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Sample records for high resolution solid-state

  1. High-Resolution Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Polymorphism in Cimetidine, a Pharmaceutical Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilio, Julia E.; Tokarski, John T.; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Iuliucci, Robbie J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has many advantages as a tool to characterize solid-phase material that finds applications in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, biomolecular structure determination, and others, including the pharmaceutical industry. The technology associated with achieving high resolution…

  2. High-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a solid-state spin sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David R.; Bucher, Dominik B.; Lee, Junghyun; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems that consist of solid-state electronic spins can be sensitive detectors of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals, particularly from very small samples. For example, nitrogen–vacancy centres in diamond have been used to record NMR signals from nanometre-scale samples, with sensitivity sufficient to detect the magnetic field produced by a single protein. However, the best reported spectral resolution for NMR of molecules using nitrogen–vacancy centres is about 100 hertz. This is insufficient to resolve the key spectral identifiers of molecular structure that are critical to NMR applications in chemistry, structural biology and materials research, such as scalar couplings (which require a resolution of less than ten hertz) and small chemical shifts (which require a resolution of around one part per million of the nuclear Larmor frequency). Conventional, inductively detected NMR can provide the necessary high spectral resolution, but its limited sensitivity typically requires millimetre-scale samples, precluding applications that involve smaller samples, such as picolitre-volume chemical analysis or correlated optical and NMR microscopy. Here we demonstrate a measurement technique that uses a solid-state spin sensor (a magnetometer) consisting of an ensemble of nitrogen–vacancy centres in combination with a narrowband synchronized readout protocol to obtain NMR spectral resolution of about one hertz. We use this technique to observe NMR scalar couplings in a micrometre-scale sample volume of approximately ten picolitres. We also use the ensemble of nitrogen–vacancy centres to apply NMR to thermally polarized nuclear spins and resolve chemical-shift spectra from small molecules. Our technique enables analytical NMR spectroscopy at the scale of single cells.

  3. High resolution NMR study of cellulose in solid state and in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Germain, Jean

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of native cellulose (cotton) and wood by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). As far as the cotton spectrum is concerned, the author assigned resonances which more specifically corresponded to amorphous or crystalline areas. Wood was studied in its bulk condition, and resonances have been determined for the different wood components. The behaviour of cellulose in solution in a solvent has been studied by liquid high resolution NMR. The solvation mechanism has been determined and a study of model components of the macromolecule allowed a conformational study of cellulose in this solvent to be performed. Bi-dimensional NMR and longitudinal relaxation time measurements highlighted the existence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in the cellulose in solution [fr

  4. High resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yong; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Park, Sang Ho; Rai, Ratan; Fujimoto, L. Miya; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Opella, Stanley J.; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail’s biological activity. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra can be obtained from samples of Ail in detergent-free phospholipid liposomes, prepared with a lipid to protein molar ratio of 100. The spectra, obtained with 13 C or 1 H detection, have very narrow line widths (0.40–0.60 ppm for 13 C, 0.11–0.15 ppm for 1 H, and 0.46–0.64 ppm for 15 N) that are consistent with a high level of sample homogeneity. The spectra enable resonance assignments to be obtained for N, CO, CA and CB atomic sites from 75 out of 156 residues in the sequence of Ail, including 80% of the transmembrane region. The 1 H-detected solid-state NMR 1 H/ 15 N correlation spectra obtained for Ail in liposomes compare very favorably with the solution NMR 1 H/ 15 N TROSY spectra obtained for Ail in nanodiscs prepared with a similar lipid to protein molar ratio. These results set the stage for studies of the molecular basis of the functional interactions of Ail with its protein partners from human host cells, as well as the development of drugs targeting Ail.

  5. High resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein Ail in lipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yong; Dutta, Samit Kumar [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States); Park, Sang Ho; Rai, Ratan [University of California San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Fujimoto, L. Miya; Bobkov, Andrey A. [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States); Opella, Stanley J. [University of California San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Marassi, Francesca M., E-mail: fmarassi@sbp.edu [Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail’s biological activity. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra can be obtained from samples of Ail in detergent-free phospholipid liposomes, prepared with a lipid to protein molar ratio of 100. The spectra, obtained with {sup 13}C or {sup 1}H detection, have very narrow line widths (0.40–0.60 ppm for {sup 13}C, 0.11–0.15 ppm for {sup 1}H, and 0.46–0.64 ppm for {sup 15}N) that are consistent with a high level of sample homogeneity. The spectra enable resonance assignments to be obtained for N, CO, CA and CB atomic sites from 75 out of 156 residues in the sequence of Ail, including 80% of the transmembrane region. The {sup 1}H-detected solid-state NMR {sup 1}H/{sup 15}N correlation spectra obtained for Ail in liposomes compare very favorably with the solution NMR {sup 1}H/{sup 15}N TROSY spectra obtained for Ail in nanodiscs prepared with a similar lipid to protein molar ratio. These results set the stage for studies of the molecular basis of the functional interactions of Ail with its protein partners from human host cells, as well as the development of drugs targeting Ail.

  6. Curing reactions of bismaleimide resins catalyzed by triphenylphosphine. High resolution solid-state 13C NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibahara, Sumio; Enoki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Hayashi, Sadao.

    1996-01-01

    The curing reactions of bismaleimide resins consisted of N,N'-4,4'-diphenylmethanebismaleimide (BMI) and o,o'-diallylbisphenol-A (DABA) in the presence of triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a catalyst were investigated. DSC measurements showed that the catalytic effect of TPP on the curing reaction of BMI was more in the presence of DABA than in its absence. In order to explore this curing reaction, N-phenylmaleimide (PMI) and o-allylphenol (AP) were selected as model compounds. The products of the PMI/TPP system were oligomers and polymers of PMI, whereas the main product of the PMI/AP/TPP system was the PMI trimer which had the five-membered ring formed via the phosphonium ylide intermediate. In these model reactions, 13 C NMR was found to be useful to distinguish between trimerization and polymerization of PMI. On the basis of the results of the model reactions, the curing reactions of bismaleimide resins were investigated by high resolution solid state 13 C NMR techniques. In the BMI/TPP system, maleimides polymerize above 175degC, but the polymerization does not proceed at 120degC. On the other hand, maleimides trimerize above 120degC in the presence of DABA and TPP. The mechanism of the trimerization is briefly discussed. (author)

  7. sup 3 sup 1 P high resolution solid state NMR studies of phosphoorganic compounds of biological interest

    CERN Document Server

    Potrzebowski, M J; Kazmierski, S

    2001-01-01

    In this review several applications of sup 3 sup 1 P high resolution solid state NMR spectroscopy in structural studies of bioorganic samples is recorded. The problem of pseudopolymorphism of bis[6-O,6'-O-(1,2:3,4diisopropylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) phosphothionyl] disulfide (1) and application of sup 3 sup 1 P C/MAS experiment to investigate of this phenomenon is discussed. The influence of weak C-H--S intermolecular contacts on molecular packing of 1,6-anhydro-2-O-tosyl-4-S- (5,5-dimethyl-2-thioxa-1,3,2-dioxaphosphophorinan-2-= yl)-beta-D-glucopyranose (2) and S sub P , R sub P diastereomers of deoxyxylothymidyl-3'-O-acetylthymidyl (3',5')-O-(2-cyanoethyl) phosphorothioate (3) and their implication on sup 3 sup 1 P NMR spectra is shown. The final part of review describes the recent progress in structural studies of O-phosphorylated amino acids (serine, threonine, tyrosine), relationship between molecular structure and sup 3 sup 1 P chemical shift parameters delta sub i sub i and influence of hydrogen ...

  8. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  9. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M A; Hatcher, P G

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studied by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing /sup 13/C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  11. Probing molecular dynamics of metal borohydrides on the surface of mesoporous scaffolds by multinuclear high resolution solid state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Son-Jong, E-mail: Sonjong@cheme.caltech.edu [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Eng., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lee, Hyun-Sook [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); To, Magnus [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Eng., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lee, Young-Su; Cho, Young Whan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyungkeun; Kim, Chul [Department of Chemistry, Hannam University, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-05

    Graphical abstract: In situ variable temperature multinuclear solid state NMR allows to probe surface wetting, diffusivity, and confinement of metal borohydrides into nanopores. - Abstract: Understanding of surface interactions between borohydride molecules and the surfaces of porous supports have gained growing attention for successful development of nano-confinement engineering. By use of in situ variable temperature (VT) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, molecular mobility changes of LiBH{sub 4} crystalline solid has been investigated in the presence of silica based and carbonaceous surfaces. Spin–spin J-coupling of {sup 1}H–{sup 11}B in LiBH{sub 4} was monitored in series of VT NMR spectra to probe translational mobility of LiBH{sub 4} that appeared to be greatly enhanced upon surface contact. Such enhanced diffusivity was found to be effective in the formation of solid solution and co-confinement with other metal borohydrides. Co-confinement of LiBH{sub 4}–Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} mixture was demonstrated at temperature as low as 100 °C, much lower than the reported bulk eutectic melting temperature. The discovery adds a novel property of LiBH{sub 4} that has been proven to be highly versatile in many energy related applications.

  12. Evidence for radiation induced crosslinking in polytetrafluoroethylene by means of high-resolution solid-state 19F high-speed MAS NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Etsuko; Sugisawa, Hisashi; Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Seguchi, Tadao; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

    1999-01-01

    Radiation effects on molecular structure of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied by high-resolution solid-state 19 F high speed magic angle spinning (HS MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Samples used for the NMR studies were prepared by electron beam irradiation of PTFE with a wide range of irradiation doses from 0.5-10 MGy in the molten state at 340 deg. C under oxygen-free atmosphere. While the non-irradiated PTFE displayed only an intense peak of the internal CF 2 , several new signals corresponding to CF 3 , CF 2 and CF groups were observed for the PTFE which was high temperature irradiated at 340 deg. C in oxygen-free atmosphere (hti-PTFE). Intensities of these new signals increased with an increase of irradiation dose. The present solid-state 19 F HS MAS NMR studies provide not only the first experimental evidence regarding the existence of crosslinking structure in hti-PTFE, directly detected as the CF signal, but also the crosslinking density which can be estimated from a proportion of the CF versus total fluorine signal intensities. The higher the irradiation dose, the higher the crosslinking density; hti-PTFE with 10 MGy contains one crosslinking site per approximately 24 CF 2 groups, while the hti-PTFE with 5 MGy contains one crosslinking site per approximately 36 CF 2 groups. Further, G value of crosslinking (G(x)) was estimated from the signal intensities of 19 F HS MAS NMR spectra. The highest G(x)-value, 1.85, was observed for the 2MGy hti-PTFE sample, suggesting that crosslinking of PTFE is formed most efficaciously with 2 MGy irradiation in the molten state at 340 deg. C under oxygen-free atmosphere

  13. Uniform isotope labeling of a eukaryotic seven-transmembrane helical protein in yeast enables high-resolution solid-state NMR studies in the lipid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Shi Lichi; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Brown, Leonid S.

    2011-01-01

    Overexpression of isotope-labeled multi-spanning eukaryotic membrane proteins for structural NMR studies is often challenging. On the one hand, difficulties with achieving proper folding, membrane insertion, and native-like post-translational modifications frequently disqualify bacterial expression systems. On the other hand, eukaryotic cell cultures can be prohibitively expensive. One of the viable alternatives, successfully used for producing proteins for solution NMR studies, is yeast expression systems, particularly Pichia pastoris. We report on successful implementation and optimization of isotope labeling protocols, previously used for soluble secreted proteins, to produce homogeneous samples of a eukaryotic seven-transmembrane helical protein, rhodopsin from Leptosphaeria maculans. Even in shake-flask cultures, yields exceeded 5 mg of purified uniformly 13 C, 15 N-labeled protein per liter of culture. The protein was stable (at least several weeks at 5°C) and functionally active upon reconstitution into lipid membranes at high protein-to-lipid ratio required for solid-state NMR. The samples gave high-resolution 13 C and 15 N solid-state magic angle spinning NMR spectra, amenable to a detailed structural analysis. We believe that similar protocols can be adopted for challenging mammalian targets, which often resist characterization by other structural methods.

  14. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Yen; Brent Davis; Rex Booth

    1999-01-01

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  15. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  16. Contradictions about Fine Structures in Meson Spectra and Proposed High-Resolution Hadron Spectrometer Using 'Interactive' Solid-State Hydrogen Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, Bogdan C.

    2004-01-01

    High resolution has been discouraged in meson spectrometry for 4 decades by the Doctrine of Experiments Incompatible with Theory (DEIT). DEIT a priori rejects narrow hadron resonances on the paradigm that only broad hadron peaks, Γ≥ 100 MeV, can exist -- in spite of the accumulated evidence to the contrary. The facts are: Mesons 2 orders of magnitude narrower than 'allowed' for hadrons, have been confirmed; a new one was announced at this conference. Narrow meson structures have been repeatedly reported at high momentum transfer, vertical bar t vertical bar >0.2, while they are absent at the low transfer, vertical bar t vertical bar ∼0.01, where 99% of the experiments are performed. Modification of meson mass and width as a function of the density of nuclear matter in which they are produced, have been recently reported.We postulate for meson spectra: (1) Intrinsic ('true') width, Γ, is different from the observable ('apparent') width, Γ': Γ< Γ' (2) Γ of all meson states are narrow and can be observed only at or near the maximum vertical bar t vertical bar reachable in the reaction, and (3) Γ of all meson resonances are subject to broadening as vertical bar t vertical bar decreases. Since both Γ' and the production σ are inversely proportional to vertical bar t vertical ar, most of the observed spectra are produced at the lowest vertical bar t vertical bar <0.01 and thus the peaks appear broad. We have conceptually designed a novel type hadron spectrometer with an order of magnitude better resolution (0.1 MeV). It would operate at 2 orders of magnitude higher vertical bar t vertical bar (0.3< vertical bar t vertical bar <1 (GeV/c)2, than most experiments to date (vertical bar t vertical bar <0.01). Mesons in the mass region 0.5 < Mx<5 GeV would be produced in πP→PX (baryons in PP→PP*) in a 'solid state hydrogen target' consisting of an array of plastic scintillator fibers, CH; collisions with C are electronically rejected. Missing mass of P is

  17. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  18. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  19. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  20. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  1. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Kumar Vasa, Suresh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the type-III secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent data set of 691 ssNMR constraints and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N terminus, which occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation.

  2. Yeast-expressed human membrane protein aquaporin-1 yields excellent resolution of solid-state MAS NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, Sanaz; Fan Ying; Munro, Rachel; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Brown, Leonid S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in solid-state NMR studies of membrane proteins is to obtain a homogeneous natively folded sample giving high spectral resolution sufficient for structural studies. Eukaryotic membrane proteins are especially difficult and expensive targets in this respect. Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a reliable producer of eukaryotic membrane proteins for crystallography and a promising economical source of isotopically labeled proteins for NMR. We show that eukaryotic membrane protein human aquaporin 1 can be doubly ( 13 C/ 15 N) isotopically labeled in this system and functionally reconstituted into phospholipids, giving excellent resolution of solid-state magic angle spinning NMR spectra.

  3. Determination of accurate 1H positions of an alanine tripeptide with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures by high resolution 1H solid state NMR and GIPAW chemical shift calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Koji; Suzuki, Furitsu; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ohata, Takuya; Aoki, Akihiro; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Kaji, Hironori; Shimizu, Tadashi; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2012-11-25

    The accurate (1)H positions of alanine tripeptide, A(3), with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures could be determined by highly resolved (1)H DQMAS solid-state NMR spectra and (1)H chemical shift calculation with gauge-including projector augmented wave calculations.

  4. Stable solid state reference electrodes for high temperature water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrode capable of providing a stable reference potential under a wide range of temperatures and chemical conditions has been demonstrated. The electrode consists of a zirconia or yttria-stabilized zirconia tube packed with an inorganic polymer electrolyte and a silver/silver chloride sensing element. The sensing element is maintained near room temperature by a passive cooling heat sink. The electrode stability was demonstrated by testing it in high temperature (280 C) aqueous solutions over extended periods of time. This reference electrode is useful in many applications, particularly for monitoring the chemistry in nuclear and fossil power plants

  5. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  6. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  7. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.forget@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France); CNRS, UMR 7538, LPL, F-93430, Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  9. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  11. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels

  12. Design of high power solid-state pulsed laser resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narro, R.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.

    2009-01-01

    Methods and configurations for the design of high power solid-state pulsed laser resonators, operating in free running, are presented. For fundamental mode high power resonators, a method is proposed for the design of a resonator with joined stability zones. In the case of multimode resonators, two configurations are introduced for maximizing the laser overall efficiency due to the compensation of the astigmatism induced by the excitation. The first configuration consists in a triangular ring resonator. The results for this configuration are discussed theoretically, showing that it is possible to compensate the astigmatism of the thermal lens virtually in a 100%; however this is only possible for a specific pumping power. The second configuration proposes a dual-active medium resonator, rotated 90 degree one from the other around the optical axis, where each active medium acts as an astigmatic lens of the same dioptric power. The reliability of this configuration is corroborated experimentally using a Nd:YAG dual-active medium resonator. It is found that in the pumping power range where the astigmatism compensation is possible, the overall efficiency is constant, even when increasing the excitation power with the consequent increase of the thermal lens dioptric power. (Author)

  13. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  14. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  15. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  16. Toward high brightness, multi-kilowatt solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, L.E.; Manes, K.R.

    1990-11-01

    High average power (HAP) solid state laser output with improved beam quality has introduced new capabilities in materials processing. At the 500 W level and with a beam quality of a ''few'' times the diffraction limit, the General Electric NY slab is able to drill 5 cm of stainless steel in a few seconds. We expect that 2--3 kW of near infrared laser output in a low order spatial mode would enable metal working now unknown to industry. The HAP output of slab lasers is limited by the size of the available laser crystals and the pump power. Core free, six cm diameter NY boules have been grown on an experimental basis. High optical quality NG can be obtained up to 10 cm in diameter. We present the results of our modeling based on these crystals pumped by advanced arc-lamps or laser diode arrays. We project HAP laser outputs of 1.6 kW from an existing Vortek pumped NG oscillator and about 2 kW from diode pumped NY device. Several kW of laser output can be expected from two such slabs in a MOPA configuration before optical damage limits are reached. The three dimensional stress-optic code which we used to optimize our designs, was normalized to available experimental data obtained with the above NG slab at the 500 W level and a 40 W diode pumped NY test bed. Our calculations indicate the essential parameters for attainment of high beam quality. Cooling uniformity across the pumped faces of the slab is critical and the location of the transition between pumped and un-pumped regions towards the slab tips is very important. A flat pumping profile was found to be desirable and predicted one wave of distortion which should be correctable over about 75% of the aperture however, an even better wavefront was predicted over 90% of the aperture when the regions near the edges of the slab were slightly over-pumped relative to the central regions and the regions near to the ends were tapered to compensate for transition effects

  17. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  18. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  19. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  20. High-Power, Solid-State, Deep Ultraviolet Laser Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Xuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, deep ultraviolet (DUV lasers at the wavelength of fourth harmonics of 1 μm (266 nm/258 nm and at the wavelength of 193 nm are widely utilized in science and industry. We review the generation of these DUV lasers by nonlinear frequency conversion processes using solid-state/fiber lasers as the fundamental frequency. A DUV laser at 258 nm by fourth harmonics generation (FHG could achieve an average power of 10 W with a beam quality of M2 < 1.5. Moreover, 1 W of average power at 193 nm was obtained by sum-frequency generation (SFG. A new concept of 193-nm DUV laser generation by use of the diamond Raman laser is also introduced. A proof-of-principle experiment of the diamond Raman laser is reported with the conversion efficiency of 23% from the pump to the second Stokes wavelength, which implies the potential to generate a higher power 193 nm DUV laser in the future.

  1. High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focia, Ronald Jeffrey

    2017-08-22

    A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.

  2. Comparison of Australasian tertiary coals based on resolution- enhanced solid-state /sup 13/C NMR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R H; Davenport, S J

    1986-04-01

    /sup 13/C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize 32 low-rank coals from New Zealand and Australia. A combination of high magnetic field (4.7 T) and resolution enhancement was used to extract spectral details beyond those seen in published spectra of coals of similar rank. Signal heights were used to characterize organic functional distributions. The spectra showed close similarities between Australian brown coals and low-rank New Zealand subbituminous coals, particularly those mined in the North Island. The spectra of New Zealand lignites all showed stronger signals from cellulose, methoxyl groups and phenols. Almost all of the New Zealand coals showed a relatively strong signal from polymethylene chains, compared with the Australian brown coals. This led to a prediction of higher alkene yields from pyrolysis of the New Zealand coals. Variations in phenolic substitution patterns were attributed to variations in the relative proportions of tannins and lignins in the depositional environments.

  3. Note: Large active area solid state photon counter with 20 ps timing resolution and 60 fs detection delay stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan; Eckl, Johann; Blazej, Josef

    2017-10-01

    We are reporting on the design, construction, and performance of a photon counting detector system, which is based on single photon avalanche diode detector technology. This photon counting device has been optimized for very high timing resolution and stability of its detection delay. The foreseen application of this detector is laser ranging of space objects, laser time transfer ground to space and fundamental metrology. The single photon avalanche diode structure, manufactured on silicon using K14 technology, is used as a sensor. The active area of the sensor is circular with 200 μm diameter. Its photon detection probability exceeds 40% in the wavelength range spanning from 500 to 800 nm. The sensor is operated in active quenching and gating mode. A new control circuit was optimized to maintain high timing resolution and detection delay stability. In connection to this circuit, timing resolution of the detector is reaching 20 ps FWHM. In addition, the temperature change of the detection delay is as low as 70 fs/K. As a result, the detection delay stability of the device is exceptional: expressed in the form of time deviation, detection delay stability of better than 60 fs has been achieved. Considering the large active area aperture of the detector, this is, to our knowledge, the best timing performance reported for a solid state photon counting detector so far.

  4. High Temperature Solid State Lithium Battery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable energy systems with high energy density capable of operating at high temperatures, pressures and radiation levels are needed for certain NASA missions....

  5. All solid state high voltage power supply for neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual design of a high frequency solid state, high power, high voltage, power system that reacts fast enough to be compatible with the requirements of a neutral beam source is presented. The system offers the potential of significant advantages over conventional power line frequency systems; such as high reliability, long life, relatively little maintenance requirements, compact size and modular design

  6. Design of 1 MHz solid state high frequency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Darshan Kumar; Singh, N.P.; Gajjar, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage High Frequency (HVHF) Power supply is used for various applications, like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources, etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼ 1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50 ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source. (author)

  7. Design of 1 MHz Solid State High Frequency Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Darshan; Singh, N. P.; Gajjar, Sandip; Thakar, Aruna; Patel, Amit; Raval, Bhavin; Dhola, Hitesh; Dave, Rasesh; Upadhay, Dishang; Gupta, Vikrant; Goswami, Niranjan; Mehta, Kush; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency Power supply (HFPS) is used for various applications like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600 W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with Class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW high frequency power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source.

  8. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  9. Operating System Support for High-Performance Solid State Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias

    of the operating system in reducing the gap, and enabling new forms of communication and even co-design between applications and high-performance SSDs. More specifically, we studied the storage layers within the Linux kernel. We explore the following issues: (i) what are the limitations of the legacy block...... a form of application-SSD co-design? What are the impacts on operating system design? (v) What would it take to provide quality of service for applications requiring millions of I/O per second? The dissertation consists of six publications covering these issues. Two of the main contributions...

  10. High pressure as a probe of the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoff, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    It is a great pleasure and honor to receive the Percy Williams Bridgman Award. Henry Eyring, my Ph.D. advisor, instilled in me a desire to unravel the secrets of nature in the chemical and physical world. He continued what my mother had begun. From my father I learned the virtue and satisfaction of hard work. In reading Percy Bridgman's The Physics of High Pressure [1] after I came to Cornell, I became intrigued by the high-pressure variable, so I owe much to him. I received valuable assistance and encouragement from George Kennedy and Harry Drickamer (the first winner of the Bridgman Award) and later from Alvin Van Valkenburg (a co-inventor with three others of the diamond anvil cell). Most importantly, I received encouragement from my wife, Enid Seaton Ruoff, to carry out what is sometimes the arduous pursuit of science---a pursuit that involves long working hours---and I want especially to thank her. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  11. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  12. Solid State Track Recorder fission rate measurements at high neutron fluence and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.

    1985-01-01

    Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) techniques have been used to measure 239-Pu, 235-U, and 237-Np fission rates for total neutron fluences approaching 5 x 10 17 n/cm 2 at temperatures in the range 680 to 830 0 F. Natural quartz crystal SSTRs were used to withstand the high temperature environment and ultra low-mass fissionable deposits of the three isotopes were required to yield scannable track densities at the high neutron fluences. The results of these high temperature, high neutron fluence measurements are reported

  13. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  14. High-power, solid-state rf source for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, D.R.; Mols, G.E.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past few years the Defense and Electronics Center of Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a solid-state, 250-kW peak, rf amplifier for use with the SPS-40 radar system. This system has a pulse length of 60 μs and operates across the frequency band from 400 to 450 MHz. Because of the potential use of such a system as an rf source for accelerator applications, a collaborative experiment was initiated between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse to simulate the resonant load conditions of an accelerator cavity. This paper describes the positive results of that experiment as well as the solid-state amplifier architecture. It also explores the future of high-power, solid-state amplifiers as rf sources for accelerator structures

  15. Organic dye for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Mende, L.; Bach, U.; Humphry-Baker, R.; Ito, S.; Graetzel, M. [Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (ISIC), Laboratoire de Photonique et Interfaces (LPI), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Horiuchi, T.; Miura, H. [Technology Research Laboratory, Corporate Research Center, Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited, 46, Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Uchida, S. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1-1 Katahira 2-chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2005-04-04

    The feasibility of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells as a low-cost alternative to amorphous silicon cells is demonstrated. Such a cell with a record efficiency of over 4 % under simulated sunlight is reported, made possible by using a new organic metal-free indoline dye as the sensitizer with high absorption coefficient. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Solid-State NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Bardet, Michel; De Paepe, Gael; Hediger, Sabine; Ayala, Isabel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool. (authors)

  17. Solid-state NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Ayala, Isabel; Bardet, Michel; De Paëpe, Gaël; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Hediger, Sabine

    2013-04-03

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool.

  18. High speed real-time wavefront processing system for a solid-state laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Yang, Ping; Chen, Shanqiu; Ma, Lifang; Xu, Bing

    2008-03-01

    A high speed real-time wavefront processing system for a solid-state laser beam cleanup system has been built. This system consists of a core2 Industrial PC (IPC) using Linux and real-time Linux (RT-Linux) operation system (OS), a PCI image grabber, a D/A card. More often than not, the phase aberrations of the output beam from solid-state lasers vary fast with intracavity thermal effects and environmental influence. To compensate the phase aberrations of solid-state lasers successfully, a high speed real-time wavefront processing system is presented. Compared to former systems, this system can improve the speed efficiently. In the new system, the acquisition of image data, the output of control voltage data and the implementation of reconstructor control algorithm are treated as real-time tasks in kernel-space, the display of wavefront information and man-machine conversation are treated as non real-time tasks in user-space. The parallel processing of real-time tasks in Symmetric Multi Processors (SMP) mode is the main strategy of improving the speed. In this paper, the performance and efficiency of this wavefront processing system are analyzed. The opened-loop experimental results show that the sampling frequency of this system is up to 3300Hz, and this system can well deal with phase aberrations from solid-state lasers.

  19. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  20. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  1. Solid state pump lasers with high power and high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    We built a laser diode pumped solid state green laser (LDPSSGL) rated at high repetition rate. Two laser heads are placed in one cavity with a rotator in between to design to avoid thermal lensing and thermal birefringence effect. Although average green laser power higher than 10 W was obtained at 1 kHz repetition rate with pulse width of 20-30 nsec, the beam quality was so much deteriorated that energy efficiency was as low as 2 %. Learning from this experience that high power oscillator causes a lot of thermal distortion not only in the laser rod but also in the Q-switch device, we proceeded to built a oscillator/amplifier system. A low power oscillator has a slab type crystal in the cavity. As a result spatial distribution of laser power was extremely improved. As we expect that the high repetition rate solid state laser should be CW operated Q-switch type laser from the view point of lifetime of diode lasers, a conventional arc lamp pumped CW Q-switch green YAG laser of which the repetition rate is changeable from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and the pulse width is 250-570 nsec was also tested to obtain pumping characteristics of a dye laser as a function of power, pulse width etc., and dye laser pulse width of 100-130 nsec were obtained. (author)

  2. Sensitivity and Resolution Enhanced Solid-State NMR for Paramagnetic Systems and Biomolecules under Very Fast Magic Angle Spinning

    KAUST Repository

    Parthasarathy, Sudhakar

    2013-09-17

    Recent research in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) methods has drastically improved the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules and materials in solids. In this Account, we summarize recent and ongoing developments in this area by presenting (13)C and (1)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on paramagnetic systems and biomolecules under fast MAS from our laboratories. First, we describe how very fast MAS (VFMAS) at the spinning speed of at least 20 kHz allows us to overcome major difficulties in (1)H and (13)C high-resolution SSNMR of paramagnetic systems. As a result, we can enhance both sensitivity and resolution by up to a few orders of magnitude. Using fast recycling (∼ms/scan) with short (1)H T1 values, we can perform (1)H SSNMR microanalysis of paramagnetic systems on the microgram scale with greatly improved sensitivity over that observed for diamagnetic systems. Second, we discuss how VFMAS at a spinning speed greater than ∼40 kHz can enhance the sensitivity and resolution of (13)C biomolecular SSNMR measurements. Low-power (1)H decoupling schemes under VFMAS offer excellent spectral resolution for (13)C SSNMR by nominal (1)H RF irradiation at ∼10 kHz. By combining the VFMAS approach with enhanced (1)H T1 relaxation by paramagnetic doping, we can achieve extremely fast recycling in modern biomolecular SSNMR experiments. Experiments with (13)C-labeled ubiquitin doped with 10 mM Cu-EDTA demonstrate how effectively this new approach, called paramagnetic assisted condensed data collection (PACC), enhances the sensitivity. Lastly, we examine (13)C SSNMR measurements for biomolecules under faster MAS at a higher field. Our preliminary (13)C SSNMR data of Aβ amyloid fibrils and GB1 microcrystals acquired at (1)H NMR frequencies of 750-800 MHz suggest that the combined use of the PACC approach and ultrahigh fields could allow for routine multidimensional SSNMR analyses of proteins at the 50-200 nmol level. Also, we briefly discuss the

  3. The design study of the high power solid-state amplifier in S-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozyo, E.; Kobayashi, K.; Yoshida, K.

    1976-01-01

    We have designed the 500W high power solid-state amplifier for the microwave system of INS electron linac. In this design study the output pulse power level of each module is set as possible as high, so the total number of elements is well reduced within the present microwave technics. In comparison with TWTA highly stabilized and maintenance-free operations are expected with 5 years' MTF. (auth.)

  4. Sub-micrometer-thick all-solid-state supercapacitors with high power and energy densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanhui [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ding, Yi [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Shandong Applied Research Center for Gold Technology (Au-SDARC), Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A sub-micrometer-thick, flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitor is fabricated. Through simultaneous realization of high dispersity of pseudocapacitance materials and quick electrode response, the hybrid nanostructures show enhanced volumetric capacitance and excellent stability, as well as very high power and energy densities. This suggests their potential as next-generation, high-performance energy conversion and storage devices for wearable electronics. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. High Reversibility of “Soft” Electrode Materials in All-Solid-State Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuda, Atsushi, E-mail: a.sakuda@aist.go.jp; Takeuchi, Tomonari, E-mail: a.sakuda@aist.go.jp; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Kobayashi, Hironori [Department of Energy and Environment, Research Institute for Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda (Japan)

    2016-05-10

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery life owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy density (more than 300 Wh kg{sup −1}) secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li{sub 3}NbS{sub 4}, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric-energy density of conventional LIBs. Favorable solid–solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to give rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge–discharge processes. Here, we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid–solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approximately 400 mAh g{sup −1} suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without

  6. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eSakuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  7. High Reversibility of “Soft” Electrode Materials in All-Solid-State Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuda, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Tomonari; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Kobayashi, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery life owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy density (more than 300 Wh kg −1 ) secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li 3 NbS 4 , have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric-energy density of conventional LIBs. Favorable solid–solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to give rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge–discharge processes. Here, we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid–solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approximately 400 mAh g −1 suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  8. Rapid Thermal Annealing of Cathode-Garnet Interface toward High-Temperature Solid State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Fu, Kun; Gong, Yunhui; Yang, Chunpeng; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Chengwei; Kuang, Yudi; Pastel, Glenn; Xie, Hua; Wachsman, Eric D; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-09

    High-temperature batteries require the battery components to be thermally stable and function properly at high temperatures. Conventional batteries have high-temperature safety issues such as thermal runaway, which are mainly attributed to the properties of liquid organic electrolytes such as low boiling points and high flammability. In this work, we demonstrate a truly all-solid-state high-temperature battery using a thermally stable garnet solid-state electrolyte, a lithium metal anode, and a V 2 O 5 cathode, which can operate well at 100 °C. To address the high interfacial resistance between the solid electrolyte and cathode, a rapid thermal annealing method was developed to melt the cathode and form a continuous contact. The resulting interfacial resistance of the solid electrolyte and V 2 O 5 cathode was significantly decreased from 2.5 × 10 4 to 71 Ω·cm 2 at room temperature and from 170 to 31 Ω·cm 2 at 100 °C. Additionally, the diffusion resistance in the V 2 O 5 cathode significantly decreased as well. The demonstrated high-temperature solid-state full cell has an interfacial resistance of 45 Ω·cm 2 and 97% Coulombic efficiency cycling at 100 °C. This work provides a strategy to develop high-temperature all-solid-state batteries using garnet solid electrolytes and successfully addresses the high contact resistance between the V 2 O 5 cathode and garnet solid electrolyte without compromising battery safety or performance.

  9. A Quasi-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Capacitor with High Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faxing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zheng; Wu, Xiongwei; Liu, Xiang; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2015-11-18

    A quasi-solid-state sodium-ion capacitor is demonstrated with nanoporous disordered carbon and macroporous graphene as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, using a sodium-ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte. It can operate at a cell voltage as high as 4.2 V with an energy density of record high 168 W h kg(-1). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High-energy shadowing effect and its application to atomic and solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Shima, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Toyoyuki; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Ion-beam shadowing effects for projectiles in the MeV/u energy range have been studied with high-energy (keV) secondary electrons emitted from the surface of a target crystal. This article reviews and discusses applications of the high-energy shadowing effect to atomic and solid state physics, as well as physical and technical aspects of the electron spectroscopy under channeling incidence conditions. (orig.)

  11. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijiong; Zhou, Zhihua; Yun, Gaoqian; Shi, Kai; Lv, Xiaowei; Yang, Baocheng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s-1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors.

  12. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s−1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:24215772

  13. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  14. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  15. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  16. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Zhenqiang Ma; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4 poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors...

  17. Iron based superconductors and related compounds synthesized by solid state metathesis and high temperature reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovsky, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The results of this thesis can be divided into three major topics, which can also be seen as different approaches of solid state chemistry to reveal interesting features of known and unknown compounds and to develop alternative synthesis routes. Firstly, known compounds with related structural motifs to the superconducting iron-arsenides were investigated regarding their structural and physical properties. In case of La 3 Pd 4 Ge 4 the influence of Fe doping on the properties was studied, whereas in the series ZrMAs (M=Ti,V) the physical properties have not yet been reported at all and were investigated for the first time. Secondly, an alternative synthesis route has been developed for the synthesis of superconducting LaFeAsO 1-x F x . This solid state metathesis reaction distinctly increased the quality of the samples compared to conventionally prepared products. Furthermore, the reaction pathway was investigated and clarified, which helps to understand the processes during high temperature solid state metathesis reactions in general. Thirdly, this alternative synthesis route was expanded to other systems and new compounds like co-substituted LaFe 1-x Mn x AsO 1-y F y were prepared and thoroughly investigated. This led to a complex study of the interplay of magnetism, electronic and structural conditions and the occurrence of superconducting properties. The investigation and understanding of such complex coherences will probably be decisive for the further understanding of the superconducting mechanism in iron based superconductors.

  18. High-Efficiency, Ka-Band Solid-State Power Amplifier Utilizing GaN Technology, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuinStar Technology proposes to develop a high-efficiency, solid-state power amplifier (SSPA), operating at Ka-band frequencies, for high data rate, long range space...

  19. Highly compressible and all-solid-state supercapacitors based on nanostructured composite sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Weiya; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Jun; Xie, Sishen

    2015-10-21

    Based on polyaniline-single-walled carbon nanotubes -sponge electrodes, highly compressible all-solid-state supercapacitors are prepared with an integrated configuration using a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/H2 SO4 gel as the electrolyte. The unique configuration enables the resultant supercapacitors to be compressed as an integrated unit arbitrarily during 60% compressible strain. Furthermore, the performance of the resultant supercapacitors is nearly unchanged even under 60% compressible strain. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High-Efficiency, Ka-band Solid-State Power Amplifier Utilizing GaN Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuinStar Technology proposes to develop an efficient, solid-state power amplifier (SSPA), operating at Ka-band frequencies, for high data rate, long range space...

  1. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL's). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL's which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL's are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications

  2. Highly flexible, all solid-state micro-supercapacitors from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Ben; Marschewski, Julian; Wang, Shuang; In, Jung Bin; Carraro, Carlo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Maboudian, Roya

    2014-02-07

    We report a highly flexible planar micro-supercapacitor with interdigitated finger electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The planar electrode structures are patterned on a thin polycarbonate substrate with a facile, maskless laser-assisted dry transfer method. Sputtered Ni is used to reduce the in-plane resistance of the VACNT electrodes. An ionogel, an ionic liquid in a semi-solid matrix, is used as an electrolyte to form a fully solid-state device. We measure a specific capacitance of 430 μF cm(-2) for a scan rate of 0.1 V s(-1) and achieve rectangular cyclic voltammograms at high scan rates of up to 100 V s(-1). Minimal change in capacitance is observed under bending. Mechanical fatigue tests with more than 1000 cycles confirm the high flexibility and durability of the novel material combination chosen for this device. Our results indicate that this scalable and facile fabrication technique shows promise for application in integrated energy storage for all solid-state flexible microdevices.

  3. A complete carbon counter electrode for high performance quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2017-03-01

    The proposed research describes the design and fabrication of a quasi-solid state dye sensitized solar cells (Q-DSSCs) with a complete carbon based counter electrode (CC-CE) and gel infused membrane electrolyte. For CE, the platinized fluorinated tin oxide glass (Pt/FTO) was replaced by the soft cationic functioned multiwall carbon nanotubes (SCF-MWCNT) catalytic layer coated on woven carbon fiber fabric (CFF) prepared on handloom by interlacing of carbon filament tapes. SCF-MWCNT were synthesized by functionalization of cationised lipase from Candida Ragusa. Cationised enzyme solution was prepared at pH ∼3 by using acetic acid. The cationic enzyme functionalization of MWCNT causes the minimum damage to the tubular morphology and assist in fast anchoring of negative iodide ions present in membrane electrolyte. The high electrocatalytic activity and low charge transfer resistance (RCT = 2.12 Ω) of our proposed system of CC-CE shows that the woven CFF coated with cationised lipase treated carbon nanotubes enriched with positive surface ions. The Q-DSSCs fabricated with CC-CE and 5 wt% PEO gel infused PVDF-HFP membrane electrolyte exhibit power conversion efficiency of 8.90% under masking. Our suggested low cost and highly efficient system of CC-CE helps the proposed quasi-solid state DSSCs structure to stand out as sustainable next generation solar cells.

  4. Monolayer Nickel Cobalt Hydroxyl Carbonate for High Performance All-Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ma, Hongnan; Huang, Shifei; Zhang, Xuejiao; Xia, Meirong; Tang, Yongfu; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2016-09-07

    The emergence of atomically thick nanolayer materials, which feature a short ion diffusion channel and provide more exposed atoms in the electrochemical reactions, offers a promising occasion to optimize the performance of supercapacitors on the atomic level. In this work, a novel monolayer Ni-Co hydroxyl carbonate with an average thickness of 1.07 nm is synthesized via an ordinary one-pot hydrothermal route for the first time. This unique monolayer structure can efficiently rise up the exposed electroactive sites and facilitate the surface dependent electrochemical reaction processes, and thus results in outstanding specific capacitance of 2266 F g(-1). Based on this material, an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor is developed adopting alkaline PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) gel (PVA/KOH) as electrolyte, which performs remarkable cycling stability (no capacitance fade after 19 000 cycles) together with promising energy density of 50 Wh kg(-1) (202 μWh cm(-2)) and high power density of 8.69 kW kg(-1) (35.1 mW cm(-2)). This as-assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (AASC) holds great potential in the field of portable energy storage devices.

  5. Highly photoluminescent europium tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate ternary complexes with heteroaromatic co-ligands. Solution and solid state studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietraszkiewicz, Marek, E-mail: mpietraszkiewicz@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Pietraszkiewicz, Oksana; Karpiuk, Jerzy; Majka, Alina [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Dutkiewicz, Grzegorz; Borowiak, Teresa [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Crystallography, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Kaczmarek, Anna M. [L3–Luminescent Lanthanide Lab, f-element coordination chemistry, Ghent University, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, Building S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Deun, Rik, E-mail: rik.vandeun@ugent.be [L3–Luminescent Lanthanide Lab, f-element coordination chemistry, Ghent University, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, Building S3, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    Tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate (tpip) forms neutral 3:1 complexes with lanthanide ions. These complexes can accommodate one ancillary planar heterocyclic ligand to complement their coordination sphere of Eu{sup 3+} to coordination number 8. Several co-ligands were tested to form new complexes: 1,10-phenanthroline, bathophenanthroline, 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine, dipyrido[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline and 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine. The addition of heterocyclic N,N-bidentate co-ligands to the coordination sphere results in a dramatic (by a factor of 45–50) luminescence enhancement of the parent Eu(tpip){sub 3}. The solid-state measurements confirmed that the ancillary ligands strongly increased the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the investigated complexes. - Highlights: • We have disovered highly photoluminescent ternary Eu(III) complexes. • They consist of Eu(III) tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate, and planar heterocyclic ligands. • The increase in photoluminescence quantum yields in solution is enhanced up to 50 times in solution. • The solid-state photoluminescence exceeds 80% at room temperature.

  6. High peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state amplifier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Yu, H; Liu, Q; Fu, X; Yan, X; Gong, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the high peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state laser amplifier system. The passively mode-locked solid-state seed source produced an average power of 1.8 W with pulse width of 14 ps and repetition rate of 86 MHz. It was directly coupled into the first Yb-doped polarized photonic crystal fiber amplifier stage. To avoid the nonlinear effects in fiber, the output power from the first stage was merely amplified to 24 W with the narrow spectra broadening of 0.21 nm. For the improvement of the peak power, the dual-end pumped composite Nd:YVO 4 amplifier system has been chosen at the second stage. To reduce the serious thermal effect, the thermally bonded composite YVO 4 – Nd:YVO 4 – YVO 4 rod crystal was used as the gain medium. The 53 W TEM 00 mode with the peak power of 40 kW, beam quality of M 2 < 1.15, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 42.4% was obtained at the hybrid amplifier laser system. The system allows using a low power seed source and demonstrates an increase in the peak power beyond a fiber master oscillator power amplifier's (MOPA's) limit

  7. Highly photoluminescent europium tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate ternary complexes with heteroaromatic co-ligands. Solution and solid state studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietraszkiewicz, Marek; Pietraszkiewicz, Oksana; Karpiuk, Jerzy; Majka, Alina; Dutkiewicz, Grzegorz; Borowiak, Teresa; Kaczmarek, Anna M.; Van Deun, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate (tpip) forms neutral 3:1 complexes with lanthanide ions. These complexes can accommodate one ancillary planar heterocyclic ligand to complement their coordination sphere of Eu 3+ to coordination number 8. Several co-ligands were tested to form new complexes: 1,10-phenanthroline, bathophenanthroline, 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine, dipyrido[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline and 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine. The addition of heterocyclic N,N-bidentate co-ligands to the coordination sphere results in a dramatic (by a factor of 45–50) luminescence enhancement of the parent Eu(tpip) 3 . The solid-state measurements confirmed that the ancillary ligands strongly increased the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the investigated complexes. - Highlights: • We have disovered highly photoluminescent ternary Eu(III) complexes. • They consist of Eu(III) tetraphenylimidodiphosphinate, and planar heterocyclic ligands. • The increase in photoluminescence quantum yields in solution is enhanced up to 50 times in solution. • The solid-state photoluminescence exceeds 80% at room temperature.

  8. Caracterização de fibras de bananeira e de coco por ressonância magnética nuclear de alta resolução no estado sólido Characterization of banana and coconut fibers by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Albinante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de ressonância magnética nuclear, RMN, de alta resolução no estado sólido permitiu um estudo detalhado da dinâmica molecular de fibras naturais, entre elas duas obtidas a partir do tronco de bananeira e outra, da fruta do coco. Utilizou-se a técnica de relaxação nuclear para avaliar os domínios relacionados às diferentes mobilidades dos componentes dessas fibras, tais como celulose, hemicelulose e lignina. Também foram realizados testes para a quantificação do teor de lignina por método químico. A partir dos tempos de relaxação e da curva de domínios, foi possível verificar que as fibras com alto teor de lignina possuem tempos maiores de relaxação, pois esse componente da fibra apresenta uma estrutura, mais rígida, de anéis aromáticos.High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, NMR, in the solid-state permitted a detailed molecular dynamic study of natural fibers, including two obtained from the banana tree stems and from coconut fruits. The nuclear relaxation technique was applied to evaluate the domains associated with different mobilities of the fiber components, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Experiments were also done to quantify the lignin content using a chemical method. From the relaxation times and the domain curves, fibers with higher lignin content were found to have higher relaxation times, because they present a more rigid structure with aromatic groups.

  9. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: uu_gg_oo@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, C.U. Del. Coyoacan (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. {yields} During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. {yields} Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  10. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Chavez, H.; Reyes-Carmona, F.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. → During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. → Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  11. High Energy, Single-Mode, All-Solid-State and Tunable UV Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Hovis, FLoyd

    2007-01-01

    A high energy, single mode, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser primarily for pumping an UV converter is developed. Greater than 1 J/pulse at 50 HZ PRF and pulse widths around 22 ns have been demonstrated. Higher energy, greater efficiency may be possible. Refinements are known and practical to implement. Technology Demonstration of a highly efficient, high-pulse-energy, single mode UV wavelength generation using flash lamp pumped laser has been achieved. Greater than 90% pump depletion is observed. 190 mJ extra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency > 21% (> 27% for 1 mJ seed). 160 mJ intra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency up to 24% Fluence laser is being refined to match or exceed the above UV converter results. Currently the Nd:YAG pump laser development is a technology demonstration. System can be engineered for compact packaging.

  12. Ultra-High Density Holographic Memory Module with Solid-State Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Vladimir B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's terrestrial. space, and deep-space missions require technology that allows storing. retrieving, and processing a large volume of information. Holographic memory offers high-density data storage with parallel access and high throughput. Several methods exist for data multiplexing based on the fundamental principles of volume hologram selectivity. We recently demonstrated that a spatial (amplitude-phase) encoding of the reference wave (SERW) looks promising as a way to increase the storage density. The SERW hologram offers a method other than traditional methods of selectivity, such as spatial de-correlation between recorded and reconstruction fields, In this report we present the experimental results of the SERW-hologram memory module with solid-state architecture, which is of particular interest for space operations.

  13. Potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-01-01

    High-average-power frequency conversion using solid state nonlinear materials is discussed. Recent laboratory experience and new developments in design concepts show that current technology, a few tens of watts, may be extended by several orders of magnitude. For example, using KD*P, efficient doubling (>70%) of Nd:YAG at average powers approaching 100 KW is possible; and for doubling to the blue or ultraviolet regions, the average power may approach 1 MW. Configurations using segmented apertures permit essentially unlimited scaling of average power. High average power is achieved by configuring the nonlinear material as a set of thin plates with a large ratio of surface area to volume and by cooling the exposed surfaces with a flowing gas. The design and material fabrication of such a harmonic generator are well within current technology

  14. Solid state high power amplifier for driving the SLC injector klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judkins, J.G.; Clendenin, J.E.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1985-03-01

    The SLC injector klystron rf drive is now provided by a recently developed solid-state amplifier. The high gain of the amplifier permits the use of a fast low-power electronic phase shifter. Thus the SLC computer control system can be used to shift the phase of the high-power rf rapidly during the fill time of the injector accelerator section. These rapid phase shifts are used to introduce a phase-energy relationship in the accelerated electron pulse in conjunction with the operation of the injector bunch compressor. The amplifier, the method of controlling the rf phase, and the operational characteristics of the system are described. 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. High efficiency single frequency 355 nm all-solid-state UV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xiaobing; Wei, Daikang; Ma, Xiuhua; Li, Shiguang; Liu, Jiqiao; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    A novel conductively cooled high energy single-frequency 355 nm all-solid-state UV laser is presented based on sum-frequency mixing technique. In this system, a pulsed seeder laser at 1064 nm wavelength, modulated by an AOM, is directly amplified by the cascaded multi-stage hybrid laser amplifiers, and two LBO crystals are used for the SHG and SFG, finally a maximum UV pulse energy of 226 mJ at 355 nm wavelength is achieved with frequency-tripled conversion efficiency as high as 55%, the pulse width is around 12.2 ns at the repetition frequency of 30 Hz. The beam quality factor M 2 of the output UV laser is measured to be 2.54 and 2.98 respectively in two orthogonal directions. (paper)

  16. High power diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser systems active media robust modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Tamer M.; Mokhtar, Ayman M.; Ghoniemy, Samy A.

    2018-02-01

    Diode side-pumped solid-state lasers have the potential to yield high quality laser beams with high efficiency and reliability. This paper summarizes the results of simulation of the most predominant active media that are used in high power diode pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser systems. Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods laser systems were simulated using the special finite element analysis software program LASCAD. A performance trade off analysis for Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods was performed in order to predict the system optimized parameters and to investigate thermally induced thermal fracture that may occur due to heat load and mechanical stress. The simulation results showed that at the optimized values Nd:YAG rod achieved the highest output power of 175W with 43% efficiency and heat load of 1.873W/mm3. A negligible changes in laser output power, heat load, stress, and temperature distributions were observed when the Nd:YAG rod length was increased from 72 to 80mm. Simulation of Nd:glass at different rod diameters at the same pumping conditions showed better results for mechanical stress and thermal load than that of Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF which makes it very suitable for high power laser applications especially for large rod diameters. For large rod diameters Nd:YLF is mechanically weaker and softer crystal compared to Nd:YAG and Nd:glass due to its poor thermomechanical properties which limits its usage to only low to medium power systems.

  17. High pressure in solid state chemistry: Combined experimental and modeling approaches for assessing and predicting properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etourneau, Jean; Matar, Samir F.

    2018-06-01

    The thermodynamic pressure parameter has been thoroughly used with mastership by Gérard Demazeau throughout his rich career in solid state chemistry and materials sciences and more recently in biosciences. After a review of such works, focus is made in this topical article on his contribution together with his team in the field of hard materials based on light elements B, C, N with a proposition of a new ultra-hard carbon nitride C2N on one hand and on the structural transformations under high pressures of perovskite into postperovskite with a change of dimensionality from 3D to 2D and related oxides, regarding the arrangement of octahedra, on the other hand. Investigation and concepts first arising from experimental observables are shown to be aided and accelerated via first principles calculations of energy and energy-related quantities.

  18. In situ immobilized, magnetite nanoplatelets over holey graphene nanoribbons for high performance solid state supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, Shubra; Sahu, Vikrant; Marichi, Ram Bhagat; Singh, Gurmeet; Sharma, Raj Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal platelet morphology of magnetite offers efficient material utilization. • Enhanced electronic conductivity of Fe 3 O 4 /GNR nanocomposites via GNR-GNR network. • Exploring the best optimized 30 wt. (%) Fe 3 O 4 on GNR as solid state supercapacitor. - ABSTRACT: Among major phases of iron oxide, magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) is potential candidate for pseudocapacitors. Yet, the clustering of magnetite nanoparticles confines them from being exploited as charge storage material. Herein, magnetite hexagonal nanoplatelets are synthesized on holey graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by hydrothermal route and tested for charge storage performance in solid-state supercapacitor incorporating gel electrolyte (PVA-H 2 SO 4 ). GNR besides providing large surface for adsorption of magnetite platelets also improved the charge collection ability of nanocomposite through interconnected nanoribbon network. Mass loading over GNR is optimized to a maximum of 30 wt. (%) by ensuring mono dispersion of magnetite nanoplatelets and high conductivity (14.0 S m −1 ) of nanocomposite. Above 50 wt. (%) magnetite loading, structural identity of nanoribbon is tempered and as a consequence increased network resistivity depletion in charge storage capacity is observed. Mass loading of magnetite over nanoribbon showed an inverse relationship with ion diffusion and electronic conduction. Balanced ionic and electronic conduction in 30 wt. (%) magnetite loaded nanoribbon results in a supercapacitor cell delivering 1241.5 W kg −1 while maintaining 26.9 Wh kg −1 energy density. About 95% capacitance retention over 3000 charge discharge cycles at 2.3 A g −1 demonstrate magnetite as a high performance supercapacitor electrode.

  19. Unveiling multiple solid-state transitions in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms using multi-series hyperspectral imaging and different curve resolution approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state transitions at the surface of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms (SDF) were monitored using multi-series hyperspectral imaging (HSI) along with Multivariate Curve Resolution – Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC and PARAFAC2). First, the solid-stat...

  20. High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Lucio; Childress, Lilian; Bernien, Hannes; Hensen, Bas; Alkemade, Paul F A; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-09-21

    Initialization and read-out of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. Single-shot read-out of the state of a multi-quantum-bit (multi-qubit) register would allow direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement), and would give access to further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation. Although spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, their single-shot detection has been achieved only for isolated qubits. Here we demonstrate the preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register in a low-temperature solid-state system by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity read-out of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, and use this read-out to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto, and subsequently measuring, the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control: we demonstrate initialization, coherent manipulation and single-shot read-out in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for a test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  1. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  2. Solid-state diffusion bonding of high-Cr ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: sh-noh@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel joined by solid-state diffusion bonding. > Free of precipitates and micro-voids at the bonding interface was existed. > Joints had the same tensile properties with anisotropy of the base material. > USE of joints was fully reserved in L-R bonding orientation. > Cracks did not propagate on the bonding interface at the Charpy impact test. - Abstract: Solid-state diffusion bonding (SSDB) was employed to join high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.2Ti-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) blocks under uniaxial hydrostatic pressure using a high-vacuum hot press, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated. High-Cr ODS ferritic steels were successfully diffusion bonded at 1200 deg. C for 1 h, without precipitates and microvoids at the bonding interface or degradation in the base materials. Transmission electron microscopic observation revealed that the nano-oxide particles near the bonding interface were uniformly distributed in the matrix and that the chemical composition across the bonding interface was virtually constant. At room temperature, the joint had nearly the same tensile properties and exhibited anisotropic behavior similar to that of the base material. The tensile strength of the joint region at elevated temperatures is nearly the same as that of the base material, with necking behavior at several micrometers from the bonding interface. The total elongation of the joint region decreased slightly at 700 {sup o}C, with an exfoliation fracture surface at the bonding interface. Although a small ductile-brittle transition temperature shift was observed in the joints, the upper shelf energy was fully reserved in the case of joints with L-R bonding orientation, for which cracks did not propagate on the bonding interface. Therefore, it is concluded that SSDB can be potentially employed as a joining method for high-Cr ODS ferritic steel owing to

  3. Wearable Solid-State Supercapacitors Operating at High Working Voltage with a Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yaping; Ge, Fengyan; Komarneni, Sridhar; Cai, Zaisheng

    2016-10-05

    The proposed approach for fabricating ultralight self-sustained electrodes facilitates the structural integration of highly flexible carbon nanofibers, amino-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AM-MWNT), and MnO 2 nanoflakes for potential use in wearable supercapacitors. Because of the higher orientation of AM-MWNT and the sublimation of terephthalic acid (PTA) in the carbonization process, freestanding electrodes could be realized with high porosity and flexibility and could possess remarkable electrochemical properties without using polymer substrates. Wearable symmetric solid-state supercapacitors were further assembled using a LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte, which exhibit a maximum energy density of 44.57 Wh/kg (at a power density of 337.1 W/kg) and a power density of 13330 W/kg (at an energy density of 19.64 Wh/kg) with a working voltage as high as 1.8 V. Due to the combination of several favorable traits such as flexibility, high energy density, and excellent electrochemical cyclability, the presently developed wearable supercapacitors with wide potential windows are expected to be useful for new kinds of portable electric devices.

  4. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%

  5. Biomass hydrolysis inhibition at high hydrogen partial pressure in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazier, E A; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Escudie, R

    2015-08-01

    In solid-state anaerobic digestion, so-called ss-AD, biogas production is inhibited at high total solids contents. Such inhibition is likely caused by a slow diffusion of dissolved reaction intermediates that locally accumulate. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 and CO2 partial pressure on ss-AD. Partial pressure of H2 and/or CO2 was artificially fixed, from 0 to 1 557mbars for H2 and from 0 to 427mbars for CO2. High partial pressure of H2 showed a significant effect on methanogenesis, while CO2 had no impact. At high [Formula: see text] , the overall substrate degradation decreased with no accumulation of metabolites from acidogenic bacteria, indicating that the hydrolytic activity was specifically impacted. Interestingly, such inhibition did not occur when CO2 was added with H2. This result suggests that CO2 gas transfer is probably a key factor in ss-AD from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface functionalization of solid state ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene through chemical grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Rehman, Tayyiba; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Shaikh, Ahson Jabbar; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Raza, Rizwan; Waseem, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The surface of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was functionalized with styrene using chemical grafting technique. The grafting process was initiated through radical generation on base polymer matrix in the solid state by sodium thiosulfate, while peroxides formed at radical sites during this process were dissociated by ceric ammonium nitrate. Various factors were optimized and reasonably high level of monomer grafting was achieved, i.e., 15.6%. The effect of different acids as additive and divinyl benzene (DVB) as a cross-linking agent was also studied. Post-grafting sulfonation was conducted to introduce the ionic moieties to the grafted polymer. Ion-exchange capacity (IEC) was measured experimentally and is found to be 1.04 meq g-1, which is in close agreement with the theoretical IEC values. The chemical structure of grafted and functionalized polymer was characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal properties were investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal analysis depicts that the presence of radicals on the polymer chain accelerates the thermal decomposition process. The results signify that the chemical grafting is an effective tool for substantial surface modification and subsequent functionalization of polyethylene.

  7. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R.

    1999-01-01

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 ampersand micro;s at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle

  8. Carbonate-linked poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolytes towards high performance solid state lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weisheng; Cui, Zili; Liu, Xiaochen; Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Zhou, Xinhong; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-01-01

    The classic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based solid polymer electrolyte suffers from poor ionic conductivity of ambient temperature, low lithium ion transference number and relatively narrow electrochemical window (<4.0 V vs. Li + /Li). Herein, the carbonate-linked PEO solid polymer such as poly(diethylene glycol carbonate) (PDEC) and poly(triethylene glycol carbonate) (PTEC) were explored to find out the feasibility of resolving above issues. It was proven that the optimized ionic conductivity of PTEC based electrolyte reached up to 1.12 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at 25 °C with a decent lithium ion transference number of 0.39 and a wide electrochemical window about 4.5 V vs. Li + /Li. In addition, the PTEC based Li/LiFePO 4 cell could be reversibly charged and discharged at 0.05 C-rates at ambient temperature. Moreover, the higher voltage Li/LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 cell (cutoff voltage 4.35 V) possessed considerable rate capability and excellent cycling performance even at ambient temperature. Therefore, these carbonate-linked PEO electrolytes were demonstrated to be fascinating candidates for the next generation solid state lithium batteries simultaneously with high energy and high safety.

  9. Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanofilms with high rate capability and long cyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingxia; Li, Ruizhi; Guo, Junling; Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenpei; Wang, Chong; Huang, Yu; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping

    2013-08-01

    Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using MnO2 nanofilms growing directly on carbon cloth as the electrodes and PVA/H3PO4 gel as the electrolyte/separator. The device can be operated at a stable cell-voltage up to 1.4 V, obviously larger than that of conventional solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (≤1 V). It exhibited excellent rate capability with a scan rate as high as 20 V s-1 and a long cyclability (˜60000 cycles) even under severe mechanical deformation. The charge storage mechanism at different scan rates was also quantitatively analyzed.

  10. Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanofilms with high rate capability and long cyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using MnO2 nanofilms growing directly on carbon cloth as the electrodes and PVA/H3PO4 gel as the electrolyte/separator. The device can be operated at a stable cell-voltage up to 1.4 V, obviously larger than that of conventional solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (≤1 V. It exhibited excellent rate capability with a scan rate as high as 20 V s−1 and a long cyclability (∼60000 cycles even under severe mechanical deformation. The charge storage mechanism at different scan rates was also quantitatively analyzed.

  11. Expandable Polymer Enabled Wirelessly Destructible High-Performance Solid State Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Alam, Arsalan; Hussain, Aftab M.; Mishra, Kush; Wicaksono, Irmandy; Sevilla, Galo T.; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Diaz, Marlon; Velling, Seneca; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    In today's digital age, the increasing dependence on information also makes us vulnerable to potential invasion of privacy and cyber security. Consider a scenario in which a hard drive is stolen, lost, or misplaced, which contains secured and valuable information. In such a case, it is important to have the ability to remotely destroy the sensitive part of the device (e.g., memory or processor) if it is not possible to regain it. Many emerging materials and even some traditional materials like silicon, aluminum, zinc oxide, tungsten, and magnesium, which are often used for logic processor and memory, show promise to be gradually dissolved upon exposure of various liquid medium. However, often these wet processes are too slow, fully destructive, and require assistance from the liquid materials and their suitable availability at the time of need. This study shows Joule heating effect induced thermal expansion and stress gradient between thermally expandable advanced polymeric material and flexible bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) to destroy high-performance solid state electronics as needed and under 10 s. This study also shows different stimuli-assisted smartphone-operated remote destructions of such complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics.

  12. A high performance quasi-solid-state supercapacitor based on CuMnO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Arif, Muhammad; Duan, Guorong; Chen, Shenming; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-07-01

    Mixed metal or transition metal oxides hold an unveiled potential as one of the most promising energy storage material because of their excellent stability, reliable conductivity, and convenient use. In this work, CuMnO2 nanoparticles are successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal process with the help of dispersing agent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). CuMnO2 nanoparticles possess a uniform quadrilateral shape, small size (approximately 25 × 25 nm-35 × 35 nm), excellent dispersity, and large specific surface specific (56.9 m2 g-1) with an interparticle mesoporous structure. All these characteristics can bring benefit for their application in supercapacitor. A quasi-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device is assembled by using CuMnO2 nanoparticles as both positive electrode and negative electrode. The device exhibits good supercapacitive performance with a high specific capacitance (272 F g-1), a maximum power density of 7.56 kW kg-1 and a superior cycling stability of 18,000 continuous cycles, indicating an excellent potential to be used in energy storage device.

  13. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2007-03-31

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  14. Highly compressible three-dimensional graphene hydrogel for foldable all-solid-state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Zou, Shuai; Liu, Kaixi; Lv, Chao; Wu, Ziping; Yin, Yanhong; Liang, Tongxiang; Xie, Zailai

    2018-04-01

    The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based macroscopic materials with superior mechanical and electrical properties for flexible energy storage devices is still extremely challenging. Here, we report a novel 3D graphene hydrogel decorated by the biomass phytic acid (PAGH) with developed porosity and strengthen mechanical property via hydrothermal and freeze-drying methods. The phytic acid molecules are intercalated into the graphene sheets, enabling robust network structure. This induces the formation of materials with larger specific surface area, lower density and enhanced compressive strength compared with pure GH. When directly employed as an electrode, the PAGH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 248.8 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and excellent rate performance of 67.9% as current density increasing to 20 A g-1. Furthermore, the all-solid-state supercapacitor based PAGH can deliver outstanding cycle life (86.2% after cycling 10,000 times), glorious energy density (26.5 Wh kg-1) and power density (5135.1 W kg-1). The prepared device shows stable electrochemical behaviors at random bending angles. Therefore, the present work will open a new avenue to design and fabricate new flexible and portable graphene-based electrodes for future applications in energy storage devices.

  15. Micro/Nano Fabricated Solid-State Thermoelectric Generator Devices for Integrated High Voltage Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Ryan, M. A.; Snyder, G. J.; Huang, C.-K.; Whitacre, J. F.; Patel, J.; Lim, J.; Borshchevsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    Deep space missions have a strong need for compact, high power density, reliable and long life electrical power generation and storage under extreme temperature conditions. Except for electrochemical batteries and solar cells, there are currently no available miniaturized power sources. Conventional power generators devices become inefficient in extreme environments (such as encountered in Mars, Venus or outer planet missions) and rechargeable energy storage devices can only be operated in a narrow temperature range thereby limiting mission duration. The planned development of much smaller spacecrafts incorporating a variety of micro/nanodevices and miniature vehicles will require novel, reliable power technologies. It is also expected that such micro power sources could have a wide range of terrestrial applications, in particular when the limited lifetime and environmental limitations of batteries are key factors. Advanced solid-state thermoelectric combined with radioisotope or waste heat sources and low profile energy storage devices are ideally suited for these applications. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been actively pursuing the development of thermoelectric micro/nanodevices that can be fabricated using a combination of electrochemical deposition and integrated circuit processing techniques. Some of the technical challenges associated with these micro/nanodevice concepts, their expected level of performance and experimental fabrication and testing results to date are presented and discussed.

  16. Expandable Polymer Enabled Wirelessly Destructible High-Performance Solid State Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Gumus, Abdurrahman

    2017-03-29

    In today\\'s digital age, the increasing dependence on information also makes us vulnerable to potential invasion of privacy and cyber security. Consider a scenario in which a hard drive is stolen, lost, or misplaced, which contains secured and valuable information. In such a case, it is important to have the ability to remotely destroy the sensitive part of the device (e.g., memory or processor) if it is not possible to regain it. Many emerging materials and even some traditional materials like silicon, aluminum, zinc oxide, tungsten, and magnesium, which are often used for logic processor and memory, show promise to be gradually dissolved upon exposure of various liquid medium. However, often these wet processes are too slow, fully destructive, and require assistance from the liquid materials and their suitable availability at the time of need. This study shows Joule heating effect induced thermal expansion and stress gradient between thermally expandable advanced polymeric material and flexible bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) to destroy high-performance solid state electronics as needed and under 10 s. This study also shows different stimuli-assisted smartphone-operated remote destructions of such complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics.

  17. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  18. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  19. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  20. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  1. Solid-state vs water-perfused catheters to measure colonic high-amplitude propagating contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, O.; Burgers, R. E.; Connor, F. L.; Benninga, M. A.; Reddy, S. N.; Mousa, H. M.; Di Lorenzo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Solid-state (SS) manometry catheters with portable data loggers offer many potential advantages over traditional water-perfused (WP) systems, such as prolonged recordings in a more physiologic ambulatory setting and the lack of risk for water overload. The use of SS catheters has not been

  2. Plasmonics for solid-state lighting : enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, G.; Louwers, Davy J.; Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Murai, S.; Jansen, O.T.A.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Gomez Rivas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Light sources based on reliable and energy-efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are instrumental in the development of solid-state lighting (SSL). Most research efforts in SSL have focused on improving both the intrinsic quantum efficiency (QE) and the stability of light emitters. For this reason,

  3. Advances in High Energy Solid-State 2-micron Laser Transmitter Development for Ground and Airborne Wind and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; hide

    2010-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  4. Ultra-high performance, solid-state, autoradiographic image digitization and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Pratt, J.P.; Ackermann, R.F.; Plotnick, J.; Rumley, S.

    1990-01-01

    We developed a Macintosh II-based, charge-coupled device (CCD), image digitization and analysis system for high-speed, high-resolution quantification of autoradiographic image data. A linear CCD array with 3,500 elements was attached to a precision drive assembly and mounted behind a high-uniformity lens. The drive assembly was used to sweep the array perpendicularly to its axis so that an entire 20 x 25-cm autoradiographic image-containing film could be digitized into 256 gray levels at 50-microns resolution in less than 30 sec. The scanner was interfaced to a Macintosh II computer through a specially constructed NuBus circuit board and software was developed for autoradiographic data analysis. The system was evaluated by scanning individual films multiple times, then measuring the variability of the digital data between the different scans. Image data were found to be virtually noise free. The coefficient of variation averaged less than 1%, a value significantly exceeding the accuracy of both high-speed, low-resolution, video camera (VC) systems and low-speed, high-resolution, rotating drum densitometers (RDD). Thus, the CCD scanner-Macintosh computer analysis system offers the advantage over VC systems of the ability to digitize entire films containing many autoradiograms, but with much greater speed and accuracy than achievable with RDD scanners

  5. One-step spray processing of high power all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Grant, Patrick S.

    2013-08-01

    Aqueous suspensions of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in dilute H2SO4 were sprayed onto both sides of a Nafion membrane and dried to fabricate flexible solid-state supercapacitors. A single cell with MWNT-only electrodes had a capacitance of 57 F g-1 per electrode at 2 mV s-1 and 44 F g-1 at 150 mV s-1 but with low H+ mobility. Cells with MWNT + ionomer hybrid electrodes showed higher H+ mobility, and the electric double layer (EDL) capacitance increased to 145 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 and 91 F g-1 at 150 mV s-1. The energy and power densities of one electrode charged to 1 V at 1 A g-1 were 12.9 Wh kg-1 and 3.3 kW kg-1 respectively. Three solid-state supercapacitor cells connected in series charged to 3 V at 1 and 2 A g-1 provided a device power density of 8.9 kW kg-1 at 1 A g-1 and 9.4 kW kg-1 at 2 A g-1, the highest for all-solid-state EDL supercapacitors.

  6. One-step spray processing of high power all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Grant, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous suspensions of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in dilute H2SO4 were sprayed onto both sides of a Nafion membrane and dried to fabricate flexible solid-state supercapacitors. A single cell with MWNT-only electrodes had a capacitance of 57 F g−1 per electrode at 2 mV s−1 and 44 F g−1 at 150 mV s−1 but with low H+ mobility. Cells with MWNT + ionomer hybrid electrodes showed higher H+ mobility, and the electric double layer (EDL) capacitance increased to 145 F g−1 at 2 mV s−1 and 91 F g−1 at 150 mV s−1. The energy and power densities of one electrode charged to 1 V at 1 A g−1 were 12.9 Wh kg−1 and 3.3 kW kg−1 respectively. Three solid-state supercapacitor cells connected in series charged to 3 V at 1 and 2 A g−1 provided a device power density of 8.9 kW kg−1 at 1 A g−1 and 9.4 kW kg−1 at 2 A g−1, the highest for all-solid-state EDL supercapacitors. PMID:23928828

  7. Short review of high-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of solid-state osmium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Kazunari, E-mail: YAMAURA.Kazunari@nims.go.jp [Superconducting Properties Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, North 10 West 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    High-pressure crystal growth and synthesis of selected solid-state osmium oxides, many of which are perovskite-related types, are briefly reviewed, and their magnetic and electrical properties are introduced. Crystals of the osmium oxides, including NaOsO{sub 3}, LiOsO{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4}, were successfully grown under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions at 6 GPa in the presence of an appropriate amount of flux in a belt-type apparatus. The unexpected discovery of a magnetic metal–insulator transition in NaOsO{sub 3}, a ferroelectric-like transition in LiOsO{sub 3}, and high-temperature ferrimagnetism driven by a local structural distortion in Ca{sub 2}FeOsO{sub 6} may represent unique features of the osmium oxides. The high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis and crystal growth has played a central role in the development of solid-state osmium oxides and the elucidation of their magnetic and electronic properties toward possible use in multifunctional devices. - Graphical Abstract: Flux-grown crystals of NaOsO{sub 3} under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions in a belt-type apparatus. The crystal shows a magnetically driven metal–insulator transition at a temperature of 410 K. - Highlights: • Short review of high-pressure crystal growth of solid-state osmium oxides. • Wide variety of magnetic properties of solid-state osmium oxides. • Perovskite and related dense structures stabilized at 3–17 GPa.

  8. Three-dimensional nitrogen and boron co-doped graphene for high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Chen, Long; Sun, Yi; Muellen, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Winter, Andreas; Turchanin, Andrey [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Physik Supramolekularer Systeme und Oberflaechen, Universitaetsstr. 25D, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Feng, Xinliang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China)

    2012-09-25

    A simplified prototype device of high-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSs) based on 3D nitrogen and boron co-doped monolithic graphene aerogels (BN-GAs) is demonstrated for the first time. The resulting ASSSs show high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and enhanced energy density or power density. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. S-band 300 W pulsed solid state microwave amplifier development for driving high power klystrons for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohania, Praveen; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    S-Band Microwave electron accelerators like microtrons and linear accelerators need pulsed microwaves from few megawatts to tens of megawatts to accelerator the electrons to desired energy and intensity. Klystron tube based driver amplifiers were used to drive the high power klystrons, which need microwave power from few tens of watts to 1 kW depending on tube output power and gain. A endeavour was initiated at Centre for Advanced Technology to develop state of art solid state S-band microwave amplifiers indigenously to drive the klystron tubes. A modular design approach was used and individual modules up to 160 W power levels were developed and tested. Finally combining 160 W modules will give up to 300 W output power. Several more modules can be combined to achieve even high power levels. Present paper describes the developmental efforts of 300 W S-band solid-state amplifiers and related microwave technologies. (author)

  10. A high-capacitance solid-state supercapacitor based on free-standing film of polyaniline and carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrozadeh, A.; Xing, M.; Wang, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solid-state supercapacitor has high energy density and good cyclic stability. • The electrode is a freestanding composite film of polyaniline and carbon particles. • The impregnation of electrodes with gel electrolyte facilitates high capacitance. • The supercapacitor is lightweight, thin, flexible, and environmental friendly. - Abstract: Polyaniline tends to degrade with cycling in aqueous electrolytes and it can be alleviated using gel electrolytes. A low-cost solid-state supercapacitor of high energy density and good cyclic stability is fabricated with a facile method. The electrodes of the supercapacitor are made of a freestanding composite film of polyaniline and acid-treated carbon particles using phytic acid as a crosslinker, and the gel electrolyte is composed of sulfuric acid and polyvinyl alcohol. The electrochemical performances of the as-fabricated supercapacitor are investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Our results show that a maximum capacitance of 272.6 F/g (3.63 F/cm 2 ) at a current density of 0.63 A/g can be achieved by the supercapacitor, which is significantly higher than most solid-state ones reported in the literature. The ability to achieve a high-capacitance supercapacitor with good cyclic stability is mainly attributed to excellent infiltration of the gel electrolyte into the electrodes. The developed lightweight, thin, flexible, and environmental friendly supercapacitor would have potential applications in various energy storage devices, such as wearable electronics and hybrid electric vehicles

  11. New problems in solid-state chemistry solved by high pressure conditions: an exciting perspective for preparing new materials

    OpenAIRE

    Demazeau , Gérard

    1988-01-01

    International audience; The high-pressure technique is an efficient tool in solid-state chemistry for preparing new materials of low stability or metastable character. During the last 20 years, this technique has been used and developed especially in three principal areas : synthesis of new materials, either for a better basic approach of scientific problems or for industrial applications studies of structural transformations in situ evolution of some physical properties of materials under pr...

  12. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 115, enhancement of the reliability of the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdekas, D.L.

    1989-05-01

    Generic Issue 115 addresses a concern related to the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor protection system for plants using the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System (SSPS). Several options for improving the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor trip function for these plants and their effect on core damage frequency (CDF) and overall risk were evaluated. This regulatory analysis includes a quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits associated with the various options for enhancing the reliability of the Westinghouse SSPS and provides insights for consideration and industry initiatives. No new regulatory requirements are proposed. 25 refs., 11 tabs

  13. Ultraflexible and tailorable all-solid-state supercapacitors using polyacrylamide-based hydrogel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Lv, Tian; Li, Ning; Yao, Yao; Liu, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-11-30

    Hydrogels with high ionic conductivity consisting of a cross-linked polymer network swollen in water are very promising to be used as an electrolyte for all-solid-state supercapacitors. However, there are rather few flexible supercapacitors using ionic conducting hydrogel electrolytes reported to date. In this work, highly flexible and ionic conducting polyacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized through a simple approach. On using the ionic hydrogels as the electrolyte, the resulting supercapacitors not only exhibited a high specific capacitance but also showed a long self-discharge time (over 10 hours to the half of original open-circuit voltage) and a low leakage current. These newly-developed all-solid-state supercapacitors can be bent, knot, and kneaded for 5000 cycles without performance decay, suggesting excellent flexibility and mechanical stability. These all-solid-state supercapacitors can also be easily tailored into strip-like supercapacitors without a short circuit, which provides an efficient approach to fabricate wearable energy storage devices.

  14. A HIGH CURRENT, HIGH VOLTAGE SOLID-STATE PULSE GENERATOR FOR THE NIF PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P A; Barbosa, F; Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Akana, G L; Brooksby, C A

    2007-01-01

    A high current, high voltage, all solid-state pulse modulator has been developed for use in the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem in the National Ignition Facility. The MOSFET-switched pulse generator, designed to be a more capable plug-in replacement for the thyratron-switched units currently deployed in NIF, offers unprecedented capabilities including burst-mode operation, pulse width agility and a steady-state pulse repetition frequency exceeding 1 Hz. Capable of delivering requisite fast risetime, 17 kV flattop pulses into a 6 (Omega) load, the pulser employs a modular architecture characteristic of the inductive adder technology, pioneered at LLNL for use in acceleration applications, which keeps primary voltages low (and well within the capabilities of existing FET technology), reduces fabrication costs and is amenable to rapid assembly and quick field repairs

  15. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting. Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 (micro)m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of ∼ 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light

  16. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  17. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  18. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

    2004-03-02

    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  19. A high precision video-electronic measuring system for use with solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, J.U.; Schopper, E.; Staudte, R.

    1976-01-01

    A video-electronic image analyzing system Quantimet 720 has been modified to meet the requirements of the measurement of tracks of nuclear particles in solid state track detectors with resulting improvement of precision, speed, and the elimination of subjective influences. A microscope equipped with an automatic XY stage projects the image onto the cathode of a vidicon-amplifier. Within the TV-picture generated, characterized by the coordinate XY in the specimen, we determine coordinates xy of events by setting cross lines on the screen which correspond to a digital accuracy of 0.1 μm at the position of the object. Automatic movement in Z-direction can be performed by stepping motor and measured electronically, or continously by setting electric voltage on a piezostrictive support of the objective. (orig.) [de

  20. High-Power Collective Charging of a Solid-State Quantum Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Dario; Campisi, Michele; Andolina, Gian Marcello; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Quantum information theorems state that it is possible to exploit collective quantum resources to greatly enhance the charging power of quantum batteries (QBs) made of many identical elementary units. We here present and solve a model of a QB that can be engineered in solid-state architectures. It consists of N two-level systems coupled to a single photonic mode in a cavity. We contrast this collective model ("Dicke QB"), whereby entanglement is genuinely created by the common photonic mode, to the one in which each two-level system is coupled to its own separate cavity mode ("Rabi QB"). By employing exact diagonalization, we demonstrate the emergence of a quantum advantage in the charging power of Dicke QBs, which scales like √{N } for N ≫1 .

  1. Solid state NMR studies for a new carbonization process with high temperature preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Koji; Hatakeyama, Moriaki; Komaki, Ikuo; Katoh, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    A new carbonization process with rapid preheating and coke discharging at medium temperature has been developed in Japan. The result of this process shows that even when no or slightly coking coal is by 50 wt% the coking property is improved and a coking coke with cold strength usable at blast furnace can be manufactured with the new carbonization process. The mechanism of the coking property improvement was examined by coal properties using mainly solid state NMR ( 1H CRAMPS and 13C SPE/MAS, CP/MAS) and NMR imaging (single point imaging, in-situ imaging). It has been clarified that the molecular structure of coal is relaxed by the rapid heating treatment and, in addition, there is a close relation between hydrogen bonding and relaxation of the molecular structure of coal.

  2. A facile method to prepare a high performance solid-state flexible paper-based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A flexible paper-based supercapacitor was assembled into a sandwich structure, which exhibits well-retained triangular-shaped curves. The cycle life stability of this device still retains about 96% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 400 mV/s. An as-fabricated paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED well after charging at constant potential of 3 V. - Highlights: • A facile approach is proposed to fabricate paper-based supercapacitors. • Apple pectin is an excellent dispersant for MWCNTs. • Paper provides a strong binding and flexible characteristic for electrode. • A paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED after charging. • This device shows excellent electrochemical performance and cycling stability. - Abstract: We propose a low cost and simple method to prepare a paper-based supercapacitor in this study. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed with a pectin solution under an ultrasonic homogenizer. Carbon nanotube suspension was prepared using a centrifuge to eliminate impurities. The dispersed MWCNTs suspension was dropped and dried onto the shallow surface of commercial copy paper. A paper-based conductive paper was formed as the electrodes. The electrical conductivity and dispersed morphology of the paper-based conductive paper were examined by four probes, atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The solid-state electrolyte was prepared by casting a solution of phosphoric acid and polyvinyl alcohol onto a glass plate. The paper-based supercapacitor was constructed with one solid-state electrolyte inserted between two electrodes, which were assembled into a sandwich structure by hot press. The specific capacitance and cycle-life stability of the paper-based supercapacitor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry analysis.

  3. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Hu, Nantao, E-mail: hunantao@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Yanyan, E-mail: yywang@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006 (China); Zhang, Yafei, E-mail: yfzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The addition of methyl orange can affect the size of polypyrrole nanoparticles. • The flexible hybrid paper has a highly-interconnected sandwich framework. • The hybrid paper shows a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance. • Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibits excellent capacitive performances. - Abstract: Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It’s a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm{sup 2} and 94.9 F/cm{sup 3} at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm{sup 2} and 26.4 mWh/cm{sup 3} are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  4. Thermal regulation of tightly packed solid-state photodetectors in a 1 mm{sup 3} resolution clinical PET system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, D. L.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Innes, D.; Lau, F. W. Y.; Hsu, D. F. C.; Reynolds, P. D.; Levin, Craig S., E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu [Departments of Electrical Engineering, Radiology, Physics, and BioEngineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5128 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Silicon photodetectors are of significant interest for use in positron emission tomography (PET) systems due to their compact size, insensitivity to magnetic fields, and high quantum efficiency. However, one of their main disadvantages is fluctuations in temperature cause strong shifts in gain of the devices. PET system designs with high photodetector density suffer both increased thermal density and constrained options for thermally regulating the devices. This paper proposes a method of thermally regulating densely packed silicon photodetectors in the context of a 1 mm{sup 3} resolution, high-sensitivity PET camera dedicated to breast imaging. Methods: The PET camera under construction consists of 2304 units, each containing two 8 × 8 arrays of 1 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals coupled to two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPD). A subsection of the proposed camera with 512 PSAPDs has been constructed. The proposed thermal regulation design uses water-cooled heat sinks, thermoelectric elements, and thermistors to measure and regulate the temperature of the PSAPDs in a novel manner. Active cooling elements, placed at the edge of the detector stack due to limited access, are controlled based on collective leakage current and temperature measurements in order to keep all the PSAPDs at a consistent temperature. This thermal regulation design is characterized for the temperature profile across the camera and for the time required for cooling changes to propagate across the camera. These properties guide the implementation of a software-based, cascaded proportional-integral-derivative control loop that controls the current through the Peltier elements by monitoring thermistor temperature and leakage current. The stability of leakage current, temperature within the system using this control loop is tested over a period of 14 h. The energy resolution is then measured over a period of 8.66 h. Finally, the consistency of PSAPD gain between independent

  5. Controlled functionalization of carbonaceous fibers for asymmetric solid-state micro-supercapacitors with high volumetric energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Goh, Kunli; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Li; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Wenchao; Chen, Yuan

    2014-10-22

    A 1.8 V asymmetric solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor is designed with one MnO2 -coated reduced graphene oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (rGO/SWCNT) composite fiber as positive electrode and one nitrogen-doped rGO/SWCNT fiber as negative electrode, which demonstrates ultrahigh volumetric energy density, comparable to some thin-film lithium batteries, along with high power density, long cycle life, and good flexibility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. NASA satellite communications application research, phase 2 addendum. Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EHF communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, James

    1994-01-01

    This document is an addendum to the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 Final Report, 'Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications.' This report describes the work performed from 1 August 1993 to 11 March 1994, under contract number NASW-4513. During this reporting period an array of transistor amplifiers was repaired by replacing all MMIC amplifier chips. The amplifier array was then tested using three different feedhorn configurations. Descriptions, procedures, and results of this testing are presented in this report, and conclusions are drawn based on the test results obtained.

  7. An explanation for the high stability of polycarboxythiophenes in photovoltaic devices—A solid-state NMR dipolar recoupling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bierring, M.; Nielsen, J.S.; Siu, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Continuous operation of a polymer photovoltaic device under accelerated conditions for more than 1 year has been demonstrated (8760h at 72 degrees C, 1000Wm(-2), AM 1.5, under vacuum). Formation of hydrogen-bonded networks is proposed to be responsible for the long lifetime and high stability...... observed in photovoltaic devices employing polythiophene substituted with carboxylic-acid moieties under oxygen free conditions. H-1 and C-13 solid-state NMR, IR, and ESR spectroscopy of unmodified and isotopically labeled polythiophenes were studied. Distances between the isotopically labeled carboxylic...

  8. Two-Dimensional Polymer Synthesized via Solid-State Polymerization for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ulaganathan, Mani; Abdelwahab, Ibrahim; Luo, Xin; Chen, Zhongxin; Rong Tan, Sherman Jun; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Yanpeng; Geng, Dechao; Bao, Yang; Chen, Jianyi; Loh, Kian Ping

    2018-01-23

    Two-dimensional (2-D) polymer has properties that are attractive for energy storage applications because of its combination of heteroatoms, porosities and layered structure, which provides redox chemistry and ion diffusion routes through the 2-D planes and 1-D channels. Here, conjugated aromatic polymers (CAPs) were synthesized in quantitative yield via solid-state polymerization of phenazine-based precursor crystals. By choosing flat molecules (2-TBTBP and 3-TBQP) with different positions of bromine substituents on a phenazine-derived scaffold, C-C cross coupling was induced following thermal debromination. CAP-2 is polymerized from monomers that have been prepacked into layered structure (3-TBQP). It can be mechanically exfoliated into micrometer-sized ultrathin sheets that show sharp Raman peaks which reflect conformational ordering. CAP-2 has a dominant pore size of ∼0.8 nm; when applied as an asymmetric supercapacitor, it delivers a specific capacitance of 233 F g -1 at a current density of 1.0 A g -1 , and shows outstanding cycle performance.

  9. High power 352 MHz solid state amplifiers developed at the Synchrotron SOLEIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marchand

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In SOLEIL, 5 solid state amplifiers provide the required rf power at 352  MHz: 1×35  kW in the booster and 4×190  kW in the storage ring. They consist in a combination of a large number of 330 W elementary modules (1×147 in the booster and 4×724 in the storage ring, based on a design developed in-house, with MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, integrated circulators, and individual power supplies. Although quite innovative and challenging for the required power range, this technology is very attractive and presents significant advantages as compared to the more conventional vacuum tubes, klystrons, or inductive output tubes (IOTs. The booster and two of the storage ring power plants have been successfully commissioned and the first operational experience is quite satisfactory. The amplifiers proved to be very reliable as well as easy and flexible in operation; they have not been responsible for any beam time loss.

  10. Development of high power solid-state laser for inertial fusion energy driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Nakatsuka, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nakai, S.

    1997-01-01

    The design study of the laser fusion power plant KOYO has been conducted as a joint program of universities, national laboratories, and industries in Japan and also with international collaborations. In the design of KOYO, the gain scaling of direct drive implosion with 0.35 μ m wavelength laser light is used. A driver of diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) generates 4 MJ/pulse with 12 Hz and the output pulses are switched to deliver the laser energy successively to four chambers, which operate with 3 Hz. The chamber wall is protected with thick liquid metal which flows down in a SiC woven tube. Following to the conceptual design study, the critical key issues which may affect the technical and economical feasibility of the commercial power plant KOYO have been examined. Research and development of some key technologies have been performed. As the results of the studies on KOYO, it is concluded that the technical and economical feasibility of laser fusion reactor is well in our scope to reach

  11. High-pressure synthesis of rhombohedral α-AgGaO{sub 2} via direct solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Meysam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, 102 Natural Science Building, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Menon, Madhu [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Kentucky, 325 McVey Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Sunkara, Mahendra [Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Sumanasekera, Gamini [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, 102 Natural Science Building, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Durygin, Andriy [Center for the Study of Matter at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, VH 140, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Jasinski, Jacek B., E-mail: jacek.jasinski@louisville.edu [Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • Direct synthesis of α-AgGaO{sub 2} via a solid state reaction of Ag{sub 2}O and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. • Utilizing high pressure diamond anvil cell to facilitate solid state reaction. • Experimental and theoretical study of vibrational modes for α-AgGaO{sub 2}. • Extensive characterization of synthesized α-AgGaO{sub 2} samples. • GGA + U formalism-based DFT calculations of electronic structure and band gap in α-AgGaO{sub 2}. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate the application of high pressure conditions to enable the direct synthesis of α-AgGaO{sub 2} via a solid state reaction of Ag{sub 2}O and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Synthesis experiments were carried out at pressures and temperatures up to ∼10 GPa and ∼600 °C, respectively, using a resistively-heated diamond anvil cell. Thus synthesized α-AgGaO{sub 2} samples were characterized and their chemical composition and crystal structure were confirmed. In particular, electron diffraction confirmed the rhombohedral delafossite crystal structure of the synthesized AgGaO{sub 2} and its corresponding lattice parameters of a = 2.99 Å and c = 18.43 Å. The vibrational modes analysis was also conducted using a combination of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and Raman spectroscopy. This analysis yielded good agreement between the calculated Raman-active modes and experimental Raman data. Finally, the application of the GGA + U formalism-based on DFT to calculate the electronic band structure of α-AgGaO{sub 2} provided a more realistic theoretical band gap value than those reported previously.

  12. A 70 kV solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2014-02-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in many fields. In recent years, solid-state and operating at repetitive mode are the most important developing trends of high voltage pulse generators. A solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. The proposed generator is consisted of three parts. They are charging system, triggering system, and the major loop. Saturable pulse transformer is the key component of the whole generator, which acts as a step-up transformer and main switch during working process of this generator. The circuit and working principles of the proposed pulse generator are introduced first in this paper, and the saturable pulse transformer used in this generator is introduced in detail. Circuit of the major loop is simulated to verify the design of the system. Demonstration experiments are carried out, and the results show that when the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to a high voltage, such as 2.5 kV, a voltage with amplitude of 86 kV can be achieved on the secondary winding. The magnetic core of saturable pulse transformer is saturated deeply and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings is very small. The switch function of the saturable pulse transformer can be realized ideally. Therefore, a 71 kV output voltage pulse is formed on the load. Moreover, the magnetic core of the saturable pulse transformer can be reset automatically.

  13. Nitrogen doped carbon derived from polyimide/multiwall carbon nanotube composites for high performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Kyom; Kim, Nam Dong; Park, Seung-Keun; Seong, Kwang-dong; Hwang, Minsik; You, Nam-Ho; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2018-03-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors are desirable as potential energy storage systems for wearable technologies. Herein, we synthesize aminophenyl multiwall carbon nanotube (AP-MWCNT) grafted polyimide precursor by in situ polymerization method as a nitrogen-doped carbon precursor. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes are fabricated via a coating of carbon precursor on carbon cloth surface and carbonization at high temperature directly. The as-obtained electrodes, which can be directly used without any binders or additives, can deliver a high specific capacitance of 333.4 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 (based on active material mass) and excellent cycle stability with 103% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles in a three-electrode system. The flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor device exhibits a high volumetric capacitance of 3.88 F cm-3 at a current density of 0.02 mA cm-3. And also the device can deliver a maximum volumetric energy density of 0.50 mWh cm-3 and presents good cycling stability with 85.3% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. This device cell can not only show extraordinary mechanical flexibilities allowing folding, twisting, and rolling but also demonstrate remarkable stable electrochemical performances under their forms. This work provides a novel approach to obtain carbon textile-based flexible supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility.

  14. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  15. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-11-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It's a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm2 and 94.9 F/cm3 at 0.5 mA/cm2. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm2 and 26.4 mWh/cm3 are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  17. Fabrication of highly oriented D03-Fe3Si nanocrystals by solid-state dewetting of Si ultrathin layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Muneyuki; Nakagawa, Tatsuhiko; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko; Nakao, Motoi; Sudoh, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, highly oriented nanocrystals of Fe 3 Si with a D0 3 structure are fabricated on SiO 2 using ultrathin Si on insulator substrate. First, (001) oriented Si nanocrystals are formed on the SiO 2 layer by solid state dewetting of the top Si layer. Then, Fe addition to the Si nanocrystals is performed by reactive deposition epitaxy and post-deposition annealing at 500 °C. The structures of the Fe–Si nanocrystals are analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. We observe that Fe 3 Si nanocrystals with D0 3 , B2, and A2 structures coexist on the 1-h post-annealed samples. Prolonged annealing at 500 °C is effective in obtaining Fe 3 Si nanocrystals with a D0 3 single phase, thereby promoting structural ordering in the nanocrystals. We discuss the formation process of the highly oriented D0 3 -Fe 3 Si nanocrystals on the basis of the atomistic structural information. - Highlights: • Highly oriented Fe–Si nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by reactive deposition. • Si NCs formed by solid state dewetting of Si thin layers are used as seed crystals. • The structures of Fe–Si NCs are analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction. • Most of Fe–Si NCs possess the D0 3 structure after post-deposition annealing

  18. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qifeng; Cai, Zhiyong; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-11

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated without any binders, current collectors, or electroactive additives. Because of the porous structure of the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes and the excellent electrolyte absorption properties of the CNFs present in the aerogel electrodes, the resulting flexible supercapacitors exhibited a high specific capacitance (i.e., 252 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1)) and a remarkable cycle stability (i.e., more than 99.5% of the capacitance was retained after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1)). Furthermore, the supercapacitors also showed extremely high areal capacitance, areal power density, and energy density (i.e., 216 mF cm(-2), 9.5 mW cm(-2), and 28.4 μWh cm(-2), respectively). In light of its excellent electrical performance, low cost, ease of large-scale manufacturing, and environmental friendliness, the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes may have a promising application in the development of flexible energy-storage devices.

  19. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  20. Sensitivity and Resolution Enhanced Solid-State NMR for Paramagnetic Systems and Biomolecules under Very Fast Magic Angle Spinning

    KAUST Repository

    Parthasarathy, Sudhakar; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) methods has drastically improved the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules and materials in solids. In this Account, we summarize recent and ongoing developments

  1. Thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on succinonitrile and ionic liquid for high-performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Liu, Tao; Hancock, Cody; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A flexible, free-standing, thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4) entrapped in copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) is prepared and optimized for application in solvent-free solid-state supercapacitors. The synthesized gel polymer electrolyte exhibits a high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range (from ∼5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at -30 °C up to ∼1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C) with good electrochemical stability window (-2.9 to 2.5 V). Thermal studies confirm that the SN containing gel polymer electrolyte remains stable in the same gel phase over a wide temperature range from -30 to 90 °C. The electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have been fabricated using activated carbon as active materials and new gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical performance of the EDLCs is assessed through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The EDLC cells with the proper SN-containing gel polymer electrolyte has been found to give high specific capacitance 176 F g-1 at 0.18 A g-1 and 138 F g-1 at 8 A g-1. These solid-state EDLC cells show good cycling stability and the capability to retain ∼80% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles.

  2. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. The Design of Nanosecond Fast-switch Pulsed High Voltage Power Supply Based on Solid-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenguang; Chen Wei; Rao Yihua

    2009-01-01

    The high voltage pulsed power supply is applied in the experiment of the nuclear science widely. It main consist of DC high-voltage power supply (HVPS) and pulse modulator. The high-frequency series-resonant inverter technology and IGBT series technology are used to design the HVPS and the modulator, respectively. The main circuit, control circuit, high voltage transformer and solid-state switch are illuminated in the paper. The apparatus can operate at a maximum output voltage of 6 kilovolt, which can be modulated single pulse and also be modulated by series pulse. A prototype is fabricated and tested, experimental results show that the pulsed power supply is well-designed and rising edge time to meet the nsclass; it can achieve the requirement of rapid modulation. (authors)

  4. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowire and reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenfei; Ma, Peipei; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Anqi; Qian, Tao; Wu, Shishan; Chen, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowires are decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composites exhibit high dispersibility, large effective surface area, and high electric conductivity. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors are assembled based on the prepared composites, which show excellent electrochemical performances with a specific capacitance of 434.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The as-fabricated supercapacitor also exhibits excellent cycling stability (88.1% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles) and exceptional mechanical flexibility. In addition, outstanding power and energy densities were obtained, demonstrating the significant potential of prepared material for flexible and portable energy storage devices.

  5. Flexible Black-Phosphorus Nanoflake/Carbon Nanotube Composite Paper for High-Performance All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingchao; Hao, Chunxue; Wen, Fusheng; Wang, Bochong; Mu, Congpu; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Xu, Bo; Zhao, Zhisheng; Liu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yongjun

    2017-12-27

    We proposed a simple route for fabrication of the flexible BP nanoflake/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite paper as flexible electrodes in all-solid-state supercapacitors. The highly conductive CNTs not only play a role as active materials but also increase conductivity of the hybrid electrode, enhance electrolyte shuttling and prevent the restacking between BP nanoflakes. The fabricated flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor (ASSP) device at the mass proportion of BP/CNTs 1:4 was found to deliver the highest volumetric capacitance of up to 41.1 F/cm 3 at 0.005 V/s, superior to the ASSP based on the bare graphene or BP. The BP/CNTs (1:4) device delivers a rapid charging/discharging up to 500 V/s, which exhibits the characteristic of a high power density of 821.62 W/cm 3 , while having outstanding mechanical flexibility and high cycling stability over 10 000 cycles (91.5% capacitance retained). Moreover the BP/CNTs (1:4) ASSP device still retains large volumetric capacitance (35.7 F/cm 3 at the scan rate of 0.005 V/s) even after 11 months. In addition, the ASSP of BP/CNTs (1:4) exhibits high energy density of 5.71 mWh/cm 3 and high power density of 821.62 W/cm 3 . As indicated in our work, the strategy of assembling stacked-layer composites films will open up novel possibility for realizing BP and CNTs in new-concept thin-film energy storage devices.

  6. High repetition ration solid state switched CO2 TEA laser employed in industrial ultrasonic testing of aircraft parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, Hubertus; Morkel, Francois; Stehmann, Timo

    2015-02-01

    Laser Ultrasonic Testing (UT) is an important technique for the non-destructive inspection of composite parts in the aerospace industry. In laser UT a high power, short pulse probe laser is scanned across the material surface, generating ultrasound waves which can be detected by a second low power laser system and are used to draw a defect map of the part. We report on the design and testing of a transversely excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser system specifically optimised for laser UT. The laser is excited by a novel solid-state switched pulsing system and utilises either spark or corona preionisation. It provides short output pulses of less than 100 ns at repetition rates of up to 1 kHz, optimised for efficient ultrasonic wave generation. The system has been designed for highly reliable operation under industrial conditions and a long term test with total pulse counts in excess of 5 billion laser pulses is reported.

  7. An All-Solid-State High Repetiton Rate Titanium:Sapphire Laser System For Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattolat, C.; Rothe, S.; Schwellnus, F.; Gottwald, T.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.

    2009-03-01

    On-line production facilities for radioactive isotopes nowadays heavily rely on resonance ionization laser ion sources due to their demonstrated unsurpassed efficiency and elemental selectivity. Powerful high repetition rate tunable pulsed dye or Ti:sapphire lasers can be used for this purpose. To counteract limitations of short pulse pump lasers, as needed for dye laser pumping, i.e. copper vapor lasers, which include high maintenance and nevertheless often only imperfect reliability, an all-solid-state Nd:YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system has been constructed. This could complement or even replace dye laser systems, eliminating their disadvantages but on the other hand introduce shortcomings on the side of the available wavelength range. Pros and cons of these developments will be discussed.

  8. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-08-01

    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  9. Dextran based highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Lü, Xian-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dextran based hydrogel is first used to prepare quasi-solid-state polysulfide electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. ► The ion conductivity of hydrogel electrolyte shows almost the same value as the liquid electrolyte. ► The liquid state at elevated temperature of hydrogel electrolyte allows for a good contact between electrolyte and CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. ► The hydrogel electrolyte based cell exhibits slightly lower power conversion efficiency than that of liquid electrolyte based cell. ► The dynamic electron transfer mechanism in hydrogel electrolyte based cell is examined in detail by EIS and CIMPS/IMVS. -- Abstract: Highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte is first fabricated using dextran as gelator and used as quasi-solid-state electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The hydrogel electrolyte with gelator concentration of 15 wt% shows almost the same conductivity as the liquid one. Moreover, its liquid state at elevated temperature allow for the well penetration into the pores in electrodeposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. This gel electrolyte based QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.23% under AG 1.5 G one sun (100 mW cm −2 ) illumination, slightly lower than that of liquid electrolyte based cell (3.69%). The dynamic electron transfer mechanism of the gel and liquid electrolyte based QDSSC are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (CIMPS/IMVS). It is found that the electron transport in gel electrolyte based cell is much faster than the liquid electrolyte based cell but it tends to recombine more easily than the latter. However, these differences fade away with increasing the light intensity, showing declining electron collection efficiency at higher light intensity illumination. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 4.58% is obtained for the gel

  10. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  11. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  12. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  13. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  14. Solid-State High Performance Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polypyrrole-MnO2-Carbon Fiber Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Ma, Wenzhen; Ding, Longwei; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2013-07-01

    A solid-state flexible supercapacitor (SC) based on organic-inorganic composite structure was fabricated through an ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' and an electrode material of polypyrrole (PPy)-MnO2 nanoflakes-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid structure was obtained. The conductive organic material of PPy greatly improved the electrochemical performance of the device. With a high specific capacitance of 69.3 F cm-3 at a discharge current density of 0.1 A cm-3 and an energy density of 6.16 × 10-3 Wh cm-3 at a power density of 0.04 W cm-3, the device can drive a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) after being charged. The organic-inorganic composite active materials have enormous potential in energy management and the ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' method might be generalized to open up new strategies for designing next-generation energy storage devices.

  15. Flexible all-solid-state high-performance supercapacitor based on electrochemically synthesized carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Xuan; Yang, Hui-min; Li, Jia-gang; Zhang, Er-hui; Cao, Le-le; Liang, Zhen-hai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous nanostructure carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite film was successfully synthesized by direct electrochemical method. • A flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor device was fabricated using the carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite electrode. • The flexible supercapacitor exhibits high specific capacitance, excellent reliability and long cycling life. - Abstract: Recently, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as a new zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterial have become a focus in electrochemical energy storage. In this paper, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSs) were electrochemically synthesized by on-step co-deposition of appropriate amounts of pyrrole monomer and CQDs in aqueous solution. The different electrodeposition time plays an important role in controlling morphologies of stainless steel wire meshes (SSWM)-supported CQDs/PPy composite film. The morphologies and compositions of the obtained CQDs/PPy composite electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, a novel flexible ASSS device was fabricated using CQDs/PPy composite as the electrode and separated by polyvinyl alcohol/LiCl gel electrolyte. Benefiting from superior electrochemical properties of CQDs and PPy, the as-prepared CQDs/PPy composite ASSSs exhibit outstanding electrochemical performance with the areal capacitance 315 mF cm −2 (corresponding to specific capacitance of 308 F g −1 ) at a current density of 0.2 mA cm −2 and long cycle life with 85.7% capacitance retention after 2 000 cycles.

  16. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  17. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  18. Flexible and biocompatible high-performance solid-state micro-battery for implantable orthodontic system

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Alamoudi, Kholod O.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Almuslem, Amani S.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Diallo, Elhadj M.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    To augment the quality of our life, fully compliant personalized advanced health-care electronic system is pivotal. One of the major requirements to implement such systems is a physically flexible high-performance biocompatible energy storage

  19. High pressure and synchrotron radiation studies of solid state electronic instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pifer, J.H.; Croft, M.C.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses Eu and General Valence Instabilities; Ce Problem: L 3 Spectroscopy Emphasis; Bulk Property Emphasis; Transition Metal Compound Electronic Structure; Electronic Structure-Phonon Coupling Studies; High Temperature Superconductivity and Oxide Materials; and Novel Materials Collaboration with Chemistry

  20. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  1. Proceedings of the workshop on new solid state devices for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This paper contains articles on semiconductor devices used in the detection of high energy particles. Some articles reported: Position sensitive semiconductor devices; Scintillation techniques and optical devices; Radiation damage to detectors; VLSI for physics; and experience with Si detectors in NA32

  2. Solid State High Voltage Supply for EB and X-Ray Generators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zobač, Martin; Vlček, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, 5-6 (2009), s. 73-75 ISSN 0861-4717 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : high voltage supply * electron beam generator * x-ray generator Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  3. High-performance rechargeable batteries with fast solid-state ion conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2017-06-27

    A high-performance rechargeable battery using ultra-fast ion conductors. In one embodiment the rechargeable battery apparatus includes an enclosure, a first electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a second electrode operatively connected to the enclosure, a nanomaterial in the enclosure, and a heat transfer unit.

  4. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for solid state dosimetric systems of high-energetic ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.

    1997-01-01

    The application possibilities of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors use as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energetic (E > 1 MeV) dosimetric systems are analysed. It is shown that investigated materials are characterized by more wide region of registered absorbed doses and low temperature threshold of radiation information bleaching in comparison with well-known analogies based on coloring oxide glasses. (author)

  5. Densely-packed graphene/conducting polymer nanoparticle papers for high-volumetric-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-08-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) are one of the most ideal candidates for high-performance flexible power sources. The achievement of high volumetric energy density is highly desired for practical application of this type of ASSSCs. Here, we present a facile method to boost volumetric performances of graphene-based flexible ASSSCs through incorporation of ultrafine polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) nanoparticles in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) papers. A compact structure is obtained via intimate contact and π-π interaction between PANI-PSS nanoparticles and rGO sheets. The hybrid paper electrode with the film thickness of 13.5 μm, shows an extremely high volumetric specific capacitance of 272 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a three-electrode cell). The assembled ASSSCs show a large volumetric specific capacitance of 217 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a two-electrode cell), high volumetric energy and power density, excellent capacitance stability, small leakage current as well as low self-discharge characteristics, revealing the usefulness of this robust hybrid paper for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  6. Characterization of diode-laser stacks for high-energy-class solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Jan; Sikocinski, Pawel; Pranowicz, Alina; Divoky, Martin; Crump, P.; Staske, R.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present a comparative study of high power diode stacks produced by world's leading manufacturers such as DILAS, Jenoptik, and Quantel. The diode-laser stacks are characterized by central wavelength around 939 nm, duty cycle of 1 %, and maximum repetition rate of 10 Hz. The characterization includes peak power, electrical-to-optical efficiency, central wavelength and full width at half maximum (FWHM) as a function of diode current and cooling temperature. A cross-check of measurements performed at HiLASE-IoP and Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH) shows very good agreement between the results. Our study reveals also the presence of discontinuities in the spectra of two diode stacks. We consider the results presented here a valuable tool to optimize pump sources for ultra-high average power lasers, including laser fusion facilities.

  7. Novel high-density packaging of solid state diode pumped eye-safe laser for LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Kim; Torgerson, Justin; McNeil, Laine; Maine, Patrick; Patterson, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has proven to be a useful research tool for material analysis for decades. However, because of the amount of energy required in a few nanosecond pulse to generate a stable and reliable LIBS signal, the lasers are often large and inefficient, relegating their implementation to research facilities, factory floors, and assembly lines. Small portable LIBS systems are now possible without having to compromise on energy needs by leveraging off of advances in high-density packaging of electronics, opto-mechanics, and highly efficient laser resonator architecture. This paper explores the integration of these techniques to achieve a mJ class eye-safe LIBS laser source, while retaining a small, light-weight package suitable for handheld systems.

  8. Development of high repetition rate ultra-short pulse solid state lasers pumped by laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Takaichi, Kazunori; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takakimi; Kaminskii, Alexander; Kawanaka, Junji

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique for ceramic lasers has been developed recently. Self-energy-driven sintering of nano-and micro particles created the fully transparent Nd:YAG ceramics. The ceramic YAG demonstrated high efficiency operation (optical-to-optical conversion of 60% in end pumping) and solid-phase crystals growth and the possible scaling were investigated principally. Typical performance of ceramic YAG laser has been reviewed. The present status and future prospect of the ceramic lasers technologies were discussed. (author)

  9. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for solid state dosimetric systems of high-energetic ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Pedagogical University, Czestochowa (Poland)]|[Institute of Materials, Lvov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The application possibilities of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors use as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energetic (E > 1 MeV) dosimetric systems are analysed. It is shown that investigated materials are characterized by more wide region of registered absorbed doses and low temperature threshold of radiation information bleaching in comparison with well-known analogies based on coloring oxide glasses. (author). 16 refs, 1 tab.

  10. Optoelectronic link for analog signals from solid state detectors in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1983-01-01

    An optoelectric link has been made to transmit analog signals over a long distance between the beam area and the remote-end data acquisition instrumentation in high energy experiments. The optoelectronic link is intended for silicon target applications and it is designed to work on the signals at the output of a low noise amplifier system. Its advantages over a conventional galvanic connection as well as its limitations are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Preparation of highly and generally enriched mammalian tissues for solid state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Veronica Wai Ching; Reid, David G.; Chow, Wing Ying; Rajan, Rakesh [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Green, Maggie [University of Cambridge, Central Biomedical Resources, School of Clinical Medicine (United Kingdom); Brooks, Roger A. [University of Cambridge, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Addenbrooke’s Hospital (United Kingdom); Duer, Melinda J., E-mail: mjd13@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    An appreciable level of isotope labelling is essential for future NMR structure elucidation of mammalian biomaterials, which are either poorly expressed, or unexpressable, using micro-organisms. We present a detailed protocol for high level {sup 13}C enrichment even in slow turnover murine biomaterials (fur keratin), using a customized diet supplemented with commercial labelled algal hydrolysate and formulated as a gel to minimize wastage, which female mice consumed during pregnancy and lactation. This procedure produced approximately eightfold higher fur keratin labelling in pups, exposed in utero and throughout life to label, than in adults exposed for the same period, showing both the effectiveness, and necessity, of this approach.

  12. Transforming Pristine Carbon Fiber Tows into High Performance Solid-State Fiber Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Zhai, Shengli; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Li; Chen, Xudong; Jiang, Rongrong; Chen, Yuan

    2015-09-02

    A facile activation strategy can transform pristine carbon fiber tows into high-performance fiber electrodes with a specific capacitance of 14.2 F cm(-3) . The knottable fiber supercapacitor shows an energy density of 0.35 mW h cm(-3) , an ultrahigh power density of 3000 mW cm(-3) , and a remarkable capacitance retention of 68%, when the scan rate increases from 10 to 1000 mV s(-1) . © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesanli, Banu; Hong, Kunlun; Meyer, Kent; Im, Hee-Jung; Dai, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This research highlights opportunities in the formulation of neutron scintillators that not only have high scintillation efficiencies but also can be readily cast into two-dimensional detectors. Series of transparent, crack-free monoliths were prepared from hybrid polystyrene-silica nanocomposites in the presence of arene-containing alkoxide precursor through room temperature sol-gel processing. The monoliths also contain lithium-6 salicylate as a target material for neutron-capture reactions and amphiphilic scintillator solution as a fluorescent sensitizer. Polystyrene was functionalized by trimethoxysilyl group in order to enable the covalent incorporation of aromatic functional groups into the inorganic sol-gel matrices for minimizing macroscopic phase segregation and facilitating lithium-6 doping in the sol-gel samples. Neutron and alpha responses of these hybrid polystyrene-silica monoliths were explored

  14. Effects of hydrogen bonds on solid state TATB, RDX, and DATB under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Feng; Hu Hai-Quan; Zhang Hong; Cheng Xin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    To probe the behavior of hydrogen bonds in solid energetic materials, we conduct ReaxFF and SCC–DFTB molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline TATB, RDX, and DATB. By comparing the intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding rates, we find that the crystal structures are stabilized by inter-molecular hydrogen bond networks. Under high-pressure, the inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds in solid TATB and DATB are nearly equivalent. The hydrogen bonds in solid TATB and DATB are much shorter than in solid RDX, which suggests strong hydrogen bond interactions existing in these energetic materials. Stretching of the C–H bond is observed in solid RDX, which may lead to further decomposition and even detonation. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  15. Flexible and biocompatible high-performance solid-state micro-battery for implantable orthodontic system

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-09-25

    To augment the quality of our life, fully compliant personalized advanced health-care electronic system is pivotal. One of the major requirements to implement such systems is a physically flexible high-performance biocompatible energy storage (battery). However, the status-quo options do not match all of these attributes simultaneously and we also lack in an effective integration strategy to integrate them in complex architecture such as orthodontic domain in human body. Here we show, a physically complaint lithium-ion micro-battery (236 μg) with an unprecedented volumetric energy (the ratio of energy to device geometrical size) of 200 mWh/cm3 after 120 cycles of continuous operation. Our results of 90% viability test confirmed the battery’s biocompatibility. We also show seamless integration of the developed battery in an optoelectronic system embedded in a three-dimensional printed smart dental brace. We foresee the resultant orthodontic system as a personalized advanced health-care application, which could serve in faster bone regeneration and enhanced enamel health-care protection and subsequently reducing the overall health-care cost.

  16. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  17. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  18. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  19. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  20. High-performance all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on two-step activated carbon cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shulan; Shi, Tielin; Zhan, Xiaobin; Long, Hu; Xi, Shuang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Zirong

    2014-12-01

    A simple and effective strategy is proposed to activate carbon cloth for the fabrication of flexible and high-performance supercapacitors. Firstly, the carbon cloth surface is exfoliated as nanotextures through wet chemical treatment, then an annealing process is applied at H2/N2 atmosphere to reduce the surface oxygen functional groups which are mainly introduced from the first step. The activated carbon cloth electrode shows excellent wettablity, large surface area and delivers remarkable electrochemical performance. A maximum areal capacitance of 485.64 mF cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 is achieved for the activated carbon cloth electrode, which is considerably larger than the resported results for carbon cloth. Furthermore, the flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor, which is fabricated based on the activated carbon cloth electrodes, shows high areal capacitance, superior cycling stability as well as stable electrochemical performance even under constant bending or twisting conditions. An areal capacitance of 161.28 mF cm-2 is achieved at the current density of 12.5 mA cm-2, and 104% of its initial capacitance is retained after 30,000 charging/discharging cycles. This study would also provide an effective way to boost devices' electrochemical performance by accommodating other active materials on the activated carbon cloth.

  1. Bipolar highly solid-state luminescent phenanthroimidazole derivatives as materials for blue and white organic light emitting diodes exploiting either monomer, exciplex or electroplex emission

    OpenAIRE

    Butkutė, Rita; Lygaitis, Ramūnas; Mimaitė, Viktorija; Gudeika, Dalius; Volyniuk, Dmytro; Sini, Gjergji; Gražulevičius, Juozas Vidas

    2017-01-01

    Four phenanthroimidazole-based bipolar compounds having electron-donating carbazole or diphenylamino moieties were synthesized and characterized. All compounds form glasses and exhibit high glass transition temperatures ranging from 183 to 239 °C. Solid state blue emission was detected for all synthesized compounds and quantum yields in solid state reached 0.55. Room temperature hole and electron mobilities in the layers of phenanthroimidazole derivatives reached 3.14 × 10−4 and 5.69 × 10−4 c...

  2. The Implementation Of Solid State Switches In A Parallel Configuration To Gain Output Current Capacity In A High Current Capacitive Discharge Unit (CDU).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Mario Paul [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    For my project I have selected to research and design a high current pulse system, which will be externally triggered from a 5V pulse. The research will be conducted in the region of paralleling the solid state switches for a higher current output, as well as to see if there will be any other advantages in doing so. The end use of the paralleled solid state switches will be used on a Capacitive Discharge Unit (CDU). For the first part of my project, I have set my focus on the design of the circuit, selection of components, and simulation of the circuit.

  3. An All-Solid-State Fiber-Shaped Aluminum-Air Battery with Flexibility, Stretchability, and High Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-07-04

    Owing to the high theoretical energy density of metal-air batteries, the aluminum-air battery has been proposed as a promising long-term power supply for electronics. However, the available energy density from the aluminum-air battery is far from that anticipated and is limited by current electrode materials. Herein we described the creation of a new family of all-solid-state fiber-shaped aluminum-air batteries with a specific capacity of 935 mAh g(-1) and an energy density of 1168 Wh kg(-1) . The synthesis of an electrode composed of cross-stacked aligned carbon-nanotube/silver-nanoparticle sheets contributes to the remarkable electrochemical performance. The fiber shape also provides the aluminum-air batteries with unique advantages; for example, they are flexible and stretchable and can be woven into a variety of textiles for large-scale applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Determination of trace amounts of plutonium in environmental samples by RIMS using a high repetition rate solid state laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruening, C.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N.; Waldek, A.; Huber, G.; Passler, G.; Wendt, K.

    2001-01-01

    A reliable and easy to handle high repetition rate solid state laser system has been set up for routine applications of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS). It consists of three Titanium-Sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers pumped by one Nd:YAG laser, providing up to 3 W of tunable laser light each in a wavelength range from 725 nm to 895 nm. The isotope shifts for 238 Pu to 244 Pu have been measured in an efficient ionization scheme with λ 1 =420.76 nm, λ 2 =847.28 nm and λ 3 =767.53 nm. An overall detection efficiency of the RIMS apparatus of ε=1x10 -5 is routinely reached, resulting in a detection limit of 2x10 6 atoms (0.8 fg) of plutonium. The isotopic compositions of synthetic samples and the NIST standard reference material SRM996 were measured. The content of 238 Pu to 242 Pu has been determined in dust samples from the surroundings of a nuclear power plant and 244 Pu was determined in urine samples for the National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB), U.K. Routine operation of plutonium ultratrace detection could thus be established

  5. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008–2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  6. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, J., E-mail: julianna.szabo@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Palfalvi, J.K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  7. Monitoring of multiple solid-state transformations at tablet surfaces using multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the solid-state stability of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or excipients in solid dosage forms during manufacturing and storage is mandatory for safeguarding quality of the final products. In this work, the solid-state transformations in tablets prepared as blends...... of piroxicam monohydrate (API), polyvinylpyrrolidone and the lactose forms monohydrate or anhydrate were studied when the tablets were exposed to the 23-120°C range. Multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral images were obtained from the surface of each sample for unveiling the local evolution of the solid......-state transformations. The preprocessed spectra from the images (dataset) were arranged in augmented matrices, according to the composition of the tablets, and the profile of the overlapped compounds (relative concentration) along the solid-state transformations in the pixels was resolved by using multivariate curve...

  8. High-Performance All-Solid-State Na-S Battery Enabled by Casting-Annealing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiulin; Yue, Jie; Han, Fudong; Chen, Ji; Deng, Tao; Zhou, Xiuquan; Hou, Singyuk; Wang, Chunsheng

    2018-04-24

    Room-temperature all-solid-state Na-S batteries (ASNSBs) using sulfide solid electrolytes are a promising next-generation battery technology due to the high energy, enhanced safety, and earth abundant resources of both sodium and sulfur. Currently, the sulfide electrolyte ASNSBs are fabricated by a simple cold-pressing process leaving with high residential stress. Even worse, the large volume change of S/Na 2 S during charge/discharge cycles induces additional stress, seriously weakening the less-contacted interfaces among the solid electrolyte, active materials, and the electron conductive agent that are formed in the cold-pressing process. The high and continuous increase of the interface resistance hindered its practical application. Herein, we significantly reduce the interface resistance and eliminate the residential stress in Na 2 S cathodes by fabricating Na 2 S-Na 3 PS 4 -CMK-3 nanocomposites using melting-casting followed by stress-release annealing-precipitation process. The casting-annealing process guarantees the close contact between the Na 3 PS 4 solid electrolyte and the CMK-3 mesoporous carbon in mixed ionic/electronic conductive matrix, while the in situ precipitated Na 2 S active species from the solid electrolyte during the annealing process guarantees the interfacial contact among these three subcomponents without residential stress, which greatly reduces the interfacial resistance and enhances the electrochemical performance. The in situ synthesized Na 2 S-Na 3 PS 4 -CMK-3 composite cathode delivers a stable and highly reversible capacity of 810 mAh/g at 50 mA/g for 50 cycles at 60 °C. The present casting-annealing strategy should provide opportunities for the advancement of mechanically robust and high-performance next-generation ASNSBs.

  9. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  10. Carbon nanotube network film directly grown on carbon cloth for high-performance solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received increasing attention as electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors. We herein present a straightforward method to synthesize CNT films directly on carbon cloths as electrodes for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (AFSCs). The as-made highly conductive electrodes possess a three-dimensional (3D) network architecture for fast ion diffusion and good flexibility, leading to an AFSC with a specific capacitance of 106.1 F g −1 , an areal capacitance of 38.75 mF cm −2 , an ultralong cycle life of 100 000 times (capacitance retention: 99%), a good rate capability (can scan at 1000 mV s −1 , at which the capacitance is still ∼37.8% of that at 5 mV s −1 ), a high energy density (2.4 μW h cm −2 ) and a high power density (19 mW cm −2 ). Moreover, our AFSC maintains excellent electrochemical attributes even with serious shape deformation (bending, folding, etc), high mechanical pressure (63 kPa) and a wide temperature window (up to 100 ° C). After charging for only 5 s, three such AFSC devices connected in series can efficiently power a red round LED for 60 s. Our work could pave the way for the design of practical AFSCs, which are expected to be used for various flexible portable/wearable electronic devices in the future. (paper)

  11. Microporous Ni₁₁(HPO₃)₈(OH)₆ nanocrystals for high-performance flexible asymmetric all solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanping; Zhao, Junhong; Run, Zhen; Zhang, Guangqin; Pang, Huan

    2014-12-07

    Microporous nickel phosphite [Ni11(HPO3)8(OH)6] nanocrystals were prepared using a hydrothermal method, and were successfully applied as a positive electrode in a flexible all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor. Because of the specific micro/nanostructure, the flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can achieve a maximum energy density of 0.45 mW h cm(-3), which is higher than most reported supercapacitors. More importantly, the device performance remains efficient for 10,000 cycles.

  12. Unraveling Core Functional Microbiota in Traditional Solid-State Fermentation by High-Throughput Amplicons and Metatranscriptomics Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhewei; Du, Hai; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation microbiota is specific microorganisms that generate different types of metabolites in many productions. In traditional solid-state fermentation, the structural composition and functional capacity of the core microbiota determine the quality and quantity of products. As a typical example of food fermentation, Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor production involves a complex of various microorganisms and a wide variety of metabolites. However, the microbial succession and functional shift of the core microbiota in this traditional food fermentation remain unclear. Here, high-throughput amplicons (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and internal transcribed space amplicon sequencing) and metatranscriptomics sequencing technologies were combined to reveal the structure and function of the core microbiota in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor production. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography and headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major flavor metabolites. A total of 10 fungal and 11 bacterial genera were identified as the core microbiota. In addition, metatranscriptomic analysis revealed pyruvate metabolism in yeasts (genera Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomyces , and Zygosaccharomyces ) and lactic acid bacteria (genus Lactobacillus ) classified into two stages in the production of flavor components. Stage I involved high-level alcohol (ethanol) production, with the genus Schizosaccharomyces serving as the core functional microorganism. Stage II involved high-level acid (lactic acid and acetic acid) production, with the genus Lactobacillus serving as the core functional microorganism. The functional shift from the genus Schizosaccharomyces to the genus Lactobacillus drives flavor component conversion from alcohol (ethanol) to acid (lactic acid and acetic acid) in Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor production. Our findings provide insight into

  13. Unraveling Core Functional Microbiota in Traditional Solid-State Fermentation by High-Throughput Amplicons and Metatranscriptomics Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhewei Song

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation microbiota is specific microorganisms that generate different types of metabolites in many productions. In traditional solid-state fermentation, the structural composition and functional capacity of the core microbiota determine the quality and quantity of products. As a typical example of food fermentation, Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor production involves a complex of various microorganisms and a wide variety of metabolites. However, the microbial succession and functional shift of the core microbiota in this traditional food fermentation remain unclear. Here, high-throughput amplicons (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and internal transcribed space amplicon sequencing and metatranscriptomics sequencing technologies were combined to reveal the structure and function of the core microbiota in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor production. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography and headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major flavor metabolites. A total of 10 fungal and 11 bacterial genera were identified as the core microbiota. In addition, metatranscriptomic analysis revealed pyruvate metabolism in yeasts (genera Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces and lactic acid bacteria (genus Lactobacillus classified into two stages in the production of flavor components. Stage I involved high-level alcohol (ethanol production, with the genus Schizosaccharomyces serving as the core functional microorganism. Stage II involved high-level acid (lactic acid and acetic acid production, with the genus Lactobacillus serving as the core functional microorganism. The functional shift from the genus Schizosaccharomyces to the genus Lactobacillus drives flavor component conversion from alcohol (ethanol to acid (lactic acid and acetic acid in Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor production. Our findings provide

  14. Highly efficient F-19 heteronuclear decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy using supercycled refocused-CW irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Equbal, Asif; Basse, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    We present heteronuclear F-19 refocused CW (rCW) decoupling pulse sequences for solid-state magic-angle- spinning NMR applications. The decoupling sequences have been designed specifically to ensure suppression of the pertinent C-13-F-19 dipolar coupling interactions while simultaneously suppress...

  15. Progress in high duty cycle, highly efficient fiber coupled 940-nm pump modules for high-energy class solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, R.; Frevert, C.; Eppich, B.; Rieprich, J.; Ginolas, A.; Kreutzmann, S.; Knigge, S.; Erbert, G.; Crump, P.

    2018-03-01

    Diode lasers pump sources for future high-energy-class laser systems based on Yb-doped solid state amplifiers must deliver high optical intensities, high conversion efficiency (ηE = > 50%) at high repetition rates (f = 100 Hz) and long pulse widths (τ = 0.5…2 ms). Over the last decade, a series of pump modules has been developed at the Ferdinand-BraunInstitut to address these needs. The latest modules use novel wide-aperture single emitter diode lasers in passively side cooled stacks, operate at τ = 1 ms, f = 100…200 Hz and deliver 5…6 kW optical output power from a fiber with 1.9 mm core diameter and NA of 0.22, for spatial brightness BΩ > 1 MW/cm2 sr. The performance to date and latest developments in these high brightness modules are summarized here with recent work focusing on extending operation to other pumping conditions, as needed for alternative solid state laser designs. Specifically, the electro-optic, spectral and beam propagation characteristics of the module and its components are studied as a function of τ for a fixed duty cycle DC = 10% for τ = 1...100 ms, and first data is shown for continuous wave operation. Clear potential is seen to fulfill more demanding specifications without design changes. For example, high power long-pulse operation is demonstrated, with a power of > 5 kW at τ = 100 ms. Higher brightness operation is also confirmed at DC = 10% and τ = 1 ms, with > 5 kW delivered in a beam with BΩ > 4 MW/cm2 sr.

  16. High ion conductive Sb2O5-doped β-Li3PS4 with excellent stability against Li for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongjiu; Chen, Shaojie; Zhang, Zhihua; Ren, Jie; Yao, Lili; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-06-01

    The combination of high conductivity and good stability against Li is not easy to achieve for solid electrolytes, hindering the development of high energy solid-state batteries. In this study, doped electrolytes of Li3P1-xSbxS4-2.5xO2.5x are successfully prepared via the high energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. Plenty of techniques like XRD, Raman, SEM, EDS and TEM are utilized to characterize the crystal structures, particle sizes, and morphologies of the glass-ceramic electrolytes. Among them, the Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 (x = 0.02) exhibits the highest ionic conductivity (∼1.08 mS cm-1) at room temperature with an excellent stability against lithium. In addition, all-solid-state lithium batteries are assembled with LiCoO2 as cathode, Li10GeP2S12/Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 as the bi-layer electrolyte, and lithium as anode. The constructed solid-state batteries delivers a high initial discharge capacity of 133 mAh g-1 at 0.1C in the range of 3.0-4.3 V vs. Li/Li+ at room temperature, and shows a capacity retention of 78.6% after 50 cycles. Most importantly, the all-solid-state lithium batteries with the Li10GeP2S12/Li3P0.98Sb0.02S3.95O0.05 electrolyte can be workable even at -10 °C. This study provides a promising electrolyte with the improved conductivity and stability against Li for the application of all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  17. Simulation based assembly and alignment process ability analysis for line replaceable units of the high power solid state laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Cong; Li, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Discrete event simulation is applied to analyze the assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs in SG-III facility. • The overall assembly and alignment process of LRUs with specific characteristics is described. • An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. • Different scenarios have been simulated to evaluate assembling process ability of LRUs and decision making is supported to ensure the construction millstone. - Abstract: Line replaceable units (LRUs) are important components of the very large high power solid state laser facilities. The assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs will impact the construction milestone of facilities. This paper describes the use of discrete event simulation method for assembly and alignment process analysis of LRUs in such facilities. The overall assembly and alignment process for LRUs is presented based on the layout of the optics assembly laboratory and the process characteristics are analyzed. An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. Taking the LRUs of disk amplifier system in Shen Guang-III (SG-III) facility as the example, some process simulation models are built based on the Quest simulation platform. The constraints, such as duration, equipment, technician and part supply, are considered in the simulation models. Different simulation scenarios have been carried out to evaluate the assembling process ability of LRUs. The simulation method can provide a valuable decision making and process optimization tool for the optics assembly laboratory layout and the process working out of such facilities.

  18. Simulation based assembly and alignment process ability analysis for line replaceable units of the high power solid state laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Cong; Li, Shiqi, E-mail: sqli@hust.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Discrete event simulation is applied to analyze the assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs in SG-III facility. • The overall assembly and alignment process of LRUs with specific characteristics is described. • An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. • Different scenarios have been simulated to evaluate assembling process ability of LRUs and decision making is supported to ensure the construction millstone. - Abstract: Line replaceable units (LRUs) are important components of the very large high power solid state laser facilities. The assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs will impact the construction milestone of facilities. This paper describes the use of discrete event simulation method for assembly and alignment process analysis of LRUs in such facilities. The overall assembly and alignment process for LRUs is presented based on the layout of the optics assembly laboratory and the process characteristics are analyzed. An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. Taking the LRUs of disk amplifier system in Shen Guang-III (SG-III) facility as the example, some process simulation models are built based on the Quest simulation platform. The constraints, such as duration, equipment, technician and part supply, are considered in the simulation models. Different simulation scenarios have been carried out to evaluate the assembling process ability of LRUs. The simulation method can provide a valuable decision making and process optimization tool for the optics assembly laboratory layout and the process working out of such facilities.

  19. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  20. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  2. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  3. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  4. Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting. Building Technologies Solid State Lighting (SSL) Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-10-06

    This project developed an integrated substrate which organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel developers could employ the integrated substrate to fabricate OLED devices with performance and projected cost meeting the MYPP targets of the Solid State Lighting Program of the Department of Energy. The project optimized the composition and processing conditions of the integrated substrate for OLED light extraction efficiency and overall performance. The process was further developed for scale up to a low-cost process and fabrication of prototype samples. The encapsulation of flexible OLEDs based on this integrated substrate was also investigated using commercial flexible barrier films.

  5. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  6. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  7. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  8. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium.

  9. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating

  10. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  11. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  12. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  13. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  14. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  15. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  16. Disentangled solid state and metastable polymer melt; a solvent free route to high-modulus high-strength tapes and films of UHMWPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Sanjay

    2013-03-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) having average molar mass greater than a million g/mol is an engineering polymer. Due to its light-weight, high abrasion resistance and biocompatibility it is used for demanding applications such as body armour, prostheses etc. At present, because of its high melt viscosity to achieve the uniaxial/biaxial properties in the form of fibers/films the polymer is processed via solution route where nearly 95wt% of the solvent is used to process 5wt% of the polymer. In past several attempts have been made to process the polymer without using any solvent. However, compared to the solvent processing route the achieved mechanical properties were rather poor. Here we show that by controlled synthesis it is feasible to obtain UHMWPE that could be processed free of solvent to make uniaxial tapes and biaxial films, having unprecedented mechanical properties, exceeding that of the solution spun fibers. We address some of the fundamental aspects of chemistry, physics, rheology and processing for the development of desired morphological features to achieve the ultimate mechanical properties in tapes and films. The paper will also address the metastable melt state obtained on melting of the disentangled crystals and its implication on rheology in linear and nonlinear viscoelastic region. Solid state NMR studies will be applied to establish disentangled state in solid state to the polymerisation conditions. References: Macromolecules 2011, 44(14), 5558-5568; Nature Materials 2005, 4, 635-641; Phys Rev Lett 2006, 96(21), 218303-218205. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Dutch Polymer Institute.

  17. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  18. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  19. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  20. Flexible Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers as binder-free electrodes for high-performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He; Niu, Hao; Yang, Xue; Sun, Zhiqin; Li, Fuzhi; Wang, Qian; Qu, Fengyu

    2018-04-16

    Flexible highly porous Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers are synthesized by a facile electrospinning method followed by calcination treatment and directly used as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. These Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers interconnect with each other and construct three-dimensional hierarchical porous films with high specific surface area. Benefiting from the unique structural features, the intriguing binder-free Fe2O3 and V2O5 porous nanofiber electrodes possess high specific capacitance of 255 F g-1 and 256 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte, respectively. An all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers as negative and positive electrodes, respectively, and the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can be operated up to 1.8 V attributed to the wide and opposite potential window of both electrodes. The assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor achieves a high energy density up to 32.2 Wh kg-1 at an average power density of 128.7 W kg-1 as well as excellent cycling stability and power capability. The effective and facile synthesis method and superior electrochemical performance provided in this work make electrospun Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers promising electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Coaxial CoMoO4 nanowire arrays with chemically integrated conductive coating for high-performance flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaping; Liu, Borui; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhanshuang; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-09-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors have offered promising applications as novel energy storage devices based on their merits, such as small size, low cost, light weight and high wearability for high-performance portable electronics. However, one major challenge to make flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors depends on the improvement of electrode materials with higher electrical conductivity properties and longer cycling stability. In this article, we put forward a simple strategy to in situ synthesize 1D CoMoO4 nanowires (NWs), using highly conductive CC and an electrically conductive PPy wrapping layer on CoMoO4 NW arrays for high performance electrode materials. The results show that the CoMoO4/PPy hybrid NW electrode exhibits a high areal specific capacitance of ca. 1.34 F cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2, which is remarkably better than the corresponding values for a pure CoMoO4 NW electrode of 0.7 F cm-2. An excellent cycling performance of nanocomposites of up to 95.2% (ca. 1.12 F cm-2) is achieved after 2000 cycles compared to pristine CoMoO4 NWs. In addition, we fabricate flexible all-solid-state ASC which can be cycled reversibly in the voltage range of 0-1.7 V, and exhibits a maximum energy density of 104.7 W h kg-1 (3.522 mW h cm-3), demonstrating great potential for practical applications in flexible energy storage electronics.Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors have offered promising applications as novel energy storage devices based on their merits, such as small size, low cost, light weight and high wearability for high-performance portable electronics. However, one major challenge to make flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors depends on the improvement of electrode materials with higher electrical conductivity properties and longer cycling stability. In this article, we put forward a simple strategy to in situ synthesize 1D CoMoO4 nanowires (NWs), using highly conductive CC and an electrically conductive PPy wrapping layer on

  2. A High-Energy Good-Beam-Quality Krypton-Lamp-Pumped Nd:YAG Solid-State Laser with One Pump Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-Sheng; WANG Zhi-Yong; YAN Xin; CAO Ying-Hua

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a high-energy good-beam-quality krypton-lamp-pumped pulsed Nd:YAG solid-state laser with one pump cavity.The symmetrical resonator laser is developed and is rated at 80 J with beam parameter product 12mm mrad.The total system electro-optics efficiency of the lamp-pumped YAG laser is as high as 3.3% and the stability of output energy is ±2% with pulse width tunable between 0.1 ms and 10ms.The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and simulation.

  3. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  4. Outcome of solid-state 532 nm green laser in high-risk retinopathy of prematurity at a tertiary care centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Kanika; Kaur, Prempal; Singh, Karamjit; Aggarwal, Anand; Chalia, Dharamvir

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the outcome of solid-state green laser in high-risk retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at a tertiary centre in India. Fifty-nine eyes of 30 infants with high-risk ROP were recruited in this prospective, interventional study. High-risk ROP included prethreshold type 1 ROP and APROP. Laser photocoagulation was performed with 532 nm solid-state green laser (Novus Spectra, Lumenis, GmbH, Germany). Of the 30 infants, 18 were males (60%) and 12 were females (40%). The mean birth weight was 1102.83 ± 196.27 g. The mean gestational age was 29.5 ± 1.47 weeks. Zone 1 disease was present in 10 eyes (16.95%) and zone 2 disease in 49 (83.05%) eyes. Out of 57 eyes with prethreshold type 1 ROP, 39 eyes (68.42%) had stage 2 and 18 eyes (31.58%) had stage 3. The postconceptional age at the time of treatment was 36.03 ± 2.32 weeks. The infants received mean 2710.24 ± 747.97 laser spots. Fifty (84.8%) eyes underwent laser in a single sitting and 9 eyes (15.2%) required 2 laser sittings. Mean time for regression of ROP was 5.8 ± 3.8 weeks (range 3-11 weeks). Total ROP regression was seen in 55 eyes (93.22%). Despite laser treatment, 4 (6.78%) eyes of three infants had unfavourable outcome. One infant developed intra-procedural bradycardia. Vitreous haemorrhage was seen in five eyes (8.4%). Solid-state 532 nm green laser is a safe and effective treatment for high-risk retinopathy of prematurity.

  5. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  6. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  7. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  8. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  9. Mechanically delaminated few layered MoS2 nanosheets based high performance wire type solid-state symmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Pazhamalai, Parthiban; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-07-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures are increasingly used as electrode materials in flexible supercapacitors for portable electronic applications. Herein, we demonstrated a ball milling approach for achieving few layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via exfoliation from their bulk. Physico-chemical characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and laser Raman analyses confirmed the occurrence of exfoliated MoS2 sheets with few layers from their bulk via ball milling process. MoS2 based wire type solid state supercapacitors (WSCs) are fabricated and examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge discharge (CD) measurements. The presence of rectangular shaped CV curves and symmetric triangular shaped CD profiles suggested the mechanism of charge storage in MoS2 WSC is due to the formation of electrochemical double layer capacitance. The MoS2 WSC device delivered a specific capacitance of 119 μF cm-1, and energy density of 8.1 nW h cm-1 with better capacitance retention of about 89.36% over 2500 cycles, which ensures the use of the ball milled MoS2 for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  10. Continued advances in high brightness fiber-coupled laser modules for efficient pumping of fiber and solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, M.; Chen, Z.; Urbanek, W.; Dawson, D.; Bao, L.; Kanskar, M.; DeVito, M.; Martinsen, R.

    2018-02-01

    Both the fibber laser and diode-pumped solid-state laser market continue to drive advances in pump diode module brightness. We report on the continued progress by nLIGHT to develop and deliver the highest brightness diode-laser pumps using single-emitter technology. Continued advances in multimode laser diode technology [13] and fiber-coupling techniques have enabled higher emitter counts in the element packages, enabling us to demonstrate 305 W into 105 μm - 0.16 NA. This brightness improvement is achieved by leveraging our prior-reported package re-optimization, allowing an increase in the emitter count from two rows of nine emitters to two rows of twelve emitters. Leveraging the two rows off twelve emitter architecture,, product development has commenced on a 400 W into 200 μm - 00.16 NA package. Additionally, the advances in pump technology intended for CW Yb-doped fiber laser pumping has been leveraged to develop the highest brightness 793 nm pump modules for 2 μm Thulium fiber laser pumping, generating 150 W into 200 μm - 0.18 NA and 100 W into 105 μm - 0.15 NA. Lastly, renewed interest in direct diode materials processing led us to experiment with wavelength multiplexing our existing state of the art 200 W, 105 μm - 00.15 NA package into a combined output of 395 WW into 105 μm - 0.16 NA.

  11. Highly conductive Al-doped tetra-needle-like ZnO whiskers prepared by a solid state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Cuifeng; Tan Hairen; Jin Shengming; Yang Huaming; Tang Motang; He Jing

    2008-01-01

    Tetra-needle-like zinc oxide whiskers (T-ZnO W ) were doped with Al 3+ by a solid state method. In this study, modification conditions were thoroughly investigated to obtain low resistivity T-ZnO W , without destroying the tetra-needle-like structure. The Al-doped T-ZnO W was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transition infrared (FT-IR) spectra and electrical resistance measurement. The SEM and XRD results indicated that the tetra-needle-like structure of ZnO whiskers could be well maintained after modification and the doped (0 0 2) face was preferred. FT-IR results showed that the decrease of resistivity of Al-doped T-ZnO W resulted from formation of [AlO 4 ] configuration in T-ZnO W bulk. Experiment results showed that the annealing temperature, doping concentration and type of Al sources affected the resistivity of T-ZnO W considerably. The optimum Al-doped concentration was 7.0 at.% and the resistivity of T-ZnO W could be considerably decreased from 10 8 to 10 2 Ω cm

  12. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  13. Fabrication of highly oriented D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals by solid-state dewetting of Si ultrathin layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Muneyuki, E-mail: naito22@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakagawa, Tatsuhiko; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakao, Motoi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Sudoh, Koichi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2013-07-31

    In this paper, highly oriented nanocrystals of Fe{sub 3}Si with a D0{sub 3} structure are fabricated on SiO{sub 2} using ultrathin Si on insulator substrate. First, (001) oriented Si nanocrystals are formed on the SiO{sub 2} layer by solid state dewetting of the top Si layer. Then, Fe addition to the Si nanocrystals is performed by reactive deposition epitaxy and post-deposition annealing at 500 °C. The structures of the Fe–Si nanocrystals are analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. We observe that Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals with D0{sub 3}, B2, and A2 structures coexist on the 1-h post-annealed samples. Prolonged annealing at 500 °C is effective in obtaining Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals with a D0{sub 3} single phase, thereby promoting structural ordering in the nanocrystals. We discuss the formation process of the highly oriented D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals on the basis of the atomistic structural information. - Highlights: • Highly oriented Fe–Si nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by reactive deposition. • Si NCs formed by solid state dewetting of Si thin layers are used as seed crystals. • The structures of Fe–Si NCs are analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction. • Most of Fe–Si NCs possess the D0{sub 3} structure after post-deposition annealing.

  14. High diagnostic accuracy of low-dose gated-SPECT with solid-state ultrafast detectors: preliminary clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Giorgetti, Assuero; Marzullo, Paolo [CNR, Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Bottai, Matteo [University of South Carolina, Division of Biostatistics, Columbia, SC (United States); Karolinska Institutet, Division of Biostatistics, Stockholm (Sweden); Di Martino, Fabio [AOUP, UO Fisica Sanitaria, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Appropriate use of SPECT imaging is regulated by evidence-based guidelines and appropriateness criteria in an effort to limit the burden of radiation administered to patients. We aimed at establishing whether the use of a low dose for stress-rest single-day nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging on an ultrafast (UF) cardiac gamma camera using cadmium-zinc-telluride solid-state detectors could be used routinely with the same accuracy obtained with standard doses and conventional cameras. To this purpose, 137 consecutive patients (mean age 61 {+-} 8 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. They underwent single-day low-dose stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging using UF SPECT and invasive coronary angiography. Patients underwent the first scan with a 7-min acquisition time 10 min after the end of the stress protocol (dose range 185 to 222 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin). The rest scan (dose range 370 to 444 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin) was acquired with a 6-min acquisition time. The mean summed stress scores (SSS) and mean summed rest scores (SRS) were obtained semiquantitatively. Coronary angiograms showed significant epicardial CAD in 83% of patients. Mean SSS and SRS were 10 {+-} 5 and 3 {+-} 3, respectively. Overall the area under the ROC curve for the SSS values was 0.904, while the areas under the ROC curves for each vascular territory were 0.982 for the left anterior descending artery, 0.931 for the left circumflex artery and 0.889 for the right coronary artery. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a low-dose single-day stress-rest fasting protocol performed using UF SPECT, with good sensitivity and specificity in detecting CAD at low patient exposure, opening new perspectives in the use of myocardial perfusion in ischaemic patients. (orig.)

  15. High diagnostic accuracy of low-dose gated-SPECT with solid-state ultrafast detectors: preliminary clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Giorgetti, Assuero; Marzullo, Paolo; Bottai, Matteo; Di Martino, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate use of SPECT imaging is regulated by evidence-based guidelines and appropriateness criteria in an effort to limit the burden of radiation administered to patients. We aimed at establishing whether the use of a low dose for stress-rest single-day nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging on an ultrafast (UF) cardiac gamma camera using cadmium-zinc-telluride solid-state detectors could be used routinely with the same accuracy obtained with standard doses and conventional cameras. To this purpose, 137 consecutive patients (mean age 61 ± 8 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. They underwent single-day low-dose stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging using UF SPECT and invasive coronary angiography. Patients underwent the first scan with a 7-min acquisition time 10 min after the end of the stress protocol (dose range 185 to 222 MBq of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin). The rest scan (dose range 370 to 444 MBq of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin) was acquired with a 6-min acquisition time. The mean summed stress scores (SSS) and mean summed rest scores (SRS) were obtained semiquantitatively. Coronary angiograms showed significant epicardial CAD in 83% of patients. Mean SSS and SRS were 10 ± 5 and 3 ± 3, respectively. Overall the area under the ROC curve for the SSS values was 0.904, while the areas under the ROC curves for each vascular territory were 0.982 for the left anterior descending artery, 0.931 for the left circumflex artery and 0.889 for the right coronary artery. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a low-dose single-day stress-rest fasting protocol performed using UF SPECT, with good sensitivity and specificity in detecting CAD at low patient exposure, opening new perspectives in the use of myocardial perfusion in ischaemic patients. (orig.)

  16. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  17. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  18. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  19. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  20. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  1. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  2. Verdazyl-ribose: A new radical for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Le, Thanh-Ngoc; Changcoco, Victor; Brook, David J R

    2018-04-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using the cross-effect relies on radical pairs whose electron spin resonance (ESR) frequencies differ by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency. We measure the DNP provided by a new water-soluble verdazyl radical, verdazyl-ribose, under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static sample conditions at 9.4 T, and compare it to a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. We find that verdazyl-ribose is an effective radical for cross-effect DNP, with the best relative results for a non-spinning sample. Under non-spinning conditions, verdazyl-ribose provides roughly 2× larger 13 C cross-polarized (CP) NMR signal than the nitroxide, with similar polarization buildup times, at both 29 K and 76 K. With MAS at 7 kHz and 1.5 W microwave power, the verdazyl-ribose does not provide as much DNP as the nitroxide, with the verdazyl providing less NMR signal and a longer polarization buildup time. When the microwave power is decreased to 30 mW with 5 kHz MAS, the two types of radical are comparable, with the verdazyl-doped sample having a larger NMR signal which compensates for its longer polarization buildup time. We also present electron spin relaxation measurements at Q-band (1.2 T) and ESR lineshapes at 1.2 and 9.4 T. Most notably, the verdazyl radical has a longer T 1e than the nitroxide (9.9 ms and 1.3 ms, respectively, at 50 K and 1.2 T). The verdazyl electron spin lineshape is significantly affected by the hyperfine coupling to four 14 N nuclei, even at 9.4 T. We also describe 3000-spin calculations to illustrate the DNP potential of possible radical pairs: verdazyl-verdazyl, verdazyl-nitroxide, or nitroxide-nitroxide pairs. These calculations suggest that the verdazyl radical at 9.4 T has a narrower linewidth than optimal for cross-effect DNP using verdazyl-verdazyl pairs. Because of the hyperfine coupling contribution to the electron spin linewidth, this implies that DNP using the verdazyl

  3. Verdazyl-ribose: A new radical for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Le, Thanh-Ngoc; Changcoco, Victor; Brook, David J. R.

    2018-04-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using the cross-effect relies on radical pairs whose electron spin resonance (ESR) frequencies differ by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency. We measure the DNP provided by a new water-soluble verdazyl radical, verdazyl-ribose, under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static sample conditions at 9.4 T, and compare it to a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. We find that verdazyl-ribose is an effective radical for cross-effect DNP, with the best relative results for a non-spinning sample. Under non-spinning conditions, verdazyl-ribose provides roughly 2× larger 13C cross-polarized (CP) NMR signal than the nitroxide, with similar polarization buildup times, at both 29 K and 76 K. With MAS at 7 kHz and 1.5 W microwave power, the verdazyl-ribose does not provide as much DNP as the nitroxide, with the verdazyl providing less NMR signal and a longer polarization buildup time. When the microwave power is decreased to 30 mW with 5 kHz MAS, the two types of radical are comparable, with the verdazyl-doped sample having a larger NMR signal which compensates for its longer polarization buildup time. We also present electron spin relaxation measurements at Q-band (1.2 T) and ESR lineshapes at 1.2 and 9.4 T. Most notably, the verdazyl radical has a longer T1e than the nitroxide (9.9 ms and 1.3 ms, respectively, at 50 K and 1.2 T). The verdazyl electron spin lineshape is significantly affected by the hyperfine coupling to four 14N nuclei, even at 9.4 T. We also describe 3000-spin calculations to illustrate the DNP potential of possible radical pairs: verdazyl-verdazyl, verdazyl-nitroxide, or nitroxide-nitroxide pairs. These calculations suggest that the verdazyl radical at 9.4 T has a narrower linewidth than optimal for cross-effect DNP using verdazyl-verdazyl pairs. Because of the hyperfine coupling contribution to the electron spin linewidth, this implies that DNP using the verdazyl radical would improve at lower

  4. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite quantum dots with high PLQY and enhanced carrier mobility through crystallinity control by solvent engineering and solid-state ligand exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Choi, Jin; Woo, Hee Chul; Huang, Xiaoguang; Jung, Wan-Gil; Kim, Bong-Joong; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Yim, Sang-Youp; Lee, Jae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Lyoul

    2018-05-22

    The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and charge carrier mobility of organic-inorganic perovskite QDs were enhanced by the optimization of crystallinity and surface passivation as well as solid-state ligand exchange. The crystallinity of perovskite QDs was determined by the Effective solvent field (Esol) of various solvents for precipitation. The solvent with high Esol could more quickly countervail the localized field generated by the polar solvent, and it causes fast crystallization of the dissolved precursor, which results in poor crystallinity. The post-ligand adding process (PLAP) and post-ligand exchange process (PLEP) increase the PLQY of perovskite QDs by reducing non-radiative recombination and the density of surface defect states through surface passivation. Particularly, the post ligand exchange process (PLEP) in the solid-state improved the charge carrier mobility of perovskite QDs in addition to the PLQY enhancement. The ligand exchange with short alkyl chain length ligands could improve the packing density of perovskite QDs in films by reducing the inter-particle distance between perovskite QDs. The maximum hole mobility of 6.2 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, one order higher than that of pristine QDs without the PLEP, is obtained at perovskite QDs with hexyl ligands. By using PLEP treatment, compared to the pristine device, a 2.5 times higher current efficiency in perovskite QD-LEDs was achieved due to the improved charge carrier mobility and PLQY.

  6. Solid-state synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} for high power lithium ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung-Woo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Heon [Graduate School of Knowledge-Based Technology and Energy, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 429-793 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Joayoung [Cell Precedence Development Group, Samsung SDI, Yongin 446-577 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dang-Hyok, E-mail: dhyoon@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-05

    Highlights: •High energy milling using 0.30 and 0.45 mm beads for Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} synthesis. •Synthesis of 162 nm-sized pure Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} by solid-state reaction. •Spray drying using fine starting materials to confer paste tackiness. •High capacity of 174 mAh/g and adequate rate properties for high power LIBs applications. -- Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was synthesized by a solid-state reaction between Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and anatase TiO{sub 2} for applications to high power lithium ion batteries. The starting materials underwent 6 h of high energy milling using ZrO{sub 2} beads with two different sizes, 0.30 and 0.45 mm. The smaller ZrO{sub 2} beads resulted in finer starting materials. Spray drying was also performed on the 0.30 mm beads-treated particles to enhance the screen printability of a paste containing this powder. The finer starting materials showed a pure 162 nm-sized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} due to the decreased diffusion length for a solid-state reaction, whereas the 0.45 mm beads-treated starting materials resulted in a 242 nm-sized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase containing 2 wt.% of rutile TiO{sub 2} that had transformed from the anatase phase during heat treatment at 800 °C for 3 h. The finer Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} showed higher charge capacity and better charge/discharge rates than the coarser particles, which highlights the importance of the primary particle size on the electrochemical properties of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} for high power applications. The fine Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles had a discharge capacity of 174 mAh/g at 0.1 C and capacity retention of 80% at 10.0 C.

  7. Facile solid-state synthesis of highly dispersed Cu nanospheres anchored on coal-based activated carbons as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Gao, Shasha; Tang, Yakun; Wang, Lei; Jia, Dianzeng; Liu, Lang

    2018-04-01

    Coal-based activated carbons (AC) were acted as the support, Cu/AC catalysts were synthesized by a facile solid-state reaction combined with subsequent heat treatment. In Cu/AC composites, highly dispersed Cu nanospheres were anchored on AC. The catalytic activity for 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) was investigated, the effects of activation temperature and copper loading on the catalytic performance were studied. The catalysts exhibited very high catalytic activity and moderate chemical stability due to the unique characteristics of the particle-assembled nanostructures, the high surface area and the porous structure of coal-based AC and the good dispersion of metal particles. Design and preparation of non-noble metal composite catalysts provide a new direction for improving the added value of coal.

  8. Development of laser diode-pumped high average power solid-state laser for the pumping of Ti:sapphire CPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Harayama, Sayaka; Oba, Masaki; Matoba, Tohru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Laser diode pumped all solid state, high repetition frequency (PRF) and high energy Nd:YAG laser using zigzag slab crystals has been developed for the pumping source of Ti:sapphire CPA system. The pumping laser installs two main amplifiers which compose ring type amplifier configuration. The maximum amplification gain of the amplifier system is 140 and the condition of saturated amplification is achieved with this high gain. The average power of fundamental laser radiation is 250 W at the PRF of 200 Hz and the pulse duration is around 20 ns. The average power of second harmonic is 105 W at the PRF of 170 Hz and the pulse duration is about 16 ns. The beam profile of the second harmonic is near top hat and will be suitable for the pumping of Ti:sapphire laser crystal. The wall plug efficiency of the laser is 2.0 %. (author)

  9. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  10. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  11. Selection of side-chain carbons in a high-molecular-weight, hydrophobic peptide using solid-state spectral editing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumashiro, Kristin K.; Niemczura, Walter P.; Kim, Minna S.; Sandberg, Lawrence B.

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state spectral editing techniques have been used by others to simplify 13 C CPMAS spectra of small organic molecules, synthetic organic polymers, and coals. One approach utilizes experiments such as cross-polarization-with-polarization-inversion and cross-polarization-with-depolarization to generate subspectra. This work shows that this particular methodology is also applicable to natural-abundance 13 C CPMAS NMR studies of high-molecular-weight biopolymers. The editing experiments are demonstrated first with model peptides and then with α-elastin, a high-molecular-weight peptidyl preparation obtained from the elastic fibers in mammalian tissue. The latter has a predominance of small, nonpolar residues, which is evident in the crowded aliphatic region of typical 13 C CPMAS spectra. Spectral editing is particularly useful for simplifying the aliphatic region of the NMR spectrum of this elastin preparation

  12. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the T g and T m are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO 4 /15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  13. Highly efficient solid-state synthesis of carbon-encapsulated ultrafine MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals as high rate lithium-ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Boyang, E-mail: byliu@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, College of Ocean Science and Engineering (China); Shao, Yingfeng, E-mail: shaoyf@lnm.imech.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics (China); Zhang, Yuliang, E-mail: ylzhang@shmtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Fuhua, E-mail: fhzhang@shmtu.edu.cn; Zhong, Ning, E-mail: ningzhong@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, College of Ocean Science and Engineering (China); Li, Wenge, E-mail: wgli@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College (China)

    2016-12-15

    A simple and highly efficient method is developed for the one-step in situ preparation of carbon-encapsulated MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals (MoO{sub 2}@C) with core-shell structure for high-performance lithium-ion battery anode. The synthesis is depending on the solid-state reaction of cyclopentadienylmolybdenum tricarbonyl dimer with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave at 200 °C for 30 min. The large amount of heat generated during the explosive reaction cleaves the cyclopentadiene ligands into small carbon fragments, which form carbon shell after oxidative dehydrogenation coating on the MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals, resulting in the formation of core-shell structure. The MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals have an equiaxial morphology with an ultrafine diameter of 2–8 nm, and the median size is 4.9 nm. Hundreds of MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals are encapsulated together by the worm-like carbon shell, which is amorphous and about 3–5 nm in thickness. The content of MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals in the nanocomposite is about 69.3 wt.%. The MoO{sub 2}@C anode shows stable cyclability and retains a high reversible capacity of 443 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 3 A g{sup −1}, owing to the effective protection of carbon shell.

  14. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  15. Synthesis of high-purity Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} powder by solid state reaction under hydrogen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin-mura, Kiyoto; Otani, Yu; Ogawa, Seiya [Course of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Niwa, Eiki; Hashimoto, Takuya [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, 3-8-1 Sakurajousui, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuchi, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Sasaki, Kazuya, E-mail: k_sasaki@tokai-u.ac.jp [Course of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Department of Prime Mover Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A fine pure Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} powder was synthesized by using Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} via a solid state reaction. • Influences on the purity of product powder, lattice defect, and crystal orientation were revealed. • The suitable synthesis conditions of the fine and high purity Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} powder were found. • The reaction process of the synthesis of Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} was estimated. - Abstract: Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} contains a large amount of Li and has a significant potential as a tritium breeder. However, few syntheses of fine-grain, high-purity Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} powder have been reported. In this study, a high-purity powder of Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} was synthesized by solid state reaction under hydrogen atmosphere combined with an effective lithium source and a suitable initial Li:Zr molar ratio. Mixed powders of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were fired at around 630 °C in H{sub 2} for several hours and several firing cycles. The low firing temperature inhibited the vaporization of Li during the heating, so that excessive amounts of Li were not needed for the synthesis, and the Li:Zr ratio in the starting material was 10:1 (mol:mol). In this synthesis, Li{sub 2}O was generated via the decomposition of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} during firing in H{sub 2}, and reacted with ZrO{sub 2} to form Li{sub 6}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which reacted with itself to form Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6}.

  16. Highly efficient visible-light driven photochromism: developments towards a solid-state molecular switch operating through a triplet-sensitised pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayshaw, Simon K; Schiffers, Stephanie; Stevenson, Anna J; Teat, Simon J; Warren, Mark R; Bennett, Robert D; Sazanovich, Igor V; Buckley, Alastair R; Weinstein, Julia A; Raithby, Paul R

    2011-04-11

    We introduce a new highly efficient photochromic organometallic dithienylethene (DTE) complex, the first instance of a DTE core symmetrically modified by two Pt(II) chromophores [Pt(PEt(3))(2)(C≡C)(DTE)(C≡C)Pt(PEt(3))(2)Ph] (1), which undergoes ring-closure when activated by visible light in solvents of different polarity, in thin films and even in the solid state. Complex 1 has been synthesised and fully photophysically characterised by (resonance) Raman and transient absorption spectroscopy complemented by calculations. The ring-closing photoconversion in a single crystal of 1 has been followed by X-ray crystallography. This process occurs with the extremely high yield of 80%--considerably outperforming the other DTE derivatives. Remarkably, the photocyclisation of 1 occurs even under visible light (>400 nm), which is not absorbed by the non-metallated DTE core HC≡C(DTE)C≡CH (2) itself. This unusual behaviour and the high photocyclisation yields in solution are attributed to the presence of a heavy atom in 1 that enables a triplet-sensitised photocyclisation pathway, elucidated by transient absorption spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The results of resonance Raman investigation confirm the involvement of the alkynyl unit in the frontier orbitals of both closed and open forms of 1 in the photocyclisation process. The changes in the Raman spectra upon cyclisation have permitted the identification of Raman marker bands, which include the acetylide stretching vibration. Importantly, these bands occur in the spectral region unobstructed by other vibrations and can be used for non-destructive monitoring of photocyclisation/photoreversion processes and for optical readout in this type of efficiently photochromic thermally stable systems. This study indicates a strategy for generating efficient solid-state photoswitches in which modification of the Pt(II) units has the potential to tune absorption properties and hence operational wavelength across the visible

  17. High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-05-25

    A high-brightness, droop-free, and speckle-free InGaN/GaN quantum well blue superluminescent diode (SLD) was demonstrated on a semipolar (2021) GaN substrate. The 447-nm emitting SLD has a broad spectral linewidth of 6.3 nm at an optical power of 123 mW. A peak optical power of 256 mW was achieved at 700 mA CW injection current. By combining YAG:Ce phosphor, SLD-generated white light shows a color-rendering index (CRI) of 68.9 and a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4340 K. The measured frequency response of the SLD revealed a -3 dB bandwidth of 560 MHz, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the device for both solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  18. High-brightness semipolar (2021¯) blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent diodes for droop-free solid-state lighting and visible-light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Leonard, John T.; Pourhashemi, Arash; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    A high-brightness, droop-free, and speckle-free InGaN/GaN quantum well blue superluminescent diode (SLD) was demonstrated on a semipolar (2021) GaN substrate. The 447-nm emitting SLD has a broad spectral linewidth of 6.3 nm at an optical power of 123 mW. A peak optical power of 256 mW was achieved at 700 mA CW injection current. By combining YAG:Ce phosphor, SLD-generated white light shows a color-rendering index (CRI) of 68.9 and a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4340 K. The measured frequency response of the SLD revealed a -3 dB bandwidth of 560 MHz, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the device for both solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  19. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  20. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  1. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  2. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  3. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  4. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  5. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  6. Automatic measurement for solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Koichi

    1982-01-01

    Since in solid state track detectors, their tracks are measured with a microscope, observers are forced to do hard works that consume time and labour. This causes to obtain poor statistic accuracy or to produce personal error. Therefore, many researches have been done to aim at simplifying and automating track measurement. There are two categories in automating the measurement: simple counting of the number of tracks and the requirements to know geometrical elements such as the size of tracks or their coordinates as well as the number of tracks. The former is called automatic counting and the latter automatic analysis. The method to generally evaluate the number of tracks in automatic counting is the estimation of the total number of tracks in the total detector area or in a field of view of a microscope. It is suitable for counting when the track density is higher. The method to count tracks one by one includes the spark counting and the scanning microdensitometer. Automatic analysis includes video image analysis in which the high quality images obtained with a high resolution video camera are processed with a micro-computer, and the tracks are automatically recognized and measured by feature extraction. This method is described in detail. In many kinds of automatic measurements reported so far, frequently used ones are ''spark counting'' and ''video image analysis''. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. A high dynamic range data acquisition system for a solid-state electron electric dipole moment experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kunkler, Brandon; Liu, Chen-Yu; Visser, Gerard [CEEM, Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We have built a high precision (24-bit) data acquisition (DAQ) system capable of simultaneously sampling eight input channels for the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the electron. The DAQ system consists of two main components: a master board for DAQ control and eight individual analog-to-digital converter (ADC) boards for signal processing. This custom DAQ system provides galvanic isolation of the ADC boards from each other and the master board using fiber optic communication to reduce the possibility of ground loop pickup and attain ultimate low levels of channel cross-talk. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the DAQ system and scrutinize its performance.

  8. Three-dimensional skeleton networks of graphene wrapped polyaniline nanofibers: an excellent structure for high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nantao; Zhang, Liling; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Liao, Hanbin; Feng, Zhenxing; Fisher, Adrian; Zhang, Yafei; Xu, Zhichuan J.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, robust, lightweight, and flexible supercapacitors (SCs) have aroused growing attentions nowadays due to the rapid development of flexible electronics. Graphene-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids are attractive candidates for high performance SCs. In order to utilize them in real devices, it is necessary to improve the capacitance and the structure stability of PANI. Here we report a hierarchical three-dimensional structure, in which all of PANI nanofibers (NFs) are tightly wrapped inside reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheet skeletons, for high-performance flexible SCs. The as-fabricated film electrodes with this unique structure showed a highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 921 F/g and volumetric capacitance of 391 F/cm3. The assembled solid-state SCs gave a high specific capacitance of 211 F/g (1 A/g), a high area capacitance of 0.9 F/cm2, and a competitive volumetric capacitance of 25.6 F/cm3. The SCs also exhibited outstanding rate capability (~75% retention at 20 A/g) as well as excellent cycling stability (100% retention at 10 A/g for 2000 cycles). Additionally, no structural failure and loss of performance were observed under the bending state. This structure design paves a new avenue for engineering rGO/PANI or other similar hybrids for high performance flexible energy storage devices. PMID:26795067

  9. A facile one-step approach for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid electrodes for flexible high performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sanqing; Han, Yichuan; Lyu, Siwei; Lin, Wenzhen; Chen, Peishan; Fang, Shaoli

    2017-10-01

    Wearable electronics are in high demand, requiring that all the components are flexible. Here we report a facile approach for the fabrication of flexible polypyrrole nanowire (NPPy)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid electrodes with high electrochemical activity using a low-cost, one-step electrodeposition method. The structure of the NPPy/CF electrodes can be easily controlled by the applied electrical potential and electrodeposition time. Our NPPy/CF-based electrodes showed high flexibility, conductivity, and stability, making them ideal for flexible all-solid-state fiber supercapacitors. The resulting NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors provided a high specific capacitance of 148.4 F g-1 at 0.128 A g-1, which is much higher than for supercapacitors based on polypyrrole film/CF (38.3 F g-1) and pure CF (0.6 F g-1) under the same conditions. The NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors also showed high bending and cycling stability, retaining 84% of the initial capacitance after 500 bending cycles, and 91% of the initial capacitance after 5000 charge/discharge cycles.

  10. A facile one-step approach for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid electrodes for flexible high performance solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sanqing; Han, Yichuan; Lyu, Siwei; Lin, Wenzhen; Chen, Peishan; Fang, Shaoli

    2017-10-27

    Wearable electronics are in high demand, requiring that all the components are flexible. Here we report a facile approach for the fabrication of flexible polypyrrole nanowire (NPPy)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid electrodes with high electrochemical activity using a low-cost, one-step electrodeposition method. The structure of the NPPy/CF electrodes can be easily controlled by the applied electrical potential and electrodeposition time. Our NPPy/CF-based electrodes showed high flexibility, conductivity, and stability, making them ideal for flexible all-solid-state fiber supercapacitors. The resulting NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors provided a high specific capacitance of 148.4 F g -1 at 0.128 A g -1 , which is much higher than for supercapacitors based on polypyrrole film/CF (38.3 F g -1 ) and pure CF (0.6 F g -1 ) under the same conditions. The NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors also showed high bending and cycling stability, retaining 84% of the initial capacitance after 500 bending cycles, and 91% of the initial capacitance after 5000 charge/discharge cycles.

  11. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  12. Development of Lithium Stuffed Garnet-Type Oxide Solid Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity for Application to All-Solid-State Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Inada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion battery (LiB is expected as one of the next generation energy storage devices because of their high energy density, high safety and excellent cycle stability. Although oxide-based solid electrolyte materials have rather lower conductivity and poor deformability than sulfide-based one, they have other advantages such as their chemical stability and easiness for handling. Among the various oxide-based SEs, lithium stuffed garnet-type oxide with the formula of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ have been widely studied because of their high conductivity above 10-4 Scm-1 at room temperature, excellent thermal performance and stability against Li metal anode.Here, we present our recent progress for the development of garnet-type solid electrolytes with high conductivity by simultaneous substitution of Ta5+ into Zr4+ site and Ba2+ into La3+ site in LLZ. Li+ concentration was fixed to 6.5 per chemical formulae, so that the formulae of our Li garnet-type oxide is expressed as Li6.5La3-xBaxZr1.5-xTa0.5+xO12 (LLBZT and Ba contents x are changed from 0 to 0.3. As results, all LLBZT samples have cubic garnet structure without containing any secondary phases. The lattice parameters of LLBZT decrease with increasing Ba2+ contents x < 0.10 while increase with x from 0.10 to 0.30, possibly due to the simultaneous change of Ba2+ and Ta5+ substitution levels. Relative densities of LLBZT are in the range between 89% and 93% and not influenced so much by the compositions. From AC impedance spectroscopy measurements, the total (bulk + grain conductivity at 27ºC of LLBZT shows its maximum value of 8.34 x 10-4 S cm-1 at x = 0.10, which is slightly higher than the conductivity (= 7.94 x 10-4 S cm-1 of LLZT without substituting Ba (x = 0. Activation energy of the conductivity tends to become lower by Ba substation, while excess Ba substitution degrades the conductivity in LLBZT. LLBZT has wide electrochemical potential window of 0-6 V vs. Li+/Li and

  13. Synergistically Active NiCo2 S4 Nanoparticles Coupled with Holey Defect Graphene Hydrogel for High-Performance Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Sintayehu Nibret; Kang, Bong Kyun; Kwag, Sung Hoon; Lee, YoungHun; Kim, MinSeob; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2018-03-02

    Nickel cobalt sulfide nanoparticles embedded in holey defect graphene hydrogel (HGH) that exhibit highly porous structures and uniform nickel cobalt sulfide nanoparticle sizes are successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal-hydrothermal method. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the as-prepared NiCo 2 S 4 @HGH shows ultra-high specific capacitances of 1000 F g -1 and 800 F g -1 at 0.5 and 6 A g -1 , respectively, owing to the outstanding electrical conductivity of HGH and high specific capacitance of NiCo 2 S 4 . After 2100 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 6 A g -1 , 96.6 % of the specific capacitance was retained, signifying the superb durability of NiCo 2 S 4 @HGH. Moreover, remarkable specific capacitance (312.6 F g -1 ) and capacity retention (87 % after 5000 cycles) at 6 A g -1 were displayed by the symmetric solid-state supercapacitor fabricated by using NiCo 2 S 4 @HGH electrodes. These auspicious supercapacitor performances demonstrate that the as-developed solvothermal-hydrothermal approach can be widely used to prepare graphene-coupled binary metal sulfides for high-performance supercapacitor applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High-power, continuous-wave, solid-state, single-frequency, tunable source for the ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A; Apurv Chaitanya, N; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2014-06-15

    We report the development of a compact, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, ultraviolet (UV) source with extended wavelength tunability. The device is based on single-pass, intracavity, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of the signal radiation of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) working in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. The SRO is pumped in the green with a 25-mm-long, multigrating, MgO doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) as nonlinear crystal. Using three grating periods, 8.5, 9.0, and 9.5 μm of the MgO:sPPLT crystal and a single set of cavity mirrors, the SRO can be tuned continuously across 710.7-836.3 nm in the signal and corresponding idler across 2115.8-1462.1 nm with maximum idler power of 1.9 W and maximum out-coupled signal power of 254 mW. By frequency-doubling the intracavity signal with a 5-mm-long bismuth borate (BIBO) crystal, we can further tune the SRO continuously over 62.8 nm across 355.4-418.2 nm in the UV with maximum single-frequency UV power, as much as 770 mW at 398.28 nm in a Gaussian beam profile. The UV radiation has an instantaneous line-width of ∼14.5  MHz and peak-peak frequency stability of 151 MHz over 100 s. More than 95% of the tuning range provides UV power >260  mW. Access to lower UV wavelengths can in principle be realized by operating the SRO in the visible using shorter grating periods.

  15. Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(Ethylene Furanoate Biobased Polyester, II: An Efficient and Facile Method to Synthesize High Molecular Weight Polyester Appropriate for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejib Kasmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to synthesize, through a facile strategy, high molecular weight poly(ethylene furanoate (PEF, which could be applicable in food packaging applications. The efficient method to generate PEF with high molecular weight consists of carrying out a first solid-state polycondensation under vacuum for 6 h reaction time at 205 °C for the resulting polymer from two-step melt polycondensation process, which is catalyzed by tetrabutyl titanate (TBT. A remelting step was thereafter applied for 15 min at 250 °C for the obtained polyester. Thus, the PEF sample was ground into powder, and was then crystallized for 6 h at 170 °C. This polyester is then submitted to a second solid-state polycondensation (SSP carried out at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. Ultimately, a significant increase in intrinsic viscosity is observed with only 5 h reaction time at 205 °C during the second SSP being needed to obtain very high molecular weight PEF polymer greater than 1 dL/g, which sufficient for manufacturing purposes. Intrinsic viscosity (IV, carboxyl end-group content (–COOH, and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, were measured for all resultant polyesters. Thanks to the post-polymerization process, DSC results showed that the melting temperatures of the prepared PEF samples were steadily enhanced in an obvious way as a function of reaction time and temperature increase. It was revealed, as was expected for all SSP samples, that the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF polyester increased with increasing SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-group concentration was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polyesters IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl end-groups of PEF during the SSP.

  16. In-situ growth of high-performance all-solid-state electrode for flexible supercapacitors based on carbon woven fabric/ polyaniline/ graphene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingxi; Zhang, Haiyan; Deng, Wentao; Zhang, Danfeng; Li, Na; Wu, Qibai; He, Chunhua

    2018-04-01

    For the development of wearable electronic devices, it is crucial to develop energy storage components combining high-capacity and flexibility. Herein, an all-solid-state supercapacitor is prepared through an in-situ "growth and wrapping" method. The electrode contains polyaniline deposited on a carbon woven fabric and wrapped with a graphene-based envelop. The hybrid electrode exhibits excellent mechanical and electrochemical performance. The optimized few layer graphene wrapping layer provides for a conductive network, which effectively enhances the cycling stability as 88.9% of the starting capacitance is maintained after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the assembled device delivers a high areal capacity (of 790 F cm-2) at the current density of 1 A cm-2, a high areal energy (28.21 uWh cm-2) at the power densities of 0.12 mW cm-2 and shows no significant decrease in the performance with a bending angle of 180°. This unique flexible supercapacitor thus exhibits great potential for wearable electronics.

  17. The structure of phosphate and borosilicate glasses and their structural evolution at high temperatures as studied with solid state NMR spectroscopy: Phase separation, crystallisation and dynamic species exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, S.; Van Wullen, L.; Tricot, G.; Tricot, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present an in-depth study of the network structure of different phosphate based and borosilicate glasses and its evolution at high temperatures. Employing a range of advanced solid state NMR methodologies, complemented by the results of XPS, the structural motifs on short and intermediate length scales are identified. For the phosphate based glasses, at temperatures above the glass transition temperature Tg, structural relaxation processes and the devitrification of the glasses were monitored in situ employing MAS NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dynamic species exchange involving rapid P-O-P and P-O-Al bond breaking and reforming was observed employing in situ 27 Al and 31 P MAS NMR spectroscopy and could be linked to viscous flow. For the borosilicate glasses, an atomic scale investigation of the phase separation processes was possible in a combined effort of ex situ NMR studies on glass samples with different thermal histories and in situ NMR studies using high temperature MAS NMR spectroscopy including 11 B MAS, 29 Si MAS and in situ 29 Si{ 11 B} REAPDOR NMR spectroscopy. (authors)

  18. Why solid-state fermentation is more advantageous over submerged fermentation for converting high concentration of glycerol into Monacolin K by Monascus purpureus 9901: A mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Bo; Lu, Li-Ping; Xu, Gan-Rong

    2015-07-20

    The underlying mechanisms by which solid-state fermentation (SSF) was more advantageous over submerged fermentation (SmF) for converting high concentration of glycerol into Monacolin K by Monascus purpureus were investigated innovatively. First, the established kinetic models and kinetic parameters showed that the cell growth, Monacolin K formation and glycerol consumption in SSF were more rapid than those in SmF. Secondly, the comparison of fatty acid composition of mycelial cells indicated a better fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane in SSF than that of SmF, which was also consistent with the difference in the ratio of extracellular/intracellular Monacolin K between the two systems. Thirdly, the phenomenon of glycerol concentration gradient was verified in SSF, which could well explain the resistance effect to high concentration of glycerol in SSF. These new findings provide some important insights to the elucidation of the advantages of SSF for the synthesis of fungal secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Flexible Asymmetric Solid-State Supercapacitors by Highly Efficient 3D Nanostructured α-MnO2 and h-CuS Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amar M; Lokhande, Abhishek C; Shinde, Pragati A; Lokhande, Chandrakant D

    2018-05-16

    A simplistic and economical chemical way has been used to prepare highly efficient nanostructured, manganese oxide (α-MnO 2 ) and hexagonal copper sulfide (h-CuS) electrodes directly on cheap and flexible stainless steel sheets. Flexible solid-state α-MnO 2 /flexible stainless steel (FSS)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-LiClO 4 /h-CuS/FSS asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) devices have been fabricated using PVA-LiClO 4 gel electrolyte. Highly active surface areas of α-MnO 2 (75 m 2 g -1 ) and h-CuS (83 m 2 g -1 ) electrodes contribute to more electrochemical reactions at the electrode and electrolyte interface. The ASC device has a prolonged working potential of +1.8 V and accomplishes a capacitance of 109.12 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 , energy density of 18.9 Wh kg -1 , and long-term electrochemical cycling with a capacity retention of 93.3% after 5000 cycles. Additionally, ASC devices were successful in glowing seven white-light-emitting diodes for more than 7 min after 30 s of charging. Outstandingly, real practical demonstration suggests "ready-to-sell" products for industries.

  20. Triblock-terpolymer-directed self-assembly of mesoporous TiO{sub 2}: High-performance photoanodes for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docampo, Pablo; Gunning, Robert; Snaith, Henry J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Stefik, Morgan; Wiesner, Ulrich [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Guldin, Stefan; Yufa, Nataliya A.; Steiner, Ullrich [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cai, Ning; Wang, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-06-15

    A new self-assembly platform for the fast and straightforward synthesis of bicontinuous, mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films is presented, based on the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-ethylene oxide). This new materials route allows the co-assembly of the metal oxide as a fully interconnected minority phase, which results in a highly porous photoanode with strong advantages over the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based photoanodes employed in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this triblock terpolymer route exhibit a high availability of sub-bandgap states distributed in a narrow and low enough energy band, which maximizes photoinduced charge generation from a state-of-the-art organic dye, C220. As a consequence, the co-assembled mesoporous metal oxide system outperformed the conventional nanoparticle-based electrodes fabricated and tested under the same conditions, exhibiting solar power-conversion efficiencies of over 5%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Solid state thermal rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-07-05

    Thermal rectifiers using linear nanostructures as core thermal conductors have been fabricated. A high mass density material is added preferentially to one end of the nanostructures to produce an axially non-uniform mass distribution. The resulting nanoscale system conducts heat asymmetrically with greatest heat flow in the direction of decreasing mass density. Thermal rectification has been demonstrated for linear nanostructures that are electrical insulators, such as boron nitride nanotubes, and for nanostructures that are conductive, such as carbon nanotubes.

  2. Solid State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-15

    G. E. Betts Analog Optical Links for High Dynamic L. M. Johnson Range C. H. Cox III Nonimaging Concentrators for Diode- P. Lacovara Pumped Slab Lasers...P. Gleckman* SPIEs 1991 International R. Holman* Symposium on Optical Science R. Winston * and Engineering, San Diego, California, Free-Space Board-to...xxv 1. ELECTROOPTICAL DEVICES 1 1.1 Optical Phase Difference Measurement and Correction Using AIGaAs Integrated Guided-Wave Components 1 1.2 Two

  3. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  4. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 34 (2017), 1-18, č. článku 343002. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8E15B010; GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic- force microscopy * scanning tunneling microscope * on-surface synthesis * single-molecule * AFM * STM * high resolution * molecules * surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  5. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  6. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  7. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  8. High-level production of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase by Rhizomucor miehei under solid-state fermentation and its potential application in the brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S Q; Xiong, H; Yang, H Y; Yan, Q J; Jiang, Z Q

    2015-01-01

    To improve the β-1,3-1,4-glucanase production by Rhizomucor miehei under solid-state fermentation (SSF) for industrial application. The fermentation conditions for β-1,3-1,4-glucanase production by R. miehei CAU432 under SSF were optimized using a 'one-factor-at-a-time' method. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, viz. oatmeal (0·45-0·9 mm) as sole carbon source, 5% (w/w) peptone as sole nitrogen source, initial moisture of 80% (w/w), initial culture pH of 5·0, incubation temperature of 50°C and incubation time of 6 days, the highest β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity of 20,025 U g(-1) dry substrate was achieved, which represents the highest yield for β-1,3-1,4-glucanase production ever reported. The crude enzyme was extracted and purified to homogeneity with a purification fold of 4·6 and a recovery yield of 9·0%. The addition of the purified β-1,3-1,4-glucanase in mash obviously reduced its filtration time (24·6%) and viscosity (2·61%). The optimal fermentation conditions for maximal β-1,3-1,4-glucanase production under SSF was obtained, and the enzyme was suitable for application in the malting process. The high production yield and excellent capability of the enzyme may enable it great potential in industries, especially in brewing industry. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Sodium-Doped Mesoporous Ni2P2O7 Hexagonal Tablets for High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Jindi; Pang, Huan

    2015-08-01

    A simple hydrothermal method has been developed to prepare hexagonal tablet precursors, which are then transformed into porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets by a simple calcination method. The obtained samples were evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrode based on the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets exhibits a specific capacitance of 557.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1.2 A g(-1) . Furthermore, the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets were successfully used to construct flexible solid-state hybrid supercapacitors. The device is highly flexible and achieves a maximum energy density of 23.4 Wh kg(-1) and a good cycling stability after 5000 cycles, which confirms that the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2 O7 hexagonal tablets are promising active materials for flexible supercapacitors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. All-Solid-State High-Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors Enabled by Three-Dimensional Mixed-Valent MnOx Nanospike and Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Guizhu; Pan, Zhenghui; Liu, Meinan; Hou, Yuan; Xu, Yijun; Deng, Hong; Sheng, Leimei; Zhao, Xinluo; Qiu, Yongcai; Zhang, Yuegang

    2015-10-14

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures enable high-energy storage devices. Here we report a 3D manganese oxide nanospike (NSP) array electrode fabricated by anodization and subsequent electrodeposition. All-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors were assembled with the 3D Al@Ni@MnOx NSP as the positive electrode, chemically converted graphene (CCG) as the negative electrode, and Na2SO4/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the polymer gel electrolyte. Taking advantage of the different potential windows of Al@Ni@MnOx NSP and CCG electrodes, the asymmetric supercapacitor showed an ideal capacitive behavior with a cell voltage up to 1.8 V, capable of lighting up a red LED indicator (nominal voltage of 1.8 V). The device could deliver an energy density of 23.02 W h kg(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). It could also preserve 96.3% of its initial capacitance at a current density of 2 A g(-1) after 10000 charging/discharging cycles. The remarkable performance is attributed to the unique 3D NSP array structure that could play an important role in increasing the effective electrode surface area, facilitating electrolyte permeation, and shortening the electron pathway in the active materials.

  12. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel electrolyte is prepared and used in electric double layer capacitor. • Insertion of boron crosslinks into GO agglomerates opens channels for ion migration. • Solid supercapacitors show excellent specific capacitance and cycle stability. • Nanocomposite electrolyte shows better thermal stability and mechanical properties. - Abstract: A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs

  13. Integration of -70kV, 22A high voltage power supply with solid state crowbar and the LHCD system of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, N.; Virani, C.G.; Dalakoti, S.; Sharma, P.K.; Ambulkar, K.K.; Parmar, P.R.; Thakur, A.L.; Dhorajiya, Pragnesh

    2015-01-01

    LHCD system is a important system for the steady state operation of the SST-1 machine. Four numbers of klystrons of 3.7 GHz are used as a microwave source to produce 2 MW of microwave power. This power is launched into the machine to achieve the steady state operation of the SST-1 Machine. A -70kV, 22A high voltage power supply and a solid-state crowbar are procured and tested and validated for its performance separately. Both of the system are integrated and tested for its integrated performance for the safe and reliable test of the klystron tube. A 10J wire test is conducted for the optimum value of the series resistor. This test will validate the integrated performance of power supply, Crowbar and the interlocking circuit. This paper details the optimization of the ballast resistor from 150 ohms to 40 ohms and its successful integration with the klystron tube for its 500kW CW operation. Some operational experience is also shared

  14. Synthesis of highly conductive thin-walled Al-doped ZnO single-crystal microtubes by a solid state method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuopeng; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Xing, Cheng; Yan, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-06-01

    ZnO has attracted considerable attention in fundamental studies and practical applications for the past decade due to its outstanding performance in gas sensing, photocatalytic degradation, light harvesting, UV-light emitting/lasing, etc. The large-sized thin-walled ZnO (TW-ZnO) microtube with stable and rich VZn-related acceptors grown by optical vapor supersaturated precipitation (OVSP) is a novel multifunctional optoelectronic material. Unfortunately, the OVSP cannot achieve doping due to the vapor growth process. To obtain doped TW-ZnO microtubes, a solid state method is introduced in this work to achieve thin-walled Al-doping ZnO (TW-ZnO:Al) microtubes with high electrical conductivity. The morphology and microstructures of ZnO:Al microtubes are similar to undoped ones. The Al3+ ions are confirmed to substitute Zn2+ sites and Zn(0/-1) vacancies in the lattice of ZnO by EDS, XRD, Raman and temperature-dependent photoluminescence analyses. The Al dopant acting as a donor level offers massive free electrons to increase the carrier concentrations. The resistivity of the ZnO:Al microtube is reduced down to ∼10-3 Ω·cm, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of the undoped microtube. The present work provides a simple way to achieve doped ZnO tubular components for potential device applications in optoelectronics.

  15. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu

    2014-06-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  17. Cobalt selenide hollow nanorods array with exceptionally high electrocatalytic activity for high-efficiency quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhitong; Zhang, Meirong; Wang, Min; Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QSDSSCs), electron transport through a random network of catalyst in the counter electrode (CE) and electrolyte diffusion therein are limited by the grain boundaries of catalyst particles, thus diminishing the electrocatalytic performance of CE and the corresponding photovoltaic performance of QSDSSCs. We demonstrate herein an ordered Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array film as the Pt-free CE of QSDSSCs. The Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array displays excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of I3- in the quasi-solid-state electrolyte with extremely low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface, and the diffusion of redox species within the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE is pretty fast. The QSDSSC device with the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE produces much higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency (8.35%) than that (4.94%) with the Co0.85Se randomly packed nanorods CE, against the control device with the Pt CE (7.75%). Moreover, the QSDSSC device based on the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE presents good long-term stability with only 4% drop of power conversion efficiency after 1086 h one-sun soaking.

  18. Amplified spontaneous emission and thermal management on a high average-power diode-pumped solid-state laser - the Lucia laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albach, D.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the laser triggered the birth of numerous fields in both scientific and industrial domains. High intensity laser pulses are a unique tool for light/matter interaction studies and applications. However, current flash-pumped glass-based systems are inherently limited in repetition-rate and efficiency. Development within recent years in the field of semiconductor lasers and gain media drew special attention to a new class of lasers, the so-called Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL). DPSSLs are highly efficient lasers and are candidates of choice for compact, high average-power systems required for industrial applications but also as high-power pump sources for ultra-high intense lasers. The work described in this thesis takes place in the context of the 1 kilowatt average-power DPSSL program Lucia, currently under construction at the 'Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Laser Intenses' (LULI) at the Ecole Polytechnique, France. Generation of sub-10 nanosecond long pulses with energies of up to 100 joules at repetition rates of 10 hertz are mainly limited by Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) and thermal effects. These limitations are the central themes of this work. Their impact is discussed within the context of a first Lucia milestone, set around 10 joules. The developed laser system is shown in detail from the oscillator level to the end of the amplification line. A comprehensive discussion of the impact of ASE and thermal effects is completed by related experimental benchmarks. The validated models are used to predict the performances of the laser system, finally resulting in a first activation of the laser system at an energy level of 7 joules in a single-shot regime and 6.6 joules at repetition rates up to 2 hertz. Limitations and further scaling approaches are discussed, followed by an outlook for the further development. (author) [fr

  19. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  20. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  1. Manganese dioxide decoration of macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers: From high-performance liquid-based to all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendashteh, Afshin; Senokos, Evgeny; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Vilatela, Juan J.; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors capable of providing high voltage, energy and power density but yet light, low volume occupying, flexible and mechanically robust are highly interesting and demanded for portable applications. Herein, freestanding flexible hybrid electrodes based on MnO2 nanoparticles grown on macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers (CNTf-MnO2) were fabricated, without the need of any metallic current collector. The CNTf, a support with excellent electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and appropriate pore structure, was homogeneously decorated with porous akhtenskite ɛ-MnO2 nanoparticles produced via electrodeposition in an optimized organic-aqueous mixture. Electrochemical properties of these decorated fibers were evaluated in different electrolytes including a neutral aqueous solution and a pure 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (PYR14TFSI). This comparison helps discriminate the various contributions to the total capacitance: (surface) Faradaic and non-Faradaic processes, improved wetting by aqueous electrolytes. Accordingly, symmetric supercapacitors with PYR14TFSI led to a high specific energy of 36 Wh· kgMnO2-1 (16 Wh·kg-1 including the weight of CNTf) and real specific power of 17 kW· kgMnO2-1 (7.5 kW kg-1) at 3.0 V with excellent cycling stability. Moreover, flexible all solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated using PYR14TFSI-based polymer electrolyte, exhibiting maximum energy density of 21 Wh·kg-1 and maximum power density of 8 kW kg-1 normalized by total active material.

  2. Development of Lithium-Stuffed Garnet-Type Oxide Solid Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity for Application to All-Solid-State Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Ryoji, E-mail: inada@ee.tut.ac.jp; Yasuda, Satoshi; Tojo, Masaru; Tsuritani, Keiji; Tojo, Tomohiro; Sakurai, Yoji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2016-07-20

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are expected to be one of the next generations of energy storage devices because of their high energy density, high safety, and excellent cycle stability. Although oxide-based solid electrolyte (SE) materials have rather lower conductivity and poor deformability than sulfide-based ones, they have other advantages, such as their chemical stability and ease of handling. Among the various oxide-based SEs, lithium-stuffed garnet-type oxide, with the formula of Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZ), has been widely studied because of its high conductivity above 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at room temperature, excellent thermal performance, and stability against Li metal anode. Here, we present our recent progress for the development of garnet-type SEs with high conductivity by simultaneous substitution of Ta{sup 5+} into the Zr{sup 4+} site and Ba{sup 2+} into the La{sup 3+} site in LLZ. Li{sup +} concentration was fixed to 6.5 per chemical formulae, so that the formula of our Li garnet-type oxide is expressed as Li{sub 6.5}La{sub 3−x}Ba{sub x}Zr{sub 1.5−x}Ta{sub 0.5+x}O{sub 12} (LLBZT) and Ba contents x are changed from 0 to 0.3. As a result, all LLBZT samples have a cubic garnet structure without containing any secondary phases. The lattice parameters of LLBZT decrease with increasing Ba{sup 2+} contents x ≤ 0.10 while increase with x from 0.10 to 0.30, possibly due to the simultaneous change of Ba{sup 2+} and Ta{sup 5+} substitution levels. The relative densities of LLBZT are in a range between 89 and 93% and are not influenced in any significant way by the compositions. From the AC impedance spectroscopy measurements, the total (bulk + grain) conductivity at 27°C of LLBZT shows its maximum value of 8.34 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at x = 0.10, which is slightly higher than the conductivity (= 7.94 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}) of LLZT without substituting Ba (x = 0). The activation energy of the conductivity

  3. Layer Structured Bismuth Selenides of Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4 for High Energy and Flexible All-Solid-State Micro-Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chunxue; Wang, Lidan; Wen, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Hu, Wentao; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2017-12-20

    Bismuth selenides (Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4), both of which have the layered rhombohedral crystal structure, and found to be useful as electrode materials for supercapacitor application in this work. Bi2Se3 nanoplates as electrode material exhibit much better performance than that of Bi3Se4 nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte system (6 M KOH), which delivers a higher specific capacitance (272.9 F/g) than that of Bi3Se4 (193.6 F/g) at 5 mV/s. This result would may be attributed to that Bi2Se3 nanoplates possess more active electrochemical surfaces for the reversible surface redox reactions owing to its planar quintuple stacked layers (septuple layers for Bi3Se4). For the demand of electronic skin, we used a novel flexible annular interdigital structure electrode applying for all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs). Bi2Se3 AMSCs device delivers a much more excellent supercapacitor performance, exhibits a large stack capacitance 89.5 F/cm3 (Bi3Se4: 79.1 F/cm3) at 20 mV/s, a high energy density 17.9 mWh/cm3 and high power density 18.9 W/cm3. The bismuth selenides also exhibit good cycle stability, retention 95.5% (90.3%) after 1000 c for Bi2Se3 (Bi3Se4). Obviously, Bi2Se3 nanoplates can be promising electrode materials for flexible annular interdigital all-solid-sate supercapacitor. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. A crystal chemistry approach for high-power ytterbium doped solid-state lasers: diffusion-bonded crystals and new crystalline hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaume, R.

    2002-11-01

    This work deals with ytterbium based crystals for high-power laser applications. In particular, we focus our interest in reducing crystal heating and its consequences during laser operation following two different ways. First, we review the specific properties of ytterbium doped solid-state lasers in order to define a figure-of-merit which gives the evaluation of laser performances, thermo-mechanical and thermo-optical properties. Bearing in mind this analysis, we propose a set of theoretical tools, based on the crystallographic structure of the crystal and its chemical composition, to predict thermo-mechanical and optical potentials. This approach, used for the seek of new Yb 3+ -doped materials for high-power laser applications, shows that simple oxides containing rare-earths are favorable. Therefore, the spectroscopic properties of six new materials Yb 3+ :GdVO 4 , Yb 3+ :GdAlO 3 , Yb 3+ :Gd 2 O 3 , Yb 3+ :Sc 2 SiO 5 , Yb 3+ :CaSc 2 O 4 and Yb 3+ :SrSc 2 O 4 are described. The second aspect developed in this work deals with thermal properties enhancement of already well characterized laser materials. Two different ways are explored: a) elaboration by diffusion bonding of end-caps lasers with undoped crystals (composite crystals). Thus, different composites were obtained and a fairly lowering of thermal lensing effect was observed during laser operation. b) strengthening of crystalline structures by ionic substitution of one of its constituents. We demonstrate how crystal growth ability can be improved by a cationic substitution in the case of Yb 3+ :BOYS, a largely-tunable laser material which is of great interest for femtosecond pulses generation. (author)

  5. Layer structured bismuth selenides Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4 for high energy and flexible all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chunxue; Wang, Lidan; Wen, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Hu, Wentao; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, bismuth selenides (Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4), both of which have a layered rhombohedral crystal structure, have been found to be useful as electrode materials for supercapacitor applications. In a liquid electrolyte system (6M KOH), Bi2Se3 nanoplates exhibit much better performance as an electrode material than Bi3Se4 nanoparticles do, delivering a higher specific capacitance (272.9 F g-1) than that of Bi3Se4 (193.6 F g-1) at 5 mV s-1. This result may be attributed to the fact that Bi2Se3 nanoplates possess more active electrochemical surfaces for the reversible surface redox reactions owing to their planar quintuple stacked layers (septuple layers for Bi3Se4). To meet the demands of electronic skin, we used a novel flexible annular interdigital structure electrode to support the all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs). The Bi2Se3 AMSC device delivers a much better supercapacitor performance, exhibits a large stack capacitance of 89.5 F cm-3 at 20 mV s-1 (Bi3Se4: 79.1 F cm-3), a high energy density of 17.9 mWh cm-3 and a high power density of 18.9 W cm-3. The bismuth selenides also exhibit good cycle stability, with 95.5% retention after 1000 c for Bi2Se3 (Bi3Se4:90.3%). Clearly, Bi2Se3 nanoplates can be promising electrode materials for flexible annular interdigital AMSCs.

  6. All-solid state, flexible, high-energy integrated hybrid micro-supercapacitors based on 3D LSG/CoNi2S4 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavifard, Seyyed Ebrahim; Shamsi, Javad; Altafi, Mohammad Kazem; Moosavifard, Zeinab Sadat

    2016-11-18

    3D LSG/CoNi 2 S 4 //LSG interdigitated microelectrodes have been firstly developed by a facile, scalable and low cost process for all-solid-state, flexible integrated asymmetric micro-supercapacitors. These devices can achieve energy densities of up to 49 W h l -1 which is comparable to those of lead acid batteries.

  7. Numerical simulation and PEPT measurements of a 3D conical helical-bla de mixer: A high potential solids mixer for solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Briels, Willem J.; Rinzema, A.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Helical-blade solids mixers have a large potential as bioreactors for solid-state fermentation (SSF). Fundamental knowledge of the flow and mixing behavior is required for robust operation of these mixers. In this study predictions of a discrete particle model were compared to experiments with

  8. Numerical simulation and PEPT measurements of a 3D conical helical-blade mixer: a high potential solids mixer for solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Briels, W.J.; Rinzema, A.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Helical-blade solids mixers have a large potential as bioreactors for solid-state fermentation (SSF). Fundamental knowledge of the flow and mixing behavior is required for robust operation of these mixers. In this study predictions of a discrete particle model were compared to experiments with

  9. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B.

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  10. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  11. Synthesis of S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO2 with high-active visible light degradation property via solid state reaction route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaoyou; Tang Qunli; Feng Qingge

    2011-01-01

    S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 (S-TiO 2 , Cr-TiO 2 , S-Cr-TiO 2 ) were successfully synthesized via a simple, effective and environmental benign solid state reaction route. The low angle XRD patterns demonstrated that the resulting samples possess mesostructures. The further characterizations via N 2 adsorption-desorption and XPS showed that the typical S/Cr co-doped mesoporous TiO 2 (S-Cr-TiO 2 (5S-5Cr)) possesses mesopore with the high specific surface area of 118.4 m 2 /g and narrow pore size distribution, and both S and Cr have been incorporated into the lattice of TiO 2 with the amounts of 4.16% sulfur and 7.88% chromium, respectively. And Raman spectroscopy shows that the surface of S-Cr-TiO 2 (5S-5Cr) material possesses stretching vibrational peaks at ∼709, ∼793 cm -1 are assignable to the Ti-O-Cr, O-Cr (Ti)-OH bonds, respectively. Interestingly, the UV-vis displayed that the absorption regions of S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 cover the visible light region. As for the series of S-Cr-TiO 2 samples, the absorption region even extends to near infrared region with strong adsorption. Moreover, compared with the pure titanium dioxide (P25-TiO 2 ), the photodegradation properties of bromocresol green (BCG) on the S/Cr doped mesoporous TiO 2 showed excellent photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation. Within 50 min visible light irradiation, 82.6% of the initial BCG was degraded for the S-Cr-TiO 2 (6S-4Cr) photocatalyst.

  12. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  13. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  14. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  15. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  16. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  17. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}: A new compound discovered with the application of solid-state and high temperature NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gave, Matthew A; Canlas, Christian G [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chung, In [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Weliky, David P. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)], E-mail: weliky@chemistry.msu.edu

    2007-10-15

    The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was serendipitously produced in high purity during a high-temperature synthesis done in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of the products of the synthesis revealed that the dominant phosphorus-containing product had a chemical shift of -52.8 ppm that could not be assigned to any known compound. Deep reddish brown well-formed plate-like crystals were isolated from the NMR reaction ampoule and the structure was solved with X-ray diffraction. Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} has the triclinic space group P-1 with a=7.3587(11) A, b=7.4546(11) A, c=10.1420(15) A, {alpha}=85.938(2){sup o}, {beta}=88.055(2){sup o}, and {gamma}=85.609(2){sup o} and contains the [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion. To our knowledge, this is the first compound containing this anion that is composed of two tetrahedral (PSe{sub 4}) units connected by a diselenide linkage. It was also possible to form a glass by quenching the melt in ice water, and Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was recovered upon annealing. The static {sup 31}P NMR spectrum at 350 deg. C contained a single peak with a -35 ppm chemical shift and a {approx}7 ppm peak width. This study highlights the potential of solid-state and high-temperature NMR for aiding discovery of new compounds and for probing the species that exist at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: The new compound Cs{sub 4}P{sub 2}Se{sub 10} was discovered following a high-temperature in situ synthesis in the NMR spectrometer and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It contains the new [P{sub 2}Se{sub 10}]{sup 4-} anion.

  18. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  19. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  20. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  1. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  2. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  3. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of prion peptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Jonathan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    High-resolution structural studies using x-ray diffraction and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are not feasible for proteins of low volubility and high tendency to aggregate. Solid state NMR (SSNMR) is in principle capable of providing structural information in such systems, however to do this efficiently and accurately, further SSNMR tools must be developed This dissertation describes the development of three new methods and their application to a biological system of interest, the priori protein (PrP).

  4. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  5. Characterization of a Cyclic Nucleotide-Activated K+ Channel and its Lipid Environment by Using Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are large tetrameric multidomain membrane proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular transduction pathways. Because of their large size and domain-related mobility, structural characterization has proved challenging. We analyzed high-resolution solid-state NMR

  6. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  7. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  8. Electrode-Impregnable and Cross-Linkable Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Polymer Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity and a Large Voltage Window for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hee; Lee, Jang Yong; Suh, Dong Hack; Hong, Young Taik; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-10-04

    We present cross-linkable precursor-type gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) that have large ionic liquid uptake capability, can easily penetrate electrodes, have high ion conductivity, and are mechanically strong as high-performance, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SC). Our polymer precursors feature a hydrophilic-hydrophobic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock main-chain structure and trifunctional silane end groups that can be multi-cross-linked with each other through a sol-gel process. The cross-linked solid-state electrolyte film with moderate IL content (200 wt %) shows a well-balanced combination of excellent ionic conductivity (5.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) and good mechanical stability (maximum strain = 194%). Moreover, our polymer electrolytes have various advantages including high thermal stability (decomposition temperature > 330 °C) and the capability to impregnate electrodes to form an excellent electrode-electrolyte interface due to the very low viscosity of the precursors. By assembling our GPE-impregnated electrodes and solid-state GPE film, we demonstrate an all-solid-state SC that can operate at 3 V and provides an improved specific capacitance (112.3 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), better rate capability (64% capacity retention until 20 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (95% capacitance decay over 10 000 charge/discharge cycles) compared with those of a reference SC using a conventional PEO electrolyte. Finally, flexible SCs with a high energy density (22.6 W h kg -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and an excellent flexibility (>93% capacitance retention after 5000 bending cycles) can successfully be obtained.

  9. High-Efficiency Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fast Charge Extraction through Self-Assembled 3D Fibrous Network of Crystalline TiO 2 Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2010-12-28

    Herein, we present a novel morphology for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on the simple and straightforward self-assembly of nanorods into a 3D fibrous network of fused single-crystalline anatase nanowires. This architecture offers a high roughness factor, significant light scattering, and up to several orders of magnitude faster electron transport to reach a near-record-breaking conversion efficiency of 4.9%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  11. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  12. 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures assembled by ultrathin nanoflakes for high-performance flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junhong; Zheng, Mingbo; Run, Zhen; Xia, Jing; Sun, Mengjun; Pang, Huan

    2015-07-01

    1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures assembled by ultrathin nanoflakes are synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method. We present a self-reacting template method to synthesize 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures using Ni(SO4)0.3(OH)1.4 nanobelts. A high-performance flexible asymmetric solid-state supercapacitor can be successfully fabricated based on the 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures and graphene nanosheets. Interestingly, the as-assembled 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures//Graphene nanosheets asymmetric solid-state supercapacitor can achieve a maximum energy density of 0.496 mWh cm-3, which is higher than most of reported solid state supercapacitors. Additionally, the device shows high cycle stability for 10,000 cycles. These features make the 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures as one of the most promising candidates for high-performance energy storage devices.

  13. ''Solid-state fusion'' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Solid-State Fusion'' or ''Cold Fusion'' phenomenon, including excess heat generation and the production of nuclear particles, was first reported by Professors Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons in March 1989. The phenomenon described (the anomalous effects observed when deuterium oxide (heavy water) is electrolysed using a palladium cathode and a platinum anode in the presence of lithium deuteroxide) has many fascinating facets, not least of which is the fact that investigators are unable to produce the effects ''on demand''. Many of the experimental variables which seem to be significant were described and discussed at the ''First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion'' which was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, from 29th to 31st March 1990. The information presented at the conference is summarised here. Some papers addressed the excess heat effects observed, some the nuclear particles, and others the theoretical aspects. These are reviewed. At the end of the conference Fleischmann summarised all the areas where apparent evidence for solid state fusion had been obtained during the past year, namely: excess enthalpy, bursts in enthalpy; tritium, bursts in tritium; neutrons, bursts in neutrons; X-rays, gamma rays and bursts in these. He recommended that emphasis should now be concentrated on confirming reaction products, such as He 4 . New theories were emerging, but one year was too short a time in which to evaluate them fully. (author)

  14. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  15. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  16. Solid state NMR of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Sharon A; Ferguson, David B; Haw, James F [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    In situ NMR experiments are studied, including probe of several structures such as the structures of the organic adsorbates, Broensted acid sites, other nuclei associated with active sites, and other framework sites. The authors report that in the absence of high concentrations of paramagnetic sites or metal particles, high resolution MAS spectra are relatively easy to obtain and interpret. It is also concluded that NMR can measure spatial distributions and rates of diffusion; and are able to characterize equilibrium structures and the frequencies and amplitudes of molecular motion

  17. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  18. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  19. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  20. High-efficiency removal of phytic acid in soy meal using two-stage temperature-induced Aspergillus oryzae solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyan; Vadlani, Praveen V; Madl, Ronald L

    2014-01-15

    Phytic acid of soy meal (SM) could influence protein and important mineral digestion of monogastric animals. Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC 9362) solid-state fermentation was applied to degrade phytic acid in SM. Two-stage temperature fermentation protocol was investigated to increase the degradation rate. The first stage was to maximize phytase production and the second stage was to realize the maximum enzymatic degradation. In the first stage, a combination of 41% moisture, a temperature of 37 °C and inoculum size of 1.7 mL in 5 g substrate (dry matter basis) favored maximum phytase production, yielding phytase activity of 58.7 U, optimized via central composite design. By the end of second-stage fermentation, 57% phytic acid was degraded from SM fermented at 50 °C, compared with 39% of that fermented at 37 °C. The nutritional profile of fermented SM was also studied. Oligosaccharides were totally removed after fermentation and 67% of total non-reducing polysaccharides were decreased. Protein content increased by 9.5%. Two-stage temperature protocol achieved better phytic acid degradation during A. oryzae solid state fermentation. The fermented SM has lower antinutritional factors (phytic acid, oligosaccharides and non-reducing polysaccharides) and higher nutritional value for animal feed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Conversion of agroindustrial residues for high poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 via solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bao; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Cen; Xu, Zheng; Lei, Peng; Qiu, Yibin; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai

    2015-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 was carried out through solid-state fermentation with dry mushroom residues (DMR) and monosodium glutamate production residues (MGPR; a substitute of glutamate) for the first time. Dry shiitake mushroom residue (DSMR) was found to be the most suitable solid substrate among these DMRs; the optimal DSMR-to-MGPR ratio was optimized as 12:8. To increase γ-PGA production, industrial waste glycerol was added as a carbon source supplement to the solid-state medium. As a result, γ-PGA production increased by 34.8%. The batch fermentation obtained an outcome of 115.6 g kg(-1) γ-PGA and 39.5×10(8) colony forming units g(-1) cells. Furthermore, a satisfactory yield of 107.7 g kg(-1) γ-PGA was achieved by compost experiment on a scale of 50 kg in open air, indicating that economically large-scale γ-PGA production was feasible. Therefore, this study provided a novel method to produce γ-PGA from abundant and low-cost agroindustrial residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A simple one step solid state synthesis of nanocrystalline ferromagnetic α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with high surface area and catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shete, Madhavi D.; Fernandes, J.B., E-mail: julio@unigoa.ac.in

    2015-09-01

    α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is obtained by a simple route involving solvent free solid state decomposition of ferric nitrate in presence of urea. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infra-red and UV–Vis spectral studies, TEM, BET surface area measurements and TG–DTA analysis. Magnetic measurements were done from M–H hysteresis profiles. By changing the ratio of ferric nitrate and urea, α-phase was obtained in all the synthesized samples and was accompanied with increase in ferromagnetic behavior. The samples showed good photocatalytic activity for decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and could be correlated with surface area values. The results were interpreted in terms of activity for the heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction. - Highlights: • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were synthesized by a solid state method. • These oxides showed large surface area and ferromagnetic behavior. • The catalysts showed good heterogeneous photo-Fenton activity.

  3. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  4. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  5. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  6. Principles and simulations of high-resolution STM imaging with a flexible tip apex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Ondřej; Hapala, Prokop; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), 1-9, č. článku 045407. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : STM * AFM * high-resolution Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  7. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  8. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  9. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  10. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  11. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  12. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  13. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  14. Quasi Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Incorporating Highly Conducting Polythiophene-Coated Carbon Nanotube Composites in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polythiophene (PTh composites with the host filler multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT have been used, for the first time, in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. A quasi solid-state DSCs with the hybrid MWNT-PTh composites, an ionic liquid of 1-methyl-3-propyl imidazolium iodide (PMII, was placed between the dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the Pt counter electrode without adding iodine and higher cell efficiency (4.76% was achieved, as compared to that containing bare PMII (0.29%. The MWNT-PTh nanoparticles are exploited as the extended electron transfer materials and serve simultaneously as catalyst for the electrochemical reduction of I−3.

  15. Fundamentally Addressing Bromine Storage through Reversible Solid-State Confinement in Porous Carbon Electrodes: Design of a High-Performance Dual-Redox Electrochemical Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Joon; Evanko, Brian; Wang, Xingfeng; Romelczyk, Monica; Taylor, Aidan; Ji, Xiulei; Boettcher, Shannon W; Stucky, Galen D

    2017-07-26

    Research in electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and rechargeable batteries is converging to target systems that have battery-level energy density and capacitor-level cycling stability and power density. This research direction has been facilitated by the use of redox-active electrolytes that add faradaic charge storage to increase energy density of the EDLCs. Aqueous redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitors (redox ECs) have, however, performed poorly due to cross-diffusion of soluble redox couples, reduced cycle life, and low operating voltages. In this manuscript, we propose that these challenges can be simultaneously met by mechanistically designing a liquid-to-solid phase transition of oxidized catholyte (or reduced anolyte) with confinement in the pores of electrodes. Here we demonstrate the realization of this approach with the use of bromide catholyte and tetrabutylammonium cation that induces reversible solid-state complexation of Br 2 /Br 3 - . This mechanism solves the inherent cross-diffusion issue of redox ECs and has the added benefit of greatly stabilizing the reactive bromine generated during charging. Based on this new mechanistic insight on the utilization of solid-state bromine storage in redox ECs, we developed a dual-redox EC consisting of a bromide catholyte and an ethyl viologen anolyte with the addition of tetrabutylammonium bromide. In comparison to aqueous and organic electric double-layer capacitors, this system enhances energy by factors of ca. 11 and 3.5, respectively, with a specific energy of ∼64 W·h/kg at 1 A/g, a maximum power density >3 kW/kg, and cycling stability over 7000 cycles.

  16. Vacuum-Assisted Low-Temperature Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Electrodes for High-Performance Transparent and Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytug, Tolga; Rager, Matthew S; Higgins, Wesley; Brown, Forrest G; Veith, Gabriel M; Rouleau, Christopher M; Wang, Hui; Hood, Zachary D; Mahurin, Shannon M; Mayes, Richard T; Joshi, Pooran C; Kuruganti, Teja

    2018-04-04

    Simple and easily integrated design of flexible and transparent electrode materials affixed to polymer-based substrates hold great promise to have a revolutionary impact on the functionality and performance of energy storage devices for many future consumer electronics. Among these applications are touch sensors, roll-up displays, photovoltaic cells, health monitors, wireless sensors, and wearable communication devices. Here, we report an environmentally friendly, simple, and versatile approach to produce optically transparent and mechanically flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor devices. These supercapacitors were constructed on tin-doped indium oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate substrates by intercalation of a polymer-based gel electrolyte between two reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin-film electrodes. The rGO electrodes were fabricated simply by drop-casting of graphene oxide (GO) films, followed by a novel low-temperature (≤250 °C) vacuum-assisted annealing approach for the in situ reduction of GO to rGO. A trade-off between the optical transparency and electrochemical performance is determined by the concentration of the GO in the initial dispersion, whereby the highest capacitance (∼650 μF cm -2 ) occurs at a relatively lower optical transmittance (24%). Notably, the all-solid-state supercapacitors demonstrated excellent mechanical flexibility with a capacity retention rate above 90% under various bending angles and cycles. These attributes underscore the potential of the present approach to provide a path toward the realization of thin-film-based supercapacitors as flexible and transparent energy storage devices for a variety of practical applications.

  17. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  18. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  19. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  20. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  1. Design of interferometer system for Keda Torus eXperiment using terahertz solid-state diode sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Jinlin; Wang, Haibo; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan; Ding, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    A solid-state source based terahertz (THz) interferometer diagnostic system has been designed and characterized for the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX). The THz interferometer utilizes the planar diodes based frequency multiplier (X48) to provide the probing beam at fixed frequency 0.650 THz, and local oscillator is provided by an independent solid-state diode source with tunable frequency (0.650 THz +/− 10 MHz). Both solid-state sources have approximately 1 mW power. The planar-diode mixers optimized for high sensitivity, ∼750 mV/mW, are used in the heterodyne detection system, which permits multichannel interferometer on KTX with a low phase noise. A sensitivity of e l> min = 4.5 × 10 16 m −2 and a temporal resolution of 0.2 μs have been achieved during the initial bench test

  2. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  3. All-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors based on Fe-doped mesoporous Co3O4 and three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide electrodes with high energy and power densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wei, Jun; Chen, Leiyi; Tang, Shaolong; Deng, Mingsen; Du, Youwei

    2017-10-19

    An asymmetric supercapacitor offers opportunities to effectively utilize the full potential of the different potential windows of the two electrodes for a higher operating voltage, resulting in an enhanced specific capacitance and significantly improved energy without sacrificing the power delivery and cycle life. To achieve high energy and power densities, we have synthesized an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor with a wider voltage range using Fe-doped Co 3 O 4 and three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3DrGO) as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. In contrast to undoped Co 3 O 4 , the increased density of states and modified charge spatial separation endow the Fe-doped Co 3 O 4 electrode with greatly improved electrochemical capacitive performance, including high specific capacitance (1997 F g -1 and 1757 F g -1 at current densities of 1 and 20 A g -1 , respectively), excellent rate capability, and superior cycling stability. Remarkably, the optimized all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in a wide range of 0-1.8 V, thus delivering a high energy density (270.3 W h kg -1 ), high power density (9.0 kW kg -1 at 224.2 W h kg -1 ), and excellent cycling stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current density of 10 A g -1 ). The superior capacitive performance suggests that such an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor shows great potential for developing energy storage systems with high levels of energy and power delivery.

  4. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  5. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  6. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  7. Solid state radiative heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  8. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  9. Cellulase with high β-glucosidase activity by Penicillium oxalicum under solid state fermentation and its use in hydrolysis of cassava residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin-Hui; Zhao, Shuai; Jiang, Sui-Xin; Liao, Xu-Zhong; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum EU2106 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and its hydrolysis efficiency toward NaOH-H 2 O 2 -pretreated cassava residue (NHCR) produced after bioethanol fermentation. Optimization of SSF cultivation conditions for P. oxalicum EU2106 using a Box-behnken design-based response-surface methodology resulted in maximal cellulase activity of 34.0 ± 2.8 filter-paper units/g dry substrate, exhibiting a ~ twofold increase relative to activities obtained under non-optimized conditions. Furthermore, SSF-derived cellulase converted 94.3 ± 1.5% of NHCR cellulose into glucose within 96 h. Interestingly, P. oxalicum EU2106 produced higher β-glucosidase activity under SSF conditions than that under submerged-state fermentation conditions, resulting in the elimination of cellobiose inhibition during the early stages of NHCR cellulose hydrolysis. Overall, this work provided an alternative for a potential cellulase source and a preferred option for cassava residue biotechnological application.

  10. Hydrothermally formed three-dimensional hexagon-like P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays for high performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunzhen; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Three dimensional hexagon-like phosphrous (P) doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays grown on Ni foam (NF) are fabricated by a facile and green one-step hydrothermal process. Ni foam is only reacted in a certain concentration of P containing H2O2 aqueous solution. The possible growth mechanism of the P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays is discussed. As a battery-type electrode material in situ formed on Ni foam, the binder-free P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays electrode displays a ultrahigh specific areal capacitance of 2.11C cm-2 (3.51 F cm-2) at 2 mA cm-2, and excellent cycling stability (95.5% capacitance retention after 7500 cycles). The assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (AAS) based on such P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode achieves an energy density of 81.3 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 635 W kg-1. The AAS device also exhibits excellent practical performance, which can easily drive an electric fan (3 W rated power) when two AAS devices are assembled in series. Thus, our synthesized P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays has a lot of potential applications in future energy storage prospects.

  11. Air-stable nZVI formation mediated by glutamic acid: solid-state storable material exhibiting 2D chain morphology and high reactivity in aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskova, Karolina; Tucek, Jiri; Machala, Libor; Otyepkova, Eva; Filip, Jan; Safarova, Klara; Pechousek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2012-03-01

    We report a new chemical approach toward air-stable nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). The uniformly sized (approx. 80 nm) particles, formed by the reduction of Fe(II) salt by borohydride in the presence of glutamic acid, are coated by a thin inner shell of amorphous ferric oxide/hydroxide and a secondary shell consisting of glutamic acid. The as-prepared nanoparticles stabilized by the inorganic-organic double shell create 2D chain morphologies. They are storable for several months under ambient atmosphere without the loss of Fe(0) relative content. They show one order of magnitude higher rate constant for trichlorethene decomposition compared with the pristine particles possessing only the inorganic shell as a protective layer. This is the first example of the inorganic-organic (consisting of low-molecular weight species) double-shell stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron material being safely transportable in solid-state, storable on long-term basis under ambient conditions, environmentally acceptable for in situ applications, and extraordinarily reactive if contacted with reducible pollutants, all in one.

  12. Highly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue over the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fangjun [College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Li, Xin [College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of New Energy and New Materials, Key Laboratory of Energy Plants Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: wlscau@163.com [College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhang, Shuting [College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • The indirect Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were successfully fabricated. • A 3.2-fold activity enhancement was achieved by inserting RGO into g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}- TiO{sub 2}. • The indirect Z-scheme mechanism was verified by PL spectra and radical trapping. • The multi-functional roles of RGO in enhancing photodegradation were revealed. - Abstract: In the present research work, the ternary indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme nanoheterojunctions, graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide/anatase TiO{sub 2} (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2}) with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance were successfully prepared via a simple liquid-precipitation strategy. The photocatalytic activities of indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterojunctions were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the introduction of RGO as an interfacial mediator into direct Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites can remarkably enhance their photocatalytic activities. The as-obtained indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterojunctions, with the optimal loading amount of 10 wt% RGO, exhibited the highest rate towards the photocatalytic degradation of MB under simulated solar light irradiation. The degradation kinetics of MB can be described by the apparent first-order kinetics model. The highest degradation rate constant of 0.0137 min{sup −1} is about 4.7 and 3.2 times greater than those of the pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (0.0029 min{sup −1}) and direct Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} (0.0043 min{sup −1}), respectively. An indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme charge-separation mechanism was proposed based on the photoluminescence spectra and the trapping experiment procedure of the photo-generated active species. It was believed that the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme charge separation mechanism in g-C{sub 3}N

  13. SiC/GaN Based Optically Triggered MESFET for High Power Efficiency and High Radiation Resistance Solid State Switch Application for Actuator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    designed and nitrogen ion implantation has been performed followed by high temperature annealing . In 2016, the device electrical isolation has been...sputtering physical vapor deposition (PVD). The SiO2 layers were grown onto C-face and Si-face 4H-SiC substrates by different techniques such as wet ...forming the source and drain contact by ion implantation, (ii) the rapid thermal annealing processing, (iii) device isolation by using ion implantation

  14. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  15. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  16. High-Performance Flexible Solid-State Carbon Cloth Supercapacitors Based on Highly Processible N-Graphene Doped Polyacrylic Acid/Polyaniline Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongguang; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Ali Syed, Junaid; Wang, Xiangyu; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-01-01

    Improving the solubility of conductive polymers to facilitate processing usually decreases their conductivity, and they suffer from poor cycling stability due to swelling-shrinking during charging cycles. We circumvent these problems with a novel preparation method for nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) enhanced polyacrylic acid/polyaniline (NG-PAA/PANI) composites, ensuring excellent processibility for scalable production. The content of PANI is maximized under the constraint of still allowing defect-free coatings on filaments of carbon cloth (CC). The NG content is then adjusted to optimize specific capacitance. The optimal CC electrodes have 32 wt.% PANI and 1.3 wt.% NG, thus achieving a high capacitance of 521 F/g at 0.5 F/g. A symmetric supercapacitor made from 20 wt.% PANI CC electrodes has more than four times the capacitance (68 F/g at 1 A/g) of previously reported flexible capacitors based on PANI-carbon nanotube composites, and it retains the full capacitance under large bending angles. The capacitor exhibits high energy and power densities (5.8 Wh/kg at 1.1 kW/kg), a superior rate capability (still 81% of the 1 A/g capacitance at 10 A/g), and long-term electrochemical stability (83.2% retention after 2000 cycles). PMID:26883179

  17. Solid-state polymeric dye lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Sridhar, G; Muthuswamy, V; Raja, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the organic solid-state polymer materials, which have become established as a new laser media. The photostability of these materials is discussed. Different types of solid-state lasers built around these materials are also reviewed.

  18. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  19. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  20. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  1. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  2. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  3. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  4. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, M; Zhao, W; Tanioka, K; Decrescenzo, G; Rowlands, J A

    2012-11-01

    The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography∕fluoroscopy (R∕F) applications. The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all clinically relevant

  5. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  6. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  7. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  8. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  9. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  10. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  11. High resolution eddy current microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M. A.; Jarvis, S. P.; Tokumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample. To achieve a high sensitivity, we used a cantilever with an FeNdBLa particle mounted on the tip. Resistivity measurements are demonstrated on a silicon test structure with a staircase doping profile. Regions with resistivities of 0.0013, 0.0041, and 0.022 Ω cm are clearly resolved with a lateral resolution of approximately 180 nm. For this range of resistivities, the eddy current induced damping is found to depend linearly on the sample resistivity.

  12. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  13. High resolution in-operando microimaging of solar cells with pulsed electrically-detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Itai; Fehr, Matthias; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-01

    The in-operando detection and high resolution spatial imaging of paramagnetic defects, impurities, and states becomes increasingly important for understanding loss mechanisms in solid-state electronic devices. Electron spin resonance (ESR), commonly employed for observing these species, cannot meet this challenge since it suffers from limited sensitivity and spatial resolution. An alternative and much more sensitive method, called electrically-detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), detects the species through their magnetic fingerprint, which can be traced in the device's electrical current. However, until now it could not obtain high resolution images in operating electronic devices. In this work, the first spatially-resolved electrically-detected magnetic resonance images (EDMRI) of paramagnetic states in an operating real-world electronic device are provided. The presented method is based on a novel microwave pulse sequence allowing for the coherent electrical detection of spin echoes in combination with powerful pulsed magnetic-field gradients. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on a device-grade 1-μm-thick amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell and an identical device that was degraded locally by an electron beam. The degraded areas with increased concentrations of paramagnetic defects lead to a local increase in recombination that is mapped by EDMRI with ∼20-μm-scale pixel resolution. The novel approach presented here can be widely used in the nondestructive in-operando three-dimensional characterization of solid-state electronic devices with a resolution potential of less than 100 nm.

  14. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Th.

    2007-10-01

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  15. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  16. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  17. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  18. Solid-State Modulators for RF And Fast Kickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Akana, G.L.; Gower, E.J.; Hawkins, S.A.; Hickman, B.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Brooksby, C.A.; /NONE - BECHTEL NEVADA LAS VEGAS; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Nguyen, M.N.; Pappas, G.C.; /SLAC

    2006-03-14

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  19. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-01-01

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems

  20. SOLID-STATE MODULATORS FOR RF AND FAST KICKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E G; Akana, G; Gower, E J; Hawkins, S A; Hickman, B C; Brooksby, C A; Cassel, R L; De Lamare, J E; Nguyen, M N; Pappas, G C

    2005-05-05

    As the switching capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  1. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  2. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  3. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  4. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  5. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  6. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Department of Mechanical Engineering,. † ... A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for ... and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, ...

  7. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  8. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  9. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Biochemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds, Institute of ... Keywords: lovastatin, submerged fermentation, solid state fermentation, production ... water need in up-stream processing which minimizes production expense (Holker .... authors, a slowly utilizable carbon source is preferable for high lovastatin ...

  10. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... solid waste management, biomass energy conservation, production of high value products and little risk ... The carrier, sugarcane bagasse for solid state fermentation was procured from National Sugar Institute ... constant weight and designated as dry solid residue (DSR). The filtrate (consisting of biomass, ...

  11. Imaging of fast-neutron sources using solid-state track-recorder pinhole radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Kaiser, B.J.; Preston, C.C.

    1983-08-01

    Pinhole imaging methods are being developed and tested for potential future use in imaging the intense neutron source of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Previously reported, extensive calibration measurements of the proton, neutron, and alpha particle response characteristics of CR-39 polymer solid state track recorders (SSTRs) are being used to interpret the results of imaging experiments using both charged particle and neutron pinhole collimators. High resolution, neutron pinhole images of a 252 Cf source have been obtained in the form of neutron induced proton recoil tracks in CR-39 polymer SSTR. These imaging experiments are described as well as their potential future applications to FMIT

  12. A Practical and Portable Solids-State Electronic Terahertz Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Smart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A practical compact solid-state terahertz imaging system is presented. Various beam guiding architectures were explored and hardware performance assessed to improve its compactness, robustness, multi-functionality and simplicity of operation. The system performance in terms of image resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, the electronic signal modulation versus optical chopper, is evaluated and discussed. The system can be conveniently switched between transmission and reflection mode according to the application. A range of imaging application scenarios was explored and images of high visual quality were obtained in both transmission and reflection mode.

  13. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  14. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  15. Solid state bistable power switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, J.; Shulman, H.

    1970-01-01

    Tin and copper provide high current and switching time capabilities for high-current resettable fuses. They show the best performance for trip current and degree of reliability, and have low coefficients of thermal expansion.

  16. UV sensitivity of various solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Zeljka; Ranogajec-Komor, Maria; Miljanic, Saveta

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The light sensitivity is an important characteristic of solid state passive dosimeters used in individual, clinical and environmental dosimetry. Light sensitivity stands for the response directly induced by visible or UV light in a fully annealed material. For the above mentioned applications a negligible light sensitivity is an advantage. However, high light sensitivity and linear response allows the use of detectors as UV dosimeters. For this purpose various TL detectors and the glass element of the RPL dosemeter type SC-1 were systematically investigated after exposure to UV light (254 and 366 nm) as a function of time. The following solid state detectors were investigated relative to TLD-100: Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P LiF:Mg,Cu,P, LiF:Mg,Cu,Si, Al 2 O 3 :C and the glass element of RPL dosimeter. UV irradiations were performed with Camag UV lamp at 254 nm and at 366 nm. The illumination times were 5, 10 and 20 minutes. Day light illumination was also carried out at room temperature over time period of several hours up to 2 weeks. The UV light response of each detector was compared to the response obtained after irradiation with 137 Cs. Al 2 O 3 :C, showed high light sensitivity; after 10 minutes illumination with 254 nm UV light the response was equivalent to 130 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation. The 254 nm UV response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200 A), as well as TLD-700H and Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P were proportional to the time of illumination. The responses after 10 min UV illumination were equivalent to 0.001 mGy, 0.01 mGy and 0.1 mGy 137 Cs gamma irradiation, respectively. The complete SC-1 RPL dosimeter is insensitive to light because the glass element is encapsulated in light protected holder throughout the automatic evaluation process following the annealing (irradiation, preheat, readout). The responses of the previously annealed glass element after 20 min illumination with 254 nm and 366 nm UV light were equivalent to 45μSv and 3 μSv of 137 Cs gamma

  17. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of nanocrystalline proteins at ultra-high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, Lindsay J.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2010-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy of uniformly- 13 C, 15 N labeled protein samples provides insight into atomic-resolution chemistry and structure. Data collection efficiency has advanced remarkably in the last decade; however, the study of larger proteins is still challenged by relatively low resolution in comparison to solution NMR. In this study, we present a systematic analysis of SSNMR protein spectra acquired at 11.7, 17.6 and 21.1 Tesla ( 1 H frequencies of 500, 750, and 900 MHz). For two protein systems-GB1, a 6 kDa nanocrystalline protein and DsbA, a 21 kDa nanocrystalline protein-line narrowing is demonstrated in all spectral regions with increasing field. Resolution enhancement is greatest in the aliphatic region, including methine, methylene and methyl sites. The resolution for GB1 increases markedly as a function of field, and for DsbA, resolution in the C-C region increases by 42%, according to the number of peaks that can be uniquely picked and integrated in the 900 MHz spectra when compared to the 500 MHz spectra. Additionally, chemical exchange is uniquely observed in the highest field spectra for at least two isoleucine Cδ1 sites in DsbA. These results further illustrate the benefits of high-field MAS SSNMR spectroscopy for protein structural studies.

  18. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Imaging for Sensitive Detection of Multiple Pharmaceutical Solid-State Forms and Surface Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Dunja; Saarinen, Jukka; Rojalin, Tatu; Antikainen, Osmo; Fraser-Miller, Sara J; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Isomäki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J

    2017-11-07

    Two nonlinear imaging modalities, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG), were successfully combined for sensitive multimodal imaging of multiple solid-state forms and their changes on drug tablet surfaces. Two imaging approaches were used and compared: (i) hyperspectral CARS combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and SFG imaging and (ii) simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging. Three different solid-state forms of indomethacin-the crystalline gamma and alpha forms, as well as the amorphous form-were clearly distinguished using both approaches. Simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging was faster, but hyperspectral CARS and SFG imaging has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of more complex samples. These methodologies were further used to follow crystallization of indomethacin on tablet surfaces under two storage conditions: 30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH. Imaging with (sub)micron resolution showed that the approach allowed detection of very early stage surface crystallization. The surfaces progressively crystallized to predominantly (but not exclusively) the gamma form at lower humidity and the alpha form at higher humidity. Overall, this study suggests that multimodal nonlinear imaging is a highly sensitive, solid-state (and chemically) specific, rapid, and versatile imaging technique for understanding and hence controlling (surface) solid-state forms and their complex changes in pharmaceuticals.

  19. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  20. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  1. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  2. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  3. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  4. Binder-free activated graphene compact films for all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric capacitances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhong Shuai; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) hold great promise as highly competitive miniaturized power sources satisfying the increased demand in microelectronics; however, simultaneously achieving high areal and volumetric capacitances is still a great challenge. Here we demonstrated the designed construction...... of binder-free, electrically conductive, nanoporous activated graphene (AG) compact films for high-performance MSCs. The binder-free AG films are fabricated by alternating deposition of electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EG) and nanoporous AG with a high specific surface area of 2920 m2/g, and then dry...

  5. Solid state and materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Surface and sub-surface regions of solids are modified by rapid melting and quenching, using a high-powered, pulsed (30 ns) ruby laser. The main emphasis of this work is on laser annealing, epitaxy and doping of silicon. Computer programs have been developed to calculate the heat-flow which takes place during pulsed laser irradiation. From such calculations, information can be obtained about temperature profiles, melt depths, recrystallization velocities and quench rates. 13 figs., 9 refs., 1 tab

  6. Studies in solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Rosenkranz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed over 10 years by the high temperature chemistry group are reviewed. Attention was paid to different aspects of ionic solids from the point of view of practical as well as theoretical needs of nuclear technology. Thus ceramic fuel compound like uranates, urania-thoria system, solid electrolytes based on oxides and ionics transformations were studied under reactor irradiation. (author) 13 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs

  7. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  8. Low-Power Amplifier-Discriminators for High Time Resolution Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Anghinolfi, F; Tiuraniemi, S; Osmic, F; Riedler, P; Kluge, A; Ceccucci, A

    2009-01-01

    Low-power amplifier-discriminators based on a so-called NINO architecture have been developed with high time resolution for the readout of radiation detectors. Two different circuits were integrated in the NINO13 chip, processed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology. The LCO version (Low Capacitance and consumption Optimization) was designed for potential use as front-end electronics in the Gigatracker of the NA62 experiment at CERN. It was developed as pixel readout for solid-state pixel detectors to permit minimum ionizing particle detection with less than 180 ps rms resolution per pixel on the output pulse, for power consumption below 300 mu W per pixel. The HCO version (High Capacitance Optimization) was designed with 4 mW power consumption per channel to provide timing resolution below 20 ps rms on the output pulse, for charges above 10 fC. Results presented show the potential of the LCO and HCO circuits for the precise timing readout of solid-state detectors, vacuum tubes or gas detectors, for applications in h...

  9. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  10. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  11. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  12. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  13. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  14. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  15. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  16. Comparison between the X-ray fluorescence technique and inductive coupling plasma for the analysis of high alloys in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi Neto, A.; Casteletti, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The benefits of the Solid Sampling ICP (55 ICP) technique for the analysis of high alloys are presented and some facts of this new technique are discussed. The global calibration of nickel base alloys is used to illustrate the powerful capability of this method in fast chemical analyses. (author) [pt

  17. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  19. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA); Druce, Robert L. (Union City, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques.

  20. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol,

  1. Design of high-power, broadband 180o pulses and mixing sequences for fast MAS solid state chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, Christian; Herbst, Jirada; Kirschstein, Anika; Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2009-01-01

    An approach for the design of high-power, broadband 180 o pulses and mixing sequences for generating dipolar and scalar coupling mediated 13 C- 13 C chemical shift correlation spectra of isotopically labelled biological systems at fast magic-angle spinning frequencies without 1 H decoupling during mixing is presented. Considering RF field strengths in the range of 100-120 kHz, as typically available in MAS probes employed at high spinning speeds, and limited B 1 field inhomogeneities, the Fourier coefficients defining the phase modulation profile of the RF pulses were optimised numerically to obtain broadband inversion and refocussing pulses and mixing sequences. Experimental measurements were carried out to assess the performance characteristics of the mixing sequences reported here

  2. Hierarchical nanosheet-based Ni3S2 microspheres grown on Ni foam for high-performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaofeng; Cong, Yuan; Zhang, Chuanxiang; Tao, Haijun; Sun, Yueming; Wang, Yuqiao

    2017-10-01

    The hierarchical nanosheet-based Ni3S2 microspheres directly grew on Ni foam using a two-step hydrothermal method. The microsphere with a diameter of ˜1 microns and a rough surface was well connected to each other without any binders to provide a larger specific surface area, shorter ion/electron diffusion paths, richer electroactive sites as a supercapacitor electrode. As a three-electrode supercapacitor, it delivers a high specific capacity of 981.8 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, an excellent rate capability of 436.4 F g-1 at 12 A g-1, and a good cycling stability of 950.9 F g-1 with 96.9% retention after 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni3S2-microsphere as a positive electrode and active carbon as a negative electrode shows a high energy density of 29.4 Wh kg-1 at 324.5 W kg-1 and a high power density of 3197.6 W kg-1 at 15.1 Wh kg-1. This work demonstrates that nanosheet-based Ni3S2 microspheres coated Ni foam can be an effective electrode for a real supercapacitor.

  3. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy.

  4. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy

  5. Triblock-Terpolymer-Directed Self-Assembly of Mesoporous TiO2: High-Performance Photoanodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Docampo, Pablo

    2012-04-30

    A new self-assembly platform for the fast and straightforward synthesis of bicontinuous, mesoporous TiO 2 films is presented, based on the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene - b - styrene - b - ethylene oxide). This new materials route allows the co-assembly of the metal oxide as a fully interconnected minority phase, which results in a highly porous photoanode with strong advantages over the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based photoanodes employed in solidstate dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this triblock terpolymer route exhibit a high availability of sub-bandgap states distributed in a narrow and low enough energy band, which maximizes photoinduced charge generation from a state-of-the-art organic dye, C220. As a consequence, the co-assembled mesoporous metal oxide system outperformed the conventional nanoparticle-based electrodes fabricated and tested under the same conditions, exhibiting solar power-conversion efficiencies of over 5%. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Triblock-Terpolymer-Directed Self-Assembly of Mesoporous TiO2: High-Performance Photoanodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Docampo, Pablo; Stefik, Morgan; Guldin, Stefan; Gunning, Robert; Yufa, Nataliya A.; Cai, Ning; Wang, Peng; Steiner, Ullrich; Wiesner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2012-01-01

    A new self-assembly platform for the fast and straightforward synthesis of bicontinuous, mesoporous TiO 2 films is presented, based on the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene - b - styrene - b - ethylene oxide). This new materials route allows the co-assembly of the metal oxide as a fully interconnected minority phase, which results in a highly porous photoanode with strong advantages over the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based photoanodes employed in solidstate dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this triblock terpolymer route exhibit a high availability of sub-bandgap states distributed in a narrow and low enough energy band, which maximizes photoinduced charge generation from a state-of-the-art organic dye, C220. As a consequence, the co-assembled mesoporous metal oxide system outperformed the conventional nanoparticle-based electrodes fabricated and tested under the same conditions, exhibiting solar power-conversion efficiencies of over 5%. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wieg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  8. High power all-solid-state fourth harmonic generation of 266 nm at the pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q; Yan, X P; Fu, X; Gong, M; Wang, D S

    2009-01-01

    14.8 W UV laser at 266 nm was reported with the extra cavity frequency quartered configuration. The fundamental frequency IR source is a high-power high-beam-quality acoustic-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser. The type-I phase-matched LBO and type-I phase-matched BBO crystals were used as the extra-cavity frequency doubled and quartered crystal respectively. 14.8 W UV laser of 266 nm was obtained at the pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz with the conversion efficiency of 18.3% from green to UV, and the pulse duration of the UV laser was 10 ns corresponding to the pulse peak power of 14.8 kW. At 150 kHz, 11.5 W power output was obtained. The highest peak power of 21 kW was also achieved at 80 kHz with the average output power of 14.5 W

  9. High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bolívar, César; Takizawa, Shin-ya; Nishimura, Go; Montes, Victor A; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2011-08-08

    Combinations of electron-withdrawing and -donating substituents on the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand of the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) complexes allow for control of the HOMO and LUMO energies and the HOMO-LUMO gap responsible for emission from the complexes. Here, we present a systematic study on tuning the emission and electroluminescence (EL) from Alq(3) complexes from the green to blue region. In this study, we explored the combination of electron-donating substituents on C4 and C6. Compounds 1-6 displayed the emission tuning between 478 and 526 nm, and fluorescence quantum yield between 0.15 and 0.57. The compounds 2-6 were used as emitters and hosts in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The highest OLED external quantum efficiency (EQE) observed was 4.6%, which is among the highest observed for Alq(3) complexes. Also, the compounds 3-5 were used as hosts for red phosphorescent dopants to obtain white light-emitting diodes (WOLED). The WOLEDs displayed high efficiency (EQE up to 19%) and high white color purity (color rendering index (CRI≈85). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Solid state NMR of proteins at high MAS frequencies: symmetry-based mixing and simultaneous acquisition of chemical shift correlation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellstedt, Peter; Herbst, Christian; Häfner, Sabine; Leppert, Jörg; Görlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out chemical shift correlation experiments with symmetry-based mixing sequences at high MAS frequencies and examined different strategies to simultaneously acquire 3D correlation spectra that are commonly required in the structural studies of proteins. The potential of numerically optimised symmetry-based mixing sequences and the simultaneous recording of chemical shift correlation spectra such as: 3D NCAC and 3D NHH with dual receivers, 3D NC′C and 3D C′NCA with sequential 13 C acquisitions, 3D NHH and 3D NC′H with sequential 1 H acquisitions and 3D CANH and 3D C’NH with broadband 13 C– 15 N mixing are demonstrated using microcrystalline samples of the β1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) and the chicken α-spectrin SH3 domain.

  11. Solid state NMR of proteins at high MAS frequencies: symmetry-based mixing and simultaneous acquisition of chemical shift correlation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellstedt, Peter [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany); Herbst, Christian [Ubon Ratchathani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Haefner, Sabine; Leppert, Joerg; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai, E-mail: raman@fli-leibniz.de [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We have carried out chemical shift correlation experiments with symmetry-based mixing sequences at high MAS frequencies and examined different strategies to simultaneously acquire 3D correlation spectra that are commonly required in the structural studies of proteins. The potential of numerically optimised symmetry-based mixing sequences and the simultaneous recording of chemical shift correlation spectra such as: 3D NCAC and 3D NHH with dual receivers, 3D NC Prime C and 3D C Prime NCA with sequential {sup 13}C acquisitions, 3D NHH and 3D NC Prime H with sequential {sup 1}H acquisitions and 3D CANH and 3D C'NH with broadband {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N mixing are demonstrated using microcrystalline samples of the {beta}1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) and the chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain.

  12. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2-micron lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250 millijoules in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hours of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meters to 8000 meters. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a

  13. Development of all solid-state, high average power ultra-short pulse laser for X-ray generation. High average power CPA system and wavefront control of ultra short laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, Sayaka; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Matoba, Toru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    We developed a prototype CPA laser system which is pumped by a all solid-state Nd:YAG laser. In a preliminary experiment, the output energy of 52mJ before compression was obtained when the pumping energy was 250mJ. To compensate the wavefront distortion, an adaptive optics has been developed. By using this wavefront control system, the laser beam with the distortion of 0.15{lambda} was obtained. (author)

  14. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  15. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  16. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  17. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  18. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  19. Renormalization methods in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1976-01-01

    Renormalization methods in various solid state problems (e.g., the Kondo effect) are analyzed from a qualitative vantage point. Our goal is to show how the renormalization procedure works, and to uncover a few simple general ideas (universality, phenomenological descriptions, etc...).

  20. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    applications. Within the coming years, it is expected that the efficiency of blue laser diodes will approach the efficiency of infrared diode lasers. This will enable high efficiency white light generation with very high lumen per watt values. SSL today is mainly based on phosphor converted blue light emitting......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state...

  1. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  2. Solid-state interfacial reaction in molybdenum-carbide systems at high temperature-pressure, and its application to bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Akihiro; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Miyamoto, Yoshinari; Koizumi, Mitsue; Shimada, Masahiko.

    1986-01-01

    Diffusion couples of molybdenum with several carbides, i.e. SiC, B 4 C, TiC, ZrC, HfC and TaC, were heated at various temperatures ranging from 1500 to 1840 deg C under high pressures of 3 GPa and 100 MPa for up to 4 hr. The couples were then examined for the composition of reaction products, the growth rate of reaction layers, interfacial structures, and tensile strength. In case of Mo-transition metal carbides, Mo 2 C layer was mainly formed, so that the carbides, which had supplied carbon, resulted in having the nonstoichiometric composition near the interface. The activation energy for the growth of Mo 2 C layer in Mo-TiC system was 332 kJ/mol, and that in Mo-TaC system was 366 kJ/mol. In Mo-SiC system, Mo 2 C layer, the mixed phase of Mo 2 C and Mo 5 Si 3 , and Mo 5 Si 3 C layer were formed in order from the Mo side. In Mo-B 4 C system, the mixed phase of Mo 2 B and MoB, and Mo 2 BC layer appeared. The decomposed graphite from B 4 C was also observed between B 4 C and Mo 2 BC phase. The activation energy for the growth of total reaction layer in Mo-SiC system was 531 kJ/mol, and that in Mo-B 4 C system was 183 kJ/mol. It can be said that the growth of reaction layers is controlled by diffusion. The orientation of crystals was observed in all reaction products except for Mo 2 BC phase in Mo-B 4 C system and (Mo, Ta) 2 C phase in Mo-TaC system. In HIPed couples, the magnitude of tensile strength was dependent on the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between Mo and carbides. HIPed Mo-TaC couple had the best weldability among the systems examined in the present investigation. (author)

  3. High conductive, long-term durable, anhydrous proton conductive solid-state electrolyte based on a metal-organic framework impregnated with binary ionic liquids: Synthesis, characteristic and effect of anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Han, Shu-Yan; Liu, Rui-Heng; Chen, Teng-Fei; Bi, Kai-Lun; Liang, Jian-Bo; Deng, Yu-Heng; Wan, Chong-Qing

    2018-02-01

    Incorporating ionic liquids (abbreviated as ILs) into porous metal-organic framework (MOF) to obtain ILs@MOF nanocomposites is documented as a feasible method to achieve new type of anhydrous proton conductor with high performance. We newly synthesized a series of ILs with different acid counter anions (R-SO3-) and their ILs@MOF hybrid materials, i.e. SA-EIMS@MIL-101, MSA-EIMS@MIL-101 and PTSA-EIMS@MIL-101 (SA = sulfate acid, MSA = methanesulfonate acid, PTSA = p-toluenesulfonate acid, EIMS = 1-(1-ethyl-3-imidazolium)propane-3-sulfonate). Such hybrid materials displayed as anhydrous proton conduction with long-term durability even heated at 150 °C open to air. σ value of SA-EIMS@MIL-101 is up to 1.89 × 10-3 S cm-1, being in the range of the most conductive MOF-based materials. MOF support exhibited favorable proton transport and long-term retention for ILs. Anion volumes of R-SO3- displayed significant effects on the proton conductivity of such hybrid ILs@MOF materials. The smaller the van der Waals volume of R-SO3- is, the higher the conductivity of ILs@MOF is. This work suggests that the combination of a variety of the incorporated ILs and a MOF framework would afford high proton transport and gives an idea to explore the safe, anhydrous, solid-state electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  4. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. [eds.

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  5. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  6. Hierarchically MnO2-Nanosheet Covered Submicrometer-FeCo2O4-Tube Forest as Binder-Free Electrodes for High Energy Density All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baogang; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-02-01

    The current problem of the still relatively low energy densities of supercapacitors can be effectively addressed by designing electrodes hierarchically on micro- and nanoscale. Herein, we report the synthesis of hierarchically porous, nanosheet covered submicrometer tube forests on Ni foam. Chemical deposition and thermal treatment result in homogeneous forests of 750 nm diameter FeCo2O4 tubes, which after hydrothermal reaction in KMnO4 are wrapped in MnO2-nanosheet-built porous covers. The covers' thickness can be adjusted from 200 to 800 nm by KMnO4 concentration. An optimal thickness (380 nm) with a MnO2 content of 42 wt % doubles the specific capacitance (3.30 F cm(-2) at 1.0 mA cm(-2)) of the bare FeCo2O4-tube forests. A symmetric solid-state supercapacitor made from these binder-free electrodes achieves 2.52 F cm(-2) at 2 mA cm(-2), much higher than reported for capacitors based on similar core-shell nanowire arrays. The large capacitance and high cell voltage of 1.7 V allow high energy and power densities (93.6 Wh kg(-1), 10.1 kW kg(-1)). The device also exhibits superior rate capability (71% capacitance at 20 mA cm(-2)) and remarkable cycling stability with 94% capacitance retention being stable after 1500 cycles.

  7. Comparison of sodium iodide and solid-state detectors for the measurement of lung-stored uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.; Scott, L.M.; Disney, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A series of measurement of uranium sources were made, using a solid state detector consisting of 4 high-purity germanium detectors, and compared with measurements made with a single NaI detector. The comparative efficiencies at various energies are shown. As energy increases the differences in efficiencies increase in favour of NaI. A estimate of detection sensitivity gave the limit of error on the net count of a subject with one maximum permissible lung burden as 27 +- 7.2 counts/min for NaI and 3.73 +- 1.04 counts/min for the solid state detector. On a microgram basis the respective limits of error are +- 66 and +- 67 μg. It is concluded that solid state detectors can give 17 times better resolution compared with NaI while maintaining the same detection sensitivity. Sensitivity is related to the scatter of higher energy gammas into a fairly wide energy range. This 17-fold improvement in resolution results in a narrower energy range in which the scattered radiation can fall. Thus gamma analysis with such a system would be less subject to background errors. (author)

  8. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-08-27

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ({approx}10 T) and at low temperature {approx}1 K .

  9. Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Brown, G. W.; Hawley, M. E.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling-current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field (∼10 T) and at low temperature ∼1 K

  10. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  11. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  12. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  13. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Anix [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Analisis y Evalucion

    1992-12-31

    In this work {sup 29} Si and {sup 27} Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Anix

    1991-01-01

    In this work 29 Si and 27 Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author)

  15. Tris(2-(1 H -pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) as p-Type Dopant for Organic Semiconductors and Its Application in Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burschka, Julian

    2011-11-16

    Chemical doping is an important strategy to alter the charge-transport properties of both molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors that find widespread application in organic electronic devices. We report on the use of a new class of Co(III) complexes as p-type dopants for triarylamine-based hole conductors such as spiro-MeOTAD and their application in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). We show that the proposed compounds fulfill the requirements for this application and that the discussed strategy is promising for tuning the conductivity of spiro-MeOTAD in ssDSCs, without having to rely on the commonly employed photo-doping. By using a recently developed high molar extinction coefficient organic D-π-A sensitizer and p-doped spiro-MeOTAD as hole conductor, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 7.2%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm -2). We expect these promising new dopants to find widespread applications in organic electronics in general and photovoltaics in particular. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Nature and structure of aluminum surface sites grafted on silica from a combination of high-field aluminum-27 solid-state NMR spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Kerber, Rachel Nathaniel; Kermagoret, Anthony; Callens, Emmanuel; Florian, Pierre A.; Massiot, Dominique; Lesage, Anne; Copé ret, Christophe; Delbecq, Franç oise; Rozanska, Xavier; Sautet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the nature and structure of surface sites after chemical modification of large surface area oxides such as silica is a key point for many applications and challenging from a spectroscopic point of view. This has been, for instance, a long-standing problem for silica reacted with alkylaluminum compounds, a system typically studied as a model for a supported methylaluminoxane and aluminum cocatalyst. While 27Al solid-state NMR spectroscopy would be a method of choice, it has been difficult to apply this technique because of large quadrupolar broadenings. Here, from a combined use of the highest stable field NMR instruments (17.6, 20.0, and 23.5 T) and ultrafast magic angle spinning (>60 kHz), high-quality spectra were obtained, allowing isotropic chemical shifts, quadrupolar couplings, and asymmetric parameters to be extracted. Combined with first-principles calculations, these NMR signatures were then assigned to actual structures of surface aluminum sites. For silica (here SBA-15) reacted with triethylaluminum, the surface sites are in fact mainly dinuclear Al species, grafted on the silica surface via either two terminal or two bridging siloxy ligands. Tetrahedral sites, resulting from the incorporation of Al inside the silica matrix, are also seen as minor species. No evidence for putative tri-coordinated Al atoms has been found. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Nature and structure of aluminum surface sites grafted on silica from a combination of high-field aluminum-27 solid-state NMR spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Kerber, Rachel Nathaniel

    2012-04-18

    The determination of the nature and structure of surface sites after chemical modification of large surface area oxides such as silica is a key point for many applications and challenging from a spectroscopic point of view. This has been, for instance, a long-standing problem for silica reacted with alkylaluminum compounds, a system typically studied as a model for a supported methylaluminoxane and aluminum cocatalyst. While 27Al solid-state NMR spectroscopy would be a method of choice, it has been difficult to apply this technique because of large quadrupolar broadenings. Here, from a combined use of the highest stable field NMR instruments (17.6, 20.0, and 23.5 T) and ultrafast magic angle spinning (>60 kHz), high-quality spectra were obtained, allowing isotropic chemical shifts, quadrupolar couplings, and asymmetric parameters to be extracted. Combined with first-principles calculations, these NMR signatures were then assigned to actual structures of surface aluminum sites. For silica (here SBA-15) reacted with triethylaluminum, the surface sites are in fact mainly dinuclear Al species, grafted on the silica surface via either two terminal or two bridging siloxy ligands. Tetrahedral sites, resulting from the incorporation of Al inside the silica matrix, are also seen as minor species. No evidence for putative tri-coordinated Al atoms has been found. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  19. High resolution CT of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  20. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months