WorldWideScience

Sample records for high resolution soil

  1. Towards high resolution soil property maps for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürz, Christoph; Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties, such as soil texture, soil water retention characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, or soil depth are important inputs for hydrologic catchment modelling. However, the availability of such data in Austria is often insufficient to fulfill requirements of well-established hydrological models. Either, soil data is available in sufficient spatial resolution but only covers a small extent of the considered area, or the data is comprehensive but rather coarse in its spatial resolution. Furthermore, the level of detail and quality of the data differs between the available data sets. In order to generate a comprehensive soil data set for whole Austria that includes main soil physical properties, as well as soil depth and organic carbon content in a high spatial resolution (10x10 to 100x100m²) several available soil data bases are merged and harmonized. Starting point is a high resolution soil texture map that only covers agricultural areas and is available due to Austrian land appraisal. Soil physical properties for those areas are derived by applying pedotransfer functions (e.g. Saxton and Rawls, 2006) resulting in expectation values and quantiles of the respective property for each soil texture class. For agricultural areas where no texture information is available, the most likely soil texture is assigned applying a Bayesian network approach incorporating information such as elevation, soil slope, soil type, or hydro-geology at different spatial scales. Soil data for forested areas, that cover a large extent of the state territory, are rather sparse in Austria. For such areas a similar approach as for agricultural areas is applied by using a Bayesian network for prediction of the soil texture. Additionally, information to various soil parameters taken from literature is incorporated. For areas that are covered by land use different to agriculture or forestry, such as bare rock surfaces, or wetland areas, solely literature information is used

  2. Combination of comprehensive geophysical measurements and conventional soil sampling for high resolution soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werban, U.; Nuesch, A.; Vienken, T.; Dietrich, P.; Behrens, T.

    2010-12-01

    The focus of the FP7-EU project iSOIL “Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping” is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high-resolution soil property maps. Thus we will develop, validate, and evaluate concepts and strategies for transferring measured physical parameter distributions into soil property, soil function and soil threat maps of different scales. The resulting soil property maps can be used for agriculture applications and soil degradation threats studies, e.g. erosion, compaction and soil organic matter decline. A fast and cost efficient way to detect physical parameters of soils at large areas is the application of mobile geophysical platforms. An advantage of these platforms is the flexibility since different kind of instruments can be mounted and combined. Following instruments are used on platforms within iSOIL project: EMI, GPR, gamma-spectrometry and magnetics. Since geophysical methods provide only physical parameters it is essential to combine them with conventional soil sampling methods for ground truthing. Physical parameters have to be converted into soil parameters via (site specific) transfer functions. One focus of the project was the development of measuring designs for the evaluation and combination of different geophysical methods. The application of a hierarchical approach is one way to combine different scales and parameters. The implementation of this approach will be presented and can be summarized as follows: - The first step is a survey of the total area with EMI and gamma-spectrometry. The distance between two lines is 10 - 20 meters. - By means of the geophysical data and a digital elevation model, representative soil sampling points are chosen, via a weighted conditioned latin hypercube sampling scheme (wLHS) based on conditioned latin hypercube sampling (cLHS). - All soil sampling points are probed

  3. Development of an Objective High Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; White, K.; Bell, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drought detection, analysis, and mitigation has become a key challenge for a diverse set of decision makers, including but not limited to operational weather forecasters, climatologists, agricultural interests, and water resource management. One tool that is heavily used is the United States Drought Monitor (USDM), which is derived from a complex blend of objective data and subjective analysis on a state-by-state basis using a variety of modeled and observed precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic, and vegetation and crop health data. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center currently runs a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The LIS-Noah is run at 3-km resolution for local numerical weather prediction (NWP) and situational awareness applications at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) forecast offices over the Continental U.S. (CONUS). To enhance the practicality of the LIS-Noah output for drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, a 30+-year soil moisture climatology has been developed in an attempt to place near real-time soil moisture values in historical context at county- and/or watershed-scale resolutions. This LIS-Noah soil moisture climatology and accompanying anomalies is intended to complement the current suite of operational products, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2), which are generated on a coarser-resolution grid that may not capture localized, yet important soil moisture features. Daily soil moisture histograms are used to identify the real-time soil moisture percentiles at each grid point according to the county or watershed in which the grid point resides. Spatial plots are then produced that map the percentiles as proxies to the different USDM categories. This presentation will highlight recent developments of this gridded, objective soil moisture index, comparison to subjective

  4. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  5. High resolution digital soil mapping as a future instrument for developing sustainable landuse strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Philipp; Funke, Lisa-Marie; Baumann, Frank; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, increase in population and intensification of land use pose a great challenge for sustainable handling of soils. Intelligent landuse systems are able to minimize and/or avoid soil erosion and loss of soil fertility. A successful application of such systems requires area-wide soil information with high resolution. Containing three consecutive steps, the project INE-2-H („innovative sustainable landuse") at the University of Tuebingen is about creating high-resolution soil information using Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) techniques to develop sustainable landuse strategies. Input data includes soil data from fieldwork (texture and carbon content), the official digital soil and geological map (1:50.000) as well as a wide selection of local, complex and combined terrain parameters. First, soil maps have been created using the DSM approach and Random Forest (RF). Due to high resolution (10x10 m pixels), those maps show a more detailed spatial variability of soil information compared to the official maps used. Root mean square errors (RMSE) of the modelled maps vary from 2.11 % to 6.87 % and the coefficients of determination (R²) go from 0.42 to 0.68. Second, soil erosion potentials have been estimated according to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Long-term average annual soil loss ranges from 0.56 to 24.23 [t/ha/a]. Third, combining high-resolution erosion potentials with expert-knowledge of local farmers will result in a landuse system adapted to local conditions. This system will include sustainable strategies reducing soil erosion and conserving soil fertility.

  6. High-resolution hydraulic parameter maps for surface soils in tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthews, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Galbraith, D. R.; Malhi, Y.; Mullins, C. E.; Hodnett, M. G.; Dharssi, I.

    2014-05-01

    Modern land surface model simulations capture soil profile water movement through the use of soil hydraulics sub-models, but good hydraulic parameterisations are often lacking, especially in the tropics. We present much-improved gridded data sets of hydraulic parameters for surface soil for the critical area of tropical South America, describing soil profile water movement across the region to 30 cm depth. Optimal hydraulic parameter values are given for the Brooks and Corey, Campbell, van Genuchten-Mualem and van Genuchten-Burdine soil hydraulic models, which are widely used hydraulic sub-models in land surface models. This has been possible through interpolating soil measurements from several sources through the SOTERLAC soil and terrain data base and using the most recent pedotransfer functions (PTFs) derived for South American soils. All soil parameter data layers are provided at 15 arcsec resolution and available for download, this being 20x higher resolution than the best comparable parameter maps available to date. Specific examples are given of the use of PTFs and the importance highlighted of using PTFs that have been locally parameterised and that are not just based on soil texture. We discuss current developments in soil hydraulic modelling and how high-resolution parameter maps such as these can improve the simulation of vegetation development and productivity in land surface models.

  7. S-World: A high resolution global soil database for simulation modelling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoorvogel, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    There is an increasing call for high resolution soil information at the global level. A good example for such a call is the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison carried out within AgMIP. While local studies can make use of surveying techniques to collect additional techniques this is practically impossible at the global level. It is therefore important to rely on legacy data like the Harmonized World Soil Database. Several efforts do exist that aim at the development of global gridded soil property databases. These estimates of the variation of soil properties can be used to assess e.g., global soil carbon stocks. However, they do not allow for simulation runs with e.g., crop growth simulation models as these models require a description of the entire pedon rather than a few soil properties. This study provides the required quantitative description of pedons at a 1 km resolution for simulation modelling. It uses the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) for the spatial distribution of soil types, the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database to derive information on soil properties per soil type, and a range of co-variables on topography, climate, and land cover to further disaggregate the available data. The methodology aims to take stock of these available data. The soil database is developed in five main steps. Step 1: All 148 soil types are ordered on the basis of their expected topographic position using e.g., drainage, salinization, and pedogenesis. Using the topographic ordering and combining the HWSD with a digital elevation model allows for the spatial disaggregation of the composite soil units. This results in a new soil map with homogeneous soil units. Step 2: The ranges of major soil properties for the topsoil and subsoil of each of the 148 soil types are derived from the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database. Step 3: A model of soil formation is developed that focuses on the basic conceptual question where we are within the range of a particular soil property

  8. Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

    2013-07-30

    Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils.

  9. Soil Erosion map of Europe based on high resolution input datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Ballabio, Cristiano; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Modelling soil erosion in European Union is of major importance for agro-environmental policies. Soil erosion estimates are important inputs for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the implementation of the Soil Thematic Strategy. Using the findings of a recent pan-European data collection through the EIONET network, it was concluded that most Member States are applying the empirical Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for the modelling soil erosion at National level. This model was chosen for the pan-European soil erosion risk assessment and it is based on 6 input factors. Compared to past approaches, each of the factors is modelled using the latest pan-European datasets, expertise and data from Member states and high resolution remote sensing data. The soil erodibility (K-factor) is modelled using the recently published LUCAS topsoil database with 20,000 point measurements and incorporating the surface stone cover which can reduce K-factor by 15%. The rainfall erosivity dataset (R-factor) has been implemented using high temporal resolution rainfall data from more than 1,500 precipitation stations well distributed in Europe. The cover-management (C-factor) incorporates crop statistics and management practices such as cover crops, tillage practices and plant residuals. The slope length and steepness (combined LS-factor) is based on the first ever 25m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Europe. Finally, the support practices (P-factor) is modelled for first time at this scale taking into account the 270,000 LUCAS earth observations and the Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition (GAEC) that farmers have to follow in Europe. The high resolution input layers produce the final soil erosion risk map at 100m resolution and allow policy makers to run future land use, management and climate change scenarios.

  10. High Resolution Imaging Spectroscopy for Characterizing Soil Properties over Large Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of high resolution surface soil texture (percentage sand, silt and clay), soil organic matter and chemical constituents are important for understanding infiltration, runoff and other surficial hydrologic processes at different scales. The Visible Near Infrared Analysis (VNIRA) method, which is a combination of imaging spectroscopy and laboratory chemical analysis with an underlying statistical model, has been established for the quantification of soil properties from imaging spectrometer data. In this study we characterize the feasibility of quantifying soil properties over large areas with the aim that these methods may be extended to space-borne sensors such as HyspIRI. Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is a space-borne NASA mission concept having 10nm contiguous bands in the VSWIR region (380nm to 2500nm) of the electromagnetic spectra. High resolution (7.6m) Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected by NASA immediately after the massive 2011 Mississippi River floods at the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway, coupled with in situ samples obtained at the time of the flight, is used to generate HyspIRI like data at 60m resolution. The VNIRA method is applied in a data-mining framework for quantification of the different soil textural properties and chemical constituents. The empirical models are further used for creating quantitative maps of the soil properties for the entire BPNM floodway. These maps are compared with the fine resolution AVIRIS maps of the same area for the different legacy landscape features and spatial correlations with the underlying topography immediately disturbed by the flooding event. The scales of variation in the soil constituents captured by the fine resolution data are also compared to the scales of variation captured by coarser resolution data. This study further explores the issues of applicability, challenges (such as the sensitivity of NDVI from mixed neighborhood pixels

  11. High-resolution mapping and spatial variability of soil organic carbon storage of permafrost-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Matthias; Hugelius, Gustaf

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost-affected soils store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). Mapping of this SOC provides a first order spatial input variable for research that relates carbon stored in permafrost regions to carbon cycle dynamics. High-resolution satellite imagery is becoming increasingly available even in circum-polar regions. The presented research highlights findings of high-resolution mapping efforts of SOC from five study areas in the northern circum-polar permafrost region. These study areas are located in Siberia (Kytalyk, Spasskaya Pad /Neleger, Lena delta), Northern Sweden (Abisko) and Northwestern Canada (Herschel Island). Our high spatial resolution analyses show how geomorphology has a strong influence on the distribution of SOC. This is organized at different spatial scales. Periglacial landforms and processes dictate local scale SOC distribution due to patterned ground. Such landforms are non-sorted circles and ice-wedge polygons of different age and scale. Palsas and peat plateaus are formed and can cover larger areas in Sub-Arctic environments. Study areas that have not been affected by Pleistocene glaciation feature ice-rich Yedoma sediments that dominate the local relief through thermokarst formation and create landscape scale macro environments that dictate the distribution of SOC. A general trend indicates higher SOC storage in Arctic tundra soils compared to forested Boreal or Sub-Arctic taiga soils. Yet, due to the shallower active layer depth in the Arctic, much of the SOC may be permanently frozen and thus not be available to ecosystem processes. Significantly more SOC is stored in soils compared to vegetation, indicating that vegetation growth and incorporation of the carbon into the plant phytomass alone will not be able to offset SOC released from permafrost. This contribution also addresses advances in thematic mapping methods and digital soil mapping of SOC in permafrost terrain. In particular machine-learning methods, such as support

  12. Uncertainty of soil erosion modelling using open source high resolution and aggregated DEMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Mondal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Model (DEM is one of the important parameters for soil erosion assessment. Notable uncertainties are observed in this study while using three high resolution open source DEMs. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model has been applied to analysis the assessment of soil erosion uncertainty using open source DEMs (SRTM, ASTER and CARTOSAT and their increasing grid space (pixel size from the actual. The study area is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state, which is located in the central part of India and the area covered 20,558 km2. The actual resolution of DEMs is 30 m and their increasing grid spaces are taken as 90, 150, 210, 270 and 330 m for this study. Vertical accuracy of DEMs has been assessed using actual heights of the sample points that have been taken considering planimetric survey based map (toposheet. Elevations of DEMs are converted to the same vertical datum from WGS 84 to MSL (Mean Sea Level, before the accuracy assessment and modelling. Results indicate that the accuracy of the SRTM DEM with the RMSE of 13.31, 14.51, and 18.19 m in 30, 150 and 330 m resolution respectively, is better than the ASTER and the CARTOSAT DEMs. When the grid space of the DEMs increases, the accuracy of the elevation and calculated soil erosion decreases. This study presents a potential uncertainty introduced by open source high resolution DEMs in the accuracy of the soil erosion assessment models. The research provides an analysis of errors in selecting DEMs using the original and increased grid space for soil erosion modelling.

  13. Soil Formation of "Atlantic Rankers" from NW Spain - A High Resolution Aluminium and Iron Fractionation Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. KAAL; M. COSTA-CASAIS; C. FERRO-V(A)ZQUEZ; X. PONTEVEDRA-POMBAL; A. MARTINEZ-CORTIZAS

    2008-01-01

    Atlantic rankers belong to the group of "cryptopodzolic rankers", which are ubiquitous in the mountainous cool/tempe-rate humid regions of Western Europe. The rankers of Galicia (NW Spain) formed by thousands of years of colluviation.The preponderance of Al-stabilised organic matter (OM) masks the horizonation and polycyclic character (I.e., stratifi-cation) of these soils. Cryptopodzolic rankers are generally thought to be the outcome of podzolisation. This soil type is part of the recent discussion on how to classify soils developed from nonvolcanic parent material having andic properties.To better understand the formation processes of these soils, the Al and Fe fractionation of four typical Atlantic rankers were studied by selective dissolution in acid NH4-oxalate, Na-pyrophosphatc and the chlorides of K, La and Cu.A high-resolution sampling approach allowed us to investigate the soils in greater detail than simply sampling by horizon.The rankers studied display a distribution of Fe- and Al-OM complexes that is typical of cryptopodzolic soils. However,these organomineral associations were probably immobile due to the high Al saturation. We argue that the soils owe their characteristic chemical status to external factors rather than to translocation of organomineral associations: variations in Al-OM concentrations could be linked to changes in weathering/leaching intensity and colluviation rates caused by anthropogenic disturbances or changes in regional climate regime.

  14. Advanced Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Using Ultra High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Chu, R.; Tolic, N.; Roscioli, K.; Robinson, E. R.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Hess, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus on ecosystem stress and climate change is currently relevant as researchers and policymakers strive to understand the feedbacks between soil C dynamics and climate change. Successful development of molecular profiles that link soil microbiology with soil carbon (C) to ascertain soil vulnerability and resilience to climate change would have great impact on assessments of soil ecosystems in response to climate change. Additionally, better understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) plays a central role to climate modeling, and fate and transport of carbon. The use of ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) has enabled the examination of molecules, directly from mixtures, with ultrahigh mass resolution and sub-ppm mass accuracy. In this study, EMSL's extensive expertise and capabilities in UHR MS proteomics were leveraged to develop extraction protocols for the characterization of carbon compounds in SOM, thereby providing the chemical and structural detail needed to develop mechanistic descriptions of soil carbon flow processes. Our experiments have allowed us to identify thousands of individual compounds in complex soil mixtures with a wide range of C content representing diverse ecosystems within the USA. The yield of the chemical extraction was dependent on (1) the type of solvent used and its polarity, (2) sample-to-solvent ratios and (3) the chemical and physical nature of the samples including their origins. Hexane, a non-polar organic solvent, was efficient in extracting lipid-like compounds regardless of soil origin or organic carbon %. For samples with high organic carbon %, acetonitrile extracted a wide range of compounds characterized with high O/C ratios, identified as polyphenolic compounds that were not observed with methanol extraction. Soils extracted with pyridine showed a similar molecular distribution to those extracted by methanol. Solvent extraction followed by UHR MS is a promising tool to understand the

  15. Measuring radon-222 in soil gas with high spatial and temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Darren; Read, David; Shaw, George

    2017-02-01

    In order to exploit (222)Rn as a naturally-occurring tracer in soils we need to sample and measure radon isotopes in soil gas with high spatial and temporal resolution, without disturbing in situ activity concentrations and fluxes. Minimisation of sample volume is key to improving the resolution with which soil gas can be sampled; an analytical method is then needed which can measure radon with appropriate detection limits and precision for soil gas tracer studies. We have designed a soil gas probe with minimal internal dead volume to allow us to sample soil gas volumes of 45 cm(3). Radon-222 is extracted from these samples into a mineral oil-based scintillation cocktail before counting on a conventional liquid scintillation counter. A detection limit of 320 Bq m(-3) (in soil gas) is achievable with a 1 h count. This could be further reduced but, in practice, is sufficient for our purpose since (222)Rn in soil gas typically ranges from 2000-50,000 Bq m(-3). The method is simple and provides several advantages over commonly used field-portable instruments, including smaller sample volumes, speed of deployment and reliability under field conditions. The major limitation is the need to count samples in a liquid scintillation counter within 2-3 days of collection, due to the short (3.824 day) radioactive half-life of (222)Rn. The method is not applicable to the very short-lived (55 s half-life) (220)Rn.

  16. Quantifying the erosion effect on current carbon budget of European agricultural soils at high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    The idea of offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions by increasing global soil organic carbon (SOC), as recently proposed by French authorities ahead of COP21 in the 'four per mil' initiative, is notable. However, a high uncertainty still exits on land C balance components. In particular, the role of erosion in the global C cycle is not totally disentangled, leading to disagreement whether this process induces lands to be a source or sink of CO2. To investigate this issue, we coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km(2) resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). Based on data-driven assumptions, the simulation took into account also soil deposition within grid cells and the potential C export to riverine systems, in a way to be conservative in a mass balance. We estimated that 143 of 187 Mha have C erosion rates 0.45 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1). In comparison with a baseline without erosion, the model suggested an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric C consistent with previous empirical-based studies. Integrating all C fluxes for the EU agricultural soils, we estimated a net C loss or gain of -2.28 and +0.79 Tg yr(-1) of CO2 eq, respectively, depending on the value for the short-term enhancement of soil C mineralization due to soil disruption and displacement/transport with erosion. We concluded that erosion fluxes were in the same order of current carbon gains from improved management. Even if erosion could potentially induce a sink for atmospheric CO2, strong agricultural policies are needed to prevent or reduce soil erosion, in order to maintain soil health and productivity.

  17. High-resolution prediction of soil available water content within the crop root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghverdi, Amir; Leib, Brian G.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Ayers, Paul D.; Buschermohle, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil available water content (AWC) within the effective root zone, is needed to optimally schedule irrigation in fields with substantial spatial heterogeneity. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure soil hydraulic properties. Therefore, easily collected and measured soil properties, such as soil texture and/or bulk density, that are well correlated with hydraulic properties are used as proxies to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF). In this study, multiple modeling scenarios were developed and evaluated to indirectly predict high resolution AWC maps within the effective root zone. The modeling techniques included kriging, co-kriging, regression kriging, artificial neural networks (NN) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The efficiency of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as proximal data in the modeling process was assessed. There was a good agreement (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.052 cm3 cm-3 and r = 0.88) between observed and point prediction of water contents using pseudo continuous PTFs. We found that both GWR (mean RMSE = 0.062 cm3 cm-3) and regression kriging (mean RMSE = 0.063 cm3 cm-3) produced the best water content maps with these accuracies improved up to 19% when ECa was used as an ancillary soil attribute in the interpolation process. The maps indicated fourfold differences in AWC between coarse- and fine-textured soils across the study site. This provided a template for future investigations for evaluating the efficiency of variable rate irrigation management scenarios in accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic attributes.

  18. Distribution and Migration of Heavy Metals in Undisturbed Forest Soils: A High Resolution Sampling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xin-Ling; ZHANG Gan-Lin; NI Liu-Jian; HE Yue

    2008-01-01

    The vertical distribution and migration of Cu,Zn,Pb,and Cd in two forest soil profiles near an industrial emission source were investigated using a high resolution sampling method together with reference element Ti.One-meter soil profile was sectioned horizontally at 2 cm intervals in the first 40 cm,5 cm intervals in the next 40 cm,and 10 cm intervals in the last 20 cm.The migration distance and rate of heavy metals in the soil profiles were calculated according to their relative concentrations in the profiles,as calibrated by the reference element Ti.The enrichment of heavy metals appeared in the uppermost layer of the forest soil,and the soil heavy metal concentrations decreased down the profile until reaching their background values.The calculated average migration rates of Cd,Cu,Pb,and Zn were 0.70,0.33,0.37,and 0.76cm year-1,respectively,which were comparable to other methods.A simulation model was proposed,which could well describe the distribution of Cu,Zn,Pb,and Cd in natural forest soils.

  19. Microwave brightness temperature and thermal inertia - towards synergistic method of high-resolution soil moisture retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Mateusz; Usowicz, Boguslaw; Sagan, Joanna; Szlazak, Radoslaw; Gluba, Lukasz; Rojek, Edyta

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter in many environmental studies, as it influences the exchange of water and energy at the interface between the land surface and the atmosphere. Accurate assessment of the soil moisture spatial and temporal variations is crucial for numerous studies; starting from a small scale of single field, then catchment, mesoscale basin, ocean conglomeration, finally ending at the global water cycle. Despite numerous advantages, such as fine accuracy (undisturbed by clouds or daytime conditions) and good temporal resolution, passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, e.g. SMOS and SMAP, are not applicable to a small scale - simply because of too coarse spatial resolution. On the contrary, thermal infrared-based methods of soil moisture retrieval have a good spatial resolution, but are often disturbed by clouds and vegetation interferences or night effects. The methods that base on point measurements, collected in situ by monitoring stations or during field campaigns, are sometimes called "ground truth" and may serve as a reference for remote sensing, of course after some up-scaling and approximation procedures that are, unfortunately, potential source of error. Presented research concern attempt to synergistic approach that join two remote sensing methods: passive microwave and thermal infrared, supported by in situ measurements. Microwave brightness temperature of soil was measured by ELBARA, the radiometer at 1.4 GHz frequency, installed at 6 meters high tower at Bubnow test site in Poland. Thermal inertia around the tower was modelled using the statistical-physical model whose inputs were: soil physical properties, its water content, albedo and surface temperatures measured by an infrared pyrometer, directed at the same footprint as ELBARA. The results coming from this method were compared to in situ data obtained during several field campaigns and by the stationary agrometeorological stations. The approach seems to be

  20. RUSLE2015: Modelling soil erosion at continental scale using high resolution input layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Poesen, Jean; Ballabio, Cristiano; Lugato, Emanuele; Montanarella, Luca; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation in the Europe. On the occasion of the 2015 celebration of the International Year of Soils, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) published the RUSLE2015, a modified modelling approach for assessing soil erosion in Europe by using the best available input data layers. The objective of the recent assessment performed with RUSLE2015 was to improve our knowledge and understanding of soil erosion by water across the European Union and to accentuate the differences and similarities between different regions and countries beyond national borders and nationally adapted models. RUSLE2015 has maximized the use of available homogeneous, updated, pan-European datasets (LUCAS topsoil, LUCAS survey, GAEC, Eurostat crops, Eurostat Management Practices, REDES, DEM 25m, CORINE, European Soil Database) and have used the best suited approach at European scale for modelling soil erosion. The collaboration of JRC with many scientists around Europe and numerous prominent European universities and institutes resulted in an improved assessment of individual risk factors (rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, cover-management, topography and support practices) and a final harmonized European soil erosion map at high resolution. The mean soil loss rate in the European Union's erosion-prone lands (agricultural, forests and semi-natural areas) was found to be 2.46 t ha-1 yr-1, resulting in a total soil loss of 970 Mt annually; equal to an area the size of Berlin (assuming a removal of 1 meter). According to the RUSLE2015 model approximately 12.7% of arable lands in the European Union is estimated to suffer from moderate to high erosion(>5 t ha-1 yr-1). This equates to an area of 140,373 km2 which equals to the surface area of Greece (Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 438-447; 2015). Even the mean erosion rate outstrips the mean formation rate (<1.4 tonnes per ha annually). The recent RUSLE2015

  1. Feasibility of High-Resolution Soil Erosion Measurements by Means of Rainfall Simulations and SfM Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Hänsel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The silty soils of the intensively used agricultural landscape of the Saxon loess province, eastern Germany, are very prone to soil erosion, mainly caused by water erosion. Rainfall simulations, and also increasingly structure-from-motion (SfM photogrammetry, are used as methods in soil erosion research not only to assess soil erosion by water, but also to quantify soil loss. This study aims to validate SfM photogrammetry determined soil loss estimations with rainfall simulations measurements. Rainfall simulations were performed at three agricultural sites in central Saxony. Besides the measured data runoff and soil loss by sampling (in mm, terrestrial images were taken from the plots with digital cameras before and after the rainfall simulation. Subsequently, SfM photogrammetry was used to reconstruct soil surface changes due to soil erosion in terms of high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs for the pre- and post-event (resolution 1 × 1 mm. By multi-temporal change detection, the digital elevation model of difference (DoD and an averaged soil loss (in mm is received, which was compared to the soil loss by sampling. Soil loss by DoD was higher than soil loss by sampling. The method of SfM photogrammetry-determined soil loss estimations also include a comparison of three different ground control point (GCP approaches, revealing that the most complex one delivers the most reliable soil loss by DoD. Additionally, soil bulk density changes and splash erosion beyond the plot were measured during the rainfall simulation experiments in order to separate these processes and associated surface changes from the soil loss by DoD. Furthermore, splash was negligibly small, whereas higher soil densities after the rainfall simulations indicated soil compaction. By means of calculated soil surface changes due to soil compaction, the soil loss by DoD achieved approximately the same value as the soil loss by rainfall simulation.

  2. Technical Note: High-resolution mineralogical database of dust-productive soils for atmospheric dust modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nickovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust storms and associated mineral aerosol transport are driven primarily by meso- and synoptic-scale atmospheric processes. It is therefore essential that the dust aerosol process and background atmospheric conditions that drive dust emissions and atmospheric transport are represented with sufficiently well-resolved spatial and temporal features. The effects of airborne dust interactions with the environment determine the mineral composition of dust particles. The fractions of various minerals in aerosol are determined by the mineral composition of arid soils; therefore, a high-resolution specification of the mineral and physical properties of dust sources is needed.

    Several current dust atmospheric models simulate and predict the evolution of dust concentrations; however, in most cases, these models do not consider the fractions of minerals in the dust. The accumulated knowledge about the impacts of the mineral composition in dust on weather and climate processes emphasizes the importance of including minerals in modeling systems. Accordingly, in this study, we developed a global dataset consisting of the mineral composition of the current potentially dust-producing soils. In our study, we (a mapped mineral data to a high-resolution 30 s grid, (b included several mineral-carrying soil types in dust-productive regions that were not considered in previous studies, and (c included phosphorus.

  3. Two millennia of soil dynamics derived from ancient desert terraces using high resolution 3-D data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filin, Sagi; Arav, Reuma; Avni, Yoav

    2017-04-01

    Large areas in the arid southern Levant are dotted with ancient terrace-based agriculture systems which were irrigated by runoff harvesting techniques. They were constructed and maintained between the 3rd - 9th centuries AD and abandoned in the 10th century AD. During their 600 years of cultivation, these terraces documented the gradual aggradation of alluvial soils, erosion processes within the drainage basins, as well as flashflood damage. From their abandonment and onwards, they documented 1000 years and more of land degradation and soil erosion processes. Examination of these installations presents an opportunity to study natural and anthropogenic induced changes over almost two millennia. On a global scale, such an analysis is unique as it is rare to find intact manifestations of anthropogenic influences over such time-scales because of landscape dynamics. It is also rare to find a near millennia documentation of soil erosion processes. We study in this paper the aggradation processes within intact agriculture plots in the region surrounding the world heritage Roman-Byzantine ancient city of Avdat, Negev Highlands. We follow the complete cycle of the historical desert agriculture, from the configuration pre-dating the first anthropogenic intervention, through the centuries of cultivation, and up to the present erosion phase, which spans over more than a millennium. We use high resolution 3-D laser scans to document the erosion and the environmental dynamics during these two millennia. The high-resolution data is then utilized to compute siltation rates as well as erosion rates. The long-term measures of soil erosion and land degradation we present here significantly improve our understanding of the mechanism of long-term environmental change acting in arid environments. For sustainable desert inhabitation, the study offers insights into better planning of modern agriculture in similar zones as well as insights on strategies needed to protect such historical

  4. High resolution regional soil carbon mapping in Madagascar : towards easy to update maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinand, Clovis; Dessay, Nadine; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razakamanarivo, Herintsitoaina; Albrecht, Alain; Vaudry, Romuald; Tiberghien, Matthieu; Rasamoelina, Maminiaina; Bernoux, Martial

    2013-04-01

    The soil organic carbon plays an important role in climate change regulation through carbon emissions and sequestration due to land use changes, notably tropical deforestation. Monitoring soil carbon emissions from shifting-cultivation requires to evaluate the amount of carbon stored at plot scale with a sufficient level of accuracy to be able to detect changes. The objective of this work was to map soil carbon stocks (30 cm and 100 cm depths) for different land use at regional scale using high resolution satellite dataset. The Andohahela National Parc and its surroundings (South-Est Madagascar) - a region with the largest deforestation rate in the country - was selected as a pilot area for the development of the methodology. A three steps approach was set up: (i) carbon inventory using mid infra-red spectroscopy and stock calculation, (ii) spatial data processing and (iii) modeling and mapping. Soil spectroscopy was successfully used for measuring organic carbon in this region. The results show that Random Forest was the inference model that produced the best estimates on calibration and validation datasets. By using a simple and robust method, we estimated uncertainty levels of of 35% and 43% for 30-cm and 100-cm carbon maps respectively. The approach developed in this study was based on open data and open source software that can be easily replicated to other regions and for other time periods using updated satellite images.

  5. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hong-Mei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan; Chowdhury, Taniya R.; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observed degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F Mann

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observed degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between -1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observed degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:26068586

  8. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Benjamin F; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M; Chu, Rosalie K; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W; Callister, Stephen J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Graham, David E; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observed degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between -1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. High-resolution isotope measurements resolve rapid ecohydrological dynamics at the soil-plant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Till H M; Haberer, Kristine; Gessler, Arthur; Weiler, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Plants rely primarily on rainfall infiltrating their root zones - a supply that is inherently variable, and fluctuations are predicted to increase on most of the Earth's surface. Yet, interrelationships between water availability and plant use on short timescales are difficult to quantify and remain poorly understood. To overcome previous methodological limitations, we coupled high-resolution in situ observations of stable isotopes in soil and transpiration water. We applied the approach along with Bayesian mixing modeling to track the fate of (2) H-labeled rain pulses following drought through soil and plants of deciduous tree ecosystems. We resolve how rainwater infiltrates the root zones in a nonequilibrium process and show that tree species differ in their ability to quickly acquire the newly available source. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) adjusted root uptake to vertical water availability patterns under drought, but readjustment toward the rewetted topsoil was delayed. By contrast, European beech (Fagus sylvatica) readily utilized water from all soil depths independent of water depletion, enabling faster uptake of rainwater. Our results demonstrate that species-specific plasticity and responses to water supply fluctuations on short timescales can now be identified and must be considered to predict vegetation functional dynamics and water cycling under current and future climatic conditions.

  10. Sequential extraction protocol for organic matter from soils and sediments using high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Toyoda, Jason; Toli?, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Pa?a-Toli?, Ljiljana; Hess, Nancy J.

    2017-03-31

    A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO2. The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition. In this study, a sequential chemical extraction procedure was developed to reveal the diversity of organic matter (OM) in different ecosystems and was compared to the previously published protocol using parallel solvent extraction (PSE). We compared six extraction methods using three sample types, peat soil, spruce forest soil and river sediment, so as to select the best method for extracting a representative fraction of organic matter from soils and sediments from a wide range of ecosystems. We estimated the extraction yield of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by total organic carbon analysis, and measured the composition of extracted OM using high resolution mass spectrometry. This study showed that OM composition depends primarily on soil and sediment characteristics. Two sequential extraction protocols, progressing from polar to non-polar solvents, were found to provide the highest number and diversity of organic compounds extracted from the soil and sediments. Water (H2O) is the first solvent used for both protocols followed by either co-extraction with methanol-chloroform (MeOH-CHCl3) mixture, or acetonitrile (ACN) and CHCl3 sequentially. The sequential extraction protocol developed in this study offers improved sensitivity, and requires less sample compared to the PSE workflow where a new sample

  11. High resolution mapping of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Eisele, A.; Bens, O.; Spyra, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) are typically determined using satellite or airborne remote sensing, or field portable spectrometers, which give an averaged signal on centimetre to meter scale plots. Biological soil crust (BSC) patches may have smaller sizes, and ecophysiological, hydrological as well as pedological processes may be heterogeneously distributed within this level of resolution. A ground-based NDVI imaging procedure using low-cost equipment (Olympus Camedia 5000z digital camera equipped with a Hoya R72 infrared filter) was developed in this study to fill this gap at the level of field research, where carrying costly and bulky equipment to remote locations is often the limiting factor for data collection. A commercially available colour rendition chart (GretagMacbeth ColorChecker®) with known red (600-700 nm) and NIR (800-900 nm) reflectances was placed into each scene and used for calibration purposes on a per-image basis. Generation of NDVI images involved (i) determination of red and NIR reflectances from the pixel values of the red and NIR channels, respectively, and (ii) calculation and imaging of the NDVI, where NDVI values of -1 to +1 were mapped to grey values of 0 to 255. The correlation between NDVI values retrieved from these images and NDVI values determined using conventional field spectrometry (ASD FieldSpec 3 portable spectroradiometer) was close (r2 =0.91), the 95% confidence interval amounted to 0.10 NDVI units. The pixel resolution was 0.8 mm in the field and 0.2 mm in the laboratory, but can still be improved significantly with closer distance to the crust or with higher camera resolution. Geostatistical analysis revealed that both spatial variability as well as size of individual objects characterized by the NDVI increased with crust development. The latter never exceeded 4 mm in the investigated crusts, which points to the necessity of high resolution imaging for linking remote sensing with ecophysiology

  12. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  13. Assessment of Surface Soil Moisture Using High-Resolution Multi-Spectral Imagery and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hassan-Esfahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many crop production management decisions can be informed using data from high-resolution aerial images that provide information about crop health as influenced by soil fertility and moisture. Surface soil moisture is a key component of soil water balance, which addresses water and energy exchanges at the surface/atmosphere interface; however, high-resolution remotely sensed data is rarely used to acquire soil moisture values. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN model was developed to quantify the effectiveness of using spectral images to estimate surface soil moisture. The model produces acceptable estimations of surface soil moisture (root mean square error (RMSE = 2.0, mean absolute error (MAE = 1.8, coefficient of correlation (r = 0.88, coefficient of performance (e = 0.75 and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77 by combining field measurements with inexpensive and readily available remotely sensed inputs. The spatial data (visual spectrum, near infrared, infrared/thermal are produced by the AggieAir™ platform, which includes an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV that enables users to gather aerial imagery at a low price and high spatial and temporal resolutions. This study reports the development of an ANN model that translates AggieAir™ imagery into estimates of surface soil moisture for a large field irrigated by a center pivot sprinkler system.

  14. High-resolution model for estimating the economic and policy implications of agricultural soil salinization in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Paul D.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2017-09-01

    This work introduces a generalizable approach for estimating the field-scale agricultural yield losses due to soil salinization. When integrated with regional data on crop yields and prices, this model provides high-resolution estimates for revenue losses over large agricultural regions. These methods account for the uncertainty inherent in model inputs derived from satellites, experimental field data, and interpreted model results. We apply this method to estimate the effect of soil salinity on agricultural outputs in California, performing the analysis with both high-resolution (i.e. field scale) and low-resolution (i.e. county-scale) data sources to highlight the importance of spatial resolution in agricultural analysis. We estimate that soil salinity reduced agricultural revenues by 3.7 billion (1.7–7.0 billion) in 2014, amounting to 8.0 million tons of lost production relative to soil salinities below the crop-specific thresholds. When using low-resolution data sources, we find that the costs of salinization are underestimated by a factor of three. These results highlight the need for high-resolution data in agro-environmental assessment as well as the challenges associated with their integration.

  15. On the synergy of SMOS and Terra/Aqua MODIS: high resolution soil moisture maps in near real-time

    OpenAIRE

    Piles Guillem, Maria; Vall-Llossera Ferran, Mercedes Magdalena; Camps Carmona, Adriano José; Sanchez, Nilda; Martinez Fernandez, Jose; Martinez, Justino; Gonzalez Gambau, Verónica; Riera, R.

    2013-01-01

    An innovative downscaling approach to obtain fine-scale soil moisture estimates from 40 km SMOS observations has been developed. It optimally blends SMOS multi-angular and full-polarimetric information with MODIS visible/data into high resolution soil moisture maps. The core of the algorithm is a model that linksmicrowave/optical sensitivity to soilmoisture and linearly relates the two instruments across spatial scales. This algorithm has been implemented at SMOS-BEC facilities and near real-...

  16. A new method using evaporation for high-resolution measurements of soil thermal conductivity at changing water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, A.; Trinks, S.; Facklam, M.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of soils is a key parameter to know if their use as heat source or sink is planned. It is required to calculate the efficiency of ground-source heat pump systems in combination with soil heat exchangers. Apart from geothermal energy, soil thermal conductivity is essential to estimate the ampacity for buried power cables. The effective thermal conductivity of saturated and unsaturated soils, as a function of water transport, water vapour transport and heat conduction, mainly depends on the soil water content, its bulk density and texture. The major objectives of this study are (i) to describe the thermal conductivity of soil samples with a non-steady state measurement at changing water contents and for different bulk densities. Based on that it is (ii) tested if available soil thermal conductivity models are able to describe the measured data for the whole range of water contents. The new method allows a continuous measurement of thermal conductivity for soil from full water saturation to air-dryness. Thermal conductivity is measured with a thermal needle probe in predefined time intervals while the change of water content is controlled by evaporation. To relate the measured thermal conductivity to the current volumetric water content, the decrease in weight of the sample, due to evaporation, is logged with a lab scale. Soil texture of the 11 soil substrates tested in this study range between coarse sand and silty clay. To evaluate the impact of the bulk density on heat transport processes, thermal conductivity at 20°C was measured at 1.5g/cm3; 1.7g/cm3 and 1.9g/cm3 for each soil substrate. The results correspond well to literature values used to describe heat transport in soils. Due to the high-resolution and non-destructive measurements, the specific effects of the soil texture and bulk density on thermal conductivity could be proved. Decreasing water contents resulted in a non-linear decline of the thermal conductivity for all samples

  17. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Soil and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, which provides spatial resolution as fine as 15 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant and soil nitrogen among other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of oats and formulated a machine learning regression model of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant nitrogen and soil nitrogen. A multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) was used to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant and soil nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the model.

  18. Soil erosion under climate change in Great Britain: long-term simulations using high-resolution regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Kendon, Elizabeth; Constantine, José Antonio; Schindewolf, Marcus; Hall, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-first century climate change simulations for Great Britain reveal an increase in heavy precipitation that may lead to widespread soil loss and reduced soil carbon stores by increasing the likelihood of surface runoff. We find the quality and resolution of the simulated rainfall used to drive soil loss variation can widely influence the results. Hourly high definition rainfall simulations from a 1.5km resolution regional climate model are used to examine the soil erosion response in two UK catchments. The catchments have different sensitivity to soil erosion. "Rother" in West Sussex, England, reports some of the most erosive events that have been observed during the last 50 years in the UK. "Conwy" in North Wales, is resilient to soil erosion because of the abundant natural vegetation cover and very limited agricultural practises. We modelled with Erosion3D to check variations in soil erosion as influenced by climate variations for the periods 1996-2009 and 2086-2099. Our results indicate the Rother catchment is the most erosive, while the Conwy catchment is confirmed as the more resilient to soil erosion. The values of the reference-base period are consistent with the values of those locally observed in the previous decades. A soil erosion comparison for the two periods shows an increasing of sediment production (off-site erosion) for the end of the century at about 27% in the Rother catchment and about 50% for the Conwy catchment. The results, thanks to high-definition rainfall predictions, throw some light on the effect of climatic change effects in Great Britain.

  19. The influence of vegetation covers on soil moisture dynamics at high temporal resolution in scattered tree woodlands of Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Parra, Javier; Schnabel, Susanne; Ceballos-Barbancho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Soil water is a key factor that controls the organization and functioning of dryland ecosystems. However, in spite of its great importance in ecohydrological processes, most of the studies focus on daily or longer timescales, while its dynamics at shorter timescales are very little known. The main objective of this work was to determine the role of vegetation covers (grassland and tree canopy) in the soil hydrological response using measurements with high temporal resolution in evergreen oak woodland with Mediterranean climate. For this, soil water content was monitored continuously with a temporal resolution of 30 minutes and by means of capacitance sensors, mainly for the hydrological years 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. They were installed at 5, 10 and 15 cm, and 5 cm above the bedrock and depending on soil profile. This distribution along the soil profile is justified because soils are generally very shallow and most of the roots are concentrated in the upper layer. The sensors were gathered in 8 soil moisture stations in two contrasting situations characterized by different vegetation covers: under tree canopy and in open spaces or grasslands. Soil moisture variations were calculated at rainfall event scale at top soil layer and deepest depth by the difference between the final and initial soil moisture registered by a sensor at the finish and the beginning of the rainfall event, respectively. Besides, as soil moisture changes are strongly influenced by antecedent conditions, different antecedent soil moisture conditions or states, from driest to wettest, were also defined. The works were carried out in 3 experimental farms of the Spanish region of Extremadura. Results obtained revealed that rainwater amount bypassing vegetation covers and reaching the soil may temporarily be modified by covers according to precipitation properties and antecedent environmental conditions (from dry to wet) before the rain episode. Rainfall amounts triggering a positive soil

  20. High resolution modelling of soil moisture patterns with TerrSysMP: A comparison with sensor network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebler, S.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Kollet, S. J.; Qu, W.; Vereecken, H.

    2017-04-01

    The prediction of the spatial and temporal variability of land surface states and fluxes with land surface models at high spatial resolution is still a challenge. This study compares simulation results using TerrSysMP including a 3D variably saturated groundwater flow model (ParFlow) coupled to the Community Land Model (CLM) of a 38 ha managed grassland head-water catchment in the Eifel (Germany), with soil water content (SWC) measurements from a wireless sensor network, actual evapotranspiration recorded by lysimeters and eddy covariance stations and discharge observations. TerrSysMP was discretized with a 10 × 10 m lateral resolution, variable vertical resolution (0.025-0.575 m), and the following parameterization strategies of the subsurface soil hydraulic parameters: (i) completely homogeneous, (ii) homogeneous parameters for different soil horizons, (iii) different parameters for each soil unit and soil horizon and (iv) heterogeneous stochastic realizations. Hydraulic conductivity and Mualem-Van Genuchten parameters in these simulations were sampled from probability density functions, constructed from either (i) soil texture measurements and Rosetta pedotransfer functions (ROS), or (ii) estimated soil hydraulic parameters by 1D inverse modelling using shuffle complex evolution (SCE). The results indicate that the spatial variability of SWC at the scale of a small headwater catchment is dominated by topography and spatially heterogeneous soil hydraulic parameters. The spatial variability of the soil water content thereby increases as a function of heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters. For lower levels of complexity, spatial variability of the SWC was underrepresented in particular for the ROS-simulations. Whereas all model simulations were able to reproduce the seasonal evapotranspiration variability, the poor discharge simulations with high model bias are likely related to short-term ET dynamics and the lack of information about bedrock characteristics

  1. Validating a high-resolution digital soil map for precision agriculture across multiple fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) for precision agriculture (PA) management is aimed at developing models that predict soil properties or classes using legacy soil data, sensors, and environmental covariates. The utility of DSM for PA is based on its ability to provide useful spatial soil information for o...

  2. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content throughout the river basin. Space-borne remote sensing may provide this information with a high temporal and spatial resolution and with a global coverage. Currently three microwave soil moisture products are available: AMSR-E, ASCAT and SMOS. The quality of these satellite-based products is often assessed by comparing them with in-situ observations of soil moisture. This comparison is however hampered by the difference in spatial and temporal support (i.e., resolution, scale), because the spatial resolution of microwave satellites is rather low compared to in-situ field measurements. Thus, the aim of this study is to derive a method to assess the uncertainty of microwave satellite soil moisture products at the correct spatial support. To overcome the difference in support size between in-situ soil moisture observations and remote sensed soil moisture, we used a stochastic, distributed unsaturated zone model (SWAP, van Dam (2000)) that is upscaled to the support of different satellite products. A detailed assessment of the SWAP model uncertainty is included to ensure that the uncertainty in satellite soil moisture is not overestimated due to an underestimation of the model uncertainty. We simulated unsaturated water flow up to a depth of 1.5m with a vertical resolution of 1 to 10 cm and on a horizontal grid of 1 km2 for the period Jan 2010 - Jun 2011. The SWAP model was first calibrated and validated on in-situ data of the REMEDHUS soil moisture network (Spain). Next, to evaluate the satellite products, the model was run for areas in the proximity of 79 meteorological stations in Spain, where model results were aggregated to the correct support of the satellite

  3. Close range photogrammetry in soil erosion monitoring: Mass loss comparison between runoff plots and high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahner, Mario; Seitz, Steffen; Scholten, Thomas; Song, Zhengshan; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major environmental problem and can lead to severe negative impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. When raindrops hit a bare soil surface, the applied kinetic energy successively detaches soil particles. This rainsplash effect marks the initial stage of soil erosion, which can result in serious sediment losses with beginning surface runoff. Mini-runoff plots are often used to monitor soil erosion rates in comparative field experiments. However, this method is time-consuming, the sampling of detached soil is difficult and the accuracy heavily depends on thorough maintenance and control of the measurement setup. To optimize the acquisition of soil erosion data from splash and interrill processes, a digital method using close range photogrammetry was tested in 2015. Therefore, a photogrammetric workflow was applied to process high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from overlapping stereo-images. By calculating the differences between multi-temporal DEMs with a sub-millimetre resolution, the volume of detached sediment was assessed. We performed rainfall simulations with a single nozzle rainfall simulator and a light weight tent. Micro-scale runoff plots (ROPs, 0.4 m x 0.4 m) were used with two different treatments, namely a Hortic Anthrosol and sand (grain size 0.10-0.45 mm). Five repetitions of rainfall-exposure with an intensity of 60 mm h-1 were performed and each repetition divided into three intervals (0-15 min, 15-30 min and 30-60 min). Before the first and every following interval, a block of 25 stereo-images was acquired with a single lens reflex camera system and processed in Agisoft PhotoScan for DEM-generation. After every interval, the discharged sediment was dried and weighed in order to derive the ground-truth validation data for comparison. Results show that ROPs with the sand treatment generally showed a larger volume of detached sediment than the garden soil treatment. As sediment discharge increased, the modelled and measured

  4. High resolution analysis of soil elements with laser-induced breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Michael H.; Harris, Ronny D.

    2010-04-06

    The invention is a system and method of detecting a concentration of an element in a soil sample wherein an opening or slot is formed in a container that supports a soil sample that was extracted from the ground whereupon at least a length of the soil sample is exposed via the opening. At each of a plurality of points along the exposed length thereof, the soil sample is ablated whereupon a plasma is formed that emits light characteristic of the elemental composition of the ablated soil sample. Each instance of emitted light is separated according to its wavelength and for at least one of the wavelengths a corresponding data value related to the intensity of the light is determined. As a function of each data value a concentration of an element at the corresponding point along the length of the soil core sample is determined.

  5. LiDAR derived high resolution topography: the next challenge for the analysis of terraces stability and vineyard soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Preti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil erosion in the vineyards is a critical issue that could affect their productivity, but also, when the cultivation is organized in terraces, increase the risk due to derived slope failure processes. If terraces are not correctly designed or maintained, a progressively increasing of gully erosion affects the structure of the walls. The results of this process is the increasing of connectivity and runoff. In order to overcome such issues it is really important to recognize in detail all the surface drainage paths, thus providing a basis upon which develop a suitable drainage system or provide structural measures for the soil erosion risk mitigation. In the last few years, the airborne LiDAR technology led to a dramatic increase in terrain information. Airborne LiDAR and Terrestrial Laser Scanner derived high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs have opened avenues for hydrologic and geomorphologic studies (Tarolli et al., 2009. In general, all the main surface process signatures are correctly recognized using a DTM with cell sizes of 1 m. However sub-meter grid sizes may be more suitable in those situations where the analysis of micro topography related to micro changes is critical for slope failures risk assessment or for the design of detailed drainage flow paths. The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS has been proven to be an useful tool for such detailed field survey. In this work, we test the effectiveness of high resolution topography derived by airborne LiDAR and TLS for the recognition of areas subject to soil erosion risk in a typical terraced vineyard landscape of “Chianti Classico” (Tuscany, Italy. The algorithm proposed by Tarolli et al. (2013, for the automatic recognition of anthropic feature induced flow direction changes, has been tested. The results underline the effectiveness of LiDAR and TLS data in the analysis of soil erosion signatures in vineyards, and indicate the high resolution topography as a useful tool to

  6. Analysis of Biophysical Mechanisms of Gilgai Microrelief Formation in Dryland Swelling Soils Using Ultra-High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, N.; DeCarlo, K. F.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Microrelief formations ("gilgai"), which form due to successive wetting-drying cycles typical of swelling soils, provide ecological hotspots for local fauna and flora, including higher and more robust vegetative growth. The distribution of these gilgai suggests a remarkable degree of regularity. However, it is unclear to what extent the mechanisms that drive gilgai formation are physical, such as desiccation-induced fracturing, or biological in nature, namely antecedent vegetative clustering. We investigated gilgai genesis and pattern formation in a 100 x 100 meter study area with swelling soils in a semiarid grassland at the Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Our ongoing experiment is composed of three 9m2 treatments: we removed gilgai and limited vegetative growth by herbicide application in one plot, allowed for unrestricted seed dispersal in another, and left gilgai unobstructed in a control plot. To estimate the spatial frequencies of the repeating patterns of gilgai, we obtained ultra-high resolution (0.01-0.03m/pixel) images with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from which digital elevation models were also generated. Geostatistical analyses using wavelet and fourier methods in 1- and 2-dimensions were employed to characterize gilgai size and distribution. Preliminary results support regular spatial patterning across the gilgaied landscape and heterogeneities may be related to local soil properties and biophysical influences. Local data on gilgai and fracture characteristics suggest that gilgai form at characteristic heights and spacing based on fracture morphology: deep, wide cracks result in large, highly vegetated mounds whereas shallow cracks, induced by animal trails, are less correlated with gilgai size and shape. Our experiments will help elucidate the links between shrink-swell processes and gilgai-vegetation patterning in high activity clay soils and advance our understanding of the mechanisms of gilgai formation in drylands.

  7. Water erosion as a cause for agricultural soil loss: modeling of dynamic processes using high-resolution ground based LiDAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Imri; Filin, Sagi; Assouline, Shmuel; Shtain, Zachi; Furman, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by rainfall and water flow is a frequent natural geomorphic process shaping the earth's surface at various scales. Conventional agrotechnical methods enhance soil erosion at the field scale and are at the origin of the reduction of the upper soil layer depth. This reduction is expressed in two aspects: decrease of soil depth, mainly due to erosion, and the diminution of soil quality, mainly due to the loss of fine material, nutrients and organic matter. Rain events, not even the most extremes, cause detachment and transport of fertile soil rich in organic matter and nutrients away from the fields, filling and plugging drainage channels, blocking infrastructure and contaminating water sources. Empirical, semi-empirical and mechanistic models are available to estimate soil erosion by water flow and sediment transport (e.g. WEPP, KINEROSS, EUROSEM). Calibration of these models requires data measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Development of high-resolution measurement tools (for both spatial and temporal aspects) should improve the calibration of functions related to particles detachment and transport from the soil surface. In addition, despite the great impact of different tillage systems on the soil erosion process, the vast majority of the models ignore this fundamental factor. The objective of this study is to apply high-resolution ground-based LiDAR measurements to different tillage schemes and scales to improve the ability of models to accurately describe the process of soil erosion induced by rainfall and overland flow. Ground-based laser scans provide high resolution accurate and subtle geomorphic changes, as well as larger-scale deformations. As such, it allows frequent monitoring, so that even the effect of a single storm can be measured, thus improving the calibration of the erosion models. Preliminary results for scans made in the field show the potential and limitations of ground-based LiDAR, and at this point qualitatively can

  8. Determination of 137Cs activity in soil from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Matthews, M.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Al Sadig, Ibrahim; Daar, Eman

    2016-10-01

    With interest in establishing baseline concentrations of 137Cs in soil from the Qatarian peninsula, we focus on determination of the activity concentrations in 129 soil samples collected across the State of Qatar prior to the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. As such, the data provides the basis of a reference map for the detection of releases of this fission product. The activity concentrations were measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector enclosed in a copper-lined passive lead shield that was situated in a low-background environment. The activity concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg, with a median value of 1 Bq/kg, the greatest activity concentration being observed in a sample obtained from northern Qatar. Although it cannot be confirmed, it is expected that this contamination is mainly due to releases from the Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986, there being a lack of data from Qatar before the accident. The values are typically within but are sometimes lower than the range indicated by data from other countries in the region. The lower values than those of others is suggested to be due to variation in soil characteristics as well as metrological factors at the time of deposition.

  9. High-Resolution 3-D Mapping of Soil Texture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2013-01-01

    calculated. For example, in the prediction of silt content at 0 to 5 cm depth, factors that registered a higher level of importance included the soil map scored (90%), landscape types (54%), and landuse (27%), while factors with lower scores were direct insolation (17%) and slope aspect (14%). Model...

  10. A downscaling approach for SMOS land observations: evaluation of high-resolution soil moisture maps over the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Piles Guillem, Maria; Sanchez, Nilda; Vall-Llossera Ferran, Mercedes Magdalena; Camps Carmona, Adriano José; Martinez Fernandez, Jose; Martinez, Justino; González Gambau, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is the first satellite devoted to measure the Earth's surface soil moisture. It has a spatial resolution of similar to 40 km and a 3-day revisit. In this paper, a downscaling algorithm is presented as a new ability to obtain multiresolution soil moisture estimates from SMOS using visible-to-infrared remotely sensed observations. This algorithm is applied to combine 2 years of SMOS and MODIS Terra/Aqua data over the Iberian Peninsula in...

  11. PHAROS : A pluri-detector, high-resolution, analyser of radiometric properties of soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigollet, C; de Meijer, RJ

    2002-01-01

    PHAROS is a new type of core logger, designed to measure activity concentrations of K-40, U-238, Th-232 and (CS)-C-137 in sediment and rock cores with a spatial resolution of a few centimetres along the core. PHAROS has been developed as a non-destructive alternative to the traditional slicing of co

  12. Mapping High-Resolution Soil Moisture over Heterogeneous Cropland Using Multi-Resource Remote Sensing and Ground Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High spatial resolution soil moisture (SM data are crucial in agricultural applications, river-basin management, and understanding hydrological processes. Merging multi-resource observations is one of the ways to improve the accuracy of high spatial resolution SM data in the heterogeneous cropland. In this paper, the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME methodology is implemented to merge the following four types of observed data to obtain the spatial distribution of SM at 100 m scale: soil moisture observed by wireless sensor network (WSN, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER-derived soil evaporative efficiency (SEE, irrigation statistics, and Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR-derived SM products (~700 m. From the poor BME predictions obtained by merging only WSN and SEE data, we observed that the SM heterogeneity caused by irrigation and the attenuating sensitivity of the SEE data to SM caused by the canopies result in BME prediction errors. By adding irrigation statistics to the merged datasets, the overall RMSD of the BME predictions during the low-vegetated periods can be successively reduced from 0.052 m3·m−3 to 0.033 m3·m−3. The coefficient of determination (R2 and slope between the predicted and in situ measured SM data increased from 0.32 to 0.64 and from 0.38 to 0.82, respectively, but large estimation errors occurred during the moderately vegetated periods (RMSD = 0.041 m3·m−3, R = 0.43 and the slope = 0.41. Further adding the downscaled SM information from PLMR SM products to the merged datasets, the predictions were satisfactorily accurate with an RMSD of 0.034 m3·m−3, R2 of 0.4 and a slope of 0.69 during moderately vegetated periods. Overall, the results demonstrated that merging multi-resource observations into SM estimations can yield improved accuracy in heterogeneous cropland.

  13. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  14. Soil Moisture Estimation in South-Eastern New Mexico Using High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Azad Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture monitoring and characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of this hydrologic parameter at scales from small catchments to large river basins continues to receive much attention, reflecting its critical role in subsurface-land surface-atmospheric interactions and its importance to drought analysis, irrigation planning, crop yield forecasting, flood protection, and forest fire prevention. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data acquired at different spatial resolutions have been successfully used to estimate soil moisture in different semi-arid areas of the world for many years. This research investigated the potential of linear multiple regressions and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN based models that incorporate different geophysical variables with Radarsat 1 SAR fine imagery and concurrently measured soil moisture measurements to estimate surface soil moisture in Nash Draw, NM. An artificial neural network based model with vegetation density, soil type, and elevation data as input in addition to radar backscatter values was found suitable to estimate surface soil moisture in this area with reasonable accuracy. This model was applied to a time series of SAR data acquired in 2006 to produce soil moisture data covering a normal wet season in the study site.

  15. Tracing spatial variation of canopy water fluxes to the soil: An experimental approach to assessing heterogeneity with high resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Johanna Clara; Dalla Valle, Nicolas; Wutzler, Thomas; Filipzik, Janett; Weckmüller, Josef; Schelhorn, Danny; Grauer, Christoph; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Due to the mechanisms of interception, stemflow and canopy throughfall, precipitation reaches a forest soil surface in an altered temporal and spatial distribution. The retention of water by canopies is contrasted by the formation of dynamic hotspots, which channel rain water down to the soil, e.g. canopy dripping points and stemflow. Throughfall patterns are often assumed to be the main driver for soil water content heterogeneity in forests, yet this relation has not been studied extensively and there is no prove to this theory. Because it is impossible to measure net precipitation input and soil water content in the same place at the same time, elaborate sampling is necessary for a data set allowing to address this subject. Within the last two years, in the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre AquaDiva, our group has established a new experimental site to investigate on the relationship of forest precipitation and soil water. We have developed an experimental design combining the measurement of throughfall, stemflow and soil water content on a 1 ha plot in a manner so all measurements are representative for the plot yet do not disturb each other. We adapted a statistical sampling method common for throughfall measurement to soil water content measurement comprising a high number of measurement points (throughfall: 350, soil water content: 210). To gain good insights in soil water dynamics and to capture preferential flow, soil water content was recorded in a high frequency (1* 6-1 min-1) in two soil depths. Stemflow was measured area-based on regular subplots (11% of the total plot area, 65 trees). Stand and soil surveys were made to investigate canopy impacts and identify soil-born patterns in soil water content. The plot is located in a mixed beech forest of the Hainich national park in Thuringia, Germany. Shallow loamy soils cover the lime- and marlstone bedrock. The forest plot is complemented by a smaller neighboring grassland plot acting as a

  16. PHAROS A pluri-detector, high-resolution, analyser of radiometric properties of soil

    CERN Document Server

    Rigollet, C

    2002-01-01

    PHAROS is a new type of core logger, designed to measure activity concentrations of sup 4 sup 0 K, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs in sediment and rock cores with a spatial resolution of a few centimetres along the core. PHAROS has been developed as a non-destructive alternative to the traditional slicing of cores into sub-samples and their analysis on an HPGe detector. The core is scanned at fixed increments by three BGO scintillation detectors and the spectra analysed by the full spectrum analysis method. The core logger is also equipped with a collimated lead castle and a sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source for transmission measurements. In this paper, we report on the properties of the core logger and its detectors, and on the analysis techniques used for the determination of the radionuclides activity concentrations. Results from initial measurements are presented and discussed.

  17. Soil depth map definition on a terraced slope for a following distributed, high resolution, numerical modelling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, C.; Apuani, T.; Mele, M.; Kuriakose, S. L.; Giudici, M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil thickness represents a key data for every environmental analysis involving soil, but its determination is not always simple. In this particular case, the study area is represented by a small terraced slope (0.6 km2) of Valtellina (Northern Italy), and the soil depth map is necessary for a coupled hydrogeological-stability analysis in a raster environment. During this work geometrical/morphological and geostatistical interpolation techniques were tested to obtain a satisfying soil depth map. At the end, the final product has been validated with geo-electrical resistivity inverse models. In this particular context, the presence of dry-stone retaining walls is of primary importance, since they have an influence on the morphology of the entire area as well as on the physical processes of water infiltration and slope stability. In order to consider the dry-stone walls in the analysis, it is necessary to have base maps with an adequate resolution (cells 1 m x 1 m). Assuming that the walls might be founded on bedrock or in its proximity, it was decided to use the heights of walls and the distribution of rock outcrops as soil depth input data. It was impossible to obtain direct measures with the knocking pole method, being pebbles frequently presents in the backfill soil . Except zero depth values, 682 measures were performed. The initial data set was divided into two subsets in order to use one as training points (76 % of the total) and the second as test points (24 %). Various techniques were tested, from linear multiple regressions with environmental predictors, to ordinary kriging, regression kriging with the same environmental variables, and Gaussian stochastic simulations. At the end, the best result was obtained with co-kriging, using a soil depth class map drawn from the field measures as co-variable. The result is a little bit guided but it was the only solution to obtain a map that partially takes into account the morphology of the slope. To verify the

  18. High-Resolution Denitrification Kinetics in Pasture Soils Link N2O Emissions to pH, and Denitrification to C Mineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sainur Samad

    Full Text Available Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N2O and N2. It is known that N2O reduction to N2 is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N2O emissions in response to carbon (C mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand using a fully automated-high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N2O production index (IN2O and N2O/(N2O+N2 product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N2O+N2 μmol N/h/vial were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO2 μmol/h/vial measured both under oxic (r2 = 0.62, p = 0.0015 and anoxic (r2 = 0.89, p<0.0001 conditions.

  19. Advanced solvent based methods for molecular characterization of soil organic matter by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Robinson, Errol W.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2015-05-19

    Soil organic matter (SOM) a complex, heterogeneous mixture of above and belowground plant litter and animal and microbial residues at various degrees of decomposition, is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in soil based ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM limits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and predict accurately how terrestrial carbon fluxes will response to changing climatic conditions and land use. To elucidate the molecular-level structure of SOM, we selectively extracted a broad range of intact SOM compounds by a combination of different organic solvents from soils with a wide range of C content. Our use of Electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and a suite of solvents with varying polarity significantly expands the inventory of the types of organic molecules present in soils. Specifically, we found that hexane is selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O:C ratios; water was selective for carbohydrates with high O:C ratios; acetonitrile preferentially extracts lignin, condensed structures, and tannin poly phenolic compounds with O:C > 0.5; methanol has higher selectivity towards compounds characterized with low O:C < 0.5; and hexane, MeOH, ACN and water solvents increase the number and types of organic molecules extracted from soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Our study of SOM molecules by ESI-FTICR MS revealed new insight into the molecular-level complexity of organics contained in soils.

  20. Towards a robust evaporation-based disaggregation method of SMOS soil moisture by combining high-resolution shortwave/thermal and available meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiana Stefan, Vivien; Merlin, Olivier; José Escorihuela, Maria; AïtHssaine, Bouchra; Molero, Beatriz; Ezzahar, Jamal; Er-Raki, Salah; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Kerr, Yann

    2016-04-01

    The majority of hydrological and agricultural applications require high-resolution soil moisture (SM) information. To improve the spatial resolution of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) SM, a downscaling algorithm is applied to the 40 km resolution SMOS level 3 product using 1 km resolution MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) shortwave and thermal data. The DISPATCH (DISaggregation based on a Physical and Theoretical Scale CHange) algorithm converts soil temperature data into SM data using a soil evaporative efficiency (SEE) model and a first order Taylor series expansion. The current version of DISPATCH is contextual, meaning that the MODIS-derived SEE is a function of temperature endmembers (Tends), which are determined from the image-based trapezoid method. However, limitations concerning the estimation of Tends arise when fully dry and fully wet conditions are not met within the scene at the observation resolution. Therefore, in order to improve DISPATCH's robustness in such conditions, the aim of this paper is to estimate Tends independently of shortwave/thermal data using an energy balance model forced by meteorological data. As a mean to evaluate the new algorithm, results are analyzed in terms of both disaggregated SM with respect to in situ 0-5 cm measurements and DISPATCH-derived SEE with respect to theoretical models. The approach is tested over a mixed irrigated and dry land area located in Catalunya, Spain, spanning 2011 and 2012. When comparing 40 km SMOS and 1 km disaggregated SM data with the in situ measurements, results indicate that DISPATCH improves the spatio-temporal correlation with in situ measurements. Moreover, disaggregation results are further improved by integrating the energy balance model in the methodology. The representation of SEE is also enhanced, proving that meteorological data foster the physical link between shortwave/thermal and SM data within the disaggregation method. The synergy between SEE modeling

  1. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  2. Seasonal variations of soil erosion in UK under climate change: simulations with the use of high-resolution regional climatic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Kendon, Elizabeth; Constantine, José Antonio; Schindewolf, Marcus; Hall, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on the hydrological cycle, twenty-first century climate change simulations for Great Britain forecast an increase of surface runoff and flooding frequency. Once quality and resolution of the simulated rainfall deeply influence the results, we adopted rainfall simulations issued of a high-resolution climate model recently carried out for extended periods (13 years for present-day and future periods 2100) at 1.5 km grid scale over the south of the United Kingdom (simulations, which for the future period use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change RCP 8.5 scenario, Kendon et al., 2014). We simulated soil erosion with 3D soil erosion model Schmidt (1990) on two catchments of Great Britain: the Rother catchment (350 km2) in West Sussex, England, because it has reported some of the most erosive events observed during the last 50 years in the UK, and the Conwy catchment (628 Km2) in North Wales, which is extremely resilient to soil erosion because of the abundant natural vegetation. Estimation of changes in soil moisture, saturation deficit as well as vegetation cover at daily time step have been done with the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) (Best et al, 2011). Our results confirm the Rother catchment is the most erosive, while the Conwy catchment is the more resilient to soil erosion. Sediment production is perceived increase in both cases for the end of the century (27% and 50%, respectively). Seasonal disaggregation of the results revels that, while the most part of soil erosion is produced in winter months (DJF), the higher soil erosion variability for future periods is observed in summer (JJA). This behaviour is supported by the rainfall simulation analyse which highlighted this dual behaviour in precipitations.

  3. Estimation of Effective Soil Hydraulic Properties Using Data From High Resolution Gamma Densiometry and Tensiometers of Multi-Step-Outflow Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werisch, Stefan; Lennartz, Franz; Bieberle, Andre

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic Multi Step Outflow (MSO) experiments serve for the estimation of the parameters from soil hydraulic functions like e.g. the Mualem van Genuchten model. The soil hydraulic parameters are derived from outflow records and corresponding matric potential measurements from commonly a single tensiometer using inverse modeling techniques. We modified the experimental set up allowing for simultaneous measurements of the matric potential with three tensiometers and the water content using a high-resolution gamma-ray densiometry measurement system (Bieberle et al., 2007, Hampel et al., 2007). Different combinations of the measured time series were used for the estimation of effective soil hydraulic properties, representing different degrees of information of the "hydraulic reality" of the sample. The inverse modeling task was solved with the multimethod search algorithm AMALGAM (Vrugt et al., 2007) in combination with the Hydrus1D model (Šimúnek et al., 2008). Subsequently, the resulting effective soil hydraulic parameters allow the simulation of the MSO experiment and the comparison of model results with observations. The results show that the information of a single tensiometer together with the outflow record result in a set of effective soil hydraulic parameters producing an overall good agreement between the simulation and the observation for the location of the tensiometer. Significantly deviating results are obtained for the other tensiometer positions using this parameter set. Inclusion of more information, such as additional matric potential measurements with the according water contents within the optimization procedure lead to different, more representative hydraulic parameters which improved the overall agreement significantly. These findings indicate that more information about the soil hydraulic state variables in space and time are necessary to obtain effective soil hydraulic properties of soil core samples. Bieberle, A., Kronenberg, J., Schleicher, E

  4. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat), terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties–sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen–in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models–multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest regression (RFR), support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB)–were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June) were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices of

  5. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkuor, Gerald; Hounkpatin, Ozias K L; Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat), terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties-sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen-in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models-multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest regression (RFR), support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB)-were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June) were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices of redness

  6. High-resolution measurement and mapping of tungstate in waters, soils and sediments using the low-disturbance DGT sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Dong-Xing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Williams, Paul N. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Xu, Hua-Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Gang [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Luo, Jun, E-mail: esluojun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ma, Lena Q. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Two high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin-films samplers were characterized. • For the first time DGT was applied to study the bioavailability of W in soils. • 1D and 2D high resolution profiling of W fluxes across the SWI were obtained. • The apparent diffusion W fluxes across two micro-interfaces were calculated. - Abstract: Increasing tungsten (W) use for industrial and military applications has resulted in greater W discharge into natural waters, soils and sediments. Risk modeling of W transport and fate in the environment relies on measurement of the release/mobilization flux of W in the bulk media and the interfaces between matrix compartments. Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is a promising passive sampling technique to acquire such information. DGT devices equipped with the newly developed high-resolution binding gels (precipitated zirconia, PZ, or ferrihydrite, PF, gels) or classic/conventional ferrihydrite slurry gel were comprehensively assessed for measuring W in waters. {sup Ferrihydrite}DGT can measure W at various ionic strengths (0.001–0.5 mol L{sup −1} NaNO{sub 3}) and pH (4–8), while {sup PZ}DGT can operate across slightly wider environmental conditions. The three DGT configurations gave comparable results for soil W measurement, showing that typically W resupply is relatively poorly sustained. 1D and 2D high-resolution W profiling across sediment—water and hotspot—bulk media interfaces from Lake Taihu were obtained using {sup PZ}DGT coupled with laser ablation ICP–MS measurement, and the apparent diffusion fluxes across the interfaces were calculated using a numerical model.

  7. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  8. High-resolution headlamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  9. High-resolution mapping of soil moisture at the field scale using ground-penetrating radar for improving remote sensing data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, Sébastien; Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Phuong Tran, Anh; Nottebaere, Martijn; Leonard, Aline; Defourny, Pierre; Neyt, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture at various scales is essential in agricultural, hydrological, meteorological, and climatological research and applications. Soil moisture determines the boundary condition between the soil and the atmosphere and governs key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, root water uptake, evaporation, as well as energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. In that respect, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is of particular interest for field-scale soil moisture mapping as soil moisture is highly correlated to its permittivity, which controls radar wave propagation in the soil. Yet, accurate determination of the electrical properties of a medium using GPR requires full-wave inverse modeling, which has remained a major challenge in applied geophysics for many years. We present a new near-field radar modeling approach for wave propagation in layered media. Radar antennas are modeled using an equivalent set of infinitesimal electric dipoles and characteristic, frequency-dependent, global reflection and transmission coefficients. These coefficients determine wave propagation between the radar reference plane, point sources, and field points. The interactions between the antenna and the soil are inherently accounted for. The fields are calculated using three-dimensional Green's functions. We validated the model using both time and frequency domain radars. The radars were mounted on a quad and controlled by a computer for real-time radar and dGPS data acquisition. Several fields were investigated and time-lapse measurements were performed on some of them to analyze temporal stability in soil moisture patterns and the repeatability of the measurements. The results were compared to ground-truths. The proposed technique is presently being applied to improve space-borne remote sensing data products for soil moisture by providing high-resolution observational information that

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Małopolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecki, Wojciech; Wężyk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafrańska, Beata

    2014-06-01

    In 2011 the Marshal Office of Małopolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Małopolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Małopolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of

  11. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  12. High Resolution Acoustical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    1028 (September 1982). 26 G. Arfken , Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic Press, New York, 1971), 2nd printing, pp.662-666. 27 W. R. Hahn...difference in the approach used by the two methods , as noted in the previous paragraph, forming a direct mathematical com- parison may be impossible...examines high resolution methods which use a linear array to locate stationary objects which have scattered the fressure waves. Several;- new methods

  13. High resolution differential thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotra Z. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Main schematic solutions of differential thermometers with measurement resolution about 0.001°C are considered. Differential temperature primary transducer realized on a transistor differential circuit in microampere mode. Analytic calculation and schematic mathematic simulation of primary transducer are fulfilled. Signal transducer is realized on a high precision Zero-Drift Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail operation amplifier AD8552 and 24-Bit S-D microconverter ADuC834.

  14. High-resolution measurement and mapping of tungstate in waters, soils and sediments using the low-disturbance DGT sampling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dong-Xing; Williams, Paul N; Xu, Hua-Cheng; Li, Gang; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-10-05

    Increasing tungsten (W) use for industrial and military applications has resulted in greater W discharge into natural waters, soils and sediments. Risk modeling of W transport and fate in the environment relies on measurement of the release/mobilization flux of W in the bulk media and the interfaces between matrix compartments. Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is a promising passive sampling technique to acquire such information. DGT devices equipped with the newly developed high-resolution binding gels (precipitated zirconia, PZ, or ferrihydrite, PF, gels) or classic/conventional ferrihydrite slurry gel were comprehensively assessed for measuring W in waters. (Ferrihydrite)DGT can measure W at various ionic strengths (0.001-0.5molL(-1) NaNO3) and pH (4-8), while (PZ)DGT can operate across slightly wider environmental conditions. The three DGT configurations gave comparable results for soil W measurement, showing that typically W resupply is relatively poorly sustained. 1D and 2D high-resolution W profiling across sediment-water and hotspot-bulk media interfaces from Lake Taihu were obtained using (PZ)DGT coupled with laser ablation ICP-MS measurement, and the apparent diffusion fluxes across the interfaces were calculated using a numerical model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coupling a high resolution soil erosion model with an agro-ecosystem model of SOC dynamics. An approach to assess the potential environmental effect of the new Common Agricultural Policy on soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Schütt, Brigitta; Lugato, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    At the European Union level, the main mechanisms to promote a more sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture was introduced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform in 2003, through the Cross-compliance. According to this new regulation, the farmer support payments were regulated with respect to environmental, animal welfare and food safety standards. This brought to the Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC), firstly established by Council Regulation No. 1782/2003 and subsequently Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. The prevention of soil erosion and maintenance of soil organic matter were two of GAEC requirements, which each Member State was obliged to address through national standards such as: i) minimal soil cover maintenance (GAEC 4); ii) minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil loss (GAEC 5) and iii) maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices including ban on burning arable stubbles (GAEC 6). Although Member States are required to verify whether the farmers are compliant with the regulations (Cross-compliance), the environmental effect of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC) applications on erosion and carbon budgets are still little known and studied. To investigate the potential impacts of the GAEC, we coupled a high resolution erosion model based on Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with the CENTURY biogeochemical model (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421; 2016). The Italian arable land was selected as a study area, since it is well-known to be highly sensitive to soil erosion. Multi scenario modelling approach was undertaken, i.e., i) a baseline scenario without scenario excluding GAEC (pre 2003 period); ii) a present scenario including the current GAEC standards (post 2003 period), and iii) a technical potential scenario assuming that the GAEC standards were applied to the entire Italian arable land. The results show a 10.8% decrease, from

  16. Realtime infiltration process monitoring in macroporous soil - a plot-scale experiment accompanied by high-resolution time-lapse 3D GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Allroggen, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration and quick vertical redistribution of event water through rapid subsurface flow in soil structures is one of the key issues in hydrology. Although the importance of preferential flow is broadly recognised, our theories, observation techniques and modelling approaches lose grounds when the assumption of well-mixed states in REVs collapses. To characterise the combination of advective and diffusive flow is especially challenging. We have shown in earlier studies that a combination of TDR monitoring, dye- and salt-tracer recovery and time-lapse 3D GPR in irrigation experiments provides means to characterise infiltration dynamics at the plot- and hillslope-scale also in highly structured soils. We pinpointed that the spatial and temporal resolution requires special attention and improvement - particularly owing to the facts of high velocity (10-3 ms-1) of advective flow and small scale (10-2 m) of the respective flow structures. We present insights from a novel technique of continuous high-resolution time-lapse 3D GPR measurements during and after a plot-scale (1 m x 1 m) irrigation experiment. Continuous TDR soil moisture measurements, dye tracer excavation and salt-tracer samples are used as qualitative and quantitative references. While classical infiltration experiments either look at spatial patterns or temporal dynamics at singular gauges, we highlight the advantage of combining both to achieve a more complete image of the infiltration process. Although operating at the limits of the techniques this setup enables non-invasive observation of preferential flow processes in the field and allows to explore and characterise macropore matrix exchange.

  17. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, N.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture con

  18. Saturn's rings - high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  19. Evaluation of solid sampling for determination of Mo, Ni, Co, and V in soil by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babos, Diego Victor; Barros, Ariane Isis; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Neto, José Anchieta Gomes

    2017-04-01

    New methods are proposed for the determination of Mo, Ni, Co, and V in soils using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with direct solid sampling. Cobalt and V were simultaneously determined, and different analytical lines of Ni and V were monitored to adjust sensitivity for each sample. Accuracy was checked by means of soil certified reference materials, and also by flame atomic absorption spectrometry as comparative technique. The results for Mo, Ni, Co, and V found by proposed methods were in agreement with certified values and with those obtained by the comparative technique at 95% confidence level. The concentrations found in different soil samples were in the ranges 0.19-1.84 mg kg- 1 (Mo), 9.2-22.7 mg kg- 1 (Ni), 1.1-10.7 mg kg- 1 (Co), and 35.6-426.1 mg kg- 1 (V). The relative standard deviations were in the ranges 3.2-10% (Mo), 2.8-9.8% (Ni), 4.0-9.2% (Co), and 1.2-8.0% (V). The limits of quantification for Mo, Ni, Co, and V were 0.027, 0.071, 0.15, and 1.43 ng, respectively.

  20. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brünken, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limita...

  1. Integrated Processing of High Resolution Topographic Data for Soil Erosion Assessment Considering Data Acquisition Schemes and Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltner, A.; Schneider, D.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion is a decisive earth surface process strongly influencing the fertility of arable land. Several options exist to detect soil erosion at the scale of large field plots (here 600 m²), which comprise different advantages and disadvantages depending on the applied method. In this study, the benefits of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) are exploited to quantify soil surface changes. Beforehand data combination, TLS data is co-registered to the DEMs generated with UAV photogrammetry. TLS data is used to detect global as well as local errors in the DEMs calculated from UAV images. Additionally, TLS data is considered for vegetation filtering. Complimentary, DEMs from UAV photogrammetry are utilised to detect systematic TLS errors and to further filter TLS point clouds in regard to unfavourable scan geometry (i.e. incidence angle and footprint) on gentle hillslopes. In addition, surface roughness is integrated as an important parameter to evaluate TLS point reliability because of the increasing footprints and thus area of signal reflection with increasing distance to the scanning device. The developed fusion tool allows for the estimation of reliable data points from each data source, considering the data acquisition geometry and surface properties, to finally merge both data sets into a single soil surface model. Data fusion is performed for three different field campaigns at a Mediterranean field plot. Successive DEM evaluation reveals continuous decrease of soil surface roughness, reappearance of former wheel tracks and local soil particle relocation patterns.

  2. Micro-solid-phase extraction coupled to desorption electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of explosives in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Federica; Gregori, Adolfo; Braun, Gabriele; Crescenzi, Carlo; Careri, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Home-made micro-solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using different adsorbent materials were tested for the desorption electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) determination of explosives like 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine, cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and trinitrophenylmethylnitramine in soil samples. Quantitation limits in the low nanogram per kilogram range proved the reliability of the method for the detection of explosives at ultra-trace levels. The reduced sample preparation allowed for low costs and high-throughput analyses. Finally, the superior extraction capability of the method was proved by obtaining DESI-HRMS responses at least five times higher than those achieved by performing DESI-HRMS analyses of solid-liquid extracts spotted onto commercial polytetrafluoroethylene slides.

  3. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  4. Calibrating a large-extent high-resolution coupled groundwater-land surface model using soil moisture and discharge data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Jong, S.M. de; Geer, F.C. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the possibility of using remotely sensed soil moisture data and in situ discharge observations to calibrate a large-extent hydrological model. The model used is PCR-GLOBWB-MOD, which is a physically based and fully coupled groundwater-land surface model operating at a daily basis and havi

  5. Extracting Soil Water Holding Capacity Parameters of a Distributed Agro-Hydrological Model from High Resolution Optical Satellite Observations Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Ferrant

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-2 (S2 earth observation satellite mission, launched in 2015, is foreseen to promote within-field decisions in Precision Agriculture (PA for both: (1 optimizing crop production; and (2 regulating environmental impacts. In this second scope, a set of Leaf Area Index (LAI derived from S2 type time-series (2006–2010, using Formosat-2 satellite is used to spatially constrain the within-field crop growth and the related nitrogen contamination of surface water simulated at a small experimental catchment scale with the distributed agro-hydrological model Topography Nitrogen Transfer and Transformation (TNT2. The Soil Water Holding Capacity (SWHC, represented by two parameters, soil depth and retention porosity, is used to fit the yearly maximum of LAI (LAX at each pixel of the satellite image. Possible combinations of soil parameters, defining 154 realistic SWHC found on the study site are used to force spatially homogeneous SWHC. LAX simulated at the pixel level for the 154 SWHC, for each of the five years of the study period, are recorded and hereafter referred to as synthetic LAX. Optimal SWHCyear_I,pixel_j, corresponding to minimal difference between observed and synthetic LAXyear_I,pixel_j, is selected for each pixel, independent of the value at neighboring pixels. Each re-estimated soil maps are used to re-simulate LAXyear_I. Results show that simulated and synthetic LAXyear_I,allpixels obtained from SWHCyear_I,allpixels are close and accurately fit the observed LAXyear_I,allpixels (RMSE = 0.05 m2/m2 to 0.2 and R2 = 0.99 to 0.94, except for the year 2008 (RMSE = 0.8 m2/m2 and R2 = 0.8. These results show that optimal SWHC can be derived from remote sensing series for one year. Unique SWHC solutions for each pixel that limit the LAX error for the five years to less than 0.2 m2/m2 are found for only 10% of the pixels. Selection of unique soil parameters using multi-year LAX and neighborhood solution is expected to deliver more robust soil

  6. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  7. High-resolution monitoring across the soil-groundwater interface - Revealing small-scale hydrochemical patterns with a novel multi-level well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Niklas; Griebler, Christian; Stumpp, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical turnover processes in the subsurface are highly variable both in time and space. In order to capture this variability, high resolution monitoring systems are required. Particular in riparian zones the understanding of small-scale biogeochemical processes is of interest, as they are regarded as important buffer zones for nutrients and contaminants with high turnover rates. To date, riparian research has focused on influences of groundwater-surface water interactions on element cycling, but little is known about processes occurring at the interface between the saturated and the unsaturated zone during dynamic flow conditions. Therefore, we developed a new type of high resolution multi-level well (HR-MLW) that has been installed in the riparian zone of the Selke river. This HR-MLW for the first time enables to derive water samples both from the unsaturated and the saturated zone across one vertical profile with a spatial vertical resolution of 0.05 to 0.5 m to a depth of 4 m b.l.s. Water samples from the unsaturated zone are extracted via suction cup sampling. Samples from the saturated zone are withdrawn through glass filters and steel capillaries. Both, ceramic cups and glass filters, are installed along a 1" HDPE piezometer tube. First high resolution hydrochemical profiles revealed a distinct depth-zonation in the riparian alluvial aquifer. A shallow zone beneath the water table carried a signature isotopically and hydrochemically similar to the nearby river, while layers below 1.5 m were influenced by regional groundwater. This zonation showed temporal dynamics related to groundwater table fluctuations and microbial turnover processes. The HR-MLW delivered new insight into mixing and turnover processes between riverwater and groundwater in riparian zones, both in a temporal and spatial dimension. With these new insights, we are able to improve our understanding of dynamic turnover processes at the soil - groundwater interface and of surface

  8. Identifying Erosional Hotspots in Streams Along the North Shore of Lake Superior, Minnesota using High-Resolution Elevation and Soils Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Molly J.

    Many streams on the North Shore of Lake Superior, Minnesota, USA, are impaired for turbidity driven by excess fine sediment loading. The goal of this project was to develop a GIS-based model using new, openly-available, high-resolution remote datasets to predict erosional hotspots at a reach scale, based on three study watersheds: Amity Creek, the Talmadge River, and the French River. The ability to identify erosional hotspots, or locations that are highly susceptible to erosion, using remote data would be helpful for watershed managers in implementing practices to reduce turbidity in these streams. Erosion in streams is a balance between driving forces, largely controlled by topography; and resisting forces, controlled by the materials that make up a channel's bed and banks. New high-resolution topography and soils datasets for the North Shore provide the opportunity to extract these driving and resisting forces from remote datasets and possibly predict erosion potential and identify erosional hotspots. We used 3-meter LiDAR-derived DEMs to calculate a stream power-based erosion index, to identify stream reaches with high radius of curvature, and to identify stream reaches proximal to high bluffs. We used the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database to investigate changes in erodibility along the channel. Because bedrock exposure significantly limits erodibility, we investigated bedrock exposure using bedrock outcrop maps made available by the Minnesota Geological Survey (MGS, Hobbs, 2002; Hobbs, 2009), and by using a feature extraction tool to remotely map bedrock exposure using high-resolution air photos and LiDAR data. Predictions based on remote data were compared with two datasets. Bank Erosion Hazard Index surveys, which are surveys designed to evaluate erosion susceptibility of banks, were collected along the three streams. In addition, a 500-year flood event during our field season gave us the opportunity to collect erosion data after a major event and

  9. Characterizing Low Molecular Weight Organic Matter in Arctic Polygonal Tundra Soils to Identify Biogeochemical Hotspots Using a Dual-Separation, High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, M.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Iversen, C. M.; Hettich, R.

    2016-12-01

    Reliably modeling biogeochemical processes (e.g. decomposition, plant-microbial competition for nutrients) across spatial or temporal scales requires elucidating the chemical composition of low molecular weight (LMW) dissolved soil organic matter (DOM). Our understanding is limited, however, by the wide-ranging physicochemical properties and high fluxes of these compounds, posing major challenges in detection, isolation, and quantification. Here, we developed and evaluated a sensitive, non-targeted approach to characterize LMW DOM in the Arctic, a unique system that is warming at a rate twice that of the global average and may have significant feedbacks to global C and N cycles. Soil cores were collected from a continuous permafrost, polygonal tundra landscape near Barrow, Alaska (71° 16' N) and sectioned into 5 cm increments. Water and salt extracts from each section were filtered and injected onto C18 reversed-phase or zwitterionic-type hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ZIC-pHILIC) columns for separation. LMW DOM profiles were obtained using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and unique features, known and unknown, were characterized by LC retention time, accurate mass (m/z), and molecular fragmentation pattern. Coupling two orthogonal chromatographic separations with HRMS enabled the characterization of hundreds of analytes in a single measurement providing enhanced, high-throughput coverage of LMW DOM from soil extracts. The complexity and relative/absolute intensities of LMW DOM features (e.g. organic acids, amino sugars, peptides) varied across polygon type (high- or low-centered), extract condition, and with depth, providing an information-rich, molecular signal of LMW DOM availability across scales. Comprehensively profiling this complex mixture of small molecules of both biotic and abiotic origin provides a chemical signature of biological function, allowing for more reliable predictions of how discrete, molecular-scale processes may control

  10. Unearthing the Ecology of Soil Microorganisms Using a High Resolution DNA-SIP Approach to Explore Cellulose and Xylose Metabolism in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Campbell, Ashley N; Koechli, Chantal N; Berthrong, Sean; Buckley, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    We explored microbial contributions to decomposition using a sophisticated approach to DNA Stable Isotope Probing (SIP). Our experiment evaluated the dynamics and ecological characteristics of functionally defined microbial groups that metabolize labile and structural C in soils. We added to soil a complex amendment representing plant derived organic matter substituted with either (13)C-xylose or (13)C-cellulose to represent labile and structural C pools derived from abundant components of plant biomass. We found evidence for (13)C-incorporation into DNA from (13)C-xylose and (13)C-cellulose in 49 and 63 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. The types of microorganisms that assimilated (13)C in the (13)C-xylose treatment changed over time being predominantly Firmicutes at day 1 followed by Bacteroidetes at day 3 and then Actinobacteria at day 7. These (13)C-labeling dynamics suggest labile C traveled through different trophic levels. In contrast, microorganisms generally metabolized cellulose-C after 14 days and did not change to the same extent in phylogenetic composition over time. Microorganisms that metabolized cellulose-C belonged to poorly characterized but cosmopolitan soil lineages including Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes.

  11. Unearthing the ecology of soil microorganisms using a high resolution DNA-SIP approach to explore cellulose and xylose metabolism in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles ePepe-Ranney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We explored microbial contributions to decomposition using a sophisticated approach to DNA Stable Isotope Probing (SIP. Our experiment evaluated the dynamics and ecological characteristics of functionally defined microbial groups that metabolize labile and structural C in soils. We added to soil a complex amendment representing plant derived organic matter substituted with either 13C-xylose or 13C-cellulose to represent labile and structural C pools derived from abundant components of plant biomass. We found evidence for 13C-incorporation into DNA from 13C-xylose and 13C-cellulose in 49 and 63 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, respectively. The types of microorganisms that assimilated 13C in the 13C-xylose treatment changed over time being predominantly Firmicutes at day 1 followed by Bacteroidetes at day 3 and then Actinobacteria at day 7. These 13C-labeling dynamics suggest labile C traveled through different trophic levels. In contrast, microorganisms generally metabolized cellulose-C after 14 days and did not change to the same extent in phylogenetic composition over time. Microorganisms that metabolized cellulose-C belonged to poorly characterized but cosmopolitan soil lineages including Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes.

  12. Monitoring Surface Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw State with the High-Resolution Radar of the Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    km resolution and 6-hourly. Vegetation water content (VWC) was derived from MODIS NDVI data using a simple empirical relationship. Static fields...air temperature and precipitation ) derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project. The PWBM simulations are daily and are provided on a Northern

  13. Satellite constraint for emissions of nitrogen oxides from anthropogenic, lightning and soil sources over East China on a high-resolution grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-T. Lin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical column densities (VCDs of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 retrieved from space provide valuable information to estimate emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx inversely. Accurate emission attribution to individual sources, important both for understanding the global biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and for emission control, remains difficult. This study presents a regression-based multi-step inversion approach to estimate emissions of NOx from anthropogenic, lightning and soil sources individually for 2006 over East China on a 0.25° long × 0.25° lat grid, employing the DOMINO product version 2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. The inversion is done gridbox by gridbox to derive the respective emissions, taking advantage of differences in seasonality between anthropogenic and natural sources. Lightning and soil emissions are combined together for any given gridbox due to their similar seasonality; and their different spatial distributions are used implicitly for source separation to some extent. The nested GEOS-Chem model for East Asia is used to simulate the seasonal variations of different emission sources and impacts on VCDs of NO2 for the inversion purpose. Sensitivity tests are conducted to evaluate key assumptions embedded in the inversion process. The inverse estimate suggests annual budgets of about 7.1 TgN (±39%, 0.21 TgN (±61%, and 0.38 TgN (±65% for the a posteriori anthropogenic, lightning and soil emissions, respectively, about 18–23% higher than the respective a priori values. The enhancements in anthropogenic emissions are largest in cities and areas with extensive use of coal, particularly in the north in winter, as evident on the high-resolution grid. Derived soil emissions are consistent with recent bottom-up estimates. They are less than 6% of anthropogenic emissions annually, increasing to about 13% for July. Derived lightning emissions are about 3% of

  14. Validation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  15. Soil property maps of Africa at 250 m resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Bas; Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; MacMillan, Robert A.; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge S.; Shepherd, Keith; Sila, Andrew; Desta, Lulseged T.; Tondoh, Jérôme E.

    2015-04-01

    Vast areas of arable land in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from low soil fertility and physical soil constraints, and significant amounts of nutrients are lost yearly due to unsustainable soil management practices. At the same time it is expected that agriculture in Africa must intensify to meet the growing demand for food and fiber the next decades. Protection and sustainable management of Africa's soil resources is crucial to achieve this. In this context, comprehensive, accurate and up-to-date soil information is an essential input to any agricultural or environmental management or policy and decision-making model. In Africa, detailed soil information has been fragmented and limited to specific zones of interest for decades. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project was established in 2008. AfSIS builds on recent advances in digital soil mapping, infrared spectroscopy, remote sensing, (geo)statistics, and integrated soil fertility management to improve the way soils are evaluated, mapped, and monitored. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project has compiled two soil profile data sets (about 28,000 unique locations): the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy) database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site (new soil samples) database -- the two data sets represent the most comprehensive soil sample database of the African continent to date. In addition a large set of high-resolution environmental data layers (covariates) was assembled. The point data were used in the AfSIS project to generate a set of maps of key soil properties for the African continent at 250 m spatial resolution: sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, cation-exchange capacity, exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na), exchangeable acidity, and Al content. These properties were mapped for six depth intervals up to 2 m: 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, and 100-200 cm. Random forests modelling was used to

  16. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  17. High-Resolution Data for a Low-Resolution World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Brendan Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    In the past 15 years, the upper section of Cañon de Valle has been severely altered by wildfires and subsequent runoff events. Loss of root structures on high-angle slopes results in debris flow and sediment accumulation in the narrow canyon bottom. The original intent of the study described here was to better understand the changes occurring in watershed soil elevations over the course of several post-fire years. An elevation dataset from 5 years post-Cerro Grande fire was compared to high-resolution LiDAR data from 14 years post-Cerro Grande fire (also 3 years post-Las Conchas fire). The following analysis was motivated by a problematic comparison of these datasets of unlike resolution, and therefore focuses on what the data reveals of itself. The objective of this study is to highlight the effects vegetation can have on remote sensing data that intends to read ground surface elevation.

  18. High resolution digital delay timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  19. Integrating real-time and manual monitored data to predict hillslope soil moisture dynamics with high spatio-temporal resolution using linear and non-linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Zhiwen; Duncan, Emily W.; Lv, Ligang; Liao, Kaihua; Feng, Huihui

    2017-02-01

    Spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture (θ) is a challenge that remains to be better understood. A trade-off exists between spatial coverage and temporal resolution when using the manual and real-time θ monitoring methods. This restricted the comprehensive and intensive examination of θ dynamics. In this study, we integrated the manual and real-time monitored data to depict the hillslope θ dynamics with good spatial coverage and temporal resolution. Linear (stepwise multiple linear regression-SMLR) and non-linear (support vector machines-SVM) models were used to predict θ at 39 manual sites (collected 1-2 times per month) with θ collected at three real-time monitoring sites (collected every 5 mins). By comparing the accuracies of SMLR and SVM for each depth and manual site, an optimal prediction model was then determined at this depth of this site. Results showed that θ at the 39 manual sites can be reliably predicted (root mean square errors model. The subsurface flow dynamics was an important factor that determined whether the relationship was linear or non-linear. Depth to bedrock, elevation, topographic wetness index, profile curvature, and θ temporal stability influenced the selection of prediction model since they were related to the subsurface soil water distribution and movement. Using this approach, hillslope θ spatial distributions at un-sampled times and dates can be predicted. Missing information of hillslope θ dynamics can be acquired successfully.

  20. Public Release of 30-year (1979-2008) NLDAS High-resolution Products - Analysis and Validation for Soil Moisture and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y.; Ek, M. B.; Wood, E. F.; Luo, L.; Sheffield, J.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Livneh, B.; Mocko, D. M.; Cosgrove, B.; Meng, C. J.; Wei, H.; Koren, V.; Schaake, J. C.; Mo, K. C.; Mitchell, K.

    2009-12-01

    The NCEP Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) collaborated with its CPPA (Climate Prediction Program of the Americas) partners to develop a North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS, http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/nldas). The NLDAS includes multi-model analysis/monitoring products to focus on drought and flooding monitoring. NLDAS products consist of 30-year (1979-2008) retrospective and 0.5-year near realtime (2009-current time, with a 4-day lag) water (i.e., evapotranspiration, runoff, canopy evaporation, sublimation) and energy (sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, ground heat flux, net radiation) fluxes, and state (i.e., soil moisture with different layers, soil temperatures, snow water equivalent, snow depth, snow cover) variables with an hourly temporal resolution and a 1/8th degree spatial resolution for four land surface models (NCEP/Noah, NASA/Mosaic, OHD/SAC, and Princeton/VIC). This study used common hourly land surface forcing derived from NCEP's retrospective and realtime North American Regional Reanalysis System (NARR) except for precipitation. The precipitation forcing is anchored to a daily gauge-only precipitation analysis over CONUS that applies the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) correction. This daily precipitation analysis is then temporally disaggregated to hourly precipitation amounts using stage II radar and satellite retrieved precipitation products. The NARR-based surface downward solar radiation is bias-corrected using seven years (1997-2004) of GOES satellite-derived solar radiation retrievals. This presentation summarizes the NLDAS concept, configuration, forcing data, the four land surface models and their output. All 30-year hourly forcing and hourly outputs from four land surface models are stored on a NCEP public server, which can be download by public users. In this presentation, we analyze soil moisture and temperature for four models and validate them using the Illinois soil

  1. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils.

  2. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    carbon distribution as it relates to the presence of Bainite phase (with small tetragonality) interspersed among the cubic ferrite. An example of the...preferentially segregate. The view offered by these high resolution methods differs from what has been considered before: grains thought to be Bainite

  3. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    30 September 1986 Los Angeles Air Force Station 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Los Angeles, Calif. 90009-2960 36 74. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(If...TREE PLMUT ",-20 -CUTLIASS DumpER SED AN... TREE TRUNK, -0 - MERC BUMPER f - 40 H!-I -50 iI Fig. 7. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar View of

  4. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  5. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  6. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  7. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  8. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  9. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  10. High-resolution image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, K

    1986-01-01

    In many departments of cytology, cytogenetics, hematology, and pathology, research projects using high-resolution computerized microscopy are now being mounted for computation of morphometric measurements on various structural components, as well as for determination of cellular DNA content. The majority of these measurements are made in a partially automated, computer-assisted mode, wherein there is strong interaction between the user and the computerized microscope. At the same time, full automation has been accomplished for both sample preparation and sample examination for clinical determination of the white blood cell differential count. At the time of writing, approximately 1,000 robot differential counting microscopes are in the field, analyzing images of human white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets at the overall rate of about 100,000 slides per day. This mammoth through-put represents a major accomplishment in the application of machine vision to automated microscopy for hematology. In other areas of automated high-resolution microscopy, such as cytology and cytogenetics, no commercial instruments are available (although a few metaphase-finding machines are available and other new machines have been announced during the past year). This is a disappointing product, considering the nearly half century of research effort in these areas. This paper provides examples of the state of the art in automation of cell analysis for blood smears, cervical smears, and chromosome preparations. Also treated are new developments in multi-resolution automated microscopy, where images are now being generated and analyzed by a single machine over a range of 64:1 magnification and from 10,000 X 20,000 to 500 X 500 in total picture elements (pixels). Examples of images of human lymph node and liver tissue are presented. Semi-automated systems are not treated, although there is mention of recent research in the automation of tissue analysis.

  11. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  12. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  13. High-resolution slug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases.

  14. High-resolution land topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, Didier; Elachi, Charles

    2006-11-01

    After a description of the background, methods of production and some scientific uses of high-resolution land topography, we present the current status and the prospect of radar interferometry, regarded as one of the best techniques for obtaining the most global and the most accurate topographic maps. After introducing briefly the theoretical aspects of radar interferometry - principles, limits of operation and various capabilities -, we will focus on the topographic applications that resulted in an almost global topographic map of the earth: the SRTM map. After introducing the Interferometric Cartwheel system, we will build on its expected performances to discuss the scientific prospects of refining a global topographic map to sub-metric accuracy. We also show how other fields of sciences such as hydrology may benefit from the products generated by interferometric radar systems. To cite this article: D. Massonnet, C. Elachi, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  15. Retrospective farm scale spatial analysis of viticultural terroir fertility using a 70 y-aerial photograph time series, soil survey and very high resolution Pléiades and EM38 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    In order to elaborate adequate and sustainable practices while better controlling harvest composition at farm scale, the detailed spatial assessment of terroir units is needed. Although such assessment is made in the present time, it reflects vine behaviour and soil quality according to cumulated past choices in vineyard management. in addition to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones, there is a need, in cases where the winegrower starts up its activities, to retrace the behaviour of these zones in the past, so as to consolidate the diagnosis of vine fertility, and determine further adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. In this study we aimed at performing such historical and spatial tracing using a long term time-series of aerial survey images, in combination with a set of very high resolution data: resistivity EM38 measurements and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images. This study was conducted over a 6 ha-farm mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey carried out in January 2015 considered a total of 98 topsoil sampling sites in addition to 14 soil pits, the horizons of which were described and sampled. Physico-chemical analyses were made for all soil samples, and for those horizons having the highest root development, additional analytical parameters such as copper, active lime and mineral nutrients contents were determined. Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947

  16. High resolution land surface geophysical parameters estimation from ALOS PALSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    High resolution land surface geophysical products, such as soil moisture, surface roughness and vegetation water content, are essential for a variety of applications ranging from water management to regional climate predictions. In India high resolution geophysical products, in particular soil moist...

  17. High resolution emission tomography; Tomographie d`emission haute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Pinot, L.; Ploux, L.; Valda Ochoa, A.; Valentin, L. [Groupe I.P.B., Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    We have developed an original high resolution tomograph for in-vivo small animal imaging. A first prototype is under evaluation. Initial results of its characterisation are presented. (authors) 3 figs.

  18. Degradation studies of quizalofop-p and related compounds in soils using liquid chromatography coupled to low and high resolution mass analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Rosalía; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Fernández-Pérez, Manuel; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2017-12-31

    A comprehensive degradation study of quizalofop-p, quizalofop-p-ethyl, quizalofop-p-tefuryl and propaquizafop in soil samples have been firstly performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS). Thus, metabolites or degradation products, such as CHHQ (dihydroxychloroquinoxalin), CHQ (6-chloroquinoxalin-2-ol), PPA ((R)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propionic acid) and 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline were also monitored. An extraction procedure based on QuEChERS procedure was used. Acidified water (0.1M hydrochloric acid) and acidified acetonitrile (1% acetic acid, (v/v)) were used as extraction solvents, and magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were used as salts. Dispersive solid phase extraction with C18 as sorbent, was needed as a clean-up step. Several commercial products (Panarex®, Master-D® and Dixon®) were used to evaluate the degradation of the target compounds into their metabolites. The concentration of the main active substances (quizalofop-p-tefuryl, quizalofop-p-ethyl and propaquizafop) decreased during the degradation studies, whereas the concentration of quizalofop-p increased. Dissipation rates of half-live of quizalofop-p were also evaluated, and it was observed that this compound is easily degraded, obtaining values lower than 1day. Taking into account that quizalofop-p is the R enantiomer of quizalofop, a chiral separation was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, concluding that in samples containing quizalofop-p-tefuryl, there was a 15% contribution from the S enantiomer and a 85% contribution from the R enantiomer. Metabolites such as PPA, CHHQ and CHQ were detected in soil samples after 15days of application commercial product at concentrations between the limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantification (LOQ). CHQ and CHHQ were detected at concentrations higher than the LOQ in samples after 50 and 80days of application, with their concentration

  19. VT Hydrography Dataset - High Resolution NHD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) is compliant with the local resolution (also known as High Resolution) National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)...

  20. High-resolution infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  1. High-resolution neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikerov, V.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhitnik, I.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ignat`ev, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Isakov, A.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korneev, V.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krutov, V.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzin, S.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oparin, S.N. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pertsov, A.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podolyak, E.R. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sobel`man, I.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tindo, I.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tukarev, B.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A neutron tomography technique with a coordinate resolution of several tens of micrometers has been developed. Our results indicate that the technique resolves details with dimensions less than 100 {mu}m and measures a linear attenuation of less than {approx} 0.1 cm{sup -1}. Tomograms can be reconstructed using incomplete data. Limits on the resolution of the restored pattern are analyzed, and ways to improve the sensitivity of the technique are discussed. (orig.).

  2. Analysis of the relationship between the volumetric soil moisture content and the NDVI from high resolution multi-spectral images for definition of vineyard management zones to improve irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.; Ramos, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    As suggested by previous research in the field of precision viticulture, intra-field yield variability is dependent on the variation of soil properties, and in particular the soil moisture content. Since the mapping in detail of this soil property for precision viticulture applications is highly costly, the objective of the present research is to analyse its relationship with the normalised difference vegetation index from high resolution satellite images to the use it in the definition of vineyard zonal management. The final aim is to improve irrigation in commercial vineyard blocks for better management of inputs and to deliver a more homogeneous fruit to the winery. The study was carried out in a vineyard block located in Raimat (NE Spain, Costers del Segre Designation of Origin). This is a semi-arid area with continental Mediterranean climate and a total annual precipitation between 300-400 mm. The vineyard block (4.5 ha) is planted with Syrah vines in a 3x2 m pattern. The vines are irrigated by means of drips under a partial root drying schedule. Initially, the irrigation sectors had a quadrangular distribution, with a size of about 1 ha each. Yield is highly variable within the block, presenting a coefficient of variation of 24.9%. For the measurement of the soil moisture content a regular sampling grid of 30 x 40 m was defined. This represents a sample density of 8 samples ha-1. At the nodes of the grid, TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer) probe tubes were permanently installed up to the 80 cm or up to reaching a contrasting layer. Multi-temporal measures were taken at different depths (each 20 cm) between November 2006 and December 2007. For each date, a map of the variability of the profile soil moisture content was interpolated by means of geostatistical analysis: from the measured values at the grid points the experimental variograms were computed and modelled and global block kriging (10 m squared blocks) undertaken with a grid spacing of 3 m x 3 m. On the

  3. High resolution depth distribution of Bacteria, Archaea, methanotrophs, and methanogens in the bulk and rhizosphere soils of a flooded rice paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jung eLee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The communities and abundances of methanotrophs and methanogens, along with the oxygen, methane, and total organic carbon (TOC concentrations, were investigated along a depth gradient in a flooded rice paddy. Broad patterns in vertical profiles of oxygen, methane, TOC, and microbial abundances were similar in the bulk and rhizosphere soils, though methane and TOC concentrations and 16S rRNA gene copies were clearly higher in the rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil. Oxygen concentrations decreased sharply to below detection limits at the 8 mm depth. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that bacterial and archaeal communities varied according to the oxic, oxic-anoxic, and anoxic zones, indicating that oxygen is a determining factor for the distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities. Aerobic methanotrophs were maximally observed near the oxic-anoxic interface, while methane, TOC, and methanogens were highest in the rhizosphere soil at 30–200 mm depth, suggesting that methane is produced mainly from organic carbon derived from rice plants and is metabolized aerobically. The relative abundances of type I methanotrophs such as Methylococcus, Methylomonas, and Methylocaldum decreased more drastically than those of type II methanotrophs (such as Methylocystis and Methylosinus with increasing depth. Methanosaeta and Methanoregula were predominant methanogens at all depths, and the relative abundances of Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, and Methanosphaerula, and GOM_Arc_I increased with increasing depth. Based on contrasts between absolute abundances of methanogens and methanotrophs at depths sampled across rhizosphere and bulk soils (especially millimeter-scale slices at the surface, we have identified populations of methanogens (Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, Methanocella, Methanobacterium, and Methanosphaerula and methanotrophs (Methylosarcina, Methylococcus, Methylosinus, and unclassified Methylocystaceae that are likely physiologically

  4. Modelling the soil microclimate: does the spatial or temporal resolution of input parameters matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of predicting future impacts of environmental change on vulnerable populations is advancing the development of spatially explicit habitat models. Continental-scale climate and microclimate layers are now widely available. However, most terrestrial organisms exist within microclimate spaces that are very small, relative to the spatial resolution of those layers. We examined the effects of multi-resolution, multi-extent topographic and climate inputs on the accuracy of hourly soil temperature predictions for a small island generated at a very high spatial resolution (<1 m2 using the mechanistic microclimate model in NicheMapR. Achieving an accuracy comparable to lower-resolution, continental-scale microclimate layers (within about 2–3°C of observed values required the use of daily weather data as well as high resolution topographic layers (elevation, slope, aspect, horizon angles, while inclusion of site-specific soil properties did not markedly improve predictions. Our results suggest that large-extent microclimate layers may not provide accurate estimates of microclimate conditions when the spatial extent of a habitat or other area of interest is similar to or smaller than the spatial resolution of the layers themselves. Thus, effort in sourcing model inputs should be focused on obtaining high resolution terrain data, e.g., via LiDAR or photogrammetry, and local weather information rather than in situ sampling of microclimate characteristics.

  5. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  6. DESIR high resolution separator at GANIL, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution separator for the SPIRAL2/DESIR project at GANIL has been designed. The extracted isotopes from SPIRAL2 will be transported to and cooled in a RFQ cooler yielding beams with very low transverse emittance and energy spread. These beams will then be accelerated to 60 keV and sent to a high-resolution mass separator where a specific isotope will be selected. The good beam properties extracted from the RFQ cooler will allow one to obtain a mass resolution of č26000 with the high-resolution mass separator.

  7. High-resolution spatial patterns of Soil Organic Carbon content derived from low-altitude aerial multi-band imagery on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted,UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana Jague, Emilien; Goulding, Keith; Heckrath, Goswin; Macdonald, Andy; Poulton, Paul; Stevens, Antoine; Van Wesemael, Bas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    patterns of SOC at a very high spatial resolution (< 10cm) (ii) to quantify the uncertainties on the predictions and potential of the method for monitoring SOC changes in experimental plots. This study used multi-band images with wavelengths between 450-1000nm taken at low altitude and at the landscape scale with a Tetracam Mini-MCA6. Images were taken of plots on section 9 on Broadbalk (continuous wheat) in November 2013 using a UAV-platform (Octocopter) at an altitude of 120m. The different images obtained were corrected for vignetting, noise and geometric deformation then stitched and georeferenced; the radiance was converted for reflectance with white calibration panels. Also, the vegetation effect (a cover mean of 10%) was removed by linear spectral unmixing. Finally, the spectra was calibrated and validated with SOC (0-5cm) measurements from 57 soil samples (37 calibration samples and 20 for the validation) taken along transect. The resulting map of SOC contents has a resolution of 10cm and an associated error of about the same magnitude as that for routine laboratory analyses (i.e. 0.2%). The map shows clear differences between plots relating to the different long-term fertilizer and organic manure inputs.

  8. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution...

  9. High resolution studies of massive primordial haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2012-01-01

    Atomic cooling haloes with T_vir > 10^4 K are the most plausible sites for the formation of the first galaxies. In this article, we aim to study the implications of gravity driven turbulence in protogalactic haloes. By varying the resolution per Jeans length, we explore whether the turbulent cascade is resolved well enough to obtain converged results. We have performed high resolution cosmological simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo including a subgrid-scale turbulence model to study the role of unresolved turbulence. We compared the results of three different Jeans resolutions from 16 to 64 cells. While radially averaged profiles roughly agree at different resolutions, differences in the morphology reveal that even the highest resolution employed provides no convergence. Moreover, taking into account unresolved turbulence significantly influences the morphology of a halo. We have quantified the properties of the high-density clumps in the halo. These clumps are gravitationally unbound wi...

  10. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be...

  11. High range resolution micro-Doppler analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammenga, Zachary A.; Smith, Graeme E.; Baker, Christopher J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses use of the micro-Doppler effect and the use of high range-resolution profiles to observe complex targets in complex target scenes. The combination of micro-Doppler and high range-resolution provides the ability to separate the motion of complex targets from one another. This ability leads to the differentiation of targets based on their micro-Doppler signatures. Without the high-range resolution, this would not be possible because the individual signatures would not be separable. This paper also addresses the use of the micro-Doppler information and high range-resolution profiles to generate an approximation of the scattering properties of a complex target. This approximation gives insight into the structure of the complex target and, critically, is created without using a pre-determined target model.

  12. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  13. Hydrologic Soil Group for the Upper Colorado River Basin in Daymet Climate Data resolution (hsg_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — hsg_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt is an Esri ASCII grid representing the hydrologic soil group (HSG) for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The HSG for an area is...

  14. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  15. 4MOST: the high-resolution spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, W.; Xu, W.; Buschkamp, P.; Feiz, C.; Saviauk, A.; Barden, S.; Quirrenbach, A.; Mandel, H.

    2016-08-01

    4MOST (4-meter Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope) is a wide-field, fiber-feed, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility to be installed on the 4-meter ESO telescope VISTA in Chile. It consists of two identical low resolution spectrographs and one high resolution spectrograph. The instrument is presently in the preliminary design phase and expected to get operational end of 2022. The high resolution spectrograph will afford simultaneous observations of up to 812 targets - over a hexagonal field of view of 4.1 sq.degrees on sky - with a spectral resolution R>18,000 covering a wavelength range from 393 to 679nm in three channels. In this paper we present the optical and mechanical design of the high resolution spectrograph (HRS) as prepared for the review at ESO, Garching. The expected performance including the highly multiplexed fiber slit concept is simulated and its impact on the optical performance given. We show the thermal and finite element analyses and the resulting stability of the spectrograph under operational conditions.

  16. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  17. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  18. Single shot high resolution digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; Ali, P T Samsheer; Joseph, Joby

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate a novel computational method for high resolution image recovery from a single digital hologram frame. The complex object field is obtained from the recorded hologram by solving a constrained optimization problem. This approach which is unlike the physical hologram replay process is shown to provide high quality image recovery even when the dc and the cross terms in the hologram overlap in the Fourier domain. Experimental results are shown for a Fresnel zone hologram of a resolution chart, intentionally recorded with a small off-axis reference beam angle. Excellent image recovery is observed without the presence of dc or twin image terms and with minimal speckle noise.

  19. Customized MFM probes with high lateral resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Iglesias-Freire

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic force microscopy (MFM is a widely used technique for magnetic imaging. Besides its advantages such as the high spatial resolution and the easy use in the characterization of relevant applied materials, the main handicaps of the technique are the lack of control over the tip stray field and poor lateral resolution when working under standard conditions. In this work, we present a convenient route to prepare high-performance MFM probes with sub-10 nm (sub-25 nm topographic (magnetic lateral resolution by following an easy and quick low-cost approach. This allows one to not only customize the tip stray field, avoiding tip-induced changes in the sample magnetization, but also to optimize MFM imaging in vacuum (or liquid media by choosing tips mounted on hard (or soft cantilevers, a technology that is currently not available on the market.

  20. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Hardy, Matt; Kang, Seong Jun; Barton, Kira; Adair, Kurt; Mukhopadhyay, Deep Kishore; Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S.; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Georgiadis, John G.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Rogers, John A.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has some features in common with related but comparatively low-resolution techniques for graphic arts, are revealed through direct high-speed imaging of the droplet formation processes. Printing of complex patterns of inks, ranging from insulating and conducting polymers, to solution suspensions of silicon nanoparticles and rods, to single-walled carbon nanotubes, using integrated computer-controlled printer systems illustrates some of the capabilities. High-resolution printed metal interconnects, electrodes and probing pads for representative circuit patterns and functional transistors with critical dimensions as small as 1μm demonstrate potential applications in printed electronics.

  1. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Xiangqian; Mugler, Dale H; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the gastrointestinal tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this letter we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 {\\mu}m. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle income countries.

  2. Slurry sampling high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for direct beryllium determination in soil and sediment samples after elimination of SiO interference by least-squares background correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Lenka; Urbanová, Iva; Šafránková, Michaela; Šídová, Tereza

    2017-12-01

    In this work a simple, efficient, and environmentally-friendly method is proposed for determination of Be in soil and sediment samples employing slurry sampling and high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-ETAAS). The spectral effects originating from SiO species were identified and successfully corrected by means of a mathematical correction algorithm. Fractional factorial design has been employed to assess the parameters affecting the analytical results and especially to help in the development of the slurry preparation and optimization of measuring conditions. The effects of seven analytical variables including particle size, concentration of glycerol and HNO3 for stabilization and analyte extraction, respectively, the effect of ultrasonic agitation for slurry homogenization, concentration of chemical modifier, pyrolysis and atomization temperature were investigated by a 2(7-3) replicate (n = 3) design. Using the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method allowed the determination of Be with a detection limit being 0.016mgkg(-1) and characteristic mass 1.3pg. Optimum results were obtained after preparing the slurries by weighing 100mg of a sample with particle size acid was found satisfactory for the analyte stabilization. Accurate data were obtained with the use of matrix-free calibration. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2702 Inorganics in Marine Sediment and IGI BIL-1 Baikal Bottom Silt) and by comparison of the results obtained for ten real samples by slurry sampling with those determined after microwave-assisted extraction by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-ICP-MS). The reported method has a precision better than 7%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The importance of spatial resolution and convective parameterisation in modelling soil moisture - precipitation feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Taylor, Christopher M.; Roberts, Malcolm; Marsham, John H.

    2017-04-01

    precipitation occurring preferentially over dry soils in most regions, particularly in semi-arid locations. This is consistent with observations, but inconsistent with past analyses of climate models. At the coarsest resolution the results are sensitive to the time of day used for the analysis, and this may explain some of this discrepancy. Surface flux composites show that at high resolutions, both with and without the parameterisation, rainfall occurs preferentially over surface flux boundaries, rather than being a clear dry-soil advantage. This is consistent with surface-flux heterogeneities driving convergence over the boundaries, as seen in observations, and suggests that the parameterisation is getting the right answer for the right reasons. A binary wet-soil/dry-soil advantage may therefore not always be appropriate to evaluate models. At coarser resolutions there is a clearer dry advantage, which could be either due to differences in the coupling at coarser scales, or model bias.

  4. The future of high resolution electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Van Dyck

    2000-01-01

    The state of the art and the future in quantitative high resolution electron microscopy are discussed in the framework of parameter estimation. Reconstruction methods are then to be considered as direct methods to yield a starting structure for further refinement. With the increasing flexibility of the instruments, computer aided experimental strategy will become important.

  5. High resolution spectroscopy of planet bearing stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gálvez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first steps of an extended spectroscopic survey in order to characterize the stellar hosts of extra-solar planets. We have selected several known stars with plan- ets and using high resolution spectroscopy, we have studied their properties.

  6. High-resolution seismic profiling on water

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    Herein is presented an overview of high-resolution seismic profiling on water. Included are basic concepts and terminology as well as discussions of types of sources and receivers, field practice, data recording and data processing. Emphasis is on digital single-channel profiling for engineering and environmental purposes.

  7. Compact high-resolution spectral phase shaper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; Walle, van der P.; Offerhaus, H.L.; Hulst, van N.F.

    2005-01-01

    The design and operation of a high-resolution spectral phase shaper with a footprint of only 7×10 cm2 is presented. The liquid-crystal modulator has 4096 elements. More than 600 independent degrees of freedom can be positioned with a relative accuracy of 1 pixel. The spectral shaping of pulses fro

  8. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  9. Compressive sensing for high resolution radar imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present some preliminary results on the application of Compressive Sensing (CS) to high resolution radar imaging. CS is a recently developed theory which allows reconstruction of sparse signals with a number of measurements much lower than what is required by the Shannon sampling th

  10. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  11. High-resolution traction force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Sergey V; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Waterman, Clare M

    2014-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D; Hörlein, R; Kiefer, D; Letzring, S; Gautier, D C; Schramm, U; Hübsch, C; Öhm, R; Albright, B J; Fernandez, J C; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the development of a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola for simultaneously resolving protons and low-Z ions of more than 100 MeV/nucleon necessary to explore novel laser ion acceleration schemes. High electric and magnetic fields enable energy resolutions of ΔE∕E parabola for ion energies of more than 30 MeV/nucleon.

  13. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xuben; Li Zhirong; Li Qiong; Li Zhengwen

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  14. Progress toward high resolution EUV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendyke, C.; Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H.; Young, P. R.; Chua, D.; Hassler, D. M.; Landi, E.; Davila, J. M.; Klimchuck, J.; Tun, S.; DeForest, C.; Mariska, J. T.; Solar C Spectroscopy Working Group; LEMUR; EUVST Development Team

    2013-07-01

    HIgh resolution EUV spectroscopy is a critical instrumental technique to understand fundamental physical processes in the high temperature solar atmosphere. Spectroscopic observations are used to measure differential emission measure, line of sight and turbulent flows, plasma densities and emission measures. Spatially resolved, spectra of these emission lines with adequate cadence will provide the necessary clues linking small scale structures with large scale, energetic solar phenomena. The necessary observations to determine underlying physical processes and to provide comprehensive temperature coverage of the solar atmosphere above the chromosphere will be obtained by the proposed EUVST instrument for Solar C. This instrument and its design will be discussed in this paper. Progress on the VEry high Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (VERIS) sounding rocket instrument presently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory will also be discussed.

  15. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hau, Ionel Dragos [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  16. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis.

  17. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubor, Nenad M.

    2005-05-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  18. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubor, Nenad M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  19. High-resolution TOF with RPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, P. E-mail: fonte@lipc.fis.uc.pt; Peskov, V

    2002-01-21

    In this work, we describe some recent results concerning the application of Resistive Plate Chambers operated in avalanche mode at atmospheric pressure for high-resolution time-of-flight measurements. A combination of multiple, mechanically accurate, thin gas gaps and state-of-the-art electronics yielded an overall (detector plus electronics) timing accuracy better than 50 ps {sigma} with a detection efficiency up to 99% for MIPs. Single gap chambers were also tested in order to clarify experimentally several aspects of the mode of operation of these detectors. These results open perspectives of affordable and reliable high granularity large area TOF detectors, with an efficiency and time resolution comparable to the existing scintillator-based TOF technology but with a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel.

  20. Structural High-resolution Satellite Image Indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Gui-Song; YANG, WEN; Delon, Julie; Gousseau, Yann; Sun, Hong; Maître, Henri

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Satellite images with high spatial resolution raise many challenging issues in image understanding and pattern recognition. First, they allow measurement of small objects maybe up to 0.5 m, and both texture and geometrical structures emerge simultaneously. Second, objects in the same type of scenes might appear at different scales and orientations. Consequently, image indexing methods should combine the structure and texture information of images and comply with some i...

  1. Stellar Tools for High Resolution Population Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Buzzoni, A.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the application of a new stellar library of high-resolution synthetic spectra (based upon ATLAS9 and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz) in the calculation of the ultraviolet-optical spectral energy distribution of simple stellar populations (SSPs). For this purpose, the library has been coupled with Buzzoni's population synthesis code. Part of this paper is also devoted to illustrate quantitatively the extent to which synthetic stellar libraries represent real stars.

  2. Petrous apex mucocele: high resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memis, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Memis, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Alper, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Calli, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozer, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozdamar, N. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    1994-11-01

    Mucocele of the petrous apex is very rare, only three cases having been reported. Since this area is inaccessible to direct examination, imaging, preferably high resolution computed tomography (HR CT) is essential. We report a case showing an eroding, non enhancing mass with sharp, lobulated contours, within the petrous apex. The presence of a large air cell on the opposite side suggested a mucocele. (orig.)

  3. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1969-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  4. High Speed and High Resolution Table-Top Nanoscale Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tadesse, G K; Demmler, S; HÄdrich, S; Wahyutama, I; Steinert, M; Spielmann, C; ZÜrch, M; TÜnnermann, A; Limpert, J; Rothhardt, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a table-top coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) experiment based on high-order harmonics generated at 18 nm by a high average power femtosecond fiber laser system. The high photon flux, narrow spectral bandwidth and high degree of spatial coherence allow for ultra-high sub-wavelength resolution imaging at a high numerical aperture. Our experiments demonstrate a half-pitch resolution of 13.6 nm, very close to the actual Abbe-limit of 12.4 nm, which is the highest resolution achieved from any table-top XUV or X-ray microscope. In addition, 20.5 nm resolution was achieved with only 3 sec of integration time bringing live diffraction imaging and 3D tomography on the nanoscale one step closer to reality. The current resolution is solely limited by the wavelength and the detector size. Thus, table-top nanoscopes with only a few-nm resolutions are in reach and will find applications in many areas of science and technology.

  5. High Sensitivity, High Frequency and High Time Resolution Decimetric Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Rosa, R. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha desarrollado el primer espectroscopio decimetrico latino americano operando en una banda de 100 MHz con alta resoluci6n de fre- cuencia (100 KHz) y tiempo (10 ms), alrededor de cualquier centro de frecuencia en el intervalo de 2000-200 MHz. El prop6sito de esta nota es describir investigaciones solares y no solares que se planean, progra ma de investigaci6n y la situaci6n actual de desarrollo de este espectroscopio. ABSTRACT. First Latin American Decimetric Spectroscope operating over a band of 100 MHz with high resolution in frequency (100 KHz) and time (10 ms), around any center frequency in the range of 2000-200 MHz is being developed. The purpose of this note is to describe planned solar, and non-solar, research programmes and present status of development of this spectroscope. Keq wo : INSTRUMENTS - SPECTROSCOPY

  6. High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Iván; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Robin; Córdova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocío; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis. PMID:20890447

  7. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  8. Modeling Carbon Dynamics in Paddy Soils in Jiangsu Province of China with Soil Databases Differing in Spatial Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng-Xiang; SHI Xue-Zheng; ZHAO Yong-Cun; YU Dong-Sheng; WANG Shi-Hang; ZHANG Li-Ming; C. S. LI; TAN Man-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    A number of process-based models have been developed for quantifying carbon (C) sequestration in ago-ecosystems.The DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model was used to simulate and quantify long-term (1980-2008) soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in the important rice-producing province,Jiangsu,China.Changes in SOC storages were estimated from two soil databases differing in spatial resolution:a county database consisting of 68 polygons and a soil patch-based database of 701 polygons for all 3.7 Mha of rice fields in Jiangsu.The simulated SOC storage with the coarse resolution county database ranged between 131.0-320.6 Tg C in 1980 and 170.3-305.1 Tg C in 2008,respectively,while that estimated with the fine resolution database was 201.6 and 216.2 Tg C in 1980 and 2008,respectively.The results modeled with the soil databases differing in spatial resolution indicated that using the soil input data with higher resolution substantially increased the accuracy of the modeled results; and when lacking detailed soil datasets,the DNDC model,parameterized with the most sensitive factor (MSF) method to cope with attribute uncertainty,could still produce acceptable results although with deviations of up to 60% for the case study reported in this paper.

  9. Spatial resolution effects on the assessment of evapotranspiration in olive orchards using high resolution thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cristina; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Allen, Richard G.

    2013-04-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques for estimating surface energy balance and water consumption has significantly improved the characterization of the agricultural systems by determining accurate information about crop evapotranspiration and stress, mainly for extensive crops. However the use of these methodologies for woody crops has been low due to the difficulty in the accurate characterization of these crops, mainly caused by a coarse resolution of the imagery provided by the most widely used satellites (such as Landsat 5 and 7). The coarse spatial resolution provided by these satellite sensors aggregates into a single pixel the tree crown, sunlit and shaded soil components. These surfaces can each exhibit huge differences in temperature, albedo and vegetation indexes calculated in the visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared regions. Recent studies have found that the use of energy balance approaches can provide useful results for non-homogeneous crops (Santos et al., 2012) but detailed analysis is required to determine the effect of the spatial resolution and the aggregation of the scene components in these heterogeneous canopies. In this study a comparison between different spatial resolutions has been conducted using images from Landsat 7 (with thermal resolution of 60m) and from an airborne thermal (with resolution of 80 cm) flown over olive orchards at different dates coincident with the Landsat overpass. The high resolution thermal imagery was resampled at different scales to generate images with spatial resolution ranging from 0.8 m up to 120m (thermal resolution for Landsat 5 images). The selection of the study area was made to avoid those areas with missing Landsat 7 data caused by SLC-off gaps. The selected area has a total area of around 2500 ha and is located in Southern Spain, in the province of Malaga. The selected area is mainly cultivated with olive orchards with different crop practices (rainfed, irrigated, high density, young and adult

  10. Methods to assess high-resolution subsurface gas concentrations and gas fluxes in wetland ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Kühl, Michael; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for measurements of soil gas concentrations and surface fluxes of greenhouse gases at high temporal and spatial resolution in wetland ecosystem has lead to the introduction of several new analytical techniques and methods. In addition to the automated flux chamber methodology for high......-resolution estimates of greenhouse gas fluxes across the soil-atmosphere interface, these high-resolution methods include microsensors for quantification of spatiotemporal concentration dynamics in O2 and N2O at micrometer scales, fiber-optic optodes for long-term continuous point measurements of O2 concentrations...... and peat soils are highly heterogeneous, containing a mosaic of dynamic macropore systems created by both macrofauna and flora leading to distinct spatial and temporal variations in gas concentration on a scale of millimeters and minutes. Applications of these new methodologies allow measurements...

  11. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  12. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  13. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Stolzenberg, U; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D images of the radiation length of thin planar objects. At the heart of the $X$/$X_0$ imaging is a spatially resolved measurement of the scattering angles of particles traversing the object under study. The main challenges are the alignment of the reference telescope and the calibration of its angular resolution. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of $X$/$X_0$ imaging, a test beam experiment has been conducted. The devices under test were two mechanical prototype modules of the Belle II vertex detector. A data sample of ...

  14. High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single ImageSuper Resolution Algorithm Super Resolution Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    process of the SRF algorithm, we were able to further increase the mean PSNR score of the high resolution estimated data from previously used bicubic...This meant that implementing the edited variance before the bicubic estimates were created caused the mean PSNR to increase the most, and all...interpolation (by about 1 dB). Figure 7: PSNR comparison (with mean scores) between Bicubic Interpolation and SRF Figure 7 shows the comparison between

  15. High-time Resolution Astrophysics and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Shearer, Andy

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of pulsars in 1968 heralded an era where the temporal characteristics of detectors had to be reassessed. Up to this point detector integration times would normally be measured in minutes rather seconds and definitely not on sub-second time scales. At the start of the 21st century pulsar observations are still pushing the limits of detector telescope capabilities. Flux variations on times scales less than 1 nsec have been observed during giant radio pulses. Pulsar studies over the next 10 to 20 years will require instruments with time resolutions down to microseconds and below, high-quantum quantum efficiency, reasonable energy resolution and sensitive to circular and linear polarisation of stochastic signals. This chapter is review of temporally resolved optical observations of pulsars. It concludes with estimates of the observability of pulsars with both existing telescopes and into the ELT era.

  16. Novel high-resolution VGA QWIP detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, H.; Asplund, C.; Lindberg, A.; Smuk, S.; Alverbro, J.; Evans, D.; Sehlin, S.; Becanovic, S.; Tinghag, P.; Höglund, L.; Sjöström, F.; Costard, E.

    2017-02-01

    Continuing with its legacy of producing high performance infrared detectors, IRnova introduces its high resolution LWIR IDDCA (Integrated Detector Dewar Cooler assembly) based on QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector) technology. The Focal Plane Array (FPA) has 640×512 pixels, with small (15μm) pixel pitch, and is based on the FLIRIndigo ISC0403 Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). The QWIP epitaxial structures are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at IRnova. Detector stability and response uniformity inherent to III/V based material will be demonstrated in terms of high performing detectors. Results showing low NETD at high frame rate will be presented. This makes it one of the first 15μm pitch QWIP based LWIR IDDCA commercially available on the market. High operability and stability of our other QWIP based products will also be shared.

  17. High-Temporal-Resolution High-Spatial-Resolution Spaceborne SAR Based on Continuously Varying PRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Zhirong; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Fang, Yue

    2017-07-25

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a well-established and powerful imaging technique for acquiring high-spatial-resolution images of the Earth's surface. With the development of beam steering techniques, sliding spotlight and staring spotlight modes have been employed to support high-spatial-resolution applications. In addition to this strengthened high-spatial-resolution and wide-swath capability, high-temporal-resolution (short repeat-observation interval) represents a key capability for numerous applications. However, conventional SAR systems are limited in that the same patch can only be illuminated for several seconds within a single pass. This paper considers a novel high-squint-angle system intended to acquire high-spatial-resolution spaceborne SAR images with repeat-observation intervals varying from tens of seconds to several minutes within a single pass. However, an exponentially increased range cell migration would arise and lead to a conflict between the receive window and 'blind ranges'. An efficient data acquisition technique for high-temporal-resolution, high-spatial-resolution and high-squint-angle spaceborne SAR, in which the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is continuously varied according to the changing slant range, is presented in this paper. This technique allows echo data to remain in the receive window instead of conflicting with the transmitted pulse or nadir echo. Considering the precision of hardware, a compromise and practical strategy is also proposed. Furthermore, a detailed performance analysis of range ambiguities is provided with respect to parameters of TerraSAR-X. For strong point-like targets, the range ambiguity of this technique would be better than that of uniform PRF technique. For this innovative technique, a resampling strategy and modified imaging algorithm have been developed to handle the non-uniformly sampled echo data. Simulations are performed to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique and the associated

  18. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  19. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  20. Novel high resolution tactile robotic fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Jankovics, Vince; Gorsic, Matija

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel robotic fingertip based on piezoresistive rubber that can sense pressure tactile stimuli with a high spatial resolution over curved surfaces. The working principle is based on a three-layer sandwich structure (conductive electrodes on top and bottom and piezoresistive...... with specialized data acquisition electronics that acquire 500 frames per second provides rich information regarding contact force, shape and angle for bio- inspired robotic fingertips. Furthermore, a model of estimating the force of contact based on values of the cells is proposed....

  1. Fast Backprojection Techniques for High Resolution Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Koshev, Nikolay; Miqueles, Eduardo X

    2016-01-01

    Fast image reconstruction techniques are becoming important with the increasing number of scientific cases in high resolution micro and nano tomography. The processing of the large scale three-dimensional data demands new mathematical tools for the tomographic reconstruction task because of the big computational complexity of most current algorithms as the sizes of tomographic data grow with the development of more powerful acquisition hardware and more refined scientific needs. In the present paper we propose a new fast back-projection operator for the processing of tomographic data and compare it against other fast reconstruction techniques.

  2. Operating mode of high pressure straws with high spatial resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Davkov, K I; Peshekhonov, V D; Cholakov, V D

    2013-01-01

    The article presents results of studying the operating mode of thin-walled drift tubes (straws) at flushing it with a high-pressure gas mixture, which allowed obtaining extremely high spatial resolution for straw detectors. The results of studying the radiation ageing of straws operating in this mode are also described.

  3. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  4. Crusta: Visualizing High-resolution Global Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, T. S.; Kreylos, O.; Bowles, C. J.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual globes have become indispensable tools for visualizing, understanding and presenting data from Earth and other planetary bodies. The scientific community has invested much effort into exploiting existing globes to their fullest potential by refining and adapting their capabilities to better satisfy specific needs. For example, Google Earth provides users with the ability to view hillshade images derived from airborne LiDAR data such as the 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope data. However, because most available globes were not designed with the specific needs of geoscientists in mind, shortcomings are becoming increasingly evident in geoscience applications such as terrain visualization. In particular, earth scientists struggle to visualize digital elevation models with both high spatial resolution (0.5 - 1 square meters per sample) and large extent (>2000 square kilometers), such as those obtained with airborne LiDAR. To address the specific earth science need of real-time terrain visualization of LiDAR data, we are developing Crusta as part of a close collaboration involving earth and computer scientists. Crusta is a new virtual globe that differs from widely used globes by both providing accurate global data representation and the ability to easily visualize custom topographic and image data. As a result, Crusta enables real-time, interactive visualization of high resolution digital elevation data spanning thousands of square kilometers, such as the complete 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR data set. To implement an accurate data representation and avoid distortion of the display at the poles, where other projections have singularities, Crusta represents the globe as a thirty-sided polyhedron. Each side of this polyhedron can be subdivided to an arbitrarily fine grid on the surface of the globe, which allows Crusta to accommodate input data of arbitrary resolution ranging from global (e.g., Blue Marble) to local (e.g., a tripod

  5. High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-07-01

    original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

  6. Distributed Modeling with Parflow using High Resolution LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Urban landscapes provide a challenging domain for the application of distributed surface-subsurface hydrologic models. Engineered water infrastructure and altered topography influence surface and subsurface flow paths, yet these effects are difficult to quantify. In this work, a parallel, distributed watershed model (ParFlow) is used to simulate urban watersheds using spatial data at the meter and sub-meter scale. An approach using GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is presented that incorporates these data to construct inputs for the ParFlow simulation. LIDAR topography provides the basis for the fully coupled overland flow simulation. Methods to address real discontinuities in the urban land-surface for use with the grid-based kinematic wave approximation used in ParFlow are presented. The spatial distribution of impervious surface is delineated accurately from high-resolution land cover data; hydrogeological properties are specified from literature values. An application is presented for part of the Dead Run subwatershed of the Gwynns Falls in Baltimore County, MD. The domain is approximately 3 square kilometers, and includes a highly impacted urban stream, a major freeway, and heterogeneous urban development represented at a 10-m horizontal resolution and 1-m vertical resolution. This resolution captures urban features such as building footprints and highways at an appropriate scale. The Dead Run domain provides an effective test case for ParFlow application at the fine scale in an urban environment. Preliminary model runs employ a homogeneous subsurface domain with no-flow boundaries. Initial results reflect the highly articulated topography of the road network and the combined influence of surface runoff from impervious surfaces and subsurface flux toward the channel network. Subsequent model runs will include comparisons of the coupled surface-subsurface response of alternative versions of the Dead Run domain with and without impervious

  7. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  8. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  9. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  10. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  11. Evaluation of the spatial variability of soil water content at the spatial resolution of SMAP data products : case studies in Italy and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menenti, Massimo; Akdim, Nadia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Labbassi, Kamal; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    Frequent and contiguous observations of soil water content such as the ones to be provided by SMAP are potentially useful to improve distributed models of soil water balance. This requires matching of observations and model estimates provided both sample spatial patterns consistently. The spatial resolution of SMAP soil water content data products ranges from 3 km X 3 km to 40 km X 40 km. Even the highest spatial resolution may not be sufficient to capture the spatial variability due to terrain, soil properties and precipitation. We have evaluated the SMAP spatial resolution against spatial variability of soil water content in two Mediterranean landscapes: a hilly area dominated by vineyards and olive orchards in Central Italy and a large irrigation schemes (Doukkala) in Morocco. The "Valle Telesina" is a 20,000 ha complex landscape located in South Italy in the Campania region, which has a complex geology and geomorphology and it is characterised by an E-W elongated graben where the Calore river flows. The main crops are grapevine (6,448 ha) and olive (3,390 ha). Soil information was mainly derived from an existing soil map at 1:50 000 scale (Terribile et al., 1996). The area includes 47 SMUs (Soil Mapping Units) and about 60 soil typological units (STUs). (Bonfante et al., 2011). In Doukkala, the soil water retention and unsaturated capillary conductivity were estimated from grain size distribution of a number of samples (22 pilot points, each one sampled in 3 horizons of 20cm), and combined with a soil map. The land use classification was carried out using a NDVI time series at high spatial resolution (Landsat TM and SPOT HRV). We have calculated soil water content for each soil unit in each area in response to several climate cases generating daily maps of soil water content at different depths. To reproduce spatial sampling by SMAP we have filtered these spatial patterns by calculating box averages with grid sizes of 1 km X 1 km and 5 km X 5 km. We have

  12. Venus gravity - A high-resolution map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.; Macneil, P. E.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The Doppler data from the radio tracking of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) have been used in a two-stage analysis to develop a high-resolution map of the gravitational potential of Venus, represented by a central mass and a surface mass density. The two-stage procedure invokes a Kalman filter-smoother to determine the orbit of the spacecraft, and a stabilized linear inverter to estimate the surface mass density. The resultant gravity map is highly correlated with the topographic map derived from the PVO radar altimeter data. However, the magnitudes of the gravity variations are smaller than would be expected if the topography were uncompensated, indicating that at least partial compensation has taken place.

  13. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  14. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  15. High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk; Cupitt, John; Saunders, David R.

    1993-05-01

    With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels/mm resolution, which is sufficient to resolve the surface textures, particularly craquelure. To provide high color accuracy, a set of seven broad-band interference filters are used to cover the visible spectrum. A calibration procedure based upon a least-mean-squares fit to the color of patches from a Macbeth Colorchecker chart yields an average color accuracy of better than 3 units in the CMC uniform color space. This work was mainly carried out as part of the VASARI project funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT program, involving companies and galleries from around Europe. The system is being used to record images for conservation research, for archival purposes and to assist in computer-aided learning in the field of art history. The paper will describe the overall system design, including the selection of the various hardware components and the design of controlling software. The theoretical basis for the color calibration methodology is described as well as the software for its practical implementation. The mosaic assembly procedure and some of the associated image processing routines developed are described. Preliminary results from the research will be presented.

  16. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  17. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty; Vriend, Nathalie; Brennan, Paul; Ash, Matt; Keylock, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallee de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  18. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  19. Mapping trees in high resolution imagery across large areas using locally variable thresholds guided by medium resolution tree maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian; Danaher, Tim; Gill, Tony

    2017-06-01

    Large area tree maps, important for environmental monitoring and natural resource management, are often based on medium resolution satellite imagery. These data have difficulty in detecting trees in fragmented woodlands, and have significant omission errors in modified agricultural areas. High resolution imagery can better detect these trees, however, as most high resolution imagery is not normalised it is difficult to automate a tree classification method over large areas. The method developed here used an existing medium resolution map derived from either Landsat or SPOT5 satellite imagery to guide the classification of the high resolution imagery. It selected a spatially-variable threshold on the green band, calculated based on the spatially-variable percentage of trees in the existing map of tree cover. The green band proved more consistent at classifying trees across different images than several common band combinations. The method was tested on 0.5 m resolution imagery from airborne digital sensor (ADS) imagery across New South Wales (NSW), Australia using both Landsat and SPOT5 derived tree maps to guide the threshold selection. Accuracy was assessed across 6 large image mosaics revealing a more accurate result when the more accurate tree map from SPOT5 imagery was used. The resulting maps achieved an overall accuracy with 95% confidence intervals of 93% (90-95%), while the overall accuracy of the previous SPOT5 tree map was 87% (86-89%). The method reduced omission errors by mapping more scattered trees, although it did increase commission errors caused by dark pixels from water, building shadows, topographic shadows, and some soils and crops. The method allows trees to be automatically mapped at 5 m resolution from high resolution imagery, provided a medium resolution tree map already exists.

  20. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, W.E.R.; Verheij, H.G.C.; Syriopoulos, K.; Li, G.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard

  1. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A new high-resolution TOF technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fonte, Paulo J R; Williams, M C S

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE collaboration we have recently studied the performance of multigap Resistive Plate Chambers operated in avalanche mode and at atmospheric pressure for time-of-flight measurements. The detector provided an overall (detector plus electronics) timing accuracy of 120 ps sigma at an efficiency of 98% for MIPs. The chambers had 4 gas gaps of 0.3 mm, each limited by a metallised ceramic plate and a glass plate, with an active dimension of 4'4cm2. The gas mixture contained C2H2F4+5%isobutane+10%SF6. A few percent of streamer discharges, each releasing about 20 pC, was tolerated without any noticeable inconvenience. This detector opens perspectives of affordable and reliable high granularity large area TOF detectors, with an efficiency and a time resolution comparable to existing scintillator-based TOF technology but with significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel.

  3. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  4. Speleothems as high-resolution paleoflood archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Luetscher, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Over the last two decades, speleothems have become widely utilized records of past environmental variability, typically through their stable isotopic and trace elemental chemistry. Numerous speleothem researchers have identified evidence of flooding recorded by detrital layers trapped within speleothems, but few studies have developed paleoflood reconstructions from such samples. Because they can be precisely dated, are generally immune to post-depositional distortion or erosion, and can be tied to a fixed elevational baseline, speleothems hold enormous potential as high-resolution archives of cave floods, and thus as proxies for extreme rainfall or other hydrologic drivers of cave flooding. Here we review speleothem-based paleoflood reconstruction methods, identify potential biases and pitfalls, and suggest standard practices for future studies.

  5. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  6. High resolution imaging detectors and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan K

    2015-01-01

    Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control...

  7. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  8. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  9. Georadar - high resolution geophysical electromagnetic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stern

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Georadar is a high resolution geophysical electromagnetic device that was developed in the first part of the 1980's. In Slovenia it was first tested in 1991 on several objects of economicgeological, geotechnical and hydrogeologic nature.Here its usefulness in karst studied is presented. The first part of the paper deals with description of measurement procedure and methodological bases, and the second part with experience and results of case histories. Shown are radargrams from ornamental stone quarry Hotavlje, calcite mine Stahovica, Golobja jama karstcave near Divača and from highway construction site Razdrto-Čebulovica. All measurements were performed with the georadar instrument Pulse EKKO IV with a lOOMHz antenna according to the method of reflection profiling.

  10. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  11. High-Resolution Movement EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Štastný

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the contribution is to analyze possibilities of high-resolution movement classification using human EEG. For this purpose, a database of the EEG recorded during right-thumb and little-finger fast flexion movements of the experimental subjects was created. The statistical analysis of the EEG was done on the subject's basis instead of the commonly used grand averaging. Statistically significant differences between the EEG accompanying movements of both fingers were found, extending the results of other so far published works. The classifier based on hidden Markov models was able to distinguish between movement and resting states (classification score of 94–100%, but it was unable to recognize the type of the movement. This is caused by the large fraction of other (nonmovement related EEG activities in the recorded signals. A classification method based on advanced EEG signal denoising is being currently developed to overcome this problem.

  12. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like and alternative (M2-like polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7 as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226 cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

  13. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  15. The high resolution neutrino calorimeter KARMEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexlin, G.; Eberhard, V.; Gemmeke, H.; Giorginis, G.; Grandegger, W.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hucker, H.; Husson, L.; Kleinfeller, J.; Maschuw, R.; Plischke, P.; Spohrer, G.; Schmidt, F.K.; Wochele, J.; Woelfle, S.; Zeitnitz, B. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik 1 Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik); Bodman, B.; Burtak, F.; Finckh, E.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Schilling, F.; Voetisch, D. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Edgington, J.A.; Gorringe, T.; Malik, A. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK)); Booth, N.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK)); Dodd, A.; Payne, A.G.D. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (UK))

    1990-04-15

    KARMEN is a 56 t scintillation calorimeter designed for beam dump neutrino experiments at the neutron spallation facility ISIS of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The calorimetric properties are demonstrated by cosmic muons and laser calibration. The measured energy resolution of the detector is {sigma}{sub E}/E{approx equal}11.5%/{radical}E(MeV), the position resolution {sigma}{sub x}=5 cm and the timing resolution {sigma}{sub t}{approx equal}350 ps. (orig.).

  16. High resolution image reconstruction from projection of low resolution images differing in subpixel shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate simple algorithms that project low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithms are very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. are used in projection. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithms. The algorithms are robust and are not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  17. High Resolution Image Reconstruction from Projection of Low Resolution Images DIffering in Subpixel Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple algorithm that projects low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithm is very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. used in projection yield comparable results. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum a posterior (MAP) algorithms. The algorithm is robust and is not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  18. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  19. Logging Data High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongqi; Xie Yinfu; Sun Zhongchun; Luo Xingping

    2006-01-01

    The recognition and contrast of bed sets in parasequence is difficult in terrestrial basin high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. This study puts forward new methods for the boundary identification and contrast of bed sets on the basis of manifold logging data. The formation of calcareous interbeds, shale resistivity differences and the relation of reservoir resistivity to altitude are considered on the basis of log curve morphological characteristics, core observation, cast thin section, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the thickness of calcareous interbeds is between 0.5 m and 2 m, increasing on weathering crusts and faults. Calcareous interbeds occur at the bottom of Reservoir resistivity increases with altitude. Calcareous interbeds may be a symbol of recognition for the boundary of bed sets and isochronous contrast bed sets, and shale resistivity differences may confirm the stack relation and connectivity of bed sets. Based on this, a high-rcsolution chronostratigraphic framework of Xi-1 segment in Shinan area, Junggar basin is presented, and the connectivity of bed sets and oil-water contact is confirmed. In this chronostratigraphic framework, the growth order, stack mode and space shape of bed sets are qualitatively and quantitatively described.

  20. High resolution low frequency ultrasonic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaygues, P; Lefebvre, J P; Mensah, S

    1997-10-01

    Ultrasonic reflection tomography results from a linearization of the inverse acoustic scattering problem, named the inverse Born approximation. The goal of ultrasonic reflection tomography is to obtain reflectivity images from backscattered measurements. This is a Fourier synthesis problem and the first step is to correctly cover the frequency space of the object. For this inverse problem, we use the classical algorithm of tomographic reconstruction by summation of filtered backprojections. In practice, only a limited number of views are available with our mechanical rig, typically 180, and the frequency bandwidth of the pulses is very limited, typically one octave. The resolving power of the system is them limited by the bandwidth of the pulse. Low and high frequencies can be restored by use of a deconvolution algorithm that enhances resolution. We used a deconvolution technique based on the Papoulis method. The advantage of this technique is conservation of the overall frequency information content of the signals. The enhancement procedure was tested by imaging a square aluminium rod with a cross-section less than the wavelength. In this application, the central frequency of the transducer was 250 kHz so that the central wavelength was 6 mm whereas the cross-section of the rod was 4 mm. Although the Born approximation was not theoretically valid in this case (high contrast), a good reconstruction was obtained.

  1. Automatic abundance analysis of high resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta

    2003-01-01

    We describe an automatic procedure for determining abundances from high resolution spectra. Such procedures are becoming increasingly important as large amounts of data are delivered from 8m telescopes and their high-multiplexing fiber facilities, such as FLAMES on ESO-VLT. The present procedure is specifically targeted for the analysis of spectra of giants in the Sgr dSph; however, the procedure may be, in principle, tailored to analyse stars of any type. Emphasis is placed on the algorithms and on the stability of the method; the external accuracy rests, ultimately, on the reliability of the theoretical models (model-atmospheres, synthetic spectra) used to interpret the data. Comparison of the results of the procedure with the results of a traditional analysis for 12 Sgr giants shows that abundances accurate at the level of 0.2 dex, comparable with that of traditional analysis of the same spectra, may be derived in a fast and efficient way. Such automatic procedures are not meant to replace the traditional ...

  2. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  3. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of correspo

  4. One millimetre makes the difference: high-resolution analysis of methane-oxidizing bacteria and their specific activity at the oxic-anoxic interface in a flooded paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, Andreas; Lüke, Claudia; Krause, Sascha; Pratscher, Jennifer; Frenzel, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) use a restricted substrate range, yet >30 species-equivalent operational taxonomical units (OTUs) are found in one paddy soil. How these OTUs physically share their microhabitat is unknown. Here we highly resolved the vertical distribution of MOB and their activity. Using microcosms and cryosectioning, we sub-sampled the top 3-mm of a water-saturated soil at near in situ conditions in 100-μm steps. We assessed the community structure and activity using the particulate methane monooxygenase gene pmoA as a functional and phylogenetic marker by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP), a pmoA-specific diagnostic microarray, and cloning and sequencing. pmoA genes and transcripts were quantified using competitive reverse transcriptase PCR combined with t-RFLP. Only a subset of the methanotroph community was active. Oxygen microprofiles showed that 89% of total respiration was confined to a 0.67-mm-thick zone immediately above the oxic-anoxic interface, most probably driven by methane oxidation. In this zone, a Methylobacter-affiliated OTU was highly active with up to 18 pmoA transcripts per cell and seemed to be adapted to oxygen and methane concentrations in the micromolar range. Analysis of transcripts with a pmoA-specific microarray found a Methylosarcina-affiliated OTU associated with the surface zone. High oxygen but only nanomolar methane concentrations at the surface suggested an adaptation of this OTU to oligotrophic conditions. No transcripts of type II methanotrophs (Methylosinus, Methylocystis) were found, which indicated that this group was represented by resting stages only. Hence, different OTUs within a single guild shared the same microenvironment and exploited different niches.

  5. The High Time Resolution Radio Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D.

    2013-11-01

    Pulsars are laboratories for extreme physics unachievable on Earth. As individual sources and possible orbital companions can be used to study magnetospheric, emission, and superfluid physics, general relativistic effects, and stellar and binary evolution. As populations they exhibit a wide range of sub-types, with parameters varying by many orders of magnitude signifying fundamental differences in their evolutionary history and potential uses. There are currently around 2200 known pulsars in the Milky Way, the Magellanic clouds, and globular clusters, most of which have been discovered with radio survey observations. These observations, as well as being suitable for detecting the repeating signals from pulsars, are well suited for identifying other transient astronomical radio bursts that last just a few milliseconds that either singular in nature, or rarely repeating. Prior to the work of this thesis non-repeating radio transients at extragalactic distances had possibly been discovered, however with just one example status a real astronomical sources was in doubt. Finding more of these sources was a vital to proving they were real and to open up the universe for millisecond-duration radio astronomy. The High Time Resolution Universe survey uses the multibeam receiver on the 64-m Parkes radio telescope to search the whole visible sky for pulsars and transients. The temporal and spectral resolution of the receiver and the digital back-end enable the detection of relatively faint, and distant radio sources. From the Parkes telescope a large portion of the Galactic plane can be seen, a rich hunting ground for radio pulsars of all types, while previously poorly surveyed regions away from the Galactic plane are also covered. I have made a number of pulsar discoveries in the survey, including some rare systems. These include PSR J1226-6208, a possible double neutron star system in a remarkably circular orbit, PSR J1431-471 which is being eclipsed by its companion with

  6. AIRBORNE HIGH-RESOLUTION DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado-Molina, J.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost airborne digital imaging system capable to perform aerial surveys with small-format cameras isintroduced. The equipment is intended to obtain high-resolution multispectral digital photographs constituting so aviable alternative to conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery. Monitoring software handles all theprocedures involved in image acquisition, including flight planning, real-time graphics for aircraft position updatingin a mobile map, and supervises the main variables engaged in the imaging process. This software also creates fileswith the geographical position of the central point of every image, and the flight path followed by the aircraftduring the entire survey. The cameras are mounted on a three-axis stabilized platform. A set of inertial sensorsdetermines platform's deviations independently from the aircraft and an automatic control system keeps thecameras at a continuous nadir pointing and heading, with a precision better than ± 1 arc-degree in three-axis. Thecontrol system is also in charge of saving the platform’s orientation angles when the monitoring software triggersthe camera. These external orientation parameters, together with a procedure for camera calibration give theessential elements for image orthocorrection. Orthomosaics are constructed using commercial GIS software.This system demonstrates the feasibility of large area coverage in a practical and economical way using smallformatcameras. Monitoring and automatization reduce the work while increasing the quality and the amount ofuseful images.

  7. High spatial resolution probes for neurobiology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, D. E.; Kenney, C. J.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive biological neural networks, such as the brain and the retina, require position-sensitive detection methods to identify, map and study their behavior. Traditionally, planar microelectrodes have been employed to record the cell's electrical activity with device limitations arising from the electrode's 2-D nature. Described here is the development and characterization of an array of electrically conductive micro-needles aimed at addressing the limitations of planar electrodes. The capability of this array to penetrate neural tissue improves the electrode-cell electrical interface and allows more complicated 3-D networks of neurons, such as those found in brain slices, to be studied. State-of-the-art semiconductor fabrication techniques were used to etch and passivate conformally the metal coat and fill high aspect ratio holes in silicon. These are subsequently transformed into needles with conductive tips. This process has enabled the fabrication of arrays of unprecedented dimensions: 61 hexagonally close-packed electrodes, ˜200 μm tall with 60 μm spacing. Electroplating the tungsten tips with platinum ensure suitable impedance values (˜600 kΩ at 1 kHz) for the recording of neuronal signals. Without compromising spatial resolution of the neuronal recordings, this array adds a new and exciting dimension to the study of biological neural networks.

  8. High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) systems provide vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross-section, depolarization, and backscatter phase function. All HSRL measurements are absolutely calibrated by reference to molecular scattering, which is measured at each point in the lidar profile. Like the Raman lidar but unlike simple backscatter lidars such as the micropulse lidar, the HSRL can measure backscatter cross-sections and optical depths without prior assumptions about the scattering properties of the atmosphere. The depolarization observations also allow robust discrimination between ice and water clouds. In addition, rigorous error estimates can be computed for all measurements. A very narrow, angular field of view reduces multiple scattering contributions. The small field of view, coupled with a narrow optical bandwidth, nearly eliminates noise due to scattered sunlight. There are two operational U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility HSRL systems, one at the Barrow North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site and the other in the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) collection of instrumentation.

  9. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  10. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  11. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  12. Laser wavelength comparison by high resolution interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, H P; Deslattes, R D; Schweitzer, W G

    1976-03-01

    High resolution interferometry has been used to determine the wavelength ratio between two molecularly stabilized He-Ne lasers, one locked to a methane absorption at 3.39 microm and the other locked to the k peak of (129)I(2) at 633 nm. An optical beat frequency technique gave fractional orders while a microwave sideband method yielded the integer parts. Conventional (third derivative) peak seeking servoes stabilized both laser and cavity lengths. Reproducibility of the electronic control system and optics was a few parts in 10(12), while systematic errors associated with curvature of the cavity mirrors limited the accuracy of the wavelength ratio measurement to 2 parts in 10(10). The measured wavelength ratio of the methane stabilized He-Ne laser at 3.39 microm [P(7) line, nu(3) band] to the (129)I(2) (k peak) stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm was 5.359 049 260 6 (0.000 2 ppm). This ratio agrees with that calculated from the (lower accuracy) results of earlier wavelength measurements made relative to the (86)Kr standard. Its higher accuracy thus permits a provisional extension of the frequency scale based on the cesium oscillator into the visible spectrum.

  13. Quantitative observation of tracer transport with high-resolution PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulenkampff, Johannes; Gruendig, Marion; Zakhnini, Abdelhamid; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Transport processes in natural porous media are typically heterogeneous over various scales. This heterogeneity is caused by the complexity of pore geometry and molecular processes. Heterogeneous processes, like diffusive transport, conservative advective transport, mixing and reactive transport, can be observed and quantified with quantitative tomography of tracer transport patterns. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is by far the most sensitive method and perfectly selective for positron-emitting radiotracers, therefore it is suited as reference method for spatiotemporal tracer transport observations. The number of such PET-applications is steadily increasing. However, many applications are afflicted by the low spatial resolution (3 - 5 mm) of the clinical scanners from cooperating nuclear medical departments. This resolution is low in relation to typical sample dimensions of 10 cm, which are restricted by the mass attenuation of the material. In contrast, our GeoPET-method applies a high-resolution scanner with a resolution of 1 mm, which is the physical limit of the method and which is more appropriate for samples of the size of soil columns or drill cores. This higher resolution is achieved at the cost of a more elaborate image reconstruction procedure, especially considering the effects of Compton scatter. The result of the quantitative image reconstruction procedure is a suite of frames of the quantitative tracer distribution with adjustable frame rates from minutes to months. The voxel size has to be considered as reference volume of the tracer concentration. This continuous variable includes contributions from structures far below the spatial resolution, as far as a detection threshold, in the pico-molar range, is exceeded. Examples from a period of almost 10 years (Kulenkampff et al. 2008a, Kulenkampff et al. 2008b) of development and application of quantitative GeoPET-process tomography are shown. These examples include different transport processes

  14. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  15. The High Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Y; Prince, T A; Beichman, C A; Cao, Yu; Terebey, Susan; Prince, Thomas A.; Beichman, Charles A.

    1997-01-01

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg < b < 4.7 deg) plus the molecular clouds in Orion, Rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga has been produced at 60 and 100 micron from IRAS data. The Atlas consists of resolution-enhanced coadded images having 1 arcmin -- 2 arcmin resolution as well as coadded images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the DRAO HI line / 21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) line Galactic plane surveys, both with similar (approx. 1 arcmin) resolution, provide a powerful venue for studying the interstellar medium, star formation and large scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the Atlas.

  16. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    extinguishing actions, leaving more resources to improve safety in areas at risk. With the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk with high spatial resolution (900 m2) based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November- April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. About 48000 fire perimeters which burnt about 5500 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 30 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime at national level contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extensible to other geographical areas.

  17. Multi-scale geospatial agroecosystem modeling: a case study on the influence of soil data resolution on carbon budget estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, D.; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Xu, Min; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Aiping; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration and mitigate negative impacts of climate change requires accurate quantification of the spatial variation and magnitude of the terrestrial carbon (C) flux. However, the spatial pattern and strength of terrestrial C sinks and sources remain uncertain. In this study, we designed a spatially-explicit agroecosystem modeling system by integrating the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model with multiple sources of geospatial and surveyed datasets (including crop type map, elevation, climate forcing, fertilizer application, tillage type and distribution, and crop planting and harvesting date), and applied it to examine the sensitivity of cropland C flux simulations to two widely used soil databases (i.e. State Soil Geographic-STATSGO of a scale of 1:250,000 and Soil Survey Geographic-SSURGO of a scale of 1:24,000) in Iowa, USA. To efficiently execute numerous EPIC runs resulting from the use of high resolution spatial data (56m), we developed a parallelized version of EPIC. Both STATSGO and SSURGO led to similar simulations of crop yields and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) estimates at the State level. However, substantial differences were observed at the county and sub-county (grid) levels. In general, the fine resolution SSURGO data outperformed the coarse resolution STATSGO data for county-scale crop-yield simulation, and within STATSGO, the area-weighted approach provided more accurate results. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated NEP were more sensitive to the resolution difference between SSURGO and STATSGO at the county or grid scale. For over 60% of the cropland areas in Iowa, the deviations between STATSGO- and SSURGO-derived NEP were larger than 1MgCha(-1)yr(-1), or about half of the average cropland NEP, highlighting the significant uncertainty in spatial distribution and magnitude of simulated C fluxes resulting from

  18. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of High-Resolution Satellite ZY-3 TLC Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Heng; Ying, Shen

    2017-05-07

    Super-resolution (SR) image reconstruction is a technique used to recover a high-resolution image using the cumulative information provided by several low-resolution images. With the help of SR techniques, satellite remotely sensed images can be combined to achieve a higher-resolution image, which is especially useful for a two- or three-line camera satellite, e.g., the ZY-3 high-resolution Three Line Camera (TLC) satellite. In this paper, we introduce the application of the SR reconstruction method, including motion estimation and the robust super-resolution technique, to ZY-3 TLC images. The results show that SR reconstruction can significantly improve both the resolution and image quality of ZY-3 TLC images.

  19. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Joosten, Hans; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has currently been recognized in international policy - since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes e.g. for the East African countries Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Zambia. Furthermore, we

  20. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga; Joosten, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has only recently been recognized in international policy - only since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes for East Africa (including the Horn of Africa, the African Great Lakes region and

  1. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  2. High Resolution Pulse Compression Imaging Using Super Resolution FM-Chirp Correlation Method (SCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, M.; Okubo, K.; Tagawa, N.

    This study addresses the issue of the super-resolution pulse compression technique (PCT) for ultrasound imaging. Time resolution of multiple ultrasonic echoes using the FM-Chirp PCT is limited by the bandwidth of the sweep-frequency. That is, the resolution depends on the sharpness of auto-correlation function. We propose the Super resolution FM-Chirp correlation Method (SCM) and evaluate its performance. This method is based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. Our simulations were made for the model assuming multiple signals reflected from some scatterers. We confirmed that SCM detects time delay of complicated reflected signals successfully with high resolution.

  3. High-resolution spatial patterns of Soil Organic Carbon content derived from low-altitude aerial multi-band imagery on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted,UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana Jague, Emilien; Goulding, Keith; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    for monitoring SOC contents in agricultural soils. Remote sensing methods based on multi-spectral images may help map SOC variation in surface soils. Recently, the costs of both Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and multi-spectral cameras have dropped dramatically, opening up the possibility for more widespread...

  4. High Resolution Surface Science at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Zachary J.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Lock, Robert E.; Sturm, Erick J.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed mission would place a 2.4 m telescope in orbit around Mars with two focal plane instruments to obtain the highest resolution images and spectral maps of the surface to date (3-10x better than current). This investigation would make major contributions to all of the Mars Program Goals: life, climate, geology and preparation for human presence.

  5. High spatial resolution LWIR hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carson B.; Bodkin, Andrew; Daly, James T.; Meola, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Presented is a new hyperspectral imager design based on multiple slit scanning. This represents an innovation in the classic trade-off between speed and resolution. This LWIR design has been able to produce data-cubes at 3 times the rate of conventional single slit scan devices. The instrument has a built-in radiometric and spectral calibrator.

  6. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  7. DEM resolution effects on shallow landslide hazard and soil redistribution modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effects of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution on the results of a model that simulates spatially explicit relative shallow landslide hazard and soil redistribution patterns and quantities. We analyse distributions of slope, specific catchment area and relative haza

  8. High-speed photography of high-resolution moire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Martin B.; Huntley, Jonathan M.; Field, John E.

    1991-04-01

    The techniques of high resolution moire photography and high speed photography have been combined to allow measurement of the in-plane components of a transient displacement field with microsecond time resolution. Specimen gratings are prepared as casts in a thin layer of epoxy resin on the surface of a specimen. These are illuminated with a flash tube and imaged onto a reference grating with a specially modified camera lens, which incorporates a slotted mask in the aperture plane. For specimen gratings of 75 lines mm1, this selects the +1 and -1 order diffracted beams, thus doubling the effective grating frequency to 150 lines mm1. The resulting real-time moire fringes are recorded with a Hadland 792 image converter camera (Imacon) at an inter-frame time of 2-5ts. The images are digitised and an automatic fringe analysis technique based on the 2-D Fourier transform method is used to extract the displacement information. The technique is illustrated by the results of an investigation into the transient deformation of composite disc specimens, impacted with rectangular metal sliders fired from a gas gun.

  9. Forecast of muddy floods using high-resolution radar precipitation forcasting data and erosion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Phoebe; Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    In the federal province of Saxony, Eastern Germany, almost 60 % of the agricultural land is endangered by erosion processes, mainly caused by heavy rainfall events. Beside the primary impact of soil loss and decreasing soil fertility, erosion can cause significant effects if transported sediments are entering downslope settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes. Available radar precipitation data are closing the gap between the conventional rainfall point measurements and enable the nationwide rainfall distribution with high spatial and temporal resolution. By means of the radar precipitation data of the German Weather Service (DWD), high-resolution radar-based rainfall data totals up to 5 minute time steps are possible. The radar data are visualised in a grid-based hourly precipitation map. In particular, the daily and hourly precipitation maps help to identify regions with heavy rainfall and possible erosion events. In case of an erosion event on agricultural land, these areas are mapped with an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV). The camera-equipped UAV delivers high-resolution images of the erosion event, that allow the generation of high-resolution orthophotos. By the application of the high-resolution radar precipitation data as an input for the process-based soil loss and deposition model EROSION 3D, these images are for validation purposes. Future research is focused on large scale soil erosion modelling with the help of the radar forecasting product and an automatic identification of sediment pass over points. The study will end up with an user friendly muddy flood warning tool, which allows the local authorities to initiate immediate measures in order to prevent severe damages in settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes.

  10. Evaluation of a Global Soil Moisture Product from Finer Spatial Resolution SAR Data and Ground Measurements at Irish Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative, a global, almost daily, soil moisture (SM product is being developed from passive and active satellite microwave sensors, at a coarse spatial resolution. This study contributes to its validation by using finer spatial resolution ASAR Wide Swath and in situ soil moisture data taken over three sites in Ireland, from 2007 to 2009. This is the first time a comparison has been carried out between three sets of independent observations from different sensors at very different spatial resolutions for such a long time series. Furthermore, the SM spatial distribution has been investigated at the ASAR scale within each Essential Climate Variable (ECV pixel, without adopting any particular model or using a densely distributed network of in situ stations. This approach facilitated an understanding of the extent to which geophysical factors, such as soil texture, terrain composition and altitude, affect the retrieved ECV SM product values in temperate grasslands. Temporal and spatial variability analysis provided high levels of correlation (p < 0.025 and low errors between the three datasets, leading to confidence in the new ECV SM global product, despite limitations in its ability to track the driest and wettest conditions.

  11. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  12. Quantum interpolation for high-resolution sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajoy, Ashok; Liu, Yi-Xiang; Saha, Kasturi; Marseglia, Luca; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Bissbort, Ulf; Cappellaro, Paola

    2017-02-28

    Recent advances in engineering and control of nanoscale quantum sensors have opened new paradigms in precision metrology. Unfortunately, hardware restrictions often limit the sensor performance. In nanoscale magnetic resonance probes, for instance, finite sampling times greatly limit the achievable sensitivity and spectral resolution. Here we introduce a technique for coherent quantum interpolation that can overcome these problems. Using a quantum sensor associated with the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum interpolation can achieve spectroscopy of classical magnetic fields and individual quantum spins with orders of magnitude finer frequency resolution than conventionally possible. Not only is quantum interpolation an enabling technique to extract structural and chemical information from single biomolecules, but it can be directly applied to other quantum systems for superresolution quantum spectroscopy.

  13. High Resolution RPCs for Large TOF Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira-Marques, R; CERN. Geneva; Carolino, N; Policarpo, Armando; Fonte, P

    1999-01-01

    Here we report on a particular type of RPC that presents above 95% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles and a very sharp time resolution, below 80 ps sigma. Our 9cm2 cells, made with glass and metal electrodes that form accurately spaced gaps of a few hundred micrometers, are operated at atmospheric pressure in non-flammable gases and can be economically produced in large quantities, opening perspectives for the construction of large area timeof flight systems.

  14. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2017-02-01

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. We briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  15. High-quality multi-resolution volume rendering in medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai; YANG Jie; LI Xiao-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform a high-quality interactive rendering of large medical data sets on a single off-theshelf PC, a LOD selection algorithm for multi-resolution volume rendering using 3D texture mapping is presented, which uses an adaptive scheme that renders the volume in a region-of-interest at a high resolution and the volume away from this region at lower resolutions. The algorithm is based on several important criteria, and rendering is done adaptively by selecting high-resolution cells close to a center of attention and low-resolution cells away from this area. In addition, our hierarchical level-of-detail representation guarantees consistent interpolation between different resolution levels. Experiments have been applied to a number of large medical data and have produced high quality images at interactive frame rates using standard PC hardware.

  16. Hydrologic Soil Group for the Upper Colorado River Basin in Maurer et al. (2002) Climate Data resolution (hsg_UCRB_Maurer_resolution.asc)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — hsg_UCRB_Maurer_resolution.asc is an Esri ASCII grid representing the hydrologic soil group (HSG) for the Upper Colorado River Basin. The HSG for an area is...

  17. Using high-resolution displays for high-resolution cardiac data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, Christopher; Hodrien, John; Wood, Jason; Kohl, Peter; Brodlie, Ken

    2009-07-13

    The ability to perform fast, accurate, high-resolution visualization is fundamental to improving our understanding of anatomical data. As the volumes of data increase from improvements in scanning technology, the methods applied to visualization must evolve. In this paper, we address the interactive display of data from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scanning of a rabbit heart and subsequent histological imaging. We describe a visualization environment involving a tiled liquid crystal display panel display wall and associated software, which provides an interactive and intuitive user interface. The oView software is an OpenGL application that is written for the VR Juggler environment. This environment abstracts displays and devices away from the application itself, aiding portability between different systems, from desktop PCs to multi-tiled display walls. Portability between display walls has been demonstrated through its use on walls at the universities of both Leeds and Oxford. We discuss important factors to be considered for interactive two-dimensional display of large three-dimensional datasets, including the use of intuitive input devices and level of detail aspects.

  18. Developing a high-resolution regional atmospheric reanalysis for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher; Fox-Hughes, Paul; Su, Chun-Hsu; Jakob, Dörte; Kociuba, Greg; Eisenberg, Nathan; Steinle, Peter; Harris, Rebecca; Corney, Stuart; Love, Peter; Remenyi, Tomas; Chladil, Mark; Bally, John; Bindoff, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    A dynamically consistent, long-term atmospheric reanalysis can be used to support high-quality assessments of environmental risk and likelihood of extreme events. Most reanalyses are presently based on coarse-scale global systems that are not suitable for regional assessments in fire risk, water and natural resources, amongst others. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology is currently working to close this gap by producing a high-resolution reanalysis over the Australian and New Zealand region to construct a sequence of atmospheric conditions at sub-hourly intervals over the past 25 years from 1990. The Australia reanalysis consists of a convective-scale analysis nested within a 12 km regional-scale reanalysis, which is bounded by a coarse-scale ERA-Interim reanalysis that provides the required boundary and initial conditions. We use an unchanging atmospheric modelling suite based on the UERRA system used at the UK Met Office and the more recent version of the Bureau of Meteorology's operational numerical prediction model used in ACCESS-R (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator-Regional system). An advanced (4-dimensional variational) data assimilation scheme is used to optimally combine model physics with multiple observations from aircrafts, sondes, surface observations and satellites to create a best estimate of state of the atmosphere over a 6-hour moving window. This analysis is in turn used to drive a higher-resolution (1.5 km) downscaling model over selected subdomains within Australia, currently eastern New South Wales and Tasmania, with the capability to support this anywhere in the Australia-New Zealand domain. The temporal resolution of the gridded analysis fields for both the regional and higher-resolution subdomains are generally one hour, with many fields such as 10 m winds and 2 m temperatures available every 10 minutes. The reanalysis also produces many other variables that include wind, temperature, moisture, pressure, cloud cover

  19. High resolution RPC's for large TOF systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fonte, Paulo J R; Pinhão, J; Carolino, N; Policarpo, Armando

    2000-01-01

    Here we report on a particular type of RPC that presents up to 99% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles and a very good time resolution, below 50 ps s for the most optimized construction. Our 9 cm2 cells, made with glass and metal electrodes that form accurately spaced gaps of a few hundred micrometers, are operated at atmospheric pressure in non-flammable gases and can be economically produced in large quantities, opening perspectives for the construction of large area time of flight systems.

  20. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  1. DSCOVR High Time Resolution Solar Wind Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), previously known as Triana, spacecraft is expected to be launched in late 2014. It will carry a fluxgate magnetometer, Faraday Cup solar wind detector and a top-hat electron electrostatic analyzer. The Faraday Cup will provide an unprecedented 10 vectors/sec time resolution measurement of the solar wind proton and alpha reduced distribution functions. Coupled with the 40 vector/sec vector magnetometer measurements, the identification of specific wave modes in the solar wind will be possible for the first time. The science objectives and data products of the mission will be discussed.

  2. Nanosecond microscopy with a high spectroscopic resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, C; Ritsch-Marte, M; Bernet, Stefan; Heinrich, Christoph; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy in a wide-field setup with nanosecond laser pulse excitation. In contrast to confocal setups, the image of a sample can be recorded with a single pair of excitation pulses. For this purpose the excitation geometry is specially designed in order to satisfy the phase matching condition over the whole sample area. The spectral, temporal and spatial sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by imaging test samples, i.e. oil vesicles in sunflower seeds, on a nanosecond timescale. The method provides snapshot imaging in 3 nanoseconds with a spectral resolution of 25 wavenumbers (cm$^{-1}$).

  3. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  4. Towards high resolution data assimilation and ensemble forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Due the increase in computational power of supercomputers the grid resolution of high resolution numerical weather prediction models is now reaching the 1 km scale. As a result, mesoscale processes related to high impact weather (such as deep convection) can now explicitly be resolved by the models.

  5. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  6. High-Speed Smart Camera with High Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dubois

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available High-speed video cameras are powerful tools for investigating for instance the biomechanics analysis or the movements of mechanical parts in manufacturing processes. In the past years, the use of CMOS sensors instead of CCDs has enabled the development of high-speed video cameras offering digital outputs, readout flexibility, and lower manufacturing costs. In this paper, we propose a high-speed smart camera based on a CMOS sensor with embedded processing. Two types of algorithms have been implemented. A compression algorithm, specific to high-speed imaging constraints, has been implemented. This implementation allows to reduce the large data flow (6.55 Gbps and to propose a transfer on a serial output link (USB 2.0. The second type of algorithm is dedicated to feature extraction such as edge detection, markers extraction, or image analysis, wavelet analysis, and object tracking. These image processing algorithms have been implemented into an FPGA embedded inside the camera. These implementations are low-cost in terms of hardware resources. This FPGA technology allows us to process in real time 500 images per second with a 1280×1024 resolution. This camera system is a reconfigurable platform, other image processing algorithms can be implemented.

  7. High-Speed Smart Camera with High Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosqueron R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed video cameras are powerful tools for investigating for instance the biomechanics analysis or the movements of mechanical parts in manufacturing processes. In the past years, the use of CMOS sensors instead of CCDs has enabled the development of high-speed video cameras offering digital outputs, readout flexibility, and lower manufacturing costs. In this paper, we propose a high-speed smart camera based on a CMOS sensor with embedded processing. Two types of algorithms have been implemented. A compression algorithm, specific to high-speed imaging constraints, has been implemented. This implementation allows to reduce the large data flow (6.55 Gbps and to propose a transfer on a serial output link (USB 2.0. The second type of algorithm is dedicated to feature extraction such as edge detection, markers extraction, or image analysis, wavelet analysis, and object tracking. These image processing algorithms have been implemented into an FPGA embedded inside the camera. These implementations are low-cost in terms of hardware resources. This FPGA technology allows us to process in real time 500 images per second with a 1280×1024 resolution. This camera system is a reconfigurable platform, other image processing algorithms can be implemented.

  8. High-Resolution Sonars: What Resolution Do We Need for Target Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailhas Yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognition in sonar imagery has long been an active research area in the maritime domain, especially in the mine-counter measure context. Recently it has received even more attention as new sensors with increased resolution have been developed; new threats to critical maritime assets and a new paradigm for target recognition based on autonomous platforms have emerged. With the recent introduction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar systems and high-frequency sonars, sonar resolution has dramatically increased and noise levels decreased. Sonar images are distance images but at high resolution they tend to appear visually as optical images. Traditionally algorithms have been developed specifically for imaging sonars because of their limited resolution and high noise levels. With high-resolution sonars, algorithms developed in the image processing field for natural images become applicable. However, the lack of large datasets has hampered the development of such algorithms. Here we present a fast and realistic sonar simulator enabling development and evaluation of such algorithms.We develop a classifier and then analyse its performances using our simulated synthetic sonar images. Finally, we discuss sensor resolution requirements to achieve effective classification of various targets and demonstrate that with high resolution sonars target highlight analysis is the key for target recognition.

  9. Direct Push Optical Screening Tool for High-Resolution, Real-Time Mapping of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    collecting co-located soil cores with follow on high-resolution soil sampling for both field DNAPL screening using Oil -Red-O dye shake tests and quantitative...use of HRSC techniques in order to develop accurate CSMs and effective remediation strategies. Selective and targeted soil sampling at key locations...outer edges): o One sub-core was collected for field screening with Oil -Red-O. The Oil -O-Red screening was completed by ejecting the soil into a pre

  10. Soil 4 Youth: Charting New Territory in Canadian High School Soil Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…

  11. The high spectral resolution (scanning) lidar (HSRL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Lidars enable the spatial resolution of optical depth variation in clouds. The optical depth must be inverted from the backscatter signal, a process which is complicated by the fact that both molecular and aerosol backscatter signals are present. The HSRL has the advantage of allowing these two signals to be separated. It has a huge dynamic range, allowing optical depth retrieval for t = 0.01 to 3. Depolarization is used to determine the nature of hydrometeors present. Experiments show that water clouds must almost always be taken into account during cirrus observations. An exciting new development is the possibility of measuring effective radius via diffraction peak width and variable field-of-view measurements. 2 figs.

  12. Studying stellar populations at high spectral resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzual, Gustavo A

    2007-01-01

    I describe very briefly the new libraries of empirical spectra of stars covering wide ranges of values of the atmospheric parameters Teff, log g, [Fe/H], as well as spectral type, that have become available in the recent past, among them the HNGSL, MILES, UVES-POP, ELODIE, and the IndoUS libraries. I show the results of using the IndoUS and the HNGSL libraries, as well as an atlas of theoretical model atmospheres, to build population synthesis models. These libraries are complementary in spectral resolution and wavelength coverage, and will prove extremely useful to describe spectral features expected in galaxy spectra from the NUV to the NIR. The fits to observed galaxy spectra using simple and composite stellar population models are discussed.

  13. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  14. Towards optical intensity interferometry for high angular resolution stellar astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nunez, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Most neighboring stars are still detected as point sources and are beyond the angular resolution reach of current observatories. Methods to improve our understanding of stars at high angular resolution are investigated. Air Cherenkov telescopes (ACTs), primarily used for Gamma-ray astronomy, enable us to increase our understanding of the circumstellar environment of a particular system. When used as optical intensity interferometers, future ACT arrays will allow us to detect stars as extended objects and image their surfaces at high angular resolution. Optical stellar intensity interferometry (SII) with ACT arrays, composed of nearly 100 telescopes, will provide means to measure fundamental stellar parameters and also open the possibility of model-independent imaging. A data analysis algorithm is developed and permits the reconstruction of high angular resolution images from simulated SII data. The capabilities and limitations of future ACT arrays used for high angular resolution imaging are investigated via ...

  15. Research Relative to High Spatial Resolution Passive Microwave Sounding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    Methods to obtain high resolution passive microwave weather observations, and understanding of their probable impact on numerical weather prediction accuracy were investigated. The development of synthetic aperture concepts for geosynchronous passive microwave sounders were studied. The effects of clouds, precipitation, surface phenomena, and atmospheric thermal fine structure on a scale of several kilometers were examined. High resolution passive microwave sounders (e.g., AMSU) with an increased number of channels will produce initialization data for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with both increased spatial resolution and coverage. The development of statistical models for error growth in high resolution primitive equation NWP models which permit the consequences of various observing system alternatives, including sensors and assimilation times and procedures is discussed. A high resolution three dimensional primitive equation NWP model to determine parameters in an error growth model similar to that formulated by Lorenz, but with more degrees of freedom is utilized.

  16. Whole-animal imaging with high spatio-temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Raghav; Amat, Fernando; Wan, Yinan; Höckendorf, Burkhard; Lemon, William C.; Keller, Philipp J.

    2016-03-01

    We developed isotropic multiview (IsoView) light-sheet microscopy in order to image fast cellular dynamics, such as cell movements in an entire developing embryo or neuronal activity throughput an entire brain or nervous system, with high resolution in all dimensions, high imaging speeds, good physical coverage and low photo-damage. To achieve high temporal resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time, IsoView microscopy rapidly images large specimens via simultaneous light-sheet illumination and fluorescence detection along four orthogonal directions. In a post-processing step, these four views are then combined by means of high-throughput multiview deconvolution to yield images with a system resolution of ≤ 450 nm in all three dimensions. Using IsoView microscopy, we performed whole-animal functional imaging of Drosophila embryos and larvae at a spatial resolution of 1.1-2.5 μm and at a temporal resolution of 2 Hz for up to 9 hours. We also performed whole-brain functional imaging in larval zebrafish and multicolor imaging of fast cellular dynamics across entire, gastrulating Drosophila embryos with isotropic, sub-cellular resolution. Compared with conventional (spatially anisotropic) light-sheet microscopy, IsoView microscopy improves spatial resolution at least sevenfold and decreases resolution anisotropy at least threefold. Compared with existing high-resolution light-sheet techniques, such as lattice lightsheet microscopy or diSPIM, IsoView microscopy effectively doubles the penetration depth and provides subsecond temporal resolution for specimens 400-fold larger than could previously be imaged.

  17. Timing of erosion and satellite data: a multi-resolution approach to soil risk mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Jong, de S.M.; Sterk, G.; Rodrigues, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Erosion reduces soil productivity and causes negative downstream impacts. Erosion processes occur on areas with erodible soils and sloping terrain when high-intensity rainfall coincides with limited vegetation cover. Timing of erosion events has implications on the selection of satellite imagery, us

  18. High resolution resonant recombination measurements using evaporative cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilmann, C; Lopez-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Mokler, P H; Ullrich, J, E-mail: christian.beilmann@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    We report on a method significantly improving the energy resolution of dielectronic recombination (DR) measurements in electron beam ion traps (EBITs). The line width of DR resonances can be reduced to values distinctly smaller than the corresponding space charge width of the uncompensated electron beam. The experimental technique based on forced evaporative cooling is presented together with test measurements demonstrating its high efficiency. The principle for resolution improvement is elucidated and the limiting factors are discussed. This method opens access to high resolution DR measurements at high ion-electron collision energies required for innermost shell DR in highly charged ions (HCI).

  19. Scaling an in situ network for high resolution modeling during SMAPVEX15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Cosh, M. H.; Jacobs, J. M.; Jackson, T. J.; Crow, W. T.; Holifield Collins, C.; Goodrich, D. C.; Colliander, A.

    2015-12-01

    Among the greatest challenges within the field of soil moisture estimation is that of scaling sparse point measurements within a network to produce higher resolution map products. Large-scale field experiments present an ideal opportunity to develop methodologies for this scaling, by coupling in situ networks, temporary networks, and aerial mapping of soil moisture. During the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiments in 2015 (SMAPVEX15) in and around the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed and LTAR site in southeastern Arizona, USA, a high density network of soil moisture stations was deployed across a sparse, permanent in situ network in coordination with intensive soil moisture sampling and an aircraft campaign. This watershed is also densely instrumented with precipitation gages (one gauge/0.57 km2) to monitor the North American Monsoon System, which dominates the hydrologic cycle during the summer months in this region. Using the precipitation and soil moisture time series values provided, a physically-based model is calibrated that will provide estimates at the 3km, 9km, and 36km scales. The results from this model will be compared with the point-scale gravimetric samples, aircraft-based sensor, and the satellite-based products retrieved from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission.

  20. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  1. A high-resolution time-to-digital converter using a three-level resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Asma; Saneei, Mohsen; Mahani, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a three-level resolution Vernier delay line time-to-digital converter (TDC) was proposed. The proposed TDC core was based on the pseudo-differential digital architecture that made it insensitive to nMOS and pMOS transistor mismatches. It also employed a Vernier delay line (VDL) in conjunction with an asynchronous read-out circuitry. The time interval resolution was equal to the difference of delay between buffers of upper and lower chains. Then, via the extra chain included in the lower delay line, resolution was controlled and power consumption was reduced. This method led to high resolution and low power consumption. The measurement results of TDC showed a resolution of 4.5 ps, 12-bit output dynamic range, and integral nonlinearity of 1.5 least significant bits. This TDC achieved the consumption of 68.43 µW from 1.1-V supply.

  2. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  3. Sunspot Group Development in High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Muraközy, J; Ludmány, A

    2014-01-01

    The Solar and Heliospheric Obseratory/Michelson Doppler Imager--Debrecen Data (SDD) sunspot catalogue provides an opportunity to study the details and development of sunspot groups on a large statistical sample. The SDD data allow, in particular, the differential study of the leading and following parts with a temporal resolution of 1.5 hours. In this study, we analyse the equilibrium distance of sunspot groups as well as the evolution of this distance over the lifetime of the groups and the shifts in longitude associated with these groups. We also study the asymmetry between the compactness of the leading and following parts, as well as the time-profiles for the development of the area of sunspot groups. A logarithmic relationship has been found between the total area and the distance of leading-following parts of active regions (ARs) at the time of their maximum area. In the developing phase the leading part moves forward; this is more noticeable in larger ARs. The leading part has a higher growth rate than...

  4. Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report an imaging method, termed Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM), which iteratively stitches together a number of variably illuminated, low-resolution intensity images in Fourier space to produce a wide-field, high-resolution complex sample image. By adopting a wavefront correction strategy, the FPM method can also correct for aberrations and digitally extend a microscope's depth-of-focus beyond the physical limitations of its optics. As a demonstration, we built a microscope prototype with a resolution of 0.78 um, a field-of-view of ~120 mm2, and a resolution-invariant depth-of-focus of 0.3 mm (characterized at 632 nm). Gigapixel colour images of histology slides verify FPM's successful operation. The reported imaging procedure transforms the general challenge of high-throughput, high-resolution microscopy from one that is coupled to the physical limitations of the system's optics to one that is solvable through computation.

  5. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present high resolution upconversion of incoherent infrared radiation by means of sum-frequency mixing with a laser followed by simple CCD Si-camera detection. Noise associated with upconversion is, in strong contrast to room temperature direct mid-IR detection, extremely small, thus very faint...... signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...

  6. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  7. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... to, for example, atmospheric research, combustion and gasification. Some high-temperature, high-resolution IR/UV absorption/transmission measurements gases (e.g. CO2, SO2, SO3 and phenol) are presented....

  8. Ultra-high resolution and high-brightness AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Ghosh, Amal; Prache, Olivier; Draper, Russ; Fellowes, Dave

    2012-06-01

    As part of its continuing effort to improve both the resolution and optical performance of AMOLED microdisplays, eMagin has recently developed an SXGA (1280×3×1024) microdisplay under a US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD contract that combines the world's smallest OLED pixel pitch with an ultra-high brightness green OLED emitter. This development is aimed at next-generation HMD systems with "see-through" and daylight imaging requirements. The OLED pixel array is built on a 0.18-micron CMOS backplane and contains over 4 million individually addressable pixels with a pixel pitch of 2.7 × 8.1 microns, resulting in an active area of 0.52 inches diagonal. Using both spatial and temporal enhancement, the display can provide over 10-bits of gray-level control for high dynamic range applications. The new pixel design also enables the future implementation of a full-color QSXGA (2560 × RGB × 2048) microdisplay in an active area of only 1.05 inch diagonal. A low-power serialized low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) interface is integrated into the display for use as a remote video link for tethered systems. The new SXGA backplane has been combined with the high-brightness green OLED device developed by eMagin under an NVESD contract. This OLED device has produced an output brightness of more than 8000fL with all pixels on; lifetime measurements are currently underway and will presented at the meeting. This paper will describe the operational features and first optical and electrical test results of the new SXGA demonstrator microdisplay.

  9. Spatially adaptive regularized iterative high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won Bae; Park, Min K.; Kang, Moon Gi

    2000-12-01

    High resolution images are often required in applications such as remote sensing, frame freeze in video, military and medical imaging. Digital image sensor arrays, which are used for image acquisition in many imaging systems, are not dense enough to prevent aliasing, so the acquired images will be degraded by aliasing effects. To prevent aliasing without loss of resolution, a dense detector array is required. But it may be very costly or unavailable, thus, many imaging systems are designed to allow some level of aliasing during image acquisition. The purpose of our work is to reconstruct an unaliased high resolution image from the acquired aliased image sequence. In this paper, we propose a spatially adaptive regularized iterative high resolution image reconstruction algorithm for blurred, noisy and down-sampled image sequences. The proposed approach is based on a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) high resolution reconstruction algorithm, with spatially adaptive regularization operators and parameters. These regularization terms are shown to improve the reconstructed image quality by forcing smoothness, while preserving edges in the reconstructed high resolution image. Accurate sub-pixel motion registration is the key of the success of the high resolution image reconstruction algorithm. However, sub-pixel motion registration may have some level of registration error. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm which is robust against the registration error is required. The registration algorithm uses a gradient based sub-pixel motion estimator which provides shift information for each of the recorded frames. The proposed algorithm is based on a technique of high resolution image reconstruction, and it solves spatially adaptive regularized constrained least square minimization functionals. In this paper, we show that the reconstruction algorithm gives dramatic improvements in the resolution of the reconstructed image and is effective in handling the aliased information. The

  10. Sensitivity study of reliable, high-throughput resolution metricsfor photoresists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-07-30

    The resolution of chemically amplified resists is becoming an increasing concern, especially for lithography in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regime. Large-scale screening and performance-based down-selection is currently underway to identify resist platforms that can support shrinking feature sizes. Resist screening efforts, however, are hampered by the absence of reliable resolution metrics that can objectively quantify resist resolution in a high-throughput fashion. Here we examine two high-throughput metrics for resist resolution determination. After summarizing their details and justifying their utility, we characterize the sensitivity of both metrics to two of the main experimental uncertainties associated with lithographic exposure tools, namely: limited focus control and limited knowledge of optical aberrations. For an implementation at EUV wavelengths, we report aberration and focus limited error bars in extracted resolution of {approx} 1.25 nm RMS for both metrics making them attractive candidates for future screening and down-selection efforts.

  11. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-05-07

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is approximately 2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach.

  12. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  13. High Resolution Orthoimagery = Orthorectified Metro Areas: 2000 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution orthorectified images combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An orthoimage is a...

  14. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency.

  15. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  16. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  17. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  18. High Resolution, Range/Range-Rate Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to develop a design for a small, lightweight, high resolution, in x, y, and z Doppler imager to assist in the guidance, navigation and control...

  19. High-resolution estimation of the water balance components from high-precision lysimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysimeters offer the opportunity to determine precipitation, evapotranspiration and groundwater-recharge with high accuracy. In contrast to other techniques, like Eddy-flux systems or evaporation pans, lysimeters provide a direct measurement of evapotranspiration from a clearly defined surface area at the scale of a soil profile via the built-in weighing system. In particular the estimation of precipitation can benefit from the much higher surface area compared to typical raingauge systems. Nevertheless, lysimeters are exposed to several external influences that could falsify the calculated fluxes. Therefore, the estimation of the relevant fluxes requires an appropriate data processing with respect to various error sources. Most lysimeter studies account for noise in the data by averaging. However, the effects of smoothing by averaging on the accuracy of the estimated water balance is rarely investigated. In this study, we present a filtering scheme, which is designed to deal with the various kinds of possible errors. We analyze the influence of averaging times and thresholds on the calculated water balance. We further investigate the ability of two adaptive filtering methods (the Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold filter (AWAT-filter (Peters et al., 2014 and the consecutively described synchro-filter in further reducing the filtering error. On the basis of the data sets of 18 simultanously running lysimeters of the TERENO SoilCan research site in Bad Lauchstädt, we show that the estimation of the water balance with high temporal resolution and good accuracy is possible.

  20. Using High Spatial Resolution Digital Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    frame and a bright area (hot spot) at the center. The same brightness shifts are present within most aerial photography , particularly the pronounced hot...the deciduous trees and shrubs were without leaves. In addition, the reed and grass species were fully senesced . The lack of photosynthetically...For example, high quality, large-scale aerial photography will provide adequate clarity and detail to accurately identify surface features that are

  1. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  2. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  3. High resolution computed tomography for peripheral facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, O.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution computer tomographic examinations of the petrous bones were performed on 19 patients with confirmed peripheral facial nerve paralysis. High resolution CT provides accurate information regarding the extent, and usually regarding the type, of pathological process; this can be accurately localised with a view to possible surgical treatments. The examination also differentiates this from idiopathic paresis, which showed no radiological changes. Destruction of the petrous bone, without facial nerve symptoms, makes early suitable treatment mandatory.

  4. Geometric calibration of high-resolution remote sensing sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong-you; GU Xing-fa; TAO Yu; QIAO Chao-fei

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the applications of high-resolution remote sensing imagery and the necessity of geometric calibration for remote sensing sensors considering assurance of the geometric accuracy of remote sensing imagery. Then the paper analyzes the general methodology of geometric calibration. Taking the DMC sensor geometric calibration as an example, the paper discusses the whole calibration procedure. Finally, it gave some concluding remarks on geometric calibration of high-resolution remote sensing sensors.

  5. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, some...... of the computations we present have never before been carried out by standard desktop computers on data sets of comparable size....

  6. Dynamics of High-Resolution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran

    NETWORKS are everywhere. From the smallest confines of the cells within our bodies to the webs of social relations across the globe. Networks are not static, they constantly change, adapt, and evolve to suit new conditions. In order to understand the fundamental laws that govern networks we need...... the unprecedented amounts of information collected by mobile phones to gain detailed insight into the dynamics of social systems. This dissertation presents an unparalleled data collection campaign, collecting highly detailed traces for approximately 1000 people over the course of multiple years. The availability...

  7. High-resolution noise radar using slow ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Konstantin; Vyplavin, Pavlo; Zemlyanyi, Oleg; Lukin, Sergiy; Palamarchuk, Volodymyr

    2011-06-01

    Conventional digital signal processing scheme in noise radars has some limitations related to combination of high resolution and high dynamic range. Those limitations are caused by a tradeoff in performance of currently available ADCs: the faster is ADC the smaller is its depth (number of bits) available. Depth of the ADC determines relation between the smallest and highest observable signals and thus limits its dynamic range. In noise radar with conventional processing the sounding and reference signals are to be digitized at intermediate frequency band and to be processed digitally. The power spectrum bandwidth of noise signal which can be digitized with ADC depends on its sampling rate. The bandwidth of radar signal defines range resolution of any radar: the wider the spectrum the better the resolution. Actually this is the main bottleneck of high resolution Noise Radars: conventional processing doesn't enable to get both high range resolution and high dynamic range. In the paper we present a way to go around this drawback by changing signal processing ideology in noise radar. We present results of our consideration and design of high resolution Noise Radar which uses slow ADCs. The design is based upon generation of both probing and reference signals digitally and realization of their cross-correlation in an analog correlator. The output of the correlator is a narrowband signal that requires rather slow ADC to be sampled which nowadays may give up to 130 dB dynamic range.

  8. Landslide model performance in a high resolution small-scale landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sy, V.; Schoorl, J. M.; Keesstra, S. D.; Jones, K. E.; Claessens, L.

    2013-05-01

    The frequency and severity of shallow landslides in New Zealand threatens life and property, both on- and off-site. The physically-based shallow landslide model LAPSUS-LS is tested for its performance in simulating shallow landslide locations induced by a high intensity rain event in a small-scale landscape. Furthermore, the effect of high resolution digital elevation models on the performance was tested. The performance of the model was optimised by calibrating different parameter values. A satisfactory result was achieved with a high resolution (1 m) DEM. Landslides, however, were generally predicted lower on the slope than mapped erosion scars. This discrepancy could be due to i) inaccuracies in the DEM or in other model input data such as soil strength properties; ii) relevant processes for this environmental context that are not included in the model; or iii) the limited validity of the infinite length assumption in the infinite slope stability model embedded in the LAPSUS-LS. The trade-off between a correct prediction of landslides versus stable cells becomes increasingly worse with coarser resolutions; and model performance decreases mainly due to altering slope characteristics. The optimal parameter combinations differ per resolution. In this environmental context the 1 m resolution topography resembles actual topography most closely and landslide locations are better distinguished from stable areas than for coarser resolutions. More gain in model performance could be achieved by adding landslide process complexities and parameter heterogeneity of the catchment.

  9. High resolution 3-D wavelength diversity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N. H.

    1981-09-01

    A physical optics, vector formulation of microwave imaging of perfectly conducting objects by wavelength and polarization diversity is presented. The results provide the theoretical basis for optimal data acquisition and three-dimensional tomographic image retrieval procedures. These include: (a) the selection of highly thinned (sparse) receiving array arrangements capable of collecting large amounts of information about remote scattering objects in a cost effective manner and (b) techniques for 3-D tomographic image reconstruction and display in which polarization diversity data is fully accounted for. Data acquisition employing a highly attractive AMTDR (Amplitude Modulated Target Derived Reference) technique is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulation. Equipment configuration for the implementation of the AMTDR technique is also given together with a measurement configuration for the implementation of wavelength diversity imaging in a roof experiment aimed at imaging a passing aircraft. Extension of the theory presented to 3-D tomographic imaging of passive noise emitting objects by spectrally selective far field cross-correlation measurements is also given. Finally several refinements made in our anechoic-chamber measurement system are shown to yield drastic improvement in performance and retrieved image quality.

  10. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  11. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, T.L.

    1988-09-25

    The first high-resolution spectrometer flown to observe gamma-ray bursts was launched on the ISEE-3 spacecraft over nine years ago. It recorded two events before instrument failure, giving results that were suggestive but marginal. Other studies, with coarser energy resolution, also show evidence for spectral features as well as for spectral evolution on short time scales. Absolute source strength calibration will be possible only with source identification, but understanding of the burst emission processes will surely come only from the measurements having the best spectral and temporal precision. The only high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometer now planned, here or abroad, for space flight is an instrument sequel to the ISEE-3 spectrometer, to be flown on the interplanetary 'GGS Wind' mission. Much larger and higher-sensitivity, high-resolution instruments may have their optimum opportunities in conjunction with studies of solar flares in the time frame of the solar maximum of 2002.

  13. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  14. Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas

    CERN Document Server

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Böhner, Jürgen; Kawohl, Tobias; Kreft, Holger; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo Wilber; Zimmermann, Niklaus; Linder, H Peter; Kessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    High resolution information of climatic conditions is essential to many application in environmental sciences. Here we present the CHELSA algorithm to downscale temperature and precipitation estimates from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) climatic reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim) to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The algorithm for temperature is based on a statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperature from the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors such as wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, and a bias correction using Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) gridded and Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) station data. The resulting data consist of a monthly temperature and precipitation climatology for the years 1979-2013. We present a comparison of data derived from the CHELSA algorithm with two other high resolution gridded products with overlapping temporal resolution (Tropical R...

  15. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods.

  16. High resolution temperature measurement technique for measuring marine heat flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; YangYang; YANG; XiaoQiu; WU; BaoZhen; SUN; ZhaoHua; SHI; XiaoBin

    2013-01-01

    High resolution temperature measurement technique is one of the key techniques for measuring marine heat flow. Basing on Pt1000 platinum resistance which has the characteristics of high accuracy and good stability, we designed a bridge reversal excitation circuit for high resolution temperature measurement. And the deep ocean floor in-situ test results show that: (1) temperature deviation and peak-to-peak resolution of the first version circuit board (V1) are 1.960-1.990 mK and 0.980-0.995 m Kat 1.2-2.7°C, respectively; and temperature deviation and peak-to-peak resolution of the second circuit board (V2) are 2.260mK and 1.130 mK at 1.2-1.3°C, respectively; (2) During the 2012NSFC-IndOcean cruise, seafloor geothermal gradient at Ind2012HF03,-07 and-12 stations (water depth ranges from 3841 to 4541 m) were successfully measured, the values are 59.1,75.1 and 71.6°C/km, respectively. And the measurement errors of geothermal gradient at these three stations are less than 3.0% in terms of the peak-to-peak resolution. These indicate that the high resolution temperature measurement technique based on Pt1000 platinum resistance in this paper can be applied to marine heat flow measurement to obtain high precision geothermal parameters.

  17. High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argoul, F.; Monier, K.; Roland, T.; Elezgaray, J.; Berguiga, L.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a new non-labeling high resolution microscopy method for cellular imaging. This method called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) pushes down the resolution limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) to sub-micronic scales. High resolution SPRi is obtained by the surface plasmon lauching with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The advantages of SPPM compared to other high resolution SPRi's rely on three aspects; (i) the interferometric detection of the back reflected light after plasmon excitation, (ii) the twodimensional scanning of the sample for image reconstruction, (iii) the radial polarization of light, enhancing both resolution and sensitivity. This microscope can afford a lateral resolution of - 150 nm in liquid environment and - 200 nm in air. We present in this paper images of IMR90 fibroblasts obtained with SSPM in dried environment. Internal compartments such as nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, cellular and nuclear membrane can be recognized without labelling. We propose an interpretation of the ability of SSPM to reveal high index contrast zones by a local decomposition of the V (Z) function describing the response of the SSPM.

  18. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-08-06

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  20. High resolution positron tomography using PCR-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Sandrew, B.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Livni, E.; Kizuka, H.

    1984-01-01

    PCR-I is a high resolution positron tomograph developed by the Physics Research Laboratory of the Massachusetts General Hospital to explore resolution limits of positron tomographs. PCR-I currently obtains images with 4.8 mm FWHM resolution at the center. Plane thickness may be varied between 5 and 10 mm. The instrument uses analog coding to obtain high resolution images without mechanical motion. This permits rapid dynamic imaging and gated cardiac imaging as well as conventional high resolution imaging. A series of studies has been carried out to demonstrate the ability of PCR-I to image structures in small animals. F-18 in the rat skeleton is clearly defined and various structures such as the spinal processes can be clearly resolved. A sequence of images at different spacing provides a three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat skeleton. Blood volume and palmitic acid have been imaged in the dog heart. Again, the sequence of images provides a clear delineation of the three dimensional nature of the blood pools and of the surrounding musculature. Blood flow, blood volume and glucose metabolism have been studied in the monkey brain. Structures within the brain of the Resus monkey can be clearly resolved. Increased activity resulting from induced seizures in the squirrel monkey have been observed and delineated. All of these studies indicate areas of future animal and clinical research using the high resolution tomograph, PCR-I.

  1. High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Lehmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Butler, L.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dawson, M. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    The improved collimation and intensity of thermal and cold neutron beamlines combined with recent advances in neutron imaging devices enable high-resolution neutron radiography and microtomography, which can provide information on the internal structure of objects not achievable with conventional X-ray imaging techniques. Neutron detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution (important for the studies of dynamic processes) and low background count rate are among the crucial parameters defining the quality of radiographic images and tomographic reconstructions. The unique capabilities of neutron counting detectors with neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) and with Timepix CMOS readouts providing high neutron detection efficiency ({approx}70% for cold neutrons), spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 55 {mu}m and a temporal resolution of {approx}1 {mu}s-combined with the virtual absence of readout noise-make these devices very attractive for high-resolution microtomography. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of an MCP-Timepix detection system applied to microtomographic imaging, performed at the ICON cold neutron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The high resolution and the absence of readout noise enable accurate reconstruction of texture in a relatively opaque wood sample, differentiation of internal tissues of a fly and imaging of individual {approx}400 {mu}m grains in an organic powder encapsulated in a {approx}700 {mu}m thick metal casing.

  2. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Mjøs, Svein Are, E-mail: svein.mjos@kj.uib.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); David, Fabrice P.A. [Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core Facility, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schmid, Adrien W. [Proteomics Core Facility, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  3. Accelerated High-Resolution Photoacoustic Tomography via Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Arridge, Simon; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue. A particular example is the planar Fabry-Perot (FP) scanner, which yields high-resolution images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the photoacoustic field on the sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: First, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then...

  4. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Suerfu, Burkhant

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pio...

  5. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  6. Resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction for a high-resolution animal SPECT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, Navid; Sajedi, Salar; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Arabi, Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-01

    The small-animal High-Resolution SPECT (HiReSPECT) is a dedicated dual-head gamma camera recently designed and developed in our laboratory for imaging of murine models. Each detector is composed of an array of 1.2 × 1.2 mm(2) (pitch) pixelated CsI(Na) crystals. Two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) are coupled to each head's crystal. In this paper, we report on a resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction code applicable to the system and present the experimental results achieved using different phantoms and mouse scans. Collimator-detector response functions (CDRFs) were measured via a pixel-driven method using capillary sources at finite distances from the head within the field of view (FOV). CDRFs were then fitted by independent Gaussian functions. Thereafter, linear interpolations were applied to the standard deviation (σ) values of the fitted Gaussians, yielding a continuous map of CDRF at varying distances from the head. A rotation-based maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was used for reconstruction. A fast rotation algorithm was developed to rotate the image matrix according to the desired angle by means of pre-generated rotation maps. The experiments demonstrated improved resolution utilizing our resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction. While the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) radial and tangential resolution measurements of the system were over 2 mm in nearly all positions within the FOV without resolution recovery, reaching around 2.5 mm in some locations, they fell below 1.8 mm everywhere within the FOV using the resolution-recovery algorithm. The noise performance of the system was also acceptable; the standard deviation of the average counts per voxel in the reconstructed images was 6.6% and 8.3% without and with resolution recovery, respectively.

  7. The effects of high metal concentrations in soil-compost mixtures on soil enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, P R; Munroe, M D

    2010-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the impact of high-metal composts on the activities of four soil enzymes. High concentrations of metal salts (Cr, Cu, Ni or a Co-Mo-Pb combination) were added to feedstocks during the thermophilic stage of composting. These four metal-enriched composts and an unamended control compost were then mixed with soil collected from long-term agriculture plots under organic management or conventional management. The compost-soil mixtures were prepared at two rates (1:1 or 1:3 compost:soil, v/v) and incubated at 20 degrees C for three weeks. These 20 combinations plus the five composts and the two soils were added to pots and incubated for three weeks. Following incubation, soil enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, arysulfatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase) were measured using traditional assay procedures. Compared to the control, none of the high-metal composts inhibited soil enzyme activity. Notably, the Cu compost treatment produced significantly higher activity of all four enzymes in the soil compared to the control. Previous soil management influenced the activity of three enzymes, arysulfatase and dehydrogenase had greater activity in the organic soil while phosphatase activity was greater in the conventional soil. Increasing the proportion of compost in the pot had a positive effect on phosphodiesterase activity only. In conclusion, the high-metal compost treatments either enhanced or caused no adverse effects on soil enzyme activity.

  8. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A; Angelis, Georgios I; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C; Reader, Andrew J; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-01

    Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The

  9. Impact of the spatial resolution of climatic data and soil physical properties on regional corn yield predictions using the STICS crop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, Guillaume; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mesbah, S. Morteza; Liu, Jiangui; Duchesne, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    gridded daily precipitation data to capture spatial variations of rainfall as well as using fine-resolution soil properties instead of coarse-resolution soil properties from the Canadian soil dataset, especially for regions with high pedodiversity.

  10. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu; Mjøs, Svein Are; David, Fabrice P A; Schmid, Adrien W

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis.

  11. Study of Saturn electrostatic discharges with high time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, V.; Mylostna, K.; Konovalenko, A.; Kolyadin, V.; Zarka, P.; Griessmeier, J.-M.; Litvinenko, G.; Sidorchuk, M.; Rucker, H.; Fischer, G.; Cecconi, B.; Coffre, A.; Denis, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Nikolaenko, V.

    2013-09-01

    Ground-based observations of SED (Saturn Electrostatic Discharges) with high time resolution are the next stage of extraterrestrial atmospheric processes study. Due to extremely high intensity of Saturn's storm J (2010) [1] we have obtained the records with high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio with the time resolution of 15 ns. It permitted us to investigate the microsecond structure of lightning and clearly distinguish SED in the presence of local interference in virtue of a dispersive delay of extraterrestrial planetary signals.

  12. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  13. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  14. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony;

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...

  15. Stars and planets at high spatial and spectral resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis involves the development of new instrumental techniques and analysing tools, combining high spectral resolution with high spatial information, with the aim to increase our understanding of the formation and evolution of stars and planets. First, a novel instrumental

  16. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazej Adamczyk

    Full Text Available Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service. Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  17. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date, and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nanocrystalline objects.

  18. New high resolution synthetic stellar libraries for the Gaia Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sordo, R; Bouret, J C; Brott, I; Edvardsson, B; Frémat, Y; Heber, U; Josselin, E; Kochukhov, O; Korn, A; Lanzafame, A; Martins, F; Schweitzer, A; Thévenin, F; Zorec, J

    2008-01-01

    High resolution synthetic stellar libraries are of fundamental importance for the preparation of the Gaia Mission. We present new sets of spectral stellar libraries covering two spectral ranges: 300 --1100 nm at 0.1 nm resolution, and 840 -- 890 nm at 0.001 nm resolution. These libraries span a large range in atmospheric parameters, from super-metal-rich to very metal-poor (-5.0 $<$[Fe/H]$<$+1.0), from cool to hot (\\teff=3000--50000 K) stars, including peculiar abundance variations. The spectral resolution, spectral type coverage and number of models represent a substantial improvement over previous libraries used in population synthesis models and in atmospheric analysis.

  19. Subcutaneous Cysticercosis: Role of High Resolution Ultrasound in Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Lohra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the commonest site of extraintestinal infestation with Taenia solium is brain, Subcutaneous cysticercosis is fairly common in asia. The advent of high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, and a heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated soft tissue cysticerci has probably supplanted the need for surgical intervention and excision biopsy in asymptomatic subcutaneous cysts, as cysts have high rate of spontaneous resolution. OBJECTIVES: - To observe role of high resolution ultrasound in diagnosis and need of surgical intervention in treatment of subcutaneous cysticercosis. MATERIALS and METHODS: retrospective study of seven cases of extraneural cysticercosis, all involving the subcutaneous tissues or muscles over the arms and torso. Either high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, or excision biopsy, or a combination of these were used to arrive at a diagnosis. All patients were followed up with serial ultrasounds. All patients received oral nitazoxanide for autoinfection. Surgical excision was resorted to in two patients, in whom it was possible to obtain a histopathologic diagnosis. RESULTS: of the seven cases of subcutaneous cysticercosis all have rural background, most of the patients (6 were vegetarian and one was non vegetarian. Age and gender of patient, size and duration of lesion were insignificant in establishing the diagnosis. High resolution ultrasound was highly significant in establishing the diagnosis over FNAC and histopathology. Five of the cases resolved spontaneously and surgical intervention was required only in two cases. INTERPRETATION and CONCLUSIONS: With heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated subcutaneous cysticercosis in patients with close animal contact, and the widespread availability of high resolution ultrasound and FNAC, subcutaneous cysticercosis can be diagnosed readily. Surgery can be avoided in the great majority of these patients, as the cysts mostly resolve on their own

  20. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be

  1. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  2. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-08-01

    One of the most remarkable and exciting achievements in the field of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the last years is the unprecedented sub-molecular resolution of both atomic and electronic structures of single molecules deposited on solid state surfaces. Despite its youth, the technique has already brought many new possibilities to perform different kinds of measurements, which cannot be accomplished by other techniques. This opens new perspectives in advanced characterization of physical and chemical processes and properties of molecular structures on surfaces. Here, we discuss the history and recent progress of the high resolution imaging with a functionalized probe by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We describe the mechanisms responsible for the high-resolution AFM, STM and IETS-STM contrast. The complexity of this technique requires new theoretical approaches, where a relaxation of the functionalized probe is considered. We emphasise the similarities of the mechanism driving high-resolution SPM with other imaging methods. We also summarise briefly significant achievements and progress in different branches. Finally we provide brief perspectives and remaining challenges of the further refinement of these high-resolution methods.

  3. High resolution magnetic imaging: MicroSQUID Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselbach, K; Ladam, C; Dolocan, V O; Hykel, D; Crozes, T [Institut Neel, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Schuster, K [Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire F-38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Mailly, D [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Site Alcatel de Marcoussis Route de Nozay F-91460 Marcoussis (France)], E-mail: klaus.hasselbach@grenoble.cnrs.fr

    2008-02-01

    Magnetic imaging at the micrometer scale with high sensitivity is a challenge difficult to be met. Magnetic force microscopy has a very high spatial resolution but is limited in magnetic resolution. Hall probe microscopy is very powerful but sensor fabrication at the one micron scale is difficult and effects due to discreteness of charge appear in the form of significant 1/f noise. SQUID microscopy is very powerful, having high magnetic resolution, but spatial resolution is usually of the order of 10 {mu}m. The difficulties lay mostly in an efficient way to couple flux to the sensor. The only way to improve spatial resolution is to place the probe close to the very edge of the support, thus maximising coupling and spatial resolution. If there has been found a way to bring close the tip, there must be also found a reliable a way to maintain distance during scanning. We want to present recent improvements on scanning microsquid microscopy: Namely the improved fabrication of microSQUID tips using silicon micro machining and the precise positioning of the micrometer diameter microSQUID loop by electron beam lithography. The microSQUID is a microbridge DC SQUID, with two opposite microbridges. The constrictions are patterned by high-resolution e-beam lithography and have a width of 20 nm and a length of about 100 nm. The distance control during scanning is obtained by integrating the microSQUID sensor with a piezoelectric tuning fork acting as a force sensor allowing to control height and even topographic imaging. The detector is placed in a custom built near field microscope and the sample temperature can be varied between 0.1 Kelvin and 10 K. The microscope is used to study magnetic flux structures in unconventional superconductors and will be used to observe thermal domains in superconducting detectors in the voltage state.

  4. High spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J J

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging is at present the only imaging technique available to measure diffusion of water and metabolites in humans. It provides vital insights to brain connectivity and has proved to be an important tool in diagnosis and therapy planning in many neurological diseases such as brain tumour, ischaemia and multiple sclerosis. This project focuses on the development of a high resolution diffusion tensor imaging technique. In this thesis, the basic theory of diffusion tensor MR Imaging is presented. The technical challenges encountered during development of these techniques will be discussed, with proposed solutions. New sequences with high spatial resolution have been developed and the results are compared with the standard technique more commonly used. Overview The project aims at the development of diffusion tensor imaging techniques with a high spatial resolution. Chapter 2 will describe the basic physics of MRI, the phenomenon of diffusion and the measurement of diffusion by MRI...

  5. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony;

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit hi...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors......In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...

  6. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Siruguri; P D Babu; M Gupta; A V Pimpale; P S Goyal

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator and open beam geometry, enabling the use of smaller samples. The resolution curve of the instrument was found to have little variation over a wide angular region and a / ∼ 0.3% has been achieved. The instrument provides sample environment of very low temperatures and high magnetic fields using a 7 Tesla cryogen-free superconducting magnet with a VTI having a temperature range of 1.5–320 K. The special sample environment and high resolution make this neutron powder diffractometer a very powerful facility for studying magnetic properties of materials.

  7. Synergetic Use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Data for Soil Moisture Mapping at 100 m Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent deployment of ESA’s Sentinel operational satellites has established a new paradigm for remote sensing applications. In this context, Sentinel-1 radar images have made it possible to retrieve surface soil moisture with a high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper presents two methodologies for the retrieval of soil moisture from remotely-sensed SAR images, with a spatial resolution of 100 m. These algorithms are based on the interpretation of Sentinel-1 data recorded in the VV polarization, which is combined with Sentinel-2 optical data for the analysis of vegetation effects over a site in Urgell (Catalunya, Spain. The first algorithm has already been applied to observations in West Africa by Zribi et al., 2008, using low spatial resolution ERS scatterometer data, and is based on change detection approach. In the present study, this approach is applied to Sentinel-1 data and optimizes the inversion process by taking advantage of the high repeat frequency of the Sentinel observations. The second algorithm relies on a new method, based on the difference between backscattered Sentinel-1 radar signals observed on two consecutive days, expressed as a function of NDVI optical index. Both methods are applied to almost 1.5 years of satellite data (July 2015–November 2016, and are validated using field data acquired at a study site. This leads to an RMS error in volumetric moisture of approximately 0.087 m3/m3 and 0.059 m3/m3 for the first and second methods, respectively. No site calibrations are needed with these techniques, and they can be applied to any vegetation-covered area for which time series of SAR data have been recorded.

  8. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  9. Novel techniques in VUV high-resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ubachs, W; Eikema, K S E; de Oliveira, N; Nahon, L

    2013-01-01

    Novel VUV sources and techniques for VUV spectroscopy are reviewed. Laser-based VUV sources have been developed via non-linear upconversion of laser pulses in the nanosecond (ns), the picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) domain, and are applied in high-resolution gas phase spectroscopic studies. While the ns and ps pulsed laser sources, at Fourier-transform limited bandwidths, are used in wavelength scanning spectroscopy, the fs laser source is used in a two-pulse time delayed mode. In addition a Fourier-transform spectrometer for high resolution gas-phase spectroscopic studies in the VUV is described, exhibiting the multiplex advantage to measure many resonances simultaneously.

  10. High-resolution second harmonic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Tomov, Ivan V.; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2005-04-01

    A high-resolution Second Harmonic Optical Coherence Tomography (SH-OCT) system is demonstrated using a spectrum broadened femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. An axial resolution of 4.2 μm at the second harmonic wave center wavelength of 400 nm has been achieved. Because the SH-OCT system uses the second harmonic generation signals that strongly depend on the orientation, polarization and local symmetry properties of chiral molecules, this technique provides unique contrast enhancement to conventional optical coherence tomography. The system is applied to image biological tissues like the rat-tail tendon. Images of highly organized collagen fibrils in the rat-tail tendon have been demonstrated.

  11. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  12. High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaret, M; Maillard, L; Jung, J

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) allow the recording of spontaneous or evoked electromagnetic brain activity with excellent temporal resolution. Data must be recorded with high temporal resolution (sampling rate) and high spatial resolution (number of channels). Data analyses are based on several steps with selection of electromagnetic signals, elaboration of a head model and use of algorithms in order to solve the inverse problem. Due to considerable technical advances in spatial resolution, these tools now represent real methods of ElectroMagnetic Source Imaging. HR-EEG and MEG constitute non-invasive and complementary examinations, characterized by distinct sensitivities according to the location and orientation of intracerebral generators. In the presurgical assessment of drug-resistant partial epilepsies, HR-EEG and MEG can characterize and localize interictal activities and thus the irritative zone. HR-EEG and MEG often yield significant additional data that are complementary to other presurgical investigations and particularly relevant in MRI-negative cases. Currently, the determination of the epileptogenic zone and functional brain mapping remain rather less well-validated indications. In France, in 2014, HR-EEG is now part of standard clinical investigation of epilepsy, while MEG remains a research technique.

  13. High resolution crop growth simulation for identification of potential adaptation strategies under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Yoo, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Impact assessment of climate change on crop production would facilitate planning of adaptation strategies. Because socio-environmental conditions would differ by local areas, it would be advantageous to assess potential adaptation measures at a specific area. The objectives of this study was to develop a crop growth simulation system at a very high spatial resolution, e.g., 30 m, and to assess different adaptation options including shift of planting date and use of different cultivars. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model was used to predict yields of soybean and maize in Korea. Gridded data for climate and soil were used to prepare input data for the DSSAT model. Weather input data were prepared at the resolution of 30 m using bilinear interpolation from gridded climate scenario data. Those climate data were obtained from Korean Meteorology Administration. Spatial resolution of temperature and precipitation was 1 km whereas that of solar radiation was 12.5 km. Soil series data at the 30 m resolution were obtained from the soil database operated by Rural Development Administration, Korea. The SOL file, which is a soil input file for the DSSAT model was prepared using physical and chemical properties of a given soil series, which were available from the soil database. Crop yields were predicted by potential adaptation options based on planting date and cultivar. For example, 10 planting dates and three cultivars were used to identify ideal management options for climate change adaptation. In prediction of maize yield, combination of 20 planting dates and two cultivars was used as management options. Predicted crop yields differed by site even within a relatively small region. For example, the maximum of average yields for 2001-2010 seasons differed by sites In a county of which areas is 520 km2 (Fig. 1). There was also spatial variation in the ideal management option in the region (Fig. 2). These results suggested that local

  14. Multi-resolution voxel phantom modeling: a high-resolution eye model for computational dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracappa, Peter F.; Rhodes, Ashley; Fiedler, Derek

    2014-09-01

    Voxel models of the human body are commonly used for simulating radiation dose with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Due to memory limitations, the voxel resolution of these computational phantoms is typically too large to accurately represent the dimensions of small features such as the eye. Recently reduced recommended dose limits to the lens of the eye, which is a radiosensitive tissue with a significant concern for cataract formation, has lent increased importance to understanding the dose to this tissue. A high-resolution eye model is constructed using physiological data for the dimensions of radiosensitive tissues, and combined with an existing set of whole-body models to form a multi-resolution voxel phantom, which is used with the MCNPX code to calculate radiation dose from various exposure types. This phantom provides an accurate representation of the radiation transport through the structures of the eye. Two alternate methods of including a high-resolution eye model within an existing whole-body model are developed. The accuracy and performance of each method is compared against existing computational phantoms.

  15. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  17. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  18. A cloud mask methodology for high resolution remote sensing data combining information from high and medium resolution optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter; Strobl, Peter; Kucera, Jan; Vogt, Peter; Seebach, Lucia; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2011-09-01

    This study presents a novel cloud masking approach for high resolution remote sensing images in the context of land cover mapping. As an advantage to traditional methods, the approach does not rely on thermal bands and it is applicable to images from most high resolution earth observation remote sensing sensors. The methodology couples pixel-based seed identification and object-based region growing. The seed identification stage relies on pixel value comparison between high resolution images and cloud free composites at lower spatial resolution from almost simultaneously acquired dates. The methodology was tested taking SPOT4-HRVIR, SPOT5-HRG and IRS-LISS III as high resolution images and cloud free MODIS composites as reference images. The selected scenes included a wide range of cloud types and surface features. The resulting cloud masks were evaluated through visual comparison. They were also compared with ad-hoc independently generated cloud masks and with the automatic cloud cover assessment algorithm (ACCA). In general the results showed an agreement in detected clouds higher than 95% for clouds larger than 50 ha. The approach produced consistent results identifying and mapping clouds of different type and size over various land surfaces including natural vegetation, agriculture land, built-up areas, water bodies and snow.

  19. High-resolution TFT-LCD for spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JaeWon; Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Oh, Himchan; Kim, GiHeon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-06-01

    SLM with very fine pixel pitch is needed for the holographic display system. Among various kinds of SLMs, commercially available high resolution LCoS has been widely used as a spatial light modulator. But the size of commercially available LCoS SLM is limited because the manufacturing technology of LCoS is based on the semiconductor process developed on small size Si wafer. Recently very high resolution flat panel display panel (~500ppi) was developed as a "retina display". Until now, the pixel pitch of flat panel display is several times larger than the pixel pitch of LCoS. But considering the possibility of shrink down the pixel pitch with advanced lithographic tools, the application of flat panel display will make it possible to build a SLM with high spatial bandwidth product. We simulated High resolution TFT-LCD panel on glass substrate using oxide semiconductor TFT with pixel pitch of 20um. And we considered phase modulation behavior of LC(ECB) mode. The TFT-LCD panel is reflective type with 4-metal structure with organic planarization layers. The technical challenge for high resolution large area SLM will be discussed with very fine pixel.

  20. Development of high resolution land surface parameters for the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for high-resolution land surface parameters as land surface models are being applied at increasingly higher spatial resolution offline as well as in regional and global models. The default land surface parameters for the most recent version of the Community Land Model (i.e. CLM 4.0 are at 0.5° or coarser resolutions, released with the model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR. Plant Functional Types (PFTs, vegetation properties such as Leaf Area Index (LAI, Stem Area Index (SAI, and non-vegetated land covers were developed using remotely-sensed datasets retrieved in late 1990's and the beginning of this century. In this study, we developed new land surface parameters for CLM 4.0, specifically PFTs, LAI, SAI and non-vegetated land cover composition, at 0.05° resolution globally based on the most recent MODIS land cover and improved MODIS LAI products. Compared to the current CLM 4.0 parameters, the new parameters produced a decreased coverage by bare soil and trees, but an increased coverage by shrub, grass, and cropland. The new parameters result in a decrease in global seasonal LAI, with the biggest decrease in boreal forests; however, the new parameters also show a large increase in LAI in tropical forest. Differences between the new and the current parameters are mainly caused by changes in the sources of remotely sensed data and the representation of land cover in the source data. The new high-resolution land surface parameters have been used in a coupled land-atmosphere model (WRF-CLM applied to the western US to demonstrate their use in high-resolution modeling. Future work will include global offline CLMsimulations to examine the impacts of source data resolution and subsequent land parameter changes on simulated land surface processes.

  1. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  2. Immersion Gratings for Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kaji, Sayumi; Sukegawa, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Takao; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared wavelength range is essential for observations of minor isotopologues, such as HDO for water, and prebiotic organic molecules like hydrocarbons/P-bearing molecules because numerous vibrational molecular bands (including non-polar molecules) are located in this wavelength range. High spectral resolution enables us to detect weak lines without spectral line confusion. This technique has been widely used in planetary sciences, e.g., cometary coma (H2O, CO, and organic molecules), the martian atmosphere (CH4, CO2, H2O and HDO), and the upper atmosphere of gas giants (H3+ and organic molecules such as C2H6). Spectrographs with higher resolution (and higher sensitivity) still have a potential to provide a plenty of findings. However, because the size of spectrographs scales with the spectral resolution, it is difficult to realize it.Immersion grating (IG), which is a diffraction grating wherein the diffraction surface is immersed in a material with a high refractive index (n > 2), provides n times higher spectral resolution compared to a reflective grating of the same size. Because IG reduces the size of spectrograph to 1/n compared to the spectrograph with the same spectral resolution using a conventional reflective grating, it is widely acknowledged as a key optical device to realize compact spectrographs with high spectral resolution.Recently, we succeeded in fabricating a CdZnTe immersion grating with the theoretically predicted diffraction efficiency by machining process using an ultrahigh-precision five-axis processing machine developed by Canon Inc. Using the same technique, we completed a practical germanium (Ge) immersion grating with both a reflection coating on the grating surface and the an AR coating on the entrance surface. It is noteworthy that the wide wavelength range from 2 to 20 um can be covered by the two immersion gratings.In this paper, we present the performances and the applications of the immersion

  3. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  4. High-resolution kinetic energy distributions via doppler shift measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Buelow, S.; Baugh, D.; Wittig, C.

    1986-07-01

    In photolysis/probe experiments using pulsed sources, time delay produces both spatial and directional bias in the fragment distributions, thus enabling well-resolved kinetic energy distributions to be obtained from Doppler shift measurements. Data are presented for H-atoms detected using two-photon ionization, and high S/N and laser-limited kinetic energy resolution are demonstrated.

  5. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin

    2016-03-21

    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging.

  6. A Large Scale, High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    2007). HSCB Models can be employed for simulating mission scenarios, determining optimal strategies for disrupting terrorist networks, or training and...High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model ∑ = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ − −− = desired 1 move,desired, desired,,desired, desired,, N j ij jmoveij moveiD rp prp

  7. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  8. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  9. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  10. Structure Identification in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Kling, Jens; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2014-01-01

    A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present ...

  11. Signal Processing for High Resolution FMCW SAR and Moving Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of Frequency Modulated ContinuousWave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) leads to lightweight, cost-effective imaging sensors of high resolution. In FMCW SAR applications the conventional stop-and-go approximation used in pulse radar algorithms cannot be considered

  12. High Resolution Digital Imaging of Paintings: The Vasari Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk

    1991-01-01

    Describes VASARI (the Visual Art System for Archiving and Retrieval of Images), a project funded by the European Community to show the feasibility of high resolution colormetric imaging directly from paintings. The hardware and software used in the system are explained, storage on optical disks is described, and initial results are reported. (five…

  13. Ultra-high-resolution small-animal SPECT imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, F. van der

    2007-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the development of the first two in a series of dedicated ultra-high resolution Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems (U-SPECT-I and II) for the imaging of distributions of radio-isotope labeled tracers in small laboratory animals such as mice

  14. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  15. High resolution ultrasonography in isolated soft tissue and intramuscular cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: With the advent of high resolution ultrasonography and increased clinical awareness of the isolated soft tissue-intramuscular cysticercosis especially in endemic zone, a more conservative non-invasive approach can be applied both in diagnosis and treatment of these isolated cases of cysticercosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 42-46

  16. Development of high accuracy and resolution geoid and gravity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Precision satellite to satellite tracking can be used to obtain high precision and resolution maps of the geoid. A method is demonstrated to use data in a limited region to map the geopotential at the satellite altitude. An inverse method is used to downward continue the potential to the Earth surface. The method is designed for both satellites in the same low orbit.

  17. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.; Van De Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  18. High-resolution radio imaging of young supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A; Ros, E; Guirado, J C; Lara, L; Mantovani, F; Stockdale, C J; Weiler, K W; Diamond, P J; Van Dyk, S D; Lundqvist, P; Panagia, N; Shapiro, I I; Sramek, R

    2004-01-01

    The high resolution obtained through the use of VLBI gives an unique opportunity to directly observe the interaction of an expanding radio supernova with its surrounding medium. We present here results from our VLBI observations of the young supernovae SN 1979C, SN 1986J, and SN 2001gd.

  19. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  20. High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Jones, P.D.; Briffa, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Palaeoclimatology • high-resolution • last millennium • tree rings • dendroclimatology • chronology • uncertainty • corals • ice-cores • speleothems • documentary evidence • instrumental records • varves • borehole temperature • marine sediments • composite plus scaling • CPS • climate field...

  1. Resolution of RNA using high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mclaughlin, L.W.; Bischoff, Rainer

    1987-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic techniques can be very effective for the resolution and isolation of nucleic acids. The characteristic ionic (phosphodiesters) and hydrophobic (nucleobases) properties of RNAs can be exploited for their separation. In this respect anion-exchange and reversed-p

  2. Five Micron High Resolution MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging with Simple, Interchangeable, Multi-Resolution Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Dueñas, Maria Emilia; Lee, Young Jin

    2017-01-01

    High-spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is crucial for the mapping of chemical distributions at the cellular and subcellular level. In this work, we improved our previous laser optical system for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI, from 9 μm practical laser spot size to a practical laser spot size of 4 μm, thereby allowing for 5 μm resolution imaging without oversampling. This is accomplished through a combination of spatial filtering, beam expansion, and reduction of the final focal length. Most importantly, the new laser optics system allows for simple modification of the spot size solely through the interchanging of the beam expander component. Using 10×, 5×, and no beam expander, we could routinely change between 4, 7, and 45 μm laser spot size, in less than 5 min. We applied this multi-resolution MALDI-MSI system to a single maize root tissue section with three different spatial resolutions of 5, 10, and 50 μm and compared the differences in imaging quality and signal sensitivity. We also demonstrated the difference in depth of focus between the optical systems with 10× and 5× beam expanders.

  3. Evaluating the effect of remote sensing image spatial resolution on soil exchangeable potassium prediction models in smallholder farm settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P

    2017-09-15

    Major end users of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) such as policy makers and agricultural extension workers are faced with choosing the appropriate remote sensing data. The objective of this research is to analyze the spatial resolution effects of different remote sensing images on soil prediction models in two smallholder farms in Southern India called Kothapally (Telangana State), and Masuti (Karnataka State), and provide empirical guidelines to choose the appropriate remote sensing images in DSM. Bayesian kriging (BK) was utilized to characterize the spatial pattern of exchangeable potassium (Kex) in the topsoil (0-15 cm) at different spatial resolutions by incorporating spectral indices from Landsat 8 (30 m), RapidEye (5 m), and WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A images (2 m). Some spectral indices such as band reflectances, band ratios, Crust Index and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index from multiple images showed relatively strong correlations with soil Kex in two study areas. The research also suggested that fine spatial resolution WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A-based and RapidEye-based soil prediction models would not necessarily have higher prediction performance than coarse spatial resolution Landsat 8-based soil prediction models. The end users of DSM in smallholder farm settings need select the appropriate spectral indices and consider different factors such as the spatial resolution, band width, spectral resolution, temporal frequency, cost, and processing time of different remote sensing images. Overall, remote sensing-based Digital Soil Mapping has potential to be promoted to smallholder farm settings all over the world and help smallholder farmers implement sustainable and field-specific soil nutrient management scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Topography improvements in MEMS DMs for high-contrast, high-resolution imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop and demonstrate an innovative microfabrication process to substantially improve the surface quality achievable in high-resolution...

  5. High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Abiad, R.; Hull, J.

    2003-05-01

    A new photon counting, imaging readout for microchannel plate sensors, the cross strip (XS) anode, has been investigated. Charge centroiding of signals detected on two orthogonal layers of sense strip sets are used to derive photon locations. The XS anode spatial resolution (<3 μm FWHM) exceeds the spatial resolution of most direct charge sensing anodes, and does so at low gain (<2×10 6). The image linearity and fidelity are high enough to resolve and map 7 μm MCP pores, offering new possibilities for astronomical and other applications.

  6. High resolution atomic force microscopy of double-stranded RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Pablo; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Herrero-Galán, Elías; Valpuesta, José M.; Gil, Adriana; Gomez-Herrero, Julio; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to resolve the A-form sub-helical pitch periodicity. We have employed different high-sensitive force-detection methods and obtained images with similar spatial resolution. Therefore, we show here that the limiting factors for high-resolution AFM imaging of soft materials in liquid medium are, rather than the imaging mode, the force between the tip and the sample and the sharpness of the tip apex.Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to

  7. Design for a focusing high-resolution neutron crystal diffractometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, I; Popovici, M; Popa, N C

    1999-01-01

    A new concept of high-resolution focusing configuration begins to be accepted as an alternative solution to the existing conventional configurations. Among the earliest work performed in this direction is that performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti. These results are presented below. The experimentally determined resolution properties for two focusing configurations obtained at TRIGA reactor Pitesti and at VVRS reactor Bucharest are given in order to be compared with those obtained for the conventional ones. The principles to get focusing in crystal neutron diffractometry are presented. The main characteristics for a focusing instrument are given. (author)

  8. High resolution full-spectrum water Raman lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FuChao; YI Fan; JIA JingYu; ZHANG YunPeng; ZHANG ShaoDong; YU ChangMing; TAN Ying

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the temporal-spatial distribution of water content in atmosphere and water phase change in cloud is important for atmospheric study.For this purpose,we have developed a high resolution full-spectrum water Raman lidar that can collect Raman signals from ice,water droplets and water vapor simultaneously.A double-grating polychromator and a 32-channel photomultiplier-tube detector are used to obtain a spectral resolution of ~0.19 nm in the full Raman spectrum range of water.Preliminary observations present the water Raman spectrum characteristics of both the mixed-phase cloud and humid air under cloudless condition.

  9. High resolution polar Kerr magnetometer for nanomagnetism and nanospintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, M; Ferré, J; Mougin, A; Cromières, J-P; Klein, V

    2008-03-01

    A new high resolution polar magneto-optical (MO) Kerr magnetometer, devoted to the study of nanometer sized elements with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, is described. The unique performances of this setup in terms of sensitivity (1.2x10(-15) emu), stability (lateral drift +/-35 nm over 3 h), and resolution (laser spot full width at half maximum down to 470 nm) are demonstrated, and illustrated by Kerr hysteresis loop measurements on a unique ultrathin magnetic nanodot, and over small segments of ultranarrow magnetic tracks. Large scanning MO Kerr microscopy images were also obtained with the same performances.

  10. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammoto Takeo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries.

  11. Large-Scale Monitoring of Plants through Environmental DNA Metabarcoding of Soil: Recovery, Resolution, and Annotation of Four DNA Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Fahner

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing world we need methods to efficiently assess biodiversity in order to monitor ecosystem trends. Ecological monitoring often uses plant community composition to infer quality of sites but conventional aboveground surveys only capture a snapshot of the actively growing plant diversity. Environmental DNA (eDNA extracted from soil samples, however, can include taxa represented by both active and dormant tissues, seeds, pollen, and detritus. Analysis of this eDNA through DNA metabarcoding provides a more comprehensive view of plant diversity at a site from a single assessment but it is not clear which DNA markers are best used to capture this diversity. Sequence recovery, annotation, and sequence resolution among taxa were evaluated for four established DNA markers (matK, rbcL, ITS2, and the trnL P6 loop in silico using database sequences and in situ using high throughput sequencing of 35 soil samples from a remote boreal wetland. Overall, ITS2 and rbcL are recommended for DNA metabarcoding of vascular plants from eDNA when not using customized or geographically restricted reference databases. We describe a new framework for evaluating DNA metabarcodes and, contrary to existing assumptions, we found that full length DNA barcode regions could outperform shorter markers for surveying plant diversity from soil samples. By using current DNA barcoding markers rbcL and ITS2 for plant metabarcoding, we can take advantage of existing resources such as the growing DNA barcode database. Our work establishes the value of standard DNA barcodes for soil plant eDNA analysis in ecological investigations and biomonitoring programs and supports the collaborative development of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding.

  12. Large-Scale Monitoring of Plants through Environmental DNA Metabarcoding of Soil: Recovery, Resolution, and Annotation of Four DNA Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahner, Nicole A.; Shokralla, Shadi; Baird, Donald J.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world we need methods to efficiently assess biodiversity in order to monitor ecosystem trends. Ecological monitoring often uses plant community composition to infer quality of sites but conventional aboveground surveys only capture a snapshot of the actively growing plant diversity. Environmental DNA (eDNA) extracted from soil samples, however, can include taxa represented by both active and dormant tissues, seeds, pollen, and detritus. Analysis of this eDNA through DNA metabarcoding provides a more comprehensive view of plant diversity at a site from a single assessment but it is not clear which DNA markers are best used to capture this diversity. Sequence recovery, annotation, and sequence resolution among taxa were evaluated for four established DNA markers (matK, rbcL, ITS2, and the trnL P6 loop) in silico using database sequences and in situ using high throughput sequencing of 35 soil samples from a remote boreal wetland. Overall, ITS2 and rbcL are recommended for DNA metabarcoding of vascular plants from eDNA when not using customized or geographically restricted reference databases. We describe a new framework for evaluating DNA metabarcodes and, contrary to existing assumptions, we found that full length DNA barcode regions could outperform shorter markers for surveying plant diversity from soil samples. By using current DNA barcoding markers rbcL and ITS2 for plant metabarcoding, we can take advantage of existing resources such as the growing DNA barcode database. Our work establishes the value of standard DNA barcodes for soil plant eDNA analysis in ecological investigations and biomonitoring programs and supports the collaborative development of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding. PMID:27310720

  13. SAGA GIS based processing of spatial high resolution temperature data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlitz, Lars; Bechtel, Benjamin; Kawohl, Tobias; Boehner, Juergen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geography; Zaksek, Klemen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geophysics

    2013-07-01

    Many climate change impact studies require surface and near surface temperature data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The resolution of state of the art climate models and remote sensing data is often by far to coarse to represent the meso- and microscale distinctions of temperatures. This is particularly the case for regions with a huge variability of topoclimates, such as mountainous or urban areas. Statistical downscaling techniques are promising methods to refine gridded temperature data with limited spatial resolution, particularly due to their low demand for computer capacity. This paper presents two downscaling approaches - one for climate model output and one for remote sensing data. Both are methodically based on the FOSS-GIS platform SAGA. (orig.)

  14. Overview on high-resolution ocean modeling in JAMSTEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michio Kawamiya

    2014-01-01

    In view of the importance of ocean component for representing climate change,efforts are underway to implement a high-resolution nesting model system in Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MI-ROC) for the North Pacific using the same ocean model as used in the coupled model MIROC5. By comparing double (10 km for the northwestern Pacific,50 km for the rest of the Pacific) and triple (double nesting plus 2 km resolution near Japan) nesting,it turns out that relative vorticity is drastically enhanced near Japan with 2 km resolution. It is hoped that such an elaborated nesting system will reveal detailed processes for the ocean heat uptake by,e.g.,intermediate water and mode water formation for which the“perturbed region”near Japan is the key region.

  15. Bendable X-ray Optics for High Resolution Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Broadway, D.

    2014-01-01

    Current state-of the-art for x-ray optics fabrication calls for either the polishing of massive substrates into high-angular-resolution mirrors or the replication of thin, lower-resolution, mirrors from perfectly figured mandrels. Future X-ray Missions will require a change in this optics fabrication paradigm in order to achieve sub-arcsecond resolution in light-weight optics. One possible approach to this is to start with perfectly flat, light-weight surface, bend it into a perfect cone, form the desired mirror figure by material deposition, and insert the resulting mirror into a telescope structure. Such an approach is currently being investigated at MSFC, and a status report will be presented detailing the results of finite element analyses, bending tests and differential deposition experiments.

  16. Advances toward high spectral resolution quantum X-ray calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, S. H.; Kelley, R. L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Mccammon, D.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal detectors for X-ray spectroscopy combining high spectral resolution and quantum efficiency have been developed. These microcalorimeters measure the energy released in the absorption of a single photon by sensing the rise in temperature of a small absorbing structure. The ultimate energy resolution of such a device is limited by the thermodynamic power fluctuations in the thermal link between the calorimeter and isothermal bath and can in principle be made as low as 1 eV. The performance of a real device is degraded due to noise contributions such as excess 1/f noise in the thermistor and incomplete conversion of energy into phonons. The authors report some recent advances in thermometry, X-ray absorption and thermalization, fabrication techniques, and detector optimization in the presence of noise. These improvements have resulted in a device with a spectral resolution of 17 eV FWHM, measured at 6 keV.

  17. High Resolution Absorption Spectroscopy using Externally Dispersed Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelstein, J; Erskine, D J

    2005-07-06

    We describe the use of Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy. By adding a small fixed-delay interferometer to a dispersive spectrograph, a precise fiducial grid in wavelength is created over the entire spectrograph bandwidth. The fiducial grid interacts with narrow spectral features in the input spectrum to create a moire pattern. EDI uses the moire pattern to obtain new information about the spectra that is otherwise unavailable, thereby improving spectrograph performance. We describe the theory and practice of EDI instruments and demonstrate improvements in the spectral resolution of conventional spectrographs by a factor of 2 to 6. The improvement of spectral resolution offered by EDI can benefit space instruments by reducing spectrograph size or increasing instantaneous bandwidth.

  18. On temporal correlations in high-resolution frequency counting

    CERN Document Server

    Dunker, Tim; Rønningen, Ole Petter

    2016-01-01

    We analyze noise properties of time series of frequency data from different counting modes of a Keysight 53230A frequency counter. We use a 10 MHz reference signal from a passive hydrogen maser connected via phase-stable Huber+Suhner Sucoflex 104 cables to the reference and input connectors of the counter. We find that the high resolution gap-free (CONT) frequency counting process imposes long-term correlations in the output data, resulting in a modified Allan deviation that is characteristic of random walk phase noise. Equally important, the CONT mode results in a frequency bias. In contrast, the counter's undocumented raw continuous mode (RCON) yields unbiased frequency stability estimates with white phase noise characteristics, and of a magnitude consistent with the counter's 20 ps single-shot resolution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a 100-point running average filter in conjunction with the RCON mode yields resolution enhanced frequency estimates with flicker phase noise characteristics. For instance,...

  19. High Resolution Software Defined Radar System for Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costanzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Software Radio Peripheral USRP NI2920, a software defined transceiver so far mainly used in Software Defined Radio applications, is adopted in this work to design a high resolution L-Band Software Defined Radar system. The enhanced available bandwidth, due to the Gigabit Ethernet interface, is exploited to obtain a higher slant-range resolution with respect to the existing Software Defined Radar implementations. A specific LabVIEW application, performing radar operations, is discussed, and successful validations are presented to demonstrate the accurate target detection capability of the proposed software radar architecture. In particular, outdoor and indoor test are performed by adopting a metal plate as reference structure located at different distances from the designed radar system, and results obtained from the measured echo are successfully processed to accurately reveal the correct target position, with the predicted slant-range resolution equal to 6 m.

  20. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  1. High resolution imaging with impulse based thermoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Hajiaboli, Amir; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-07-01

    Existing imaging modalities like microwave- or radiofrequency (RF) induced thermoacoustic tomography systems show the potential for resolving structures deep inside tissue due to the high penetration properties of RF. However, one of the major drawbacks of existing thermoacoustic tomography systems with pulse modulated carrier frequency excitation is the compromise between efficient signal generation and attainable spatial resolution. In order to overcome limitations of conventional thermoacoustic imaging methods, we herein present and experimentally validate our novel approach towards high resolution thermoacoustic tomography. Instead of carrier-frequency amplification, we utilize ultrahigh-energy electromagnetic impulses at nanosecond duration with near-field energy coupling, thus maintaining thermoacoustic signal strength without compromising spatial resolution. Preliminary experiments on highly absorbing objects, consisting of copper wires with characteristic sizes of ~100 μm, reveal the resolution performance which yields 160 μm. Furthermore, benefits like its cost effectiveness, simplicity and compactness with the potential application in small animal imaging as well as human body imaging show that thermoacoustic tomography with impulse excitation is a promising imaging modality which has a broad range of applications.

  2. High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is limited to peripheral skeleton regions like the wrist and ankle, MRI can also image other sites like the proximal femur but usually with lower spatial resolution. In addition Multidetector-CT has been used for high-resolution imaging of trabecular bone structure, however, the radiation dose is a limiting factor. This article provides an overview of the different modalities, technical requirements and recent developments in this emerging field. Details regarding imaging protocols as well as image post-processing methods for bone structure quantification are discussed. PMID:20609895

  3. Validation of AIRS high-resolution stratospheric temperature retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Catrin I.; Hoffmann, Lars

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on stratospheric temperature observations by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We validate a nine-year record (2003 - 2011) of data retrieved with a scientific retrieval processor independent from the operational processor operated by NASA. The retrieval discussed here provides stratospheric temperature profiles for each individual AIRS footprint and has nine times better horizontal sampling than the operational data provided by NASA. The high-resolution temperature data are considered optimal for for gravity wave studies. For validation the high-resolution retrieval data are compared with results from the AIRS operational Level-2 data and the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis. Due to the large amount of data we performed statistical comparisons of monthly zonal mean cross-sections and time series. The comparisons show that the high-resolution temperature data are in good agreement with the validation data sets. The bias in the zonal averages is mostly within ±2K. The bias reaches a maximum of 7K to ERA-Interim and 4K to the AIRS operational data at the stratopause, it is related to the different resolutions of the data sets. Variability is nearly the same in all three data sets, having maximum standard deviations around the polar vortex in the mid and upper stratosphere. The validation presented here indicates that the high-resolution temperature retrievals are well-suited for scientific studies. In particular, we expect that they will become a valuable asset for future studies of stratospheric gravity waves.

  4. Advances in the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model using very high resolution remote sensing data in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Solana, H.; Kustas, W. P.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; ELarab, M.; Song, L.; Alfieri, J. G.; Prueger, J. H.; McKee, L.; Anderson, M. C.; Alsina, M. M.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal-based Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model partitions the water and energy fluxes from vegetation and soil components providing thus the ability for estimating soil evaporation (E) and canopy transpiration (T) separately. However, it is crucial for ET partitioning to retrieve reliable estimates of canopy and soil temperatures as well as the net radiation partitioning (ΔRn), as the latter determines the available energy for water and heat exchange from soil and canopy sources. These two factors become especially relevant in agricultural areas, with vegetation clumped along rows and hence only partially covering the soil surface for much of the growing season. The effects on radiation and temperature partitioning is extreme for vineyards and orchards, where there is often significant separation between plants, resulting in strongly clumped vegetation with significant fraction of bare soil/substrate. To better understand the effects of strongly clumped vegetation on radiation and Land Surface Temperature (LST) partitioning very high spatial resolution remote sensing data acquired from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) were collected over vineyards in Califronia, as part of the Grape Remote sensing and Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX).The multi-temporal observations from the UAS and very high pixel resolution permitted the estimation of reliable soil and leaf temperatures using a contextual algorithm based on the inverse relationship between LST and a vegetation index. An improvement in the algorithm estimating the effective leaf area index explicitly developed for vine rows and ΔRn using the 4SAIL Radiative Transfer Model is as well developed. The revisions to the TSEB model are evaluated with in situ measurements of energy fluxes and transmitted solar radiation. Results show that the modifications to the TSEB resulted in closer agreement with the flux tower measurements compared to the original TSEB model formulations. The

  5. Surface Reactivity in Tropical Highly Weathered Soils and Implications for Rational Soil Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. MOREAU; J. PETARD

    2004-01-01

    Highly weathered soils are distributed in the humid and wet-dry tropics, as well as in the humid subtropics. As a result of strong weathering, these soils are characterized by low activity clays, which develop variable surface charge and related specific properties. Surface reactions regarding base exchange and soil acidification, heavy metal sorption and mobility, and phosphorus sorption and availability of the tropical highly weathered soils are reviewed in this paper.Factors controlling surface reactivity towards cations and anions, including ion exchange and specific adsorption processes, are discussed with consideration on practical implications for rational management of these soils. Organic matter content and pH value are major basic factors that should be controlled through appropriate agricultural practices, in order to optimise favorable effects of colloid surface properties on soil fertility and environmental quality.

  6. The Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars - High resolution spectral library

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Jofré, P; Heiter, U

    2014-01-01

    Context. An increasing number of high resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, numerous methods have been developed in order to perform an automatic spectral analysis on a massive amount of data. When reviewing published results, biases arise and they need to be addressed and minimized. Aims. We are providing a homogeneous library with a common set of calibration stars (known as the Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars) that will allow to assess stellar analysis methods and calibrate spectroscopic surveys. Methods. High resolution and signal-to-noise spectra were compiled from different instruments. We developed an automatic process in order to homogenize the observed data and assess the quality of the resulting library. Results. We built a high quality library that will facilitate the assessment of spectral analyses and the calibration of present and future spectroscopic surveys. The automation of the process minimizes the human subjectivity and e...

  7. Design of UAV high resolution image transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Ji, Ming; Pang, Lan; Jiang, Wen-tao; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xingcheng

    2017-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of the bandwidth limitation of the image transmission system on UAV, a scheme with image compression technology for mini UAV is proposed, based on the requirements of High-definition image transmission system of UAV. The video codec standard H.264 coding module and key technology was analyzed and studied for UAV area video communication. Based on the research of high-resolution image encoding and decoding technique and wireless transmit method, The high-resolution image transmission system was designed on architecture of Android and video codec chip; the constructed system was confirmed by experimentation in laboratory, the bit-rate could be controlled easily, QoS is stable, the low latency could meets most applied requirement not only for military use but also for industrial applications.

  8. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    There has been an almost explosive growth in performance and applications of Electrospray Ionization (ESI) Time of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, which today is one of the most efficient tools for screening of metabolites in complex bio-samples. Most efficiently ESI-MS can be used by directly...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... and mass axis on to a fixed one-dimensional array, we obtain a vector that can be used directly as input in multivariate statistics or library search methods. We demonstrate that both cluster- and discriminant analysis as well as PCA (and related methods) can be applied directly on mass spectra from direct...

  9. High Resolution Optical Spectra of HBC 722 after Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sung, Hwankyung; Green, Joel D; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of our high resolution optical spectroscopic monitoring campaign ($\\lambda$ = 3800 -- 8800 A, R = 30000 -- 45000) of the new FU Orionis-type object HBC 722. We observed HBC 722 with the BOES 1.8-m telescope between 2010 November 26 and 2010 December 29 and FU Orionis itself on 2011 January 26. We detect a number of previously unreported high-resolution K I and Ca II lines beyond 7500 A. We resolve the H$\\alpha$ and Ca II line profiles into three velocity components, which we attribute to both disk and outflow. The increased accretion during outburst can heat the disk to produce the relatively narrow absorption feature and launch outflows appearing as high velocity blue and redshifted broad features.

  10. Application Research on High Resolution Radar Target Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhi Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In high resolution radar system, the same target always has original data; so we need to merge multiple data from the same target as one target. Because of the system’s real-time requirement, we usually have to carry out target aggregation as quickly as possible. In this paper, we propose a quick target aggregation method based on clustering algorithm. The proposed method divides original data into subsets by single dimensional distance, and then merges subsets according to single dimensional distance and setdensity. At last we apply the proposed method to carry out target aggregation for airport scene surveillance radar system. Experimental result shows the proposed method has high execution efficiency and is not sensitive to noise data; it is useful for high resolution radar target aggregation.

  11. High Resolution X-ray-Induced Acoustic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Shanshan; Ahmad, Moiz; Xing, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Absorption based CT imaging has been an invaluable tool in medical diagnosis, biology, and materials science. However, CT requires a large set of projection data and high radiation dose to achieve superior image quality. In this letter, we report a new imaging modality, X-ray Induced Acoustic Tomography (XACT), which takes advantages of high sensitivity to X-ray absorption and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. A single projection X-ray exposure is sufficient to generate acoustic signals in 3D space because the X-ray generated acoustic waves are of a spherical nature and propagate in all directions from their point of generation. We demonstrate the successful reconstruction of gold fiducial markers with a spatial resolution of about 350 μm. XACT reveals a new imaging mechanism and provides uncharted opportunities for structural determination with X-ray.

  12. Imaging collagen type I fibrillogenesis with high spatiotemporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamov, Dimitar R; Stock, Erik; Franz, Clemens M; Jähnke, Torsten; Haschke, Heiko

    2015-02-01

    Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen type I, belong to the most abundant extracellular matrix proteins and they have received much attention over the last five decades due to their large interactome, complex hierarchical structure and high mechanical stability. Nevertheless, the collagen self-assembly process is still incompletely understood. Determining the real-time kinetics of collagen type I formation is therefore pivotal for better understanding of collagen type I structure and function, but visualising the dynamic self-assembly process of collagen I on the molecular scale requires imaging techniques offering high spatiotemporal resolution. Fast and high-speed scanning atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the means to study such processes on the timescale of seconds under near-physiological conditions. In this study we have applied fast AFM tip scanning to study the assembly kinetics of fibrillar collagen type I nanomatrices with a temporal resolution reaching eight seconds for a frame size of 500 nm. By modifying the buffer composition and pH value, the kinetics of collagen fibrillogenesis can be adjusted for optimal analysis by fast AFM scanning. We furthermore show that amplitude-modulation imaging can be successfully applied to extract additional structural information from collagen samples even at high scan rates. Fast AFM scanning with controlled amplitude modulation therefore provides a versatile platform for studying dynamic collagen self-assembly processes at high resolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  14. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  15. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging with compress sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-10-01

    LIDAR three-dimensional imaging technology have been used in many fields, such as military detection. However, LIDAR require extremely fast data acquisition speed. This makes the manufacture of detector array for LIDAR system is very difficult. To solve this problem, we consider using compress sensing which can greatly decrease the data acquisition and relax the requirement of a detection device. To use the compressive sensing idea, a spatial light modulator will be used to modulate the pulsed light source. Then a photodetector is used to receive the reflected light. A convex optimization problem is solved to reconstruct the 2D depth map of the object. To improve the resolution in transversal direction, we use multiframe image restoration technology. For each 2D piecewise-planar scene, we move the SLM half-pixel each time. Then the position where the modulated light illuminates will changed accordingly. We repeat moving the SLM to four different directions. Then we can get four low-resolution depth maps with different details of the same plane scene. If we use all of the measurements obtained by the subpixel movements, we can reconstruct a high-resolution depth map of the sense. A linear minimum-mean-square error algorithm is used for the reconstruction. By combining compress sensing and multiframe image restoration technology, we reduce the burden on data analyze and improve the efficiency of detection. More importantly, we obtain high-resolution depth maps of a 3D scene.

  16. High-resolution characterization of a semiarid watershed: Implications on evapotranspiration estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ryan C.; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Méndez-Barroso, Luis A.; Pierini, Nicole A.; Anderson, Cody A.; Rango, Albert; Laliberte, Andrea S.; Scott, Russell L.

    2014-02-01

    The North American monsoon (NAM) contributes roughly half of the annual precipitation in the Chihuahuan Desert from July to September. Relatively frequent, intense storms increase soil moisture and lead to ephemeral runoff. Quantifying these processes, however, is difficult due to the sparse nature of existing observations. This study presents results from a dense network of rain gauges, soil probes, channel flumes, and an eddy covariance tower in a small watershed of the Jornada Experimental Range. Using this network, the temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture conditions and channel runoff were assessed from June 2010 to September 2011. In addition, tower measurements were used to quantify the seasonal, monthly and event-scale changes in land-atmosphere states and fluxes. Results from this study indicate a strong seasonality in water and energy fluxes, with a reduction in the Bowen ratio (B) from winter (B = 14) to summer (B = 3.3). This reduction was tied to higher shallow soil moisture (θ) availability during the summer (θ = 0.040 m3/m3) as compared to winter (θ = 0.004 m3/m3). Four consecutive rainfall-runoff events during the NAM were used to quantify the soil moisture and channel runoff responses and how water availability impacted land-atmosphere fluxes. The network also allowed comparisons of several approaches to estimate evapotranspiration (ET). Using a water balance residual approach, a more accurate ET estimate was obtained when distributed measurements were used, as opposed to single site measurements at the tower. In addition, the spatially-varied soil moisture data yielded a more reasonable daily relation between ET and θ, an important parameterization in many hydrologic models. These analyses illustrate the value of high-resolution sampling in small watersheds to characterize hydrologic processes.

  17. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  18. Imaging collagen type I fibrillogenesis with high spatiotemporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamov, Dimitar R, E-mail: stamov@jpk.com [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany); Stock, Erik [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany); Franz, Clemens M [DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1a, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jähnke, Torsten; Haschke, Heiko [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen type I, belong to the most abundant extracellular matrix proteins and they have received much attention over the last five decades due to their large interactome, complex hierarchical structure and high mechanical stability. Nevertheless, the collagen self-assembly process is still incompletely understood. Determining the real-time kinetics of collagen type I formation is therefore pivotal for better understanding of collagen type I structure and function, but visualising the dynamic self-assembly process of collagen I on the molecular scale requires imaging techniques offering high spatiotemporal resolution. Fast and high-speed scanning atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the means to study such processes on the timescale of seconds under near-physiological conditions. In this study we have applied fast AFM tip scanning to study the assembly kinetics of fibrillar collagen type I nanomatrices with a temporal resolution reaching eight seconds for a frame size of 500 nm. By modifying the buffer composition and pH value, the kinetics of collagen fibrillogenesis can be adjusted for optimal analysis by fast AFM scanning. We furthermore show that amplitude-modulation imaging can be successfully applied to extract additional structural information from collagen samples even at high scan rates. Fast AFM scanning with controlled amplitude modulation therefore provides a versatile platform for studying dynamic collagen self-assembly processes at high resolution. - Highlights: • Continuous non-invasive time-lapse investigation of collagen I fibrillogenesis in situ. • Imaging of collagen I self-assembly with high spatiotemporal resolution. • Application of setpoint modulation to study the hierarchical structure of collagen I. • Observing real-time formation of the D-banding pattern in collagen I.

  19. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  20. High-resolution SIT TV tube for subnanosecond image shuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; Vine, B. H.; Aeby, I.; Dunbar, D. L.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Thayer, N. N.; Noel, B. W.

    1984-09-01

    A new ultrafast high-resolution image shutter tube with reasonable gain and shuttering efficiency has been designed and tested. The design uses a grid-gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) image section and a high-speed focus projection and scan (FPS) vidicon read-out section in one envelope to eliminate resolution losses from external coupling. The design features low-gate-interface capacity, a high-conductivity shutter grid, and a segmented low-resistivity photocathode for optimum gating speed. Optical gate widths as short as 400 ps + or - 100 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window with spatial resolution as high as 15 1p/mm have been measured. Some design criteria, most of the electrical and optical performance data for several variations in the basic design, and a comparison (of several key response functions) with similarly tested 18- and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) are included.

  1. Day and Night Variability of CO2 Fluxes and Priming Effects under zea Mays Measured in High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Pausch, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Plant induced increase of soil organic matter turnover rates contribute to carbon emissions in agricultural land use systems. In order to better understand these rhizosphere priming effects, we conducted an experiment which enabled us to monitor CO2 fluxes under Zea mays plants in high resolution. The experiment was conducted in a climate chamber where the plants were grown in tightly sealed boxes for 40 days and CO2 efflux from soil was measured twice a day. Continuous 13C-CO2 label was used to allow differentiation between plant- and soil-derived CO2.This enabled us to monitor root respiration and soil organic matter turnover in the early stages of plant growth and to highlight changes in soil CO2 emissions and priming effects between day and night. The measurements were conducted with a PICARRO G2131-I C high-precision isotopic CO2 Analyzer (PICARRO INC.) utilizing an automated valve system governed by a CR1000 data logger (Campbell Scientific). After harvest roots and shoots were analyzed for 13C content. Microbial biomass, root length density and enzymatic activities in soil were measured and linked to soil organic matter turnover rates. Results show an increased soil CO2 efflux at day time periods and an overall increase with increasing plant biomass. No difference in chloroform fumigation extractable microbial biomass has been found but a strong negative priming effect was measured in the short experimental period, suggesting that the microbes shifted to the utilization of plant exudates without actual microbial growth triggered by the new labile C input. This is coherent with the observed shift in enzyme kinetics. With this experimental setup we show that measurement of priming effects in high resolution can be achieved.

  2. Assessment of spatial flow patterns in unsaturated sandy alluvial sediments using high- resolution GPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarder, E. B.; Looms, M. C.; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    Traditional sampling and monitoring techniques have inherent limitations in capturing the detailed spatial patterns of water flow in the unsaturated zone particularly for complex flow conditions such as unstable wetting fronts or preferential flow. Dye tracer experiments can help visualise the dynamics of water flow but they are highly destructive as well. High-resolution Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an attractive technique for non-destructive mapping of soil moisture changes and thus flow patterns in the shallow subsurface. In this study we test the method at a field site in western Denmark developed on a sandy alluvial outwash plane. We compare high-resolution reflection GPR data with visual observations from a dye tracer experiment using Brilliant Blue (BB). 100 mm of BB-stained water was infiltrated over a 5x5 m area and 3D reflection GPR data sets using high-frequency antennae were collected before and after infiltration. Subsequently a 2 m deep trench was excavated for visual observations of the flow patterns in a cross-section as evidenced by the dye staining patterns. The dye infiltration experiment had an overall attenuating effect on the GPR signal, and reflections were delayed significantly because of the increase in soil moisture. In the excavated cross-section we found a reasonable agreement between the areas subject to attenuation of the GPR signal and the areas affected by dye. Also, we found that displacement flow was responsible for a delay of deeper reflections below the extend of the dye staining. An amplitude analysis performed for a shallow 1.3 m thick section shows a general decrease in electromagnetic wave amplitude within the region bounded by the area exposed to infiltration, but also suggests that lateral flow along sedimentary boundaries occurs. The results suggest that high-resolution GPR provides important insight into the spatial patterns of unsaturated flow and highlight the applicability of this method as a non-destructive means

  3. Using high-resolution phosphorus data to investigate mitigation measures in headwater river catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Campbell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the use of high resolution water quality monitoring to assess the influence of changes in landuse management on total phosphorus (TP transfers in two 5 km2 agricultural sub-catchments. Specifically, the work investigates the "wicked problem" of agricultural soil P management and subsequent diffuse transfers at high river flows over a five year timescale. The work also investigates the phenomenon of low flow P pollution from septic tank systems (STS and mitigation efforts – here termed the "filthy issue" of rural catchment management. Results showed an inconsistent response to soil P management over five years with one catchment showing a convergence to optimum P concentrations and the other an overall increase. Both catchments indicated an overall increase in P concentration in defined high flow ranges. Low flow P concentration showed little change or higher P concentrations in defined low flow ranges despite replacement of defective systems and this is possibly due to a number of confounding reasons including increased housing densities due to new-builds. The work indicates fractured responses to catchment management advice and mitigation and that the short to medium term may be an insufficient time to expect the full implementation of policies (here defined as convergence to optimum soil P concentration and mitigation of STS and also to gauge their effectiveness.

  4. Using high-resolution phosphorus data to investigate mitigation measures in headwater river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. M.; Jordan, P.; Arnscheidt, J.

    2014-09-01

    This study reports the use of high resolution water quality monitoring to assess the influence of changes in landuse management on total phosphorus (TP) transfers in two 5 km2 agricultural sub-catchments. Specifically, the work investigates the "wicked problem" of agricultural soil P management and subsequent diffuse transfers at high river flows over a five year timescale. The work also investigates the phenomenon of low flow P pollution from septic tank systems (STS) and mitigation efforts - here termed the "filthy issue" of rural catchment management. Results showed an inconsistent response to soil P management over five years with one catchment showing a convergence to optimum P concentrations and the other an overall increase. Both catchments indicated an overall increase in P concentration in defined high flow ranges. Low flow P concentration showed little change or higher P concentrations in defined low flow ranges despite replacement of defective systems and this is possibly due to a number of confounding reasons including increased housing densities due to new-builds. The work indicates fractured responses to catchment management advice and mitigation and that the short to medium term may be an insufficient time to expect the full implementation of policies (here defined as convergence to optimum soil P concentration and mitigation of STS) and also to gauge their effectiveness.

  5. High resolution MAS-NMR in combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M J; Gounarides, J S

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for characterizing organic reactions on solid support. Because magic angle spinning reduces the line-broadening due to dipolar coupling and variations in bulk magnetic susceptibility, line widths approaching those obtained in solution-phase NMR can be obtained. The magic angle spinning method is amenable for use in conjunction with a variety of NMR-pulse sequences, making it possible to perform full-structure determinations and conformational analysis on compounds attached to a polymer support. Diffusion-weighted MAS-NMR methods such as SPEEDY (Spin-Echo-Enhanced Diffusion-Filtered Spectroscopy) can be used to remove unwanted signals from the solvent, residual reactants, and the polymer support from the MAS-NMR spectrum, leaving only those signals arising from the resin-bound product. This review will present the applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR for use in combinatorial chemistry research.

  6. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  7. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as "Einstein Rings" in high resolution images. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope $\\gamma'$ of the...

  8. HIGH AND LOW RESOLUTION TEXTURED MODELS OF COMPLEX ARCHITECTURAL SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Stathopoulou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years it has become obvious that 3D technology, applied mainly with the use of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS is the most suitable technique for the complete geometric documentation of complex objects, whether they are monuments or architectural constructions in general. However, it is rather a challenging task to convert an acquired point cloud into a realistic 3D polygonal model that can simultaneously satisfy high resolution modeling and visualization demands. The aim of the visualization of a simple or complex object is to create a 3D model that best describes the reality within the computer environment. This paper is dedicated especially in the visualization of a complex object's 3D model, through high, as well as low resolution textured models. The object of interest for this study was the Almoina (Romanesque Door of the Cathedral of Valencia in Spain.

  9. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  10. High-resolution ultrasonographic findings in thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Seob; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-08-15

    Ultrasonography, it's excellent ability of differentiating cystic from solid lesion and depicting detailed architecture, proved itself useful in the diagnosis of thyroid pathologies. Advanced high resolution equipment made hidden small lesion detected and finer structure clearly seen. They seemed to throw light on the histological diagnosis of thyroid diseases, especially differentiation of benignancy and malignancy. Author reviewed pictures of high-resolution ultrasonography of thyroid disease (24 cases) and correlated them with proven pathological findings. The results were as follows: 1. Multiplicity of lesion favors benignancy (4 cases). 2. Well defined margin favors benignancy (14/17), while ill defined margin favors malignancy (3/4), and lesion of no margin favors thyroiditis (3/3). 3. Surrounding halo favors benignancy (7 cases). 4. Hypoechogenicity were found in most of malignancy and thyroiditis. Cystic components in solid nodule were common findings in benign and malignant lesions. Calcification was not found in malignancy.

  11. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  12. High and Low Resolution Textured Models of Complex Architectural Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Valanis, A.; Lerma, J. L.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2011-09-01

    During the recent years it has become obvious that 3D technology, applied mainly with the use of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) is the most suitable technique for the complete geometric documentation of complex objects, whether they are monuments or architectural constructions in general. However, it is rather a challenging task to convert an acquired point cloud into a realistic 3D polygonal model that can simultaneously satisfy high resolution modeling and visualization demands. The aim of the visualization of a simple or complex object is to create a 3D model that best describes the reality within the computer environment. This paper is dedicated especially in the visualization of a complex object's 3D model, through high, as well as low resolution textured models. The object of interest for this study was the Almoina (Romanesque) Door of the Cathedral of Valencia in Spain.

  13. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums

  14. High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

  15. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chritin, N.; Schmickler, H.; Soby, L.; /CERN; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Wendt, M.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  16. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  17. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei; WANG Huan-Yu; PENG Wen-Xi; LIANG Xiao-Hua; ZHANG Chun-Lei; CAO Xue-Lei; JIANG Wei-Chun; ZHANG Jia-Yu; CUI Xing-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed.A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer.The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics,a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit.A ground test system is also developed to test SOX.The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved.

  18. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  19. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...

  20. High resolution inelastic electron scattering and nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, H. B.; Heisenberg, J. H.

    Thanks to the improved characteristics of the experimental set-up electron scattering has become an excellent tool to study the structure of the nucleus. After describing globally how the nuclear structure enters in the formalism of (e,e') reactions and how the high experimental resolution is obtained, several examples of the use of electron scattering for the study of specific nuclear structure questions are discussed.

  1. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungenschmid, D. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Buchberger, W. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Schoen, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria); Schoepf, R. [Radiologic Inst., Landeck (Austria); Mihatsch, T. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Birbamer, G. [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Wicke, K. [Inst. of Computed Tomography, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria)

    1993-12-01

    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  2. Fusion Experiments of HSI and High Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    map derived from the unsharpened HSI. The classification is performed with an unsupervised feature extraction using principal component analysis (PCA... Classification of Hyperspectral Data in Urban Area", P. 169-172, SPIE Vol.3502 8. R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing, Addison-Wesley...MA 02420-9185 Abstract In this paper, the fusion of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor data and high-resolution panchromatic imagery (HPI) is

  3. Optical alignment of high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.; Cassie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing, high resolution FTS instruments often contain three primary optical subsystems: Fore-Optics, Interferometer Optics, and Post, or Detector Optics. We discuss the alignment of a double-pass FTS containing a cat's-eye retro-reflector. Also, the alignment of fore-optics containing confocal paraboloids with a reflecting field stop which relays a field image onto a camera is discussed.

  4. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Chritin, N; Soby, L; Lunin, A; Solyak, N; Wendt, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-01-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  5. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M. [Radiology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street, WC1N 3JH, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Histopathology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Jaffe, Adam [Portex Respiratory Medicine Unit, The Institute of Child Health, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  6. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-05-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors.

  7. Yeast expression proteomics by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Tobias C; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mann, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    -translational controls contribute majorly to regulation of protein abundance, for example in heat shock stress response. The development of new sample preparation methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry and novel bioinfomatic tools close this gap and allow the global quantitation of the yeast proteome under different...... conditions. Here, we provide background information on proteomics by mass-spectrometry and describe the practice of a comprehensive yeast proteome analysis....

  8. Progress Toward A Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendyke, Clarence M.; Vourlidas, A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Klimchuck, J.

    2007-07-01

    Recent imaging at arcsecond (TRACE) and sub-arcsecond (VAULT) spatial resolution clearly show that structures with fine spatial scales play a key role in the physics of the upper solar atmosphere. Both theoretical and observational considerations point to the importance of small spatial scales, impulsive energy release, strong dynamics, and extreme plasma nonuniformity. Fundamental questions regarding the nature, structure, properties and dynamics of loops and filamentary structures in the upper atmosphere have been raised. To address these questions, we are developing a next generation, VEry high angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) as a sounding rocket instrument. VERIS will obtain the necessary high spatial resolution, high fidelity measurements of plasma temperatures, densities and velocities. With broad simultaneous temperature coverage, the VERIS observations will directly address unresolved issues relating to interconnections of various temperature solar plasmas. VERIS will provide the first ever subarcsecond spectra of transition region and coronal structures. It will do so with a sufficient spectral resolution of to allow centroided Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Finally, in addition to the spectra, VERIS will simultaneously obtain spectrally pure slot images (10x150 arcsec) in the +/-1 grating orders, which can be combined to make instantaneous line-of-sight velocity maps with 8km/s accuracy over an unprecedented field of view. The VERIS program is beginning the second year of its three year development cycle. All design activities and reviews are complete. Fabrication of all major components has begun. Brassboard electronics cards have been fabricated, assembled and tested. The paper presents the essential scientific

  9. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics - Phase 2 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcalorimeter x-ray instruments are non-dispersive, high spectral resolution, broad-band, high cadence imaging spectrometers. We have been developing these...

  10. A high-resolution record of Greenland mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Leeson, Amber; Shepherd, Andrew; Briggs, Kate; Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Hogg, Anna; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Broeke, Michiel; Noël, Brice; Berg, Willem Jan; Ligtenberg, Stefan; Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Muir, Alan; Gilbert, Lin

    2016-07-01

    We map recent Greenland Ice Sheet elevation change at high spatial (5 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution using CryoSat-2 altimetry. After correcting for the impact of changing snowpack properties associated with unprecedented surface melting in 2012, we find good agreement (3 cm/yr bias) with airborne measurements. With the aid of regional climate and firn modeling, we compute high spatial and temporal resolution records of Greenland mass evolution, which correlate (R = 0.96) with monthly satellite gravimetry and reveal glacier dynamic imbalance. During 2011-2014, Greenland mass loss averaged 269 ± 51 Gt/yr. Atmospherically driven losses were widespread, with surface melt variability driving large fluctuations in the annual mass deficit. Terminus regions of five dynamically thinning glaciers, which constitute less than 1% of Greenland's area, contributed more than 12% of the net ice loss. This high-resolution record demonstrates that mass deficits extending over small spatial and temporal scales have made a relatively large contribution to recent ice sheet imbalance.

  11. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  12. Multimodal microscopy with high resolution spectral focusing CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchini, Tommaso; Zadoyan, Ruben

    2014-02-01

    In this work we describe a device that extends capabilities of multiphoton microscopes based on dual wavelength output femtosecond laser sources. CARS with 17cm-1 spectral resolution is experimentally demonstrated. Our approach is based on spectral focusing CARS. For pulse shaping of the pump and Stokes beams we utilize transmission gratings based stretcher. It allows the dispersion of the stretcher to be continuously adjusted in wide range. The best spectral resolution is achieved when the chirp rates in both pump and Stokes beam are matched. The device is automated. Any change in the beam path lengths due to the stretcher adjustment or wavelength tuning is compensated by the delay line. We incorporated into the device a computer controlled beam pointing stabilization system that compensates the beam pointing deviation due to dispersion in the system. High level of automation and computer control makes the operation of the device easy. We present CARS images of several samples that demonstrate high spectral resolution, high contrast and chemical selectivity.

  13. Development of a high resolution module for PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, G.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Stojkovic, A.; Tavernier, S.; Niknejad, T.; Varela, J.; Paganoni, M.; Auffray, E.

    2017-02-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners require high performances in term of spatial resolution and sensitivity to allow early detection of cancer masses. In small animal and organ dedicated PET scanners the Depth of Interaction (DOI) information has to be obtained to avoid parallax errors and to reconstruct high resolution images. In the whole body PET, the DOI information can be useful to correct for the time jitter of the optical photons along the main axis of the scintillator, improving the time performances. In this work we present the development of PET module designed to reach high performance as compared to the current scanners while keeping the complexity of the system reasonably low. The module presented is based on a 64 LYSO (Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate) crystals matrix and on a 4×4 MPPC (Multi Pixels Photon Counter) array as detector in a 4 to 1 coupling between the crystals and the detector and a single side readout. The lateral surfaces of the crystals are optically treated to be unpolished. The DOI and the energy resolution of the PET module are presented and a fast method to obtain the DOI calibration is discussed.

  14. High resolution, large dynamic range field map estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Joseph; Reese, Timothy; Bilgin, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We present a theory and a corresponding method to compute high resolution field maps over a large dynamic range. Theory and Methods We derive a closed-form expression for the error in the field map value when computed from two echoes. We formulate an optimization problem to choose three echo times which result in a pair of maximally distinct error distributions. We use standard field mapping sequences at the prescribed echo times. We then design a corresponding estimation algorithm which takes advantage of the optimized echo times to disambiguate the field offset value. Results We validate our method using high resolution images of a phantom at 7T. The resulting field maps demonstrate robust mapping over both a large dynamic range, and in low SNR regions. We also present high resolution offset maps in vivo using both, GRE and MEGE sequences. Even though the proposed echo time spacings are larger than the well known phase aliasing cutoff, the resulting field maps exhibit a large dynamic range without the use of phase unwrapping or spatial regularization techniques. Conclusion We demonstrate a novel 3-echo field map estimation method which overcomes the traditional noise-dynamic range trade-off. PMID:23401245

  15. High Resolution CO Observations of Massive Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q; Galván-Madrid, R; Liu, H-Y B

    2011-01-01

    Context. To further understand the processes involved in the formation of massive stars, we have undertaken a study of the gas dynamics surrounding three massive star forming regions. By observing the large scale structures at high resolution, we are able to determine properties such as driving source, and spatially resolve the bulk dynamical properties of the gas such as infall and outflow. Aims. With high resolution observations, we are able to determine which of the cores in a cluster forming massive stars is responsible for the large scale structures. Methods. We present CO observations of three massive star forming regions with known HII regions and show how the CO traces both infall and outflow. By combining data taken in two SMA configurations with JCMT observations, we are able to see large scale structures at high resolution. Results. We find large (0.26-0.40 pc), massive (2-3 M_sun) and energetic (13-17 \\times 10^44 erg) outflows emanating from the edges of two HII regions suggesting they are being ...

  16. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  17. High-Resolution CH Observations of Two Translucent Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Raymond J.; Cotten, David; Magnani, Loris

    2010-01-01

    We present high-resolution (1farcm3 × 1farcm6) observations of the CH 2Π1/2 (F = 1-1) emission line at 3335 MHz in two high-latitude translucent clouds, MBM 3 and 40. At the assumed cloud distances, the angular resolution corresponds to ~0.05 pc, nearly an order of magnitude better than previous studies. Comparisons of the CH emission with previously obtained CO(1-0) data are difficult to interpret: the CO and CH line emission correlates in MBM 40 but not in MBM 3. In both clouds, there is a spatial offset in the peak emission, and perhaps in velocity for MBM 40. The difference in emission characteristics for the two tracers are noticeable in these two nearby clouds because of the high spatial resolution. Since both CH and CO are deemed to be reliable tracers of H2, our results indicate that more care should be taken when using one of these tracers to determine the mass of a nearby molecular cloud.

  18. The Impact of Horizontal and Temporal Resolution on Convection and Precipitation with High-Resolution GEOS-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Using a high-resolution non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 with the cubed-sphere finite-volume dynamical core, the impact of spatial and temporal resolution on cloud properties will be evaluated. There are indications from examining convective cluster development in high resolution GEOS-5 forecasts that the temporal resolution within the model may playas significant a role as horizontal resolution. Comparing modeled convective cloud clusters versus satellite observations of brightness temperature, we have found that improved. temporal resolution in GEOS-S accounts for a significant portion of the improvements in the statistical distribution of convective cloud clusters. Using satellite simulators in GEOS-S we will compare the cloud optical properties of GEOS-S at various spatial and temporal resolutions with those observed from MODIS. The potential impact of these results on tropical cyclone formation and intensity will be examined as well.

  19. High resolution land surface response of inland moving Indian monsoon depressions over Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P. V.; Pattnaik, S.

    2016-05-01

    During Indian summer monsoon (ISM) season, nearly about half of the monsoonal rainfall is brought inland by the low pressure systems called as Monsoon Depressions (MDs). These systems bear large amount of rainfall and frequently give copious amount of rainfall over land regions, therefore accurate forecast of these synoptic scale systems at short time scale can help in disaster management, flood relief, food safety. The goal of this study is to investigate, whether an accurate moisture-rainfall feedback from land surface can improve the prediction of inland moving MDs. High Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS) is used to generate improved land state .i.e. soil moisture and soil temperature profiles by means of NOAH-MP land-surface model. Validation of the model simulated basic atmospheric parameters at surface layer and troposphere reveals that the incursion of high resolution land state yields least Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) with a higher correlation coefficient and facilitates accurate depiction of MDs. Rainfall verification shows that HRLDAS simulations are spatially and quantitatively in more agreement with the observations and the improved surface characteristics could result in the realistic reproduction of the storm spatial structure, movement as well as intensity. These results signify the necessity of investigating more into the land surface-rainfall feedbacks through modifications in moisture flux convergence within the storm.

  20. High Resolution Real Time Sonography of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Honarbakhsh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: High-resolution sonography equipment permits for visualization of normal and abnormal thyroid gland with or without gel pad or water bath. This study prospectively presents surgically and pathologically proved patients with thyroid disease by direct ultrasound with or without Doppler (pulse, color, power Doppler."nPatients and Methods: This study was performed by 7.5-10 MHz frequency linear probe transducer with axial resolution of 0.7mm and lateral resolution of 1-2 mm (Aloka 650 and super SG 140 Toshiba unit assembly with color, power Doppler. Patient's neck was extended as a supine position."nResults: Pathologic proof was obtained in 45 patients with benign and five patients with malignant thyroid disease. Benign lesions were follicular adenoma in 30 patients, goiter in 10 patients, as hashimoto thyroiditis in two patients, hemorrhagic cyst in two patients and simple cyst in one patient. Malignant lesions were follicular, papillary, and medulary carcinoma which seen in two, two, and one patients respectively. Echopatterns were as follow: Most of them showed decreades echo when we compare to normal thyroid tissue, some malignant lesions showed increased echo and some isoecho, in the last group we need other work up for example Doppler (pulse, color, power for evaluation vascularity. We did not have metastasis to thyroid gland."nConclusion: With advace in technology in crystal and design overall probe as a result creat broadband width probe and also full digital sonography unit inclding (beam forming - CPU in images resolution is with high grade than semi digital unit that before used for thytoid gland. When With any reason resolution is increased we sould be able to diagnosed very small and smallest lesion (for example mest to thyroid or reccurency after total Lobectomy: there is three primay uses of sonography, 1 detection of mutionodular gland when only one nodule is suspected clinically and by isotop scan.2 High

  1. High resolution modeling of a small urban catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most complex issues that urban environments have to deal with. In France, flooding remains the first natural risk with 72% of decrees state of natural disaster issued between October 1982 and mid-November 2014. Flooding is a result of meteorological extremes that are usually aggravated by the hydrological behavior of urban catchments and human factors. The continuing urbanization process is indeed changing the whole urban water cycle by limiting the infiltration and promoting runoff. Urban environments are very complex systems due to their extreme variability, the interference between human activities and natural processes but also the effect of the ongoing urbanization process that changes the landscape and hardly influences their hydrologic behavior. Moreover, many recent works highlight the need to simulate all urban water processes at their specific temporal and spatial scales. However, considering urban catchments heterogeneity still challenging for urban hydrology, even after advances noticed in term of high-resolution data collection and computational resources. This issue is more to be related to the architecture of urban models being used and how far these models are ready to take into account the extreme variability of urban catchments. In this work, high spatio-temporal resolution modeling is performed for a small and well-equipped urban catchment. The aim of this work is to identify urban modeling needs in terms of spatial and temporal resolution especially for a very small urban area (3.7 ha urban catchment located in the Perreux-sur-Marne city at the southeast of Paris) MultiHydro model was selected to carry out this work, it is a physical based and fully distributed model that interacts four existing modules each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban environments. MultiHydro was implemented at 10m, 5m and 2m resolution. Simulations were performed at different spatio-temporal resolutions and analyzed with

  2. High resolution OCT image generation using super resolution via sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad Usman; Hassan, Taimur; Shaukat, Arslan; Waqar, Razi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for obtaining a high resolution (HR) image from a single low resolution (LR) image -using joint learning dictionary - on the basis of image statistic research. It suggests that with an appropriate choice of an over-complete dictionary, image patches can be well represented as a sparse linear combination. Medical imaging for clinical analysis and medical intervention is being used for creating visual representations of the interior of a body, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology). A number of medical imaging techniques are in use like MRI, CT scan, X-rays and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT is one of the new technologies in medical imaging and one of its uses is in ophthalmology where it is being used for analysis of the choroidal thickness in the eyes in healthy and disease states such as age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, diabetic retinopathy and inherited retinal dystrophies. We have proposed a technique for enhancing the OCT images which can be used for clearly identifying and analyzing the particular diseases. Our method uses dictionary learning technique for generating a high resolution image from a single input LR image. We train two joint dictionaries, one with OCT images and the second with multiple different natural images, and compare the results with previous SR technique. Proposed method for both dictionaries produces HR images which are comparatively superior in quality with the other proposed method of SR. Proposed technique is very effective for noisy OCT images and produces up-sampled and enhanced OCT images.

  3. High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analyses has been developed to reconstruct the past changes of the climate system 1), 2). Compared with traditional analyses of discrete samples, a CFA system offers much faster and higher depth resolution analyses. It also generates a decontaminated sample stream without time-consuming sample processing procedure by using the inner area of an ice-core sample.. The CFA system that we have been developing is currently able to continuously measure stable water isotopes 3) and electrolytic conductivity, as well as to collect discrete samples for the both inner and outer areas with variable depth resolutions. Chemistry analyses4) and methane-gas analysis 5) are planned to be added using the continuous water stream system 5). In order to optimize the resolution of the current system with minimal sample volumes necessary for different analyses, our CFA system typically melts an ice core at 1.6 cm/min. Instead of using a wire position encoder with typical 1mm positioning resolution 6), we decided to use a high-accuracy CCD Laser displacement sensor (LKG-G505, Keyence). At the 1.6 cm/min melt rate, the positioning resolution was increased to 0.27mm. Also, the mixing volume that occurs in our open split debubbler is regulated using its weight. The overflow pumping rate is smoothly PID controlled to maintain the weight as low as possible, while keeping a safety buffer of water to avoid air bubbles downstream. To evaluate the system's depth-resolution, we will present the preliminary data of electrolytic conductivity obtained by melting 12 bags of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core. The samples correspond to different climate intervals (Greenland Stadial 21, 22, Greenland Stadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 7, Greenland Stadial 8). We will present results for the Greenland Stadial -8, whose depths and ages are between 1723.7 and 1724.8 meters, and 35.520 to

  4. Sample size choices for XRCT scanning of highly unsaturated soil mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated soil mixtures (clay, sand and gravel are used as building materials in many parts of the world, and there is increasing interest in understanding their mechanical and hydraulic behaviour. In the laboratory, x-ray computed tomography (XRCT is becoming more widely used to investigate the microstructures of soils, however a crucial issue for such investigations is the choice of sample size, especially concerning the scanning of soil mixtures where there will be a range of particle and void sizes. In this paper we present a discussion (centred around a new set of XRCT scans on sample sizing for scanning of samples comprising soil mixtures, where a balance has to be made between realistic representation of the soil components and the desire for high resolution scanning, We also comment on the appropriateness of differing sample sizes in comparison to sample sizes used for other geotechnical testing. Void size distributions for the samples are presented and from these some hypotheses are made as to the roles of inter- and intra-aggregate voids in the mechanical behaviour of highly unsaturated soils.

  5. Analytical high resolution microscopic investigation of organic coating on co-composted biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Mihaela; Mayrhofer, Claudia; Hagemann, Nikolas; Joseph, Stephen; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kothleitner, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Aged and/or co-composted biochar amendment improves soil fertility by changing certain proprieties like the porosity and sorption capacity, the redox properties, water holding capacity and nutrient transformations in soil. The beneficial properties have been correlated with surface functional groups resulting from the interactions between black carbon particles, inorganic and organic matter in the soil and soil biota, manure or other compost feedstock. As a result, porous organic layer and organo-mineral phases on the biochar surfaces are formed. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the porous layer and organo-mineral phases formed on co-composted biochar by using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss (EELS) as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The fine structure fingerprints of carbon and nitrogen edges have been used to identify the functional groups, while EDX was used to identify the mineral phases. However, in order to achieve undoubtable results a novel preparation technic of the sample has been developed. The preparation involved 3D gold sputtering on the black carbon particles in order to preserve the surface intact, embedding in resin and, ultrathin microtome cutting. The investigation was carried out using a probe corrected Titan 3G, at a voltage of 60 kV and in cryo-condition, with an EELS energy resolution of 0.15 eV and a spatial resolution down to atomic layers. We proved the presence of both C and N functional groups in the porous, heterogeneous and hydrophilic organic layer and organo-mineral agglomerates. The organic layer fully covered the outer surface of the black carbon piece, but also the surface of internal pores. Its thickness varied from 500-1000 nm on the outer surface down to a couple of nanometres on internal pores. The observed C functional groups have been identified to correspond to: aromatic, aromatic with side chain, ketone, aliphatic, carboxyl/amine carbon

  6. Precision glass molding of high-resolution diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Karin; Dukwen, Julia; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.; Plöger, Sven; Hermerschmidt, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The demand of high resolution diffractive optical elements (DOE) is growing. Smaller critical dimensions allow higher deflection angles and can fulfill more demanding requirements, which can only be met by using electron-beam lithography. Replication techniques are more economical, since the high cost of the master can be distributed among a larger number of replicas. The lack of a suitable mold material for precision glass molding has so far prevented an industrial use. Glassy Carbon (GC) offers a high mechanical strength and high thermal strength. No anti-adhesion coatings are required in molding processes. This is clearly an advantage for high resolution, high aspect ratio microstructures, where a coating with a thickness between 10 nm and 200 nm would cause a noticeable rounding of the features. Electron-beam lithography was used to fabricate GC molds with highest precision and feature sizes from 250 nm to 2 μm. The master stamps were used for precision glass molding of a low Tg glass L-BAL42 from OHARA. The profile of the replicated glass is compared to the mold with the help of SEM images. This allows discussion of the max. aspect-ratio and min. feature size. To characterize optical performances, beamsplitting elements are fabricated and their characteristics were investigated, which are in excellent agreement to theory.

  7. Calibration of a High Resolution Airborne 3-D SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Grinder-Pedersen, Jan; Madsen, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    (EMI). In order to achieve a high geodetic fidelity when using such systems operationally, calibration procedures must be applied. Inaccurate navigation data and system parameters as well as system imperfections must be accounted for. This paper presents theoretical models describing the impact of key......The potential of across-track interferometric (XTI) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for producing high resolution 3D imagery has been demonstrated by several airborne systems including EMISAR, the dual frequency, polarimetric, and interferometric SAR developed at the Dept. of Electromagnetic Systems...

  8. Coverage Options for a Low cost, High Resolution Optical Constellation

    OpenAIRE

    Price, M E; Levett, W.; Graham, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the range of coverage options available to TopSat like small satellites, both singly and in a small constellation. TopSat is a low-cost, high resolution and image quality, optical small satellite, due for launch in October 2004. In particular, the paper considers the use of tuned, repeat ground track orbits to improve coverage for selected ground targets, at the expense of global coverage. TopSat is designed to demonstrate the capabilities of small satellites for high valu...

  9. High resolution study of magnetic ordering at absolute zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Husmann, A; Rosenbaum, T F; Aeppli, G

    2004-05-07

    High resolution pressure measurements in the zero-temperature limit provide a unique opportunity to study the behavior of strongly interacting, itinerant electrons with coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom. Approaching the precision that has become the hallmark of experiments on classical critical phenomena, we characterize the quantum critical behavior of the model, elemental antiferromagnet chromium, lightly doped with vanadium. We resolve the sharp doubling of the Hall coefficient at the quantum critical point and trace the dominating effects of quantum fluctuations up to surprisingly high temperatures.

  10. High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J; Barends, Thomas R M; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A; Seibert, M Marvin; Montanez, Paul A; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y; Hunter, Mark S; Johansson, Linda C; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-07-20

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  11. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  12. Localized corrosion information using high resolution measurement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2005-01-01

    to control the solution flow at the tip. Through addition of reference and counter electrodes, the pipette system becomes a microscopic electrochemical cell, which can then be used with high precision to determine the electrochemical characteristics of the microstructural region of interest. The capability...... of the technique could be further enhanced by adding new features such as high resolution video visualization systems, fretting/tribo-corroson attachments, and also by integrating it with stress corrosion testing, corrosion investigation of concrete for a few to name with. The corrosion group in MPT, Technical...

  13. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph. In particular, non-fluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen has been imaged with submicron resolution in patients suffering from psoriasis. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution wide-field systems such as ultrasound, optoacoustical, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer, optimization of treatment strategies, and cosmetic research including long-term testing of sunscreen nanoparticles as well as anti-aging products.

  14. Radiation length imaging with high-resolution telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, U.; Frey, A.; Schwenker, B.; Wieduwilt, P.; Marinas, C.; Lütticke, F.

    2017-02-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length X/X0 profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D images of the radiation length of thin planar objects. At the heart of the X/X0 imaging is a spatially resolved measurement of the scattering angles of particles traversing the object under study. The main challenges are the alignment of the reference telescope and the calibration of its angular resolution. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of X/X0 imaging, a test beam experiment has been conducted. The devices under test were two mechanical prototype modules of the Belle II vertex detector. A data sample of 100 million tracks at 4 GeV has been collected, which is sufficient to resolve complex material profiles on the 30 μm scale.

  15. Spatial-temperature high resolution map for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V.; Hurduc, Anca; Ghimigean, Ana-Maria; Fumarel, Radu

    2009-02-01

    Heat is one of the most important parameters of living beings. Skin temperature is not the same on the entire body and so, a thermal signature can be got. Infrared map on serial imaging can constitute an early sign of an abnormality. Thermography detects changes in tissue that appear before and accompany many diseases including cancer. As this map has a better resolution an early cancer diagnosis can be done. The temperature of neoplasic tissue is different up to 1.5 °C than that of the healthy tissue as a result of the specific metabolic rate. The infrared camera images show very quickly the heat transferred by radiation. A lot of factors disturb the temperature conversion to pixel intensity. A sensitive temperature sensor with a 10 Mpixels video camera, showing its spatial position, and a computer fusion program were used for the map with high spatial-temperature resolution. A couple of minutes are necessary to get a high resolution map. The asymmetry and borders were the main parameters analyzed. The right cancer diagnosis was for about 78.4% of patients with thyroid cancer, and more than 89.6% from patients with breast cancer. In the near future, the medical prognosis will be improved by fractal analysis.

  16. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  17. A new matching algorithm for high resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    We present a new matching algorithm designed to compare high-resolution spectra. Whereas existing methods are bound to compare fixed intervals of ion masses, the accurate mass spectrum (AMS) distance method presented here is independent of any alignment. Based on the Jeffreys-Matusitas (JM......) distance, a difference between observed peaks across pairs of spectra can be calculated, and used to find a unique correspondence between the peaks. The method takes into account that there may be differences in resolution of the spectra. The algorithm is used for indexing in a database containing 80...... accurate mass spectra from an analysis of extracts of 80 isolates representing the nine closely related species in the Penicillium series Viridicata. Using this algorithm we can obtain a retrieval performance of approximate to97-98% that is comparable with the best of the existing methods (e.g., the dot...

  18. Observations of solar scattering polarization at high spatial resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Snik, F; Ichimoto, K; Fischer, C E; Keller, C U; Lites, B W

    2010-01-01

    The weak, turbulent magnetic fields that supposedly permeate most of the solar photosphere are difficult to observe, because the Zeeman effect is virtually blind to them. The Hanle effect, acting on the scattering polarization in suitable lines, can in principle be used as a diagnostic for these fields. However, the prediction that the majority of the weak, turbulent field resides in intergranular lanes also poses significant challenges to scattering polarization observations because high spatial resolution is usually difficult to attain. We aim to measure the difference in scattering polarization between granules and intergranules. We present the respective center-to-limb variations, which may serve as input for future models. We perform full Stokes filter polarimetry at different solar limb positions with the CN band filter of the Hinode-SOT Broadband Filter Imager, which represents the first scattering polarization observations with sufficient spatial resolution to discern the granulation. Hinode-SOT offer...

  19. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  20. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Eric M; Moore, Michael J; Kolios, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  1. High-resolution infrared observations of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Interferometric resolution at IR wavelengths offers for the first time the possibility to zoom into the nuclei of galaxies beyond the circumnuclear stellar structures and spatially resolve gas and dust in the innermost regions (0.05-5pc), dominated by the central black hole. Ultimate goal is to reveal new aspects of AGN feeding, and interaction with its host galaxy. After first successes of resolving AGN with infrared interferometry (VLTI, Keck-IF), the second generation of high-resolution interferometric imagers behind 8m class telescopes is currently being built. I will summarize current aspects and successes of the field, and present our activities to provide extended capabilities for VLTI-Midi and -Matisse, LBT-Linc-Nirvana and Keck-Astra to study a larger sample of AGN in greater detail.

  2. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Strohm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  3. High-resolution proper motions in a sunspot penumbra

    CERN Document Server

    Márquez, I; Bonet, J A

    2006-01-01

    Local correlation tracking techniques are used to measure proper motions in a series of high angular resolution (~0.1 arcsec) penumbra images. If these motions trace true plasma motions, then we have detected converging flows that arrange the plasma in long narrow filaments co-spatial with dark penumbral filaments. Assuming that these flows are stationary, the vertical stratification of the atmosphere and the conservation of mass suggest downflows in the filaments of the order of 200 m/s. The association between downflows and dark features may be a sign of convection, as it happens with the non-magnetic granulation. Insufficient spatial resolution may explain why the estimated vertical velocities are not fast enough to supply the radiative losses of penumbrae.

  4. Microcalorimetry for High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Magnetic Microcalorimeters (MMCs) are gamma-ray detectors with an energy resolution 10x higher than high-purity germanium detectors. They can increase the accuracy of non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials, enable the detection of new isotopes (e.g. Pu-242 of U-236), and improve nuclear data in cases where Ge detectors are limited by line overlap. MMCs consist of a magnetic sensor operated at temperatures below 50 mK, and they infer gamma-ray energies from the change in magnetization due to the temperature increase after gamma-ray absorption. The goal of this project is to further increase the energy resolution and sensitivity of MMC gamma detectors.

  5. High-resolution NMR imaging of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, H.; Lucas, D.

    1986-12-01

    With high spatial resolution guaranteed, NMR imaging allows to simultaneously make visible the complex osseous, chondral, and ligamentous structures of the hand. The examinations reported on were made with a 1.0 Tesla Magnetom using a special surface coil so as to achieve cut heights of 3-4 mm and an in-plane resolution of 0.5 mm. In addition to normal test persons, 29 patients were examined who had pseudoarthrosis of the os naviculare, lunatomalacia, rheumatic arthritis, or bone and soft-tissue tumors. Comparison with X-ray radiography or bone scintiscans showed that NMR imaging is capable of demonstrating localisation and extension of bone marrow or bone joint abnormalities at an earlier stage.

  6. High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Paul, William; Pietrobon, Brendan; Lennox, R. Bruce; Grütter, Peter H.; Bennewitz, Roland

    2010-08-01

    We report the design and development of a friction force microscope for high-resolution studies in electrochemical environments. The design choices are motivated by the experimental requirements of atomic-scale friction measurements in liquids. The noise of the system is analyzed based on a methodology for the quantification of all the noise sources. The quantitative contribution of each noise source is analyzed in a series of lateral force measurements. Normal force detection is demonstrated in a study of the solvation potential in a confined liquid, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane. The limitations of the timing resolution of the instrument are discussed in the context of an atomic stick-slip measurement. The instrument is capable of studying the atomic friction contrast between a bare Au(111) surface and a copper monolayer deposited at underpotential conditions in perchloric acid.

  7. High-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo.

  8. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  9. Range ambiguity resolution for high PRF pulse-Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, G. B.

    The range ambiguity resolution for high 'PRF pulse-Doppler radars can be resolved using a simple algorithm based on residue arithmetic. The unambiguous range is found from R = T + R(a), where T is the output of a look-up table and R(a) is one of the measured ambiguous ranges. This formula is easily extended to multiple PRF ranging systems, where three or more measurements are required for the ambiguity resolution. Target obscuration in clutter reduces the visibility and leads, especially in dense target environments, to ghost ranges. It is shown that long range coverage requires a small resolved pulse length and PRFs as low as practical in the intended clutter and target environment. Special attention is given to the generation of sparsely populated look-up tables that reduce the ghosting problem. A practical example for an S-band surveillance radar is presented.

  10. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    This report highlights the capabilities and procedure for high-resolution characterization of UMo fuels in PNNL. Uranium-molybdenum (UMo) fuel processing steps, from casting to forming final fuel, directly affect the microstructure of the fuel, which in turn dictates the in-reactor performance of the fuel under irradiation. In order to understand the influence of processing on UMo microstructure, microstructure characterization techniques are necessary. Higher-resolution characterization techniques like transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) are needed to interrogate the details of the microstructure. The findings from TEM and APT are also directly beneficial for developing predictive multiscale modeling tools that can predict the microstructure as a function of process parameters. This report provides background on focused-ion-beam–based TEM and APT sample preparation, TEM and APT analysis procedures, and the unique information achievable through such advanced characterization capabilities for UMo fuels, from a fuel fabrication capability viewpoint.

  11. High-Resolution, Wide-Field-of-View Scanning Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Cesar; Wilson, Robert; Seshadri, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    A proposed telescope would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view (<0.10 ) while scanning over a total field of view nominally 16 wide without need to slew the entire massive telescope structure. The telescope design enables resolution of a 1-m-wide object in a 50- km-wide area of the surface of the Earth as part of a 200-km-wide area field of view monitored from an orbit at an altitude of 700 km. The conceptual design of this telescope could also be adapted to other applications both terrestrial and extraterrestrial in which there are requirements for telescopes that afford both wide- and narrow-field capabilities. In the proposed telescope, the scanning would be effected according to a principle similar to that of the Arecibo radio telescope, in which the primary mirror is stationary with respect to the ground and a receiver is moved across the focal surface of the primary mirror. The proposed telescope would comprise (1) a large spherical primary mirror that would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view and (2) a small displaceable optical relay segment that would be pivoted about the center of an aperture stop to effect the required scanning (see figure). Taken together, both comprise a scanning narrow-angle telescope that does not require slewing the telescope structure. In normal operation, the massive telescope structure would stare at a fixed location on the ground. The inner moveable relay optic would be pivoted to scan the narrower field of view over the wider one, making it possible to retain a fixed telescope orientation, while obtaining high-resolution images over multiple target areas during an interval of 3 to 4 minutes in the intended orbit. The pivoting relay segment of the narrow-angle telescope would include refractive and reflective optical elements, including two aspherical mirrors, to counteract the spherical aberration of the primary mirror. Overall, the combination of the primary mirror and the smaller relay optic

  12. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Allene -D4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousan, Khetam Ibrahim Khasawinah

    Two parallel bands of allene-d(,4), (nu)(,6) (occurring at 1920.2289 cm('-1)) and (nu)(,5) (occurring at 2228.4133 cm('-1)), and the perpendicular band, (nu)(,8) (occurring at 2321.2484 cm('-1)), were recorded by using two spectrometers under high resolution. The combination band, (nu)(,2) + (nu)(,7), was measured also; the band origin is located at 2276.0053 cm('-1), rather distant from the previously reported one at 2267.0 cm('-1). Initially, by using the 4.5 m grating spectrometer, deconvolution of the spectra achieved a resolution of (TURN)0.007 cm('-1). Although the resolution was high, a detailed analysis of the K structure could not be obtained. Other measurements were carried out by using a BOMEM Fourier transform spectrometer. Deconvolution of the spectra achieved a resolution of (TURN)0.002 cm(' -1). This made it possible to resolve and analyze these bands in detail. Successful ground state and upper state analyses were completed from this data. Combining all the three bands together, a ground state analysis has resulted in better values of. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). than the previously published works on the same molecule by others. A set of accurate spectroscopic constants was obtained for each band. The spectrum of the (nu)(,8) band was analyzed in detail, including the perturbations. The perturbed states for (nu)(,8) were assigned as 2(nu)(,9) + (nu)(,10), (nu)(,2) + (nu)(,9) + (nu)(,11) and 2(nu)(,3) + (nu)(,4), and the spectroscopic constants for those perturbed states were calculated.

  13. Composition of the humin fraction of Terra Preta de Índios soils by NMR and multivariate curve resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, E. H.; Hayes, M. H. B.; Song, G.; Deazevedo, E. R.; Bonagamba, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    Most of the soils in the Amazon Region are acid, with low cation-exchange capacity (CEC) values, low fertility, and low production potential. There exists a class soils in this environment that have an archeo-anthropedogenic horizon of pre-Columbian origin, called "Terra Preta de Índios" (TPI), also known as Amazonian Dark Earths. These soils are characterized by higher fertility and more stable organic matter (OM) than the surrounding soils. The high fertility of TPI, and especially their sustainability, is attributed to the high levels of OM and to their physical-chemical properties. Up to 35-45% of the organic C in TPI is in the form of pyrogenic carbon (black carbon), compared to 14% in surrounding soils lacking an archeo-anthropedogenic horizon. Pyrogenic carbon derived from the partial carbonization of ligno-cellulosic materials, is composed of hydrogen-deficient condensed aromatic structures and, as the result of chemical and biochemical transformations, has a high charge density from carboxylic groups linked mainly to the aromatic core. Humin is the most recalcitrant and least understood fraction of soil OM. By definition, humin is the fraction that is not soluble in traditional aqueous alkaline soil extractants. It represents more than 50% of the soil organic carbon (OC) in mineral soils and more than 70% of the OC of lithified sediments, and is therefore the most important pool of the soil OM. However, for a study of humin by NMR it is necessary to isolate it and to achieve a degree of fractionation/purification. In this regard, an appropriate procedure1 has been applied to two soil samples from TPI and the material obtained was studied by solid state 13C NMR. The data analyses were carried out by Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR). Results and Discussion MCR resolved the spectral matrix into three components, and these can be attributed to wood, humin, and oxidised charcoal materials The spectrum for the wood component agrees very well with that of

  14. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 500–2100cm−1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 500–2100 cm -1 at temperatures up to1027 1C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1013±20 mbar) are measured. NH3 concentrations of 1000 ppm,0.5% and 1% in volume fraction were used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in high...... temperature gas flow cells using a FourierTransform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.09cm-1. Measurements at 22.7 °C are compared to high-resolution cross sections available from thePacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The higher temperature spectra are analysed by comparison...

  15. On high-resolution manoeuvres control via trajectory optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A H MAZINAN; M SHAHI

    2017-02-01

    This research is on a realization of control approach in line with the trajectory optimization for the purpose of dealing with overactuated spacecraft in the process of the high-resolution manoeuvres. The idea behind the research is to realize closed control loops to cope with the rotational angles and the corresponding angular rates,synchronously, to handle the spacecraft manoeuvres. It is to be noted that the traditional techniques may not have sufficient merit to deal with such a complicated process, suitably. The proposed trajectory optimization is designed to provide the three-axis referenced commands, in finite burn, for transferring the aforementioned overactuated spacecraft from the initial orbit to its final outcomes in the orbital transfer process. The outcomes are realized through the variations of the orbital parameters, including the inclination, the eccentricity, the angular momentum, the semi-major axis and so on, in the high-resolution manoeuvres. It aims to get the system under control to guarantee the performance of the three-dimensional rotational angles tracking to be desirable, instantly. The contribution of the research is to make the high-thrust optimization trajectory,which is organized in association with the new configuration of the three-axis attitude control approach, to be applicable to manage the present overactuated spacecraft in the procedure of high-resolution orbital transfer process. The investigated outcomes of the research are efficient and competitive along with the potential materials through a series of experiments, as long as the desirable tracking performance in the three-dimensional space manoeuvres is apparently guaranteed.

  16. Full-sky, High-resolution Maps of Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Aaron Michael

    We present full-sky, high-resolution maps of interstellar dust based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Planck missions. We describe our custom processing of the entire WISE 12 micron All-Sky imaging data set, and present the resulting 15 arcsecond resolution, full-sky map of diffuse Galactic dust emission, free of compact sources and other contaminating artifacts. Our derived 12 micron dust map offers angular resolution far superior to that of all other existing full-sky, infrared dust emission maps, revealing a wealth of small-scale filamentary structure. We also apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. We derive full-sky 6.1 arcminute resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting this two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 micron data. In doing so, we obtain the first ever full-sky 100-3000 GHz Planck-based thermal dust emission model, as well as a dust temperature correction with ~10 times enhanced angular resolution relative to DIRBE-based temperature maps. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration (2013) single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales. Future work will focus on combining

  17. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail: mtrinitat@eresa.com; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del [Department of Nuclear Medicine, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Roselló Ferrando, Joan [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  18. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  19. High-Resolution Mammography Detector Employing Optical Switching Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Yamane, Katsutoshi; Sendai, Tomonari; Hosoi, Yuichi

    Conceiving a new detector structure, FUJIFILM Corporation has successfully put its invention of an X-ray detector employing "Optical Switching" into practical use. Since Optical Switching Technology allows an electrode structure to be easily designed, both high resolution of pixel pitch and low electrical noise readout have been achieved, which have consequently realized the world's smallest pixel size of 50×50 μm2 from a Direct-conversion FPD system as well as high DQE. The digital mammography system equipped with this detector enables to acquire high definition images while maintaining granularity. Its outstanding feature is to be able to acquire high-precision images of microcalcifications which is an important index in breast examination.

  20. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.