrants. Furthermore, migrants with a familial load, relative to migrants without such a family history, reported higher levels of substance use and feelings of anxiety or depression, and perceived more often ethnic discrimination, which closely paralleled their SPQ scores. These findings indicate that primarily those migrants who are both intrinsically vulnerable and chronically exposed to social adversity, particularly ethnic discrimination, are at elevated risk for psychotic and other disorders. The results add to the evidence that migration status and perceived discrimination are associated with mental health.

  1. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. The agricultural and rural areas, in the last century, have been gradually abandoned, especially in areas with complex topography. Many of these areas were subject to reforestation, leading to the spread of pioneer species mainly represented by Mediterranean conifer, which are highly vulnerable to fire. Because of the frequent spread of fire, these areas are limited to the early successional stages, consisting mainly of shrub vegetation; its survival in the competition with the climax species being ensured by the spread of fire itself. Due to the frequency of fire ignition — almost entirely man caused — the time between fires on the same area is at least an order of magnitude less than the time that would allow the establishment of forest climax species far less vulnerable to fire. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. The goal of such detailed planning is to dramatically reduce the costs associated with water bombers fleet management and fire

  2. User adoption of mobile commerce in Bangladesh: Integrating perceived risk, perceived cost and personal awareness with TAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mizanur Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops and tests a model for predicting user adoption of mobile commerce (i.e. e-commerce using mobile phones in developing countries. The model takes up the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and extends these through the inclusion of three further determinants: perceived risk, perceived cost and personal awareness to enable prediction of the likelihood of mobile commerce adoption by users in the developing world. 575 usable surveys were gathered from the urban, semi-urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Perceived risk and perceived usefulness were found to be the most influential factors effecting mobile commerce adoption, while the effect of perceived ease of use and personal awareness was found to be low although significant. The study reconfirmed the need of extending TAM model, in the context of mobile commerce, to address both itrs transactional and non-transactional components. Service providers need to ensure high levels of security and privacy to reduce userrs perceptions of risk. Mobile commerce services and technologies should be upgraded to world standard to make them more useful to users.

  3. Establishing a Program for Individuals at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiz, Fernando; Kuerer, Henry M.; Puga, Julio; Camacho, Jamile; Cunill, Eduardo; Arun, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our need to create a program for individuals at high risk for breast cancer development led us to research the available data on such programs. In this paper, we summarize our findings and our thinking process as we developed our own program. Breast cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Even though there are known risk factors for breast cancer development, approximately 60% of patients with breast cancer have no known risk factor, although this situation will probably change with further research, especially in genetics. For patients with risk factors based on personal or family history, different models are available for assessing and quantifying risk. Assignment of risk levels permits tailored screening and risk reduction strategies. Potential benefits of specialized programs for women with high breast cancer risk include more cost -effective interventions as a result of patient stratification on the basis of risk; generation of valuable data to advance science; and differentiation of breast programs from other breast cancer units, which can result in increased revenue that can be directed to further improvements in patient care. Guidelines for care of patients at high risk for breast cancer are available from various groups. However, running a high-risk breast program involves much more than applying a guideline. Each high-risk program needs to be designed by its institution with consideration of local resources and country legislation, especially related to genetic issues. Development of a successful high-risk program includes identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; developing a promotion plan; choosing a risk assessment tool; defining “high risk”; and planning screening and risk reduction strategies for the specific population served by the program. The information in this article may be useful for other institutions considering creation of programs for patients with high breast cancer risk. PMID:23833688

  4. The Effects of Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E

    2017-09-12

    Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.

  5. The Fee Sensitive Risk Exposures of Project Authorized Person in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-On Cheung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Authorized Persons (AP play a critical role in the design and construction of building works in Hong Kong. Under the Building Ordinance, design and construction of building works need to be coordinated and monitored by an AP registered with the Buildings Department. Professionally qualified Architects, Engineers and Surveyors are eligible to register as AP after completing the prescribed assessment. In addition, the project AP is often appointed by the project owner to be the project team leader. In these capacities, a project AP is exposed to various risks. This paper seeks to identify the fee sensitive risk exposures of project APs. Through an ANOVA study, these risks exposures are those due to liabilities under the Building Ordinance at the construction stage, those towards the third parties and the clients.

  6. The efficacy of a personalized feedback-only intervention for at-risk college gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Masters, Joan; Dude, Kim

    2015-06-01

    College students have been shown to be at higher risk than the general adult population for gambling-related problems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a personalized feedback only intervention (PFB) among at-risk college student gamblers. Three hundred thirty-three college students who met screening criteria were randomized into 1 of 3 conditions: PFB, education only (EDU), or assessment only (AO). At 3-month follow-up, individuals in the PFB condition reported fewer dollars gambled and fewer gambling-related problems than those in the AO condition. There were no differences between those in the EDU and the AO conditions, or between those in the PFB and the EDU conditions. These findings are consistent with clinical trials examining other health behaviors, and have implications for the development and delivery of effective intervention programming for at-risk gamblers. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Anticholinergic Exposure and Risk of Pneumonia in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampela, Pasi; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tanskanen, Antti; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Taipale, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Risk of pneumonia is increased in persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In some studies, anticholinergic drugs (AC) have been associated with an increased pneumonia risk. We analyzed the risk of pneumonia associated with ACs in persons with AD. We performed a nested case-control study using register-based data from a Finnish nationwide MEDALZ cohort including all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD during 2005-2011. Cases were identified based on pneumonia diagnoses (n = 12,442) from hospital discharge and causes of death registers. Up to two controls without pneumonia were matched based on time since AD diagnoses, age, and gender for each case; AC use was measured using Anticholinergic Drug Scale. Use of AC was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.43). However, there was no increased pneumonia risk in persons using level 3 ACs. Incident use was associated with higher risk of pneumonia (OR 2.68, 95% CI 2.15-3.34) than prevalent use (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.40-1.57). Among persons using cholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), risk of pneumonia was increased in persons using also ACs (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.41-1.66). ACs were associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in persons with AD, especially at the time of initiation of these drugs. AC use was associated with increased pneumonia risk also in persons using AChEIs. This risk should be carefully considered when treating AD patients.

  8. Concerns about Genetic Testing for Schizophrenia among Young Adults at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Friesen, Phoebe; Brucato, Gary; Girgis, Ragy R; Dixon, Lisa

    Genetic tests for schizophrenia may introduce risks and benefits. Among young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis, little is known about their concerns and how they assess potential risks. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis to ask about their concerns. Participants expressed concerns about test reliability, data interpretation, stigma, psychological harm, family planning, and privacy. Participants' responses showed some departure from the ethics literature insofar as participants were primarily interested in reporting their results to people to whom they felt emotionally close, and expressed little consideration of biological closeness. Additionally, if tests showed an increased genetic risk for schizophrenia, four clinical high-risk persons felt obligated to tell an employer and another three would "maybe" tell an employer, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. These findings suggest opportunities for clinicians and genetic counselors to intervene with education and support.

  9. Ayahuasca Tourism: Participants in Shamanic Rituals and their Personality Styles, Motivation, Benefits and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavenská, Veronika; Simonová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca continues to attract tourists to South America, where there has been a growth in the number of centers offering hallucinogenic ayahuasca experiences. The aims of this study were to (1) discover the reasons foreigners seek this type of experience; (2) define what an ayahuasca experience entails; (3) discover subjective perceptions of ayahuasca's benefits and risks; and (4) describe personality styles of participants using the personality questionnaire (PSSI). Participants (N=77) were persons who had travelled to South America to use ayahuasca. Among the most frequent motivations were curiosity, desire to treat mental health problems, need for self-knowledge, interest in psychedelic medicine, spiritual development, and finding direction in life. Frequently mentioned benefits included self-knowledge, change in the way one relates to oneself, spiritual development, improved interpersonal relations, overcoming mental and physical problems, and gaining a new perspective on life. Stated potential risks included lack of trust in the shaman or organizer, inaccurate information provided by the shaman or organizer, and exposure to dangerous situations. PSSI results showed that people using ayahuasca scored significantly above the norm on the scales of intuition, optimism, ambition, charm, and helpfulness and significantly lower on the scales of distrust and quietness.

  10. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary infections and risk of lung cancer among persons with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Fatma M; Engels, Eric A; Goedert, James J; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2010-11-01

    Lung cancer risk is significantly increased among persons with AIDS (PWA), and increased smoking may not explain all of the elevated risk, suggesting a role for additional cofactors. We investigated whether AIDS-defining pulmonary infections (recurrent pneumonia, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and pulmonary tuberculosis) affected the risk of subsequent lung cancer over 10 years after AIDS onset among 322,675 PWA, whose records were linked with cancer registries in 11 US regions. We assessed lung cancer hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression and indirectly adjusted HRs for confounding by smoking. Individuals with recurrent pneumonia (n = 5317) were at significantly higher lung cancer risk than those without [HR = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08 to 2.46, adjusted for age, race, sex, HIV acquisition mode, CD4 count, and AIDS diagnosis year]. This association was especially strong among young PWA (risk was unrelated to tuberculosis [(n = 13,878) HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.82 to 1.53] or Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [(n = 69,771) HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.18]. The increased lung cancer risk associated with recurrent pneumonia supports the hypothesis that chronic pulmonary inflammation arising from infections contributes to lung carcinogenesis.

  12. An integrative model of risk for high school disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A; Smith, Gregory T

    2018-06-21

    Binge eating and purging behaviors are associated with significant harm and distress among adolescents. The process by which these behaviors develop (often in the high school years) is not fully understood. We tested the Acquired Preparedness (AP) model of risk involving transactions among biological, personality, and psychosocial factors to predict binge eating and purging behavior in a sample of 1,906 children assessed in the spring of 5th grade (the last year of elementary school), the fall of 6th grade (the first year of middle school), spring of 6th grade, and spring of 10th grade (second year of high school). Pubertal onset in spring of 5th grade predicted increases in negative urgency, but not negative affect, in the fall of 6th grade. Negative urgency in the fall of 6th grade predicted increases in expectancies for reinforcement from eating in the spring of 6th grade, which in turn predicted increases in binge eating behavior in the spring of 10th grade. Negative affect in the fall of 6th grade predicted increases in thinness expectancies in the spring of 6th grade, which in turn predicted increases in purging in the spring of 10th grade. Results demonstrate similarities and differences in the development of these two different bulimic behaviors. Intervention efforts targeting the risk factors evident in this model may prove fruitful in the treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating and purging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Prescription of the High Risk Narcotics and Trading or Illicit Purchasing of High Risk Narcotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present essay will analyze the offence of prescribing high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics, as it was regulated - together with other offences - by Law no 143 of July 26, 2000 on preventing and fighting against the traffic and illicit consumption of narcotics. The same law defines the meaning of such a phrase “substances which are under national control” by mentioning the fact that they are the narcotics and their precursors listed in Annexes I-IV of the law. The analysis of the offence of prescribing the high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics is following the already known structure mentioned in the doctrine and which consists of: object and subjects of the offence, its constituent content: the objective side with its material element, the immediate consequence and causality connections; the subjective side of the offence, as well as forms and modalities of these offences, and the applicable sanctions, of course.

  14. People at High Risk of Developing Flu-Related Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other People at High Risk of Developing Flu–Related Complications ... related complications if they get sick with influenza. People at High Risk for Developing Flu-Related Complications ...

  15. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among high-risk populations in Thailand, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Jocelynn T; Prapasiri, Prabda; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Leetongin, Grit; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Rattanayot, Jarowee; Olsen, Sonja J; Muangchana, Charung

    2015-01-29

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice of Thailand prioritizes seasonal influenza vaccinations for populations who are at highest risk for serious complications (pregnant women, children 6 months-2 years, persons ≥65 years, persons with chronic diseases, obese persons), and healthcare personnel and poultry cullers. The Thailand government purchases seasonal influenza vaccine for these groups. We assessed vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand from 2010 to 2012. National records on persons who received publicly purchased vaccines from 2010 to 2012 were analyzed by high-risk category. Denominator data from multiple sources were compared to calculate coverage. Vaccine coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals in each category who received the vaccine. Vaccine wastage was defined as the proportion of publicly purchased vaccines that were not used. From 2010 to 2012, 8.18 million influenza vaccines were publicly purchased (range, 2.37-3.29 million doses/year), and vaccine purchases increased 39% over these years. Vaccine wastage was 9.5%. Approximately 5.7 million (77%) vaccine doses were administered to persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases, 1.4 million (19%) to healthcare personnel/poultry cullers, 82,570 (1.1%) to children 6 months-2 years, 78,885 (1.1%) to obese persons, 26,481 (0.4%) to mentally disabled persons, and 17,787 (0.2%) to pregnant women. Between 2010 and 2012, coverage increased among persons with chronic diseases (8.6% versus 14%; pThailand. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural correlates of ostracism in transgender persons living according to their gender identity: a potential risk marker for psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Wierckx, Katrien; Boccadoro, Sara; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2018-01-15

    Stigmatization in society carries a high risk for development of psychopathology. Transgender persons are at particularly high risk for such stigmatization and social rejection by others. However, the neural correlates of ostracism in this group have not been captured. Twenty transgender men (TM, female-to-male) and 19 transgender women (TW, male-to-female) already living in their gender identity and 20 cisgender men (CM) and 20 cisgender women (CW) completed a cyberball task assessing both exclusion and re-inclusion during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During psychosocial stress between-group differences were found in the dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Patterns were consistent with sex assigned at birth, i.e. CW showed greater activation in dorsal ACC and IFG relative to CM and TW. During re-inclusion, transgender persons showed greater ventral ACC activity relative to CW, possibly indicating persistent feelings of exclusion. Functional connectivity analyses supported these findings but showed a particularly altered functional connectivity between ACC and lateral prefrontal cortex in TM, which may suggest reduced emotional regulation to the ostracism experience in this group. Depressive symptoms or hormonal levels were not associated with these findings. The results bear implications for the role of social exclusion in development of mental health problems in socially marginalized groups.

  17. Step UP: Retaining High-Risk Students and Transforming the College Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Susan; Gale, Melodie; Walton, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Step UP addresses retention of high-risk students through tapping into Howard Community College's finest qualities. The program encourages employees from all constituencies to engage and connect with students in a unique and personal way by implementing life coaching skills.

  18. Do recommended high-risk adults benefit from a first influenza vaccination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Buskens, E; Nichol, K L; Verheij, T J M

    2006-01-01

    It is unknown whether a first influenza vaccination protects high-risk adults from severe morbidity and mortality during influenza epidemics. As part of the PRISMA nested case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of first-time and repeat influenza vaccinations in adult persons

  19. The psychological costs and benefits of being highly persistent: personality profiles distinguish mood disorders from anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert; Zohar, Ada H; Hirschmann, Schmuel; Dahan, Dana

    2012-02-01

    The personality trait of Persistence is highly valued by conscientious overachievers, but it has both psychological costs and benefits. The interactions among multiple personality factors influencing the development of mood and anxiety disorders have been confounded in prior clinical samples, but can be disentangled in terms of their underlying brain circuitry and influence on perception of emotional stimuli. 285 individuals who represented the full range of personality variation in a large sample of adult volunteers from the general community of Israel were selected for follow-up by psychiatric interviews, cognitive testing, and medical examinations. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) measured profiles of traits that distinguished individuals with diagnoses of mood and/or anxiety disorders using linear discriminant analysis and non-linear profile analysis. High Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness strongly distinguished people with mood and/or anxiety disorders from those with neither. High Persistence distinguished people with only anxiety disorders from those with mood disorders. High Persistence was associated with greater health and happiness overall, but also led to more negative emotions than in people with low Persistence unless they were both unusually tolerant of frustration (i.e., low in Harm Avoidance) and self-accepting of personal limitations (i.e. high in Self-directedness). Subjects were volunteers over 40 years of age at assessment. People who are highly persistent (i.e., persevering, ambitious, perfectionistic) are more likely to have anxiety disorders than mood disorders, even when they have other traits increasing risk for both (i.e., high Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness). High Persistence increases both positive and negative emotions in most people. However, high Persistence reduces negative emotions and increases positive emotions if a person is easy-going (i.e., "happy-go-lucky" when low in both Harm Avoidance and Self

  20. High School Physics Students' Personal Epistemologies and School Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen

    2017-11-01

    This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.

  1. MYPLAN -mobile phone application to manage crisis of persons at risk of suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    on a power calculation, a total of 546 participants, 273 in each arm will be included. They will be recruited from Danish Suicide Prevention Clinics. Both groups will receive standard psychosocial therapeutic care, up to 8-10 sessions of supportive psychotherapy. Primary outcome will be reduction in suicide...... ideation after 12 months. Follow-up interviews will be conducted at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after date of inclusion. Discussion: A safety plan is a mandatory part of the treatment in the Suicide Prevention Clinics in Demark. There are no studies investigating the effectiveness of a safety plan app compared......Background: Persons with a past episode of self-harm or severe suicidal ideation are at elevated risk of self-harm as well as dying by suicide. It is well established that suicidal ideation fluctuates over time. Previous studies have shown that a personal safety plan can assist in providing support...

  2. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Relation to Addictive Behaviors: A Moderated-Mediation Analysis of Personality Risk Factors and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research has shown that those with ADHD have an increased risk for addiction disorders like alcoholism and substance abuse. What is less clear is the mechanism(s whereby ADHD gives rise to increased engagement in addictive behaviors, and whether there are sex differences in the ADHD-addiction propensity. Both ADHD and addictions have also been associated with personality traits such as impulsivity, reward seeking, anxiousness, and negative affect. In this study, we tested a moderator-mediation model which predicted that both sex and ADHD-symptom status would make independent contributions to the variance in personality risk and in addictive behaviors, with males, and those with diagnosed ADHD, scoring higher on both dependent variables. Our model also predicted that the effect of sex and ADHD-symptom status on addictive behaviors would be via the mediating or intervening influence of personality risk factors. Methods: A community-based sample of young men and women took part in the study. Among these individuals, 46 had received a life-time diagnosis of ADHD. The non-diagnosed participants were dichotomized into a high-ADHD symptom group (n=83 and a low-symptom group (n=84. Results: We found that a high-risk personality profile may, in part, account for the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and the use/abuse of a broad range of addictive behaviors. However,we found no sex differences in personality risk for addiction or in the use of addictive behaviors; nor did sex moderate the relationships we assessed. Conclusions: While ADHD Status showed a strong relationship with both dependent variables in the model, we found no difference between those who had been diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulants, and their high-symptom non-diagnosed/non-treated counterparts. These results add support to claims that the treatment of ADHD with stimulant medication neither protects nor fosters the risk for substance abuse disorders.

  3. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Personalized Lifestyle Management Strategies for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Paula; Pandya, Ankur; Salomon, Joshua A; Goldie, Sue J; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2016-03-29

    Evidence shows that healthy diet, exercise, smoking interventions, and stress reduction reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of these lifestyle interventions for individual risk profiles and determine their rank order in reducing 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. We computed risks using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations for a variety of individual profiles. Using published literature on risk factor reductions through diverse lifestyle interventions-group therapy for stopping smoking, Mediterranean diet, aerobic exercise (walking), and yoga-we calculated the risk reduction through each of these interventions to determine the strategy associated with the maximum benefit for each profile. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. In the base-case analysis, yoga was associated with the largest 10-year cardiovascular disease risk reductions (maximum absolute reduction 16.7% for the highest-risk individuals). Walking generally ranked second (max 11.4%), followed by Mediterranean diet (max 9.2%), and group therapy for smoking (max 1.6%). If the individual was a current smoker and successfully quit smoking (ie, achieved complete smoking cessation), then stopping smoking yielded the largest reduction. Probabilistic and 1-way sensitivity analysis confirmed the demonstrated trend. This study reports the comparative effectiveness of several forms of lifestyle modifications and found smoking cessation and yoga to be the most effective forms of cardiovascular disease prevention. Future research should focus on patient adherence to personalized therapies, cost-effectiveness of these strategies, and the potential for enhanced benefit when interventions are performed simultaneously rather than as single measures. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Personality trait risk factors for attempted suicide among young women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, G; Plancherel, B; Laget, J; Corcos, M; Flament, M F; Halfon, O

    2004-05-01

    - Clinical observations and a review of the literature led us to hypothesize that certain personality and character traits could provide improved understanding, and thus improved prevention, of suicidal behaviour among young women with eating disorders. - The clinical group consisted of 152 women aged between 18 and 24 years, with DSM-IV anorexia nervosa/restrictive type (AN-R = 66), anorexia nervosa/purging type (AN-P = 37), bulimia nervosa/non-purging type (BN-NP = 9), or bulimia nervosa/purging type (BN-P = 40). The control group consisted of 140 subjects. The assessment measures were the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-second version (MMPI-2) scales and subscales, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) used to control for current depressive symptoms, plus a specific questionnaire concerning suicide attempts. - Suicide attempts were most frequent in subjects with purging behaviour (30.0% for BN-P and 29.7% for AN-P). Those attempting suicide among subjects with eating disorders were mostly students (67.8%). For women with AN-R the scales for 'Depression' and 'Antisocial practices' represented significant suicidal risk, for women with AN-P the scales for 'Hysteria', 'Psychopathic deviate', 'Shyness/Self-consciousness', 'Antisocial Practices', 'Obsessiveness' and 'Low self-esteem' were risk indicators and for women with BN-P the 'Psychasthenia', 'Anger' and 'Fears' scales were risk indicators. - This study provides interesting results concerning the personality traits of young women with both eating disorders and suicidal behaviour. Students and those with purging behaviour are most at risk. Young women should be given more attention with regard to the risk of suicide attempts if they: (a). have AN-R with a tendency to self-punishment and antisocial conduct, (b). have AN-P with multiple physical complaints, are not at ease in social situations and have antisocial behaviour, or (c). if they have BN-P and tend to be easily angered with obsessive behaviour

  6. Environmental and personal hygiene practices: risk factors for diarrhoea among children of Nigerian market women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemade, A; Omokhodion, F O; Olawuyi, J F; Sridhar, M K; Olaseha, I O

    1998-12-01

    A Cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the environmental and personal hygiene practices of mothers of children aged less than five years in two markets in Ibadan--one with poor sanitary conditions (Bodija) and the other one with better sanitation facilities (Gbagi). The study sought to identify the risk factors for diarrhoea among these children. Two hundred and sixty-six mothers in Bodija and 260 in Gbagi were interviewed. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on social and demographic characteristics, personal and environmental hygiene practices, including sources of food and water for their children, waste-disposal practices and occurrence of diarrhoea among their children aged less than five years. The educational status of the women in Bodija was lower than that of the women in Gbagi (p homes, and 45 (17%) bought it from vendors in the market. The corresponding figures for women of the Gbagi market were 41 (16%), 98 (38%) and 19 (7%). Two hundred and thirty-four (90%) women in Gbagi prepared breakfast at home for their children compared to 216 (81%) women in Bodija. This difference was statistically significant (p Waste disposal and personal hygiene practices were poorer among the women in Bodija. Yet the occurrence of diarrhoea was not significantly different in both the markets. Risk factors for diarrhoea identified in this study were water and food bought from vendors, child defaecation practices, mothers' cleaning up practices after child's defaecation, and refuse-disposal practices. The inherent risk of sale of unwholesome food and water by vendors is a great concern for public health authorities in Nigeria. Efforts to control diarrhoea must not only be focused on improving mothers' knowledge about food hygiene but also on environmental hygiene practices within the community.

  7. Personal, Familial, and Social Risk and Protective Factors of Tendency towards Substance Use among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jahanshahloo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: University students are among vulnerable groups to tendency towards substance use. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role of personal, familial, and social risk and protective factors in the prediction of tendency to this behavior among students.Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was carried out on 431 students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Data were collected by Risk and Protective Factors Inventory (RPFI and Youth Risk Taking Scale (YRTS and then, were analyzed by Pearson correlation method and stepwise multivariate regression.Results: Data analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed significant relationships between personal (e.g. attitude towards substance use and tendency to drug use; r=0.6, P<0.01, familial (e.g. parent attitude towards substance and tendency towards smoking cigarettes; r=0.2, P<0.05, and social (e.g. perceived accessibility and tendency towards alcohol; r=0.4, P<0.01 factors with tendency to substance use. Moreover, the results of stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that personal factors (i.e. attitude towards substance use, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, social factors (i.e. friends’ substance use and perceived accessibility, and familial factors (i.e. family monitoring and parents’ attitude towards substance use were the best predictors of tendency towards substance use in students, respectively.Conclusion: In conclusion, current results indicated that a series of individual, familial, and social factors affect tendency towards substance use among students. Accordingly, identifying vulnerable students using suitable screening tests and providing them with primary prevention programs is of the utmost importance.

  8. Natriuretic peptides: prediction of cardiovascular disease in the general population and high risk populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per

    2009-01-01

    (General Practitioner) setting as in the acute setting. Supporting this use is a very strong prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides. This has been shown in as well heart failure as acute coronary syndromes, but also in the general population and in high-risk groups as patients with diabetes......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...

  9. Client experiences with perinatal healthcare for high-risk and low-risk women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stenus, Cherelle M.V.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kerkhof, Erna F.G.M.; Need, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Problem: It is unknown if client experiences with perinatal healthcare differ between low-risk and high-risk women. Background: In the Netherlands, risk selection divides pregnant women into low- and high-risk groups. Receiving news that a pregnancy or childbirth has an increased likelihood of

  10. Interrelationships of Physical Activity and Sleep with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: a Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Associations of behaviorally modifiable factors like physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and sleep with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are complicated. We examined whether membership in latent classes (LCs) differentiated by PA and sleep profiles (real-life clustering of behaviors in population subgroups) associate with metabolic risk factors and CVD risk. The National FINRISK 2012 Study comprise a cross-sectional sample of 10,000 Finns aged 25 to 74 years. Analyses included participants with complete data on a health questionnaire, a health examination, who had no prevalent CVD (n = 4031). LCs with PA and sleep profiles were previously defined using latent class analysis. Ten metabolic risk factors and the Framingham 10-year CVD risk score were compared between the LCs. PA and sleep class profiles were substantially similar for genders. Compared to LC-1, with a profile including high PA and sufficient sleep, membership in LC-4, with a profile including sedentariness and insufficient sleep was associated with high metabolic risk factors in women but not in men. In women, also membership in LC-2, with a profile including light PA, sufficient sleep, and high sedentariness was associated with high metabolic risk factors. The Framingham 10-year CVD risk score was highest in LCs 2 and 4 in both genders. Membership in LCs differentiated by PA and sleep profiles was associated with metabolic risk factors merely in women, suggesting gender differences in the interrelationships of health behaviors and metabolic risk factors. Total CVD risk differed between the LCs despite of gender; however, the effect was small.

  11. [Sudden Cardiac Death of Young Persons: Risk Factors, Causes, Morphological Equivalents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, M A; Mamedov, M N

    2015-01-01

    The article contains literature review on the problem of causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young people as well as results of author's own retrospective study of deaths of persons before 39 years based on forensic autopsies performed during 10 year period. The study of structure and dynamics of causes of death, its risk factors and the role of connective tissue dysplasia in development of terminal symptomocomlexes allowed to establish that main mechanism of SCD in young people was arrhythmogenic developing as a response to provoking factors--physical effort, psychoemotional stress, consumption of light alcoholic beverages.

  12. Influence of personal social network and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation in Chinese university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Personal social network and coping skills have important influences on suicidality of young people and such influences must be understood in the context of other factors. This study aims to assess the influences of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation and to disentangle their possible pathways using a large sample of university students from China.5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities in China, completed the questionnaire survey for the study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate individual effect of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation. A partial least squares path model (PLSPM was used to probe possible paths of their effects in the context of psychopathology.Of the 5972 students, 16.39% reported the presence of suicidal ideation. Poor social contacts were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal ideation. The influence of coping skills varied by coping styles adapted toward problems. A high score of skills on seeking guidance and support, problem solving as well as seeking alternative rewards was associated with a reduced risk of suicidal ideation; whereas a high score of acceptance or resignation, emotional discharge as well as logical analysis was associated with a significantly increased risk. Modeling the data with PLSPM indicated that the avoidance coping skills conferred the most important dimensional variable in suicidal ideation prediction, followed by the approach coping skills and social network.Poor social contacts and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal ideation in young students. Prevention program focusing on these problems may have an enduring effect on reducing suicidal behavior in this population.

  13. Influence of personal social network and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation in Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Personal social network and coping skills have important influences on suicidality of young people and such influences must be understood in the context of other factors. This study aims to assess the influences of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation and to disentangle their possible pathways using a large sample of university students from China. 5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities in China, completed the questionnaire survey for the study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate individual effect of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation. A partial least squares path model (PLSPM) was used to probe possible paths of their effects in the context of psychopathology. Of the 5972 students, 16.39% reported the presence of suicidal ideation. Poor social contacts were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal ideation. The influence of coping skills varied by coping styles adapted toward problems. A high score of skills on seeking guidance and support, problem solving as well as seeking alternative rewards was associated with a reduced risk of suicidal ideation; whereas a high score of acceptance or resignation, emotional discharge as well as logical analysis was associated with a significantly increased risk. Modeling the data with PLSPM indicated that the avoidance coping skills conferred the most important dimensional variable in suicidal ideation prediction, followed by the approach coping skills and social network. Poor social contacts and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal ideation in young students. Prevention program focusing on these problems may have an enduring effect on reducing suicidal behavior in this population.

  14. Low risk of pulmonary tuberculosis of residents in high background radiation area, Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaojuan; Sun Quanfu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the pulmonary tuberculosis mortality risk of the residents in high background radiation area (HBRA), Yangjiang, China. Methods: A cohort including 89 694 persons in HBRA and 35 385 persons in control area (CA) has been established since 1979. Person-year tables based on classified variables including sex, attained age, follow-up calendar year, and dose-rate group (high, intermediate, and low in HBRA, and control group) were tabulated using DATAB in EPICURE. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risks (RR) of infectious and parasitic disease especially for pulmonary tuberculosis. Cumulative dose for each cohort member was obtained. Results: Two million person-years were accumulated by follow-up and 612 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis ascertained. Compared with risk in the control area, statistically significant lower risk of pulmonary tuberculosis was observed in HBRA among those who aged 60 years and over; markedly decreased risk occurred among males; no significant difference was found among the 6 follow-up stages, two subregions in the HBRA, or different diagnostic facilities. A statistically significantly negative dose-response was observed (P<0.001), the higher accumulative dose, the lower dose the pulmonary tuberculosis mortality risk. Its excess relative risk (ERR/Sv) was estimated to be -1.09 (95% CI: -1.34, -0.85). No established risk factors could explain this lower risk. Conclusions: The mortality of puhnonary tuberculosis among residents in HBRA who were chronically exposed to low-dose radiation was statistically significantly lower than that in the control area, and a significant dose-response relationship was observed, which probably resulted from the immunoenhancement of low dose radiation. (authors)

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  16. Exploring risk profiles and emergency frequency of purchasers and non-purchasers of personal emergency alarms: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Miguel, Kristen; Lewin, Gill; Burton, Elissa; Toye, Christine; Boldy, Duncan; Howat, Peter

    2015-10-27

    Personal alarms support independent living and have the potential to reduce serious consequences after a fall or during a medical emergency. While some Australian states have government funded personal alarm programs, others do not; but user-pays services are available. Although several studies have examined the profiles of alarm users, little is known about the risk profile of non-users. Specifically, whether there are "at risk" individuals who are unable, or choose not to purchase a service, who experience a home-based emergency in which an alarm could have mitigated an adverse outcome. This study aimed to describe the 'risk profile' of purchasers and non-purchasers of alarms; explore the reasons behind the decision to purchase or not to purchase and identify how often emergency assistance was needed and why. Purchasers and non-purchasers were followed for one year in this prospective cohort study. Demographic, decision-making and risk factor data were collected at an initial face-to-face interview, while information about emergencies was collected by monthly calls. One hundred and fifty-seven purchasers and sixty-five non-purchasers completed the study. The risk profiles between the groups were similar in terms of gender, living arrangements, fall history and medical conditions. Purchasers (Mean = 82.6 years) were significantly older than non-purchasers (Mean = 79.3 years), (t(220) = -3.38, p = 0.000) and more functionally dependent on the IADL (z = -2.57, p = 0.010) and ADL (z = -2.45 p = 0.014) function scores. Non-purchasers (Mean = 8.04, SD = 3.57) were more socially isolated with significantly fewer family networks than purchasers (Mean = 9.46, SD = 3.25) (t(220) = -2.86, p = 0.005). Both groups experienced similarly high numbers of emergencies, 38.2 % of purchasers and 41.5 % of non-purchasers had at least one emergency where an alarm could have assisted. Main reasons for non-purchase were: cost (77 %), limited alarm range (51 %), no need (39 %) and lack

  17. Risk factors for acute care hospital readmission in older persons in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi; Meyer, Gabriele; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    related to socio-demographics, health characteristics and clinical and organizational factors related to the care pathway. TYPES OF STUDIES: The current review considered analytical and descriptive epidemiological study designs that evaluated risk factors for acute care hospital readmission. OUTCOMES......: The outcome was readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge. SEARCH STRATEGY: A three-step search was utilized to find published and unpublished studies in English, French, German, Norwegian, Swedish or Danish. Five electronic databases were searched from 2004 to 2013, followed...... summary and metasynthesis of the quantitative findings was conducted. RESULTS: Based on a review of nine studies from ten Western countries, we found several significant risk factors pertaining to readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge in persons aged 65 years and over...

  18. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  19. Occurrence of commonly used pesticides in personal air samples and their associated health risk among paddy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsan, Hazwanee; Ho, Yu Bin; Zaidon, Siti Zulfa; Hashim, Zailina; Saari, Nazamid; Karami, Ali

    2017-12-15

    Tanjung Karang, Selangor, is widely known for its paddy cultivation activity and hosts the third largest paddy field in Malaysia. Pesticides contamination in agriculture fields has become an unavoidable problem, as pesticides are used to increase paddy productivity and reduce plant disease. Human exposure to agrichemicals is common and could results in both acute and chronic health effects, such as acute and chronic neurotoxicity. This study aims to determine the concentrations of commonly used pesticides (azoxystrobin, buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, difenoconazole, fipronil, imidacloprid, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, propiconazole, pymetrozine, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, and trifloxystrobin) in personal air samples and their associated health risks among paddy farmers. Eighty-three farmers from Tangjung Karang, Selangor were involved in this study. A solid sorbent tube was attached to the farmer's breathing zone with a clip, and an air pump was fastened to the belt to collect personal air samples. Pesticides collected in the XAD-2 resin were extracted with acetone, centrifuged, concentrated via nitrogen blowdown and reconstituted with 1mL of 3:1 ultrapure water/HPLC-grade methanol solution. The extract was analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were detected with a maximum concentration reaching up to 462.5ngm -3 (fipronil). The hazard quotient (HQ) was less than 1 and the hazard index (HI) value was 3.86×10 -3 , indicating that the risk of pesticides related diseases was not significant. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) for pymetrozine was at an acceptable level (LCR<10 -6 ) with 4.10×10 -8 . The results reported in this study can be beneficial in terms of risk management within the agricultural community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Personality Dimensions of Gifted and Talented Junior High Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Compared to a peer group of average abilities, gifted and talented junior high school students appeared more outgoing, participating, insightful, fast-learning, intellectually adaptable, conscientious, persistent, and moralistic, thus indicating significant between-group differences. (SB)

  1. Risk Analysis of Typhoid Fever Based on Personal Hygiene and Street Food Consumption Habit at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Nuruzzaman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria transmission trought contaminated food and drink. Data from RSUD dr. Abdoer Rahem showing that from 2011–2013 typhoid fever case always increase and often happened to children age 5–14 years old. The objective research to analysis risk factor of typhoid fever according to snacking habit at school and at house of children age 7–12 years old. This research was observasional case control study. Data for case in this research are taken from medical record of ‘Unit Teratai’ for the past 1 year in RSUD dr. Abdoer Rahem Situbondo, whereas for control are case group. There are eighty person taken for this research as sample. This result was the risk of typhoid fever children which has habit of hand washing had after defecation at home OR 3.67 (1.29 < OR < 10.64, children which has habit of hand washing before eating had OR 4.33 (1.54 < OR < 12.44, children with short dirty fingernails had OR 7.79 (1.46 < OR < 46.18 frequent street food consumption OR 3.89 (1.39 < OR < 11.06, buy snack at food street OR 3.95 (1.40 < OR < 11.30, buy some snack with packing had OR 3.5 (1.26 < OR < 9.38. The conclusion is that habit hand washing after defecation, habit hand washing before eating, short dirty fingernail, frequent food street consumption, buy food street and buy some food with sealed packing can secrease the risk of typhoid fever for children age 7–12 years Keywords: typhoid fever, risk factor of typhoid fever, personal hygiene, street food consumption habit

  2. Risk factors for poor work functioning of persons with schizophrenia in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Chen, Sheying; Chen, Elaina Y; Ran, Bo-Yu; Tang, Cui-Ping; Lin, Fu-Rong; Li, Li; Li, Si-Gan; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hu, Shi-Hui

    2011-11-01

    The long-term work performance of persons with schizophrenia in the community is unclear. This study examined the status of long-term work functioning and the predictors of poor work status among patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese rural area. A 10-year follow-up investigation (1994-2004) of a cohort (n = 510) of persons with schizophrenia was conducted in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. Compared with baseline data, work functioning of patients with schizophrenia deteriorated after 10 years. The rates of not working increased significantly from 12.0% in 1994 to 23.0% in 2004. Bivariate analyses showed that the poor work functioning in 2004 was significantly associated with male gender, older age, older age of first onset, higher level of education, longer duration of illness, lower family economic status, lack of caregivers, poor work status in 1994, living in shabby or unstable house, marked symptoms, and higher score on the Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS). In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher score of SDSS and poor work status in 1994 were identified as unique predictors of poor work status in 2004. The status of work functioning of persons with schizophrenia decreased over the course of the illness. The risk factors for poor work functioning and specific socio-cultural environment should be considered in planning community mental health services and rehabilitation for these patients.

  3. Increased cardiovascular disease risk in Swedish persons with paraplegia: The Stockholm spinal cord injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahman, Kerstin; Nash, Mark S; Lewis, John E; Seiger, Ake; Levi, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of prevalence of cardiovascular disease risks in persons with chronic traumatic paraplegia with those in the general population. Cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 135 individuals, age range 18-79 years, with chronic (> or = 1 year) traumatic paraplegia. The prevalences of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, overweight, and smoking, were assessed in the study population and were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of the general population in the region under study. History of myocardial infarction and medication for dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were also recorded. chi2 tests were used to compare the paraplegic cohort with the general population sample. Significantly more persons with paraplegia reported a history of myocardial infarction (5.9%) than those in the comparison group (0.7%). The prevalences of diabetes mellitus (5.9%), dyslipidaemia (11.1%), and hypertension (14.1%) were also significantly higher in the paraplegic group, as were drug treatment for these disorders. Persons with paraplegia report increased prevalences of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia, in particular, compared with the general population. Population-based screening and therapeutic counter-measures for these conditions may therefore be particularly indicated for this patient group.

  4. Association of type D personality with unhealthy lifestyle, and estimated risk of coronary events in the general Icelandic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Denollet, Johan; Thorsson, Bolli; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Halldorsdottir, Sigrun; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van den Broek, Krista C; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D

    2013-04-01

    Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing CAD, and previous cardiac events. Cross-sectional study in the general Icelandic population. A random sample of 4753 individuals (mean age 49.1 ± 12.0 years; 49% men) from the REFINE-Reykjavik study completed assessments for Type D personality and conventional CAD risk factors. Ten-year risk of developing CAD was estimated with the Icelandic risk calculator. Type D personality (22% of sample) was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension (35 vs. 31%, p = 0.009), but less use of hypertension medication (58 vs. 65%, p = 0.013) in hypertensives, more diabetes (6 vs. 4%, p = 0.023), wider waist circumference (p = 0.007), and elevated body mass index (p = 0.025) and blood lipids (p lifestyle-related CAD risk factors, a higher estimated risk of developing CAD, and higher incidence of previous cardiac events. Unhealthy lifestyles may partly explain the adverse cardiovascular effect of Type D personality.

  5. Neural Correlates of Cognitive Intervention in Persons at Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Hadi eHosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training is an emergent approach that has begun to receive increased attention in recent years as a non-pharmacological, cost-effective intervention for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. There has been increasing behavioral evidence regarding training-related improvement in cognitive performance in early stages of AD. Although these studies provide important insight about the efficacy of cognitive training, neuroimaging studies are crucial to pinpoint changes in brain structure and function associated with training and to examine their overlap with pathology in AD. In this study, we reviewed the existing neuroimaging studies on cognitive training in persons at risk of developing AD to provide an overview of the overlap between neural networks rehabilitated by the current training methods and those affected in AD. The data suggest a consistent training-related increase in brain activity in medial temporal, prefrontal, and posterior default mode networks, as well as increase in gray matter structure in frontoparietal and entorhinal regions. This pattern differs from the observed pattern in healthy older adults that shows a combination of increased and decreased activity in response to training. Detailed investigation of the data suggests that training in persons at risk of developing AD mainly improves compensatory mechanisms and partly restores the affected functions. While current neuroimaging studies are quite helpful in identifying the mechanisms underlying cognitive training, the data calls for future multi-modal neuroimaging studies with focus on multi-domain cognitive training, network level connectivity, and individual differences in response to training.

  6. Neural correlates of cognitive intervention in persons at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Kramer, Joel H.; Kesler, Shelli R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training is an emergent approach that has begun to receive increased attention in recent years as a non-pharmacological, cost-effective intervention for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There has been increasing behavioral evidence regarding training-related improvement in cognitive performance in early stages of AD. Although these studies provide important insight about the efficacy of cognitive training, neuroimaging studies are crucial to pinpoint changes in brain structure and function associated with training and to examine their overlap with pathology in AD. In this study, we reviewed the existing neuroimaging studies on cognitive training in persons at risk of developing AD to provide an overview of the overlap between neural networks rehabilitated by the current training methods and those affected in AD. The data suggest a consistent training-related increase in brain activity in medial temporal, prefrontal, and posterior default mode networks, as well as increase in gray matter structure in frontoparietal and entorhinal regions. This pattern differs from the observed pattern in healthy older adults that shows a combination of increased and decreased activity in response to training. Detailed investigation of the data suggests that training in persons at risk of developing AD mainly improves compensatory mechanisms and partly restores the affected functions. While current neuroimaging studies are quite helpful in identifying the mechanisms underlying cognitive training, the data calls for future multi-modal neuroimaging studies with focus on multi-domain cognitive training, network level connectivity, and individual differences in response to training. PMID:25206335

  7. Online sperm donors: the impact of family, friends, personality and risk perception on behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Stephen; Savage, David A; Torgler, Benno

    2017-12-01

    As informal sperm donation becomes more prevalent worldwide, understanding donor psychology and interactions is critical in providing effective policy, equitable legislative frameworks and frontline health support to an ever-growing number of global participants. We analyse data of informal sperm donors who were members of the connection website PrideAngel to identify the role and effect of several factors, e.g. kinship, social networks, personality, and risk perception, on behaviour. A key strength of the study is the ability to analyse various factors, such as the level and history of informal donation, risk concerns, number of women to whom donations are informally made and the number of offspring. Our results indicate donors who have also been active in formal clinical settings (compared with those who exclusively donate informally), donate to more women in the informal market and realise more offspring. Donor's sexual orientation also affects activity. From a personality perspective, conscientiousness provides comparative advantage. It is possible this characteristic provides positive externalities, as more conscientious men may be more efficient or organised in a market that requires increased cooperation and communication. The importance of kin and social networks seems to affect frequency of donation only, possibly representing a time constraint (or opportunity cost). Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to suicidal behaviors: A common suicide risk factor or a personal negative life event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Bettiol, Silvana

    2017-02-01

    Numerous suicide risk factors have been proposed but not adequately validated for epidemiology, treatment and prevention efforts. Exposures to suicidal behaviors (ESB), from family and friend suicide attempts and completions, were tested for validity as a suicidal risk factor and also for measurement and construct adequacy. An anonymous online survey yielded 713 participants (aged 18-71), who reported ESB, completed the Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS), and comprised a broad spectrum on those variables. Tests of dimensionality and internal consistency showed the four ESB variables (attempts/completions through family/friends) were independent and did not form a common factor or an identifiable ESB latent trait. ESB variables were, however, associated with demographic and psychiatric histories. A battery of tests revealed no meaningful associations between ESB and total suicidality or suicide risk factors (social support, depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life and emotional stability). In addition, in contrast to previous reports, young adults ( n = 200; aged 18-20) showed no increased suicidality due to ESB. Results showed no validity for ESB as a common risk factor for suicidality or other psychopathology, or as a latent trait. ESB showed evidence as a personal negative life event with individual effects and interpretations.

  9. [High risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after neurosurgical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang; Wu, Gang; Cheng, Neng-neng; Yao, Cheng-jun; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2005-12-21

    To analyze high risk factors of postoperative upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after neurosurgery so as to give guidance for prevention of GI bleeding. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the medical records of 1500 patients who were hospitalized and underwent neurosurgical operations in 1997. Logistic regression analysis was made. 1430 valid questionnaires were obtained. Postoperative upper GI bleeding occurred in 75 patients (5.24%). The incidence of upper GI bleeding were 6.64% (54/813) in the male patients and 3.40% (21/617) in the female persons (P = 0.007); 9.88% (41/415) in those aged > 50 and 3.35% in those aged hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and extradural hematoma were 15.7%, 10.0%, 6.00%, and 2.94% respectively (P = 0.02). The incidence of upper GI bleeding of the patients with tumors of fourth ventricle of cerebrum, brainstem, cerebral hemisphere, and sellar hypothalamus were 15.79% (3/19), 7.89%, 5.71%, and 3.74% respectively. In the emergent cases, the incidence of upper GI bleeding was higher in those with hypertension. The incidence of upper GI bleeding was 5.46% in the patients undergoing adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly higher than that in those who did not receive such treatment (2.13%). Patients who are at high risk of developing postoperative upper GI bleeding including that: age greater than 50 years; male; Glasgow Coma Score less than 10 pre and post operation; The lesion was located in brain stem and forth ventricle; Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage; Intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhagic brain trauma; Postoperative pneumonia, brain edema, encephalic high pressure, pyogenic infection of the central nervous system and other postoperative complications. The mortality of patients with postoperative upper GI bleeding was evidently higher than that of the patients without postoperative upper GI bleeding.

  10. Parkinsonian motor impairment predicts personality domains related to genetic risk and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan L; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Balda, Mara; Alemán, Gabriela González; Florenzano, Néstor V; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Rangeon, Beatriz Molina; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Conesa, Horacio A; Escobar, Javier I; Zwir, Igor; Cloninger, C Robert; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2017-01-01

    Identifying endophenotypes of schizophrenia is of critical importance and has profound implications on clinical practice. Here we propose an innovative approach to clarify the mechanims through which temperament and character deviance relates to risk for schizophrenia and predict long-term treatment outcomes. We recruited 61 antipsychotic naïve subjects with chronic schizophrenia, 99 unaffected relatives, and 68 healthy controls from rural communities in the Central Andes. Diagnosis was ascertained with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; parkinsonian motor impairment was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; mesencephalic parenchyma was evaluated with transcranial ultrasound; and personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Ten-year outcome data was available for ~40% of the index cases. Patients with schizophrenia had higher harm avoidance and self-transcendence (ST), and lower reward dependence (RD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-directedness (SD). Unaffected relatives had higher ST and lower CO and SD. Parkinsonism reliably predicted RD, CO, and SD after correcting for age and sex. The average duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was over 5 years. Further, SD was anticorrelated with DUP and antipsychotic dosing at follow-up. Baseline DUP was related to antipsychotic dose-years. Further, 'explosive/borderline', 'methodical/obsessive', and 'disorganized/schizotypal' personality profiles were associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Parkinsonism predicts core personality features and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia. Our study suggests that RD, CO, and SD are endophenotypes of the disease that may, in part, be mediated by dopaminergic function. Further, SD is an important determinant of treatment course and outcome.

  11. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-11-18

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years). Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction) for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.347-27.904), history (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701-8.354) and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281-9.136). The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):927-936. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Material and Methods: Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years. Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Results: Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.347–27.904, history (> 5 years of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701–8.354 and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281–9.136. Conclusions: The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:927–936

  13. Personal Risk Perception, HIV Knowledge and Risk Avoidance Behavior, and Their Relationships to Actual HIV Serostatus in an Urban African Obstetric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Elizabeth M.; Sinkala, Moses; Kumwenda, Rosemary; Chapman, Victoria; Mwale, Alexandrina; Vermund, Sten H.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.

    2009-01-01

    One quarter of pregnant women in Zambia are infected with HIV. Understanding how knowledge of HIV relates to personal risk perception and avoidance of risky behaviors is critical to devising effective HIV prevention strategies. In conjunction with a large clinical trial in Lusaka, Zambia, we surveyed postpartum women who had been tested for HIV but did not know their status before undergoing the questionnaire. Of 858 women for whom complete data were available, 248 (29%) were HIV infected. Women 22 years of age or older (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–2.5), women reporting ≥2 sexual partners in their lifetime (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.5), and women reporting a history of a sexually transmitted infection (AOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7–4.3) were more likely to be HIV infected. Having had ≥2 lifetime sexual partners was a marker for perception of high personnel risk for HIV infection (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.1). However, there was no relationship between perceived risk of HIV infection and actual HIV status. In fact, 127 (52%) of 245 women who stated that they were at no or low risk for HIV infection were HIV infected. Living in an area of high HIV seroprevalence like Zambia seems to be the greatest risk factor for infection in unselected pregnant women. Before significant inroads can be made in decreasing the incidence of HIV infection among pregnant women, population-based strategies that involve men must be implemented. PMID:14707794

  14. 'Balancing risk' after fall-induced hip fracture: the older person's need for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Laura; Booth, Joanne; Currie, Kay; Howe, Tracey

    2014-12-01

    Hip fracture is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in older people. Healthcare professionals have a role to identify and respond to challenges and concerns that older people face as they strive to manage risk of future falls and rebuild confidence and independence after discharge. This study aimed to explore the postdischarge concerns of older people after fall-induced hip fracture. Glaser's approach to the grounded theory method guided qualitative interviews conducted with 19 older people in their own homes up to 3 months post discharge, in two health authority areas. A theory of 'taking control' was generated. 'Balancing risk' emerged as a key strategy that older people employed to help them to take control after discharge home. Older people attempted to control or 'balance' their risk of future falls and dependence by implementing two further strategies: 'protective guarding' and 'following orders'. The instinctive strategy of protective guarding and the learned strategy of following orders were implemented simultaneously and were characterised by older people aiming to pace their progress and balance risk safely and appropriately. To apply these strategies, older people required information from healthcare professionals. In circumstances where older people did not receive or did not understand the information provided, they were left 'grasping to understand' and were more likely to miscalculate risk. This leads to damaged confidence and in some cases further falls. The concept of balancing risk aims to help healthcare professionals understand the older person's perspective of hip fracture and to recognise the efforts that people make to guard against further injury and dependence in the early postdischarge period. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The Psychosis High-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan; Bechdolf, Andreas; Addington, Jean; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Keshavan, Matcheri; Wood, Stephen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Seidman, Larry J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Cannon, Tyrone; Velthorst, Eva; De Haan, Lieuwe; Cornblatt, Barbara; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Birchwood, Max; McGlashan, Thomas; Carpenter, William; McGorry, Patrick; Klosterkötter, Joachim; McGuire, Philip; Yung, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Context During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms. The importance of this HR state has been increasingly recognized to such an extent that a new syndrome is being considered as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5. Objective To reframe the HR state in a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the progress that has been made while also recognizing the challenges that remain. Data Sources Available HR research of the past 20 years from PubMed, books, meetings, abstracts, and international conferences. Study Selection and Data Extraction Critical review of HR studies addressing historical development, inclusion criteria, epidemiologic research, transition criteria, outcomes, clinical and functional characteristics, neurocognition, neuroimaging, predictors of psychosis development, treatment trials, socioeconomic aspects, nosography, and future challenges in the field. Data Synthesis Relevant articles retrieved in the literature search were discussed by a large group of leading worldwide experts in the field. The core results are presented after consensus and are summarized in illustrative tables and figures. Conclusions The relatively new field of HR research in psychosis is exciting. It has the potential to shed light on the development of major psychotic disorders and to alter their course. It also provides a rationale for service provision to those in need of help who could not previously access it and the possibility of changing trajectories for those with vulnerability to psychotic illnesses. PMID:23165428

  16. [Targeting high-risk drugs to optimize clinical pharmacists' intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouterde, Anne-Laure; Bourdelin, Magali; Maison, Ophélie; Coursier, Sandra; Bontemps, Hervé

    2016-12-01

    By the Order of 6 April 2011, the pharmacist must validate all the prescriptions containing "high-risk drugs" or those of "patients at risk". To optimize this clinical pharmacy activity, we identified high-risk drugs. A list of high-risk drugs has been established using literature, pharmacists' interventions (PI) performed in our hospital and a survey sent to hospital pharmacists. In a prospective study (analysis of 100 prescriptions for each high-risk drug selected), we have identified the most relevant to target. We obtained a statistically significant PI rate (P<0.05) for digoxin, oral anticoagulants direct, oral methotrexate and colchicine. This method of targeted pharmaceutical validation based on high-risk drugs is relevant to detect patients with high risk of medicine-related illness. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of fractures in French older persons.

    OpenAIRE

    Feart , Catherine; Lorrain , Simon; Ginder Coupez , Vanessa; Samieri , Cécilia; Letenneur , Luc; Paineau , Damien; Barberger-Gateau , Pascale

    2013-01-01

    International audience; UNLABELLED: Prevention of fractures is a considerable public health challenge. In a population-based cohort of French elderly people, a diet closer to a Mediterranean type had a borderline significant deleterious effect on the risk of fractures, in part linked to a low consumption of dairy products and a high consumption of fruits. INTRODUCTION: Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is linked to a lower risk of several chronic diseases, but its association ...

  18. Experimental high Energy Physics in Spain: The first forty years, a personal and biased view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this contribution I present a brief description of the evolution of Experimental High Energy Physics in spain during the last forth years and a personal assessment of the present situation. (Author)

  19. Personality and Relationship Quality During the Transition From High School to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.

    2013-01-01

    The post–high school transition period is believed to be associated with considerable changes in social networks, yet longitudinal studies documenting these changes are scarce. To address this gap, the current research explored 3 relevant issues. First, changes in participants’ relationship characteristics during the transition from high school were examined. Second, the roles of personality traits as antecedents of these changes were studied. Third, the association between change in relationship characteristics and personality during the transition was explored. A sample of over 2,000 German emerging adults, surveyed before leaving school and then 2 years after the transition from high school, was assessed on personality traits and a multidimensional assessment of the quality of their relationships. Findings indicated that participants experienced mostly positive changes in relationship quality during the transition from high school and that antecedent personality at school was an important predictor of the nature of this change. Finally, change in relationship quality was found to be associated with personality change during the post-school transition. Findings indicated that personality traits may influence transition success and that change in relationships during this transition may influence personality development. The implications of the research for post-school transition success are discussed. PMID:22224909

  20. The personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgert van Jaarsveld

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the personality profile of police recruits who are high on anxiety. A secondary objective was to determine whether there are gender and ethnic differences in the levels of anxiety of those police recruits. To investigate the stated objectives the NEO Personality Inventory, Locus of Control Inventory and the IPAT Anxiety Scale were applied to 487 police recruits. Complete records were obtained for 259 participants. In comparing the personality profiles of participants who are high on anxiety and those who are low, it turned out that the biggest differences were in respect of Neuroticism, External Locus of Control and Agreeableness.

  1. The influence of coping styles and perceived control on emotional distress in persons at risk for a hereditary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, Ehy; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Van Tintelen, J. Peter

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the influence of two coping styles (monitoring and blunting) and perceived control (health loci-is of control and mastery) on emotional distress in persons at risk of a hereditary cardiac disease. Emotional distress in people at risk for a hereditary cardiac

  2. What works best: objective statistics or a personal testimonial? An assessment of different types of message evidence on risk perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.B.F.; Das, E.; Vet, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In an experimental online study we compared the effects of different types of persuasive evidence in promoting the acceptance of a personal health risk. Design: 118 men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) were recruited via a range of

  3. BEWARE, PERSON-YEARS! EXPERIENCE OF SIMPSON PARADOX OBSERVATION IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RISK EXAMINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Obesnyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown, on the examples of concrete publications, that "person-years" category application in multi-factor health risks analysis can lead to false conclusions in the process of observation data grouping due to Simpson paradox influence when examinations are performed via demographic or epidemiological techniques. The paradox occurs when heterogeneous strata are being compared. "Person-years" category first appeared in the middle of the 17th century, long before first applications of mathematical tools in statistics and probability theory; it does not fully correspond to up-to-date requirements of epidemiological research. Risk theory should change 17–18 century paradigm as it focuses on conditional probability of unwanted events occurrence and not on a principle of comparing their intensities. It is particularly vital in case when we deal with determining possible damage to health caused by effects exerted by such factors and under such conditions when individual damage cannot be measured objectively but when it is possible to quantitatively determine regularities of changes in stochastic ability to survive for a large group of people or remote consequences occurrence for it. We prove it is necessary to create specialized mathematical tools and hybrid software able to solve a risks assessment task as an inverse one. Mathematical tools of large contingency tables could serve as prototypes of such tools; we can also use multi-factor logistical and Poisson regressions which are usually applied in countable events analysis. We should note that it is also necessary to eliminate a number of methodological drawbacks which are attributable to the said tools.

  4. Identifying Trajectories of Borderline Personality Features in Adolescence: Antecedent and Interactive Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    To examine trajectories of adolescent borderline personality (BP) features in a normative-risk cohort (n = 566) of Canadian children assessed at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 and childhood predictors of trajectory group membership assessed at ages 8, 10, 11, and 12. Data were drawn from the McMaster Teen Study, an on-going study examining relations among bullying, mental health, and academic achievement. Participants and their parents completed a battery of mental health and peer relations questionnaires at each wave of the study. Academic competence was assessed at age 8 (Grade 3). Latent class growth analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Three distinct BP features trajectory groups were identified: elevated or rising, intermediate or stable, and low or stable. Parent- and child-reported mental health symptoms, peer relations risk factors, and intra-individual risk factors were significant predictors of elevated or rising and intermediate or stable trajectory groups. Child-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and somatization symptoms uniquely predicted elevated or rising trajectory group membership, whereas parent-reported anxiety and child-reported ADHD symptoms uniquely predicted intermediate or stable trajectory group membership. Child-reported somatization symptoms was the only predictor to differentiate the intermediate or stable and elevated or rising trajectory groups (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.28). Associations between child-reported reactive temperament and elevated BP features trajectory group membership were 10.23 times higher among children who were bullied, supporting a diathesis-stress pathway in the development of BP features for these youth. Findings demonstrate the heterogeneous course of BP features in early adolescence and shed light on the potential prodromal course of later borderline personality disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Patterns of Mood and Personality Factors and Associations With STI/HIV-Related Drug and Sex Risk Among African American Male Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Adimora, Adaora A; Wohl, David A; Keen, Larry D; Hammond, Michael; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-06-07

    Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n = 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk. Approximately 15% had ASPD and 39% reported depression. Controlling for sociodemographics, stress, and depression, ASPD was independently associated with illicit [AOR = 3.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-8.87] and injection drug use (AOR: 5.49, 95% CI: 1.23-24.42) but not with sexual risk. LCAs suggested that those at high risk of ASPD were likely to experience co-morbid mental disorders. ASPD comorbid with these disorders was linked to drug and sex risk. STI/HIV prevention for inmates should incorporate diagnosis and treatment of ASPD and comorbid disorders, and interventions to address ASPD-related factors (e.g., impulsivity) that drive STI/HIV risk.

  6. Patterns of Mood and Personality Factors and Associations With STI/HIV-Related Drug and Sex Risk Among African American Male Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Golin, Carol E.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Wohl, David A.; Keen, Larry D.; Hammond, Michael; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. Methods We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n= 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk. Results Approximately 15% had ASPD and 39% reported depression. Controlling for sociodemographics, stress, and depression, ASPD was independently associated with illicit [AOR=3.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–8.87] and injection drug use (AOR: 5.49, 95% CI: 1.23–24.42) but not with sexual risk. LCAs suggested that those at high risk of ASPD were likely to experience co-morbid mental disorders. ASPD comorbid with these disorders was linked to drug and sex risk. Conclusions STI/HIV prevention for inmates should incorporate diagnosis and treatment of ASPD and comorbid disorders, and interventions to address ASPD-related factors (e.g., impulsivity) that drive STI/HIV risk. PMID:28426364

  7. Disability and Exposure to High Levels of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Effect on Health and Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Anna; Herrick, Harry; Proescholdbell, Scott; Simmons, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities among persons with disabilities have been previously documented. However, there is little research specific to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in this population and how ACE exposure affects health outcomes in adulthood. Data from the 2012 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey were analyzed to compare the prevalence of ACEs between adults with and without disabilities and high ACE exposure (3-8 ACEs). Adjusted risk ratios of health risks and perceived poor health by disability status were calculated using predicted marginals. A higher percentage of persons with disabilities (36.5%) than those without disabilities (19.6%) reported high ACE exposure. Among those with high ACE exposure, persons with disabilities were more likely to report several ACE categories, particularly childhood sexual abuse. In adjusted analyses, persons with disabilities had an increased risk of smoking (relative risk [RR] = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.51), poor physical health (RR = 4.34; 95% CI, 3.08-6.11), poor mental health (RR = 4.69; 95% CI, 3.19-6.87), and doctor-diagnosed depression (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.82-2.56) compared to persons without disabilities. The definition of disability derived from the BRFSS survey does not allow for those with disabilities to be categorized according to physical disabilities versus mental or emotional disabilities. In addition, we were unable to determine the timing of ACE exposure in relation to disability onset. A better understanding of the life course associations between ACEs and disability and the impact of exposure to multiple types of childhood adversity on disability and health is needed to inform research and services specific to this vulnerable population. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk and Events in 17 Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, S; Rangarajan, S; Teo, K; Islam, S; Li, W; Liu, L; Bo, J; Lou, Q; Lu, F; Liu, T; Yu, L; Zhang, S; Mony, P; Swaminathan, S; Mohan, V

    2014-01-01

    : More than 80% of deaths from cardiovascular disease are estimated to occur in low-income and middle-income countries, but the reasons are unknown. : We enrolled 156,424 persons from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 countries (3 high-income, 10 middle-income, and 4 low-income countries) and assessed their cardiovascular risk using the INTERHEART Risk Score, a validated score for quantifying risk-factor burden without the use of laboratory testing (with higher scores indicating greater r...

  9. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in waters: occurrence, toxicity, and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmas, Leslie; Sharma, Virender K; Gray, Cole M; McDonald, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) are compounds with special physical and chemical properties that address the care of animal and human health. PPCP have been detected in surface water and wastewater in the ng/L to µg/L concentration range worldwide. PPCP ecotoxicity has been studied in a variety of organisms, and multiple methods have been used to assess the risk of PPCP in the environment to ecological health. Here we review the occurrence, effects, and risk assessment of PPCP in aquatic systems, as well as the sustainability of current methods for managing PPCP contamination in aquatic systems. The major points are the following: (1) a number of PPCP present potential concerns at environmentally relevant concentrations. PPCP mixtures may produce synergistic toxicity. (2) Various methods have been used for the ecological risk assessment of PPCP in aquatic systems. There are similarities in these methods, but no consensus has emerged regarding best practices for the ecological risk assessment of these compounds. (3) Human health risk assessments of PPCP contamination in aquatic systems have generally indicated little cause for concern. However, there is a lack of information regarding whether antibiotic contamination in wastewater and aquatic systems could lead to an increase in clinically relevant antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic-resistant genes. (4) Over the next century, the combination of increasing global population size and potential droughts may result in reduced water availability, increased need for water reuse, and increasing concentrations of PPCP in wastewaters. The current wastewater treatment methods do not remove all PPCP effectively. This, coupled with the possibility that antibiotics may promote the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic-resistant genes, leads to concerns about the sustainability of global water supplies.

  10. A risk score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in an elderly Spanish Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guasch-Ferré

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To develop and test a diabetes risk score to predict incident diabetes in an elderly Spanish Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A diabetes risk score was derived from a subset of 1381 nondiabetic individuals from three centres of the PREDIMED study (derivation sample. Multivariate Cox regression model ß-coefficients were used to weigh each risk factor. PREDIMED-personal Score included body-mass-index, smoking status, family history of type 2 diabetes, alcohol consumption and hypertension as categorical variables; PREDIMED-clinical Score included also high blood glucose. We tested the predictive capability of these scores in the DE-PLAN-CAT cohort (validation sample. The discrimination of Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC, German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS and our scores was assessed with the area under curve (AUC. RESULTS: The PREDIMED-clinical Score varied from 0 to 14 points. In the subset of the PREDIMED study, 155 individuals developed diabetes during the 4.75-years follow-up. The PREDIMED-clinical score at a cutoff of ≥6 had sensitivity of 72.2%, and specificity of 72.5%, whereas AUC was 0.78. The AUC of the PREDIMED-clinical Score was 0.66 in the validation sample (sensitivity = 85.4%; specificity = 26.6%, and was significantly higher than the FINDRISC and the GDRS in both the derivation and validation samples. DISCUSSION: We identified classical risk factors for diabetes and developed the PREDIMED-clinical Score to determine those individuals at high risk of developing diabetes in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The predictive capability of the PREDIMED-clinical Score was significantly higher than the FINDRISC and GDRS, and also used fewer items in the questionnaire.

  11. Mobility patterns of persons at risk for drug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, E; Garfein, R S; Rodwell, T C; Udwadia, Z F; Catanzaro, D G

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) hospital in Mumbai, India. To describe the mobility patterns of persons with suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and to assess whether there were significant differences in demographic or risk characteristics based on mobility. Observational cohort study of TB clinic patients at risk for DR-TB. Among 602 participants, 37% had ever moved from their place of birth; 14% were local movers (within state), and 23% were distant movers, between states or countries. Univariate multinomial logistic regression models showed that distant movers were more likely than non-movers to have lower income, less education, a greater number of previous TB episodes, and to have ever smoked. Compared to non-movers, local movers were more likely to have lower income and were more likely to have seen a doctor in the past 2 years. Clinical outcomes, including DR-TB, diabetes, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), did not differ between the three mobility groups. Mobility was common among patients at risk for DR-TB in Mumbai. TB programs should consider the implications of mobility on the protracted treatment for DR-TB in India.

  12. Which are the risk factors in the pricing of Personal Pension Plans in Spain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza García Padrón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse if the Arbirtrage Pricing Theory or the model suggested by Chen et al. (1986 can efficiently explain the variability of the cross-sectional returns on the Personal Pension Plans in Spain between 1995-2003, as well as to find their sources of risks. To test both models we have followed the traditional two-step cross-sectional regressions by Fama and MacBeth (1973. The results of our analysis show two significant risk factors derived from the fixed-income market: nonanticipated changes in the interest rate term structure and the default risk premium.Este artigo analisa se o modelo APT ou o modelo sugerido por Chen et al. (1986 podem explicar de maneira eficiente a variabilidade dos rendimentos de seção cruzada dos Planos de Pensões do Sistema Individual em Espanha durante 1995-2003, bem como determina quais são seus fatores de risco. A metodologia de contraste utilizada foi a proposta por Fama and MacBeth (1973 na versão de múltiplas variáveis explicativas. Os resultados da análise mostram dois fatores de risco relevantes derivados do mercado de renda fixa: mudanças não antecipadas na estrutura temporária da taxa de juros e prima por risco de insolvência.

  13. Gene-environment correlation in the development of adolescent substance abuse: selection effects of child personality and mediation via contextual risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-02-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.

  14. Risk attitudes and personality traits predict perceptions of benefits and risks for medicinal products: a field study of European medical assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrea R; Fasolo, Barbara; de Graeff, P A; Hillege, H L

    2015-01-01

    Risk attitudes and personality traits are known predictors of decision making among laypersons, but very little is known of their influence among experts participating in organizational decision making. Seventy-five European medical assessors were assessed in a field study using the Domain Specific Risk Taking scale and the Big Five Inventory scale. Assessors rated the risks and benefits for a mock "clinical dossier" specific to their area of expertise, and ordinal regression models were used to assess the odds of risk attitude or personality traits in predicting either the benefit or the risk ratings. An increase in the "conscientiousness" score predicted an increase in the perception of the drug's benefit, and male assessors gave higher scores for the drug's benefit ratings than did female assessors. Extraverted assessors saw fewer risks, and assessors with a perceived neutral-averse or averse risk profile saw greater risks. Medical assessors perceive the benefits and risks of medicines via a complex interplay of the medical situation, their personality traits and even their gender. Further research in this area is needed to determine how these potential biases are managed within the regulatory setting. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and associated environmental risks in the central and lower Yangtze river, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenxi; Huang, Xiaolong; Witter, Jason D; Spongberg, Alison L; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding; Liu, Jiantong

    2014-08-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) residues are being highlighted around the world as of emerging concern in surface waters. Here the occurrence of PPCPs in the central and lower Yangtze River, along with four large freshwater lakes within the river basin (Dongting, Poyang, Tai, and Chao) was reported. Fifteen out of twenty selected PPCPs were detected in the collected surface water samples. Caffeine, paraxanthine, sulfamethazine, and clindamycin were detected with 100 percent frequency in the Yangtze River. In the river, the highest average concentration was observed for erythromycin (296 ng L(-1)), followed by caffeine (142 ng L(-1)) and paraxanthine (41 ng L(-1)). In the four lakes, total PPCP concentrations were much higher in the Chao (1547 ng L(-1)) and Tai (1087 ng L(-1)) lakes compared to the Poyang (108 ng L(-1)) and Dongting (137 ng L(-1)) lakes. Lincomycin and clindamycin were most abundant in the lakes, especially in the Tai Lake. Environmental risk assessment for the worst case scenario was assessed using calculated risk quotients, and indicates a high environmental risk of erythromycin and clarithromycin in the Yangtze River, clarithromycin in the Chao Lake, and clindamycin in the Tai Lake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. ... questionnaires to evaluate key highrisk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism.

  17. Schizophrenia--A High-Risk Factor for Suicides: Clues to Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Constance B.; Gottesman, Irving I.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that suicide is chief cause of premature death among schizophrenic persons, with lifetime incidence of suicide for patients with schizophrenia at 10-13% compared to general population estimate of 1%. Discusses salient risk factors for suicide in schizophrenics and types of especially vulnerable patients identified by research. Notes that…

  18. Regulators as agents: Modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, G.J. [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Kendall, G. [University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Nottingham NG8 1BB (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Soane, E. [London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Management, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Li, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Nottingham NG8 1BB (United Kingdom); Rocks, S.A.; Jude, S.R. [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Pollard, S.J.T., E-mail: s.pollard@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Complex regulatory decisions about risk rely on the brokering of evidence between providers and recipients, and involve personality and power relationships that influence the confidence that recipients may place in the sufficiency of evidence and, therefore, the decision outcome. We explore these relationships in an agent-based model; drawing on concepts from environmental risk science, decision psychology and computer simulation. A two-agent model that accounts for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to evidence. Agents with ‘aggressor’ personality sets were most able to imbue fellow agents with enhanced receptivity (with ‘avoider’ personality sets less so) and clear confidence in the sufficiency of evidence. In a dynamic version of the model, when both recipient and provider were assigned the ‘aggressor’ personality set, this resulted in 10 successful evidence submissions in 71 days, compared with 96 days when both agents were assigned the ‘avoider’ personality set. These insights suggest implications for improving the efficiency and quality of regulatory decision making by understanding the role of personality and power. - Highlights: •The role of personality and power in regulatory decision-making is poorly represented. •We built a rudimentary two-agent model to explore environmental risk decisions. •Our two agent model accounted for decisions about the sufficiency of evidence. •We examined the influence personality and power has on confidence gained. •By giving agents personality we might predict the time taken to reach consensus.

  19. Regulators as agents: Modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, G.J.; Kendall, G.; Soane, E.; Li, J.; Rocks, S.A.; Jude, S.R.; Pollard, S.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Complex regulatory decisions about risk rely on the brokering of evidence between providers and recipients, and involve personality and power relationships that influence the confidence that recipients may place in the sufficiency of evidence and, therefore, the decision outcome. We explore these relationships in an agent-based model; drawing on concepts from environmental risk science, decision psychology and computer simulation. A two-agent model that accounts for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to evidence. Agents with ‘aggressor’ personality sets were most able to imbue fellow agents with enhanced receptivity (with ‘avoider’ personality sets less so) and clear confidence in the sufficiency of evidence. In a dynamic version of the model, when both recipient and provider were assigned the ‘aggressor’ personality set, this resulted in 10 successful evidence submissions in 71 days, compared with 96 days when both agents were assigned the ‘avoider’ personality set. These insights suggest implications for improving the efficiency and quality of regulatory decision making by understanding the role of personality and power. - Highlights: •The role of personality and power in regulatory decision-making is poorly represented. •We built a rudimentary two-agent model to explore environmental risk decisions. •Our two agent model accounted for decisions about the sufficiency of evidence. •We examined the influence personality and power has on confidence gained. •By giving agents personality we might predict the time taken to reach consensus

  20. Structural Relation Pattern between Deviant Personality Traits, Risk Perception and Treatment Motivation in People with Substance Dependency: The Mediating Role of Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basharpoor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study was conducted to investigate the pattern of structural relations between deviant personality traits, risk perception and treatment motivation in people with substance dependency. Method: A descriptive- correlational method was used in this study. All the drug addicts referring to Ardabil centers of addiction treatment in second half of 2014 constituted the statistical population of this study. The number of 140 individuals from this population was selected via cluster sampling and responded to stages of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale, personality deviance scale, and cognitive appraisal of risky events (CARE questionnaire. Results: The results showed that risk perception and three components of treatment motivation are negatively correlated with hostile thoughts, denigration of others, low self-confidence, dependency, submissiveness; however, risk perception was positively associated with the three components of treatment motivation. The results of regression analyses also revealed that 53% variance of recognition, 44 % variance of ambivalence, and 47 % of variance of step taking were explained by deviant personality traits. Model fitness indexed confirmed the path of deviant personality traits to treatment motivation via the mediating role of risk perception. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that low risk perception is one of the explanatory pathways for the relationship between deviant personality traits and treatment motivation.

  1. Fall prevention in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, Kathleen M; Balch, Christine

    2014-12-01

    In the oncology population, disease process and treatment factors place patients at risk for falls. Fall bundles provide a framework for developing comprehensive fall programs in oncology. Small sample size of interventional studies and focus on ambulatory and geriatric populations limit the applicability of results. Additional research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Systems reliability in high risk situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunns, D.M.

    1974-12-01

    A summary is given of five papers and the discussion of a seminar promoted by the newly-formed National Centre of Systems Reliability. The topics covered include hazard analysis, reliability assessment, and risk assessment in both nuclear and non-nuclear industries. (U.K.)

  3. Risk behavior and access to HIV/AIDS prevention services in a community sample of homeless persons entering permanent supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric; Henwood, Ben

    2017-05-01

    Homeless persons suffer disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, and moving into permanent supportive housing (PSH) can provide a stable base from which to access needed prevention services. However, little is known about HIV risk or prevention behavior during this critical time of transition. The current study investigated STI and HIV risk and prevention behavior and recent use of prevention and treatment services (i.e., education, testing, medication) among homeless persons preparing to move into PSH. Data come from interviews with 421 homeless adults before they moved into PSH. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were sexually active; of those, 75.7% reported unprotected sex. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported past year HIV testing and 40% reported testing for another STI. Fewer than one-third (31%) of respondents reported receiving posttest counseling at their last HIV test. HIV seropositivity was self-reported by 10%. Among those persons who were HIV-positive, 57.1% reported less than 100% antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Among HIV-negative respondents, less than 1% had been prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Less than half (46.4%) of the sample reported any HIV prevention education in the past year. This population of homeless adults about to move into PSH report high rates of HIV risk behavior, but low rates of HIV prevention education and very little PrEP utilization. Further, low rates of ARV adherence among HIV-positive respondents indicate significant risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. Entering PSH is a period of transition for homeless persons when integrated care is critically important to ensure positive health outcomes, but these data suggest that PrEP and other HIV prevention services are poorly accessed among this population. As such, multipronged services that integrate PrEP and other HIV prevention services are needed to prevent transmission and acquisition of HIV in this high-risk, vulnerable population and ensure the

  4. Personalized risk assessment of drug-related harm is associated with health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Jones

    Full Text Available The Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (ISCD assigned quantitative scores for harm to 20 drugs. We hypothesized that a personalized, ISCD-based Composite Harm Score (CHS would be associated with poor health outcomes in polysubstance users.A prospective community sample (n=293 of adults living in marginal housing was assessed for substance use. The CHS was calculated based on the ISCD index, and the personal substance use characteristics over four weeks. Regression models estimated the association between CHS and physical, psychological, and social health outcomes.Polysubstance use was pervasive (95.8%, as was multimorbid illness (median 3, possible range 0-12. The median CHS was 2845 (interquartile range 1865-3977. Adjusting for age and sex, every 1000-unit CHS increase was associated with greater mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-2.01, p = 0.02, and persistent hepatitis C infection (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.67, p = 0.04. The likelihood of substance-induced psychosis increased 1.39-fold (95% CI 1.13-1.67, p = 0.001. The amount spent on drugs increased 1.51-fold (1.40-1.62, p < 0.001 and the odds of having committed a crime increased 1.74-fold (1.46-2.10, p < 0.001. Multimorbid illness increased 1.43-fold (95% CI 1.26-1.63, p < 0.001.Greater CHS predicts poorer physical, psychological, and social health, and may be a useful quantitative, personalized measure of risk for drug-related harm.

  5. Brief report: Associations between in-person and electronic bullying victimization and missing school because of safety concerns among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Rasberry, Catherine N

    2015-08-01

    Although associations between bullying and health risk behaviors are well-documented, research on bullying and education-related outcomes, including school attendance, is limited. This study examines associations between bullying victimization (in-person and electronic) and missing school because of safety concerns among a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. We used logistic regression analyses to analyze data from the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey of students in grades 9-12. In-person and electronic victimization were each associated with increased odds of missing school due to safety concerns compared to no bullying victimization. Having been bullied both in-person and electronically was associated with greater odds of missing school compared to electronic bullying only for female students and in-person bullying only for male students. Collaborations between health professionals and educators to prevent bullying may improve school attendance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Personal Network Characteristics as Predictors of Change in Obesity Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2018-05-17

    The potential for peers to influence obesity risk behavior increases in adolescence, yet there are knowledge gaps of how behaviors are modified in response to peers over time. This study examined how personal friendship network characteristics were associated with obesity-related behaviors from late childhood to early adolescence. Two waves of friendship, physical activity, screen time, and dietary recall data were collected from 11- to 13-year-old students (99% retention) in Australia (n = 308) over a five- to eight-month period. Regression models identified friendship network characteristics that predicted later health behaviors which varied by gender and behavior type, such as the number of friends positively associated with physical activity intensity (males) and screen time (females). The need for considering context to influence behavior change is discussed. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  7. Comorbidities as risk factors of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant survival prolongation in HIV-infected patients due to effective antiretroviral therapy is connected with increasing prevalence of chronic non-infective diseases in this population, among them chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of kidney disease in the setting of HIV includes conditions specific for HIV infection: direct effect of the virus, stage of immunodeficiency and drug toxicity. Chronic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are additional significant risk factors of kidney disease. In HIV-infected individuals some distinct features of these conditions are observed, which are partly related to the virus and antiretroviral therapy. The article summarizes the effect of comorbidities on kidney function in HIV-infected persons.

  8. [Comorbidities as risk factors of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Zofia; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Knysz, Brygida

    2015-12-16

    Significant survival prolongation in HIV-infected patients due to effective antiretroviral therapy is connected with increasing prevalence of chronic non-infective diseases in this population, among them chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of kidney disease in the setting of HIV includes conditions specific for HIV infection: direct effect of the virus, stage of immunodeficiency and drug toxicity. Chronic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are additional significant risk factors of kidney disease. In HIV-infected individuals some distinct features of these conditions are observed, which are partly related to the virus and antiretroviral therapy. The article summarizes the effect of comorbidities on kidney function in HIV-infected persons.

  9. Pneumonia in HIV-infected persons: increased risk with cigarette smoking and treatment interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordin, Fred M; Roediger, Mollie P; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity for HIV-infected persons and contributes to excess mortality in this population. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors for occurrence of bacterial pneumonia in the present era of potent antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We...... evaluated data from a randomized trial of episodic antiretroviral therapy. The study, Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy, enrolled 5,472 participants at 318 sites in 33 countries. Study patients had more than 350 CD4 cells at baseline. Diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was confirmed...... by a blinded clinical-events committee. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 16 months, 116 participants (2.2%) developed at least one episode of bacterial pneumonia. Patients randomized to receive episodic antiretroviral therapy were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia than...

  10. Personalized Treatment of Mothers With ADHD and Their Young At-Risk Children: A SMART Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Wang, Christine H; Strickland, Jennifer; Almirall, Daniel; Stein, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Young children of mothers with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for ADHD by virtue of genetics and environmental factors. Moreover, parent ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting and poor child behavioral treatment response. Thus, a combined approach consisting of behavioral parent training (BPT) and maternal stimulant medication (MSM) may be needed to effectively treat ADHD within families. However, providing combined BPT+MSM initially to all families may be unnecessarily burdensome because not all families likely need combined treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for these multiplex families in order to yield benefits to both the parent and child, thereby impacting the course of child ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms. This article presents our rationale for, design of, and preliminary experiences (based on 26 participants) with an ongoing pilot Sequential Multiple Assessment Randomized Trial (SMART) designed to answer questions regarding the feasibility and acceptability of study protocols and interventions. This article also describes how the subsequent full-scale SMART might change based on what is learned in the SMART pilot and illustrates how the full-scale SMART could be used to inform clinical decision making about how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for complex children and families in which a parent has ADHD.

  11. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  12. Gratitude, hope, mindfulness and personal-growth initiative: buffers or risk factors for problem gambling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine M Y Loo

    Full Text Available The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years. Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Identifying depression severity risk factors in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan T; Wilson, Catherine S; Heinemann, Allen W; Lazowski, Linda E; Fann, Jesse R; Bombardier, Charles H

    2014-02-01

    Examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, health-, and injury-related characteristics, and substance misuse across multiple levels of depression severity. 204 persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) volunteered as part of screening efforts for a randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine extended release for major depressive disorder (MDD). Instruments included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Substance Abuse in Vocational Rehabilitation-Screener (SAVR-S), which contains 3 subscales: drug misuse, alcohol misuse, and a subtle items scale. Each of the SAVR-S subscales contributes to an overall substance use disorder (SUD) outcome. Three proportional odds models were specified, varying the substance misuse measure included in each model. 44% individuals had no depression symptoms, 31% had mild symptoms, 16% had moderate symptoms, 6% had moderately severe symptoms, and 3% had severe depression symptoms. Alcohol misuse, as indicated by the AUDIT and the SAVR-S drug misuse subscale scores were significant predictors of depression symptom severity. The SAVR-S substance use disorder (SUD) screening outcome was the most predictive variable. Level of education was only significantly predictive of depression severity in the model using the AUDIT alcohol misuse indicator. Likely SUD as measured by the SAVR-S was most predictive of depression symptom severity in this sample of persons with traumatic SCI. Drug and alcohol screening are important for identifying individuals at risk for depression, but screening for both may be optimal. Further research is needed on risk and protective factors for depression, including psychosocial characteristics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. A metasynthesis of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.; Ayers, S.; Holden, D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects their decisions about perinatal care and is of interest to anyone involved in the care of pregnant women. This paper provides a metasynthesis of qualitative studies of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies.\\ud \\ud Methods: A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Additional papers were obtained through searching references of identified articles. Six studies were identified that rep...

  15. Venues, Patrons, and Alcohol Use Dynamics: The Creation of a High Risk Sexual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922

  16. Venues, patrons, and alcohol use dynamics: the creation of a high risk sexual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk.

  17. Relationships of Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence at high school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.

  18. Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R; Scheim, Ayden I; Pyne, Jake; Travers, Robb; Hammond, Rebecca

    2015-06-02

    Across Europe, Canada, and the United States, 22-43 % of transgender (trans) people report a history of suicide attempts. We aimed to identify intervenable factors (related to social inclusion, transphobia, or sex/gender transition) associated with reduced risk of past-year suicide ideation or attempt, and to quantify the potential population health impact. The Trans PULSE respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey collected data from trans people age 16+ in Ontario, Canada, including 380 who reported on suicide outcomes. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were weighted using RDS II methods. Counterfactual risk ratios and population attributable risks were estimated using model-standardized risks. Among trans Ontarians, 35.1 % (95 % CI: 27.6, 42.5) seriously considered, and 11.2 % (95 % CI: 6.0, 16.4) attempted, suicide in the past year. Social support, reduced transphobia, and having any personal identification documents changed to an appropriate sex designation were associated with large relative and absolute reductions in suicide risk, as was completing a medical transition through hormones and/or surgeries (when needed). Parental support for gender identity was associated with reduced ideation. Lower self-reported transphobia (10(th) versus 90(th) percentile) was associated with a 66 % reduction in ideation (RR = 0.34, 95 % CI: 0.17, 0.67), and an additional 76 % reduction in attempts among those with ideation (RR = 0.24; 95 % CI: 0.07, 0.82). This corresponds to potential prevention of 160 ideations per 1000 trans persons, and 200 attempts per 1,000 with ideation, based on a hypothetical reduction of transphobia from current levels to the 10(th) percentile. Large effect sizes were observed for this controlled analysis of intervenable factors, suggesting that interventions to increase social inclusion and access to medical transition, and to reduce transphobia, have the potential to contribute to substantial reductions in the

  19. Association of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism to gastric cancer risk in a high risk population of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar-Alpizar, Warner; Sierra, Rafaela; Cuenca, Patricia; Une, Clas; Mena, Fernando; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer associated death cause worldwide. Several factors have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer, among them genetic predisposition. The p53 gene has a polymorphism located at codon 72, which has been associated with higher risk of several types of cancer, including gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the association of p53, codon 72 polymorphism, with the risk of gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions in a high-risk population from Costa Rica. The genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP in a sample of 58 gastric cancer patients, 99 control persons and 41 individuals classified as group I and II, according to the Japanese histological classification. No association was found for p53, codon 72 polymorphism with neither the risk of gastric cancer nor the risk of less severe gastric lesions in the studied sample. Based on this study and taking into account other studies carried out with p53, codon 72 polymorphism, the role of this polymorphism in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. De novo mutations on p53 gene produced during neoplastic development of this disease might play a greater role than germinal polymorphisms of this same gene. Other polymorphic genes have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer. (author) [es

  20. Iatrogenic effects of psychosocial interventions: treatment, life context, and personal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2012-01-01

    Between 7% and 15% of individuals who participate in psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders may be worse off after treatment than before. Intervention-related predictors of iatrogenic effects include lack of bonding; lack of goal direction and monitoring; confrontation, criticism, and high emotional arousal; models and norms for substance use; and stigma and inaccurate expectations. Life context and personal predictors include lack of support, criticism, and more severe substance use and psychological problems. Ongoing monitoring and safety standards are needed to identify and counteract adverse consequences of intervention programs.

  1. Delineating selection and mediation effects among childhood personality and environmental risk factors in the development of adolescent substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.

  2. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reedt Dortland, Arianne K B; Giltay, Erik J; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2012-01-10

    Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether personality and childhood trauma are correlates of metabolic risk factors. Among 2755 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), we investigated through linear regression models whether Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness) and childhood trauma type (i.e., emotional neglect, and psychological, physical and sexual abuse) were correlates of metabolic risk factors (i.e., lipids, waist circumference (WC), glucose and blood pressure). Basic covariates (i.e., age, sex and income level), lifestyle, severity of depressive symptoms and years of education were taken into account. Openness was the most robust favorable correlate, and sexual abuse was the most robust unfavorable correlate of lipids and WC, and of overall metabolic risk (β=-.070; pchildhood sexual abuse are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delineating Selection and Mediation Effects among Childhood Personality and Environmental Risk Factors in the Development of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735

  4. Human cancer risk estimation for 1,3-butadiene: An assessment of personal exposure and different microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Lai Nguyen; Lee, Shun Cheng; Zhang, Zhuozhi

    2018-03-01

    This study estimated the lifetime cancer risk (LCR) attributable to 1,3-butadiene (BD) personal exposure and to other microenvironments, including residential home, outdoor, in-office, in-vehicle, and dining. Detailed life expectancy by country (WHO), inhalation rate and body weight by gender reported by USEPA were used for the calculation, focusing on adult population (25≤Agepersonal exposure exceeded the USEPA benchmark of 1×10 -6 in many cities. For outdoor BD exposure, LCR estimations in 45 out of 175 cities/sites (sharing 26%) exceeded the USEPA benchmark. Out of the top 20 cities having high LCR estimations, developing countries contributed 19 cities, including 14, 3, 1, 1 cities in China, India, Chile, and Pakistan. One city in the United States was in the list due to the nearby industrial facilities. The LCR calculations for BD levels found in residential home, in-vehicle and dining microenvironments also exceeded 1×10 -6 in some cities, while LCR caused by in-office BD levels had the smallest risk. Four cities/regions were used for investigating source distributions to total LCR results because of their sufficient BD data. Home exposure contributed significantly to total LCR value (ranging 56% to 86%), followed by in-vehicle (4% to 38%) and dining (4 to 7%). Outdoor microenvironment shared highly in Tianjin with 6%, whereas in-office contributed from 2-3% for all cities. High LCR estimations found in developing countries highlighted the greater cancer risk caused by BD in other cities without available measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynapenia and Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Disability in a Falls and Fractures Clinic in Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela-María Benjumea

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of sarcopenia and dynapenia in disability in older persons from falls and bone health clinics remain unknown. AIM: This study aims to compare the association of sarcopenia and dynapenia with physical and instrumental disability in a population of older persons attending a falls and fractures clinic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in Manizales, Andes Mountains, Colombia.  534 subjects (mean age = 74, 75% female Sarcopenia was measured according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP including an index of skeletal mass, muscle strength, and gait speed. Dynapenia was defined as a handgrip force ≤ 30 kg for men and ≤ 20 kg for women. RESULTS: Dynapenia and sarcopenia were present in 84.6% and 71.2% respectively. Both were more prevalent in older subjects and women than men.  While sarcopenia was associated with body mass index and hypertension, dynapenia was associated with hypothyroidism and visual impairment.  After controlling for all covariates, sarcopenia was associated with low IADL and mobility disability. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was associated with mobility, ADL and IADL disability. Dynapenia was not associated with disability in this high - risk population. Systematic assessment of sarcopenia should be implemented in falls and fractures clinics to identify sarcopenia and develop interventions to prevent functional decline among elderly individuals.

  6. Dynapenia and Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Disability in a Falls and Fractures Clinic in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Angela-María; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Duque, Gustavo; Gómez, Fernando

    2018-02-15

    The role of sarcopenia and dynapenia in disability in older persons from falls and bone health clinics remain unknown. This study aims to compare the association of sarcopenia and dynapenia with physical and instrumental disability in a population of older persons attending a falls and fractures clinic. This is a cross-sectional study in Manizales, Andes Mountains, Colombia. A cohort of 534 subjects (mean age = 74, 75% female) Sarcopenia was measured according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) including an index of skeletal mass, muscle strength, and gait speed. Dynapenia was defined as a handgrip force ≤ 30 kg for men and ≤ 20 kg for women. Dynapenia and sarcopenia were present in 84.6% and 71.2% respectively. Both were more prevalent in older subjects and women than men. While sarcopenia was associated with body mass index and hypertension, dynapenia was associated with hypothyroidism and visual impairment. After controlling for all covariates, sarcopenia was associated with low IADL and mobility disability. Sarcopenia was associated with mobility, ADL and IADL disability. Dynapenia was not associated with disability in this high - risk population. Systematic assessment of sarcopenia should be implemented in falls and fractures clinics to identify sarcopenia and develop interventions to prevent functional decline among elderly individuals.

  7. Neurotic Personality Traits and Risk for Adverse Alcohol Outcomes: Chained Mediation through Emotional Disorder Symptoms and Drinking to Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinneck, A; Thompson, K; Dobson, K S; Stuart, H; Teehan, M; Stewart, S H

    2018-02-02

    Rates of alcohol abuse are high on Canadian postsecondary campuses. Individual trait differences have been linked to indices of alcohol use/misuse, including neurotic traits like anxiety sensitivity (AS) and hopelessness (HOP). We know little, though, about how these traits confer vulnerability. AS and HOP are related to anxiety and depression, respectively, and to drinking to cope with symptoms of those disorders. Neurotic personality may therefore increase risk of alcohol use/abuse via (1) emotional disorder symptoms and/or (2) coping drinking motives. Allan and colleagues (2014) found chained mediation through AS-generalized anxiety-coping motives-alcohol problems and AS-depression-coping motives-alcohol problems. We sought to expand their research by investigating how emotional disorder symptoms (anxiety, depression) and specific coping motives (drinking to cope with anxiety, depression) may sequentially mediate the AS/HOP-to-hazardous alcohol use/drinking harms relationships among university students. This study used cross-sectional data collected in Fall 2014 as part of the Movember-funded Caring Campus Project (N = 1,883). The survey included the SURPS, adapted DMQ-R SF, and AUDIT-3. AS and HOP were both related to hazardous alcohol and drinking harms via emotional disorder symptoms and, in turn, coping drinking motives. All indirect pathways incorporating both mediators were statistically significant, and additional evidence of partial specificity was found. Conclusions/Importance: The study's results have important implications for personality-matched interventions for addictive disorders.

  8. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland: association with disease severity and risk markers in cardiac patients

    OpenAIRE

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D.; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Olason, Daniel T.; Thorgilsson, Hordur; Sigtryggsdottir, Unnur; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    textabstractType D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. Th...

  9. Radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yossepowitch, Ofer; Eastham, James A

    2008-06-01

    Consensus recommendations for the identification and treatment of men whose apparent organ confined prostate cancer has high risk features are lacking. Despite ongoing refinements in surgical technique and improvements in morbidity and functional outcomes, the tradition of steering high-risk patients away from radical prostatectomy (RP) remains steadfast. We performed a medical literature search in English using MEDLINE/PubMed that addressed high risk prostate cancer. We analyzed the literature with respect to the historical evolution of this concept, current risk stratification schemes and treatment guidelines and related short and long term outcomes following RP. Contemporary evidence suggest that patients classified with high-risk prostate cancer by commonly used definitions do not have a uniformly poor prognosis after RP. Many cancers categorized clinically as high risk are actually pathologically confined to the prostate, and most men with such cancers who undergo RP are alive and free of additional therapy long after surgery. RP in the high-risk setting appears to be associated with a similar morbidity as in lower-risk patients. Men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer should not be categorically disqualified from local definitive therapy with RP. With careful attention to surgical technique, cancer control rates should improve further, and adverse effects on quality of life after RP should continue to decrease.

  10. Long-term effects of earthquake experience of young persons on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Ji, Chunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors of stress from direct experience of an earthquake as a young person. Material and methods We selected workers born between July 1, 1958 and July 1, 1976 who were examined at Kailuan General Hospital between May and October of 2013. Data on cardiovascular events were taken during the workers’ annual health examination conducted between 2006 and 2007. All subjects were divided into three groups according to their experience of the Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976, as follows: control group; exposed group 1 and exposed group 2. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between the three groups as well as by gender and age. Results One thousand one hundred and ninety-six workers were included in the final statistical analysis. Among all subjects, resting heart rate (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p earthquake compared with unexposed controls, but were unrelated to loss of relatives. No significant difference in triglyceride levels was observed between the three groups (p = 0.900). Further refinement showed that the effects were restricted to males 40 years of age or older at the time of analysis, but were due primarily to age at the time of earthquake exposure (p = 0.002, p Earthquake experience in the early years of life has long-term effects on adult resting heart rate, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, especially among men. PMID:28144258

  11. A first screening and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products in waste water, sludge, recipient water and sediment from Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Sandra; Remberger, Mikael; Kaj, Lennart; Schlabach, Martin; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Vester, Jette; Arnórsson, Mímir; Mortensen, Inge; Schwartson, Richard; Dam, Maria

    2016-08-15

    A screening of a broad range of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products (PPCPs) in sub-arctic locations of the Faroe Islands (FO), Iceland (IS) and Greenland (GL) was conducted. In total 36 pharmaceuticals including some metabolites, and seven additives in personal care products were investigated in influent and effluent waters as well as sludge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and in water and sediment of recipients. Concentrations and distribution patterns for PPCPs discharged via sewage lines (SLs) to the marine environment were assessed. Of the 36 pharmaceuticals or metabolites analysed 33 were found close to or above the limit of detection (LOD) in all or a part of the samples. All of the seven investigated additives in personal care products were detected above the LOD. Some of the analysed PPCPs occurred in every or almost every sample. Among these were diclofenac, ibuprofen, lidocaine, naproxen, metformin, citalopram, venlafaxine, amiloride, furosemide, metoprolol, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cetrimonium salt (ATAC-C16). Additionally, the study encompasses ecotoxicological risk assessment of 2/3 of the analysed PPCPs in recipient and diluted effluent waters. For candesartan only a small margin to levels with inacceptable risks was observed in diluted effluent waters at two locations (FO). Chronical risks for aquatic organisms staying and/or living around WWTP effluent pipe-outlets were indicated for 17β-estradiol and estriol in the three countries. Additives in PCPs were found to pose the largest risk to the aquatic environment. The surfactants CAPB and ATAC-C16 were found in concentrations resulting in risk factors up to 375 for CAPB and 165 for ATAC-C16 in recipients for diluted effluents from Iggia, Nuuk (GL) and Torshavn (FO) respectively. These results demonstrates a potentially high ecological risk stemming from discharge of surfactants as used in household and industrial detergents as well as additives in personal care

  12. A metasynthesis of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne; Ayers, Susan; Holden, Des

    2014-04-01

    risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects their decisions about perinatal care and is of interest to anyone involved in the care of pregnant women. This paper provides a metasynthesis of qualitative studies of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies. a systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Additional papers were obtained through searching references of identified articles. Six studies were identified that reported qualitative research into risk perception in relation to high risk pregnancy. A metasynthesis was developed to describe and interpret the studies. the synthesis resulted in the identification of five themes: determinants of risk perception; not seeing it the way others do; normality versus risk; if the infant is ok, I׳m ok; managing risk. this metasynthesis suggests women at high risk during pregnancy use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status. It shows women are aware of the risks posed by their pregnancies but do not perceive risk in the same way as healthcare professionals. They will take steps to ensure the health of themselves and their infants but these may not include following all medical recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, Mk; Jiloha, Rc; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, Gk

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  14. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  15. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  16. The Influence of Personality, Parenting Styles, and Perfectionism on Performance Goal Orientation in High Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores relationships among gender, perceived parenting style, the personality traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism, perfectionism, and achievement goal orientation in a high ability and high achieving young adult population. Using data from Honors College students at a Midwestern university, a path model suggests that…

  17. Personality traits as predictors of inpatient aggression in a high-security forensic psychiatric setting: prospective evaluation of the PCL-R and IPDE dimension ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Calvin M; Hogue, Todd E; Daffern, Michael; Mannion, Aisling; Howells, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    The Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) initiative in England and Wales provides specialized care to high-risk offenders with mental disorders. This study investigated the predictive utility of personality traits, assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the International Personality Disorder Examination, with 44 consecutive admissions to the DSPD unit at a high-security forensic psychiatric hospital. Incidents of interpersonal physical aggression (IPA) were observed for 39% of the sample over an average 1.5-year period following admission. Histrionic personality disorder (PD) predicted IPA, and Histrionic, Borderline, and Antisocial PDs all predicted repetitive (2+ incidents of) IPA. PCL-R Factor 1 and Facets 1 and 2 were also significant predictors of IPA. PCL-R Factor 1 and Histrionic PD scores were significantly associated with imminence of IPA. Results were discussed in terms of the utility of personality traits in risk assessment and treatment of specially selected high-risk forensic psychiatric patients in secure settings.

  18. The interaction of working memory and emotion in persons clinically at risk for psychosis: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Katharina; Seiferth, Nina Y; Kellermann, Thilo; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Daumann, Bianca; Backes, Volker; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Shah, N Jon; Schneider, Frank; Kircher, Tilo T; Habel, Ute

    2010-07-01

    Subtle emotional and cognitive dysfunctions may already be apparent in individuals at risk for psychosis. However, there is a paucity of research on the neural correlates of the interaction of both domains. It remains unclear whether those correlates are already dysfunctional before a transition to psychosis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the interaction of working memory and emotion in 12 persons clinically at high risk for psychosis (CHR) and 12 healthy subjects individually matched for age, gender and parental education. Participants performed an n-back task while negative or neutral emotion was induced by olfactory stimulation. Although healthy and psychosis-prone subjects did not differ in their working memory performance or the evaluation of the induced emotion, decreased activations were found in CHR subjects in the superior parietal lobe and the precuneus during working memory and in the insula during emotion induction. Looking at the interaction, CHR subjects, showed decreased activation in the right superior temporal gyrus, which correlated negatively with psychopathological scores. Decreased activation was also found in the thalamus. However, an increase of activation emerged in several cerebellar regions. Dysfunctions in areas associated with controlling whether incoming information is linked to emotional content and in the integration of multimodal information might lead to compensatory activations of cerebellar regions known to be involved in olfactory and working memory processes. Our study underlines that cerebral dysfunctions related to cognitive and emotional processes, as well as their interaction, can emerge in persons with CHR, even in absence of behavioral differences. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...

  20. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4- 60 months. Methods: ...

  1. Drug response prediction in high-risk multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A J; Helm-Petersen, S; Cowland, J B

    2018-01-01

    from high-risk patients by GEP70 at diagnosis from Total Therapy 2 and 3A to predict the response by the DRP score of drugs used in the treatment of myeloma patients. The DRP score stratified patients further. High-risk myeloma with a predicted sensitivity to melphalan by the DRP score had a prolonged...

  2. Elevated level of serum triglyceride among high risk stress bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate lipid profile among high risk stress bank employees' correlated with heart disorders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 129 patients with high risk stress employees were involved in this study, which were divided into 69 males and 60 females between the age of 25 to 55 years.

  3. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  4. The Relationship between Internet Addiction and Personality Traits of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Tamannaifar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction is a kind of dependence that some personality characteristics leave an important effect on using internet. On this basis, research is designed to assess the relationship between personality characteristics and internet addiction.Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in 12,480 of second and third high school students in Kashan was conducted. 400 students were selected by random cluster sampling. To measure internet addiction we used twenty questions to test internet addiction and to measure personality characteristics of students we used sixty questions questionnaire of Neo To analyze data we used Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis.Results: There is significant relationship between internet addiction with neuroticism and extroversion, but there was not any significant relationship between being conscientious with internet addiction. Conclusion: Internet addiction relates to some personality traits of students, including neuroticism and extroversion

  5. Patients at High-Risk for Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, Krislynn M; Kao, Lillian S

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant healthcare quality issue, resulting in increased morbidity, disability, length of stay, resource utilization, and costs. Identification of high-risk patients may improve pre-operative counseling, inform resource utilization, and allow modifications in peri-operative management to optimize outcomes. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. High-risk surgical patients may be identified on the basis of individual risk factors or combinations of factors. In particular, statistical models and risk calculators may be useful in predicting infectious risks, both in general and for SSIs. These models differ in the number of variables; inclusion of pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative variables; ease of calculation; and specificity for particular procedures. Furthermore, the models differ in their accuracy in stratifying risk. Biomarkers may be a promising way to identify patients at high risk of infectious complications. Although multiple strategies exist for identifying surgical patients at high risk for SSIs, no one strategy is superior for all patients. Further efforts are necessary to determine if risk stratification in combination with risk modification can reduce SSIs in these patient populations.

  6. High Center Volume Does Not Mitigate Risk Associated with Using High Donor Risk Organs in Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Eliza W; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid; Hayes, Don; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Washburn, Kenneth; Tumin, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    High-risk donor allografts increase access to liver transplant, but potentially reduce patient and graft survival. It is unclear whether the risk associated with using marginal donor livers is mitigated by increasing center experience. The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried for adult first-time liver transplant recipients between 2/2002 and 12/2015. High donor risk was defined as donor risk index >1.9, and 1-year patient and graft survival were compared according to donor risk index in small and large centers. Multivariable Cox regression estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with using high-risk donor organs, according to a continuous measure of annual center volume. The analysis included 51,770 patients. In 67 small and 67 large centers, high donor risk index predicted increased mortality (p = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, high-donor risk index allografts predicted greater mortality hazard at centers performing 20 liver transplants per year (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.22, 1.49; p donor risk index and center volume was not statistically significant (p = 0.747), confirming that the risk associated with using marginal donor livers was comparable between smaller and larger centers. Results were consistent when examining graft loss. At both small and large centers, high-risk donor allografts were associated with reduced patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Specific strategies to mitigate the risk of liver transplant involving high-risk donors are needed, in addition to accumulation of center expertise.

  7. Plasma Signaling Proteins in Persons at Genetic Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringman, John M.; Elashoff, David; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Welsh, Brian T.; Gylys, Karen H.; Lee, Cathy; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Cole, Greg M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) mutations and APOE genotype on plasma signaling protein levels. Design Cross-sectional comparison of plasma levels of 77 proteins measured using multiplex immune assays. Setting A tertiary referral dementia research center. Participants Thirty-three persons from families harboring PSEN1 or APP mutations, aged 19 to 59 years. Main Outcome Measures Protein levels were compared between FAD mutation carriers (MCs) and non-carriers (NCs) and among APOE genotype groups, using multiple linear regression models. Results Twenty-one participants were FAD MCs and 12 were NCs. Six had the APOE ε2/3, 6 had the ε3/4, and 21 had the ε3/3 genotype. Levels of 17 proteins differed among APOE genotype groups, and there were significant interactions between age and APOE genotype for 12 proteins. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and superoxide dismutase 1 were highest in the ε2 carriers, lowest in ε4 carriers, and intermediate in the ε3 carriers. Levels of multiple interleukins showed the opposite pattern and, among the ε4 carriers, demonstrated significant negative correlations with age. Although there were no significant differences between FAD MCs and NCs, there were interactions between mutation status and APOE genotype for 13 proteins. Conclusions We found different patterns of inflammatory markers in young and middle-aged persons among APOE genotype groups. The APOE ε4 carriers had the lowest levels of apolipoprotein E. Young ε4 carriers have increased inflammatory markers that diminish with age. We demonstrated altered inflammatory responses in young and middle adulthood in ε4 carriers that may relate to AD risk later in life. PMID:22689192

  8. Plasma signaling proteins in persons at genetic risk for Alzheimer disease: influence of APOE genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringman, John M; Elashoff, David; Geschwind, Daniel H; Welsh, Brian T; Gylys, Karen H; Lee, Cathy; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Cole, Greg M

    2012-06-01

    To study the effect of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) mutations and APOE genotype on plasma signaling protein levels. Cross-sectional comparison of plasma levels of 77 proteins measured using multiplex immune assays. A tertiary referral dementia research center. Thirty-three persons from families harboring PSEN1 or APP mutations, aged 19 to 59 years. Protein levels were compared between FAD mutation carriers (MCs) and noncarriers (NCs) and among APOE genotype groups, using multiple linear regression models. Twenty-one participants were FAD MCs and 12 were NCs. Six had the APOE ε2/3, 6 had the ε3/4, and 21 had the ε3/3 genotype. Levels of 17 proteins differed among APOE genotype groups, and there were significant interactions between age and APOE genotype for 12 proteins. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and superoxide dismutase 1 were highest in the ε2 carriers, lowest in ε4 carriers, and intermediate in the ε3 carriers. Levels of multiple interleukins showed the opposite pattern and, among the ε4 carriers, demonstrated significant negative correlations with age. Although there were no significant differences between FAD MCs and NCs, there were interactions between mutation status and APOE genotype for 13 proteins. We found different patterns of inflammatory markers in young and middle-aged persons among APOE genotype groups. The APOE ε4 carriers had the lowest levels of apolipoprotein E. Young ε4 carriers have increased inflammatory markers that diminish with age. We demonstrated altered inflammatory responses in young and middle adulthood in ε4 carriers that may relate to AD risk later in life.

  9. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  10. Long-term Risk of Dementia in Persons With Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Charles, Morten; Katon, Wayne; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Davydow, Dimitry; Chwastiak, Lydia; Cerimele, Joseph M; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-11-01

    Although schizophrenia is associated with several age-related disorders and considerable cognitive impairment, it remains unclear whether the risk of dementia is higher among persons with schizophrenia compared with those without schizophrenia. To determine the risk of dementia among persons with schizophrenia compared with those without schizophrenia in a large nationwide cohort study with up to 18 years of follow-up, taking age and established risk factors for dementia into account. This population-based cohort study of more than 2.8 million persons aged 50 years or older used individual data from 6 nationwide registers in Denmark. A total of 20 683 individuals had schizophrenia. Follow-up started on January 1, 1995, and ended on January 1, 2013. Analysis was conducted from January 1, 2015, to April 30, 2015. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative incidence proportions (CIPs) of dementia for persons with schizophrenia compared with persons without schizophrenia. During 18 years of follow-up, 136 012 individuals, including 944 individuals with a history of schizophrenia, developed dementia. Schizophrenia was associated with a more than 2-fold higher risk of all-cause dementia (IRR, 2.13; 95% CI, 2.00-2.27) after adjusting for age, sex, and calendar period. The estimates (reported as IRR; 95% CI) did not change substantially when adjusting for medical comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (2.01; 1.89-2.15) but decreased slightly when adjusting for substance abuse (1.71; 1.60-1.82). The association between schizophrenia and dementia risk was stable when evaluated in subgroups characterized by demographics and comorbidities, although the IRR was higher among individuals younger than 65 years (3.77; 3.29-4.33), men (2.38; 2.13-2.66), individuals living with a partner (3.16; 2.71-3.69), those without cerebrovascular disease (2.23; 2.08-2.39), and those without substance abuse (1.96; 1.82-2.11). The CIPs (95% CIs) of developing

  11. INTERRELATION OF PERSONAL VALUE SYSTEMS AND ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH-LEVEL HOTEL MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivaniš

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A successful high-level management is aware of the fact that, in competitive surroundings, business ethics enables growth and development, increases efficiency and productivity. In this sense, at the time when ethical behaviour is of paramount importance if one wants to retain an enterprise on the market, it has become essential to perceive the relationship between personal values of high-level management with ethical behaviour which is the purpose of this paper. The results of the research in this paper indicate the correlation between the personal value system and the ethical/unethical behaviour of hotel manager of large companies in Croatia.

  12. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Phillip J., E-mail: pt06@aub.edu.lb [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Khater, Nabil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, University of St. Joseph, P.O. Box 166830, Alfred Naccache Blvd, Beirut (Lebanon); Zhang, Rui [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Geara, Fady B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Mahajan, Anita [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Jalbout, Wassim [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Pérez-Andújar, Angélica [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Youssef, Bassem [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Newhauser, Wayne D. [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care.

  13. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B.; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care

  14. The importance of parents and other caregivers to the resilience of high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Relationships between 43 high-risk adolescents and their caregivers were examined qualitatively. Parents and other formal and informal caregivers such as youth workers and foster parents were found to exert a large influence on the behaviors that bolster mental health among high-risk youth marginalized by poverty, social stigma, personal and physical characteristics, ethnicity, and poor social or academic performance. Participants' accounts of their intergenerational relationships with caregivers showed that teenagers seek close relationships with adults in order to negotiate for powerful self-constructions as resilient. High-risk teens say they want the adults in their lives to serve as an audience in front of whom they can perform the identities they construct both inside and outside their homes. This pattern was evident even among youth who presented as being more peer-than family-oriented. The implications of these findings to interventions with caregivers and teens is discussed.

  15. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  16. The Very High Risk Prostate Cancer – a Contemporary Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Roy; Eastham, James; Yossepowitch, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    Background Treatment of high-risk prostate cancer has evolved considerably over the past two decades, yet patients with very high-risk features may still experience poor outcome despite aggressive therapy. We review the contemporary literature focusing on current definitions, role of modern imaging and treatment alternatives in very high-risk prostate cancer. Methods We searched the MEDLINE database for all clinical trials or practice guidelines published in English between 2000 – 2016 with the following search terms: ‘prostatic neoplasms’ (MeSH Terms) AND (‘high risk’ (keyword) OR ‘locally advanced’ (keyword) OR ‘node positive’ (keyword)). Abstracts pertaining to very high-risk prostate cancer were evaluated and 40 pertinent studies served as the basis for this review. Results The term ‘very’ high-risk prostate cancer remains ill defined. The EAU and NCCN guidelines provide the only available definitions, categorizing those with clinical stage T3-4 or minimal nodal involvement as very-high risk irrespective of PSA level or biopsy Gleason score. Modern imaging with mpMRI and PET-PSMA scans plays a role in pretreatment assessment. Local definitive therapy by external beam radiation combined with androgen deprivation is supported by several randomized clinical trials whereas the role of surgery in the very high-risk setting combined with adjuvant radiation/ androgen deprivation therapy is emerging. Growing evidence suggest neoadjuvant taxane based chemotherapy in the context of a multimodal approach may be beneficial. Conclusions Men with very high-risk tumors may benefit from local definitive treatment in the setting of a multimodal regimen, offering local control and possibly cure in well selected patients. Further studies are necessary to better characterize the ‘very’ high-risk category and determine the optimal therapy for the individual patient. PMID:27618950

  17. Impact of Tailored Education on Awareness of Personal Risk for Therapy-Related Complications Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Chen, Yanjun; Namdar, Golnaz; Francisco, Liton; Wilson, Karla; Herrera, Claudia; Armenian, Saro; Wolfson, Julie A; Sun, Can-Lan; Wong, F Lennie; Bhatia, Smita

    2015-11-20

    Survivors of childhood cancer carry a substantial burden of long-term morbidity; personal risk awareness is critical to ensure survivors' engagement in early detection/management of complications. The impact of education provided in survivorship clinics on survivors' understanding of their personal health risks is unclear. Patients diagnosed with cancer at age 21 years or younger and at 2 or more years off therapy completed questionnaires about awareness of personal risk for therapy-related complications at T0 (first survivorship clinic visit) and at T1 to T5 (subsequent visits). After questionnaire completion at each clinic visit, survivors received education tailored to personal risk. A total of 369 survivors completed 1,248 visits (median, three visits; range, one to six visits). The median age at cancer diagnosis was 11 years (range, 0 to 21 years); the median age at T0 was 24 years (range, 5 to 57 years); 38% were white; 45% had leukemia; and 34% received hematopoietic cell transplantation. The cohort was at risk for a median of six (range, one to nine) complications. Awareness increased from 38.6% at T0 to 66.3% at T3. Generalized estimating equations (that adjusted for diagnosis, hematopoietic cell transplantation, race/ethnicity, and patient/parent education) showed significant gains in awareness from T0 to T1 (P awareness included education less than a college degree (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; P = .02), longer time from diagnosis (OR, 1.03/year; P = .04), diagnosis of leukemia (OR, 2.1; P = .004), nonwhite race (OR, 2.8; P awareness of personal health risk through three sessions, with saturation thereafter. Vulnerable populations with minimal gain in awareness identified in this study could inform targeted interventions. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Professional exposure of medical workers: radiation levels, radiation risk and personal dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Guang

    2005-01-01

    The application of radiation in the field of medicine is the most active area. Due to the rapid and strong development of intervention radiology at present near 20 years, particularly, the medical workers become a popularize group which most rapid increasing and also receiving the must high of professional exposure dose. Because, inter alias, radiation protection management nag training have not fully follow up, the aware of radioactive protection and appropriate approach have tot fully meet the development and need, the professional exposure dose received by medical workers, especially those being engaged in intervention radiology, are more higher, as well as have not yet fully receiving the complete personal dose monitoring, the medical workers become the population group which should be paid the most attention to. The writer would advice in this paper that all medical workers who being received a professional radiation exposure should pay more attention to the safety and healthy they by is strengthening radiation protection and receiving complete personal dose monitoring. (authors)

  19. Association of Late Adolescent Personality With Risk for Subsequent Serious Mental Illness Among Men in a Swedish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph F; Osborn, David P J; Lewis, Glyn; Dalman, Christina; Lundin, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Understanding of personality as an independent risk factor for serious mental illness (SMI) remains limited. Recently, overlap between the polygenic basis for specific personality traits and specific SMIs has been identified. To determine the association of the adolescent personality domains of social maturity, mental energy, and emotional stability with later diagnosis of SMI. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled Swedish male military conscripts aged 18 or 19 years from January 1, 1974, through December 31, 1997. The diagnosis of an SMI was extracted from the National Patient Register for all inpatient treatment episodes in Sweden from January 1, 1974, through December 31, 2011. Data were analyzed from May 3 to September 16, 2016. Social maturity, mental energy, and emotional stability assessed at conscription interview. Inpatient diagnoses of bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, and other nonaffective psychoses occurring until December 31, 2011. Of the 1 017 691 men included in the cohort, 4310 developed bipolar disorder; 784, schizoaffective disorder; 4823, schizophrenia; and 5013, other nonaffective psychoses. After adjustment, with use of mean scores as a reference, low social maturity (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.48-1.74), low mental energy (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.44), and low emotional stability (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.40-1.63) were inversely associated with schizophrenia in a dose-dependent fashion. Other nonaffective psychoses displayed a similar pattern. Bipolar disorder was associated with high (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09-1.35) and low (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25) social maturity and low emotional stability (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.46-1.78). Schizoaffective disorder was associated with low emotional stability (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.26-1.85). Emotional stability is inversely associated with all SMI. Bipolar disorder has a unique U-shaped association with social maturity. Premorbid personality may reflect subtle changes in

  20. Personality and emotion-based high-level control of affective story characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Poh; Pham, Binh; Wardhani, Aster

    2007-01-01

    Human emotional behavior, personality, and body language are the essential elements in the recognition of a believable synthetic story character. This paper presents an approach using story scripts and action descriptions in a form similar to the content description of storyboards to predict specific personality and emotional states. By adopting the Abridged Big Five Circumplex (AB5C) Model of personality from the study of psychology as a basis for a computational model, we construct a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based system to facilitate the personality and emotion control of the body language of a dynamic story character. The story character can consistently perform specific postures and gestures based on his/her personality type. Story designers can devise a story context in the form of our story interface which predictably motivates personality and emotion values to drive the appropriate movements of the story characters. Our system takes advantage of relevant knowledge described by psychologists and researchers of storytelling, nonverbal communication, and human movement. Our ultimate goal is to facilitate the high-level control of a synthetic character.

  1. Epidemic genital retraction syndrome: environmental and personal risk factors in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S T

    1997-01-01

    Koro is the term used to define the fear that one's sex organ is retracting into the body and that the complete retraction of the organ will result in death. While koro is found mainly among the Chinese and other Asian societies near China, the condition is most prevalent in southern China, where repeated epidemics have occurred. In that region, koro is found only among the Hans, the dominant ethnic group, and is over-represented among people under age 24 years. Koro provokes considerable anxiety in the individual in question and his/her family and neighbors, and is more prevalent among males than females. Men try to pull the penis out from the body or to prevent it from shrinking further by tying a string around the penis or securing it with a clamping device. Some Asian women have reported shrinking breasts, nipples, or labia. Relatives and neighbors of the same sex often help to rescue the organ in question, especially in applying anchoring devices. Others may also believe a person has koro and attempt to rescue their organ without the individual's consent. Injury to the sex organ, including bruises, bleeding, and infection, is common and sometimes results in permanent damage. In general, however, koro attacks are acute, brief, and tend not to recur. The 1984-85 koro epidemic in Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula is reviewed to shed light upon prevailing cultural attitudes and beliefs, news and rumors about koro, and anxiety in neighborhoods which may be causative environmental risk factors for koro. Education, age, and marital status are considered as individual risk factors. Koro in China is best described as a social sickness supported by cultural myths which tend to affect young people who are deprived of proper sex information to explain their physical development.

  2. Complementary therapy use and quality of life in persons with high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sherry; Laws, Edward R; Anderson, Frederick; Farace, Elana

    2006-08-01

    Studies have indicated that 30%-80% of cancer patients use complementary and alternative practices and products (CAPPs), but little is known about CAPPs use by persons with brain tumors. This secondary analysis of Glioma Outcomes Project data compared CAPPs users with nonusers, compared those who stopped using CAPPs with those who continued use, described frequency and patterns of CAPPs use, and compared the relationship of CAPPs use to self-reported quality of life (QOL) over time, in 186 persons with high-grade gliomas. CAPPs users at all three measurement points rated QOL higher, although not significantly higher, than nonusers. Study findings support further exploration of CAPPs use and its effects on key outcomes in persons with high-grade gliomas.

  3. Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Krueger, R F; Ystrom, E; Torvik, F A; Rosenström, T H; Aggen, S H; South, S C; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S; Czajkowski, N O

    2017-09-01

    DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity. Schizotypal, Paranoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-compulsive PDs were assessed at the same time as the maladaptive personality traits and 10 years previously. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Dependent PDs were only assessed at the first interview. Biometric models were used to estimate overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors. When measured concurrently, there was 100% genetic overlap between the maladaptive trait domains and Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, and Avoidant PDs. For OCPD, 43% of the genetic variance was shared with the domains. Genetic correlations between the individual domains and PDs ranged from +0.21 to +0.91. The pathological personality trait domains, which are part of the Alternative Model for classification of PDs in DSM-5 Section III, appears to tap, at an aggregate level, the same genetic risk factors as the DSM-5 Section II classification for most of the PDs.

  4. Personal Health Risks Behaviour Profile among University Students in the South East Nigeria: Implication for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilo, Cajetan I.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom; Nwimo, Ignatius O.

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the personal health risks behaviour profile among university students in the south east of Nigeria. A random sample of 900 students completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of this number 821, representing about 91.2% return rate, were used for data analysis. Means and…

  5. Role of Experience With Preventive Medication and Personal Risk Attitude in Non-Attendance at Triple Vascular Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina B.; Lindholt, Jes S.; Søgaard, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    , and hypertension in the Viborg Vascular (VIVA) screening trial. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, diagnoses, and use of preventive medication were extracted from national registries. A proxy for personal risk attitude was constructed. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios...

  6. Morality and Nuclear Energy : Perceptions of Risks and Benefits, Personal Norms, and Willingness to Take Action Related to Nuclear Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    We examined factors underlying people's willingness to take action in favor of or against nuclear energy from a moral perspective. We conducted a questionnaire study among a sample of the Dutch population (N = 123). As expected, perceptions of risks and benefits were related to personal norms (PN),

  7. SOCIAL-COMPARISON OF HEALTH RISKS - LOCUS OF CONTROL, THE PERSON-POSITIVITY BIAS, AND UNREALISTIC OPTIMISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOORENS, [No Value; BUUNK, BP

    1993-01-01

    People typically attribute lower health risks to themselves than to others, a phenomenon referred to as unrealistic optimism. The present study tested the person positivity bias as a previously unexamined explanation of the phenomenon and analyzed the relationship between unrealistic optimism and

  8. The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

  9. What's Important to Me: Identifying At-Risk and Resilient Students through Narrative Writing about Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie T.; Elias, Maurice J.; Epstein, Yakov M.

    2015-01-01

    The study explored whether aspects of elementary students' writing about their personal values could predict if students were considered more at risk or more resilient. Essays from 176 fifth-grade students (79.54% African American, 20.46% Hispanic) from a low-income, urban district in New Jersey were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word…

  10. Patients at high risk of tuberculosis recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirsaeidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent tuberculosis (TB continues to be a significant problem and is an important indicator of the effectiveness of TB control. Recurrence can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. Recurrence of TB is still a major problem in high-burden countries, where there is lack of resources and no special attention is being given to this issue. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 47%. This variability is related to differences in regional epidemiology of recurrence and differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs. In addition to treatment failure from noncompliance, there are several key host factors that are associated with high rates of recurrence. The widely recognized host factors independent of treatment program that predispose to TB recurrence include gender differences, malnutrition; comorbidities such as diabetes, renal failure, and systemic diseases, especially immunosuppressive states such as human immunodeficiency virus; substance abuse; and environmental exposures such as silicosis. With improved understanding of the human genome, proteome, and metabolome, additional host-specific factors that predispose to recurrence are being identified. Information on temporal and geographical trends of TB cases as well as studies with whole-genome sequencing might provide further information to enable us to fully understand TB recurrence and discriminate between reactivation and new infection. The recently launched World Health Organization End TB Strategy emphasizes the importance of integrated, patient-centered TB care. Continued improvement in diagnosis, treatment approaches, and an understanding of host-specific factors are needed to fully understand the clinical epidemiological and social determinants of TB recurrence.

  11. Patients at high risk of tuberculosis recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant problem and is an important indicator of the effectiveness of TB control. Recurrence can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. Recurrence of TB is still a major problem in high-burden countries, where there is lack of resources and no special attention is being given to this issue. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 47%. This variability is related to differences in regional epidemiology of recurrence and differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs. In addition to treatment failure from noncompliance, there are several key host factors that are associated with high rates of recurrence. The widely recognized host factors independent of treatment program that predispose to TB recurrence include gender differences, malnutrition; comorbidities such as diabetes, renal failure, and systemic diseases, especially immunosuppressive states such as human immunodeficiency virus; substance abuse; and environmental exposures such as silicosis. With improved understanding of the human genome, proteome, and metabolome, additional host-specific factors that predispose to recurrence are being identified. Information on temporal and geographical trends of TB cases as well as studies with whole-genome sequencing might provide further information to enable us to fully understand TB recurrence and discriminate between reactivation and new infection. The recently launched World Health Organization End TB Strategy emphasizes the importance of integrated, patient-centered TB care. Continued improvement in diagnosis, treatment approaches, and an understanding of host-specific factors are needed to fully understand the clinical epidemiological and social determinants of TB recurrence.

  12. Borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder and risk-taking among heroin users: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Teesson, Maree; Lynskey, Michael

    2004-04-09

    To determine the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and harm among current heroin users. Cross-sectional survey. Sydney, Australia. 615 current heroin users. Forty-six percent met criteria for BPD, 71% for ASPD, and 38% met criteria for both diagnoses. ASPD was related to attempted suicide, lifetime overdose, polydrug use, depression and overall psychological distress. BPD was also related to each of these risk domains, and to needle risk and recent suicide as well. When analysed separately, both BPD and ASPD thus appeared to predict harm. For the purposes of further analysis, the relationships between BPD, ASPD and harm, the sample was divided into four independent diagnostic groups: no diagnosis (ND, 21%), ASPD only (ASPD, 33%), BPD only (BPD, 7%), ASPD plus BPD (DUAL, 38%). The division of the sample into four distinct diagnostic groups produced substantially different results. There were strong relationships between BPD and attempted suicide, needle sharing and psychopathology. In none of these domains did the ASPD group significantly differ from the ND group. Also, the levels of harm among the DUAL group were identical to BPD, suggesting no additive risk from ASPD. Thus, while initial analyses suggested an increased risk for ASPD patients for suicide and psychopathology, these relationships disappeared after BPD was taken into account. The only domain in which there appeared to be an additive risk for ASPD and BPD was heroin overdose. The extensive comorbidity between BPD and ASPD means that, unless BPD is controlled for, artefactual relationships may emerge between ASPD and harm.

  13. Exercise, diet, health behaviors, and risk factors among persons with epilepsy based on the California Health Interview Survey, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O; Lu, Bo; Moore, J Layne; McAuley, James W; Long, Lucretia

    2008-08-01

    Based on the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, persons with a history of epilepsy report lower educational attainment, lower annual income, and poorer health status, similar to other state-based epidemiological surveys. Previous studies have found persons with epilepsy exercise less and smoke more than the nonepilepsy population. The medical literature has also shown that antiepileptic drugs may cause nutritional deficiencies. Persons with a history of epilepsy in the 2005 CHIS report they walk more for transportation, drink more soda, and eat less salad than the nonepilepsy population. Exercise and dietary behaviors at recommended levels have been found to reduce mortality from many comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, depression, anxiety, and osteoporosis for which persons with epilepsy are at increased risk. Health professionals in the epilepsy field should step up their efforts to engage patients in health promotion, especially in the areas of exercise, diet, and smoking cessation.

  14. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  15. The Influence of Culture-Specific Personality Traits on the Development of Delinquency in At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tat Seng; Ku, Lisbeth; Zaroff, Charles Mark

    2016-04-01

    The association between culture-specific personality variables and family factors, and juvenile delinquency, was assessed in a sample of 402 adolescents of Chinese ethnicity between 12 and 17 years of age (Mage = 15.13, SD = 1.41; 135 girls), a subgroup of whom were considered at risk for juvenile delinquency owing to addictive behavior tendencies. Culture-specific personality variables were assessed using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent version Interpersonal Relatedness factor. The General Function subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device was utilized to assess the influence of perceived levels of family functioning. Both culture-specific personality variables and non-culture-specific familial factors were significantly and negatively associated with self-reported juvenile delinquency (p delinquency (p < .001). Implications of the current results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Risk and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus and the Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid......-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark, during 2002-2005. Samples were tested with a clinical test for 13 high-risk and five low-risk HPV types. The cohort (N=35,539; aged 14-90 years) was monitored in a nationwide pathology register for up...... cytology. Detection of low-risk HPV does not predict CIN 3 or worse. Cervical cancer screening should not include testing for low-risk HPV types. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II....

  18. Effectiveness of a web-based personalized rheumatoid arthritis risk tool with or without a health educator for knowledge of RA risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria G; Iversen, Maura D; Yu, Zhi; Miller Kroouze, Rachel; Triedman, Nellie A; Kalia, Sarah S; Lu, Bing; Green, Robert C; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Sparks, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-05

    To assess knowledge of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk factors among unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) and to study whether a personalized RA education tool increases risk factor knowledge. We performed a randomized controlled trial assessing RA educational interventions among 238 FDRs. The web-based Personalized Risk Estimator for RA (PRE-RA) tool displayed personalized RA risk results (genetics, autoantibodies, demographics, and behaviors) and educated about risk factors. Subjects were randomly assigned to: Comparison arm (standard RA education, n=80), PRE-RA arm (PRE-RA alone, n=78), or PRE-RA Plus arm (PRE-RA and a one-on-one session with a trained health educator, n=80). The RA Knowledge Score (RAKS, the number of 8 established RA risk factors identified as related to RA) was calculated at baseline and post-education (immediate/6 weeks/6 months/12 months). We compared RAKS and its components at each post-education point by randomization arm. At baseline before education, few FDRs identified behavioral RA risk factors (15.9% for dental health, 31.9% for smoking, 47.5% for overweight/obesity, and 54.2% for diet). After education, RAKS increased in all arms, higher in PRE-RA and PRE-RA Plus than Comparison at all post-education points (peducation (proportion agreeing smoking is a risk factor at 6 weeks: 83.1% in PRE-RA Plus arm, 71.8% in PRE-RA, and 43.1% in Comparison arms, peducation tool successfully increased RA risk factor knowledge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and their associated environmental risks in a large shallow lake in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panwei; Zhou, Huaidong; Li, Kun; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Qiaona; Li, Dongjiao; Zhao, Gaofeng

    2018-01-13

    Eighteen selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), consisting of five non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals (N-APs), four sulfonamides (SAs), four tetracyclines (TCs), four macrolides (MCs), and one quinolone (QN) were detected in water, pore water, and sediment samples from Baiyangdian Lake, China. A total of 31 water samples and 29 sediment samples were collected in March 2017. Caffeine was detected with 100% frequency in surface water, pore water, and sediment samples. Carbamazepine was detected with 100% frequency in surface water and sediment samples. Five N-APs were prominent, with mean concentrations of 4.90-266.24 ng/l in surface water and 5.07-14.73 μg/kg in sediment samples. Four MCs were prominent, with mean concentrations of 0.97-29.92 ng/l in pore water samples. The total concentrations of the different classes of PPCPs followed the order: N-APs (53.26%) > MCs (25.39) > SAs (10.06%) > TCs (7.64%) > QNs (3.64%) in surface water; N-APs (42.70%) > MCs (25.43%) > TCs (14.69%) > SAs (13.90%) > QNs (3.24%) in sediment samples, and MCs (42.12%) > N-APs (34.80%) > SAs (11.71%) > TCs (7.48%) > QNs (3.88%) in pore water samples. The geographical differences of PPCP concentrations were largely due to anthropogenic activities. Sewage discharged from Baoding City and human activities around Baiyangdian Lake were the main sources of PPCPs in the lake. An environmental risk assessment for the upper quartile concentration was undertaken using calculated risk quotients and indicated a low or medium-high risk from 18 PPCPs in Baiyangdian Lake and its five upstream rivers.

  20. High in situ repeatability of behaviour indicates animal personality in the beadlet anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Briffa

    Full Text Available 'Animal personality' means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation in microhabitat. Since behavioural variation is ubiquitous in nature we might expect 'animal personality' to be present in diverse taxa, including animals with relatively simple nervous systems. We investigated in situ startle responses in a sea anemone, Actinia equina, to determine whether personalities might be present in this example of an animal with a simple nervous system. We found very high levels of repeatability among individuals that were re-identified in the same locations over a three week sampling period. In a subset of the data, where we used tide-pool temperature measurements to control for a key element of variation in microhabitat, these high levels of repeatability remained. Although a range of other consistent differences in micro-habitat features could have contributed to consistent differences between the behaviour of individuals, these data suggest the presence of animal personality in A. equina. Rather than being restricted to certain groups, personality may be a general feature of animals and may be particularly pronounced in species with simple nervous systems.

  1. Alcohol use, sexual activity, and perceived risk in high school athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Prior to leaving home, college-bound high school graduates (n = 2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using generalized linear modeling and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence.

  2. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  3. Perceived Relapse Risk and Desire for Medication Assisted Treatment among Persons Seeking Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p detox abstinence. PMID:23786852

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with lower baseline cognitive performance in HIV-positive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E J; Grund, B; Robertson, K; Brew, B J; Roediger, M; Bain, M P; Drummond, F; Vjecha, M J; Hoy, J; Miller, C; Penalva de Oliveira, A C; Pumpradit, W; Shlay, J C; El-Sadr, W; Price, R W

    2010-09-07

    To determine factors associated with baseline neurocognitive performance in HIV-infected participants enrolled in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) neurology substudy. Participants from Australia, North America, Brazil, and Thailand were administered a 5-test neurocognitive battery. Z scores and the neurocognitive performance outcome measure, the quantitative neurocognitive performance z score (QNPZ-5), were calculated using US norms. Neurocognitive impairment was defined as z scores penetration effectiveness rank of antiretroviral regimens were not. In this HIV-positive population with high CD4 cell counts, neurocognitive impairment was associated with prior CVD. Lower neurocognitive performance was associated with prior CVD, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, but not conventional HAD risk factors. The contribution of CVD and cardiovascular risk factors to the neurocognition of HIV-positive populations warrants further investigation.

  5. Sexual Risk Behaviors in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Prospective Associations with Parents' Personality and Externalizing Behavior in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2016-10-01

    We recently reported that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The present prospective study aimed to determine the contribution of parents' personality and offspring behaviour problems in middle childhood to offspring SRBs 10 years later. We hypothesized that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents' personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent SRBs. Furthermore, we expected these associations to be more robust among the OBD than controls. At baseline, 102 offspring (52 OBD and 50 controls) aged between 4 and 14 years were assessed along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Behaviour ratings were also obtained from the children's teachers. Ten years later the offspring completed an interview assessing SRBs. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping revealed that, after controlling for age and presence of an affective disorder, externalizing behaviors served as a pathway through which high parental neuroticism, low parental agreeableness, and low parental extraversion were related to SRBs in offspring. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between parental neuroticism and childhood externalizing problems was stronger for OBD than controls. These findings add to our previous results showing parents' personality contributes to intergenerational risk transfer through behavioral problems in middle childhood. These results carry implications for optimal timing of preventative interventions in the OBD.

  6. Drug use Discrimination Predicts Formation of High-Risk Social Networks: Examining Social Pathways of Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Rudolph, Abby; Kim, BoRin; Lewis, Crystal M

    2017-09-01

    Experiences of discrimination, or social marginalization and ostracism, may lead to the formation of social networks characterized by inequality. For example, those who experience discrimination may be more likely to develop drug use and sexual partnerships with others who are at increased risk for HIV compared to those without experiences of discrimination. This is critical as engaging in risk behaviors with others who are more likely to be HIV positive can increase one's risk of HIV. We used log-binomial regression models to examine the relationship between drug use, racial and incarceration discrimination with changes in the composition of one's risk network among 502 persons who use drugs. We examined both absolute and proportional changes with respect to sex partners, drug use partners, and injecting partners, after accounting for individual risk behaviors. At baseline, participants were predominately male (70%), black or Latino (91%), un-married (85%), and used crack (64%). Among those followed-up (67%), having experienced discrimination due to drug use was significantly related to increases in the absolute number of sex networks and drug networks over time. No types of discrimination were related to changes in the proportion of high-risk network members. Discrimination may increase one's risk of HIV acquisition by leading them to preferentially form risk relationships with higher-risk individuals, thereby perpetuating racial and ethnic inequities in HIV. Future social network studies and behavioral interventions should consider whether social discrimination plays a role in HIV transmission.

  7. Risk-adaptive optimization: Selective boosting of high-risk tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yusung; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A tumor subvolume-based, risk-adaptive optimization strategy is presented. Methods and Materials: Risk-adaptive optimization employs a biologic objective function instead of an objective function based on physical dose constraints. Using this biologic objective function, tumor control probability (TCP) is maximized for different tumor risk regions while at the same time minimizing normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for organs at risk. The feasibility of risk-adaptive optimization was investigated for a variety of tumor subvolume geometries, risk-levels, and slopes of the TCP curve. Furthermore, the impact of a correlation parameter, δ, between TCP and NTCP on risk-adaptive optimization was investigated. Results: Employing risk-adaptive optimization, it is possible in a prostate cancer model to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing predicted normal tissue complications in organs at risk. For all tumor subvolume geometries investigated, we found that the EUD to high-risk tumor subvolumes could be increased significantly without increasing normal tissue complications above those expected from a treatment plan aiming for uniform dose coverage of the planning target volume. We furthermore found that the tumor subvolume with the highest risk classification had the largest influence on the design of the risk-adaptive dose distribution. The parameter δ had little effect on risk-adaptive optimization. However, the clinical parameters D 5 and γ 5 that represent the risk classification of tumor subvolumes had the largest impact on risk-adaptive optimization. Conclusions: On the whole, risk-adaptive optimization yields heterogeneous dose distributions that match the risk level distribution of different subvolumes within the tumor volume

  8. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  9. Internet Addiction Based on Personality Characteristics of High School Students in Kerman, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Abedini, Yasamin; Kheradmand, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background The new phenomenon of Internet addiction among teenagers and young adults is one of the modern addictions in industrial and post-industrial societies. The purpose of this research was to predict the Internet addiction based on the personality characteristics of high school students in Kerman. Methods This research was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population included 538 male and female students in the second grade of high school in Kerman during 2010. The subjects were randomly selected by multistage clustering. Data was collected by two questionnaires including the five-factor Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Internet dependency questionnaire. The data was analyzed using ANOVA test and multivariable regression analysis. Findings The findings showed a significant relationship between the personality trait of emotional stability and academic fields, i.e. students with higher emotional stability experience less negative emotions when confronting with problems. Therefore, it is less likely for them to alleviate the negative emotions by the extreme and obsessed usage of the Internet. In addition, it appears that the students with high extroversion scores prefer social, face to face interactions with other people to interaction with the virtual world. Conversely, more introvert students avoid interactions with other people due to their shyness. Thus, they communicate with the virtual world more. Conclusion Three personality traits of loyalty, emotional stability, and extroversion are the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in high school students. PMID:24494121

  10. Investigating the structure of semantic networks in low and high creative persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoed Nissan Kenett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Mednick’s (1962 theory of individual differences in creativity, creative individuals appear to have a richer and more flexible associative network than less creative individuals. Thus, creative individuals are characterized by flat (broader associations instead of steep (few, common associations associational hierarchies. To study these differences, we implement a novel computational approach to the study of semantic networks, through the analysis of free associations. The core notion of our method is that concepts in the network are related to each other by their association correlations - overlap of similar associative responses (association clouds. We began by collecting a large sample of participants who underwent several creativity measurements and used a decision tree approach to divide the sample into low and high creative groups. Next, each group underwent a free association generation paradigm which allowed us to construct and analyze the semantic networks of both groups. Comparison of the semantic memory networks of persons with low creative ability and persons with high creative ability revealed differences between the two networks. The semantic memory network of persons with low creative ability seems to be more rigid, compared to the network of persons with high creative ability, in the sense that it is more spread out and breaks apart into more sub-parts. We discuss how our findings are in accord and extend Mednick’s (1962 theory and the feasibility of using network science paradigms to investigate high level cognition.

  11. Enhancing Person Re-identification by Late Fusion of Low-, Mid-, and High-Level Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejbølle, Aske Rasch; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2018-01-01

    Person re-identification is the process of finding people across different cameras. In this process, focus often lies in developing strong feature descriptors or a robust metric learning algorithm. While the two aspects are the most important steps in order to secure a high performance, a less...

  12. Personality Traits' Effects on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations for High School Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dikla; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the contribution of the Big Five personality traits to the development of self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding selection of a high school major among 368 Israeli adolescents (Mage = 16.07, SD = 0.41). Structural equation analyses showed that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower…

  13. Developing Leadership Capacity in Others: An Examination of High School Principals' Personal Capacities for Fostering Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Klar, Hans W.; Hammonds, Hattie L.; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2017-01-01

    In this multisite case study, we examine the personal capacities of six high school principals who have developed the leadership capacities of other leaders in their respective schools. Participants were purposefully selected by two teams of researchers in two states of the United States, one on the east coast and one on the west coast, who…

  14. Personal Financial Literacy among High School Students in New Zealand, Japan and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michael P.; Calderwood, Richard; Cox, Ashleigh; Lim, Steven; Yamaoka, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Personal financial literacy is becoming increasingly important in the modern world, especially for young people. In this article, the authors compare the financial literacy of high school students in Hamilton, New Zealand, with samples from Japan and the USA. The authors compare not only overall financial literacy, but also literacy across five…

  15. Challenges posed to the European pharmaceutical regulatory system by highly personalized medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D; Feldschreiber, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The European pharmaceutical regulatory system has not yet been challenged by issues related to highly personalized medicines such as those to be found with active substances that affect RNA biochemistry. We review the current status of RNA-based pharmacology and present three possible case histories. The implications for the European pharmaceutical regulatory system are discussed. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Students' Evaluation of Professional Personality Competencies of Physical Education Teachers Working in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between professional personality competencies of physical education teachers working in high schools and gender, school type, and class variables of students. The study was organised according to the screening model. The study was carried out in a total of 17 schools, 16 state and one…

  17. Internet addiction based on personality characteristics of high school students in kerman, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Bibi Eshrat; Abedini, Yasamin; Kheradmand, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The new phenomenon of Internet addiction among teenagers and young adults is one of the modern addictions in industrial and post-industrial societies. The purpose of this research was to predict the Internet addiction based on the personality characteristics of high school students in Kerman. This research was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population included 538 male and female students in the second grade of high school in Kerman during 2010. The subjects were randomly selected by multistage clustering. Data was collected by two questionnaires including the five-factor Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Internet dependency questionnaire. The data was analyzed using ANOVA test and multivariable regression analysis. The findings showed a significant relationship between the personality trait of emotional stability and academic fields, i.e. students with higher emotional stability experience less negative emotions when confronting with problems. Therefore, it is less likely for them to alleviate the negative emotions by the extreme and obsessed usage of the Internet. In addition, it appears that the students with high extroversion scores prefer social, face to face interactions with other people to interaction with the virtual world. Conversely, more introvert students avoid interactions with other people due to their shyness. Thus, they communicate with the virtual world more. Three personality traits of loyalty, emotional stability, and extroversion are the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in high school students.

  18. Maladaptive Personality and Neuropsychological Features of Highly Relationally Aggressive Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Savage

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The maladaptive personality and neuropsychological features of highly relationally aggressive females were examined in a group of 30 grade 6, 7, and 8 girls and group-matched controls. Employing a multistage cluster sampling procedure a group of highly, yet almost exclusively, relationally aggressive females were identified and matched on a number of variables to a group of nonaggressive females. Parents of the students in both groups completed the Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory, a 200-item DSM-IV-TR aligned, parent-as-respondent, standardized measure of children’s psychological functioning. It was found that high levels of relational aggression, in the absence of physical and verbal aggression, were associated with symptoms of DSM-IV-TR Axis I oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. The highly relationally aggressive group also exhibited a wide variety of personality traits associated with DSM-IV-TR Axis II paranoid, borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, schizotypal, and passive aggressive personality disorders that were not exhibited by the matched controls. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Original Research Identifying patients at high risk for obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the factors associated with high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea and use it to identify patients at risk for the condition in ... mainstay of management is CPAP in addition to behavioral ..... the present study has some potential limitations which ... consequences of obstructive sleep apnea and short sleep duration.

  20. Awareness and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MetS) in high-risk individuals attending 30 internal medicine clinics in Amman, Jordan, and also to evaluate the various factors associated with increased risk of MetS among them. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out ...

  1. Incidence of infective endocarditis among patients considered at high risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Patients with prior infective endocarditis (IE), a prosthetic heart valve, or a cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) are considered to be at high risk of IE by guidelines. However, knowledge is sparse on the relative risk of IE between these three groups and compared controls. Methods...

  2. Risk Acceptance Personality Paradigm: How We View What We Don't Know We Don't Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of integrated hazard analyses, probabilistic risk assessments, failure modes and effects analyses, fault trees and many other similar tools is to give managers of a program some idea of the risks associated with their program. All risk tools establish a set of undesired events and then try to evaluate the risk to the program by assessing the severity of the undesired event and the likelihood of that event occurring. Some tools provide qualitative results, some provide quantitative results and some do both. However, in the end the program manager and his/her team must decide which risks are acceptable and which are not. Even with a wide array of analysis tools available, risk acceptance is often a controversial and difficult decision making process. And yet, today's space exploration programs are moving toward more risk based design approaches. Thus, risk identification and good risk assessment is becoming even more vital to the engineering development process. This paper explores how known and unknown information influences risk-based decisions by looking at how the various parts of our personalities are affected by what they know and what they don't know. This paper then offers some criteria for consideration when making risk-based decisions.

  3. The association of measures of the serotonin system, personality, alcohol use, and smoking with risk-taking traffic behavior in adolescents in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luht, Kadi; Eensoo, Diva; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Harro, Jaanus

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the neurobiological basis of risk-taking behavior have most often focused on the serotonin system. The promoter region of the gene encoding the serotonin transporter contains a polymorphic site (5-HTTLPR) that is important for the transcriptional activity, and studies have demonstrated its association with brain activity and behavior. Another molecular mechanism that reflects the capacity of the central serotonin system is the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) as measured in platelets. The purpose of the present study was to examine how measures of the serotonin system (platelet MAO activity and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism), personality variables, alcohol use and smoking are associated with risk-taking traffic behavior in schoolchildren through late adolescence. The younger cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (originally n = 583) filled in questionnaires about personality traits, smoking status, alcohol use and traffic behavior at age 15 and 18 years. From venous blood samples, platelet MAO activity was measured radioenzymatically and 5-HTTLPR was genotyped. During late adolescence, subjects with lower platelet MAO activity were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group. Male 5-HTTLPRs'-allele carriers were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group compared to the l'/l' homozygotes. Other variables predicting risk group were alcohol use, smoking and Maladaptive impulsivity.The results suggest that lower capacity of the serotoninergic system is associated with more risky traffic behavior during late adolescence, but possibly by different mechanisms in boys and girls.

  4. Managing employee well-being: A qualitative study exploring job and personal resources of at-risk employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Gauche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job and personal resources influence the well-being of employees. Currently, limited information exists in literature surrounding the experience of these resources in employees identified as at-risk of burnout. Research purpose: To investigate the experience of job and personal resources from the perspectives of employees identified as at-risk of burnout. Motivation for the study: Empirical evidence on the integrative role and influence of job and personal resources on the well-being of employees in the South African context is currently limited. Attaining a better understanding of the manner in which at-risk employees experience resources can empower organisations to actively work towards creating an environment that allows for optimal employee well-being. Research design, approach and method: A phenomenological approach was taken to conduct the study in a South African-based financial services organisation. A combination of purposive and convenience sampling was used, and 26 employees agreed to participate. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data, and data analysis was performed through the use of thematic analysis. Main findings: Employees identified as at-risk of burnout acknowledged both job and personal resources as factors influencing their well-being. Participants in this study elaborated on received job resources as well as lacking job resources. Information was also shared by participants on personal resources through describing used personal resources as well as lacking personal resources. Practical/managerial implications: Knowledge gained from the study will contribute to empower organisations to better understand the impact of resources on the well-being of employees, and allow organisations to adapt workplace resources to ensure adequate and appropriate resources to facilitate optimal employee well-being. Contribution: This study contributes to the limited research available in the South African context

  5. High-frequency profile in adolescents and its relationship with the use of personal stereo devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Renata Almeida Araújo; Ribas, Ângela; Hammerschmidt, Rogério; de Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira

    2016-01-01

    To analyze and correlate the audiometric findings of high frequencies (9-16 kHz) in adolescents with their hearing habits and attitudes, in order to prevent noise-induced hearing loss. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, which included 125 adolescents in a sample of normal-hearing students, at a state school. The subjects performed high-frequency audiometry testing and answered a self-administered questionnaire addressing information on sound habits concerning the use of personal stereo devices. The sample was divided according to the exposure characteristics (time, duration, intensity, etc.) and the results were compared with the observed thresholds, through the difference in proportions test, chi-squared, Student's t-test, and ANOVA, all at a significance level of 0.05. Average high-frequency thresholds were registered below 15 dB HL and no significant correlation was found between high frequency audiometric findings and the degree of exposure. The prevalence of harmful sound habits due to the use of personal stereo devices is high in the adolescent population, but there was no correlation between exposure to high sound pressure levels through personal stereos and the high-frequency thresholds in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical activity barriers and motivators among high-risk employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paguntalan, John C; Gregoski, Mathew

    2016-11-22

    Worksite wellness programs offer an ideal setting to target high-risk sedentary workers to improve health status. Lack of physical activity is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and mortality. Despite the risks, the number of sedentary workers is increasing. This study examined the perceived barriers and motivators for physical activity among employees at high-risk for coronary heart disease. A purposive sample of 24 high-risk workers participating in a wellness program in rural South Carolina were enrolled in the study. Qualitative data was obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyze qualitative data, and identify overarching themes. Physical limitations due to pain and weakness, lack of motivation, and lack of time emerged as the main barriers to physical activity. Family relationships were reported as the strongest motivator along with social support and potential health benefits. Findings highlight the unique experience of high-risk workers with physical activity. The findingsunderscore the need to design and implement effective interventions specifically designed to meet the needs of high-risk employees.

  7. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): <