WorldWideScience

Sample records for high resolution magneto-optical

  1. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  2. Wavelength dependence of the magnetic resolution of the magneto-optical near-field scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schad, R.; Jordan, S.M.; Stoelinga, M.J.P.; Prins, M.W.J.; Groeneveld, R.H.M.; Kempen, van H.; Kesteren, van H.W.

    1998-01-01

    A magneto-optical near-field scanning tunneling microscope is used to image the prewritten magnetic domain structure of a Pt/Co multilayer. A semiconducting tip acts as a local photodetector to measure the magnetic circular dichroism signal coming from the magnetic sample. The resolution of the

  3. An atomic beam source for fast loading of a magneto-optical trap under high vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowall, P.D.; Hilliard, Andrew; Grünzweig, T.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a directional atomic beam created using an alkali metal dispenser and a nozzle. By applying a high current (15 A) pulse to the dispenser at room temperature we can rapidly heat it to a temperature at which it starts dispensing, avoiding the need for preheating. The atomic beam produced...... is capable of loading 90 of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) in less than 7 s while maintaining a low vacuum pressure of 10 -11 Torr. The transverse velocity components of the atomic beam are measured to be within typical capture velocities of a rubidium MOT. Finally, we show that the atomic beam can be turned...

  4. Far-Infrared Magneto-Optical Studies in Germanium and Indium-Antimonide at High Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael

    Observations of nonlinear magneto-optical phenomena occurring in p-type Germanium and n-type Indium Antimonide are reported. These include multi-photon ionization of impurity states, and a new observation, the magneto-photon ionization of impurity states, and a new observation, the magneto-photon drag effect. A novel source of far-infrared radiation has been used. This source uses a pulsed CO(,2) LASER to optically pump a super-radiant cell, generating light with intensities up to 100 KW/cm('2) and wavelengths from 66 (mu)m to 496 (mu)m in a pulse of 150 nanoseconds duration. The Germanium samples were doped with Gallium, which is a shallow acceptor with an ionization potential of 11 meV. At liquid Helium temperature virtually all charge carriers are bound to acceptor sites. However, the high intensity radiation unexpectedly ionizes the acceptors. This is demonstrated through measurements of photoconductivity, transmission and the photo-Hall Effect. This observation is unexpected because the photon energy is one-fourth the ionization potential. Rate equations describing sequential multiphoton excitations are in agreement with the experimental results. The intermediate states are postulated to be acceptor exciton band states. Studies of the photoexcited mobility at 496 (mu)m suggest that at non-saturating levels of photoexcitation, the primary scattering mechanism of hot holes in Germanium is by neutral impurities. A new magneto-optical effect, the magneto-photon drag effect, has been studied in both Germanium and Indium Antimonide. This is simply the absorption of momentum by free carriers, from an incident photon field. It has been found that the mechanism for this effect is different in the two materials. In Germanium, the effect occurs when carriers make optical transitions from the heavy hole band to the light hole band. Thus, the magneto-optical behavior depends heavily upon the band structure. On the other hand, a modified Drude model (independent electron

  5. Magneto-optical detection of the relaxation dynamics of alloy nanoparticles with a high-stability magnetic circular dichroism setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavigli, L.; Julian Fernandez, C. de; Gatteschi, D.; Gurioli, M.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Bogani, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present a versatile high-stability and high-sensitivity magneto-optical setup that allows transmission and reflection measurements at high fields and low temperatures. We apply the technique to measure the decay in time of the magnetization of highly monodisperse 3.3nm Co 33 Ni 67 alloy nanoparticles embedded in a silica host. We demonstrate the possibility of observing the dynamics of the magnetization over a macroscopic timescale in dilute samples, where other techniques are unavailable

  6. Magneto-optical detection of the relaxation dynamics of alloy nanoparticles with a high-stability magnetic circular dichroism setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigli, L.; de Julián Fernández, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Gurioli, M.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Bogani, L.

    2007-09-01

    We present a versatile high-stability and high-sensitivity magneto-optical setup that allows transmission and reflection measurements at high fields and low temperatures. We apply the technique to measure the decay in time of the magnetization of highly monodisperse 3.3 nm Co33Ni67 alloy nanoparticles embedded in a silica host. We demonstrate the possibility of observing the dynamics of the magnetization over a macroscopic timescale in dilute samples, where other techniques are unavailable.

  7. Characteristics of single-atom trapping in a magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seokchan; Choi, Youngwoon; Park, Sangbum; Ji, Wangxi; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap with a single or a few atoms is presented. A very small number of 85 Rb atoms were trapped in a micron-size magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient. In order to find the optimum condition for a single-atom trap, we have investigated how the number of atoms and the size of atomic cloud change as various experimental parameters, such as a magnetic-field gradient and the trapping laser intensity and detuning. The averaged number of atoms was measured very accurately with a calibration procedure based on the single-atom saturation curve of resonance fluorescence. In addition, the number of atoms in a trap could be controlled by suppressing stochastic loading events by means of a real-time active feedback on the magnetic-field gradient

  8. Fermi surface study of organic conductors using a magneto-optical measurement under high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimata, M; Ohta, H; Koyama, K; Motokawa, M; Kondo, R; Kagoshima, S; Tanaka, H; Tokumoto, M; Kobayashi, H; Kobayashi, A

    2006-01-01

    Magneto-optical measurements have been performed in organic conductors β''-(BEDT-TTF) 2 CsCd(SCN) 4 and λ-(BETS) 2 FeCl 4 . Although the zero magnetic field ground state of β''-(BEDT-TTF) 2 CsCd(SCN) 4 is considered as the density wave state, periodic orbit resonances (POR's) attributed to quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) and quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) Fermi surfaces (FS's) have been observed above 6 T. The existence of these FS's are predicted by the band calculation based on room temperature lattice parameters. This result may suggest the destruction of the density wave state at 6 T, and the primal metallic state revives in the high field phase above 6 T. In the case of λ-(BETS) 2 FeCl 4 , large changes of the transmission intensity of electromagnetic waves around 10 T, which correspond to the insulator-metal transition, have been observed. However, no POR-like resonance has been observed. This may be due to the restriction of the observed frequency-field region

  9. Magneto-optical measurements on high-temperature superconductors influenced by AC-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che'Rose, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In this work magneto-optical measurements on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and MgB 2 thin films were done. For YBCO the influence of AC-pulses on the flux and current density of a thin film with transport current was investigated. For MgB 2 the influence of AC-fields on the homogenous and dendritic flux penetration was researched. (orig.)

  10. Magneto-optical detection of the relaxation dynamics of alloy nanoparticles with a high-stability magnetic circular dichroism setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavigli, L. [L.E.N.S. University of Florence, via N. Carrara 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Italy); INSTM Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 5, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Italy); Julian Fernandez, C. de [Department of Physics, University of Padua, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Gatteschi, D. [INSTM Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 5, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Italy); Gurioli, M. [L.E.N.S. University of Florence, via N. Carrara 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Italy); Sangregorio, C. [INSTM Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 5, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Italy)]. E-mail: claudio.sangregorio@unifi.it; Mattei, G. [Department of Physics, University of Padua, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Mazzoldi, P. [Department of Physics, University of Padua, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bogani, L. [L.E.N.S. University of Florence, via N. Carrara 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Italy); INSTM Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 5, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    We present a versatile high-stability and high-sensitivity magneto-optical setup that allows transmission and reflection measurements at high fields and low temperatures. We apply the technique to measure the decay in time of the magnetization of highly monodisperse 3.3nm Co{sub 33}Ni{sub 67} alloy nanoparticles embedded in a silica host. We demonstrate the possibility of observing the dynamics of the magnetization over a macroscopic timescale in dilute samples, where other techniques are unavailable.

  11. Magneto-optical imaging of magnetic flux distribution in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, K.; Murakamia, H.; Kawayama, I.; Doda, Y.; Tonouchi, M.; Chikumoto, N.

    2004-01-01

    Prototype systems of home-made magneto-optical microscopes were fabricated, and preliminary studies were carried out using Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ single crystals and an YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductor vortex flow transistor. In the study using BSCCO crystals, we succeeded in the observation of magnetic flux penetration into half-peeled thin flake region on the crystal surface, and it was found that the magnetic fluxes penetrate in characteristic one-dimensional alignment almost along the crystal a-axis. On the other hand, in the study using the YBCO device clear changes in the generated magnetic field distribution could be detected corresponding to the current direction

  12. High densities and optical collisions in a two-colour magneto-optical trap for metastable helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Tychkov, A.; Jeltes, T.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied a cloud of cold metastable helium (He*) atoms interacting with near-resonant light at 1083 nm and 389 nm. The 1083 nm light allows for efficient loading of a large magneto-optical trap (MOT) and the 389 nm light is subsequently used to increase the density and reduce the temperature

  13. Magneto-optical and cyclotron resonance studies of semiconductors and their nanostructures in pulsed high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We present a review on the recent advances in physics of magneto-optical spectroscopy in the visible range and of infrared cyclotron resonance in pulsed high magnetic fields, which are produced by electromagnetic flux compression up to 500T, by the single-turn coil technique up to 200T or by conventional non-destructive long pulse magnets up to 50T. We discuss the recent results on the spectroscopy of low dimensional excitons in quantum wells and short period superlattices. In very high fields up to 500T, we observed anomalous field dependence of the exciton absorption lines and the 2D - 3D cross-over effects in GaAs/AlAs quantum wells. In GaP/AlP short period superlattices, it was found that the exciton photoluminescence intensity shows a dramatic decrease and the diamagnetic shift was negative when high magnetic fields were applied parallel to the growth direction. We observed also remarkable effects of uniaxial stress, which are ascribed to the cross-over effect between the two inequivalent valleys at the X points. Cyclotron resonance was measured by using various molecular gas lasers as radiation sources in the range 5 - 119 m . We present the results of cyclotron resonance in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with tilted magnetic fields from the growth direction. It was found that the resonant field and the peak intensity show many different features depending on the extent of the Landau level-subband coupling and on the relation between the photon energy and the barrier height. A large hysteresis was observed between the rising and the falling sweeps of the magnetic field, when the cyclotron resonance energy became comparable with the subband spacing. In a diluted magnetic semiconductor CdFeS, we observed anomalous temperature dependence of the effective mass, suggestive of the magnetic polaron effect

  14. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, J; Xu, H; Kolthammer, J; Hong, Y K; Choi, B C

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic microscope, time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope, which combines a near-field scanning optical microscope and magneto-optical contrast. By taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of time-resolved Kerr microscope and the sub-wavelength spatial resolution of a near-field microscope, we achieved a temporal resolution of ∼50 ps and a spatial resolution of microscope, the magnetic field pulse induced gyrotropic vortex dynamics occurring in 1 μm diameter, 20 nm thick CoFeB circular disks has been investigated. The microscope provides sub-wavelength resolution magnetic images of the gyrotropic motion of the vortex core at a resonance frequency of ∼240 MHz.

  15. Developing a New Biophysical Tool to Combine Magneto-Optical Tweezers with Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaokun Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel experimental setup in which magnetic and optical tweezers are combined for torque and force transduction onto single filamentous molecules in a transverse configuration to allow simultaneous mechanical measurement and manipulation. Previously we have developed a super-resolution imaging module which, in conjunction with advanced imaging techniques such as Blinking assisted Localisation Microscopy (BaLM, achieves localisation precision of single fluorescent dye molecules bound to DNA of ~30 nm along the contour of the molecule; our work here describes developments in producing a system which combines tweezing and super-resolution fluorescence imaging. The instrument also features an acousto-optic deflector that temporally divides the laser beam to form multiple traps for high throughput statistics collection. Our motivation for developing the new tool is to enable direct observation of detailed molecular topological transformation and protein binding event localisation in a stretching/twisting mechanical assay that previously could hitherto only be deduced indirectly from the end-to-end length variation of DNA. Our approach is simple and robust enough for reproduction in the lab without the requirement of precise hardware engineering, yet is capable of unveiling the elastic and dynamic properties of filamentous molecules that have been hidden using traditional tools.

  16. Development of a NDI system using the magneto-optical method. 2. Remote sensing using the novel magneto-optical inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jinyi; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    A new remote sensing system using the magneto-optical method is developed for inspection of flaws introduced during service operation where routine inspection is difficult because of difficult inaccessibility to the components. Among the advantages of non-destructive inspection (NDI) based on the magneto-optical sensor are: real time inspection, elimination of electrical noise and high spatial resolution. Remote sensing of flaws is achieved using the basic principles of Faraday effect, optical permeability, and diffraction of a laser by the domain walls. This paper describes a novel remote NDI system using the principles of optics and LMF. The main characteristic of the system is that image data and LMF information can be obtained simultaneously. It is possible to carry out remote and high speed inspection of cracks from the intensity of reflected light, and to estimate the size of a crack effectively with their diverse data. The advantages of this NDI system are demonstrated using two specimens. (author)

  17. Optical and magneto-optical characterization of TbFeCo and GdFeCo thin films for high-density recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendren, W R; Atkinson, R; Pollard, R J; Salter, I W; Wright, C D; Clegg, W W; Jenkins, D F L

    2003-01-01

    Thin, optically semi-infinite films of amorphous TbFeCo and GdFeCo, suitable for magneto-optical recording, have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering onto glass. Ellipsometric techniques have been used to determine the complex refractive index and complex magneto-optical parameter of the films in the wavelength range 400-900 nm, thus characterizing the materials. A review of the literature is presented and shows that the results for the TbFeCo films compare favourably with published results obtained from measurements conducted in situ, with the films protected with ZnS barrier layers. It is found that GdFeCo and TbFeCo are optically very similar, but magneto-optically the materials are quite different

  18. Optical and magneto-optical characterization of TbFeCo and GdFeCo thin films for high-density recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendren, W R [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Atkinson, R [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Pollard, R J [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Salter, I W [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wright, C D [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom); Clegg, W W [CRIST, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jenkins, D F L [CRIST, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-12

    Thin, optically semi-infinite films of amorphous TbFeCo and GdFeCo, suitable for magneto-optical recording, have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering onto glass. Ellipsometric techniques have been used to determine the complex refractive index and complex magneto-optical parameter of the films in the wavelength range 400-900 nm, thus characterizing the materials. A review of the literature is presented and shows that the results for the TbFeCo films compare favourably with published results obtained from measurements conducted in situ, with the films protected with ZnS barrier layers. It is found that GdFeCo and TbFeCo are optically very similar, but magneto-optically the materials are quite different.

  19. Highly transparent Tb3Al5O12 magneto-optical ceramics sintered from co-precipitated powders with sintering aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiawei; Pan, Yubai; Xie, Tengfei; Kou, Huamin; Li, Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Highly transparent terbium aluminum garnet (Tb3Al5O12, TAG) magneto-optical ceramics were fabricated from co-precipitated nanopowders with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as sintering aid by vacuum sintering combined with hot isostatic pressing (HIP) post-treatment. The ball milled TAG powder shows better dispersity than the as-synthesized powder, and its average particle size is about 80 nm. For the ceramic sample pre-sintered at 1720 °C for 20 h with HIP post-treated at 1700 °C for 3 h, the in-line transmittance exceeds 76% in the region of 400-1580nm (except the absorption band), reaching a maximum value of 81.8% at the wavelength of 1390 nm. The microstructure of the TAG ceramic is homogeneous and its average grain size is approximately 19.7 μm. The Verdet constant of the sample is calculated to be -182.7 rad·T-1·m-1 at room temperature.

  20. Preparation of high magneto-optical performance and crystalline quality Ce{sub 1}Gd{sub 2}Fe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} films on CLNGG substrate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qiu-ping; Zheng, Ze-yuan; Lin, Nan-xi; Liu, Xiao-feng; Hong, Can-huang; Hu, Xiao-lin, E-mail: linamethyst@fzu.edu.cn; Zhuang, Nai-feng; Chen, Jian-zhong, E-mail: j.z.chen@fzu.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Thin films of Ce{sub 1}Gd{sub 2}Fe{sub 5−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 12} (Ce,Ga:GIG) were prepared on Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} (GGG) and Ca{sub 2.90}Li{sub 0.30}Nb{sub 1.93}Ga{sub 2.76}O{sub 12} (CLNGG) substrates by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The phase, grain orientation, surface morphology, transmittance, magnetism and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) properties of films were analyzed. And the effects of lattice mismatch and non-magnetic Ga{sup 3+}-doping were discussed. The results show that the films with higher crystallized quality and lower stress can be obtained by growing on CLNGG than on GGG. Moreover, the coercive force, magnetization, magneto-optical effect intensity and orientation of film can be effectively regulated by adjusting Ga{sup 3+}-doped concentration. - Highlights: • With excellent magneto-optical performance, Ce,Ga:GIG film has a good application prospect. • Ce,Ga:GIG film with high quality were prepared on CLNGG by RF magnetron sputtering. • Crystalline quality and morphology of films are intently related to the substrate. • Ga{sup 3+} doping obviously affect on magnetism and magneto-optical property of Ce:GIG film.

  1. Magneto-optical trap for metastable helium at 389 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Stas, R.J.W.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for metastable triplet helium atoms utilizing the 2 S-3(1)-->3 P-3(2) line at 389 nm as the trapping and cooling transition. The far-red-detuned MOT (detuning Delta=-41 MHz) typically contains few times 10(7) atoms at a relatively high (similar

  2. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, T; Kiessling, T; Ossau, W; Molenkamp, L W; Biermann, K; Santos, P V

    2013-12-01

    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast "white light" supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  3. Hexapole-compensated magneto-optical trap on a mesoscopic atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jöllenbeck, S.; Mahnke, J.; Randoll, R.

    2011-01-01

    Magneto-optical traps on atom chips are usually restricted to small atomic samples due to a limited capture volume caused primarily by distorted field configurations. Here we present a magneto-optical trap based on a millimeter-sized wire structure which generates a magnetic field with minimized...... distortions. Together with the loading from a high-flux two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, we achieve a loading rate of 8.4×1010 atoms/s and maximum number of 8.7×109 captured atoms. The wire structure is placed outside of the vacuum to enable a further adaptation to new scientific objectives. Since all...

  4. Magneto-optical measurements on high-temperature superconductors influenced by AC-fields; Magnetooptische Untersuchungen an Hochtemperatursupraleitern unter Einfluss von Frequenzfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che' Rose, Simon

    2007-01-15

    In this work magneto-optical measurements on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and MgB{sub 2} thin films were done. For YBCO the influence of AC-pulses on the flux and current density of a thin film with transport current was investigated. For MgB{sub 2} the influence of AC-fields on the homogenous and dendritic flux penetration was researched. (orig.)

  5. Magneto-optic and electro-optic modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Price, T.R.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    An important aspect of the Faraday rotation diagnostic for tokamak plasma measurements has been the development of suitable polarization modulators for submillimeter wavelengths. The problems are to obtain high optical transmission and fast modulation frequencies. At ORNL we have developed both a magneto-optic and an electro-optic submillimeter-wave modulators. These devices have been operated at modulation frequencies of approximately 100 kHz and both have high transmission

  6. Near Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Welp, Ulrich; Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  7. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Welp, Ulrich; and Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  8. Magneto-optical response in bimetallic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Fedotov, Vassili; Vienne, Guillaume; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate resonant Faraday polarization rotation in plasmonic arrays of bimetallic nano-ring resonators consisting of Au and Ni sections. This metamaterial design allows the optimization of the trade-off between the enhancement of magneto-optical effects and plasmonic dissipation. Nickel sections corresponding to as little as 6% of the total surface of the metamaterial result in magneto-optically induced polarization rotation equal to that of a continuous nickel film. Such bimetallic metamaterials can be used in compact magnetic sensors, active plasmonic components, and integrated photonic circuits.

  9. Non-Intrusive Magneto-Optic Detecting System for Investigations of Air Switching Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Guogang; Dong Jinlong; Liu Wanying; Geng Yingsan

    2014-01-01

    In current investigations of electric arc plasmas, experiments based on modern testing technology play an important role. To enrich the testing methods and contribute to the understanding and grasping of the inherent mechanism of air switching arcs, in this paper, a non-intrusive detecting system is described that combines the magneto-optic imaging (MOI) technique with the solution to inverse electromagnetic problems. The detecting system works in a sequence of main steps as follows: MOI of the variation of the arc flux density over a plane, magnetic field information extracted from the magneto-optic (MO) images, arc current density distribution and spatial pattern reconstruction by inverting the resulting field data. Correspondingly, in the system, an MOI set-up is designed based on the Faraday effect and the polarization properties of light, and an intelligent inversion algorithm is proposed that involves simulated annealing (SA). Experiments were carried out for high current (2 kA RMS) discharge cases in a typical low-voltage switchgear. The results show that the MO detection system possesses the advantages of visualization, high resolution and response, and electrical insulation, which provides a novel diagnostics tool for further studies of the arc. (low temperature plasma)

  10. Image correction in magneto-optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Larsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    An image-processing procedure that assures correct determination of the magnetic field distribution of magneto-optical images is presented. The method remedies image faults resulting from sources that are proportional to the incident light intensity, such as different types of defects...

  11. Periodic reversal of magneto-optic Faraday rotation on uniaxial birefringence crystal with ultrathin magnetic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Su

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental approach of inclined incidence magneto-optic Faraday effect observed in the polar plane is applied. Three samples containing ferromagnetic cobalt ultrathin films on a semiconductor zinc oxide (0001 single crystal substrate with in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy are evaluated. Through the fine adjustment of crossed polarizers in the magneto-optic effect measurement completely recorded the detail optical and magneto-optical responses from the birefringent crystal substrate and the magnetic film, especially for the signal induced from the substrate with uniaxial optical axis. The angle dependency of interference phenomena periodically from the optical and magneto-optical responses is attributed to the birefringence even in the absence of a magnetic field. The new type of observation finds that the transmission Faraday intensity in the oblique incidence includes a combination of polarization rotations, which results from optical compensation from the substrate and magneto-optical Faraday effects from the film. The samples grown at different rates and examined by this method exhibit magnetic structure discriminations. This result can be applied in the advanced polarized-light technologies to enhance the spatial resolution of magnetic surfaces with microstructural information under various magnetic field direction.

  12. Enhancement of the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect via resonant tunneling in trilayers containing magneto-optical metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girón-Sedas, J. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia); Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Bioinformática y Fotónica - CIBioFI, AA 25360 Cali (Colombia); Mejía-Salazar, J. R., E-mail: jrmejia3146@gmail.com [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moncada-Villa, E.; Porras-Montenegro, N. [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2016-07-18

    We propose a way to enhance the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect, by the excitation of resonant tunneling modes, in subwavelength trilayer structures featuring a dielectric slab sandwiched between two magneto-optical metallic layers. Depending on the magneto-optical layer widths, the proposed system may exhibit an extraordinary transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect, which makes it very attractive for the design and engineering of thin-film magneto-optical-based devices for future photonic circuits or fiber optical-communication systems.

  13. Advanced magneto-optical microscopy: Imaging from picoseconds to centimeters - imaging spin waves and temperature distributions (invited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Onur Urs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the observation of magnetic domains and domain walls by wide-field optical microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr, Faraday, Voigt, and Gradient effect are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the existence of higher order magneto-optical effects for advanced magnetic imaging. Fundamental concepts and advances in methodology are discussed that allow for imaging of magnetic domains on various length and time scales. Time-resolved imaging of electric field induced domain wall rotation is shown. Visualization of magnetization dynamics down to picosecond temporal resolution for the imaging of spin-waves and magneto-optical multi-effect domain imaging techniques for obtaining vectorial information are demonstrated. Beyond conventional domain imaging, the use of a magneto-optical indicator technique for local temperature sensing is shown.

  14. Magneto-optic studies of magnetic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, Gillian A., E-mail: g.gehring@shef.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Alshammari, Marzook S.; Score, David S.; Neal, James R.; Mokhtari, Abbas; Fox, A. Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    A brief review of the use of magneto-optic methods to study magnetic oxides is given. A simple method to obtain the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of a thin film on a transparent substrate is described. The method takes full account of multiple reflections in the film and substrate. Examples of the magneto-optic spectra of Co-doped ZnO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and GdMnO{sub 3} are given. The Maxwell-Garnett method is used to describe the effects of metallic cobalt inclusions in Co:ZnO samples, and the change of the MCD spectra of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at the Verwey temperature is discussed. Data showing different MCD signals at different energies is presented for GdMnO{sub 3}.

  15. Magneto-optic studies of magnetic oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, Gillian A.; Alshammari, Marzook S.; Score, David S.; Neal, James R.; Mokhtari, Abbas; Fox, A. Mark

    2012-01-01

    A brief review of the use of magneto-optic methods to study magnetic oxides is given. A simple method to obtain the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of a thin film on a transparent substrate is described. The method takes full account of multiple reflections in the film and substrate. Examples of the magneto-optic spectra of Co-doped ZnO, Fe 3 O 4 , and GdMnO 3 are given. The Maxwell–Garnett method is used to describe the effects of metallic cobalt inclusions in Co:ZnO samples, and the change of the MCD spectra of Fe 3 O 4 at the Verwey temperature is discussed. Data showing different MCD signals at different energies is presented for GdMnO 3 .

  16. Magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy of noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, L.; Uba, S.; Antonov, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    Magneto-optical (MO) response of the noble metals Cu, Ag, and Au in the joint experimental and ab initio theoretical study is reported. The magneto-optical polar Kerr effect (MOKE) spectra of the noble-metal films were measured with the high sensitivity in the applied magnetic field of 1.5 T over the photon energy range 0.74-5.8 eV. Complete set of the optical conductivity tensor elements was determined precisely from the MOKE and the optical spectra measured at the same energy points. The importance of the off-diagonal intraband Drude-type transitions is demonstrated explicitly for each noble metal and found to be a substantial contribution to the observed spectra. It is shown that the first-principles calculations using the spin-polarized fully relativistic Dirac linear-muffin-tin-orbital method with the inclusion of correlation effects by GGA+U approach reproduce well the experimental spectra and allow to explain the microscopic origin of the noble metals' magneto-optical response in terms of interband transitions. Although the energy band structures of Cu, Ag, and Au are very similar, there are some distinctive differences in bandwidths and the energy positions of the bands (especially in X and L symmetry points), mainly due to different spin-orbit splitting and differences in the spatial extent of 3 d , 4 d , and 5 d valence wave functions of noble metals. It was found that the small differences in the band positions lead to significant differences in the MO properties of three noble metals. Although the spin-orbit interaction in Au is about six times larger than in Cu, and approximately two times larger than in Ag, the absolute value of Kerr rotation in Au is of the same magnitude as in Cu and one order of magnitude smaller as compared to Ag. The sharp Kerr effect spectral peak in Ag is not due to the electronic interband transitions, but rather to the plasma-edge splitting. The band-by-band decomposition of the Cu, Ag, and Au MO spectra is presented and the

  17. Waveguide-Plasmon Polaritons Enhance Transverse Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars E. Kreilkamp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-optical effects in ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic materials are usually too weak for potential applications. The transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect (TMOKE in ferromagnetic films is typically on the order of 0.1%. Here, we demonstrate experimentally the enhancement of TMOKE due to the interaction of particle plasmons in gold nanowires with a photonic waveguide consisting of magneto-optical material, where hybrid waveguide-plasmon polaritons are excited. We achieve a large TMOKE that modulates the transmitted light intensity by 1.5%, accompanied by high transparency of the system. Our concept may lead to novel devices of miniaturized photonic circuits and switches, which are controllable by an external magnetic field.

  18. Evidence for highly localized damage in internal tin and powder-in-tube Nb{sub 3}Sn strands rolled before reaction obtained from coupled magneto-optical imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyanskii, A A; Lee, P J; Jewell, M C; Larbalestier, D C [Applied Superconductivity Center, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Barzi, E; Turrioni, D; Zlobin, A V [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Nb{sub 3}Sn strands for high-current, high-field magnets must be cabled before reaction while the conductor is still composed of ductile components. Even though still in the ductile, deformable state, significant damage can occur in this step, which expresses itself by inhomogeneous A15 formation, Sn leakage or even worse effects during later reaction. In this study, we simulate cabling damage by rolling recent high performance powder-in-tube (PIT) and internal tin (IT) strands in controlled increments, applying standard Nb{sub 3}Sn reaction heat treatments, and then examining the local changes using magneto-optical imaging (MOI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). These combined characterizations allow any local damage to the filament architecture to be made clear. MOI directly reveals the local variation of superconductivity while CLSM is extremely sensitive in revealing Sn leakage beyond the diffusion barrier into the stabilizing Cu. These techniques reveal a markedly different response to deformation by the PIT and IT strands. The study demonstrates that these tools can provide a local, thorough, and detailed view of how strands degrade and thus complement more complex extracted strand studies.

  19. Improvement in spatial frequency characteristics of magneto-optical Kerr microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional magneto-optical Kerr microscope, compared with those of conventional optical microscopes, inevitably deteriorates owing to oblique illumination. An approach to obtaining the maximum spatial resolution using multiple images with different illumination directions is demonstrated here. The method was implemented by rotating the illumination path around the optical axis using a motorized stage. The Fourier transform image of the observed magnetic domain indicates that the spatial frequency component that is lost in the conventional method is restored.

  20. Magneto-optical light scattering from ferromagnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.U.; Armelles, G.; Martinez Boubeta, C.; Cebollada, A.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the optical and magneto-optical components of the light scattered by the surface of several Fe films with different morphologies. We present a method, based on the ratio between the optical and magneto-optical components of the scattered intensity, to discern the physical origin, either structural or magnetic corrugation, of the light scattered by these ferromagnetic surfaces. Surface versus bulk magnetic information can be separated by magneto-optical light scattering measurements, the scattered light being more sensitive to magnetization differences between surface and bulk than the reflected one

  1. Scanning microscopy of magnetic domains using the Fe 3p core level transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Rozhko, I.; Voss, J.; Hillebrecht, F. U.; Kisker, E.; Wedemeier, V.

    1999-04-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of the vacuum ultraviolet analog to visible-light magneto-optical imaging of magnetic structures using the resonantly enhanced transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect at core level thresholds with incident p-polarized radiation. The advantages are element specificity and a variable information depth. We used the scanning x-ray microscope at HASYLAB capable of obtaining about 1 μm resolution by means of its focusing ellipsoidal ring mirror. The p-polarized component of the reflected light was selected using multilayer reflection at an additional plane mirror downstream to the sample. Micrographs of the optical reflectivity were taken in the vicinity of the Fe 3p core level threshold at 53.7 and 56.5 eV photon energy where the magneto-optical effect is of opposite sign. Magnetic domains are visible in the difference of both recorded images.

  2. Magneto-optic and electro-optic modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Price, T.R.; Staats, P.A.; Sluis, K.L.V.

    1982-01-01

    An important aspect of the Faraday rotation diagnostic for tokamak plasma measurement has been the development of suitable polarization modulators for submillimeter wavelength. The problems are to obtain high optical transmission and fast modulation frequencies. In ORNL, the authors have developed both a magneto-optic and an electro-optic submillimeter-wave modulators. These devices have been operated at modulation frequency of approximately 100 kHz, and both have high transmission. The original magneto-optic modulator consists of a 3 mm thick by 1.4 cm diameter 2-111 ferrite disk mounted at the center of an air core coil. Recently, a new ferrite modulator has been tested, which allows a much higher modulation frequency than the original device. A laboratory set-up designed to simulate a plasma heterodyne interferometer/polarimeter experiment has been used to determine the modulator characteristics. A mechanical polarization rotor was used to simulate the rotation by plasma. The transmission of the ferrite disk was 80 % at a wavelength of 0.447 mm. The authors have also performed preliminary measurement on an electro-optic modulator first demonstrated by Fetterman at Lincoln Laboratory, U.S. This device is a classical electro-optic modulator using a cryogenically cooled (4.2 K) LiTaO 3 crystal. Experiments are underway to determine the electro-optic properties of the crystal over the temperature range from 4.2 K to 77 K and over the range of wavelength from 0.118 mm to 0.447 mm. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Introducing Magneto-Optical Functions into Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    including organic and bio materials by using magnetic nanomaterials. This final report includes the successful developments of magneto-optical... successful developments of magneto-optical properties in both organic and bio magnetic nanocomposites during the project period of three years...proteins on the photoluminescence of nanodiamond. J. Appl . Phys. 2011, 109 (3), 034704. 7, Xu, H.; Hung, C.E.; Cheng, C.L.; Hu, B., Magneto-electric

  4. Integrated Solar Disk Oscillation Measurements Using the Magneto-Optical Filter: Tests with a Two Station Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciani, Alessandro; Rosati, P.; Ricci, D.; Marquedant, R.; Smith, E.

    1988-01-01

    The magneto-optical filter (MOF) was used to get high and intermediate l-modes of solar oscillations. For very low l-modes the imaging capability of the MOF is still attractive since it allows a pixel by pixel intensity normalization. However, a crude attempt to get very low l power spectra from Dopplergrams obtained at Mt. Wilson gave noisy results. This means that a careful analysis of all the factors potentially affecting high resolution Dopplergrams should be accomplished. In order to better investigate this problem, a nonimaging channel using the lock-in amplifier technique was considered. Two systems are now operational, one at JPL and the other at University of Rome. Observations in progress are used to discuss the MOF stability, the noise level, and the possible application in asteroseismology.

  5. An Investigation of Magneto-Optical Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Hagyard, Mona J.; West, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    We exhibit the effects of Faraday rotation on the direction of the transverse component of the magnetic field in a simple, symmetric sunspot. A set of 35 polarization filtergrams of NOAA active region 4662 (June 9, 1985) were obtained with the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph. These filtergrams measured the Stokes I, Q, U, and V intensities averaged over the instrument's filter bandpass (0.0125 nm) for wavelengths from 0.017 nm in the red wing to 0.017 nm in the blue wing of the Lambda525.22 nm spectral line in steps of 0.001 nm. These data were used to derive the azimuth phi of the vector field as a function of wavelength over the field of view of the sunspot. We interpret the observed variations of this azimuth with wavelength as the effects of Faraday rotation and verify this interpretation by comparing these variations with those predicted from magneto-optical theory. In the theoretical calculations we use the line-profile parameters and magnetic field strength derived in previous work by Balasubramaniam and West (Astrophys. J 382, p. 699, 1991).

  6. Mapping flux avalanches in MgB2 films-equivalence between magneto-optical imaging and magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colauto, F; Choi, E M; Lee, J Y; Lee, S I; Yurchenko, V V; Johansen, T H; Ortiz, W A

    2007-01-01

    Vortex avalanches are known to occur in MgB 2 films within a certain range of temperatures and magnetic fields. These events, resulting from a thermomagnetic instability, were first revealed by real-time magneto-optical imaging, which exposed dendritic paths of abrupt flux propagation. This very powerful technique has, however, a practical limitation, since sensors that are currently available cannot be used at high magnetic fields. This letter shows that results obtained using dc magnetometry are in good correspondence with those furnished by magneto-optical imaging, demonstrating that the two techniques can be efficiently used as complementary tools to map vortex avalanches in superconducting films. (rapid communication)

  7. A comparison of pulsed and continuous atom transfer between two magneto-optical traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, S. P.; Tiwari, S. K.; Mishra, S. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a comparison between pulsed and continuous transfer of cold 87 Rb atoms between a vapor chamber magneto-optical trap (VC-MOT) and an ultra-high vacuum magneto-optical trap (UHV-MOT) when using a resonant push beam. We find that employing repetitive cycles of a pulsed and unfocused push beam on an unsaturated VC-MOT cloud results in a significantly higher number of atoms transferred to the UHV-MOT than the number obtained with a continuous push beam focused on a continuous VC-MOT. In pulsed transfer, we find that both the VC-MOT loading duration and the push beam duration play important roles in the transfer process and govern the number of atoms transferred to the UHV-MOT. The parameters and processes affecting the transfer have been investigated and are discussed.

  8. Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed. The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm.

  9. Ultracold molecules for the masses: Evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, B. K.

    While cold molecule experiments are rapidly moving towards their promised benefits of precision spectroscopy, controllable chemistry, and novel condensed phases, heretofore the field has been greatly limited by a lack of methods to cool and compress chemically diverse species to temperatures below ten millikelvin. While in atomic physics these needs are fulfilled by laser cooling, magneto-optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, until now none of these techniques have been applicable to molecules. In this thesis, two major breakthroughs are reported. The first is the observation of evaporative cooling in magnetically trapped hydroxyl (OH) radicals, which potentially opens a path all the way to Bose-Einstein condensation of dipolar radicals, as well as allowing cold- and ultracold-chemistry studies of fundamental reaction mechanisms. Through the combination of an extremely high gradient magnetic quadrupole trap and the use of the OH Λ-doublet transition to enable highly selective forced evaporation, cooling by an order of magnitude in temperature was achieved and yielded a final temperature no higher than 5mK. The second breakthrough is the successful application of laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping to molecules. Motivated by a proposal in this thesis, laser cooling of molecules is now known to be technically feasible in a select but substantial pool of diatomic molecules. The demonstration of not only Doppler cooling but also two-dimensional magneto-optical trapping in yttrium (II) oxide, YO, is expected to enable rapid growth in the availability of ultracold molecules—just as the invention of the atomic magneto-optical trap stimulated atomic physics twenty-five years ago.

  10. Magneto-optical properties of α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanocomposites prepared by the high energy ball-milling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Chandana Roy; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, Anusree; Das, Dipankar

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites (NCs) with 10 wt% of α-Fe2O3 in ZnO have been prepared by the high energy ball-milling. The crystallite sizes of α-Fe2O3 and ZnO in the NCs are found to vary from 65 nm to 20 nm and 47 nm to 15 nm respectively as milling time is increased from 2 to 30 h. XRD analysis confirms presence of α-Fe2O3 and ZnO in pure form in all the NCs. UV-vis study of the NCs shows a continuous blue-shift of the absorption peak and a steady increase of band gap of ZnO with increasing milling duration that are assigned to decreasing particle size of ZnO in the NCs. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the NCs reveal three weak emission bands in the visible region at 421, 445 and 485 nm along with the strong near band edge emission at 391 nm. These weak emission bands are attributed to different defect - related energy levels e.g. Zn-vacancy, Zn interstitial and oxygen vacancy. Dc and ac magnetization measurements show presence of weakly interacting superparamagnetic (SPM) α-Fe2O3 particles in the NCs. 57Fe-Mössbauer study confirms presence of SPM hematite in the sample milled for 30 h. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements indicate presence of cation vacancies in ZnO nanostructures confirming results of PL studies.

  11. Genetic optimization of magneto-optic Kerr effect in lossy cavity-type magnetophotonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanaatshoar, M., E-mail: m-ghanaat@cc.sbu.ac.i [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alisafaee, H. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    We have demonstrated an optimization approach in order to obtain desired magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs) composed of a lossy magnetic layer (TbFeCo) placed within a multilayer structure. The approach is an amalgamation between a 4x4 transfer matrix method and a genetic algorithm. Our objective is to enhance the magneto-optic Kerr effect of TbFeCo at short visible wavelength of 405 nm. Through the optimization approach, MPC structures are found meeting definite criteria on the amount of reflectivity and Kerr rotation. The resulting structures are fitted more than 99.9% to optimization criteria. Computation of the internal electric field distribution shows energy localization in the vicinity of the magnetic layer, which is responsible for increased light-matter interaction and consequent enhanced magneto-optic Kerr effect. Versatility of our approach is also exhibited by examining and optimizing several MPC structures. - Research highlights: Structures comprising a highly absorptive TbFeCo layer are designed to work for data storage applications at 405 nm. Optimization algorithm resulted in structures fitted 99.9% to design criteria. More than 10 structures are found exhibiting magneto-optical response of about 1{sup o} rotation and 20% reflection. The ratio of the Kerr rotation to the Kerr ellipticity is enhanced by a factor of 30.

  12. Magneto-optical studies of low-dimensional organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ohta, Motoi Kimata and Yugo Oshima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our periodic orbit resonance (POR results on quasi-two-dimensional (q2D, highly anisotropic q2D and quasi-one-dimensional (q1D organic conductors are reviewed together with our rotational cavity magneto-optical measurement system. Higher order POR up to seventh order has been observed in the q2D system (BEDT-TTF2Br(DIA, and the experimental conditions to observe POR and the cyclotron resonance (CR are discussed. Highly anisotropic q2D Fermi surface (FS in β''-(BEDT-TTF(TCNQ, which was considered to have q1D FS previously, is proposed by our POR measurements, and the possible interpretations of other experimental results of β''-(BEDT-TTF(TCNQ are discussed assuming the highly anisotropic q2D FS. Finally, detailed q1D FS of (DMET2I3, obtained from our POR results, is discussed in connection with the typical q1D system (TMTSF2ClO4.

  13. Magneto-optical nanoparticles for cyclic magnetomotive photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Bastien; Yoon, Soon Joon; Li, Junwei; Gao, Xiaohu; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a highly promising tool to visualize molecular events with deep tissue penetration. Like most other modalities, however, image contrast under in vivo conditions is far from optimal due to background signals from tissue. Using iron oxide-gold core-shell nanoparticles, we previously demonstrated that magnetomotive photoacoustic (mmPA) imaging can dramatically reduce the influence of background signals and produce high-contrast molecular images. Here we report two significant advances toward clinical translation of this technology. First, we introduce a new class of compact, uniform, magneto-optically coupled core-shell nanoparticle, prepared through localized copolymerization of polypyrrole (PPy) on an iron oxide nanoparticle surface. The resulting iron oxide-PPy nanoparticles solve the photo-instability and small-scale synthesis problems previously encountered by the gold coating approach, and extend the large optical absorption coefficient of the particles beyond 1000 nm in wavelength. In parallel, we have developed a new generation of mmPA imaging featuring cyclic magnetic motion and ultrasound speckle tracking, with an image capture frame rate several hundred times faster than the photoacoustic speckle tracking method demonstrated previously. These advances enable robust artifact elimination caused by physiologic motion and first application of the mmPA technology in vivo for sensitive tumor imaging.

  14. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Hu, Juejun; Jiang, Peng; Kim, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2013-11-08

    Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO₂ -δ , Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO 3- δ , as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti 0.2 Ga 0.4 Fe 0.4 )O 3- δ and polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 /silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  15. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cengiz Onbasli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO2−δ, Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO3−δ, as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti0.2Ga0.4Fe0.4O3−δ and polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12/silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  16. Dynamic magneto-optical imaging of transport current redistribution and normal zone propagation in YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Honghai; Schwartz, Justin; Davidson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors carry high critical current density with the potential for low cost and thus have a broad range of potential applications. An unresolved issue that could inhibit implementation, however, is a lack of understanding of the current redistribution and normal zone propagation behavior in the event of a thermal disturbance (quench). In this work, we for the first time present the real-time, dynamic observation of magnetic field redistribution during a thermal disturbance via magneto-optical imaging with a high speed, high resolution CCD (charge coupled device) camera. The optical images are converted to a two-dimensional, time-dependent data set that is then analyzed quantitatively. It is found that the normal zone propagates non-uniformly in two dimensions within the YBCO layer. Two stages of normal zone propagation are observed. During the first stage, the normal zone propagates along the conductor length as the current and magnetic field redistribute within the YBCO layer. During the second stage, current sharing with the Cu begins and the magneto-optical image becomes constant. The normal zone propagation velocity at 45 K, I = 50 A (∼50% I c ), is determined as 22.7 mm s -1 using the time-dependent optical light intensity data. (rapid communication)

  17. Coercivity of magneto-optical media by spin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suits, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Spin dynamics computer simulations have been carried out to study the effect of pinning on domain-wall motion in TbFeCo-like media. These calculations were done on a 30x30x1 mesh, where the spin direction at each lattice site was calculated with the Landau--Lifshitz--Gilbert equation. The simulations were made in an IBM 3090 mainframe--personal computer environment where the result of the calculation is a movie that runs at three frames/second on an AT and shows graphically the domain-wall--defect interaction. The domain wall is caused to move in an external field toward a defect, and the maximum field that pins the domain wall was observed. The defects have finite length and zero magnetization, which correspond to voids or nonmagnetic second phase in the media. The simulation shows that small defects on the order of 100 A in size can pin walls with pinning strength appropriate to the coercivity of magneto-optical media, i.e., local coercivities in the range 1--10 kOe. For sufficiently high fields a single wall may break up into two separate sections at the defect, and then join together beyond the defect to become a single wall again. For rectangular defects, the coercivity depends strongly and nearly linearly on defect length (parallel to the domain-wall surface) and only weakly on defect width for widths greater than about 50 A (perpendicular to the wall surface)

  18. Infrared spectromicroscopy and magneto-optical imaging stations at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, S; Sada, T; Okuno, M; Matsunami, M; Shinoda, K; Kimura, H; Moriwaki, T; Yamagata, M; Kondo, Y; Yoshimatsu, Y; Takahashi, T; Fukui, K; Kawamoto, T; Ishikawa, T

    2001-01-01

    At the BL43IR of SPring-8, infrared microanalysis on various kinds of solid specimens under multiple environments with a spatial resolution smaller than 10 mu m in diameter is planned in the infrared region. In order to perform such analysis, two different stations, a multipurpose spectromicroscopy apparatus and a magneto-optical imaging one have been constructed. Measurements on the spatial two-dimensional cross-section of the infrared beam at the spectromicroscopy station have proven that the stations have a good prospective feature in the performance.

  19. AB INITIO calculations of magneto-optical effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2002), s. 141-146 ISSN 1346-7948 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : electronic structure * ab initio calculation * polar magneto-optical Kerr effect * transitiom metal * uranium intermetallics * CrO 2 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. Direct measurement of the static and transient magneto-optical permittivity of cobalt across the entire M -edge in reflection geometry by use of polarization scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusin, Dmitriy; Tengdin, Phoebe M.; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gentry, Christian; Blonsky, Adam; Gerrity, Michael; Legut, Dominik; Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Silva, T. J.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2018-01-01

    The microscopic state of a magnetic material is characterized by its resonant magneto-optical response through the off-diagonal dielectric tensor component ɛx y. However, the measurement of the full complex ɛx y in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region covering the M absorption edges of 3 d ferromagnets is challenging due to the need for either a careful polarization analysis, which is complicated by a lack of efficient polarization analyzers, or scanning the angle of incidence in fine steps. Here, we propose and demonstrate a technique to extract the complex resonant permittivity ɛx y simply by scanning the polarization angle of linearly polarized high harmonics to measure the magneto-optical asymmetry in reflection geometry. Because this technique is more practical and faster to experimentally implement than previous approaches, we can directly measure the full time evolution of ɛx y(t ) during laser-induced demagnetization across the entire M2 ,3 absorption edge of cobalt with femtosecond time resolution. We find that for polycrystalline Co films on an insulating substrate, the changes in ɛx y are uniform throughout the spectrum, to within our experimental precision. This result suggests that, in the regime of strong demagnetization, the ultrafast demagnetization response is primarily dominated by magnon generation. We estimate the contribution of exchange-splitting reduction to the ultrafast demagnetization process to be no more than 25%.

  1. Magneto-optic gradient effect in domain-wall images: at the crossroads of magneto-optics and micromagnetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamberský, Vladimír; Schäfer, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2011), 013815/1-013815/6 ISSN 1050-2947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : edge and boundary effects * reflection and refraction * diffraction and scattering * magneto-optical effects * theory * models * numerical simulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.878, year: 2011

  2. Heuristic Enhancement of Magneto-Optical Images for NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Matteo; Megali, Giuseppe; Pellicanò, Diego; Calcagno, Salvatore; Versaci, Mario; Morabito, FrancescoCarlo

    2010-12-01

    The quality of measurements in nondestructive testing and evaluation plays a key role in assessing the reliability of different inspection techniques. Each different technique, like the magneto-optic imaging here treated, is affected by some special types of noise which are related to the specific device used for their acquisition. Therefore, the design of even more accurate image processing is often required by relevant applications, for instance, in implementing integrated solutions for flaw detection and characterization. The aim of this paper is to propose a preprocessing procedure based on independent component analysis (ICA) to ease the detection of rivets and/or flaws in the specimens under test. A comparison of the proposed approach with some other advanced image processing methodologies used for denoising magneto-optic images (MOIs) is carried out, in order to show advantages and weakness of ICA in improving the accuracy and performance of the rivets/flaw detection.

  3. Magneto-optical effect in Mn-Sb thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaran, E.; Sadabadi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The magneto-optic Kerr and Faraday effect of Mn-Sb thin films have been studied. The single and multilayer of this film have grown on glass substrate by evaporation. The optical rotation of linear polarized light has been measured by an optical hysteresis plotter in a I/O converter amplifier circuit. Our results indicate a polar Kerr rotation up to 0.5 degree and in a double Mn S b this rotation research to maximum

  4. Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Potisk, Tilen; Mertelj, Alenka; Sebastian, Nerea; Osterman, Natan; Lisjak, Darja; Brand, Helmut R.; Pleiner, Harald; Svenšek, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    We investigate dynamic magneto-optic effects in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally we measure the magnetization and the phase difference of the transmitted light when an external magnetic field is applied. As a model we study the coupled dynamics of the magnetization, M, and the director field, n, associated with the liquid crystalline orientational order. We demonstrate that the experimentally studied macroscopic dynamic behavior reveals t...

  5. Investigation of the geometrical barrier in Bi-2212 using the magneto-optical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.W.

    2000-01-01

    It has been found that the penetration of vortices into a weak pinning crystal is governed by a geometrical barrier and they form a dome-shaped flux profile across the crystal. Using the powerful magneto-optical technique, we investigated this geometrical barrier in a high-purity Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single-crystal platelet. Our results show that over the temperature range 20-70 K the dome-shaped profile is observed. Also, the influences of the edge shape and the roughness on the geometrical barrier are discussed. (author)

  6. A magneto-optical microscope for quantitative measurement of magnetic microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W C; Garraud, N; Shorman, E E; Arnold, D P

    2015-09-01

    An optical system is presented to quantitatively map the stray magnetic fields of microscale magnetic structures, with field resolution down to 50 μT and spatial resolution down to 4 μm. The system uses a magneto-optical indicator film (MOIF) in conjunction with an upright reflective polarizing light microscope to generate optical images of the magnetic field perpendicular to the image plane. A novel single light path construction and discrete multi-image polarimetry processing method are used to extract quantitative areal field measurements from the optical images. The integrated system including the equipment, image analysis software, and experimental methods are described. MOIFs with three different magnetic field ranges are calibrated, and the entire system is validated by measurement of the field patterns from two calibration samples.

  7. User oriented end-station on VUV pump-probe magneto-optical ellipsometry at ELI beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Shirly; Neuber, Gerd; Brooks, Christopher D.; Besner, Bastian; Hashemi, Maryam; Rübhausen, Michael; Andreasson, Jakob

    2017-11-01

    A state of the art ellipsometer for user operations is being implemented at ELI Beamlines in Prague, Czech Republic. It combines three of the most promising and exotic forms of ellipsometry: VUV, pump-probe and magneto-optical ellipsometry. This new ellipsometer covers a spectral operational range from the NIR up to the VUV, with high through-put between 1 and 40 eV. The ellipsometer also allows measurements of magneto-optical spectra with a 1 kHz switchable magnetic field of up to 1.5 T across the sample combining ellipsometry and Kerr spectroscopy measurements in an unprecedented spectral range. This form of generalized ellipsometry enables users to address diagonal and off-diagonal components of the dielectric tensor within one measurement. Pump-probe measurements enable users to study the dynamic behaviour of the dielectric tensor in order to resolve the time-domain phenomena in the femto to 100 ns range.

  8. A novel magneto-optical crystal Yb:TbVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianchao; Tu, Heng; Hu, Zhanggui

    2018-04-01

    Highly transparent Yb:TbVO4 single crystal with dimensions of Ø27 × 41 mm3 alomost without scattering defects has been successfully grown by Czochralski technique. The spectra, thermal properties and laser-induced damage threshold were investigated in detailed. The Faraday rotation (FR) measurement was carried out by means of extinction method. The Verdet constant comes up to 80 rad m-1 T-1 at 1064 nm, significantly larger than TbVO4 (58 rad m-1 T-1) and TGG (40 rad m-1 T-1) reported. Meanwhile, the as-grown crystal presents lower absorption coefficient and higher magneto-optical figure of merit at measured wavelength in comparison with TGG. Moreover, the crystal exhibits a substantially improved extinction ratio (42 dB) in contrast with TbVO4 (29 dB), and exceeds the highest value of TGG (40 dB). These advantages make Yb:TbVO4 a highly promising magneto-optical material candidate for optical isolators in the visible-near infrared region.

  9. Alternating stacking of ferromagnetic nanosheet and nanoparticle films: heteroassembly and magneto-optical Kerr effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Baoping, E-mail: baoping.jia@cczu.edu.cn [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wei.zhang@unisa.edu.au [University of Tokyo, Department of Urban Engineering (Japan); Liu, Hui [Central South University, School of Metallurgy and Environment, National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (China); Lin, Bencai; Ding, Jianning [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    Heterostructured multilayer films of two different nanocrystals have been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer stacking of Ti{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} nanosheet and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle films. UV–Vis spectroscopy and AFM observation confirmed the successful alternating deposition in the multilayer buildup process. The average thickness of both Ti{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} nanosheet and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle layers was determined to be about 1.4–1.7 and 5 nm, which was in good agreement with TEM results. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements demonstrated that the heteroassemblies exhibit gigantic magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) (2 × 10{sup 4} deg/cm) at 320–360 nm, deriving from strong interlayer [Co{sup 2+}]t{sub 2g}–[Fe{sup 3+}]e{sub g} d–d charge transfer which was further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their structure-dependent MCD showed high potential in rational design and construction of high-efficiency magneto-optical devices.

  10. Alternating stacking of ferromagnetic nanosheet and nanoparticle films: heteroassembly and magneto-optical Kerr effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Baoping; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Lin, Bencai; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Heterostructured multilayer films of two different nanocrystals have been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer stacking of Ti_0_._8Co_0_._2O_2 nanosheet and Fe_3O_4 nanoparticle films. UV–Vis spectroscopy and AFM observation confirmed the successful alternating deposition in the multilayer buildup process. The average thickness of both Ti_0_._8Co_0_._2O_2 nanosheet and Fe_3O_4 nanoparticle layers was determined to be about 1.4–1.7 and 5 nm, which was in good agreement with TEM results. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements demonstrated that the heteroassemblies exhibit gigantic magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) (2 × 10"4 deg/cm) at 320–360 nm, deriving from strong interlayer [Co"2"+]t_2_g–[Fe"3"+]e_g d–d charge transfer which was further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their structure-dependent MCD showed high potential in rational design and construction of high-efficiency magneto-optical devices.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of Bismuth-Cerium composite iron garnet epitaxial films for magneto optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra Sekhar, M.; Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1151, Richmond Street, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    The Bi{sub x}Ce{sub 3-x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x = 0.8) epitaxial films of high quality were grown by means of pulsed laser deposition on paramagnetic substrates of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet. We study the modifications of substitutions in the parent garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} that produces a higher magneto-optical response at communication wavelengths. These films displayed a strong in plane textures which are treated in argon as well as reduced atmosphere conditions. The elemental constituents of these films were confirmed by energy dispersive-X ray analysis, elastic recoil detection system, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The transmittance spectra were measured and found these films exhibit good transmittance values. The transmittance-spectra were fitted with the theoretical model and the optical constants such as refractive index and absorption edge were evaluated. The highest (negative) Faraday rotation was found for these films treated in the environment of Ar + H{sub 2}. A density matrix theory has been developed for the Faraday rotation and a good agreement between the theory and experiment is found. These epitaxial garnet films can be used in a wide range of frequencies from visible to infrared spectra making them ideal for many magneto optical applications. Therefore, these films may overcome many issues in fabricating all optical isolators which is the viable solution for integrated photonics.

  12. Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion in ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulyma, S.I., E-mail: kiw_88@mail.ru; Tanygin, B.M., E-mail: b.m.tanygin@gmail.com; Kovalenko, V.F.; Petrychuk, M.V.

    2016-10-15

    Effects of pulse magnetic field on the optical transmission properties of thin ferrofluid (FF) layers were experimentally investigated. It was observed that, under an influence of an external uniform magnetic field, pulses applied to the samples surfaces in normal direction decrease the optical transmission with further returning it to its original state, even before the end of the field pulse. The dependencies of the observed effects on the magnetic pulse magnitude and the samples thickness were investigated. The experimental results are explained using FF columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence under influence of a magnetic field, leading to a light scattering type Rayleigh-to-Mie transition. Further evolution of this process comes to a geometrical optics scale and respective macroscopic observable opaque FF columnar aggregates emergence. These changes of optical transmission are non-monotonic during the magnetic field pulse duration with minimal value in the case of Mie scattering, which is known as a magneto-optical extinction trend inversion. The residual inversion was detected after the external magnetic field pulse falling edge. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we showed that a homogeneous external magnetic field is enough for the formation of columnar aggregates and their fusion. The results clarify the known Li theory (Li et al., 2004, 2007), implying an inhomogeneous field as a required prerequisite for the magneto-optical extinction trend inversion phenomenon. - Highlights: • Ferrofluid columnar aggregates have been observed in a homogeneous magnetic field. • Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion is related to the Mie light scattering. • Crucial role of columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence has been revealed. • Residual extinction trend inversion was observed after the field switch off.

  13. Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion in ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulyma, S.I.; Tanygin, B.M.; Kovalenko, V.F.; Petrychuk, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of pulse magnetic field on the optical transmission properties of thin ferrofluid (FF) layers were experimentally investigated. It was observed that, under an influence of an external uniform magnetic field, pulses applied to the samples surfaces in normal direction decrease the optical transmission with further returning it to its original state, even before the end of the field pulse. The dependencies of the observed effects on the magnetic pulse magnitude and the samples thickness were investigated. The experimental results are explained using FF columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence under influence of a magnetic field, leading to a light scattering type Rayleigh-to-Mie transition. Further evolution of this process comes to a geometrical optics scale and respective macroscopic observable opaque FF columnar aggregates emergence. These changes of optical transmission are non-monotonic during the magnetic field pulse duration with minimal value in the case of Mie scattering, which is known as a magneto-optical extinction trend inversion. The residual inversion was detected after the external magnetic field pulse falling edge. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we showed that a homogeneous external magnetic field is enough for the formation of columnar aggregates and their fusion. The results clarify the known Li theory (Li et al., 2004, 2007), implying an inhomogeneous field as a required prerequisite for the magneto-optical extinction trend inversion phenomenon. - Highlights: • Ferrofluid columnar aggregates have been observed in a homogeneous magnetic field. • Magneto-optical extinction trend inversion is related to the Mie light scattering. • Crucial role of columnar aggregates growth and lateral coalescence has been revealed. • Residual extinction trend inversion was observed after the field switch off.

  14. Magneto-optical imaging of polycrystalline FeTe1-xSex prepared at various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Q.; Taen, T.; Mohan, S.; Nakajima, Y.; Tamegai, T.

    2011-01-01

    High-quality FeTe 1-x Se x polycrystals with T c ∼ 14 K were prepared by sintering at different temperatures. Intragranular critical current density of FeTe 1-x Se x polycrystals estimated from M-H curve is 5 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at 5 K under zero field. The observed intragranular J c value was confirmed by the magneto-optical images in the remanent state. The weak-link feature of FeTe 1-x Se x polycrystals is also revealed through magneto-optical imaging. We have prepared high-quality polycrystalline FeTe 1-x Se x by sintering at different temperatures and characterized their structural and magnetic properties with X-ray diffraction, magnetization measurements, and magneto-optical imaging. The intragranular J c was estimated to be 5 x 10 4 A/cm 2 , which is smaller than the single crystal, but still in the range for practical applications.

  15. Magneto-optical tweezers built around an inverted microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudet, Cyril; Bednar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple experimental setup of magneto-optical tweezers built around an inverted microscope. Two pairs of coils placed around the focal point of the objective generate a planar-rotating magnetic field that is perpendicular to the stretching direction. This configuration allows us to control the rotary movement of a paramagnetic bead trapped in the optical tweezers. The mechanical design is universal and can be simply adapted to any inverted microscope and objective. The mechanical configuration permits the use of a rather large experimental cell and the simple assembly and disassembly of the magnetic attachment

  16. Light propagation in a magneto-optical hyperbolic biaxial crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Evgeniy V.; Merzlikin, Alexander M.

    2017-12-01

    The light propagation through a magneto-optical hyperbolic biaxial crystal is investigated. Magnetization of the structure results in splitting and reconnection of an isofrequency near the self-intersection point and thus it leads to the disappearance of conical refraction in a crystal. In its turn the isofrequency splitting leads to band gap opening and makes it possible to steer the beam. These effects allow to control the light propagation by means of an external magnetostatic field. The Poynting's vector distribution in the crystal is calculated by means of a Fourier transform in order to demonstrate the aforementioned effects.

  17. Magneto-optics of nanoscale Bi:YIG films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzhansky, Vladimir; Mikhailova, Tatyana; Shaposhnikov, Alexander; Prokopov, Anatoly; Karavainikov, Andrey; Kotov, Viacheslav; Balabanov, Dmitry; Burkov, Vladimir

    2013-09-10

    Magnetic circular dichroism in the spectral region from 270 to 850 nm and Faraday rotation at the wavelength of 655 nm in ultrathin (1.5-92.8 nm) films prepared by reactive ion beam sputtering of target of nominal composition Bi2.8Y0.2Fe5O12 were studied. The observed effects of the "blue shift," inversion of the signs and change in the intensity of magneto-optical transitions, are discussed. It is demonstrated that all studied nanoscale films reveal magnetic properties-and their composition depends on the method of substrate surface pretreatment.

  18. Magnetic microwires a magneto-optical study

    CERN Document Server

    Chizhik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    PrefaceKerr Effect as Method of Investigation of Magnetization Reversal in Magnetic Wires Cold-Drawn Fe-Rich Amorphous Wire Conventional Co-Rich Amorphous WireInteraction Between Glass-Covered MicrowiresCircular Magnetic Bistability in Co-Rich Amorphous Microwires Effect of High-Frequency Driving Current on Magnetization Reversal in Co-Rich Amorphous MicrowiresRelation Between Surface Magnetization Reversal and Magnetoimpedance Helical Magnetic Structure Magnetization Reversal in Crossed Magnetic Field Visualization of Barkhausen Jump Magnetizatio

  19. Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: application to ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blieck, J.

    2008-10-01

    87 Rb atoms have been cooled, trapped and prepared as targets for collision studies with 2 and 5 keV Na + projectiles. The physics studied deals with charge exchange processes. The active electron, which is generally the most peripheral electron of the atomic target, is transferred from the target onto the ionic projectile. The ionized target is called recoil ion. The technique used to study this physics is the MOTRIMS (Magneto Optical Trap Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique, which combines a magneto optical trap and a recoil ion momentum spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for the measurement of the recoil ions momentum, which gives access to all the information of the collision: the Q-value (which is the potential energy difference of the active electron on each particle) and the scattering angle of the projectile. The trap provides extremely cold targets to optimize the measurement of the momentum, and to release the latter from thermal motion. Through cinematically complete experiments, the MOTRIMS technique gives access to better resolutions on momentum measurements. Measurements of differential cross sections in initial and final capture states and in scattering angle have been done. Results obtained for differential cross sections in initial and final states show globally a good agreement with theory and an other experiment. Nevertheless, discrepancies with theory and this other experiment are shown for the measurements of doubly differential cross sections. These discrepancies are not understood yet. The particularity of the experimental setup designed and tested in this work, namely a low background noise, allows a great sensitivity to weak capture channels, and brings a technical and scientific gain compared with previous works. (author)

  20. Ferric oxide quantum dots in stable phosphate glass system and their magneto-optical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garaje, Sunil N.; Apte, Sanjay K. [Nanocomposite Group, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Government of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Kumar, Ganpathy [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, 1 William L. Jones Drive, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States); Panmand, Rajendra P.; Naik, Sonali D. [Nanocomposite Group, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Government of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Mahajan, Satish M., E-mail: smahajan@tntech.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, 1 William L. Jones Drive, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States); Chand, Ramesh [Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Electronics Niketan, 6, CGO Complex, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kale, Bharat B., E-mail: bbkale@cmet.gov.in [Nanocomposite Group, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Government of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: We report synthesis of ferric oxide embedded low melting phosphate glass nanocomposite and also the effect of ferric oxide nanoparticles (NCs) content on the optical and magneto-optical properties of the glasses. Faraday rotation of the glass nanocomposites was measured and showed variation in Verdet constant with concentration of ferric oxide. Interestingly, the host glass itself showed fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm) and there is a threefold enhancement in the Verdet constant of ferric oxide quantum dot-glass nanocomposite. Highlights: ► We synthesize ferric oxide embedded low melting stable phosphate glass nanocomposite. ► Glasses doped with 0.25 and 2% ferric oxide show particle size in the range of 4–12 nm. ► The host phosphate glass itself shows fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm). ► Glasses doped with 0.25% ferric oxide show high Verdet constant (30.525°/T cm). ► The as synthesis glasses may have potential application in magneto optical devices. -- Abstract: Herein, we report the synthesis of ferric oxide embedded low melting phosphate glass nanocomposite and also the effect of ferric oxide nanoparticles content on the optical and magneto-optical properties of the glasses. The optical study clearly showed red shift in optical cut off with increasing ferric oxide concentration. The band gap of the host glass was observed to be 3.48 eV and it shifted to 3.14 eV after doping with ferric oxide. The glasses doped with 0.25 and 2% ferric oxide showed particle size of 4–6 nm and 8–12 nm, respectively. Faraday rotation of the glass nanocomposites was measured and showed variation in the Verdet constant as per increasing concentration of ferric oxide. Interestingly, the host glass itself showed fairly good Verdet constant (11.5°/T cm) and threefold enhancement was observed in the Verdet constant of ferric oxide quantum dot-glass nanocomposite.

  1. A portable magneto-optical trap with prospects for atom interferometry in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Winch, J.; Briggs, J.; Freer, S.; Moustoukas, D.; Powell-Gill, S.; Squire, C.; Lamb, A.; Rammeloo, C.; Stray, B.; Voulazeris, G.; Zhu, L.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Rodgers, A.; Stabrawa, A.; Boddice, D.; Plant, S. R.; Tuckwell, G. W.; Bongs, K.; Metje, N.; Holynski, M.

    2017-06-01

    The high precision and scalable technology offered by atom interferometry has the opportunity to profoundly affect gravity surveys, enabling the detection of features of either smaller size or greater depth. While such systems are already starting to enter into the commercial market, significant reductions are required in order to reach the size, weight and power of conventional devices. In this article, the potential for atom interferometry based gravimetry is assessed, suggesting that the key opportunity resides within the development of gravity gradiometry sensors to enable drastic improvements in measurement time. To push forward in realizing more compact systems, techniques have been pursued to realize a highly portable magneto-optical trap system, which represents the core package of an atom interferometry system. This can create clouds of 107 atoms within a system package of 20 l and 10 kg, consuming 80 W of power. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  2. Laser Cooling without Repumping: A Magneto-Optical Trap for Erbium Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.J.; Hanssen, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a novel mechanism that allows for strong laser cooling of atoms that do not have a closed cycling transition. This mechanism is observed in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for erbium, an atom with a very complex energy level structure with multiple pathways for optical-pumping losses. We observe surprisingly high trap populations of over 10 6 atoms and densities of over 10 11 atoms cm -3 , despite the many potential loss channels. A model based on recycling of metastable and ground state atoms held in the quadrupole magnetic field of the trap explains the high trap population, and agrees well with time-dependent measurements of MOT fluorescence. The demonstration of trapping of a rare-earth atom such as erbium opens a wide range of new possibilities for practical applications and fundamental studies with cold atoms

  3. Properties and structure of Faraday rotating glasses for magneto optical current transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Ma, Q.; Wang, H.; Wang, Q.; Hao, Y.; Chen, Q.

    2017-07-01

    High heavy metal oxides (60–100mol.%) ternary PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 (PBB) glasses were fabricated and characterized. Using a homemade single lightway DC magnetic setup, Verdet constants of PBB glasses were measured to be 0.0923–0.1664min/G cm at 633nm wavelengths. Glasses with substitution of PbO by Bi2O3 were studied in terms of their Faraday effects. PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 = 50–40–10mol.% exhibited good thermal stability, high Verdet constant (0.1503min/G cm) and good figure of merit (0.071). Based on this glass, a magneto optical current sensor prototype was constructed and its sensitivity at different currents was evaluated to be 8.31nW/A. © 2. (Author)

  4. Magneto-Optic Field Coupling in Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Gregory P. (Inventor); Mohanchandra, Panduranga K. (Inventor); Emmons, Michael C. (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The invention is a magneto-optic coupled magnetic sensor that comprises a standard optical fiber Bragg grating system. The system includes an optical fiber with at least one Bragg grating therein. The optical fiber has at least an inner core and a cladding that surrounds the inner core. The optical fiber is part of an optical system that includes an interrogation device that provides a light wave through the optical fiber and a system to determine the change in the index of refraction of the optical fiber. The cladding of the optical fiber comprises at least a portion of which is made up of ferromagnetic particles so that the ferromagnetic particles are subject to the light wave provided by the interrogation system. When a magnetic field is present, the ferromagnetic particles change the optical properties of the sensor directly.

  5. Magneto-optical transitions in multilayer semiconductor nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Climente, J; Jaskolski, W; Aliaga, J I

    2003-01-01

    Absorption spectra of chemically synthesized uniform and multilayer semiconductor nanocrystals in a magnetic field are investigated theoretically. The nanocrystals are modelled by spherical barrier/well potentials. The electron states are calculated within the effective mass model. A four-band k centre dot p Hamiltonian, accounting for the valence subband mixing, is used to obtain the hole states. The magneto-optical transition spectrum depends strongly on the size and composition of the nanocrystals. In the case of small uniform quantum dots, only the linear Zeeman splitting of the electron and hole energy levels is observed even for very strong magnetic fields. In larger nanocrystals, the quadratic magnetic interaction turns out to be important and the transition spectrum becomes complicated. The most complicated influence of the magnetic field is found in quantum dot-quantum well systems in which the lowest electron and hole states are localized in a thin spherical layer. It is shown that transitions that ...

  6. Observation of a new magneto-optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, O.; Bardou, F.; Salomon, C.; Laurent, P.; Nadir, A.; Clairon, A.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the observation of a new laser trap for neutral atoms. It uses three orthogonal pairs of counterpropagating laser beams having linear polarizations at 45deg and a quadrupole magnetic field. 10 8 cesium atoms were thus confined in a 0.15 mm 3 volume at a temperature of 60 μK, a factor of 2 below the Doppler cooling limit. We interpret this trapping as being due to the new magneto-optical force recently observed by Grimm et al. and which is essentially a dipole force rectified by the magnetic field. This trap opens new possibilities for increasing the phase-space density of laser-cooled atoms. (orig.)

  7. Magneto-optical study of the Verwey transition in magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Behan, A.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Mokhtari, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Ahmed, M.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Blythe, H.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Fox, A.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gehring, G.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: G.A.Gehring@Sheffield.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    We have made the first detailed Faraday measurements on thin films of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} for 10magneto-optic spectra and the diagonal component of the dielectric constant are used to obtain the complex off diagonal component of the dielectric constant, {epsilon}{sub xy} , which is analysed for the changes in the energy, oscillator strength, and width of the transitions. A significant anomaly is seen in these optical parameters within about 10 K of the Verwey temperature. However, there are also some differences between the optical parameters above and below T {sub v} over a wider temperature range. The results are interpreted to give valuable information on the orbital ordering.

  8. Pump-probe nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustelny, S.; Gawlik, W.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Rochester, S. M.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Specific types of atomic coherences between Zeeman sublevels can be generated and detected using a method based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light. Linearly polarized, frequency-modulated light is employed to selectively generate ground-state coherences between Zeeman sublevels for which Δm=2 and Δm=4 in 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms, and additionally Δm=6 in 85 Rb. The atomic coherences are detected with a separate, unmodulated probe light beam. Separation of the pump and probe beams enables independent investigation of the processes of creation and detection of the atomic coherences. With the present technique the transfer of the Zeeman coherences, including high-order coherences, from excited to ground state by spontaneous emission has been observed

  9. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaraju, N., E-mail: nkamaraju@lanl.gov; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P., E-mail: rpprasan@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Pan, W.; Reno, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Ekenberg, U. [Semiconsultants, Brunnsgrnd 12, SE-18773 Täby (Sweden); Gvozdić, D. M. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Boubanga-Tombet, S. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Upadhya, P. C. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore 560058 (India)

    2015-01-19

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also find that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.

  10. Transparent EuTiO3 films: a possible two-dimensional magneto-optical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Roleder, Krystian; Stuhlhofer, Benjamin; Logvenov, Gennady; Lazar, Iwona; Soszyński, Andrzej; Koperski, Janusz; Simon, Arndt; Köhler, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity of high quality transparent thin films of insulating EuTiO3 (ETO) deposited on a thin SrTiO3 (STO) substrate, both being non-magnetic materials, are demonstrated to be a versatile tool for light modulation. The operating temperature is close to room temperature and allows for multiple device engineering. By using small magnetic fields birefringence of the samples can be switched off and on. Similarly, rotation of the sample in the field can modify its birefringence Δn. In addition, Δn can be increased by a factor of 4 in very modest fields with simultaneously enhancing the operating temperature by almost 100 K.

  11. Tapered optical fibers as tools for probing magneto-optical trap characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Wu Yuqiang; Nic Chormaic, Sile; Chakrabarti, Shrabana

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel technique for measuring the characteristics of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for cold atoms by monitoring the spontaneous emission from trapped atoms coupled into the guided mode of a tapered optical nanofiber. We show that the nanofiber is highly sensitive to very small numbers of atoms close to its surface. The size and shape of the MOT, determined by translating the cold atom cloud across the tapered fiber, is in excellent agreement with measurements obtained using the conventional method of fluorescence imaging using a charge coupled device camera. The coupling of atomic fluorescence into the tapered fiber also allows us to monitor the loading and lifetime of the trap. The results are compared to those achieved by focusing the MOT fluorescence onto a photodiode and it was seen that the tapered fiber gives slightly longer loading and lifetime measurements due to the sensitivity of the fiber, even when very few atoms are present.

  12. Role of photonic angular momentum states in nonreciprocal diffraction from magneto-optical cylinder arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Jing Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical eigenstates in a concentrically symmetric resonator are photonic angular momentum states (PAMSs with quantized optical orbital angular momentums (OAMs. Nonreciprocal optical phenomena can be obtained if we lift the degeneracy of PAMSs. In this article, we provide a comprehensive study of nonreciprocal optical diffraction of various orders from a magneto-optical cylinder array. We show that nonreciprocal diffraction can be obtained only for these nonzero orders. Role of PAMSs, the excitation of which is sensitive to the directions of incidence, applied magnetic field, and arrangement of the cylinders, are studied. Some interesting phenomena such as a dispersionless quasi-omnidirectional nonreciprocal diffraction and spikes associated with high-OAM PAMSs are present and discussed.

  13. Integration of Magneto-Optical Materials for Novel Optical Devices & Magnetophotonic Crystals, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in monolithically integrating magneto-optic and magnetic materials with semiconductor platforms in order to...

  14. Effective-mass model and magneto-optical properties in hybrid perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have proven to be a revolutionary material for low-cost photovoltaic applications. They also exhibit many other interesting properties, including giant Rashba splitting, large-radius Wannier excitons, and novel magneto-optical effects. Understanding these properties as well as the detailed mechanism of photovoltaics requires a reliable and accessible electronic structure, on which models of transport, excitonic, and magneto-optical properties can be effici...

  15. Comparative Study of Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Normal, Disordered and Inverse Spinel Type Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Zviagin, Vitaly; Richter, Peter; Böntgen, Tammo; Lorenz, Michael; Ziese, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Co$_3$O$_4$, ZnFe$_2$O$_4$, CoFe$_2$O$_4$, ZnCo$_2$O$_4$, and Fe$_3$O$_4$ thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at high and low temperatures resulting in crystalline single-phase normal, inverse, as well as disordered spinel oxide thin films with smooth surface morphology. The dielectric function, determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry in a wide spectral range from 0.5 eV to 8.5 eV, is compared with the magneto-optical response of the dielectric tensor, investigated by magne...

  16. Magneto-optical study of the intermediate state in type-I superconductors: Effects of sample shape and applied current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoberg, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic flux structures in the intermediate state of bulk, pinning-free Type-I superconductors are studied using a high resolution magneto-optical imaging technique. Unlike most previous studies, this work focuses on the pattern formation of the coexisting normal and superconducting phases in the intermediate state. The influence of various parameters such as sample shape, structure defects (pinning) and applied current are discussed in relation to two distinct topologies: flux tubes (closed topology) and laminar (open topology). Imaging and magnetization measurements performed on samples of different shapes (cones, hemispheres and slabs), show that contrary to previous beliefs, the tubular structure is the equilibrium topology, but it is unstable toward defects and flux motion. Moreover, the application of current into a sample with the geometric barrier can replace an established laminar structure with flux tubes. At very high currents, however, there exists a laminar 'stripe pattern.' Quantitative analysis of the mean tube diameter is shown to be in good agreement with the prediction proposed by Goren and Tinkham. This is the first time that this model has been confirmed experimentally. Further research into the flux tube phase shows a direct correlation with the current loop model proposed in the 1990's by Goldstein, Jackson and Dorsey. There also appears a range of flux tube density that results in a suprafroth structure, a well-formed polygonal mesh, which behaves according to the physics of foams, following standard statistical laws such as von Neumann and Lewis. The reaction of flux structures to a fast-ramped magnetic field was also studied. This provided an alignment of the structure not normally observed at slow ramp rates.

  17. Magneto-optic dynamics in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potisk, Tilen; Mertelj, Alenka; Sebastián, Nerea; Osterman, Natan; Lisjak, Darja; Brand, Helmut R.; Pleiner, Harald; Svenšek, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    We investigate dynamic magneto-optic effects in a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally we measure the magnetization and the phase difference of the transmitted light when an external magnetic field is applied. As a model we study the coupled dynamics of the magnetization, M , and the director field, n , associated with the liquid crystalline orientational order. We demonstrate that the experimentally studied macroscopic dynamic behavior reveals the importance of a dynamic cross-coupling between M and n . The experimental data are used to extract the value of the dissipative cross-coupling coefficient. We also make concrete predictions about how reversible cross-coupling terms between the magnetization and the director could be detected experimentally by measurements of the transmitted light intensity as well as by analyzing the azimuthal angle of the magnetization and the director out of the plane spanned by the anchoring axis and the external magnetic field. We derive the eigenmodes of the coupled system and study their relaxation rates. We show that in the usual experimental setup used for measuring the relaxation rates of the splay-bend or twist-bend eigenmodes of a nematic liquid crystal one expects for a ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystal a mixture of at least two eigenmodes.

  18. Magneto-optical imaging of iron-oxypnictide SmFeAsO1-xFx and SmFeAsO1-y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Iyo, A.; Miyazawa, K.; Shirage, P.M.; Kito, H.; Eisaki, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared iron-oxypnictide SmFeAsO 1-x F x by ambient-pressure technique and SmFeAsO 1-y by high-pressure technique, and characterized their bulk and local magnetic properties by using SQUID magnetometer and magneto-optical imaging. While the high-pressure samples have densities close to the theoretical value, the ambient-pressure samples have several small voids. Despite these structural differences between the two kinds of samples, they both have superconducting transition temperature above 50 K. In addition, magneto-optical images for both samples show similar kinds of inhomogeneities with large current concentrated in several grains and with small intergranular current. The estimated intragranular currents for both samples are over 10 5 A/cm 2 at low temperatures and low fields.

  19. Performance of magneto-optical glass in optical current transducer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yan; Lu, Yunhe; Liu, Zhao; Yu, Xueliang; Zhang, Guoqing; Yu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    First, a theoretical analysis was performed on the effect of temperature on the performance of the sensing element of paramagnetic rare earth-doped magneto-optical glass material that can be used in an optical current transducer application. The effect comprises two aspects: the linear birefringence and the Verdet constant. On this basis, rare earth-doped glass temperature characteristics were studied, and the experimental results indicated that the linear birefringence of rare earth-doped glass increased with increasing temperature, while its magneto-optical sensitivity decreased. Comparative experiments performed for various concentrations of rare earth dopant in the glass revealed that changes in the dopant concentration had no significant effect on the performance of magneto-optical glass. At last, a comparison between rare earth-doped magneto-optical and diamagnetic dense flint glass showed that the sensitivity of the former was six times that of the latter, although the temperature stability of the former was poorer. - Highlights: • Theoretical analysis on the effects of temperature on RE glass. • Rare earth doping leads to higher magneto-optical sensitivity. • The sensitivity of the RE glass is six times that of the dense flint glass

  20. Optical and magneto-optical properties of zinc-oxide nanostructures grown by the low-temperature chemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, M.; Alnoor, H.; Savoyant, A.; Adam, Rania E.; Nur, O.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate that the low temperature synthesis chemical route can be utilized to control the functionality of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) and nanorods (NRs) for optical and magneto-optical performance. Different structural, optical, electro- and magneto-optical results will be displayed and analyzed. In the first part, we show how high quality ZnO NPs can be efficient for photodegradation using ultra-violet radiation. In the second part we will present our recent results on the control of the core defects in cobalt doped ZnO NR. Here and by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, the substitution of Co2+ ions in the ZnO NRs crystal is shown. The relation between the incorporation and core defects concentration will be discussed. The findings give access to the magnetic anisotropy of ZnO NRs grown by the low temperature chemical route and can lead to demonstrate room temperature ferromagnetism in nanostructures with potential for different device applications.

  1. Enhancement of magneto-optical Faraday effects and extraordinary optical transmission in a tri-layer structure with rectangular annular arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chengxin; Chen, Leyi; Tang, Zhixiong; Li, Daoyong; Cheng, Zhenzhi; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2016-02-15

    The properties of optics and magneto-optical Faraday effects in a metal-dielectric tri-layer structure with subwavelength rectangular annular arrays are investigated. It is noteworthy that we obtained the strongly enhanced Faraday rotation of the desired sign along with high transmittance by optimizing the parameters of the nanostructure in the visible spectral ranges. In this system, we obtained two extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) resonant peaks with enhanced Faraday rotations, whose signs are opposite, which may provide the possibility of designing multi-channel magneto-optical devices. Study results show that the maximum of the figure of merit (FOM) of the structure can be obtained between two EOT resonant peaks accompanied by an enhanced Faraday rotation. The positions of the maximum value of the FOM and resonant peaks of transmission along with a large Faraday rotation can be tailored by simply adjusting the geometric parameters of our models. These research findings are of great importance for future applications of magneto-optical devices.

  2. Optical and magneto-optical characterization of TbFeCo thin films in trilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGahan, W.A.; He, P.; Chen, L.; Bonafede, S.; Woollam, J.A.; Sequeda, F.; McDaniel, T.; Do, H.

    1991-01-01

    A series of TbFeCo films ranging in thickness from 100 to 800 A have been deposited in trilayer structures on silicon wafer substrates, with Si 3 N 4 being employed as the dielectric material. These films have been characterized both optically and magneto-optically by variable angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry, normal angle of incidence reflectometry, and normal angle of incidence Kerr spectroscopy. From these measurements, the optical constants n and k have been determined for the TbFeCo films, as well as the magneto-optical constants Q1 and Q2. Results are presented that demonstrate the lack of dependence of these constants on the thickness of the TbFeCo film, and which can be used for calculating the expected optical and magneto-optical response of any multilayer structure containing similar TbFeCo films

  3. Magneto-optical properties of InSb for terahertz applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Chochol

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-optical permittivity tensor spectra of undoped InSb, n-doped and p-doped InSb crystals were determined using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS and the Fourier transform far-infrared spectroscopy (far-FTIR. A Huge polar magneto-optical (MO Kerr-effect (up to 20 degrees in rotation and a simultaneous plasmonic behavior observed at low magnetic field (0.4 T and room temperature are promising for terahertz nonreciprocal applications. We demonstrate the possibility of adjusting the the spectral rage with huge MO by increase in n-doping of InSb. Spectral response is modeled using generalized magneto-optical Drude-Lorentz theory, giving us precise values of free carrier mobility, density and effective mass consistent with electric Hall effect measurement.

  4. A Novel Defect Inspection Method for Semiconductor Wafer Based on Magneto-Optic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Chen, L.; Li, W.; Zhang, G.; Wu, P.

    2013-03-01

    The defects of semiconductor wafer may be generated from the manufacturing processes. A novel defect inspection method of semiconductor wafer is presented in this paper. The method is based on magneto-optic imaging, which involves inducing eddy current into the wafer under test, and detecting the magnetic flux associated with eddy current distribution in the wafer by exploiting the Faraday rotation effect. The magneto-optic image being generated may contain some noises that degrade the overall image quality, therefore, in this paper, in order to remove the unwanted noise present in the magneto-optic image, the image enhancement approach using multi-scale wavelet is presented, and the image segmentation approach based on the integration of watershed algorithm and clustering strategy is given. The experimental results show that many types of defects in wafer such as hole and scratch etc. can be detected by the method proposed in this paper.

  5. Quantitative magneto-optical investigation of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G; Brisbois, J; Pinheiro, L B G L; Müller, J; Blanco Alvarez, S; Devillers, T; Dempsey, N M; Scheerder, J E; Van de Vondel, J; Melinte, S; Vanderbemden, P; Motta, M; Ortiz, W A; Hasselbach, K; Kramer, R B G; Silhanek, A V

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed quantitative magneto-optical imaging study of several superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures, including Nb deposited on top of thermomagnetically patterned NdFeB and permalloy/niobium with erasable and tailored magnetic landscapes imprinted in the permalloy layer. The magneto-optical imaging data are complemented with and compared to scanning Hall probe microscopy measurements. Comprehensive protocols have been developed for calibrating, testing, and converting Faraday rotation data to magnetic field maps. Applied to the acquired data, they reveal the comparatively weaker magnetic response of the superconductor from the background of larger fields and field gradients generated by the magnetic layer.

  6. Cobalt nanoparticles deposited and embedded in AlN: Magnetic, magneto-optical, and morphological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttel, Y.; Gomez, H.; Clavero, C.; Cebollada, A.; Armelles, G.; Navarro, E.; Ciria, M.; Benito, L.; Arnaudas, J.I.; Kellock, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a structural, morphological, magnetic, and magneto-optical study of cobalt nanoparticles deposited on 50 A ring AlN/c-sapphire substrates and embedded in an AlN matrix. The dependence of the properties of Co nanoclusters deposited on AlN with growth temperature and amount of deposited Co are studied and discussed. Also we directly compare the properties of as grown and AlN embedded Co nanoclusters and show that the AlN matrix has a strong impact on their magnetic and magneto-optical properties

  7. Magneto-optical and transport studies of ZnO-based dilute magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behan, A.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Neal, J.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: J.R.Neal@Sheffield.ac.uk; Ibrahim, R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Mokhtari, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Ziese, M. [Universitaet Leipzig, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Abteilung Supra leitung und Magnetismus, Linnestrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Blythe, H.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Fox, A.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gehring, G.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Thin film samples of ZnO doped with V were grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The magnetization was measured by SQUID magnetometry and the films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature. The transmission, Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature over an energy range of 1.5-4.0 eV and carrier concentrations were determined from Hall effect measurements. Clear magneto-optical signals that are ferromagnetic in origin were observed at the ZnO band edge and the optimal conditions for observing large ferromagnetic magneto-optic signals are discussed.

  8. Quantitative magneto-optical investigation of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G.; Brisbois, J.; Pinheiro, L. B. G. L.; Müller, J.; Blanco Alvarez, S.; Devillers, T.; Dempsey, N. M.; Scheerder, J. E.; Van de Vondel, J.; Melinte, S.; Vanderbemden, P.; Motta, M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Hasselbach, K.; Kramer, R. B. G.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed quantitative magneto-optical imaging study of several superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures, including Nb deposited on top of thermomagnetically patterned NdFeB and permalloy/niobium with erasable and tailored magnetic landscapes imprinted in the permalloy layer. The magneto-optical imaging data are complemented with and compared to scanning Hall probe microscopy measurements. Comprehensive protocols have been developed for calibrating, testing, and converting Faraday rotation data to magnetic field maps. Applied to the acquired data, they reveal the comparatively weaker magnetic response of the superconductor from the background of larger fields and field gradients generated by the magnetic layer.

  9. Magneto-optic Doppler analyzer: a new instrument to measure mesopause winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bifford P.; Tomczyk, Steven

    1996-11-01

    The magneto-optic Doppler analyzer (MODA) is a new type of passive optical instrument that one can use to measure the Doppler shift of the sodium nightglow emitted at approximately 91 km near the mesopause. From this measurement, horizontal wind signatures are inferred. The MODA is based on a sodium vapor magneto-optic filter that provides inherent wavelength stability at a low cost. The instrument has been used to take nightly zonal and meridional wind measurements since October 1994 at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (40 N, 105 W). We obtained an internally consistent wind signal and measured the semidiurnal tide for several seasons.

  10. A portable magneto-optical trap with prospects for atom interferometry in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, A; Perea-Ortiz, M; Winch, J; Briggs, J; Freer, S; Moustoukas, D; Powell-Gill, S; Squire, C; Lamb, A; Rammeloo, C; Stray, B; Voulazeris, G; Zhu, L; Kaushik, A; Lien, Y-H; Niggebaum, A; Rodgers, A; Stabrawa, A; Boddice, D; Plant, S R; Tuckwell, G W; Bongs, K; Metje, N; Holynski, M

    2017-08-06

    The high precision and scalable technology offered by atom interferometry has the opportunity to profoundly affect gravity surveys, enabling the detection of features of either smaller size or greater depth. While such systems are already starting to enter into the commercial market, significant reductions are required in order to reach the size, weight and power of conventional devices. In this article, the potential for atom interferometry based gravimetry is assessed, suggesting that the key opportunity resides within the development of gravity gradiometry sensors to enable drastic improvements in measurement time. To push forward in realizing more compact systems, techniques have been pursued to realize a highly portable magneto-optical trap system, which represents the core package of an atom interferometry system. This can create clouds of 10 7 atoms within a system package of 20 l and 10 kg, consuming 80 W of power.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Magneto-optical characterization of colloidal dispersions. Application to nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Oana; Caicedo, José Manuel; Fontcuberta, Josep; Herranz, Gervasi; Roig, Anna

    2010-08-03

    We report here on a fast magneto-optical characterization method for colloidal liquid dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles. We have applied our methodology to Ni nanoparticles with size equal or below 15 nm synthesized by a ligand stabilized solution-phase synthesis. We have measured the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of colloidal dispersions and found that we can probe the intrinsic magnetic properties within a wide concentration range, from 10(-5) up to 10(-2) M, with sensitivity to concentrations below 1 microg/mL of magnetic Ni particles. We found that the measured MCD signal scales up with the concentration thus providing a means of determining the concentration values of highly diluted dispersions. The methodology presented here exhibits large flexibility and versatility and might be suitable to study either fundamental problems related to properties of nanosize particles including surface related effects which are highly relevant for magnetic colloids in biomedical applications or to be applied to in situ testing and integration in production lines.

  12. Performance test of dual modulator polarimeters in two different configurations for magneto-optic measurement of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenji Higuchi; Tsuyoshi Akiyama; Yoshifumi Azuma; Shunji Tsuji-Iio; Hiroaki Tsutsui; Ryuichi Shimada

    2006-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the magnetic field around plasma is indispensable for real-time control and data analysis on magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks. Instead of commonly used pick-up loops, which have the problems of zero-point drifts, we proposed and tested a magneto-optic polarimeter based on the polarization modulation method using two photoelastic modulators (PEMs). Polarization detection using a pair of PEMs has been applied to the motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements in some tokamaks. The CO 2 laser polarimeter for electron density measurement on JT-60U adopted this method and demonstrated long time stability for several hours. However, this method requires the same number of pairs of PEMs, which are delicate and expensive, as that of channels so that this method is not easy to apply to multi-point measurements of magnetic fields around tokamaks. To cope with this problem, the two PEMs, which are conventionally placed behind each magnetic sensor, are used to modulate the incident beam before split for each magneto-optic sensor. This configuration can reduce the number of PEMs drastically and the optical system becomes simple. In this new optical configuration, the polarization angle resolution comparable to the conventional optical configuration of 0.002 o with response time of 10 ms was achieved at an incident polarization angle of about 0 o while that at 21 o was 0.07 o . The resolution of 0.07 o corresponds to 7 gauss when a 40-mm-long ZnSe sensing rod is used. Performance test between the two optical configurations were also made on the long-time stability and the accuracy with increasing numbers of beam splitters and/or mirrors for multi-point measurements. (author)

  13. Development of a Strontium Magneto-Optical Trap for Probing Casimir-Polder Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul J.

    In recent years, cold atoms have been the centerpiece of many remarkably sensitive measurements, and much effort has been made to devise miniaturized quantum sensors and quantum information processing devices. At small distances, however, mechanical effects of the quantum vacuum begin to significantly impact the behavior of the cold-atom systems. A better understanding of how surface composition and geometry affect Casimir and Casimir-Polder potentials would benefit future engineering of small-scale devices. Unfortunately, theoretical solutions are limited and the number of experimental techniques that can accurately detect such short-range forces is relatively small. We believe the exemplary properties of atomic strontium--which have enabled unprecedented frequency metrology in optical lattice clocks--make it an ideal candidate for probing slight spectroscopic perturbations caused by vacuum fluctuations. To that end, we have constructed a magneto-optical trap for strontium to enable future study of atom-surface potentials, and the apparatus and proposed detection scheme are discussed herein. Of special note is a passively stable external-cavity diode laser we developed that is both affordable and competitive with high-end commercial options.

  14. Magneto-optical observation of twisted vortices in type-II superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indenbom, M. V.; van der Beek, C. J.; Berseth, V.; Benoit, W.; D'Anna, G.; Erb, A.; Walker, E.; Flükiger, R.

    1997-02-01

    When magnetic flux penetrates a type-II superconductor, it does so as quantized flux lines or vortex lines, so called because each is surrounded by a supercurrent vortex. Interactions between such vortices lead to a very rich and well characterized phenomenology for this 'mixed state'. But an outstanding question remains: are individual vortex lines 'strong', or can they easily be cut and made to pass through one another? The concept of vortex cutting was originally proposed to account for dissipation observed in superconducting wires oriented parallel to an applied magnetic field, where the vortex lines and transport current should be in a force-free configuration1-6. Previous experiments, however, have been unable to establish the vortex topology in the force-free configuration or the size of the energy barrier for vortex cutting. Here we report magneto-optical images of YBa2Cu3O7-δ samples in the force-free configuration which show that thousands of vortex lines can twist together to form highly stable structures. In some cases, these 'vortex twisters' interact with one another to produce wave-like dynamics. Our measurements also determine directly the current required to initiate vortex cutting, and show that it is much higher than that needed to overcome the pinning of vortices by material defects. This implies that thermodynamic phases of entangled vortices7-10 are intrinsically stable and may occupy a significant portion of the mixed-state phase diagram for type-II superconductors.

  15. Temperature dependence of filament-coupling in Bi-2223 tapes: magneto-optical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobyl, A.V.; Shantsev, D.V.; Galperin, Y.M.; Johansen, T.H.; Baziljevich, M.; Gaevski, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Coupling through random superconducting bridges between filaments in a multifilamentary Ag-sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ tape has been investigated by magneto-optical imaging at temperatures from 20 K up to T c . Magnetic flux distributions have been measured on the surface of an intact tape in the remanent state on applying a strong perpendicular magnetic field. The flux distributions observed at low temperatures reflect the arrangement of individual filaments. At high temperatures, the distribution becomes more similar to that for a uniform monocore tape, indicating that superconducting connections appear between the filaments. To discuss the relative contributions of the intra- and inter-filament currents, a simple model based on the Bean critical state was proposed and applied to analyse the temperature dependent behaviour. The inter-filament coupling, increasing with temperature, reaches at 77 K a point where the currents flowing in large inter-filament loops are roughly equal to the intra-filament currents. (author)

  16. Numerical study of magneto-optical traps through a hierarchical tree method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.S. de; Raposo, E.P.; Vianna, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    We approach the problem of N atoms in a magneto-optical trap through a hierarchical tree method, using an algorithm originally developed by Barnes and Hut (BH) in the astrophysical context. Such an algorithm numerically takes care of the particle-particle interaction by controlling the approximation level in a way that offers more physical fidelity than the mean-field treatment and considerably less time consumption (τ∼N log 10 N in the hierarchical BH method, in contrast with the τ∼N 2 and τ∼N 3/2 dependences found in direct and mean-field approaches, respectively). Our results reproduce the experimentally reported single-ring orbital mode for N 6 atoms and also find indication of a double-ring structure for N∼10 7 , a situation mimicked by a N=10 6 system with enhanced radiative force, in agreement with experimental observations. We stress that this high-density regime is not accessed by direct integration of the equations of motion, due to the enormous computing times required, and is not suitably described through mean-field approaches, due to the rather unphysical enhancement of the particle-particle interactions and the presence of a spurious numerical grid dependence

  17. Highly Regioregular Polythiophenes for Magneto-Optical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    magnetic moment of a nanoring of silver – with (arbitrary chosen) dimensions of the nano-doughnuts observed in P3DT film. Using the current in the ring as...be addressed now is: can we consider such a nanoring (nanostructure) as a macro-spin giving rise to magnetic properties in organic materials ? A

  18. Effective-medium theory for nonlinear magneto-optics in magnetic granular alloys: cubic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovsky, Alexander B.; Kuzmichov, Michail V.; Clerc, J.-P.; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2003-01-01

    We propose a simple effective-medium approach for calculating the effective dielectric function of a magnetic metal-insulator granular alloy in which there is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and electric field E for both constituent materials of the form D i =ε i (0) E i +χ i (3) |E i | 2 E i . We assume that linear ε i (0) and cubic nonlinear χ i (3) dielectric functions are diagonal and linear with magnetization non-diagonal components. For such metal-insulator composite magneto-optical effects depend on a light intensity and the effective cubic dielectric function χ eff (3) can be significantly greater (up to 10 3 times) than that for constituent materials. The calculation scheme is based on the Bergman and Stroud-Hui theory of nonlinear optical properties of granular matter. The giant cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity is found for composites with metallic volume fraction close to the percolation threshold and at a resonance of optical conductivity. It is shown that a composite may exhibit nonlinear magneto-optics even when both constituent materials have no cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity

  19. Effective-medium theory for nonlinear magneto-optics in magnetic granular alloys: cubic nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, Alexander B. E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Kuzmichov, Michail V.; Clerc, J.-P.; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2003-03-01

    We propose a simple effective-medium approach for calculating the effective dielectric function of a magnetic metal-insulator granular alloy in which there is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and electric field E for both constituent materials of the form D{sub i}={epsilon}{sub i}{sup (0)}E{sub i} +{chi}{sub i}{sup (3)}|E{sub i}|{sup 2}E{sub i}. We assume that linear {epsilon}{sub i}{sup (0)} and cubic nonlinear {chi}{sub i}{sup (3)} dielectric functions are diagonal and linear with magnetization non-diagonal components. For such metal-insulator composite magneto-optical effects depend on a light intensity and the effective cubic dielectric function {chi}{sub eff}{sup (3)} can be significantly greater (up to 10{sup 3} times) than that for constituent materials. The calculation scheme is based on the Bergman and Stroud-Hui theory of nonlinear optical properties of granular matter. The giant cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity is found for composites with metallic volume fraction close to the percolation threshold and at a resonance of optical conductivity. It is shown that a composite may exhibit nonlinear magneto-optics even when both constituent materials have no cubic magneto-optical nonlinearity.

  20. Three Dimensional Imaging of Cold Atoms in a Magneto Optical Trap with a Light Field Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    with a Light Field Microscope Gordon E. Lott Follow this and additional works at: https://scholar.afit.edu/etd Part of the Atomic, Molecular and......https://scholar.afit.edu/etd/774 THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING OF COLD ATOMS IN A MAGNETO-OPTICAL TRAP WITH A LIGHT FIELD MICROSCOPE DISSERTATION Gordon E

  1. Ground-state magneto-optical resonances in cesium vapor confined in an extremely thin cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, C.; Cartaleva, S.; Petrov, L.; Slavov, D.; Atvars, A.; Auzinsh, M.; Blush, K.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are presented related to the ground-state magneto-optical resonance observed in cesium vapor confined in an extremely thin cell (ETC), with thickness equal to the wavelength of the irradiating light. It is shown that utilization of the ETC allows one to examine the formation of a magneto-optical resonance on the individual hyperfine transitions, thus distinguishing processes resulting in dark (reduced absorption) or bright (enhanced absorption) resonance formation. We report experimental evidence of bright magneto-optical resonance sign reversal in Cs atoms confined in an ETC. A theoretical model is proposed based on the optical Bloch equations that involves the elastic interaction processes of atoms in the ETC with its walls, resulting in depolarization of the Cs excited state, which is polarized by the exciting radiation. This depolarization leads to the sign reversal of the bright resonance. Using the proposed model, the magneto-optical resonance amplitude and width as a function of laser power are calculated and compared with the experimental ones. The numerical results are in good agreement with those of experiment

  2. Magneto-optical response of layers of semiconductor quantum dots and nanorings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskoboynikov, O.; Wijers, Christianus M.J.; Liu, J.L.; Lee, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a comparative theoretical study was made of the magneto-optical response of square lattices of nanoobjects (dots and rings). Expressions for both the polarizability of the individual objects as their mutual electromagnetic interactions (for a lattice in vacuum) was derived. The

  3. Bioinspired fabrication of magneto-optic hierarchical architecture by hydrothermal process from butterfly wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wenhong; Hu Xiaobin; Zhang Di

    2011-01-01

    We developed a green solution to incorporate nano-Fe 3 O 4 into the hierarchical architecture of a natural butterfly wing, thus obtaining unique magneto-optic nanocomposites with otherwise unavailable photonic features. Morphological characterization and Fourier Transform Infrared-Raman Spectroscope measurements indicate the assembly of Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystallites. The magnetic and optical responses of Fe 3 O 4 /wing show a coupling effect between the biological structure and magnetic material. The saturation magnetization and coercivity values of the as-prepared magneto-optic architecture varied with change of subtle structure. Such a combination of nano-Fe 3 O 4 and natural butterfly wing might create novel magneto-optic properties, and the relevant ideas could inspire the investigation of magneto-optical devices. - Highlights: → We develop a green, easy controlled hydrothermal process to synthesize magnetite hierarchical architecture. → The optical response of Fe 3 O 4 /wing exhibits a coupling effect between the structure and material. → The saturation magnetization value is mediated by shape anisotropy and the stress of different subtle structure, which has provided unique insights into studying the mysterious magnetic property of magnetite.

  4. Observation of the X-ray magneto-optical voigt effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mertins, H. Ch.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Kuneš, Jan; Gaupp, A.; Abramsohn, D.; Schäfers, F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2001), s. 047401-1-047401-4 ISSN 0031-9007 Grant - others:-(DE) ERB FMG ECT /980105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : x-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.668, year: 2001

  5. Magneto-optic properties and optical parameter of thin MnCo films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Attaran Kakhki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Having precise hysterics loop of thin ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers for optical switching and optical storages are important. A hysterieses loop can be achieved from a phenomenon call the magneto-optic effect. The magneto-optic effect is the rotation of a linear polarized electromagnetic wave propagated through a ferromagnetic medium. When light is transmitted through a layer of magnetic material the result is called the Faraday effects and in the reflection mode Kerr effect. In the present work we prepared a thin layer of MnxCo3-xO4 (0≤ x ≤ 1 and a binary form of MnO/Co3O4 by the spray pyrolysis method. The films have been characterized by a special set up of magneto-optic hysterics loop plotter containing a polarized He- Ne laser beam and a special electronic circuit. Faraday rotation were measured for these films by hysterics loop plotter and their optical properties were also obtained by spatial software designed for this purpose according to Swane Poel theoretical method. The measurements show that the samples at diluted Mn study has are ferromagnetic and the magneto-optic rotation show a good enhance respect to the single Co layers. Also, the study has shown that the MnCo oxide layer have two different energy gaps and by increasing of Mn this energy decreases and fall to 0.13 eV.

  6. Observations of the atmospheric tide, mean wind, and sodium nightglow near the mesopause with the magneto- optic Doppler analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bifford Preston

    1997-09-01

    In this thesis, I (1) demonstrate a new instrument design that is capable of measuring winds and nightglow; (2) present measurements of the mean winds, tides, and sodium nightglow near the mesopause (ca. 90 km); (3) compare these wind results with those measured by other instruments and results of numerical and empirical models; and (4) compare the nightglow intensity measurements with the predictions of a comprehensive numerical model, to better understand the interaction of the tides with the mesopause-region chemistry. I designed, constructed and operated the Magneto-Optic Doppler Analyzer (MODA). For 1.5 years, Moda observed the sodium nightglow intensity variation and the horizontal wind integrated from ~86-96 km altitude at Niwot Ridge, Colorado (40.0o N, 105.5o W). The observed nightglow intensity showed a significant semidiurnal oscillation, with a 5 hr phase shift in the fall. The mean zonal wind peaked in the summer and winter with a minimum at the equinoxes. The meridional wind was slightly southward or near zero. The semidiurnal tide amplitude peaked in the early summer with a minimum in February. The phases were roughly in quadrature. The measured phase difference between the intensity and zonal wind indicated a seasonal variation of the tide-nightglow interaction. MODA wind results were compared with results from the Urbana Medium-Frequency (MF) Radar, the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI), the empirical Horizontal Wind Model 1993 (HWM93), and the theoretical Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM). The annual variation of the mean winds showed the same pattern amongst the instruments and models. MODA measured the smallest tidal amplitudes, possibly due to longitudinal differences. MODA semidiurnal phases agreed better with HRDI and HWM93 (1-2 hr difference), than with GSWM (~6 hr difference). The calculated semidiurnal sodium nightglow variation from the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere- Electrodynamics General Circulation Model for March shows a

  7. First principles study of magneto-optical properties of Fe-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoqiang, Guo [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Qingyu, Hou, E-mail: by0501119@126.com [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Zhenchao, Xu [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Chunwang, Zhao [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Studies on optical band gaps and absorption spectra of Fe-doped ZnO have conflicting conclusions, such as contradictory redshifted and blueshifted spectra. To solve this contradiction, we constructed models of un-doped and Fe-doped ZnO using first-principles theory and optimized the geometry of the three models. Electronic structures and absorption spectra were also calculated using the GGA+U method. Higher doping content of Fe resulted in larger volume of doped system, and higher total energy resulted in lower stability. Higher formation energy also led to more difficult doping. Meanwhile, the band gaps broadened and the absorption spectra exhibited an evident blue shift. The calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Given the unipolar structure of ZnO, four possible magnetic coupling configurations for Zn{sub 14}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 16} were calculated to investigate the magnetic properties. Results suggest that Fe doping can improve ferromagnetism in the ZnO system and that ferromagnetic stabilization was mediated by p–d exchange interaction between Fe-3d and O-2p orbitals. Therefore, the doped system is expected to obtain high stability and high Curie temperature of diluted magnetic semiconductor material, which are useful as theoretical bases for the design and preparation of the Fe-doped ZnO system’s magneto-optical properties. - Highlights: • A biomonitoring tool for the freshwater zone of template estuaries. • Water quality characterization related to nutrients and organic matter enrichment. • The percentage of a group of 24 tolerant species were capable of detecting the impairment of the water quality. • Characterization of morpho-functional traits of the selected tolerant species.

  8. Evaluation of a novel magneto-optical method for the detection of malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Orbán

    Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of malaria diagnosis is one of the main goals of current malaria research. We have recently developed a magneto-optical (MO method which allows high-sensitivity detection of malaria pigment (hemozoin crystals in blood via the magnetically induced rotational motion of the hemozoin crystals. Here, we evaluate this MO technique for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in infected erythrocytes using in-vitro parasite cultures covering the entire intraerythrocytic life cycle. Our novel method detected parasite densities as low as ∼ 40 parasites per microliter of blood (0.0008% parasitemia at the ring stage and less than 10 parasites/µL (0.0002% parasitemia in the case of the later stages. These limits of detection, corresponding to approximately 20 pg/µL of hemozoin produced by the parasites, exceed that of rapid diagnostic tests and compete with the threshold achievable by light microscopic observation of blood smears. The MO diagnosis requires no special training of the operator or specific reagents for parasite detection, except for an inexpensive lysis solution to release intracellular hemozoin. The devices can be designed to a portable format for clinical and in-field tests. Besides testing its diagnostic performance, we also applied the MO technique to investigate the change in hemozoin concentration during parasite maturation. Our preliminary data indicate that this method may offer an efficient tool to determine the amount of hemozoin produced by the different parasite stages in synchronized cultures. Hence, it could eventually be used for testing the susceptibility of parasites to antimalarial drugs.

  9. Magneto-optical study of holmium iron garnet Ho3Fe5O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pavlov, V. V.; Kimel, A. V.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Pisarev, R. V.

    2012-09-01

    Bulk holmium iron garnet Ho3Fe5O12 is a cubic ferrimagnet with Curie temperature TC = 567 K and magnetization compensation point in the range 130-140 K. The magneto-optical data are presented for a holmium iron garnet Ho3Fe5O12 film, ˜10 μm thick, epitaxially grown on a (111)-type gadolinium-gallium garnet Gd3Ga5O12 substrate. A specific feature of this structure is that the parameters of the bulk material, from which the film was grown, closely match the substrate ones. The temperature and field dependences of Faraday rotation as well as the temperature dependence of the domain structure in zero field were investigated. The compensation point of the structure was found to be Tcomp = 127 K. It was shown that the temperature dependence of the characteristic size of domain structure diverges at this point. Based on the obtained results we established that the magnetic anisotropy of the material is determined by both uniaxial and cubic contributions, each characterized by different temperature dependence. A complex shape of hysteresis loops and sharp changes of the domain pattern with temperature indicate the presence of collinear-noncollinear phase transitions. Study of the optical second harmonic generation was carried out using 100 fs laser pulses with central photon energy E = 1.55 eV. The electric dipole contribution (both crystallographic and magnetic) to the second harmonic generation was observed with high reliability despite a small mismatch of the film and substrate parameters.

  10. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Symmetry consideration in zero loop-area Sagnac interferometry at oblique incidence for detecting magneto-optic Kerr effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X D

    2017-08-01

    I present a detailed account of a zero loop-area Sagnac interferometer operated at oblique incidence for detecting magneto-optic Kerr effects arising from a magnetized sample. In particular, I describe the symmetry consideration and various optical arrangements available to such an interferometer that enables measurements of magneto-optic effects due to both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization of the sample with optimizable signal-to-noise ratios.

  12. Design and Development of a Magneto-Optic Sensor for Magnetic Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbani CHAKRABORTY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A magneto-optic sensor is developed using a Terbium Doped Glass (TDG element as a Faraday rotation sensor and optical fiber as light transmitting and receiving medium. Online LabView based application software is developed to process the sensor output. The system is used to sense the magnetic field of a DC motor field winding in industrial environment. The sensor output is compared with the magnetic flux density variation obtained with a calibrated Hall Magnetic sensor (Gauss Meter. A linear variation of sensor output over wide range of current passing through the field winding is obtained. Further the results show an improved sensitivity of magneto-optic sensor over the Hall sensor.

  13. Direct observation of the current distribution in thin superconducting strips using magneto-optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, T.H.; Baziljevich, M.; Bratsberg, H.; Galperin, Y.; Lindelof, P.E.; Shen, Y.; Vase, P.

    1996-01-01

    Magneto-optic imaging was used for a detailed study of the flux and current distribution of a long thin strip of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ placed in a perpendicular external magnetic field. The inverse magnetic problem, i.e., that of deriving from a field map the underlying current distribution, is formulated and solved for the strip geometry. Applying the inversion to the magneto-optically found field map we find on a model-independent basis the current distribution across the strip to be in remarkable agreement with the profile predicted by the Bean model. The paper also presents results on the behavior of the Bi-doped YIG film with in-plane anisotropy which we use as field indicator, explaining why previous measurements of flux density profiles have displayed surprisingly large deviations from the expected behavior. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Improved longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr effect signal contrast from nanomagnets with dielectric coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holiday, L. F.; Gibson, U. J.

    2006-12-01

    We report on the use of dielectric coatings to improve the contrast of longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr effect signals from submicron magnetic structures. Electron-beam lithography was used to define disks in 22 nm thick Ni films deposited on Si substrates. The structures were measured in four configurations: as-deposited, through a fused silica prism using index-matching fluid, coated with ZnS, and using a prism on top of the ZnS layer. The modified samples show up to 20 times improvement in the MOKE contrast due to admittance matching to the magnetic material and suppression of the substrate reflectance. The behavior is successfully predicted by a model that includes the magneto-optic response of the nickel layer and accounts for the fraction of the beam intercepted by the magnetic structure.

  15. Magneto-optical and magnetic properties in a Co/Pd multilayered thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwokoye, Chidubem A. [Institute for Magnetics Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, DC 20052 (United States); Naval Air Systems Command, Avionics, Sensors and E*Warfare Department, Patuxent River, MD 20670 (United States); Bennett, Lawrence H., E-mail: lbennett@gwu.edu [Institute for Magnetics Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, DC 20052 (United States); Della Torre, Edward, E-mail: edt@gwu.edu [Institute for Magnetics Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, DC 20052 (United States); Ghahremani, Mohammadreza [Institute for Magnetics Research, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, DC 20052 (United States); Narducci, Frank A. [Naval Air Systems Command, Avionics, Sensors and E*Warfare Department, Patuxent River, MD 20670 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes investigation of ferromagnetism at low temperatures. We explored the magneto-optical properties, influenced by photon–magnon interactions, of a ferromagnetic Co/Pd multilayered thin film below and above the magnon Bose–Einstein Condensation (BEC) temperature. Analyses of SQUID and MOKE low temperature experimental results reveal a noticeable phase transition in both magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the material at the BEC temperature. - Highlights: • The results show the effect of a non-zero chemical potential on the magnetization. • The MOKE and SQUID results show a phase transition point at the same temperature. • Magnon BEC is a major influence of the observed phase transition temperature.

  16. Bloch oscillations of quasispin polaritons in a magneto-optically controlled atomic ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chang; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Lan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the propagation of quantized polarized light in a magneto-optically-manipulated atomic ensemble with a tripod configuration. A polariton formalism is applied when the medium is subjected to a washboard magnetic field under electromagnetically-induced transparency. The dark-state polariton with multiple components is achieved. We analyze the quantum dynamics of the dark-state polariton using experimental data from the rubidium D1-line. It is found that one component propagates freely, however the wave packet trajectory of the other component performs Bloch oscillations. -- Highlights: ► We study the wave–particle dualism of quasiparticles in a magneto-optical medium. ► We generate a “spin”-component dark-state polariton. ► Magnetic fields lead to oscillation and free propagation of a dark-state polariton. ► Our approach shows the role of entanglement of degrees of freedom of photons.

  17. Bloch oscillations of quasispin polaritons in a magneto-optically controlled atomic ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chang [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Lu, Jing, E-mail: lujing@hunnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhou, Lan [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2012-10-01

    We consider the propagation of quantized polarized light in a magneto-optically-manipulated atomic ensemble with a tripod configuration. A polariton formalism is applied when the medium is subjected to a washboard magnetic field under electromagnetically-induced transparency. The dark-state polariton with multiple components is achieved. We analyze the quantum dynamics of the dark-state polariton using experimental data from the rubidium D1-line. It is found that one component propagates freely, however the wave packet trajectory of the other component performs Bloch oscillations. -- Highlights: ► We study the wave–particle dualism of quasiparticles in a magneto-optical medium. ► We generate a “spin”-component dark-state polariton. ► Magnetic fields lead to oscillation and free propagation of a dark-state polariton. ► Our approach shows the role of entanglement of degrees of freedom of photons.

  18. Circular heat and momentum flux radiated by magneto-optical nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, A.; Ben-Abdallah, P.; Biehs, S.-A.

    2018-05-01

    In the present article we investigate the heat and momentum fluxes radiated by a hot magneto-optical nanoparticle in its surroundings under the action of an external magnetic field. We show that the flux lines circulate in a confined region at a nanometric distance from the particle around the axis of the magnetic field in a vortexlike configuration. Moreover we prove that the spatial orientation of these vortices (clockwise or counterclockwise) is associated with the contribution of optical resonances with topological charges m =+1 or m =-1 to the thermal emission. This work paves the way for a geometric description of heat and momentum transport in lattices of magneto-optical particles. Moreover it could have important applications in the field of energy storage as well as in thermal management at nanoscale.

  19. Magnetic and magneto-optical properties of CdS:Mn quantum dots in PVA matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fediv, V I; Savchuk, A I; Frasunyak, V M; Makoviy, V V; Savchuk, O A

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of CdS:Mn quantum dots in polyvinyl alcohol matrix synthesized by co-precipitation method. The size of quantum dots was estimated by means of absorption spectroscopy. The results of measurements of magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature and spectral dependence of the Faraday rotation of CdS:Mn quantum dots / polyvinyl alcohol composites are presented. In this work magnetic susceptibility was investigated by Faraday's method at the temperatures of (78-300) K in magnetic fields of (0.05-0.8) T. The inverse magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature follows a Curie Weiss law. Formation of ferromagnetic coupling between magnetic ions is supposed. Magneto-optical Faraday rotation has been investigated in the wavelength region (400-700) nm at temperature 300 K in a magnetic field up to 5 T. Sign of the Verdet constant is found to be negative.

  20. Photonic crystals with plasmonic patterns: novel type of the heterostructures for enhanced magneto-optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, N E; Belotelov, V I; Prokopov, A R; Shaposhnikov, A N; Berzhansky, V N; Kozhaev, M A; Andreev, S N; Zvezdin, A K; Ravishankar, Ajith P; Achanta, Venu Gopal; Bykov, D A

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer structure consisting of a magnetophotonic crystal with a rare-earth iron garnet microresonator layer and plasmonic grating deposited on it was fabricated and studied in order to combine functionalities of photonic and plasmonic crystals. The plasmonic pattern allows excitation of the hybrid plasmonic-waveguide modes localized in dielectric Bragg mirrors of the magnetophotonic crystal or waveguide modes inside its microresonator layer. These modes give rise to the additional resonances in the optical spectra of the structure and to the enhancement of the magneto-optical effects. The Faraday effect increases by about 50% at the microresonator modes while the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect demonstrates pronounced peculiarities at both hybrid waveguide modes and microresonator modes and increases by several times with respect to the case of the bare magnetophotonic crystal without the metal grating. (paper)

  1. Continuous imaging of a single neutral atom in a variant magneto-optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Tian; Zhou Shuyu; Chen Peng; Li Lin; Hong Tao; Wang Yuzhu

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate continuous imaging of a single 87 Rb atom confined in a steep magneto-optical trap with an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera and realize a one-dimensional micro-optical trap array with a Dammann grating. We adopt several methods to reduce the noise in the fluorescence signal we obtain with the EMCCD. Step jumping characteristics of the fluorescence demonstrate capturing and losing of individual atoms. (authors)

  2. Enhanced magneto-optical SPR platform for amine sensing based on Zn porphyrin dimers

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, M. G.; Ferreiro-Vila, E.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Cebollada, A.; Garcia-Martin, A.; Giancane, G.; Valli, L.; Rella, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethane-bridged Zn porphyrins dimers (ZnPP) have been deposited by Langmuir-Schäfer (LS) deposition technique onto proper transducer layers for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and magneto-optical surface plasmon resonance (MO-SPR) characterization techniques performed in controlled atmosphere. This last tool has emerged as a novel and very performing sensing technique using as transducer layers a combination of noble and magnetic layers deposited onto glass substrates. A magnetic actuation all...

  3. Magneto-optical imaging of vortex arrangements in Pb finite superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Nakajima, Y.; Tamegai, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated finite-sized Pb superconducting networks with 10 x 10 square (each 6 x 6 μm 2 ) holes by using the electron beam lithography and vortex arrangements are visualized by using magneto-optical imaging. We find that the vortex penetration at low temperature is controlled by defects in the network. We also find nearly regular arrangements of vortices with defects close to 1/2 and1/3 of the matching field.

  4. Infrared magneto-optical properties of (III, Mn)V ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sinova, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Kučera, Jan; MacDonald, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 23 (2003), s. 235203-1 - 235203-11 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * diluted magnetic semiconductors * magneto-optical properties ac-Hall conductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003

  5. Sm and Y radiolabeled magnetic fluids: magnetic and magneto-optical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, R. [Complex Fluids Group, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, Caixa Postal 04478, 70919-970 Brasilia (DF) (Brazil) and Laboratoire des Milieux Deet Heterogenes, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), Site de Boucicaut, case 86, 140, Rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: reaquino@unb.br; Gomes, J.A. [Complex Fluids Group, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia (DF) (Brazil); Tourinho, F.A. [Complex Fluids Group, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, Caixa Postal 04478, 70919-970 Brasilia (DF) (Brazil); Dubois, E. [Laboratoire des Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargees, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), Batiment F, Case 63, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Perzynski, R. [Laboratoire des Milieux Deet Heterogenes, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), Site de Boucicaut, case 86, 140, Rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Silva, G.J. da [Complex Fluids Group, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia (DF) (Brazil); Depeyrot, J. [Complex Fluids Group, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia (DF) (Brazil)

    2005-03-15

    We report on magnetic fluids based on samarium and ytrium-doped nanoparticles. The nanostructures chemical composition is checked and X-ray diffraction provides both their mean size and a structural characterization. Magnetization and magneto-optical birefringence results are presented and well agree with the pure maghemite behavior. Since these particles can become radioactive after neutron activation, they could therefore represent a new perspective for biomedical applications in the radiation therapy of cancer.

  6. Sm and Y radiolabeled magnetic fluids: magnetic and magneto-optical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, R.; Gomes, J. A.; Tourinho, F. A.; Dubois, E.; Perzynski, R.; da Silva, G. J.; Depeyrot, J.

    2005-03-01

    We report on magnetic fluids based on samarium and ytrium-doped nanoparticles. The nanostructures chemical composition is checked and X-ray diffraction provides both their mean size and a structural characterization. Magnetization and magneto-optical birefringence results are presented and well agree with the pure maghemite behavior. Since these particles can become radioactive after neutron activation, they could therefore represent a new perspective for biomedical applications in the radiation therapy of cancer.

  7. Sm and Y radiolabeled magnetic fluids: magnetic and magneto-optical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, R.; Gomes, J.A.; Tourinho, F.A.; Dubois, E.; Perzynski, R.; Silva, G.J. da; Depeyrot, J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on magnetic fluids based on samarium and ytrium-doped nanoparticles. The nanostructures chemical composition is checked and X-ray diffraction provides both their mean size and a structural characterization. Magnetization and magneto-optical birefringence results are presented and well agree with the pure maghemite behavior. Since these particles can become radioactive after neutron activation, they could therefore represent a new perspective for biomedical applications in the radiation therapy of cancer

  8. Mathematical Model of the One-stage Magneto-optical Sensor Based on Faraday Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaev, O. G.; Paranin, V. D.; Sinitsin, L. I.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to refine a model of magneto-optical sensors based on Faraday’s longitudinal magneto-optical effect. The tasks of the study include computer modeling and analysis of the transfer characteristic of a single-stage magneto-optical sensor for various polarization of the input beam and non-ideal optical components. The proposed mathematical model and software make it possible to take into account the non-ideal characteristics of film polaroids observed in operation in the near infrared region and at increased temperatures. On the basis of the results of the model analysis it was found that the dependence of normalized transmission T(γ2) has periodic nature. Choosing the angle (γ 2-γ 1) makes it possible to shift the initial operation point and change the sensitivity dT/dγ 2. The influence of the input beam polarization increases with the increase of polaroid parameter deviation from ideal and shows itself as reduction of modulation depth and angular shift of the sensor conversion response.

  9. Implementation and automation of a Faraday experiment for the magneto-optical characterization of ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velásquez, A A; Urquijo, J P

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the design, assembly and automation of a Faraday experiment for use in characterization of the magneto-optical response of fluids and ferrofluids. The magneto-optical Faraday experiment was automated using programmable equipment, controlled through the IEEE-488 port via Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments executed from a graphical interface developed in LabVIEW software. To calibrate the system the Verdet constants of distilled water and isopropyl alcohol were measured, obtaining an error percentage less than 2% for both fluids. Subsequently we used the system for measuring the Verdet constant of a ferrofluid of iron oxide nanoparticles diluted in distilled water, which was synthesized and, before its dilution, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. We found that the Verdet constant of the diluted ferrofluid was smaller than that of distilled water, indicating opposite contributions of the effects of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic phases present in the ferrofluid to the magneto-optical effect. Details of the assembly, control of the experiment and development of the measurements are presented in this paper. (paper)

  10. SQUID magnetometry and magneto-optics of epitaxial EuS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, K.; Granitzer, P.; Krenn, H.; Kellner, W.; Pascher, H.; Kirchschlager, R.; Janecek, S.

    2004-01-01

    The complicated (H,T)-magnetic phase diagram of EuS is caused by the critical balance between nearest and next nearest neighbour exchange interaction (J NN = 0.119 K and J NNN =-0.1209 K) and leads to various spin arrangements NNSS..., NSN..., NNS, NNN... [NS denotes opposite ferromagnetic order in adjacent (111) planes]. Beside the subtle local exchange of 5d-t 2g electrons and localized holes with neighbouring Eu-4f spins, obviously also the strain status influences the occurrence of these different phases. We investigate the magnetic ordering phenomenon in a strained 2.5 μm EuS film on BaF 2 substrate by SQUID magnetometry and magneto-optics like spectral Faraday- and Kerr-effect measurements for temperatures from 2 K up to 200 K and for magnetic field up to 5 T. The magneto-optical probe monitors the local environment of the photoexcited electron-hole pair, called magnetic exciton, located within a ferromagnetic surrounding (photoinduced magnetic polaron), whereas the integral magnetization measured by SQUID is most sensitive to long-range magnetic ordering. In spite of the dissimilarity of measurement techniques we find an influence of the long-range magnetic order (e.g. of the NNS- or NNN-matrix) on the non-resonant Kerr reflection. The complementarity of SQUID and magneto-optical methods is stringent only in the (resonant) spectral range, where magnetic polarons are formed. (author)

  11. Analytical theory and method for longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect of optically anisotropic magnetic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao, E-mail: sps_wangx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Lian, Jie [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Ping; Xu, XiJin [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Li, MengMeng [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2017-01-15

    The Fresnel equations are solved to analyze the reflection and propagation properties of the ordinary and extraordinary light of the optically anisotropic magnetic film. Using the boundary and propagation matrix, the longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr rotation expression is derived. After that, simulations are performed on optically anisotropic and isotropic Co/SiO{sub 2} film. Results show that for Co material in the thin-film limit, the anisotropic Co can provide larger max rotations than the isotropic Co in the visible region. This is because that the refractive index discrepancy of optically anisotropic Co film reduces the Fresnel reflective coefficient r{sub pp,} which improves the Kerr rotation. This makes the optically anisotropic Co film more effective in magneto optical sensor design and device fabrication. - Highlights: • In this work, using the boundary matrix and media propagation matrix developed by Zak and S.D.Bader,we get the analytical solution of the magneto-optical Kerr rotation of the optical anisotropic magnetic film. • Results show that for film in the thin-film limit, the anisotropic Co can provide larger maximum rotations than the isotropic Co. • The improvement of Kerr rotation can be attributed to the refractive index discrepancy of optically anisotropic Co film which reduce the Fresnel reflective coefficient rpp.

  12. X-ray magneto-optic KERR effect studies of spring magnet heterostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J. B.; Kim, S.-K.; Fullerton, E. E.; Jiang, J. S.; Bader, S. D.

    2000-11-01

    The complex 3-dimensional magnetization reversal behavior of Sin-Co/Fe exchange spring films is used to test the sensitivity of different resonant soft x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements to changes in longitudinal and transverse moments within the SOIIFe layer and to changes in these moments in depth within the Fe layer. As in the visible MOKE, changes in longitudinal and net transverse moments are resolved by measuring both Kerr rotation and intensity loops in the near the Fe 2p core resonance. These x-ray MOKE signals measured using linear incident polarization are more directly interpreted in terms of longitudinal and transverse moments than are the same signals measured using elliptical polarization. Varying photon energy near the Fe L3line is shown to be an effective means of resolving distinctly different reversal behavior at the top and bottom of the 20 nm thick Fe layer resulting from the strong exchange coupling at the Sin-Co/Fe interface. Measured x-ray MOKE spectra and signals are in qualitative agreement with those calculated using standard magneto-optical formalisms incorporating interference between different layers and measured helicity-dependent magneto-optical constants for Fe.

  13. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  14. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  15. High-resolution structural characterization and magnetic properties of epitaxial Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Vikram Singh, Amit; Rastogi, Ankur; Gazquez, Jaume; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Mishra, Rohan; Gupta, Arunava

    2017-07-01

    Thin films of magnetic garnet materials, e.g. yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12, YIG), are useful for a variety of applications including microwave integrated circuits and spintronics. Substitution of rare earth ions, such as cerium, is known to enhance the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) as compared to pure YIG. Thin films of Ce0.75Y2.25Fe5O12 (Ce:YIG) have been grown using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique and their crystal structure examined using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Homogeneous substitution of Ce in YIG, without oxidation to form a separate CeO2 phase, can be realized in a narrow process window with resulting enhancement of the MOKE signal. The thermally generated signal due to spin Seebeck effect for the optimally doped Ce:YIG films has also been investigated.

  16. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  17. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  18. Polycrystalline La1-xSrxMnO3 films on silicon: Influence of post-Deposition annealing on structural, (Magneto-)Optical, and (Magneto-)Electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrick; Monecke, Manuel; Buja, Oana-Maria; Solonenko, Dmytro; Dudric, Roxana; Ciubotariu, Oana-Tereza; Albrecht, Manfred; Deac, Iosif G.; Tetean, Romulus; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta

    2018-01-01

    The integration of La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) thin film technology into established industrial silicon processes is regarded as challenging due to lattice mismatch, thermal expansion, and chemical reactions at the interface of LSMO and silicon. In this work, we investigated the physical properties of thin La0.73Sr0.27MnO3 films deposited by magnetron sputtering on silicon without a lattice matching buffer layer. The influence of a post-deposition annealing treatment on the structural, (magneto-)optical, and (magneto-)electrical properties was investigated by a variety of techniques. Using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction we could show that the thin films exhibit a polycrystalline, rhombohedral structure after a post-deposition annealing of at least 700 °C. The dielectric tensor in the spectral range from 1.7 eV to 5 eV determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry in combination with magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy was found to be comparable to that of lattice matched films on single crystal substrates reported in literature [1]. The values of the metal-isolator transition temperature and temperature-dependent resistivities also reflect a high degree of crystalline quality of the thermally treated films.

  19. Growth mode, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of pulsed-laser-deposited Au/Co/Au(1 1 1) trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavero, C.; Cebollada, A.; Armelles, G.; Fruchart, O.

    2010-01-01

    The growth mode, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of epitaxial Au/Co/Au(1 1 1) ultrathin trilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) under ultra-high vacuum are presented. Sapphire wafers buffered with a single-crystalline Mo(1 1 0) buffer layer were used as substrates. Owing to PLD-induced interfacial intermixing at the lower Co/Au(1 1 1) interface, a close-to layer-by-layer growth mode is promoted. Surprisingly, despite this intermixing, ferromagnetic behavior is found at room temperature for coverings starting at 1 atomic layer (AL). The films display perpendicular magnetization with anisotropy constants reduced by 50% compared to TD-grown or electrodeposited films, and with a coercivity more than one order of magnitude lower (≤5mT). The magneto-optical (MO) response in the low Co thickness range is dominated by Au/Co interface contributions. For thicknesses starting at 3 AL Co, the MO response has a linear dependence with the Co thickness, indicative of a continuous-film-like MO behavior.

  20. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Feature extraction for magnetic domain images of magneto-optical recording films using gradient feature segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quanqing, Zhu.; Xinsai, Wang; Xuecheng, Zou; Haihua, Li; Xiaofei, Yang

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to realize feature extraction on low contrast magnetic domain images of magneto-optical recording films. The method is based on the following three steps: first, Lee-filtering method is adopted to realize pre-filtering and noise reduction; this is followed by gradient feature segmentation, which separates the object area from the background area; finally the common linking method is adopted and the characteristic parameters of magnetic domain are calculated. We describe these steps with particular emphasis on the gradient feature segmentation. The results show that this method has advantages over other traditional ones for feature extraction of low contrast images

  2. Investigation of microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budker, D.; Hollberg, L.; Kimball, D.F.; Kitching, J.; Pustclny, S.; Robinson, H.G.; Yashchuk, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between the components of the ground-state hyperfine structure for 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, which may be useful for atomic clocks and magnetometers

  3. Investigation of microwave transitions and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in anti-relaxation-coated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budker, Dmitry; Hollberg, Leo; Kimball, Derek F.; Kitching, J.; Pustelny, Szymon; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2004-01-01

    Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between ground-state hyperfine components of 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, an important property for atomic clocks and magnetometers

  4. Magneto-optical investigations of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes with ferromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchenko, V.V.; Shantsev, D.V.; Galperin, Y.M.; Alamgir, A.K.M.; Han, Z.; Johansen, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    An increase in the critical current and suppression of AC losses in superconducting wires and tapes with soft magnetic sheath have been predicted theoretically and confirmed experimentally. In this work we present the results of magneto-optical investigations on a series of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes with Ni coating. We visualize distributions of magnetic field at increasing external field and different temperatures, demonstrating a difference between the flux propagation in the superconductor with Ni rims and a reference sample without Ni coating

  5. Magneto-optical investigations of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes with ferromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchenko, V.V.; Shantsev, D.V.; Galperin, Y.M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Alamgir, A.K.M.; Han, Z. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Johansen, T.H. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: tomhj@fys.uio.no

    2007-09-01

    An increase in the critical current and suppression of AC losses in superconducting wires and tapes with soft magnetic sheath have been predicted theoretically and confirmed experimentally. In this work we present the results of magneto-optical investigations on a series of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes with Ni coating. We visualize distributions of magnetic field at increasing external field and different temperatures, demonstrating a difference between the flux propagation in the superconductor with Ni rims and a reference sample without Ni coating.

  6. Novel inspection of welded joint microstructure using magneto-optical imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiang-dong; Li Zheng-wen; You De-yong; Katayama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    A novel method for measuring differences of microstructure by advanced use of the Faraday magneto-optical effect is proposed. Two groups of YAG laser welds on Q235 have been investigated in order to compare MO imaging and traditional methods. Microstructure images have been compared with MO images, and MO diagrams display different colors and gray scales for the base metal, the weld zone, and the heat affected zone. Experimental results indicate that the welded joint microstructure can be inspected by MO imaging without metallographic preparation. (paper)

  7. Blocking temperature distribution in implanted Co-Ni nanoparticles obtained by magneto-optical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orazio, F.; Lucari, F. E-mail: franco.lucari@aquila.infn.it; Melchiorri, M.; Julian Fernandez, C. de; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sangregorio, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Fiorani, D

    2003-05-01

    Three samples of Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles with different compositions were prepared by sequential ion implantation in silica slides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix. Magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis identified two magnetic components attributed to superparamagnetic particles in unblocked and blocked states, respectively. Magnetic field loops were measured as a function of temperature. Blocking temperature distributions were obtained; and their comparison with the size distributions derived from TEM provided the average magnetic anisotropy of the particles.

  8. Blocking temperature distribution in implanted Co-Ni nanoparticles obtained by magneto-optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; Melchiorri, M.; Julian Fernandez, C. de; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sangregorio, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Fiorani, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three samples of Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles with different compositions were prepared by sequential ion implantation in silica slides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix. Magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis identified two magnetic components attributed to superparamagnetic particles in unblocked and blocked states, respectively. Magnetic field loops were measured as a function of temperature. Blocking temperature distributions were obtained; and their comparison with the size distributions derived from TEM provided the average magnetic anisotropy of the particles

  9. Enhanced gas sensing performance of TiO2 functionalized magneto-optical SPR sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Maria Grazia; Montagna, G.; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; González-García, Lola; Sánchez-Valencia, J.R.; González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, José Miguel; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Rella, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Porous TiO2 thin films deposited by glancing angle deposition are used as sensing layers to monitor their sensing capabilities towards Volatile Organic Compounds both in a standard Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor and in Magneto-Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (MO-SPR) configuration in order to compare their sensing performances. Here our results on the enhanced sensing capability of these TiO2 functionalized MO-SPR sensors with Au/Co/Au transducers with respect to traditional SPR gas...

  10. The design and optimization of disk structures for MAMMOS/MSR magneto-optic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendren, W R; Atkinson, R; Pollard, R J; Salter, I W; Wright, C D; Clegg, W W; Jenkins, D F L

    2005-01-01

    Existing quadrilayer and trilayer techniques for optimizing the magneto-optical effects from magnetic materials have been applied to new generation recording media to investigate the possibility of maximizing the signal-to-noise readout performance. Various methods are reviewed and the designs they produce are compared with each other and with the working media found in the literature. In order to address a number of inadequacies, a new numerical approach to the optimization of a quadrilayer structure is used to find further solutions that are considered more suitable for the practical recording media. The effects on design and performance of medium of incidence, type of storage layer and wavelength are all considered

  11. Secondary scattering on the intensity dependence of the capture velocity in a magneto-optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.R.; Massardo, S.B.; Zanon, R.A. de S; Oliveira, A.L. de

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we consider a three-dimensional model to simulate the capture velocity behavior in a sample of cold-trapped sodium atoms as a function of the trapping laser intensity. We expand on previous work [V. S. Bagnato, L. G. Marcassa, S. G. Miranda, S. R. Muniz, and A. L. de Oliveira, Phys. Rev. A 62, 013404 (2000)] by calculating the capture velocity over a broad range of light intensities considering the secondary scattering in a magneto-optical trap. Our calculations are in a good agreement with recent measured values [S. R. Muniz et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 015402 (2001)

  12. Secondary scattering on the intensity dependence of the capture velocity in a magneto-optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, M. R.; Massardo, S. B.; de S. Zanon, R. A.; de Oliveira, A. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this work, we consider a three-dimensional model to simulate the capture velocity behavior in a sample of cold-trapped sodium atoms as a function of the trapping laser intensity. We expand on previous work [V. S. Bagnato, L. G. Marcassa, S. G. Miranda, S. R. Muniz, and A. L. de Oliveira, Phys. Rev. A 62, 013404 (2000)] by calculating the capture velocity over a broad range of light intensities considering the secondary scattering in a magneto-optical trap. Our calculations are in a good agreement with recent measured values [S. R. Muniz , Phys. Rev. A 65, 015402 (2001)].

  13. Counter-rotating standing spin waves: A magneto-optical illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab, S.; Thevenard, L.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.

    2017-04-01

    We excite perpendicular standing spin waves by a laser pulse in a GaMnAsP ferromagnetic layer and detect them using time-resolved magneto-optical effects. Quite counterintuitively, we find the first two excited modes to be of opposite chirality. We show that this can only be explained by taking into account absorption and optical phase shift inside the layer. This optical illusion is particularly strong in weakly absorbing layers. These results provide a correct identification of spin waves modes, enabling a trustworthy estimation of their respective weight as well as an unambiguous determination of the spin stiffness parameter.

  14. Magneto-optics for linear electron accelerator with beam recirculation for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaenko, M.G.; Severgin, Yu.P.; Fedorov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Magneto-optical devices of the 40 MeV LUEhR-40M accelrator designed for radiotherapy, are described. A magnetic mirrow and bending-shaping device are reffered to magnetooptical systems. The both devices do not contain quadrupole lenses and have only dipole magnets with radial-homogeneous field. Axial focusing of particles is carried out by magnetic field boundary skew. The both devices have internal mirror symmetry. Results of optimization of devices parameters with the help of BETRAMF program are presented

  15. The design and optimization of disk structures for MAMMOS/MSR magneto-optic recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendren, W R [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Atkinson, R [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Pollard, R J [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Salter, I W [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wright, C D [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom); Clegg, W W [Centre for Research in Information Storage Technology, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jenkins, D F L [Centre for Research in Information Storage Technology, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-21

    Existing quadrilayer and trilayer techniques for optimizing the magneto-optical effects from magnetic materials have been applied to new generation recording media to investigate the possibility of maximizing the signal-to-noise readout performance. Various methods are reviewed and the designs they produce are compared with each other and with the working media found in the literature. In order to address a number of inadequacies, a new numerical approach to the optimization of a quadrilayer structure is used to find further solutions that are considered more suitable for the practical recording media. The effects on design and performance of medium of incidence, type of storage layer and wavelength are all considered.

  16. Giant magneto-optical Kerr effect and universal Faraday effect in thin-film topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; MacDonald, A H

    2010-07-30

    Topological insulators can exhibit strong magneto-electric effects when their time-reversal symmetry is broken. In this Letter we consider the magneto-optical Kerr and Faraday effects of a topological insulator thin film weakly exchange coupled to a ferromagnet. We find that its Faraday rotation has a universal value at low frequencies θF=tan(-1)α, where α is the vacuum fine structure constant, and that it has a giant Kerr rotation θK=π/2. These properties follow from a delicate interplay between thin-film cavity confinement and the surface Hall conductivity of a topological insulator's helical quasiparticles.

  17. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  18. Possible magneto-optic readout for Josephson technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Kratz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Operation of Josephson circuits at Gbit/s data rates may be a difficult task if a larger number of fast metallic transmission lines from and to the room temperature electronic are needed. These difficulties are caused by increasing ground level feedthrough, crosstalk and picked-up electromagnetic noise. Furthermore, since metallic lines have finite thermal conductivities which can be high if high quality low loss lines are required, an unacceptable amount of heat may be fed to the cryogenic circuit. There are still other problems, e.g. the requirement, that fast transmission lines must be proper terminated in order to avoid multiple reflections, hence broadband terminating resistors of 50 Ohms should be used, which produce thermal noise according to their operating temperature. (orig.)

  19. Magneto-optical imaging of transport current densities in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, G.W.; Welp, U.; Gunter, D.O.; Zhong, W.; Balachandran, U.; Haldar, P.; Sokolowski, R.S.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V.K.; Nikitenko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Direct imaging of the paths of transport currents in superconductors creates many new possibilities for exploring the basic features of vortex pinning mechanisms and for improving the performance of superconducting materials. A technique for imaging the path and magnitude of the transport current density flowing in superconductors is described. Results are given for a 37-filament BSCCO 2223 powder-in-tube wire, showing a highly inhomogeneous current path within the filaments

  20. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  1. Effects of Pb doping on the magneto-optical properties of EuPbTe epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E.; Motisuke, P. [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Couto, O.D.D. Jr. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Lang, R. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Institute of Science and Technology, UNIFESP, São José dos Campos, 12231-280 SP (Brazil); Balanta, M.A.G.; Brasil, M.J.S.P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil); Oliveira Rappl, P.H. de [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Iikawa, F., E-mail: iikawa@ifi.unicamp.br [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” – Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    We investigate the magneto-optical properties of magnetic-semiconductor Eu{sub 1−x}Pb{sub x}Te epitaxial layers with Pb contents up to 5%. We show that the inclusion of a small amount of Pb atoms in EuTe affects the optical and magnetic properties of the resulting alloy. The incorporation of Pb gives rise to a reduction of the Néel temperature and of the slope of the giant magneto-red-shift of the magnetic polaron optical emission. All those effects can be understood in terms of the magnetic dilution effect due to the reduced Eu concentration. The introduction of Pb also reveals a splitting of the high emission energy side-band under applied magnetic field, presenting a more complex feature of the band structure of the alloys. Our results cannot be fully explained on the basis of the current theoretical knowledge of the EuTe band structure and, therefore, we expect that they can stimulate future theoretical investigations and encourage applied investigations of spintronic devices based on these materials. - Highlights: • Reduction of the Néel temperature when small amount of Pb is introduced into EuTe. • The saturation magnetic field needed to fully order the magnetic moments of Eu also reduces increasing Pb content. • Splitting of the high energy optical emission line under applied magnetic field, which is more evident for Pb doped samples.

  2. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  3. Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite films studied by magneto-optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lišková-Jakubisová, E., E-mail: liskova@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Višňovský, Š. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, Prague (Czech Republic); Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J. [Nanotechnology Center, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Sahoo, Subasa C. [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala 671314 (India); Prasad, Shiva [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Venkataramani, N. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bohra, Murtaza [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), Okinawa (Japan); Krishnan, R. [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS-UVSQ, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78935 Versailles (France)

    2015-05-07

    Ferrimagnetic Zn-ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) films can be grown with the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of 40 Oe at 9.5 GHz without going through a high temperature processing. This presents interest for applications. The work deals with laser ablated ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films deposited at O{sub 2} pressure of 0.16 mbar onto fused quartz substrates. The films about 120 nm thick are nanocrystalline and their spontaneous magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, depends on the nanograin size, which is controlled by the substrate temperature (T{sub s}). At T{sub s} ≈ 350 °C, where the grain distribution peaks around ∼20–30 nm, the room temperature 4πM{sub s} reaches a maximum of ∼2.3 kG. The films were studied by magnetooptical polar Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy at photon energies between 1 and 5 eV. The complementary characteristics were provided by spectral ellipsometry (SE). Both the SE and MOKE spectra confirmed ferrimagnetic ordering. The structural details correspond to those observed in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} spinels. SE experiments confirm the insulator behavior. The films display MOKE amplitudes somewhat reduced with respect to those in Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to a lower degree of spinel inversion and nanocrystalline structure. The results indicate that the films are free of oxygen vacancies and Fe{sup 3+}-Fe{sup 2+} exchange.

  4. Circularly polarized light to study linear magneto-optics for ferrofluids: θ-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshen; Huang, Yan; He, Zhenghong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Decai; Li, Jian; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Circularly polarized light can be divided into two vertically linearly polarized light beams with  ±π/2 phase differences. In the presence of an external magnetic field, when circularly polarized light travels through a ferrofluid film, whose thickness is no more than that of λ/4 plate, magneto-optical, magnetic birefringence and dichroism effects cause the transmitted light to behave as elliptically polarized light. Using angular scan by a continuously rotating polarizer as analyzer, the angular (θ) distribution curve of relative intensity (T) corresponding to elliptically polarized light can be measured. From the T  ‑  θ curve having ellipsometry, the parameters such as the ratio of short to long axis, and angular orientation of the long axis to the vertical field direction can be obtained. Thus, magnetic birefringence and dichroism can be probed simultaneously by measuring magneto-optical, positive or negative birefringence and dichroism features from the transmission mode. The proposed method is called θ-scan technique, and can accurately determine sample stability, magnetic field direction, and cancel intrinsic light source ellipticity. This study may be helpful to further research done to ferrofluids and other similar colloidal samples with anisotropic optics.

  5. Enhanced antibody recognition with a magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance (MO-SPR) sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Maria Grazia; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; Garcia-Martin, José Miguel; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Rella, Roberto

    2014-08-15

    A comparison between sensing performance of traditional SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) and magneto-optic SPR (MOSPR) transducing techniques is presented in this work. MOSPR comes from an evolution of traditional SPR platform aiming at modulating Surface Plasmon wave by the application of an external magnetic field in transverse configuration. Previous work demonstrated that, when the Plasmon resonance is excited in these structures, the external magnetic field induces a modification of the coupling of the incident light with the Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP). Besides, these structures can lead to an enhancement in the magneto-optical (MO) activity when the SPP is excited. This phenomenon is exploited in this work to demonstrate the possibility to use the enhanced MO signal as proper transducer signal for investigating biomolecular interactions in liquid phase. To this purpose, the transducer surface was functionalized by thiol chemistry and used for recording the binding between Bovine Serum Albumin molecules immobilized onto the surface and its complementary target. Higher sensing performance in terms of sensitivity and lower limit of detection of the MOSPR biosensor with respect to traditional SPR sensors is demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Magneto-optical response of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructure under surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, S. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, 87317 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, M., E-mail: m.moradi@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, 87317 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, S.M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental studies about the surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructures as a function of layers thickness and light incident angle. Device fabrication was done by an oblique deposition technique with RF magnetron sputtering to carefully cover fine step thickness variation of all constituted layers. Angular dependent transverse Kerr response of samples was measured in the Kretschmann configuration at a fixed wavelength of 632 nm. At an optimum layer thickness and incident angle, significant amplification of the transverse Kerr effect was observed. Enhancement in the transverse Kerr effect can be realized by hybridization of surface plasmon excitation and cavity resonance in the plasmonic nanostructure. Experimental results were in qualitative agreement with modeling based on the 4×4 transfer matrix formalism. - Highlights: • Large magneto-optical response in Cu/NiFe/Cu multilayer nanostructure is achieved. • Layer thickness and sequence are studied to find large transverse Kerr signal. • Hybridization of surface plasmon excitation and cavity resonance were done.

  7. Two photon spectroscopy of rubidium atoms in a magneto-optic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretel, E.

    1997-01-01

    Two photon transitions without doppler effect can be used as an atomic reference. The aim of this work is to study two photon transitions of rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The chosen transition is from the level 5 2 S 1/2 toward the level 5 2 D 5/2 . The magneto-optical trap is achieved by using 3 pairs of perpendicular laser beams and by setting a magnetic field gradient. About 10 18 atoms are trapped and cooled in a 1 mm 3 volume. In a first stage we have realized an optical double resonance experiment from the level 5 2 S 1/2 toward the level 5 2 D 5/2 by populating the intermediate level 5 2 P 3/2 . Then we have studied the two photon transition in this cluster of cold atoms. A particular setting of the experiment allows to reduce the effect of ray broadening and shifting due to the magnetic field of the trap

  8. Effective-mass model and magneto-optical properties in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z. G.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have proven to be a revolutionary material for low-cost photovoltaic applications. They also exhibit many other interesting properties, including giant Rashba splitting, large-radius Wannier excitons, and novel magneto-optical effects. Understanding these properties as well as the detailed mechanism of photovoltaics requires a reliable and accessible electronic structure, on which models of transport, excitonic, and magneto-optical properties can be efficiently developed. Here we construct an effective-mass model for the hybrid perovskites based on the group theory, experiment, and first-principles calculations. Using this model, we relate the Rashba splitting with the inversion-asymmetry parameter in the tetragonal perovskites, evaluate anisotropic g-factors for both conduction and valence bands, and elucidate the magnetic-field effect on photoluminescence and its dependence on the intensity of photoexcitation. The diamagnetic effect of exciton is calculated for an arbitrarily strong magnetic field. The pronounced excitonic peak emerged at intermediate magnetic fields in cyclotron resonance is assigned to the 3D±2 states, whose splitting can be used to estimate the difference in the effective masses of electron and hole.

  9. Magneto-optical quantum interferences in a system of spinor excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hsuan; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2018-04-01

    In this work we investigate magneto-optical properties of two-dimensional semiconductor quantum-ring excitons with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions threaded by a magnetic flux perpendicular to the plane of the ring. By calculating the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm spectrum, we study the Coulomb and spin-orbit effects on the Aharonov-Bohm features. From the light-matter interactions of the excitons, we find that for scalar excitons, there are open channels for spontaneous recombination resulting in a bright photoluminescence spectrum, whereas the forbidden recombination of dipolar excitons results in a dark photoluminescence spectrum. We investigate the generation of persistent charge and spin currents. The exploration of spin orientations manifests that by adjusting the strength of the spin-orbit interactions, the exciton can be constructed as a squeezed complex with specific spin polarization. Moreover, a coherently moving dipolar exciton acquires a nontrivial dual Aharonov-Casher phase, creating the possibility to generate persistent dipole currents and spin dipole currents. Our study reveals that in the presence of certain spin-orbit generated fields, the manipulation of the magnetic field provides a potential application for quantum-ring spinor excitons to be utilized in nano-scaled magneto-optical switches.

  10. Iron-dextran complex: geometrical structure and magneto-optical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczykowski, Bartłomiej; Dobek, Andrzej

    2011-11-15

    Molecular mass of the iron-dextran complex (M(w)=1133 kDa), diameter of its particles (∼8.3 nm) and the content of iron ions in the complex core (N(Fe)=6360) were determined by static light scattering, measurements of refractive index increment and the Cotton-Mouton effect in solution. The known number of iron ions permitted the calculation of the permanent magnetic dipole moment value to be μ(Fe)=3.17×10(-18) erg Oe(-1) and the determination of anisotropy of linear magneto-optical polarizabilities components as Δχ=9.2×10(-21) cm(3). Knowing both values and the value of the mean linear optical polarizability α=7.3×10(-20) cm(3), it was possible to show that the total measured CM effect was due to the reorientation of the permanent and the induced magnetic dipole moments of the complex. Analysis of the measured magneto-optical birefringence indicated very small optical anisotropy of linear optical polarizability components, κ(α), which suggested a homogeneous structure of particles of spherical symmetry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A generalization of the Drude-Smith formula for magneto-optical conductivities in Faraday geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, F. W. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xu, W., E-mail: wenxu-issp@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy and Yunnan Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Materials and Technology, Kunming 650091 (China); Li, L. L.; Zhang, C. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-06-28

    In this study, we generalize the impulse response approach and Poisson statistics proposed by Smith [Phys. Rev. B 64, 155106 (2001)] to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse magneto-optical conductivities in an electron gas system in Faraday geometry. Comparing with the standard Drude model, the coefficients a{sub n} are introduced in the Drude-Smith formula to describe the backscattering or localization effect for the nth electronic scattering event. Such a formula can also be applied to study the elements of the dielectric function matrix in the presence of magnetic and radiation fields in electron gas systems. This theoretical work is primely motivated by recent experimental activities in measuring the real and imaginary parts of longitudinal and transverse magneto-optical conductivities in condensed matter materials and electronic devices using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We believe that the results obtained from this study can provide an appropriate theoretical tool in reproducing the experimental findings and in fitting with experimental data to determine the important sample and material parameters.

  12. Radiotherapy supporting system based on the image database using IS&C magneto-optical disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kubo, Atsushi

    1994-05-01

    Since radiation oncologists make the treatment plan by prior experience, information about previous cases is helpful in planning the radiation treatment. We have developed an supporting system for the radiation therapy. The case-based reasoning method was implemented in order to search old treatments and images of past cases. This system evaluates similarities between the current case and all stored cases (case base). The portal images of the similar cases can be retrieved for reference images, as well as treatment records which show examples of the radiation treatment. By this system radiotherapists can easily make suitable plans of the radiation therapy. This system is useful to prevent inaccurate plannings due to preconceptions and/or lack of knowledge. Images were stored into magneto-optical disks and the demographic data is recorded to the hard disk which is equipped in the personal computer. Images can be displayed quickly on the radiotherapist's demands. The radiation oncologist can refer past cases which are recorded in the case base and decide the radiation treatment of the current case. The file and data format of magneto-optical disk is the IS&C format. This format provides the interchangeability and reproducibility of the medical information which includes images and other demographic data.

  13. Faraday rotation and magneto-optical figure of merit for the magnetite magnetic fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandadze L.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, using magnetite magnetic fluids as examples, we consider the optical and magneto-optical properties of magnetic fluids based on particles of magnetic oxides, for the optical constants of the material of which, n and k , the relation k2 ≺≺ n2 holds. In this work the Faraday rotation is represented within the theoretical Maxwell-Garnett model. A theoretical analysis has shown that Faraday rotation for magnetic fluids is related to the Faraday rotation on the material of particles by the simple relation. According to this result  in specific experimental conditions the values of the Faraday rotation prorate to q , which is the occupancy of the volume of the magnetic fluid with magnetic particles and spectral dependences of effect in magnetic fluid and in the proper bulk magnetic are similar. We also show that the values of the magneto-optical figure of merit for ultrafine medium and for the bulk material are equal.

  14. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  15. Curie temperature, exchange integrals, and magneto-optical properties in off-stoichiometric bismuth iron garnet epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertruyen, B.; Cloots, R.; Abell, J. S.; Jackson, T. J.; da Silva, R. C.; Popova, E.; Keller, N.

    2008-09-01

    We have studied the influence of the stoichiometry on the structural, magnetic, and magneto-optical properties of bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Films with different stoichiometries have been obtained by varying the Bi/Fe ratio of the target and the oxygen pressure during deposition. Stoichiometry variations influence the Curie temperature TC by tuning the (Fe)-O-[Fe] geometry: TC increases when the lattice parameter decreases, contrary to what happens in the case of stoichiometric rare-earth iron garnets. The thermal variation of the magnetization, the Faraday rotation, and the Faraday ellipticity have been analyzed in the frame of the Néel two-sublattice magnetization model giving energies of -48K (4.1 meV), -29K (2.5 meV), and 84 K (7.3 meV) for the three magnetic exchange integrals jaa , jdd , and jad , respectively. Magneto-optical spectroscopy linked to compositional analysis by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy shows that Bi and/or Fe deficiencies also affect the spectral variation (between 1.77 and 3.1 eV). Our results suggest that bismuth deficiency has an effect on the magneto-optical response of the tetrahedral Fe sublattice, whereas small iron deficiencies affect predominantly the magneto-optical response of the octahedral sublattice.

  16. Electronic structure of antiferromagnetic UN and UPtGe single crystals from optical and magneto-optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marutzky, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the study of the magneto-optical Kerr effect and the determination of the optical constants by means of ellipsometry and Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy of UN and UPtGe is described. In UPtGe an optical anisotropy was detected over a spectral range from 6 meV to 32 eV. (HSI)

  17. Surface microstructure and magnetic behavior in FeSiB amorphous ribbons from magneto-optical Kerr effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Životský, O.; Hendrych, A.; Klimša, L.; Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Gomez, J.A.M.; Janičkovič, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 4 (2012), s. 569-577 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Surface magnetism * Magnetooptic Kerr effect * Magneto-optical microscopy * ILEEMS * CEMS * Nanoscale phase separation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012

  18. Enhanced magneto-optical Kerr effect in rare earth substituted nanostructured cobalt ferrite thin film prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avazpour, L.; Toroghinejad, M.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H., E-mail: Shokrollahi@sutech.ac.ir [Electroceramics Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 13876-71557 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The nanostructured rare earth doped Co-ferrite thin film was synthesized by the sol–gel method. • The coercivity of as high as 1.8 kOe is achieved for 20% substituted cobalt ferrite. • The average particle diameter of particulate film is decreasing by increasing substitute content. • Kerr spectra of films shifted to higher energies. • Kerr rotation angle increased to 1.65° for 0.1 Eu doped thin film. - Abstract: A series of rare-earth (RE)-doped nanocrystalline Co{sub x} RE{sub (1−x)} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and RE: Nd, Eu) thin films were prepared on silicon substrates by a sol–gel process, and the influences of different RE{sup 3+} ions on the microstructure, magnetism and polar magneto-optical Kerr effect of the deposited films were investigated. Also this research presents the optimization process of cobalt ferrite thin films deposited via spin coating, by studying their structural and morphological properties at different thicknesses (200, 350 nm) and various heat treatment temperatures 300–850 °C. Nanoparticulate polycrystalline thin film were formed with heat treatment above 400 °C but proper magnetic properties due to well crystallization of the film were achieved at about 650 °C. AFM results indicated that the deposited thin films were crack-free exhibiting a dense nanogranular structure. The root-mean square (RMS) roughness of the thin films was in the range of 0.2–3.2 nm. The results revealed that both of the magnetism and magneto optical Kerr (MOKE) spectra of Co{sub x} RE{sub (1−x)} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films could be mediated by doping with various RE ions. The Curie temperature of substituted samples was lower than pristine cobalt ferrite thin films. In MOKE spectra both dominant peaks were blue shifted with addition of RE ions. For low concentration dopant the inter-valence charge transfer related rotation was enhanced and for higher concentration dopant the crystal field rotation peak was enhanced

  19. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  20. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  1. Soft X-Ray Magneto-optical Faraday Effect around Ni M2,3 Edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Chen; Ming-Qi, Cui; Fen, Yan; Li-Juan, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Chen-Yan, Ma; Shi-Bo, Xi; Yi-Dong, Zhao; Jia, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    We present magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectra measured around the M 2,3 edges (60–70eV) of Ni films at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). A polarization analysis of the final state of the transmitted radiation from the Ni film is employed to determine the Faraday rotation at the edges. The MO effect becomes resonantly enhanced at the M 2,3 edges, and accordingly large values for the rotation angle β of 1.85 ± 0.19° for this ferromagnetic Ni film with thickness of 31 nm are measured. Without the magnetic field, the azimuthal angles do not shift; with parallel and antiparallel magnetic field the rotation angles shift in the opposite way and they are symmetrical. The uncertainty of Faraday rotation angles mainly comes from the data fitting and the state change of the beamline when the angles are measured

  2. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  3. Magneto-optic observation of anomalous Meissner current flow in superconducting thin films with slits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baziljevich, M.; Johansen, T.H.; Bratsberg, H.; Shen, Y.; Vase, P.

    1996-01-01

    Slits patterned into a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin film were observed to obstruct Meissner sheet currents leading to an imbalance in the local Meissner screening properties. The new phenomenon was studied with magneto-optic imaging where twin lobes of opposite flux polarity were seen to form near the slits and inside the Meissner region. The lobe closest to the sample edge is always polarized opposite to the applied field. At weak fields, the anomalous flux generation is reversible. At higher fields, but still sufficiently small to keep the vortex penetration front away from the slits, the anomalous current starts nucleating flux lines which become trapped when the field is removed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of diluted magnetic oxides TiO2-δ: Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan'shina, E.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Orlov, A.F.; Perov, N.S.; Vashuk, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental study on transversal Kerr effect (TKE) in magnetic oxide semiconductors TiO 2-δ :Co. The TiO 2-δ : Co thin films were deposited on LaAlO 3 (0 0 1) substrates by magnetron sputtering in the argon-oxygen atmosphere at oxygen partial pressure of 2x10 -6 -2x10 -4 Torr. It was obtained that TKE spectra in ferromagnetic samples are extremely sensitive to the Co-volume fraction, the crystalline structure, and technology parameters. The observed well-pronounced peaks in TKE spectra for anatase Co-doped TiO 2-δ films at low Co ( 2-δ matrix that indicates on intrinsic ferromagnetism in these samples. With increase of Co-volume fraction up to 5-8% the fine structure of TKE spectra disappears and magneto-optical response in reflection mode becomes larger than that for thick Co films

  5. Magneto-optical conductivity of Weyl semimetals with quadratic term in momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Weyl semimetal is a three-dimensional Dirac material whose low energy dispersion is linear in momentum. Adding a quadratic (Schrödinger term to the Weyl node breaks the original particle-hole symmetry and also breaks the mirror symmetry between the positive and negative Landau levels in present of magnetic field. This asymmetry splits the absorption line of the longitudinal magneto-optical conductivity into a two peaks structure. It also results in an oscillation pattern in the absorption part of the Hall conductivity. The two split peaks in Reσxx (or the positive and negative oscillation in Imσxy just correspond to the absorptions of left-handed (σ− and right-handed (σ+ polarization light, respectively. The split in Reσxx and the displacement between the absorption of σ+ and σ− are decided by the magnitude of the quadratic term and the magnetic field.

  6. Advanced magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements of superconductors at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stahl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-optical Kerr-effect (MOKE measurements of superconducting films with soft-magnetic coatings are performed at low temperatures using a laser-based MOKE set-up. An elaborate measurement scheme with internal reference allows the quantitative comparison of the temperature dependent Kerr-amplitude with the magnetic field generated by supercurrents. For this purpose, an amorphous CoFeB thin film exhibiting a large Kerr-signal is deposited directly on top of the YBCO superconductor acting as field sensing layer. It is shown that the resulting magnetic hysteresis loops of the soft-magnetic film can be used to reconstruct the electric properties of the superconductor.

  7. Magneto-optical fingerprints of distinct graphene multilayers using the giant infrared Kerr effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Chase T.; Stier, Andreas V.; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Tischler, Joseph G.; Glaser, Evan R.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Tedesco, Joseph L.; Eddy, Charles R.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Cerne, John

    2013-11-01

    The remarkable electronic properties of graphene strongly depend on the thickness and geometry of graphene stacks. This wide range of electronic tunability is of fundamental interest and has many applications in newly proposed devices. Using the mid-infrared, magneto-optical Kerr effect, we detect and identify over 18 interband cyclotron resonances (CR) that are associated with ABA and ABC stacked multilayers as well as monolayers that coexist in graphene that is epitaxially grown on 4H-SiC. Moreover, the magnetic field and photon energy dependence of these features enable us to explore the band structure, electron-hole band asymmetries, and mechanisms that activate a CR response in the Kerr effect for various multilayers that coexist in a single sample. Surprisingly, we find that the magnitude of monolayer Kerr effect CRs is not temperature dependent. This unexpected result reveals new questions about the underlying physics that makes such an effect possible.

  8. Magneto-Optic Fiber Gratings Useful for Dynamic Dispersion Management and Tunable Comb Filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao-Jian, Wu; Xin, Lu; Kun, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent control of dispersion management and tunable comb filtering in optical network applications can be performed by using magneto-optic fiber Bragg gratings (MFBGs). When a nonuniform magnetic field is applied to the MFBG with a constant grating period, the resulting grating response is equivalent to that of a conventional chirped grating. Under a linearly nonuniform magnetic field along the grating, a linear dispersion is achieved in the grating bandgap and the maximal dispersion slope can come to 1260 ps/nm 2 for a 10-mm-long fiber grating at 1550 nm window. Similarly, a Gaussian-apodizing sampled MFBG is also useful for magnetically tunable comb filtering, with potential application to clock recovery from return-to-zero optical signals and optical carrier tracking. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with modulated light in tilted magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustelny, S.; Gawlik, W.; Rochester, S. M.; Kimball, D. F. Jackson; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Larmor precession of laser-polarized atoms contained in antirelaxation-coated cells, detected via nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR), is a promising technique for a new generation of ultrasensitive atomic magnetometers. For magnetic fields directed along the light propagation direction, resonances in NMOR appear when linearly polarized light is frequency or amplitude modulated at twice the Larmor frequency. Because the frequency of these resonances depends on the magnitude but not the direction of the field, they are useful for scalar magnetometry. Additional NMOR resonances at the Larmor frequency appear when the magnetic field is tilted away from the light propagation direction in the plane defined by the light propagation and polarization vectors. These resonances, studied both experimentally and with a density matrix calculation in the present work, offer a convenient method of achieving additional information about a direction of the magnetic field

  10. Magneto-optical properties of semi-parabolic plus semi-inverse squared quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Luong V.; Vinh, Pham T.; Phuc, Huynh V.

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically study the optical absorption in a quantum well with the semi-parabolic potential plus the semi-inverse squared potential (SPSIS) in the presence of a static magnetic field in which both one- and two-photon absorption processes have been taken into account. The expression of the magneto-optical absorption coefficient (MOAC) is expressed by the second-order golden rule approximation including the electron-LO phonon interaction. We also use the profile method to obtain the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the absorption peaks. Our numerical results show that either MOAC or FWHM strongly depends on the confinement frequency, temperature, and magnetic field but their dependence on the parameter β is very weak. The temperature dependence of FWHM is consistent with the previous theoretical and experimental works.

  11. Magnetic and magneto-optical properties of FeRh thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Sho; Nam, Nguyen T.; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Cao Jiangwei; Yu Ko, Hnin Yu; Suzuki, Takao

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic and magneto-optical properties of FeRh thin films epitaxially deposited onto MgO(1 0 0) substrates by RF sputter-deposition system have been investigated in conjunction with the structure. An intriguing virgin effect has been found in the M-T curves of the as-deposited FeRh thin films, which is presumably interpreted in term of a change in structural phase when heating. Also, a (negative) maximum peak of Kerr rotation at around 3.8 eV has been observed when FeRh thin films are in ferromagnetic state. The polar Kerr rotation angle is found to increase at temperatures above 100 deg. C, which corresponds to the antiferromagnet (AF)-ferromagnet (FM) transition of FeRh thin films

  12. Magneto-optical enhancement of TbFeCo/Al films at short wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.; Ito, H.; Naoe, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the bilayered films composed of magneto-optical (MO) amorphous Tb-Te-Co alloy and reflective Al layers were deposited successively on glass slide substrates without plasma exposure by using the facing targets sputtering system. The specimen films with the thickness of MO layer t MO below 5 nm showed apparent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant Ku of 2 to 3 x 10 6 erg/cm3 and rectangular Kerr loop. The specimen film with t MO of 14 nm took the Kerr rotation angle θ k as large as about 0.36 degree, at the wavelength λ as short as about 400 nm. These values of θ k is considerably larger than those of the bilayered films in the conventional MO media. Normally, the bilayered films with t MO above 50 nm took θ k of about 0.25 degree at θ k of 400 nm

  13. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; del Real, R. P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vá zquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  14. Non-contact optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using a magneto-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; García, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we aim to experimentally verify a speckle based technique for non-contact measurement of glucose concentration in blood stream while the vision for the final device aims to contain a single wristwatch-style device containing an AC (alternating) electro-magnet generated by a solenoid, a laser and a camera. The experiments presented in work are performed in-vitro in order to verify the effects that are responsible for the operation principle. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an alternating magnetic field it exhibits Faraday rotation which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle patterns distribution. The temporal frequency resulting from the AC magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  15. Noncontact speckle-based optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using magneto-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally verify a speckle-based technique for noncontact measurement of glucose concentration in the bloodstream. The final device is intended to be a single wristwatch-style device containing a laser, a camera, and an alternating current (ac) electromagnet generated by a solenoid. The experiments presented are performed in vitro as proof of the concept. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an ac magnetic field, it exhibits Faraday rotation, which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle pattern distributions. The temporal frequency resulting from the ac magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role, which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  16. Ion-atom collisions with laser-prepared target: High resolution study of single charge exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leredde, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Single charge transfer in low-energy Na"++"8"7Rb(5s,5p) collisions is investigated using magneto-optically trapped Rb atoms and high-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the recoil-ion momentum provides accurate relative cross-sections for the active channels and the projectile scattering angle distributions. Thanks to the high experimental resolution, scattering structures such as diffraction-like oscillations in angular distributions are clearly observed. The measurements are compared with molecular close-coupling calculations and an excellent agreement is found. To go further in the test of the theory, the target is prepared in an oriented state. It is the first time that such collision experiments with oriented target is performed with such a high resolution. The right-left asymmetry expected for the scattering angle distribution is evidenced. The agreement between MOCC calculations and experiments is very good. Simple models developed for collisions with oriented target are also discussed. (author) [fr

  17. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  18. Full-disk magnetograms obtained with a Na magneto-optical filter at the Mount Wilson Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.J. Jr.; Cacciani, A.; Garneau, G.; Misch, T.; Progovac, D.; Shieber, T.; Tomczyk, S.; Ulrich, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The first full-disk magnetograms to be obtained with the Na magneto-optical filter (MOF) which is located at the 60 foot solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory are presented. This MOF was employed as a longitudinal magnetograph on June 18, 19, and July 1, 1987. On those three days the MOF was combined with a large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) virtual phase change coupled device camera and a high-speed data acquisition system. The combined system was used to record both line-of-sight magnetograms and Dopplergrams which covered the entire visible solar hemisphere. The pixel size of these magnetograms and Dopplergrams was 2.3 arcseconds. On each of the three days a time series of nine pairs of magnetograms and Dopplergrams was obtained at the rate of one pair every two minutes. On the same three day longitudinal magnetograms have one arcsecond pixels were obtained with the vacuum telescope at Kitt Peak. The MOF and vacuum tower magnetograms were compared at both the JPL Multi-Mission Image Processing Laboratory and at USC and have found the two sets of images to be well correlated both in spatial distribution and strength of the measured magnetic field. The simultaneously-obtained MOF Dopplergrams to remove the crosstalk which was present between the Doppler and Zeeman shifts of the NaD lines from the magnetograms from all three days and will also describe recent improvements to the system which allowed the obtaining of full-disk magnetograms as rapidly as one every 25 seconds

  19. Ab-initio study of the magneto-optical properties of the ultrathin films of Fe{sub n}/Au(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukelkoul, Mebarek, E-mail: boukelkoul_mebarek@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systèmes Dynamiques, Faculté des sciences, Université Sétif1, Sétif, 19000 Algeria (Algeria); Haroun, Mohamed Fahim [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systèmes Dynamiques, Faculté des sciences, Université Sétif1, Sétif, 19000 Algeria (Algeria); Haroun, Abdelhalim [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systèmes Dynamiques, Faculté des sciences, Université Sétif1, Sétif, 19000 Algeria (Algeria); IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS-UNISTRA, 23 Rue du Loess, Strasbourg, 67034 France (France)

    2016-12-15

    With the aim of understand the microscopic origin of the magneto-optical response in the Fe ultrathin films, we used the first principle full-relativistic Spin-Polarized Relativistic Linear Muffin-Tin Orbitals with Atomic Sphere Approximation. We performed an ab-initio study of the structural, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Fe deposited on semi-infinite Au(001). The structure and growth of the film leads to a pseudomorphic body centered tetragonal structure with tetragonality ratio c/a=1.62, and the pseudomorphic growth is found to be larger than 3 monolayers. The magnetic study revealed a ferromagnetic phase with a large magnetic moment compared to the bulk one. The magneto-optical response is calculated via the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect over a photon energy range up to 10 eV. The most important features of the Kerr rotation spectra are interpreted trough the interband transitions between localized states.

  20. Generation of a cold pulsed beam of Rb atoms by transfer from a 3D magneto-optic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanu, Sapam Ranjita; Rathod, Ketan D.; Natarajan, Vasant, E-mail: vasant@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-08-26

    We demonstrate a technique for producing a cold pulsed beam of atoms by transferring a cloud of atoms trapped in a three dimensional magneto-optic trap (MOT). The MOT is loaded by heating a getter source of Rb atoms. We show that it is advantageous to transfer with two beams (with a small angle between them) compared to a single beam, because the atoms stop interacting with the beams in the two-beam technique, which results in a Gaussian velocity distribution. The atoms are further cooled in optical molasses by turning off the MOT magnetic field before the transfer beams are turned on. - Highlights: • Getter-source loaded magneto-optic trap (MOT). • Cold atomic beam generated by deflection from the MOT. • Use of two inclined beams for deflection.

  1. Valley- and spin-polarized oscillatory magneto-optical absorption in monolayer MoS2 quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D.; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Soler, M. A. G.; Qu, Fanyao

    2018-03-01

    Besides optical valley selectivity, strong spin-orbit interaction along with Berry curvature effects also leads to unconventional valley- and spin-polarized Landau levels in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) under a perpendicular magnetic field. We find that these unique properties are inherited to the magneto-optical absorption spectrum of the TMDC quantum rings (QRs). In addition, it is robust against variation of the magnetic flux and of the QR geometry. In stark contrast to the monolayer bulk material, the MoS2 QRs manifest themselves in both the optical valley selectivity and unprecedented size tunability of the frequency of the light absorbed. We also find that when the magnetic field setup is changed, the phase transition from Aharonov-Bohm (AB) quantum interference to aperiodic oscillation of magneto-optical absorption spectrum takes place. The exciton spectrum in a realistic finite thickness MoS2 QR is also discussed.

  2. TiO2 brookite nanostructured thin layer on magneto-optical surface plasmon resonance transductor for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M. G.; Colombelli, A.; Rella, R.; Caricato, A.; Cozzoli, P. D.; Martino, M.; Vasanelli, L.

    2012-09-01

    The sensing performance comparisons presented in this work were carried out by exploiting a suitable magneto-plasmonic sensor in both the traditional surface plasmon resonance configuration and the innovative magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance one. The particular multilayer transducer was functionalized with TiO2 Brookite nanorods layers deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation, and its sensing capabilities were monitored in a controlled atmosphere towards different concentrations of volatile organic compounds mixed in dry air.

  3. Magneto-optical effects induced in a magnetic-fluid layer by thermally released supermassive magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofonea, V.; Vekas, L.; Hegedues, E.

    1993-01-01

    The number of photons in the optical pulse induced via magneto-optical effects by a thermally released (e.g., from old iron ores) supermassive magnetic monopole traversing a thin magnetic-fluid layer is evaluated on the basis of phenomenological models. In certain monopole search experiments, these effects could give a detectable signal of the order of tens of photons and thus it may serve as a basis for a new magnetic-monopole detection method. (orig.)

  4. Electronic structure of ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs probed by sub-gap magneto-optical spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Acbas, G.; Kim, M. -H.; Cukr, M.; Novak, V.; Scarpulla, M. A.; Dubon, O. D.; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo; Cerne, J.

    2009-01-01

    We employ Faraday and Kerr effect spectroscopy in the infrared range to investigate the electronic structure of Ga1-xMnxAs near the Fermi energy. The band structure of this archetypical dilute-moment ferromagnetic semiconductor has been a matter of controversy, fueled partly by previous measurements of the unpolarized infrared absorption and their phenomenological impurity-band interpretation. The infrared magneto-optical effects we study arise directly from the spin-splitting of the carrier ...

  5. Decoding of digital magnetic recording with longitudinal magnetization of a tape from a magneto-optical image of stray fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    For digital magnetic recording of encoded information with longitudinal magnetization of the tape, the connection between the domain structure of a storage medium and magneto-optical image of its stray fields obtained using a magnetic film with a perpendicular anisotropy and a large Faraday rotation has been studied. For two-frequency binary code without returning to zero, an algorithm is developed, that allows uniquely decoding of the information recorded on the tape based on analysis of an image of stray fields.

  6. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M; Guénon, S; Lever, F; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D

    2017-12-01

    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4 He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO 3 . The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  7. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M.; Guénon, S.; Lever, F.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.

    2017-12-01

    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO3. The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  8. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  9. Monolithic Magneto-Optical Nanocomposites of Barium Hexaferrite Platelets in PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferk, Gregor; Krajnc, Peter; Hamler, Anton; Mertelj, Alenka; Cebollada, Federico; Drofenik, Miha; Lisjak, Darja

    2015-06-12

    The incorporation of magnetic barium hexaferrite nanoparticles in a transparent polymer matrix of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is reported for the first time. The barium hexaferrite nanoplatelets doped with Sc(3+), i.e., BaSc0.5Fe11.5O12 (BaHF), having diameters in the range 20 to 130 nm and thicknesses of approximately 5 nm, are synthesized hydrothermally and stabilized in 1-butanol with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid. This method enables the preparation of monolithic nanocomposites by admixing the BaHF suspension into a liquid monomer, followed by in-situ, bulk free-radical polymerization. The PMMA retains its transparency for loadings of BaHF nanoparticles up to 0.27 wt.%, meaning that magnetically and optically anisotropic, monolithic nanocomposites can be synthesized when the polymerization is carried out in a magnetic field. The excellent dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles, coupled with a reasonable control over the magnetic properties achieved in this investigation, is encouraging for the magneto-optical applications of these materials.

  10. Optimizing magneto-optical effects in the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riahi, H., E-mail: hassenriahi1987@gmail.com [Laboratoire Matériaux Molécules et Applications, IPEST, Université de Carthage, La Marsa (Tunisia); Thevenard, L. [CNRS, UMR7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7588, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Maaref, M.A. [Laboratoire Matériaux Molécules et Applications, IPEST, Université de Carthage, La Marsa (Tunisia); Gallas, B. [CNRS, UMR7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7588, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Lemaître, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures – CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Gourdon, C [CNRS, UMR7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7588, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-12-01

    A trilayer of the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs, a SiO{sub 2} buffer layer and a piezoelectric ZnO layer, is investigated in view of its use in device implementation to study surface acoustic wave-assisted magnetization switching. The magneto-optical properties: Kerr rotation and ellipticity and magnetic contrast in Kerr microscopy images are investigated as a function of temperature. While the ZnO layer prevents any good quality imaging of magnetic domains, we show that with the SiO{sub 2} layer only the polar Kerr rotation and the magnetic contrast are increased by a factor of 2. This result is in good quantitative agreement with calculations using an optical interference model and could be further improved. The detrimental effects of the dielectric layers capping on the Curie temperature and coercive field of the GaMnAs layer can be kept to a reasonable level. - Highlights: • GaMnAs/SiO{sub 2}/ZnO studied for surface acoustic wave assisted magnetization switching. • The Kerr rotation and magneticcontrast increase by a factor 2 with SiO{sub 2} on GaMnAs. • Good quantitative agreement with an optical interference model. • Little detrimental effect of SiO{sub 2} and ZnO on the ferromagnetic properties of GaMnAs.

  11. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of diluted magnetic oxides TiO{sub 2-{delta}}: Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan' shina, E.A. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Eagan@magn.ru; Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Orlov, A.F. [State Research Institute for the Rare-Metal Industry, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation); Perov, N.S.; Vashuk, M.V. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    We report an experimental study on transversal Kerr effect (TKE) in magnetic oxide semiconductors TiO{sub 2-{delta}}:Co. The TiO{sub 2-{delta}}: Co thin films were deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} (0 0 1) substrates by magnetron sputtering in the argon-oxygen atmosphere at oxygen partial pressure of 2x10{sup -6}-2x10{sup -4} Torr. It was obtained that TKE spectra in ferromagnetic samples are extremely sensitive to the Co-volume fraction, the crystalline structure, and technology parameters. The observed well-pronounced peaks in TKE spectra for anatase Co-doped TiO{sub 2-{delta}} films at low Co (<1%) volume fraction are not representative for bulk Co or Co clusters in TiO{sub 2-{delta}} matrix that indicates on intrinsic ferromagnetism in these samples. With increase of Co-volume fraction up to 5-8% the fine structure of TKE spectra disappears and magneto-optical response in reflection mode becomes larger than that for thick Co films.

  12. Slowing techniques for loading a magneto-optical trap of CaF molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppe, Stefan; Fitch, Noah; Williams, Hannah; Hambach, Moritz; Sauer, Ben; Hinds, Ed; Tarbutt, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold molecules in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are useful for testing fundamental physics and studying strongly-interacting quantum systems. With experiments starting with a relatively fast (50-200 m/s) buffer-gas beam, a primary concern is decelerating molecules to below the MOT capture velocity, typically 10 m/s. Direct laser cooling, where the molecules are slowed via momentum transfer from a chirped counter-propagating narrowband laser, is a natural choice. However, chirping the cooling and repump lasers requires precise control of multiple laser frequencies simultaneously. Another approach, called ``white-light slowing'' uses a broadband laser such that all fast molecules in the beam are decelerated. By addressing numerous velocities no chirping is needed. Unfortunately, both techniques have significant losses as molecules are transversely heated during the optical cycling. Ideally, the slowing method would provide simultaneous deceleration and transverse guiding. A newly developed technique, called Zeeman-Sisyphus deceleration, is potentially capable of both. Using permanent magnets and optical pumping, the number of scattered photons is reduced, lessening transverse heating and relaxing the repump requirements. Here we compare all three options for CaF.

  13. Optimizing magneto-optical effects in the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, H.; Thevenard, L.; Maaref, M.A.; Gallas, B.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C

    2015-01-01

    A trilayer of the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs, a SiO 2 buffer layer and a piezoelectric ZnO layer, is investigated in view of its use in device implementation to study surface acoustic wave-assisted magnetization switching. The magneto-optical properties: Kerr rotation and ellipticity and magnetic contrast in Kerr microscopy images are investigated as a function of temperature. While the ZnO layer prevents any good quality imaging of magnetic domains, we show that with the SiO 2 layer only the polar Kerr rotation and the magnetic contrast are increased by a factor of 2. This result is in good quantitative agreement with calculations using an optical interference model and could be further improved. The detrimental effects of the dielectric layers capping on the Curie temperature and coercive field of the GaMnAs layer can be kept to a reasonable level. - Highlights: • GaMnAs/SiO 2 /ZnO studied for surface acoustic wave assisted magnetization switching. • The Kerr rotation and magneticcontrast increase by a factor 2 with SiO 2 on GaMnAs. • Good quantitative agreement with an optical interference model. • Little detrimental effect of SiO 2 and ZnO on the ferromagnetic properties of GaMnAs

  14. Magneto-optic and converse magnetoelectric effects in a ferromagnetic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertelj, Alenka; Osterman, Natan; Lisjak, Darja; Copič, Martin

    2014-12-07

    We have studied the response of ferromagnetic liquid crystals to external magnetic and electric fields, and compared it to the usual response of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). We have observed effects, which are not present in a pure NLC and are a consequence of the coupling between the nematic director and the magnetization. The electro-optic effect, which is in the ferromagnetic phase the same as in the pure NLC, is accompanied by a converse magnetoelectric effect. The magneto-optic effect differs completely from the one observed in the pure NLC, where it is a quadratic effect and it only appears when a magnetic field larger than a critical field is applied perpendicular to the director. In the ferromagnetic NLC in addition to the response to the perpendicular field, there is also a qualitatively different response to the parallel field. Contrary to the pure NLC no critical field needs to be exceeded for the system to respond to a perpendicular field, but a critical field needs to be exceeded to observe a response to the field parallel to the director and antiparallel to the magnetization. The critical field is in this case two orders of magnitude smaller than the critical field of the magnetic Frederiks transition in the pure NLC. The experimental observations are well described by a simple macroscopic theory.

  15. An improved method for quantitative magneto-optical analysis of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviano, F; Botta, D; Chiodoni, A; Gerbaldo, R; Ghigo, G; Gozzelino, L; Zannella, S; Mezzetti, E

    2003-01-01

    We report on the analysis method to extract quantitative local electrodynamics in superconductors by means of the magneto-optical technique. First of all, we discuss the calibration procedure to convert the local light intensity values into magnetic induction field distribution and start focusing on the role played by the generally disregarded magnetic induction components parallel to the indicator film plane (in-plane field effect). To account for the reliability of the whole technique, the method used to reconstruct the electrical current density distribution is reported, together with a numerical test example. The methodology is applied to measure local magnetic field and current distributions on a typical YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x good quality film. We show how the in-plane field influences the MO measurements, after which we present an algorithm to account for the in-plane field components. The meaningful impact of the correction on the experimental results is shown. Afterwards, we discuss some aspects about the electrodynamics of the superconducting sample

  16. X-ray Pulse Length Characterization using the Surface Magneto Optic Kerr Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcik, P.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    It will be challenging to measure the temporal profile of the hard X-ray SASE beam independently from the electron beam in the LCLS and other 4th generation light sources. A fast interaction mechanism is needed that can be probed by an ultrafast laser pulse in a pump-probe experiment. It is proposed to exploit the rotation in polarization of light reflected from a thin magnetized film, known as the surface magneto optic Kerr effect (SMOKE), to witness the absorption of the x-ray pulse in the thin film. The change in spin orbit coupling induced by the x-ray pulse occurs on the subfemtosecond time scale and changes the polarization of the probe beam. The limitation to the technique lies with the bandwidth of the probe laser pulse and how short the optical pulse can be made. The SMOKE mechanism will be described and the choices of materials for use with 1.5 (angstrom) x-rays. A schematic description of the pump-probe geometry for x-ray diagnosis is also described

  17. Distortions of the statistical distribution of Barkhausen noise measured by magneto-optical Kerr effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinotti, E.; Brenna, M.; Puppin, E.

    2008-01-01

    In magneto-optical Kerr measurements of the Barkhausen noise, a magnetization jump ΔM due to a domain reversal produces a variation ΔI of the intensity of a laser beam reflected by the sample, which is the physical quantity actually measured. Due to the non-uniform beam intensity profile, the magnitude of ΔI depends both on ΔM and on its position on the laser spot. This could distort the statistical distribution p(ΔI) of the measured ΔI with respect to the true distribution p(ΔM) of the magnetization jumps ΔM. In this work the exact relationship between the two distributions is derived in a general form, which will be applied to some possible beam profiles. It will be shown that in most cases the usual Gaussian beam produces a negligible statistical distortion. Moreover, for small ΔI the noise of the experimental setup can also distort the statistical distribution p(ΔI), by erroneously rejecting small ΔI as noise. This effect has been calculated for white noise, and it will be shown that it is relatively small but not totally negligible as the measured ΔI approaches the detection limit

  18. High resolution resonant Raman scattering in InP and GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernohan, E.T.M.

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies of III-V semiconductors using resonant Raman scattering have concentrated on measuring the variations in scattering intensity under different excitation conditions. The shape of the Raman line also contains important information, but this has usually been lost because the low signal strengths mean that resolution has been sacrificed for sensitivity. It might therefore be expected that further insights into the processes involved in Raman scattering could be obtained by using high resolution methods. In this thesis I have measured single- and multiple- phonon scattering from bulk GaAs and InP with a spectral resolution better than the intrinsic widths of the Raman lines. For scattering in the region of one longitudinal optic (LO) phonon energy, it is found that in InP the scattering in the allowed and forbidden configurations occur at different Raman shifts, above and below the zone-centre phonon energy respectively. These shifts are used to determine the scattering processes involved, and how they differ between InP and GaAs. The lineshapes obtained in multiple-phonon scattering are found to depend strongly on the excitation energy used, providing evidence for the presence of intermediate resonances. The measured spectra are used to provide information about the phonon dispersion of InP, whose dispersion it is difficult to measure in any other way, and the first evidence is found for an upward dispersion of the LO mode. Raman lineshapes are measured for InP in a magnetic field. The field alters the electronic bandstructure, leading to a series of strong resonances in the Raman efficiency due to interband magneto-optical transitions between Landau levels. This allows multiphonon processes up to sixth-order to be investigated. (author)

  19. Electronic properties of wurtzite-phase InP nanowires determined by optical and magneto-optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Marta; Polimeni, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to their peculiar shape and dimensions, semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are emerging as building components of novel devices. The presence of wurtzite (WZ) phase in the lattice structure of non-nitride III-V NWs is one of the most surprising findings in these nanostructures: this phase, indeed, cannot be found in the same materials in the bulk form, where the zincblende (ZB) structure is ubiquitous, and therefore the WZ properties are poorly known. This review focuses on WZ InP NWs, because growth techniques have reached a high degree of control on the structural properties of this material, and optical studies performed on high-quality samples have allowed determining the most useful electronic properties, which are reviewed here. After an introduction summarizing the reasons for the interest in WZ InP nanowires (Sec. I), we give an overview on growth process and structural and optical properties of WZ InP NWs (Sec. II). In Sec. III, a complete picture of the energy and symmetry of the lowest-energy conduction and valence bands, as assessed by polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence-excitation (PLE) studies is drawn and compared to all the available theoretical information. The elastic properties of WZ InP (determined by PL under hydrostatic pressure) and the radiative recombination dynamics of spatially direct and indirect (namely, occurring across the WZ/ZB interfaces) transitions are also discussed. Section IV, focuses on the magneto-optical studies of WZ InP NWs. The diagram of the energy levels of excitons in WZ materials—with and without magnetic field—is first provided. Then, all theoretical and experimental information available about the changes in the transport properties (i.e., carrier effective mass) caused by the ZB→WZ phase variation are reviewed. Different NW/magnetic field geometrical configurations, sensitive to polarization selection rules, highlight anisotropies in the diamagnetic shifts, Zeeman splitting

  20. Magneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films elaborated by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiar, T.; Payet-Gervy, B.; Blanc-Mignon, M.-F.; Rousseau, J.-J.; Le Berre, M.; Joisten, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are grown by radio frequency magnetron non reactive sputtering system. Thin films are crystallised by heat-treatment to obtain magneto-optical properties. On quartz substrate, the network of cracks observed on the annealed samples can be explained by the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and YIG. Physico-chemical analysis shown that the obtained material has a correct stoichiometry and is crystallised as FCC. The Faraday rotation of thin films is measured with a classical ellipsometric system based on transmission which allows us to obtained an accuracy of 0.01 deg. The variation of Faraday rotation is studied on the one hand versus radio frequency power applied to the cathode during the deposition and on the other hand versus the applied magnetic field. The results are compared with those obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer analysis in perpendicular configuration. A maximum Faraday rotation is observed to be 1900 deg./cm at the wavelength of 594nm for a YIG thin film formed on quartz substrate and annealed at 740 deg. C. The values of the Faraday rotation coefficients obtained in the study versus the wavelength are comparable to those of the literature for the bulk material. In order to eliminate the stress due to the heat-treatment, we made some films on single crystals of gadolinium gallium garnet (111) substrates for which thermal expansion coefficient is near than the YIG one. The material crystallises with no crackles and the Faraday effect is equivalent

  1. Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystals of RFe{sub 2} (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.

    1999-02-12

    The author has studied the diagonal and off-diagonal optical conductivity of RFe{sub 2}(R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} single crystals grown by the flux method. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry the author has measured the dielectric function from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. The magneto-optical Kerr spectrometer at temperatures between 7 and 295 K and applied magnetic fields between 0.5 to 1.6 T. The apparatus and calibration method are described in detail. Using magneto-optical data and optical constants he derives the experimental value of the off-diagonal conductivity components. Theoretical calculations of optical conductivities and magneto-optical parameters were performed using the tight binding-linear muffin tin orbitals method within the local spin density approximation. He applied this TB-LMTO method to LuFe{sub 2}. The theoretical results obtained agree well with the experimental data. The oxidation effects on the diagonal part of the optical conductivity were considered using a three-phase model. The oxidation effects on the magneto-optical parameters were also considered by treating the oxide layer as a nonmagnetic thin transparent layer. These corrections change not only the magnitude but also the shape of the optical conductivity and the magneto-optical parameters.

  2. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra

  3. Magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots: Influence of the dot-size, confining potential, and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Semiconducting quantum dots – more fancifully dubbed artificial atoms – are quasi-zero dimensional, tiny, man-made systems with charge carriers completely confined in all three dimensions. The scientific quest behind the synthesis of quantum dots is to create and control future electronic and optical nanostructures engineered through tailoring size, shape, and composition. The complete confinement – or the lack of any degree of freedom for the electrons (and/or holes) – in quantum dots limits the exploration of spatially localized elementary excitations such as plasmons to direct rather than reciprocal space. Here we embark on a thorough investigation of the magneto-optical absorption in semiconducting spherical quantum dots characterized by a confining harmonic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. This is done within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation that enables us to derive and discuss the full Dyson equation that takes proper account of the Coulomb interactions. As an application of our theoretical strategy, we compute various single-particle and many-particle phenomena such as the Fock-Darwin spectrum; Fermi energy; magneto-optical transitions; probability distribution; and the magneto-optical absorption in the quantum dots. It is observed that the role of an applied magnetic field on the absorption spectrum is comparable to that of a confining potential. Increasing (decreasing) the strength of the magnetic field or the confining potential is found to be analogous to shrinking (expanding) the size of the quantum dots: resulting into a blue (red) shift in the absorption spectrum. The Fermi energy diminishes with both increasing magnetic-field and dot-size; and exhibits saw-tooth-like oscillations at large values of field or dot-size. Unlike laterally confined quantum dots, both (upper and lower) magneto-optical transitions survive even in the extreme instances. However, the intra-Landau level

  4. Magneto-optical measurement of anisotropy energy constant(s) for amorphous rare earth, transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uber, R.E.; Mansuripur, M.

    1988-01-01

    Optical investigation of magneto-optical films is complementary to conventional torque and VSM magnetometry. In the authors' laboratory, they are now measuring anisotropy energy constants of RE-TM thin films at temperatures from ambient to 150 0 C. An in-plane magnetic field (up to 16.5 KOe) is applied to a saturated sample with perpendicular magnetization. The movement away from the perpendicular direction is monitored using the polar Kerr effect. At the HeNe wavelength, the Kerr effect is principally due to the top 500 angstroms of the transition metal subnetwork in the films

  5. Generation of 99-mW continuous-wave 285-nm radiation for magneto-optical trapping of Mg atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Yu, Ping; Balslev, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a tunable intense narrow-band 285 nm light source based on frequency doubling of 570 nm light in BBO. At input powers of 840 mW (including 130 mW used for locking purposes) we generate 99 mW UV radiation with an intensity profile suitable for laser-cooling experiments. The light...... is used for laser cooling of neutral magnesium atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). We capture about 5 x 10(6) atoms directly from a thermal beam and find that the major loss mechanism of the magnesium MOT is a near-resonant two-photon ionization process....

  6. Generation of a cold pulsed beam of Rb atoms by transfer from a 3D magneto-optic trap

    OpenAIRE

    Chanu, Sapam Ranjita; Rathod, Ketan D.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for producing a cold pulsed beam of atoms by transferring a cloud of atoms trapped in a three dimensional magneto-optic trap (MOT). The MOT is loaded by heating a getter source of Rb atoms. We show that it is advantageous to transfer with two beams (with a small angle between them) compared to a single beam, because the atoms stop interacting with the beams in the two-beam technique, which results in a Gaussian velocity distribution. The atoms are further cooled in ...

  7. PLD growth of CoPd thin films and characterization of their magnetic properties by magneto optical Kerr effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrpooshan, Mehran; Ahmadvand, Hossein; Ranjbar, Mehdi; Salamati, Hadi

    2018-06-01

    CoPd alloy thin films with different thicknesses and Co/Pd ratios have been deposited on Si (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The magnetic properties were investigated by using the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) in both longitudinal and polar geometries. The results show that the films with thickness in the range of 6-24 nm, deposited at a low substrate temperature of 200 °C, are mostly magnetized in the plane of film. Higher deposition temperature forces the magnetic easy axis to orient in the perpendicular direction of the films.

  8. Optical and magneto-optical properties of spin coated films of novel trinuclear bis(oxamato) and bis(oxamidato) type complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmalic, Mohammad A. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Chemie, Straße der Nationen 62, D-09111 Chemnitz (Germany); Fronk, Michael [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Bräuer, Björn [Stanford Institute of Materials and Energy Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Salvan, Georgeta, E-mail: salvan@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Eya' ane Meva, Francois [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, BP 2701 (Cameroon); and others

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the first example of the spectroscopic measurements of the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) of films being composed of trinuclear transition metal complexes on a non-transparent substrate at room temperature. The thin films of the tailor-made trinuclear bis(oxamidato) type complex 5 ([Cu{sub 3}(opbo{sup n}Pr{sub 2})(tmcd){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}], opbo{sup n}Pr{sub 2} = o-phenylenebis(N’-{sup n}propyloxamido, tmcd=trans-(1 R,2 R)-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-cyclohexanediamine) and of the bis(oxamato) type complexes 11 ([Cu{sub 2}Ni(opbaCF{sub 3})(pmdta){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}], opbaCF{sub 3} = 4-trifluoromethyl-o-phenylenebis(oxamato), pmdta = N,N,N,′N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) and 12 ([Cu{sub 3}(opba)(bppe){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamato), bppe = S-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)−1-phenylethylamine) were fabricated by spin-coating and their thicknesses in the range between 0.5 µm and 2 µm was determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Based on the spectroscopic ellipsometry results it was also possible to determine the optical constants of the film and compare them with the absorption of the complexes in solution in order to confirm the complex integrity after the film deposition. The fabrication of high-quality films which exhibit Kerr rotation up to 0.2 mrad (11.5 mdeg) was only possible due to tailor-made synthesis, which allows circumventing intermolecular interactions of the trinuclear complexes during the film formation. - Highlights: • Tailor-made trinuclear bis(oxamidato) and bis(oxamato) type complexes were synthesized. • Thin films (between 0.5 µm and 2 µm) were fabricated by spin-coating. • The film optical constants indicate the complex integrity after the deposition. • Film quality enabled first spectroscopic MOKE measurements of multi-nuclear complexes. • Magneto-optical Kerr rotation up to 11.5 mdeg was observed at RT (in 1.7 T).

  9. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  10. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  11. Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengalattore, M.; Conroy, R.S.; Prentiss, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The phase space density of dense, cylindrical clouds of atoms in a 2D magneto-optic trap is investigated. For a large number of trapped atoms (>10 8 ), the density of a spherical cloud is limited by photon reabsorption. However, as the atom cloud is deformed to reduce the radial optical density, the temperature of the atoms decreases due to the suppression of multiple scattering leading to an increase in the phase space density. A density of 2x10 -4 has been achieved in a magneto-optic trap containing 2x10 8 atoms

  12. Polycrystalline magnetic garnet films comprising weakly coupled crystallites for piezoelectrically-driven magneto-optic spatial light modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, S.; Sakurai, H.; Takagi, H.; Inoue, M. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A. V. [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the magnetization process of the polycrystalline magnetic garnet films in order to determine the most suitable composition of garnet films for piezoelectrically-driven magneto-optic spatial light modulators (MOSLMs). For experiment, the bismuth-dysprosium-aluminum-substituted yttrium iron (Bi{sub 1.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Y{sub 1.0}Fe{sub 3.1}Al{sub 1.9}O{sub 12}) garnet films were deposited by an RF magnetron sputter and annealed at 700 deg. C in air. The annealing time was varied in a range of several minutes to control the grain size. The saturation magnetization, the remanent magnetization and the composition of the fabricated garnet films slightly changed versus the annealing time. Experiments showed that the coercivity and the grain size increased at longer annealing; the coercivity was larger for films with bigger grains. This work shows that garnet films with smaller coercivity are most suitable for controlling the magnetization of garnet and, correspondingly, the magneto-optical rotation of MOSLM pixels driven by piezoelectrics.

  13. Vectorial magnetometry with the magneto-optic Kerr effect applied to Co/Cu/Co trilayer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboo, C.; Bland, J. A. C.; Hicken, R. J.; Ives, A. J. R.; Baird, M. J.; Walker, M. J.

    1993-05-01

    We describe an arrangement in which the magnetization components parallel and perpendicular to the applied field are both determined from longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements. This arrangement differs from the usual procedures in that the same optical geometry is used but the magnet geometry altered. This leads to two magneto-optic signals which are directly comparable in magnitude thereby giving the in-plane magnetization vector directly. We show that it is of great value to study both in-plane magnetization vector components when studying coupled structures where significant anisotropies are also present. We discuss simulations which show that it is possible to accurately determine the coupling strength in such structures by examining the behavior of the component of magnetization perpendicular to the applied field in the vicinity of the hard in-plane anisotropy axis. We illustrate this technique by examining the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy behavior of ultrathin Co/Cu(111)/Co (dCu=20 Å and 27 Å) trilayer structures prepared by molecular beam epitaxy, in which coherent rotation of the magnetization vector is observed when the magnetic field B is applied along the hard in-plane anisotropy axis, with the magnitude of the magnetization vector constant and close to its bulk value. Results of micromagnetic calculations closely reproduce the observed parallel and perpendicular magnetization loops, and yield strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropies in both layers, while the interlayer coupling appears to be absent or negligible in comparison with the anisotropy strengths.

  14. Macroscopic and microscopic structural integrity in magnetic colloids-cationic micellar solution: Rheology, SANS and magneto-optical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rajesh, E-mail: rjp@bhavuni.ed [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364 022 (India); Upadhyay, R.V., E-mail: rvu.as@ecchanga.ac.i [Charotar Institute of Applied Sciences, Education Campus, Changa 388421, Anand, Gujarat (India); Aswal, V.K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Joshi, J.V.; Goyal, P.S. [UGC- DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-03-15

    A stable mixture of two colloid system composed of double surfactant coated aqueous nanomagnetic fluid and aqueous micellar solution of cationic micelles of cetyletrymethyl ammonium bromide (CTABr) is prepared as a function of nanomagnetic fluid concentration. This mixed system is analyzed using three techniques such as zero field and field induced viscosity measurements, Small Angle Neutron Scattering technique and magneto-optical birefringence measurements. In field induced viscosity measurement it is observed that even 20% magnetic fluid concentration in CTABr aqueous solution shows 75% increase in viscosity compared to pure magnetic fluid. This suggests that in presence of CTABr micelles, a novel magneto rheological effect for low concentration of magnetic fluid is observed. From SANS measurements it is observed that aggregation number and a/b ratio increases with magnetic fluid concentration and magnetic birefringence reveals non-superimpose behavior of normalized field induced retardation. Results of these experiments are compared and indicate zero fields and field induced structural integrity between magnetic particles and soft micelles. - Research Highlights: {yields} This study exhibits zero field and field induced structural integrity between soft micelles and magnetic nanoparticles. {yields} The techniques used are viscosity measurements, Small Angle Neutron Scattering technique and magneto-optical birefringence. {yields} Study is useful for magnetic hyperthermia via micelles, as soft actuators, as an artificial micro-muscles, micro-manipulators, etc.

  15. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  16. Synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide: assembly of the exfoliated nanosheet/polyanion composite films and magneto-optical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoping; Ma, Renzhi; Osada, Minoru; Iyi, Nobuo; Ebina, Yasuo; Takada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2006-04-12

    This paper describes a systematic study on the synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), with the aim of achieving fabrication and clarifying the properties of LDH nanosheet/polyanion composite films. Co-Al-CO3 LDH hexagonal platelets of 4 mum in lateral size were synthesized by the urea method under optimized reaction conditions. The as-prepared CO3(2-)-LDH was converted to Cl- -LDH by treating with a NaCl-HCl mixed solution, retaining its high crystallinity and hexagonal platelike morphology. LDHs intercalated with a variety of anions (such as NO3-, ClO4-, acetate, lactate, dodecyl sulfate, and oleate) were further prepared from Cl- -LDH via an anion-exchange process employing corresponding salts. Exchanged products in various anion forms were found to show different delamination behaviors in formamide. Among them, best results were observed for NO3- -LDH in terms of the exfoliating degree and the quality of the exfoliated nanosheets. The delamination gave a pink transparent suspension containing well-defined nanosheets with lateral sizes of up to 2 microm. The resulting nanosheets were assembled layer-by-layer with an anionic polymer, poly(sodium styrene 4-sulfonate) (PSS), onto quartz glass substrates to produce composite films. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements revealed that the assembled multilayer films exhibited an interesting magneto-optical response.

  17. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  18. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  19. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  20. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  1. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  2. Investigation of optical and magneto-optical constants and their surface-oxide-layer effects of single-crystalline GdCo2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.J.; Canfield, P.C.; Lynch, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the optical and magneto-optical properties of single-crystalline GdCo 2 by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and magneto-optical Kerr spectrometry (MOKS). The diagonal component of the optical conductivity tensor of the compound was obtained by SE in the 1.5-5.5 eV region and the off-diagonal component by using the measured magneto-optical parameters (Kerr rotation and ellipticity) by MOKS and the SE data. The measured spectra were corrected for the surface oxide layer by employing a three-phase model treating the oxide layer as nonmagnetic with constant refractive index. The magnitude of the diagonal component becomes enhanced and the optical transition structures of the off-diagonal component become more pronounced by the oxide correction. The overall optical and magneto-optical data are discussed in terms of the calculated spin-polarized band structure and optical absorption of the compound and the effect of the surface oxide layer

  3. Magneto-optical effects of reflection on monocrystals of ferrite garnets, orthoferrites hexaferrites and hematite. [Yttrium oxides iron oxides; europium oxides; bismuth oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinchik, G S; Krylova, V A; Khrebtov, A P; Chepurova, E E

    1975-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the equatorial Kerr effect in visible and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum are given for ferromagnetic dielectrics of different classes: ferrimagnetic ferrite garnets and hexaferrites, as well as weakly ferromagnetic orthoferrites and hematite. A method for the nondestructive magneto-optical data readout using reflected light is proposed and described.

  4. Gauge-Origin Independent Formulation and Implementation of Magneto-Optical Activity within Atomic-Orbital-Density Based Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham Response Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Jørgensen, Poul; Thorvaldsen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A Lagrangian approach has been used to derive gauge-origin independent expressions for two properties that rationalize magneto-optical activity, namely the Verdet constant V(ω) of the Faraday effect and the B term of magnetic circular dichroism. The approach is expressed in terms of an atomic-orb...

  5. Magneto-optical studies of InAsSb emitters for the mid-infra red region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, J.

    2000-01-01

    Room-temperature InAs/lnAsSb light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated for use in gas sensing applications. Molecular beam epitaxy single quantum-well (SQW) and strained-layer superlattice (SLS) samples were grown with band gaps in the mid-infrared region from 3 to 5 μm. AISb and InAIAs barriers were incorporated into the structures in order to enhance the electron confinement in the active region. Electroluminescence measurements were taken at temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 300 K. Room-temperature total output powers of 67 μW/A at λ ∼4.2 μm and 110 μW/A at λ ∼4.3 μm were measured for the best SLS and SQW samples respectively. These powers correspond to internal conversion efficiencies of 2.8% and 2.61%. Typically, an improvement by a factor of 4 to 6 was achieved compared to samples without incorporated electron confining barrier. A further systematic investigation was conducted into the band parameters of the samples. Magneto-electroluminescence experiments were performed at 4.2 K for various injection currents at magnetic fields ranging from 0 T to 5 T. An 8x8 k.p model was implemented for comparison with the experimental results. The magneto-optical experiments on the SLS samples confirm the very good structural quality of the samples. The linewidth of the SLS ground state is less than 8 meV. With a measured reduced effective mass of 0.020 m 0 , the experimental data is in excellent agreement with the theoretical value of 0.019 m 0 obtained from our k.p model. The k.p model assumes a type-ll heterostructure band offset and uses no free fitting parameters. The excellent agreement between theoretical values is evidence for the type-ll band offset in this materials system. In the ca,se of the SQW samples, the magneto-electroluminescence measurements reveal s'everal very narrow subband transitions with a typical FWHM as low as 7.5 meV. For the first time, two quantum well transitions, (e1,hh1) and (e1,lh1), with a reduced effective mass of 0

  6. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  7. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  8. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  9. Complete Stokes polarimetry of magneto-optical Faraday effect in a terbium gallium garnet crystal at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Shaheen, Amrozia; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2013-10-21

    We report the complete determination of the polarization changes caused in linearly polarized incident light due to propagation in a magneto-optically active terbium gallium garnet (TGG) single crystal, at temperatures ranging from 6.3 to 300 K. A 28-fold increase in the Verdet constant of the TGG crystal is seen as its temperature decreases to 6.3 K. In contrast with polarimetry of light emerging from a Faraday material at room temperature, polarimetry at cryogenic temperatures cannot be carried out using the conventional fixed polarizer-analyzer technique because the assumption that ellipticity is negligible becomes increasingly invalid as temperature is lowered. It is shown that complete determination of light polarization in such a case requires the determination of its Stokes parameters, otherwise inaccurate measurements will result with negative implications for practical devices.

  10. Mapping the Landscape of Domain-Wall Pinning in Ferromagnetic Films Using Differential Magneto-Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Robert; Berezovsky, Jesse

    2016-06-01

    The propagation of domain walls in a ferromagnetic film is largely determined by domain-wall pinning at defects in the material. In this article, we map the effective potential landscape for domain-wall pinning in permalloy films by raster scanning a single ferromagnetic vortex and monitoring the hysteretic vortex displacement vs applied magnetic field. The measurement is carried out using a differential magneto-optical microscopy technique which yields spatial sensitivity of approximately 10 nm. We present a simple algorithm for extracting an effective pinning potential from the measurement of vortex displacement vs applied field. The resulting maps of the pinning potential reveal distinct types of pinning sites, which we attribute to quasi-zero-, one-, and two-dimensional defects in the permalloy film.

  11. A flexible experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved broad-band ellipsometry and magneto-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschini, F.; Hedayat, H.; Piovera, C.; Dallera, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gupta, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Carpene, E., E-mail: ettore.carpene@polimi.it [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    A versatile experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements in the visible light range is described. The apparatus is based on the pump-probe technique and combines a broad-band probing beam with an intense near-infrared pump. According to Fresnel scattering matrix formalism, the analysis of the reflected beam at different polarization states of the incident probe light allows one to determine the diagonal and the off-diagonal elements of the dielectric tensor in the investigated sample. Moreover, the pump-probe method permits to study the dynamics of the dielectric response after a short and intense optical excitation. The performance of the experimental apparatus is tested on CrO{sub 2} single crystals as a benchmark.

  12. Enhanced infrared magneto-optical response of the nonmagnetic semiconductor BiTeI driven by bulk Rashba splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, L.; Tokura, Y. [Multiferroics Project, ERATO, JST, c/o Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Schober, G.A.H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Kocsis, V.; Kezsmarki, I. [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H. [CMRG and CERG, RIKEN ASI (Japan); Lee, J.S.; Arita, R.; Nagaosa, N. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We study the magneto-optical (MO) response of the polar semiconducting BiTeI with giant bulk Rashba spin splitting at various carrier densities. Despite being nonmagnetic, the material is found to yield a huge MO activity in the infrared region under moderate magnetic fields (up to 3 T). Our first-principles calculations show that the enhanced MO response of BiTeI comes mainly from the intraband transitions between the Rashba-split bulk conduction bands. These transitions connecting electronic states with opposite spin directions become active due to the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction and give rise to distinct features in the MO spectra with a systematic doping dependence. We predict an even more pronounced enhancement in the low-energy MO response and dc Hall effect near the crossing (Dirac) point of the conduction bands.

  13. Half-metallicity and giant magneto-optical Kerr effect in N-doped NaTaO3

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir

    2012-09-01

    We use density functional theory and the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) approach to analyze the electronic and magneto-optical properties of N-doped NaTaO 3. The mBJ results show a half-metallic nature of NaTaO 2N, in contrast to the generalized gradient approximation. We find a giant polar Kerr rotation of 2.16°at 725 nm wave length (visible region), much higher than in other half-metallic perovskites and the prototypical half-metal PtMnSb. We explain the physical origin of this unexpected property. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A flexible experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved broad-band ellipsometry and magneto-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschini, F.; Hedayat, H.; Piovera, C.; Dallera, C.; Gupta, A.; Carpene, E.

    2015-01-01

    A versatile experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements in the visible light range is described. The apparatus is based on the pump-probe technique and combines a broad-band probing beam with an intense near-infrared pump. According to Fresnel scattering matrix formalism, the analysis of the reflected beam at different polarization states of the incident probe light allows one to determine the diagonal and the off-diagonal elements of the dielectric tensor in the investigated sample. Moreover, the pump-probe method permits to study the dynamics of the dielectric response after a short and intense optical excitation. The performance of the experimental apparatus is tested on CrO 2 single crystals as a benchmark

  15. Magnetic field effects on spectrally resolved lifetime of on-line oxygen monitoring using magneto-optic probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermut, O.; Gallant, P.; Le Bouch, N.; Leclair, S.; Noiseux, I.; Vernon, M.; Morin, J.-F.; Diamond, K.; Patterson, M. S.; Samkoe, K.; Pogue, B.

    2009-02-01

    Multimodal agents that serve as both probes for contrast and light-activated effectors of cellular processes in diseased tissue were developed. These agents were introduced into multicellular tumor spheroids (3D tissue models) and in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken embryo. The luminescence decay was examined using a novel technique involving a spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime apparatus integrated with a weak electromagnet. A spectrallyresolved lifetime setup was used to identify magneto-optic species sensitive to magnetic field effects and distinguish from background emissions. We demonstrate that the applied magnetic fields can alter reaction rates and product distribution of some dyes detected by time- and spectrally-resolved luminescence changes. We will discuss the use of exogenous magneto-optical probes taken up in tumors to both induce phototoxicity, a process that is governed by complex and dynamically evolving mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, and monitor treatment progress. The magnetic field enhancement, measured over a range of weak fields (0-300 mT) is correlated to oxygenation and may be used to monitor dynamic changes occurring due to oxygen consumption over the course of photodynamic therapy. Such online measurements provide the possibility to derive real-time information about response to treatment via monitoring magnetic field enhancement/suppression of the time-resolved, spectrally-resolved luminescence of the probe at the site of the treatment directly. Magnetic perturbation of lifetime can serve as a status reporter, providing optical feedback of oxygen-mediated treatments in situ and allowing for real-time adjustment of a phototherapy treatment plan.

  16. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  17. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  18. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  19. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  20. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  1. Magneto-optical Kerr-effect at low temperatures. Investigation of superconductor/ferromagnet heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Patrick; Bayer, Jonas [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute for Innovative Surfaces FINO, Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany); Stahl, Claudia; Ruoss, Stephen; Graefe, Joachim; Schuetz, Gisela [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Institute for Innovative Surfaces FINO, Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    With XMCD microscopy it is possible to visualize the critical current density of the superconductor YBCO with high spatial resolution. Therefore, soft magnetic CoFeB is introduced as sensor layer. The magnetic stray fields of the supercurrents lead to a local reorientation of the magnetic moments in the ferromagnet, which are then imaged via X-ray microscopy. These experiments have to be carried out at the scanning X-ray microscope MAXYMUS at the synchrotron Bessy II in Berlin. For that purpose pre-characterization of the sensor is highly desirable: Magnetic interactions between the superconductor and the ferromagnetic sensor layer have been investigated at low temperatures using Kerr-effect measurements. Therefore hysteresis loops are obtained by a sophisticated magnet and field ramping setup within the NanoMOKE3 system. The results are used to optimize the ferromagnetic sensor layer for XMCD microscopy of superconductors.

  2. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  3. High resolution eddy current microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M. A.; Jarvis, S. P.; Tokumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample. To achieve a high sensitivity, we used a cantilever with an FeNdBLa particle mounted on the tip. Resistivity measurements are demonstrated on a silicon test structure with a staircase doping profile. Regions with resistivities of 0.0013, 0.0041, and 0.022 Ω cm are clearly resolved with a lateral resolution of approximately 180 nm. For this range of resistivities, the eddy current induced damping is found to depend linearly on the sample resistivity.

  4. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  5. Contributed Review: The feasibility of a fully miniaturized magneto-optical trap for portable ultracold quantum technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J A; Aldous, M; Himsworth, M D

    2014-12-01

    Experiments using laser cooled atoms and ions show real promise for practical applications in quantum-enhanced metrology, timing, navigation, and sensing as well as exotic roles in quantum computing, networking, and simulation. The heart of many of these experiments has been translated to microfabricated platforms known as atom chips whose construction readily lend themselves to integration with larger systems and future mass production. To truly make the jump from laboratory demonstrations to practical, rugged devices, the complex surrounding infrastructure (including vacuum systems, optics, and lasers) also needs to be miniaturized and integrated. In this paper we explore the feasibility of applying this approach to the Magneto-Optical Trap; incorporating the vacuum system, atom source and optical geometry into a permanently sealed micro-litre system capable of maintaining 10(-10) mbar for more than 1000 days of operation with passive pumping alone. We demonstrate such an engineering challenge is achievable using recent advances in semiconductor microfabrication techniques and materials.

  6. The effect of line damping, magneto-optics and parasitic light on the derivation of sunspot vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skumanich, A.; Lites, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    The least square fitting of Stokes observations of sunspots using a Milne-Eddington-Unno model appears to lead, in many circumstances, to various inconsistencies such as anomalously large doppler widths and, hence, small magnetic fields which are significantly below those inferred solely from the Zeeman splitting in the intensity profile. It is found that the introduction of additional physics into the model such as the inclusion of damping wings and magneto-optic birefrigence significantly improves the fit to Stokes parameters. Model fits excluding the intensity profile, i.e., of both magnitude as well as spectral shape of the polarization parameters alone, suggest that parasitic light in the intensity profile may also be a source of inconsistencies. The consequences of the physical changes on the vector properties of the field derived from the Fe I lambda 6173 line for the 17 November 1975 spot as well as on the thermodynamic state are discussed. A Doppler width delta lambda (D) - 25mA is bound to be consistent with a low spot temperature and microturbulence, and a damping constant of a = 0.2.

  7. Magneto-optical Kerr effect in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Yao, Bing; Richardella, Anthony; Kandala, Abhinav; Fraleigh, Robert; Lee, Joon Sue; Samarth, Nitin; Yeats, Andrew; Awschalom, David D.

    2014-03-01

    When a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) is interfaced with magnetism, the breaking of time reversal symmetry results in new phenomena such as the recently observed quantum anomalous Hall effect [C.-Z. Zhang et al., Science340, 167 (2013)]. Thus motivated, we use the polar-mode magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) to probe the temperature- and field-dependent magnetization in molecular beam epitaxy grown Cr-doped thin films of the 3D TI (Bi,Sb)2Te3. Square MOKE hysteresis loops observed at low temperatures indicate robust ferromagnetism with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and Curie temperature that varies from ~ 5 K to ~ 150 K, depending on sample details. A key question is the nature of the ferromagnetism: is it a carrier-mediated mechanism, Van Vleck mechanism or due to extrinsic clusters? We address this issue by varying the magnetic ion concentration and carrier density via sample composition as well as by varying the chemical potential by back gating. Finally, we use spatially-resolved MOKE to image the magnetization in these samples. Supported by ONR and DARPA.

  8. Contributed Review: The feasibility of a fully miniaturized magneto-optical trap for portable ultracold quantum technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, J. A.; Aldous, M.; Himsworth, M. D., E-mail: m.d.himsworth@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Experiments using laser cooled atoms and ions show real promise for practical applications in quantum-enhanced metrology, timing, navigation, and sensing as well as exotic roles in quantum computing, networking, and simulation. The heart of many of these experiments has been translated to microfabricated platforms known as atom chips whose construction readily lend themselves to integration with larger systems and future mass production. To truly make the jump from laboratory demonstrations to practical, rugged devices, the complex surrounding infrastructure (including vacuum systems, optics, and lasers) also needs to be miniaturized and integrated. In this paper we explore the feasibility of applying this approach to the Magneto-Optical Trap; incorporating the vacuum system, atom source and optical geometry into a permanently sealed micro-litre system capable of maintaining 10{sup −10} mbar for more than 1000 days of operation with passive pumping alone. We demonstrate such an engineering challenge is achievable using recent advances in semiconductor microfabrication techniques and materials.

  9. Improvement of diffraction efficiency of three-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulator with magnetophotonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Takagi, H., E-mail: takagi@ee.tut.ac.jp; Lim, P. B.; Inoue, M., E-mail: inoue@tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441 8580 (Japan); Goto, Taichi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441 8580 (Japan); JST, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Horimai, H. [HolyMine Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243 0813 (Japan); Yoshikawa, H. [Department of Computer Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Funabashi, Chiba 274 8501 (Japan); Bove, V. M. [MIT Media Lab, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We have developed three-dimensional magneto-optic spatial light modulators (3D-MOSLMs) that use magnetic domains as submicron scale pixels to represent holograms. Our display system uses a submicron-scale magnetic pixel array on an amorphous TbFe film to create a wide viewing angle hologram. However, in previous work the reconstructed images had a low intensity and a low optical contrast; brightness of the reconstructed image was 4.4 × 10{sup −2 }cd/m{sup 2} with 532 nm illumination light at 10.8 mW/cm{sup 2}, while display standard ISO13406 recommends 100 cd/m{sup 2} or more. In this paper, we describe our development of a 3D-MOSLM composed of an artificial magnetic lattice structure of magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs). The MPCs enhance the diffraction efficiency of reconstructed 3D images and reduce the power consumption for controlling the magnetic pixels by a light localization effect. We demonstrate reconstructed 3D images using the MPC and show significant brightness improvement.

  10. Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) and a ``Twist'' on Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation (NMOR) with Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.

  11. Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation produced by atoms near a J=1→J=0 transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscinski, Vitalij; Czub, Janusz; Miklaszewski, Wieslaw

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in a medium consisting of J=1→J=0 atoms placed in a static magnetic field is studied. The density matrix approach and irreducible atomic basis are used to describe the state of the atomic system. The stationary propagation equations for two collinear laser beams with perpendicular circular polarizations are derived and analyzed in the case of the magnetic field perpendicular to the light propagation direction. The effect of the linear polarization rotation toward the direction parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field vector and lossless propagation of the resulting light are predicted. The conversion of the circularly polarized beam into linearly polarized one is shown. The propagation of the leading edges of switched on cw-laser beams and their stationary propagation are analyzed numerically. The dependence of the considered effects on the light detuning and on the additional magnetic field component parallel to the light propagation direction is discussed. The destructive role of the collisional relaxation is demonstrated

  12. Magneto-optical Faraday spectroscopy of completely bismuth-substituted Bi3Fe5O12 garnet thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, M; Popova, E; Fouchet, A; Keller, N

    2012-01-01

    We performed a magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectroscopy study of bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 thin single-crystalline films with thickness from 5 to 220 nm. The Faraday rotation and ellipticity spectra were measured for photon energies ranging from 1.7 to 4.2 eV. Using a model based on two electric dipole transitions associated with tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites, we successfully reproduce the observed rotation and ellipticity spectra. The sign of both site contributions to the Faraday rotation and ellipticity spectra has been used to interpret the complex thermal dependence of the Faraday rotation and ellipticity. For a Faraday ellipticity, anomalous hysteresis loops have been observed around specific photon energies. To explain the surprising shape of hysteresis loop, a model based on the superposition of two hysteresis loops with opposite sign associated with both sites is proposed. The modelling of these hysteresis loops allows accessing the magnetic properties of each individual sublattice. Finally, we have studied the dependence of the energy level parameters on bismuth content in Yi 3-x Bi x Fe 5 O 12 garnet and on the thickness of bismuth iron garnet. Based on this analysis, we show that MO spectroscopy is a fast and non-destructive technique to determine the bi-deficiency of BIG films.

  13. Magnetic Phase Transition in Ion-Irradiated Ultrathin CoN Films via Magneto-Optic Faraday Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiung-Wu; Chang, Yen-Chu; Chang, Sheng-Chi

    2013-11-15

    The magnetic properties of 1 nm thick in-plane anisotropic Co ultrathin film on ZnO(0001) were investigated through successive 500 eV nitrogen-ion sputtering. Magneto-optical Faraday effects were used to observe the evolution of the ion-irradiated sample in longitudinal and perpendicular magnetic fields. The ferromagnetic phase of the initial in-plane anisotropic fcc β-Co phase transformation to β-Co(N) phase was terminated at paramagnetic CoN x phase. In-plane anisotropy with weak out-of-plane anisotropy of the Co/ZnO sample was initially observed in the as-grown condition. In the sputtering process, the N⁺ ions induced simultaneous sputtering and doping. An abrupt spin reorientation behavior from in-plane to out-of-plane was found under prolonged sputtering condition. The existence of perpendicular anisotropy measured from the out-of-plane Faraday effect may be attributed to the co-existence of residual β-Co and Co₄N exchange bonding force by the gradual depletion of Co-N thickness.

  14. Competition of Faraday rotation and birefringence in femtosecond laser direct written waveguides in magneto-optical glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Gross, S; Dekker, P; Withford, M J; Steel, M J

    2014-11-17

    We consider the process of Faraday rotation in femtosecond laser direct-write waveguides. The birefringence commonly associated with such waveguides may be expected to impact the observable Faraday rotation. Here, we theoretically calculate and experimentally verify the competition between Faraday rotation and birefringence in two waveguides created by laser writing in a commercial magneto-optic glass. The magnetic field applied to induce Faraday rotation is nonuniform, and as a result, we find that the two effects can be clearly separated and used to accurately determine even weak birefringence. The birefringence in the waveguides was determined to be on the scale of Δn = 10(-6) to 10(-5). The reduction in Faraday rotation caused by birefringence of order Δn = 10(-6) was moderate and we obtained approximately 9° rotation in an 11 mm waveguide. In contrast, for birefringence of order 10(-5), a significant reduction in the polarization azimuth change was found and only 6° rotation was observed.

  15. Solid-state reaction in Ti/Ni multilayered films studied by using magneto-optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y P; Kim, K W; Kim, C G; Kudryavtsev, Y V; Nemoshkalenko, V V; Szymanski, B

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study of the solid-state reaction (SSR) in a series of Ti/Ni multilayered films (MLDs) with bilayer periods of 0.65-22.2 nm and a constant Ti to Ni sublayer thickness ratio was performed by using experimental and computer-simulated magneto-optical (MO) spectroscopy based on different models of MLFs, as well as x-ray diffraction (XRD). The spectral and sublayer thickness dependences of the MO properties of the Ti/Ni MLFs were explained on the basis of the electromagnetic theory. The existence of a threshold nominal Ni-sublayer thickness of about 3 nm for the as-deposited Ti/Ni MLF to observe of the equatorial Kerr effect was explained by a solid-state reaction which formed nonmagnetic alloyed regions between pure components during the MLF deposition. The SSR in the Ti/Ni MLFs, which was caused by the low temperature annealing, led to the formation of an amorphous Ti-Ni alloy and took place mainly in the Ti/Ni MLFs with ''thick'' sublayers. For the caes of Ti/Ni MLFs, the MO approach turned out to...

  16. Magnetic field-induced cluster formation and variation of magneto-optical signals in zinc-substituted ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S.S. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022 (India)]. E-mail: swapna@cusat.ac.in; Rajesh, S. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022 (India); Abraham, V.S. [School of Engineering and Sciences, International University of Bremen, 28759 (Germany); Anantharaman, M.R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022 (India)]. E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com; Nampoori, V.P.N. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22 (India)

    2006-10-15

    Fine magnetic particles (size{approx_equal}100 A) belonging to the series Zn {sub x} Fe{sub 1-} {sub x} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by cold co-precipitation methods and their structural properties were evaluated using X-ray diffraction. Magnetization studies have been carried out using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) showing near-zero loss loop characteristics. Ferrofluids were then prepared employing these fine magnetic powders using oleic acid as surfactant and kerosene as carrier liquid by modifying the usually reported synthesis technique in order to induce anisotropy and enhance the magneto-optical signals. Liquid thin films of these fluids were prepared and field-induced laser transmission through these films was studied. The transmitted light intensity decreases at the centre with applied magnetic field in a linear fashion when subjected to low magnetic fields and saturate at higher fields. This is in accordance with the saturation in cluster formation. The pattern exhibited by these films in the presence of different magnetic fields was observed with the help of a CCD camera and was recorded photographically.

  17. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  18. Influence of magnetic-field inhomogeneity on nonlinear magneto-optical resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustelny, S.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Rochester, S. M.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a sensitivity of the rate of relaxation of ground-state atomic coherences to magnetic-field inhomogeneities is studied. Such coherences give rise to many interesting phenomena in light-atom interactions, and their lifetimes are a limiting factor for achieving better sensitivity, resolution, or contrast in many applications. For atoms contained in a vapor cell, some of the coherence-relaxation mechanisms are related to magnetic-field inhomogeneities. We present a simple model describing relaxation due to such inhomogeneities in a buffer-gas-free antirelaxation-coated cell. A relation is given between relaxation rate and magnetic-field inhomogeneities including the dependence on cell size and atomic species. Experimental results, which confirm predictions of the model, are presented. Different regimes, in which the relaxation rate is equally sensitive to the gradients in any direction and in which it is insensitive to gradients transverse to the bias magnetic field, are predicted and demonstrated experimentally

  19. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  20. Probing the electronic structure of Ni–Mn–In–Si based Heusler alloys thin films using magneto-optical spectra in martensitic and austenitic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, A. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Sokolov, A., E-mail: asokol@unlserve.unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Gan’shina, E.A. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Quetz, Abdiel; Dubenko, I.S. [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Stadler, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Ali, N. [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Titov, I.S.; Rodionov, I.D. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 (Finland); Zhukov, A. [Dpto. de Física de Materiales, Fac. Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Granovsky, A.B. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Sabirianov, R. [Department of Physics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Magneto-optical properties of NiMnIn thin films with a magnetostructural transition. • Comparative analysis of magnetic properties in martensitic and austenite phases. • DFT calculations of the MO Kerr effect and site-resolved DOS agree with experiment. • The electronic structure does not change significantly with Martensitic transition. - Abstract: Thin films of Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 35−x}In{sub 11+x}Si{sub 2} were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on MgO (0 0 1) single crystal substrates. Magnetization as function of temperature for Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 11}Si{sub 2} exhibits features consistent with a magnetostructural transition (MST) from an austenitic phase to a martensitic phase, similar to the bulk material. We observed that the martensitic transformation is externally sensitive to small changes in chemical composition and stoichiometry. It has been found that thin films of Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 34−x}In{sub 11+x}Si{sub 2} with x = 0 and 1 undergo a temperature-induced MST or remain in a stable austenitic phase, respectively. Comparison of magneto-optical transverse Kerr effect spectra obtained at 0.5–4.0 eV in the 35–300 K temperature interval reveal insignificant differences between the martensitic and austenite phases. We found that the field and temperature dependencies of the transverse Kerr effect are quite different from the magnetization behavior, which is attributed to magnetic inhomogeneity across the films. To elucidate the effects of magnetostructural phase transitions on the electronic properties, we performed density functional calculations of the magneto-optical Kerr effect.

  1. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Anix [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Analisis y Evalucion

    1992-12-31

    In this work {sup 29} Si and {sup 27} Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Anix

    1991-01-01

    In this work 29 Si and 27 Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author)

  3. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  4. High resolution CT of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  5. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  6. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  7. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  8. Observations of vector magnetic fields with a magneto-optic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciani, Alessandro; Varsik, John; Zirin, Harold

    1990-01-01

    The use of the magnetooptic filter to observe solar magnetic fields in the potassium line at 7699 A is described. The filter has been used in the Big Bear videomagnetograph since October 23. It gives a high sensitivity and dynamic range for longitudnal magnetic fields and enables measurement of transverse magnetic fields using the sigma component. Examples of the observations are presented.

  9. Transverse magneto-optical anisotropy in bidisperse ferrofluids with long range particle correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfimova, E.A.; Ivanov, A.O. [Ural Federal University, ul. Lenina 51, Yekaterinburg 620000 (Russian Federation); Popescu, L.B. [Institute for Space Sciences, Atomistilor 409, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Socoliuc, V., E-mail: vsocoliuc@acad-tim.tm.edu.ro [Romanian Academy-Timisoara Branch, Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Lab. Magnetic Fluids, Bv.M. Viteazu 24, Timisoara RO-300223 (Romania)

    2017-06-01

    A comparative study between experiment and the predictions of a theoretical model developed for the description of magnetically induced dichroism in ferrofluids with long range interacting bidisperse spherical nanoparticles is presented. Magnetically induced dichroism in dilution series of two ferrofluids with different surfactant thickness was measured. Both ferrofluids show a concave solid volume fraction dependence of the specific dichroism, whose characteristics are very well qualitatively explained by the theoretical model. The theory fails to satisfactorily explain the magnetic field dependence of the highly concentrated samples specific dichroism, due to inherent approximations in the virial expansion of the pair correlation function.

  10. Measurement of the current in water discharge using magneto-optical Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, G.S.; Woodworth, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The observation of magnetooptical Faraday effects in water in experiments with electrical breakdown is presented. After high-voltage breakdown, the ionized channel with ∼4 kA current was generated. The magnetic field from the current channel induces a circular birefringence which results in rotation of the polarization plane of a probing laser (200 ps, 532 nm). In spite of fast opposite radius drop of the magnetic field in radial direction, the Faraday rotation effect drops very slowly. The rotation of the polarization plane was ∼0.65 deg. ±5%. The optical measurements are in good agreement within ∼7% with the electrical measurements of the current

  11. Two-dimensional magneto-optical light modulation in EuTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Roleder, Krystian; Stuhlhofer, Benjamin; Logvenov, Gennady; Simon, Arndt; KöHler, Jürgen

    EuTiO3 is antiferromagnetic at low temperature, namely below TN = 5.7K. In the high temperature paramagnetic phase the strongly nonlinear coupling between the lattice and the nomnially silent Eu 4f7 spins induces magnetic correlations which become apparent in muon spin rotation experiments and more recently in birefringence measurments in an external magnetic field. It is shown here, that high quality films of insulating EuTiO3 deposited on a thin SrTiO3 substrate are versatile tools for light modulation. The operating temperature is close to room temperature and admits multiple device engineering. By using small magnetic fields the birefringence of the samples can be switched off and on. Similarly, rotation of the sample in the field can modify its birefringence Δn. In addition, Δn can be increased by a factor of 4 in very modest fields with simultaneously enhancing the operating temperature by almost 100K. The results can be understood in terms of paramagnon phonon interaction where spin activity is achieved via the local spin-phonon double-well potential.

  12. Wave function analysis of type-II self-assembled quantum dot structures using magneto-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Marcio Peron Franco de; Nakaema, Marcelo K.K.; Gomes, Paulo F.; Iikawa, Fernando; Brasil, Maria Jose S.P.; Bortoleto, Jose Roberto R.; Cotta, Monica A.; Ribeiro, Evaldo; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Marques, Gilmar E.; Bittencourt, A.C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Recently, self-assembled quantum dots have attracted considerable attention for their potential for device applications. Type II interface, in particular, present interesting properties due to the space separation of the carriers. One of the carriers is confined at the lower band gap layer and the other remains at the barrier layers and is only localized by the Coulomb attraction. An essential information for using type II quantum wells and quantum dots on technological applications is the localization of the carrier wave function, which is an experimentally difficult parameter to be measured. Some techniques have been proposed to map the wave functions in quantum dots such as magneto-tunneling spectroscopy and near- field scanning optical microscopy. These techniques involve however a very complex experimental apparatus and sample processing. The magneto-exciton transition can be used as an alternative tool to investigate the exciton wave function distribution, since this distribution has a strong influence on the diamagnetic shift and Zeeman splitting. In this work, we present magneto-optical studies of In P/GaAs type II self-assembled quantum dots, where the electron is strongly confined at the In P, while the hole is weakly localized at the GaAs barrier due to the Coulombic attraction from the electrons. This scenery is very distinct from type I systems. The weaker hole confinement should alter the valence band mixing resulting in a different valence band contribution on the Zeeman splitting as compared to type I systems. Based on the results of the magneto-exciton emission from the wetting layer and from the individual dots, we obtained interesting results concerning the wave function distribution in our system. We discuss the localization of the hole wave function along the growth direction based on the measured Zeeman splitting and the in-plane wave function distribution, based on the observed diamagnetic shift. A remarkable result is that the

  13. High tracking resolution detectors. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  14. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  15. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  16. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  17. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  18. High resolution neutron spectroscopy for helium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; Klages, H.O.; Schmalz, G.; Haesner, B.H.; Kecskemeti, J.; Schwarz, P.; Wilczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution fast neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described, neutron time-of-flight spectra are taken using a specially designed TDC in connection to an on-line computer. The high time-of-flight resolution of 5 ps/m enabled the study of the total cross section of 4 He for neutrons near the 3/2 + resonance in the 5 He nucleus. The resonance parameters were determined by a single level Breit-Winger fit to the data. (orig.)

  19. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.

  20. Electronic structure of antiferromagnetic UN and UPtGe single crystals from optical and magneto-optical spectroscopy; Elektronische Struktur von antiferromagnetischen UN- und UPtGe-Einkristallen aus optischer und magnetooptischer Spektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, M.

    2006-10-12

    In this thesis the study of the magneto-optical Kerr effect and the determination of the optical constants by means of ellipsometry and Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy of UN and UPtGe is described. In UPtGe an optical anisotropy was detected over a spectral range from 6 meV to 32 eV. (HSI)

  1. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  2. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  3. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  4. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  5. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  6. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  7. Synthesis of bis(oxamato) transition metal complexes and Ni nanoparticles and their structural, magnetic, optical, and magneto-optical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, Bjoern

    2008-07-02

    In the framework of this thesis mono- and oligonuclear Cu(II)- anf Ni(II)-bis(oxamato) complexes are synthesized in view on their magneto-optical properties and structurally characterized. About transition-charge and transition-metal induced deviations from the general reaction behaviour described in literature is reported. From electron-spin-resonance studies the spin-density distribution in the mononuclear Cu(II) complexes is derived. The influence on this by coordination geometry as well as the effects of the superexchange interaction are discussed and compared with results from the density functional theory (DFT). Trinuclear bis(oxamato) complexes are for the first time deposited on Si(111) substrates by spin coating and studied by means of the spectroscopic ellipsometry as well as the Raman spectroscopy and evaluated by means of DFT calculations. Magneto-optical Kerr-effect studies were performed on thin layers of these complexes as well as phthalocyanines. For the comparison the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Ni nanoparticles in different organic matrices were studied. By means of the photoelectron spectroscopy the oxidation behaviour of these is studied and conclusions on charge-transfer processes between the matrices and the nanoparticles are drawn. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden ein- und mehrkernige Cu(II)- und Ni(II)-bis-(oxamato)-Komplexe im Hinblick auf ihre magneto-optischen Eigenschaften gezielt hergestellt und strukturell charakterisiert. Ueber ladungs- und uebergangsmetallinduzierte Abweichungen vom allgemeinen in der Literatur beschriebenen Reaktionsverhalten wird berichtet. Aus Elektronenspinresonanz-Untersuchungen wird die Spindichteverteilung in den einkernigen Cu(II)-Komplexen abgeleitet. Die Beeinflussung dieser durch die Koordinationsgeometrie sowie die Auswirkungen auf die Superaustausch- Wechselwirkung werden diskutiert und mit Ergebnissen der Dichtefunktionaltheorie (DFT) verglichen. Dreikernige bis

  8. Detectors for high resolution dynamic pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report reviews the motivation for high spatial resolution in dynamic positron emission tomography of the head and the technical problems in realizing this objective. We present recent progress in using small silicon photodiodes to measure the energy deposited by 511 keV photons in small BGO crystals with an energy resolution of 9.4% full-width at half-maximum. In conjunction with a suitable phototube coupled to a group of crystals, the photodiode signal to noise ratio is sufficient for the identification of individual crystals both for conventional and time-of-flight positron tomography

  9. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  10. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  11. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  12. Thickness and angular dependent magnetic anisotropy of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films by Vectorial Magneto Optical Kerr Magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaluvadi, S. K.; Perna, P.; Ajejas, F.; Camarero, J.; Pautrat, A.; Flament, S.; Méchin, L.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 (001) substrate using angular dependent room temperature Vectorial Magneto-Optical Kerr Magnetometry. The experimental data reveals that the magnetic anisotropy symmetry landscape significantly changes depending upon the strain and thickness. At low film thickness (12 and 25 nm) the dominant uniaxial anisotropy is due to interface effects, step edges due to mis-cut angle of SrTiO3 substrate. At intermediate thickness, the magnetic anisotropy presents a competition between magnetocrystalline (biaxial) and substrate step induced (uniaxial) anisotropy. Depending upon their relative strengths, a profound biaxial or uniaxial or mixed anisotropy is favoured. Above the critical thickness, magnetocrystalline anisotropy dominates all other effects and shows a biaxial anisotropy.

  13. Magneto-optics observation of spontaneous domain structure in ferromagnetic La0.78Ca0.22MnO3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G; Indenbom, M; Markovich, V; Beek, C J van der; Mogilyansky, D; Mukovskii, Ya M

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous ferromagnetic domains in lightly Ca-doped La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 single crystals have been visualized and investigated by means of the magneto-optical technique. In marked difference to the magnetic contrast structures associated with magneto-crystalline anisotropy, which appear only in applied magnetic field, spontaneous ferromagnetic domains show up at low temperatures below the Curie temperature in zero applied field and are characterized by oppositely oriented spontaneous magnetization in adjacent domains. Ferromagnetic domains seen in zero field cooled samples take the form of almost periodic, corrugated stripe-like structures. Application of even a very weak magnetic field during cooling through the magnetic ordering transition changes the stripe domain structures into a bubble domain system

  14. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  15. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  16. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubor, Nenad M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  17. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  18. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  19. Magneto-optical and electromagnetic studies of core connectivity and weak-link behaviour in Cu/MgB2 and Ni/MgB2 wires and tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyanskii, A; Beilin, V; Felner, I; Tsindlekht, M I; Yashchin, E; Dul'kin, E; Galstyan, E; Roth, M; Senkowicz, B; Hellstrom, E

    2004-01-01

    Critical current density, ac susceptibility (real part χ' and magneto-optical (MO) imaging were used to characterize round wire and tapes made from pre-reacted MgB 2 powder by the powder-in-tube method. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated the existence of large-scale weak-link networks in the cores of as-deformed Ni/MgB 2 and Cu/MgB 2 wires and tapes. As-deformed samples showed a two-step transition in χ' versus T traces as evidence of weak links in the tape core. The first heat treatment (HT) of as-deformed tapes led to a sharp susceptibility transition, very strong connection in the tape core as seen in MO images, and high critical current. A second rolling of an as-sintered tape induced a network of defects in the brittle core and gave rise to χ' curve broadening, but did not result in a two-step transition. These data show that deformation-induced cracks are not the primary source of weak-link behaviour. A large decrease in transport current was also registered in this sample. The second HT, for 30 min, restored the sharp magnetic transition and high transport current. Alternating areas of strong and weak connection in the tape core have been observed on MO images. Fast heating and cooling of the as-deformed tape with no dwell time at the maximum temperature resulted in a strongly linked core with a sharp transition and increased transport current. After fast HT, no mechanical defects were observed in MO images. Such fast transformation could be explained by rapid sintering due to highly strained MgB 2 grains

  20. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  1. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  2. Processing method for high resolution monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya

    2006-12-01

    A processing method for high resolution monochromator (HRM) has been developed at Japanese Atomic Energy Agency/Quantum Beam Science Directorate/Synchrotron Radiation Research unit at SPring-8. For manufacturing a HRM, a sophisticated slicing machine and X-ray diffractometer have been installed for shaping a crystal ingot and orienting precisely the surface of a crystal ingot, respectively. The specification of the slicing machine is following; Maximum size of a diamond blade is φ 350mm in diameter, φ 38.1mm in the spindle diameter, and 2mm in thickness. A large crystal such as an ingot with 100mm in diameter, 200mm in length can be cut. Thin crystal samples such as a wafer can be also cut using by another sample holder. Working distance of a main shaft with the direction perpendicular to working table in the machine is 350mm at maximum. Smallest resolution of the main shaft with directions of front-and-back and top-and-bottom are 0.001mm read by a digital encoder. 2mm/min can set for cutting samples in the forward direction. For orienting crystal faces relative to the blade direction adjustment, a one-circle goniometer and 2-circle segment are equipped on the working table in the machine. A rotation and a tilt of the stage can be done by manual operation. Digital encoder in a turn stage is furnished and has angle resolution of less than 0.01 degrees. In addition, a hand drill as a supporting device for detailed processing of crystal is prepared. Then, an ideal crystal face can be cut from crystal samples within an accuracy of about 0.01 degrees. By installation of these devices, a high energy resolution monochromator crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and a beam collimator are got in hand and are expected to be used for nanotechnology studies. (author)

  3. The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.D.; Bowers, C.W.; Feldman, P.D.; Meier, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 angstrom and 1860 angstrom at 2 angstrom resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 angstrom at 7 angstrom resolution on this flight and on a sounding rocket flight on August 29, 1983, under similar viewing geometries and solar zenith angles. Three bands of the N 2 c' 4 system are seen clearly resolved in the dayglow. Analysis of high-resolution N 2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield data shows no anomalous vibrational distribution as has been reported from other observations. The altitude profiles of the observed O and N 2 emissions demonstrate that the MSIS-83 model O and N 2 densities are appropriate for the conditions of both the 1983 and 1985 rocket flights. A reduction of a factor of 2 in the model O 2 density is required for both flights to reproduce the low-altitude atomic oxygen emission profiles. The volume excitation rates calculated using the Hinteregger et al. (1981) SC number-sign 21REFW solar reference spectrum and the photoelectron flux model of Strickland and Meier (1982) need to be scaled upward by a factor of 1.4 for both fights to match the observations

  4. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  5. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  6. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  7. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  8. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  9. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  10. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  11. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  12. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  13. Novel high resolution tactile robotic fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Jankovics, Vince; Gorsic, Matija

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel robotic fingertip based on piezoresistive rubber that can sense pressure tactile stimuli with a high spatial resolution over curved surfaces. The working principle is based on a three-layer sandwich structure (conductive electrodes on top and bottom and piezoresistive...... with specialized data acquisition electronics that acquire 500 frames per second provides rich information regarding contact force, shape and angle for bio- inspired robotic fingertips. Furthermore, a model of estimating the force of contact based on values of the cells is proposed....

  14. Faraday rotation and photoluminescence in heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses for fiber-integrated magneto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-03-10

    We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb(3+) ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 10(21) cm(-3), the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400-1500 nm is found for a Tb(3+) concentration of ~6.5 × 10(21) cm(-3). For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb(3+) photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10(-21) cm(2) for ~ 5.0 × 10(21) cm(-3) Tb(3+). This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10(-24) cm(2)s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb(3+) fiber laser.

  15. Faraday rotation and photoluminescence in heavily Tb3+-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses for fiber-integrated magneto-optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A.; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb3+-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb3+ ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 1021 cm−3, the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400–1500 nm is found for a Tb3+ concentration of ~6.5 × 1021 cm−3. For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb3+ photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10−21 cm2 for ~ 5.0 × 1021 cm−3 Tb3+. This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10−24 cm2s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb3+ fiber laser. PMID:25754819

  16. Interaction of ultra soft magnetic materials with the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Claudia; Treiber, Sebastian; Schuetz, Gisela [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Walker, Patrick [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Aalen University, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We have grown bilayers of optimally doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (YBCO) and ferromagnetic CoFeB on single-crystalline substrates by pulsed laser deposition and sputtering. These heterostructures are typically composed of about 100 nm YBCO and several 10 nm of CoFeB. Regarding the superconductor, the properties of the YBCO film change as a consequence of the vicinity of the ferromagnet. In detail we investigated the critical current density as a function of temperature, applied field and time as well as the transition temperature by SQUID magnetization measurements and quantitative magneto-optical measurements. The amorphous material CoFeB exhibits an in plane anisotropy and a very low coercivity. From magneto-optical images we find that the flux line lattice of the superconductor is mapped into the magnet and still visible as significant magnetic out-of-plane contrast at room temperature. We discuss this phenomenon as a new route to high-resolution mapping of the flux line distribution on a nanometer scale.

  17. High resolution and high speed positron emission tomography data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgiss, S.G.; Byars, L.G.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution positron emission tomography (PET) requires many detectors. Thus, data collection systems for PET must have high data rates, wide data paths, and large memories to histogram the events. This design uses the VMEbus to cost effectively provide these features. It provides for several modes of operation including real time sorting, list mode data storage, and replay of stored list mode data

  18. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  19. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  20. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  1. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  2. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  3. High Resolution Displays Using NCAP Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, A. Brian; Jones, Phil; White, Larry

    1989-07-01

    Nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystals have been found useful for high information content video displays. NCAP materials are liquid crystals which have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix and which have a light transmission which is variable with applied electric fields. Because NCAP materials do not require polarizers, their on-state transmission is substantially better than twisted nematic cells. All dimensional tolerances are locked in during the encapsulation process and hence there are no critical sealing or spacing issues. By controlling the polymer/liquid crystal morphology, switching speeds of NCAP materials have been significantly improved over twisted nematic systems. Recent work has combined active matrix addressing with NCAP materials. Active matrices, such as thin film transistors, have given displays of high resolution. The paper will discuss the advantages of NCAP materials specifically designed for operation at video rates on transistor arrays; applications for both backlit and projection displays will be discussed.

  4. High resolution crystal calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneegans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Lebeau, M.; Vivargent, M.

    1991-01-01

    The search for Higgs bosons above Lep200 reach could be one of the main tasks of the future pp and ee colliders. In the intermediate mass region, and in particular in the range 80-140 GeV/c 2 , only the 2-photon decay mode of a Higgs produced inclusively or in association with a W, gives a good chance of observation. A 'dedicated' very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. A crystal calorimeter can be considered as a conservative approach to such a detector, since a large design and operation experience already exists. The extensive R and D needed for finding a dense, fast and radiation hard crystal, is under way. Guide-lines for designing an optimum calorimeter for LHC are discussed and preliminary configurations are given. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Gd22Fe78 Thin Films in the Photon Energy Range From 1.5 to 5.5 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Jesenská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical and magneto-optical properties of amorphous Gd22Fe78 (GdFe thin films prepared by direct current (DC sputtering on thermally oxidized substrates were characterized by the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical spectroscopy in the photon energy range from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. Thin SiNx and Ru coatings were used to prevent the GdFe surface oxidation and contamination. Using advanced theoretical models spectral dependence of the complete permittivity tensor and spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient were deduced from experimental data. No significant changes in the optical properties upon different coatings were observed, indicating reliability of used analysis.

  6. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  7. High resolution computed tomography of positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Jackson, H.G.

    1976-10-01

    High resolution computed transaxial radionuclide tomography has been performed on phantoms containing positron-emitting isotopes. The imaging system consisted of two opposing groups of eight NaI(Tl) crystals 8 mm x 30 mm x 50 mm deep and the phantoms were rotated to measure coincident events along 8960 projection integrals as they would be measured by a 280-crystal ring system now under construction. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed images is 7.5 mm FWHM at the center of the ring and approximately 11 mm FWHM at a radius of 10 cm. We present measurements of imaging and background rates under various operating conditions. Based on these measurements, the full 280-crystal system will image 10,000 events per sec with 400 μCi in a section 1 cm thick and 20 cm in diameter. We show that 1.5 million events are sufficient to reliably image 3.5-mm hot spots with 14-mm center-to-center spacing and isolated 9-mm diameter cold spots in phantoms 15 to 20 cm in diameter

  8. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  9. Intraoperative magnetic tracker calibration using a magneto-optic hybrid tracker for 3-D ultrasound-based navigation in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Masahiko; Nakada, Kazuhisa; Sato, Yoshinobu; Konishi, Kozo; Hashizume, Makoto; Tamura, Shinichi

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes a ultrasound (3-D US) system that aims to achieve augmented reality (AR) visualization during laparoscopic surgery, especially for the liver. To acquire 3-D US data of the liver, the tip of a laparoscopic ultrasound probe is tracked inside the abdominal cavity using a magnetic tracker. The accuracy of magnetic trackers, however, is greatly affected by magnetic field distortion that results from the close proximity of metal objects and electronic equipment, which is usually unavoidable in the operating room. In this paper, we describe a calibration method for intraoperative magnetic distortion that can be applied to laparoscopic 3-D US data acquisition; we evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of the method by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although calibration data can be acquired freehand using a magneto-optic hybrid tracker, there are two problems associated with this method--error caused by the time delay between measurements of the optical and magnetic trackers, and instability of the calibration accuracy that results from the uniformity and density of calibration data. A temporal calibration procedure is developed to estimate the time delay, which is then integrated into the calibration, and a distortion model is formulated by zeroth-degree to fourth-degree polynomial fitting to the calibration data. In the in vivo experiment using a pig, the positional error caused by magnetic distortion was reduced from 44.1 to 2.9 mm. The standard deviation of corrected target positions was less than 1.0 mm. Freehand acquisition of calibration data was performed smoothly using a magneto-optic hybrid sampling tool through a trocar under guidance by realtime 3-D monitoring of the tool trajectory; data acquisition time was less than 2 min. The present study suggests that our proposed method could correct for magnetic field distortion inside the patient's abdomen during a laparoscopic procedure within a clinically permissible period of time, as well as

  10. Enhancement of Faraday effect in one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal including a magnetic layer with wavelength dependent off-diagonal elements of dielectric constant tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Chie; Ozaki, Shinsuke; Kura, Hiroaki; Sato, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal (1-D MPC) prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating method, including a magnetic defect layer composed of mixture of CoFe 2 O 4 and SiO 2 , are investigated from both the experimental and theoretical standpoints. The resonant transmission of light was observed around 570 nm in the photonic band gap. The Faraday rotation angle θ F showed two maxima at 490 and 640 nm, and the wavelength dependence of θ F above 760 nm was similar to that of the CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 single-layer film. The two maxima of θ F are attributed to the enhanced Faraday rotation of nonmagnetic TiO 2 layers in the cavity structure and that in magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 layer through the light localization in MPC. The maximum value of θ F due to the magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 layer in the MPC was 22-times larger than that in the single-layer film. The simulation study of MPC with CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 magnetic defect layer, based on the matrix approach method, showed that the resonant light transmission was accompanied by the localization of electric field, and large enhancement of θ F appeared at different wavelengths so as to agree with the experimental features. This can be explained in terms of the wavelength dependent off-diagonal components of the dielectric constant tensor in addition to the large extinction coefficient in the CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 magnetic defect layer. - Highlights: → 1-D magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) prepared by sol-gel method. → Enhancement of Faraday rotation due to the magnetic defect layer of CoFe 2 O 4 . → Shift of wavelength of Faraday rotation maximum from resonant light transmission.

  11. High resolution CT of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Harumi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-02-01

    The emergence of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s has greatly contributed to diagnostic radiology. The brain was the first organ examined with CT, followed by the abdomen. For the chest, CT has also come into use shortly after the introduction in the examination of the thoracic cavity and mediastinum. CT techniques were, however, of limited significance in the evaluation of pulmonary diseases, especially diffuse pulmonary diseases. High-resolution CT (HRCT) has been introduced in clinical investigations of the lung field. This article is designed to present chest radiographic and conventional tomographic interpretations and to introduce findings of HRCT corresponding to the same shadows, with a summation of the significance of HRCT and issues of diagnostic imaging. Materials outlined are tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, bronchopneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphangitic carcinomatosis, sarcoidosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema. Finally, an overview of basic investigations evolved from HRCT is given. (N.K.) 140 refs.

  12. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  13. A high resolution jet analysis for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, S.

    1992-11-01

    A high resolution multijet analysis of hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilation at a C.M.S. energy of 91.2 GeV is described. Hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilations are generated using the Monte Carlo program JETSET7.3 with its two options: Matrix Element (M.E.) and Parton Showers (P.S.). The shower option is used with its default parameter values while the M.E. option is used with an invariant mass cut Y CUT =0.01 instead of 0.02. This choice ensures a better continuity in the evolution of the event shape variables. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 26 figs.; 1 tab

  14. High resolution VUV facility at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, G.; Saraswathy, P.; Rao, P.M.R.; Mishra, A.P.; Kartha, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) generated in the electron storage rings is an unique source for the study of atomic and molecular spectroscopy especially in the vacuum ultra violet region. Realizing the potential of this light source, efforts are in progress to develop a beamline facility at INDUS-1 to carry out high resolution atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This beam line consists of a fore-optic which is a combination of three cylindrical mirrors. The mirrors are so chosen that SR beam having a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) divergence is focussed onto a slit of a 6.65 metre off-plane spectrometer in Eagle Mount equipped with horizontal slit and vertical dispersion. The design of the various components of the beam line is completed. It is decided to build the spectrometer as per the requirements of the user community. Details of the various aspects of the beam line will be presented. (author). 3 figs

  15. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  16. High resolution tomography using analog coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Chesler, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a 30-year program in the development of positron instrumentation, the authors have developed a high resolution bismuth germanate (BGO) ring tomography (PCR) employing 360 detectors and 90 photomultiplier tubes for one plane. The detectors are shaped as trapezoid and are 4 mm wide at the front end. When assembled, they form an essentially continuous cylindrical detector. Light from a scintillation in the detector is viewed through a cylindrical light pipe by the photomultiplier tubes. By use of an analog coding scheme, the detector emitting light is identified from the phototube signals. In effect, each phototube can identify four crystals. PCR is designed as a static device and does not use interpolative motion. This results in considerable advantage when performing dynamic studies. PCR is the positron tomography analog of the γ-camera widely used in nuclear medicine

  17. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  18. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  19. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  20. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensammar, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report here very early results of high resolution (5x10 3 - 4x10 4 ) infrared spectroscopy (1 - 2.5 μm) of different symbiotic stars (T CrB, RW Hya, CI Cyg, PU Vul) observed with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the 3.60m Canada France Hawaii Telescope. These stars are usually considered as interacting binaries and only little details are known about the nature of their cool component. CO absorption lines are detected for the four stars. Very different profiles of hydrogen Brackett γ and helium 10830 A lines are shown for CI Cyg observed at different phases, while Pu Vul shows very intense emission lines

  1. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  2. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  3. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  4. High resolution imaging detectors and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan K

    2015-01-01

    Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control...

  5. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...... high resolution spectral performance by observing emission from hot water vapor in a butane gas burner....

  6. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  7. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  8. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  9. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  11. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  12. Alternative laser system for cesium magneto-optical trap via optical injection locking to sideband of a 9-GHz current-modulated diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wenting; He, Jun; Liu, Zhi; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2012-03-26

    By optical injection of an 852-nm extended-cavity diode laser (master laser) to lock the + 1-order sideband of a ~9-GHz-current-modulated diode laser (slave laser), we generate a pair of phase-locked lasers with a frequency difference up to ~9-GHz for a cesium (Cs) magneto-optical trap (MOT) with convenient tuning capability. For a cesium MOT, the master laser acts as repumping laser, locked to the Cs 6S₁/₂ (F = 3) - 6P₃/₂ (F' = 4) transition. When the + 1-order sideband of the 8.9536-GHz-current-modulated slave laser is optically injection-locked, the carrier operates on the Cs 6S₁/₂ (F = 4) - 6P₃/₂ (F' = 5) cooling cycle transition with -12 MHz detuning and acts as cooling/trapping laser. When carrying a 9.1926-GHz modulation signal, this phase-locked laser system can be applied in the fields of coherent population trapping and coherent manipulation of Cs atomic ground states.

  13. Thickness-dependent magneto-optical effects in hole-doped GaS and GaSe multilayers: a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhou, Xiaodong; Feng, Wanxiang; Fu, Botao; Yao, Yugui

    2018-04-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) GaS and GaSe nanosheets were successfully fabricated and the measured electronic, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties are excellent. Here, using the first-principles density functional theory, we investigate the magnetic, optical, and magneto-optical (MO) Kerr and Faraday effects in hole-doped GaS and GaSe multilayers. GaS and GaSe monolayers (MLs) manifest ferromagnetic ground states by introducing even a small amount of hole doping, whereas the magnetism in GaS and GaSe multilayers are significantly different under hole doping. Our results show that ferromagnetic states can be easily established in GaS bilayers and trilayers under proper hole doping, however, most of GaSe multilayers are more favorable to nonmagnetic states. The magnetic moments in GaS multilayers are weakened remarkably with the increasing of thin film thickness and are negligible more than three MLs. This leads to the thickness dependence of MO Kerr and Faraday effects. Furthermore, the MO effects strongly depend on the doping concentration and therefore are electrically controllable by adjusting the number of holes via gate voltage. The substrate effects on the MO properties are also discussed. Combining the unique MO and other interesting physical properties make GaS and GaSe a superior 2D material platform for semiconductor MO and spintronic nanodevices.

  14. Influence of multiple reflection and optical interference on the magneto-optical properties of Co-Pt alloy films investigated by using the characteristic matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Z. Q.; Lee, Y. P.; Kim, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) of a multilayered system was described by using the characteristic matrix method based on the electromagnetic wave theory. In addition to the multiple reflection and the optical interference, a contribution from the plasma resonance absorption of a metallic layer can be included in the formulation. As an example, we carried out a simulation of the MOKE for Co 0.25 Pt 0.75 alloy films with and without a Pt buffer layer. It was found that the Kerr rotation and the read-out figure of merit of a film directly deposited on a glass substrate were enhanced at a thickness below 40 nm owing to the multiple reflection and the optical interference. This enhancement was more remakable at long wavelengths when light was incident on the substrate side. However, the introduction of a Pt buffer layer was not beneficial in improving the Kerr rotation and the figure of merit, although it promoted the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the film, as reported. The simulated results for an alloy thickness beyond the penetration depth of light agreed well with the experimental data for a prepared 'thick' alloy film

  15. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  16. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of

  17. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  18. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor is based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 μl. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure

  19. Photoionization of Ar2 at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The relative photoionization cross section of Ar 2 was determined at a resolution of 0.07 A in the wavelength region from 800 to 850 A using a new photoionization mass spectrometer that combines a high intensity helium continuum lamp with a free supersonic molecular beam source. In the region studied, the photoionization cross section is dominated by autoionization of molecular Rydberg states, and the structure is diffuse owing to the combined effects of autoionization and predissociation. The molecular photoionization spectrum is extremely complex and shows little resemblence either to the corresponding atomic spectrum (indicating that the spectrum of the dimer is not simply a perturbed atomic spectrum) or to the molecular absorption spectrum at longer wavelengths. The regular vibrational progressions seen at longer wavelengths are absent above the first ionization potential. Detailed spectroscopic analysis is possible for only a small fraction of the observed features; however, vibrational intervals of 50--100 cm -1 suggest that some of the Rydberg states have B 2 Pi/sub 3/2g/ ionic cores. A comparison of the absorption and photoionization spectra shows that, at wavelengths shorter than approx.835 A, many of the excited states decay via mechanisms other than autoionization

  20. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  1. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  2. The High-Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Terebey, Susan; Prince, Thomas A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg is less than b is less than 4.7 deg), along with the molecular clouds in Orion, rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga, has been produced at 60 and 100 microns from IRAS data. The atlas consists of resolution-enhanced co-added images with 1 min - 2 min resolution and co-added images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory H(sub I) line/21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) Galactic plane surveys, which both have similar (approx. 1 min) resolution to the IRAS atlas, provides a powerful tool for studying the interstellar medium, star formation, and large-scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the atlas.

  3. A high resolution β-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Cuzon, J.C.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    1987-01-01

    We present a detector which associates a charge coupled device to a light amplifier. This image sensor must detect weak β-activity, with a 10 μm resolution and should replace the autoradiographic films used for molecular hybridization. The best results are obtained with the 35 S emittor, for which the resolution and the efficiency are respectively 20 μm and 100% (relative to the measured standard source)

  4. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  5. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    extinguishing actions, leaving more resources to improve safety in areas at risk. With the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk with high spatial resolution (900 m2) based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November- April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. About 48000 fire perimeters which burnt about 5500 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 30 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime at national level contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extensible to other geographical areas.

  6. Zeolites - a high resolution electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredsson, V.

    1994-10-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to investigate a number of zeolites (EMT, FAU, LTL, MFI and MOR) and a member of the mesoporous M41S family. The electron optical artefact, manifested as a dark spot in the projected centre of the large zeolite channels, caused by insufficient transfer of certain reflections in the objective lens has been explained. The artefact severely hinders observation of materials confined in the zeolite channels and cavities. It is shown how to circumvent the artefact problem and how to image confined materials in spite of disturbance caused by the artefact. Image processing by means of a Wiener filter has been applied for removal of the artefact. The detailed surface structure of FAU has been investigated. Comparison of experimental micrographs with images simulated using different surface models indicates that the surface can be terminated in different ways depending on synthesis methods. The dealuminated form of FAU (USY) is covered by an amorphous region. Platinum incorporated in FAU has a preponderance to aggregate in the (111) twin planes, probably due to a local difference in cage structure with more spacious cages. It is shown that platinum is intra-zeolitic as opposed to being located on the external surface of the zeolite crystal. This could be deduced from tomography of ultra-thin sections among observations. HRTEM studies of the mesoporous MCM-41 show that the pores have a hexagonal shape and also supports the mechanistic model proposed which involves a cooperative formation of a mesophase including the silicate species as well as the surfactant. 66 refs, 24 figs

  7. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah; William Higgins; Edgar V. Van Loef

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr 3 :Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr 3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr 3 :Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr 3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr 3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr 3 and LaI 3 ) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBr x I 3-x :Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr 3 and LaCl 3 ) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr 3 :Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower than that for LaBr 3 :Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl 3 is lower than that of LaBr 3 ), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce than LaBr 3 :Ce since in some instances (for example, Cd x Zn 1-x Te), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu 2+ and Pr 3+ , tried in LaBr 3 host crystals, the Eu 2+ doped samples exhibited

  8. High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method

  9. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2008-01-01

    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  10. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  11. The high resolution spaghetti hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.; Sonderegger, P.; Paar, H.P.; Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to build a prototype for a hadron calorimeter with scintillating plastic fibres as active material. The absorber material is lead. Provided that these components are used in the appropriate volume ratio, excellent performance may be expected, e.g. an energy resolution of 30%/√E for jet detection. The proposed design offers additional advantages compared to the classical sandwich calorimeter structures in terms of granularity, hermiticity, uniformity, compactness, readout, radiation resistivity, stability and calibration. 22 refs.; 7 figs

  12. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  13. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  14. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  15. Magneto-optical Kerr effect of a Ni.sub.2.00./sub.Mn.sub.1.16./sub.Ga.sub.0.84./sub. single crystal across austenite and intermartensite transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fikacek, Jan; Heczko, Oleg; Kopecký, Vít; Kaštil, Jiří; Honolka, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 452, Apr (2018), s. 373-379 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015088; GA ČR GA16-00043S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Heusler alloys * magneto-optical Kerr effect * martensitic transformation * inter-martensitic transformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  16. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  17. High resolution transmission imaging without lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, J M; Hurst, A C; Maiden, A

    2010-01-01

    The whole history of transmission imaging has been dominated by the lens, whether used in visible-light optics, electron optics or X-ray optics. Lenses can be thought of as a very efficient method of processing a wave front scattered from an object into an image of that object. An alternative approach is to undertake this image-formation process using a computational technique. The crudest scattering experiment is to simply record the intensity of a diffraction pattern. Recent progress in so-called diffractive imaging has shown that it is possible to recover the phase of a scattered wavefield from its diffraction pattern alone, as long as the object (or the illumination on the object) is of finite extent. In this paper we present results from a very efficient phase retrieval method which can image infinitely large fields of view. It may have important applications in improving resolution in electron microscopy, or at least allowing low specification microscopes to achieve resolution comparable to state-of-the-art machines.

  18. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  19. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  20. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  1. High resolution UV spectroscopy and laser-focused nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis combines two at first glance different techniques: High Resolution Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) of small aromatic molecules and Laser Focusing of atoms for Nanofabrication. The thesis starts with the introduction to the high resolution LIF technique of small aromatic

  2. Giant magneto-optical faraday effect in HgTe thin films in the terahertz spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, A M; Astakhov, G V; Pimenov, A; Brüne, C; Buhmann, H; Molenkamp, L W

    2011-03-11

    We report the observation of a giant Faraday effect, using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy on epitaxial HgTe thin films at room temperature. The effect is caused by the combination of the unique band structure and the very high electron mobility of HgTe. Our observations suggest that HgTe is a high-potential material for applications as optical isolator and modulator in the THz spectral range.

  3. High-Resolution Sonars: What Resolution Do We Need for Target Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailhas Yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognition in sonar imagery has long been an active research area in the maritime domain, especially in the mine-counter measure context. Recently it has received even more attention as new sensors with increased resolution have been developed; new threats to critical maritime assets and a new paradigm for target recognition based on autonomous platforms have emerged. With the recent introduction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar systems and high-frequency sonars, sonar resolution has dramatically increased and noise levels decreased. Sonar images are distance images but at high resolution they tend to appear visually as optical images. Traditionally algorithms have been developed specifically for imaging sonars because of their limited resolution and high noise levels. With high-resolution sonars, algorithms developed in the image processing field for natural images become applicable. However, the lack of large datasets has hampered the development of such algorithms. Here we present a fast and realistic sonar simulator enabling development and evaluation of such algorithms.We develop a classifier and then analyse its performances using our simulated synthetic sonar images. Finally, we discuss sensor resolution requirements to achieve effective classification of various targets and demonstrate that with high resolution sonars target highlight analysis is the key for target recognition.

  4. Ultra high resolution X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, U.; Buehler, M.; Hentig, R. von; Hertrich, T.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; Hoehne, J.

    2001-01-01

    CSP Cryogenic Spectrometers GmbH is developing cryogenic energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting detector technology. Superconducting sensors exhibit at least a 10-fold improvement in energy resolution due to their low energy gap compared to conventional Si(Li) or Ge detectors. These capabilities are extremely valuable for the analysis of light elements and in general for the analysis of the low energy range of the X-ray spectrum. The spectrometer is based on a mechanical cooler needing no liquid coolants and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) stage which supplies the operating temperature of below 100 mK for the superconducting sensor. Applications include surface analysis in semiconductor industry as well material analysis for material composition e.g. in ceramics or automobile industry

  5. High resolution method for the magnetic axis localization for multipole magnets on the base of the garnet films technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsev, K.F.; Gribkov, V.L.; Liskov, V.A.; Chervonenkis, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The methods of stretched wires for the localization of the magnetic axis may be inconvenient sometimes in accelerators and colliders of very high energies because of high gradients, large lengths and small apertures. High gradients may deform the wires due to the nonzero magnetic susceptibility and microscopic ferromagnetic particles on their surface. Long wires have large sagittas and small apertures of magnets limit the transversal working domains for the measuring devices. Precision optics magnets possess extreme parameters, in particular, in interaction regions. The magneto-optic (MO) methods of the measurements present some new possibilities for the solution of the above problems. The use of MO films for magnetic field visualization and mapping was proposed and shown that on the basis of Bi-substituted iron garnet films and MO Faraday effect it's possible to obtain the quantitative vector maps of complicated magnetic field structure. Later this was described on a large scale. This method was discussed in terms of its applicability to the magnetic axis localization in quadrupoles of accelerators. In our opinion, the films technology has great advantages as compared with the colloidal solution. In this paper the principles and variants of the films method are presented and further development of the method under discussion is described

  6. Textural Segmentation of High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale

    1995-01-01

    .... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...

  7. Texton-based super-resolution for achieving high spatiotemporal resolution in hybrid camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Kenji; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2010-05-01

    Many super-resolution methods have been proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of images by using iteration and multiple input images. In a previous paper, we proposed the example-based super-resolution method to enhance an image through pixel-based texton substitution to reduce the computational cost. In this method, however, we only considered the enhancement of a texture image. In this study, we modified this texton substitution method for a hybrid camera to reduce the required bandwidth of a high-resolution video camera. We applied our algorithm to pairs of high- and low-spatiotemporal-resolution videos, which were synthesized to simulate a hybrid camera. The result showed that the fine detail of the low-resolution video can be reproduced compared with bicubic interpolation and the required bandwidth could be reduced to about 1/5 in a video camera. It was also shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of the images improved by about 6 dB in a trained frame and by 1.0-1.5 dB in a test frame, as determined by comparison with the processed image using bicubic interpolation, and the average PSNRs were higher than those obtained by the well-known Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method. Compared with that of the Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method, the computational time of our method was reduced to almost 1/10.

  8. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  9. First principles results on TbAl3(BO3)4: A promising magneto-optical material

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Y.

    2011-11-21

    The electronic and optical properties of TbAl3(BO3)4 are determined using density functional theory. The calculated total magnetic moment of 5.96 μB is close to the expected moment of Tb3+. The frequency dependent dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption, optical reflectivity, and energy loss function are explained in terms of the transitions between the valence and conduction bands. We find very high Kerr angles for ultraviolet light and potential for extension, even into the visible range by band structure design.

  10. First principles results on TbAl3(BO3)4: A promising magneto-optical material

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Y.; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of TbAl3(BO3)4 are determined using density functional theory. The calculated total magnetic moment of 5.96 μB is close to the expected moment of Tb3+. The frequency dependent dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption, optical reflectivity, and energy loss function are explained in terms of the transitions between the valence and conduction bands. We find very high Kerr angles for ultraviolet light and potential for extension, even into the visible range by band structure design.

  11. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  12. High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-04-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron light sources in combination with x-ray focusing devices such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors make Laue diffraction on a submicron length scale possible. Analysis of Laue images enables us to determine the deviatoric part of the 3D strain tensor to an accuracy of 2×10-4 in strain with a spatial resolution comparable to the grain size in our thin films. In this paper the application of x-ray microdiffraction to the temperature dependence of the mechanical behavior of a sputtered blanket Cu film and of electroplated damascene Cu lines will be presented. Microdiffraction reveals very large variations in the strain of a film or line from grain to grain. When the strain is averaged over a macroscopic region the results are in good agreement with direct macroscopic stress measurements. However, the strain variations are so large that in some cases in which the average stress is tensile there are some grains actually under compression. The full implications of these observations are still being considered, but it is clear that the mechanical properties of thin film materials are now accessible with new visibility.

  13. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  14. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  15. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  16. High-resolution MRI in detecting subareolar breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peifen; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Okamoto, Kyoko; Nakajima, Yasuo; Fukuda, Mamoru; Maeda, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    Because subareolar breast abscess has a high recurrence rate, a more effective imaging technique is needed to comprehensively visualize the lesions and guide surgery. We performed a high-resolution MRI technique using a microscopy coil to reveal the characteristics and extent of subareolar breast abscess. High-resolution MRI has potential diagnostic value in subareolar breast abscess. This technique can be used to guide surgery with the aim of reducing the recurrence rate.

  17. Magneto-optical and catalytic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag magnetic nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, Md., E-mail: mdamir01031001@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece-İstanbul, Turkey (Turkey); Bio & Nanotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, 34452 Beyazıt/Fatih-İstanbul (Turkey); Güner, S. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece-İstanbul, Turkey (Turkey); Yıldız, A. [Department of Textile Engineering, Namık Kemal University, 59860 Çorlu-Tekirdağ, Turkey (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece-İstanbul, Turkey (Turkey)

    2017-01-01

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag magnetic nanocomposites (MNCs) were successfully synthesized by the simple reflux method for the removal of azo dyes from the industrial aqueous media. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@AgMNCs exhibited high catalytic activity to reduce MB within 20 min from the waste water. The obtained materials were characterized by the means of different techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the single-phase of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel structure. SEM and TEM analysis indicated that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@AgMNCs were nanoparticles like structure with small agglomeration. TG result showed that the products contained 9% of HA. The characteristic peaks of HA at 1601 cm{sup −1} and 1703 cm{sup −1} was observed by the means of FT-IR spectra of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@AgMNCs. The hysteresis (σ–H) curves revealed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag MNCs exhibit a typical superparamagnetic characteristic with a saturation magnetization of 59.11 emu/g and measured magnetic moment is 2.45 µ{sub B}. The average magnetic particle dimension (D{sub mag}) is 13.25 nm. In accordance, the average crystallite and particle dimensions were obtained as 11.50 nm and 13.10 nm from XRD and TEM measurements, respectively. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy was offered as uniaxial and calculated effective anisotropy constant (K{sub eff}) is 2.96×10{sup 5} Erg/g. The blocking temperature was estimated as 522 K. The size-dependent saturation magnetization suggests the existence of a magnetically dead layer as 0.793 nm for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag MNCs. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Kubelka–Munk theory were applied to determine the optical properties of powder samples. The direct optical energy band gap (E{sub g}) values were estimated from Tauc plots between 1.62 eV and 2.12 eV. - Graphical abstract: An illustration for the fabrication of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag MNCs. - Highlights: • The reduction of azo dye such Methylene Blue was instantly completed with

  18. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is ∼2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach

  19. Multi element high resolution scintillator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    A gamma camera scintillator structure, suitable for detecting high energy gamma photons which, in a single scintillator camera, would require a comparatively thick scintillator crystal, so resulting in unacceptable dispersion of light photons, comprises a collimator array of a high Z material with elongated, parallel wall channels with the scintillator material being disposed in one end of the channels so as to form an integrated collimator/scintillator structure. The collimator channel walls are preferably coated with light reflective material and further light reflective surfaces being translucent to gamma photons, may be provided in each channel. The scintillators may be single crystals or preferably comprise a phosphor dispersed in a thermosetting translucent matrix as disclosed in GB2012800A. The light detectors of the assembled camera may be photomultiplier tubes charge coupled devices or charge injection devices. (author)

  20. Dynamics of High-Resolution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran

    the unprecedented amounts of information collected by mobile phones to gain detailed insight into the dynamics of social systems. This dissertation presents an unparalleled data collection campaign, collecting highly detailed traces for approximately 1000 people over the course of multiple years. The availability...... are we all affected by an ever changing network structure? Answering these questions will enrich our understanding of ourselves, our organizations, and our societies. Yet, mapping the dynamics of social networks has traditionally been an arduous undertaking. Today, however, it is possible to use...... of such dynamic maps allows us to probe the underlying social network and understand how individuals interact and form lasting friendships. More importantly, these highly detailed dynamic maps provide us new perspectives at traditional problems and allow us to quantify and predict human life....

  1. A Forward-Looking High-Resolution GPR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kositsky, Joel; Milanfar, Peyman

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) system was designed to help define the optimal radar parameters needed for the efficient standoff detection of buried and surface-laid antitank mines...

  2. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  3. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climate model in recent years ... surface initialization using a regional climate model. ...... ization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Clim. Appl.

  4. High spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    brief overview of some highlights of high spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN is given, mainly obtained with the RGS of XMM-Newton. Future prospects for such observations with XMM-Newton are given.

  5. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  6. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  7. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  8. A temperature-compensated high spatial resolution distributed strain sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belal, Mohammad; Cho, Yuh Tat; Ibsen, Morten; Newson, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme which utilizes the temperature dependence of spontaneous Raman scattering to provide temperature compensation for a high spatial resolution Brillouin frequency-based strain sensor

  9. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  10. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  11. Scene Classification Using High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Jamada

    2002-01-01

    ...), High-spatial resolution (8-meter), 4-color MSI data from IKONOS provide a new tool for scene classification, The utility of these data are studied for the purpose of classifying the Elkhorn Slough and surrounding wetlands in central...

  12. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  13. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri; Gholamreza Hamsi; Tayeb Ramim

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM) of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed...

  14. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  15. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  16. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  17. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  18. High resolution computed tomography of auditory ossicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, M.; Murata, K.; Ohta, F.; Yoshida, A.; Ishida, O.; Kinki Univ., Osaka

    1990-01-01

    Auditory ossicular sections were scanned at section thicknesses (mm)/section interspaces (mm) of 1.5/1.5 (61 patients), 1.0/1.0 (13 patients) or 1.5/1.0 (33 patients). At any type of section thickness/interspace, the malleal and incudal structures were observed with almost equal frequency. The region of the incudostapedial joint and each component part of the stapes were shown more frequently at a section interspace of 1.0 mm than at 1.5 mm. The visualization frequency of each auditory ossicular component on two or more serial sections was investigated. At a section thickness/section interspace of 1.5/1.5, the visualization rates were low except for large components such as the head of the malleus and the body of the incus, but at a slice interspace of 1.0 mm, they were high for most components of the auditory ossicles. (orig.)

  19. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-01-01

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit Δ-Σ ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent

  20. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  1. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-08-06

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  2. High resolution charmonium spectroscopy with antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultimate goal of all physics is to understand the elementary interactions and their manifestations in nature. Remarkable success has been achieved in the understanding of the electromagnetic and weak interactions. However, similar success has eluded the understanding of the strong interactions. Quantum ChromoDynamics, QCD, is the attempt to construct an elementary theory of strong interactions patterned after the highly successful electroweak theory [1]. In this paper, it is claimed that QCD is the theory of strong interactions, and that: hadrons are color singlets made of quarks and antiquarks, each of three colors and (so far) three generations. (u.d), (s.c) and (b.t) and six flavors; the short range WCD interaction is correctly patterned after QED as that due to one-gluon exchange and therefore proportional to 1/r; the additional unique feature of QCD is confinement. It is well approximated by a linear confining potential proportional r. The fact of the matter is that none of the above assertions can be proved. They have to be checked against experimental observations

  3. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-01-01

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  5. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  6. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu; Mjøs, Svein Are; David, Fabrice P.A.; Schmid, Adrien W.

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  7. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Mjøs, Svein Are, E-mail: svein.mjos@kj.uib.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); David, Fabrice P.A. [Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core Facility, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schmid, Adrien W. [Proteomics Core Facility, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  8. A multi-channel high-resolution time recorder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Xiaojun; Song Kezhu; Wang Yanfang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-channel and high-speed time recorder system, which was originally designed to work in the experiments of quantum cryptography research. The novelty of the system is that all the hardware logic is performed by only one FPGA. The system can achieve several desirable features, such as simplicity, high resolution and high processing speed. (authors)

  9. Resolution enhancement of low-quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Q.; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Schutte, Klamer

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of corresponding LR-HR pairs of image patches from the HR still image, high-frequency details are transferred from the HR source to the LR video. The DCT-domain algorithm is much faster than example-based SR in spatial domain 6 because of a reduction in search dimensionality, which is a direct result of the compact and uncorrelated DCT representation. Fast searching techniques like tree-structure vector quantization 16 and coherence search1 are also key to the improved efficiency. Preliminary results on MJPEG sequence show promising result of the DCT-domain SR synthesis approach.

  10. New detector developments for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.; Lorenz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The strength of quantitative, functional imaging using positron emission tomography, specially in small animals, is limited due to the spatial resolution. Therefore, various tomograph designs employing new scintillators, light sensors, or coincidence electronic are investigated to improve resolution without losses in sensitivity. Luminous scintillators with short light decay time in combination with novel readout schemes using photomultipliers or semiconductor detectors are currently tested by several groups and are implemented in tomographs for small animals. This review summarises the state of development in high resolution positron emission tomography with a detailed description of a system incorporating avalanche photodiode arrays and small scintillation crystals. (orig.) [de

  11. High resolution resistivity measurements at the Down Ampney research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Jackson, P.D.; Rainsbury, M.; Raines, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new high resolution resistivity surveying method is described for fault detection and characterisation. The resolution is shown to be significantly higher than conventional apparent resistivity profiling when applied to geological discontinuities such as faults. Nominal fault locations have been determined to an accuracy of 0.5 m, as proven by drilling. Two dimensional profiling and image enhancement of the resulting 2-D data set indicated the possibility of subsidiary fractures and/or lateral changes within the clay to clay' fault zone. The increased resolution allows greater confidence to be placed on both the fault detection and lateral perturbations derived from processed resistance and resistivity images. (Author)

  12. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  13. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  14. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  15. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  16. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A; Angelis, Georgios I; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C; Reader, Andrew J; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-01

    Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The

  17. Two high-frequency mutual inductance bridges with high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Kreuwel, H.J.M.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two mutual inductance bridges are described for operation up to about 100 kHz. Special attention is paid to the sensitivity and resolution of the bridges. Both bridges can be used to measure variations of about 10 pH in the mutual inductance. The first bridge consists of passive elements only

  18. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Ye Weiguo; Han Hui; Li Pengyu

    2003-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronic is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  19. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Li Pengyu; Han Hui; Ye Yanlin

    2005-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronics is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  20. Infrared emission high spectral resolution atlas of the stratospheric limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, William C.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Herath, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    An atlas of high resolution infrared emission spectra identifies a number of gaseous atmospheric features significant to stratospheric chemistry in the 770-900/cm and 1100-1360/cm regions at six zenith angles from 86.7 to 95.1 deg. A balloon-borne Michelson interferometer was flown to obtain about 0.03/cm resolution spectra. Two 10/cm extracts are presented here.

  1. Gamma-Ray Imager With High Spatial And Spectral Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, John L.; Varnell, Larry S.; Wheaton, William A.; Mahoney, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma-ray instrument developed to enable both two-dimensional imaging at relatively high spatial resolution and spectroscopy at fractional-photon-energy resolution of about 10 to the negative 3rd power in photon-energy range from 10 keV to greater than 10 MeV. In its spectroscopic aspect, instrument enables identification of both narrow and weak gamma-ray spectral peaks.

  2. High-resolution regional climate model evaluation using variable-resolution CESM over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effect of climate change at regional scales remains a topic of intensive research. Though computational constraints remain a problem, high horizontal resolution is needed to represent topographic forcing, which is a significant driver of local climate variability. Although regional climate models (RCMs) have traditionally been used at these scales, variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) have recently arisen as an alternative for studying regional weather and climate allowing two-way interaction between these domains without the need for nudging. In this study, the recently developed variable-resolution option within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is assessed for long-term regional climate modeling over California. Our variable-resolution simulations will focus on relatively high resolutions for climate assessment, namely 28km and 14km regional resolution, which are much more typical for dynamically downscaled studies. For comparison with the more widely used RCM method, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model will be used for simulations at 27km and 9km. All simulations use the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) protocols. The time period is from 1979-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (UTC), and year 1979 was discarded as spin up time. The mean climatology across California's diverse climate zones, including temperature and precipitation, is analyzed and contrasted with the Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF) model (as a traditional RCM), regional reanalysis, gridded observational datasets and uniform high-resolution CESM at 0.25 degree with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core. The results show that variable-resolution CESM is competitive in representing regional climatology on both annual and seasonal time scales. This assessment adds value to the use of VRGCMs for projecting climate change over the coming century and improve our understanding of both past and future regional climate related to fine

  3. Validation of High-resolution Climate Simulations over Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Two AMIP2-type (Gates 1992) experiments have been performed with climate versions of ARPEGE/IFS model examine for North Atlantic North Europe, and Norwegian region and analyzed the effect of increasing resolution on the simulated biases. The ECMWF reanalysis or ERA-15 has been used to validate the simulations. Each of the simulations is an integration of the period 1979 to 1996. The global simulations used observed monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SST) as lower boundary condition. All aspects but the horizontal resolutions are similar in the two simulations. The first simulation has a uniform horizontal resolution of T63L. The second one has a variable resolution (T106Lc3) with the highest resolution in the Norwegian Sea. Both simulations have 31 vertical layers in the same locations. For each simulation the results were divided into two seasons: winter (DJF) and summer (JJA). The parameters investigated were mean sea level pressure, geopotential and temperature at 850 hPa and 500 hPa. To find out the causes of temperature bias during summer, latent and sensible heat flux, total cloud cover and total precipitation were analyzed. The high-resolution simulation exhibits more or less realistic climate over Nordic, Artic and European region. The overall performance of the simulations shows improvements of generally all fields investigated with increasing resolution over the target area both in winter (DJF) and summer (JJA).

  4. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    of the massive amounts of data. We present an automated data processing method to quantitatively compare large numbers of spectra from the analysis of complex mixtures, exploiting the full quality of high-resolution mass spectra. By projecting all detected ions - within defined intervals on both the time...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... infusion analyses of crude extract to find the relationship between species from several species terverticillate Penicillium, and also that the ions responsible for the segregation can be identified. Furthermore the process can automate the process of detecting unique species and unique metabolites....

  5. High resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentine, Fernando P P; Herbella, Fernando A M; Silva, Luciana C; Patti, Marco G

    2011-12-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal epiphrenic diverticula is still uncertain even though a concomitant motility disorder is found in the majority of patients in different series. High resolution manometry may allow detection of motor abnormalities in a higher number of patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula compared with conventional manometry. This study aims to evaluate the high resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula. Nine individuals (mean age 63 ± 10 years, 4 females) with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula underwent high resolution manometry. A single diverticulum was observed in eight patients and multiple diverticula in one. Visual analysis of conventional tracings and color pressure plots for identification of segmental abnormalities was performed by two researchers experienced in high resolution manometry. Upper esophageal sphincter was normal in all patients. Esophageal body was abnormal in eight patients; lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in seven patients. Named esophageal motility disorders were found in seven patients: achalasia in six, diffuse esophageal spasm in one. In one patient, a segmental hypercontractile zone was noticed with pressure of 196 mm Hg. High resolution manometry demonstrated motor abnormalities in all patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

  6. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, E.P.; Strathman, M.D.; Reed, D.A.; Odom, R.W.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10 10 ), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 μm for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 μm) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 μm has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  7. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, E P [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Strathman, M D [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Reed, D A [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Odom, R W [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Morse, D H [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Pontau, A E [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10[sup 10]), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 [mu]m for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 [mu]m) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 [mu]m has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  8. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.

    2009-01-01

    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  9. 1024 matrix image reconstruction: usefulness in high resolution chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Chong, Se Min; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    We tried to evaluate whether high resolution chest CT with a 1,024 matrix has a significant advantage in image quality compared to a 512 matrix. Each set of 512 and 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans with both 0.625 mm and 1.25 mm slice thickness were obtained from 26 patients. Seventy locations that contained twenty-four low density lesions without sharp boundary such as emphysema, and forty-six sharp linear densities such as linear fibrosis were selected; these were randomly displayed on a five mega pixel LCD monitor. All the images were masked for information concerning the matrix size and slice thickness. Two chest radiologists scored the image quality of each ar rowed lesion as follows: (1) undistinguishable, (2) poorly distinguishable, (3) fairly distinguishable, (4) well visible and (5) excellently visible. The scores were compared from the aspects of matrix size, slice thickness and the different observers by using ANOVA tests. The average and standard deviation of image quality were 3.09 (± .92) for the 0.625 mm x 512 matrix, 3.16 (± .84) for the 0.625 mm x 1024 matrix, 2.49 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 512 matrix, and 2.35 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 1024 matrix, respectively. The image quality on both matrices of the high resolution chest CT scans with a 0.625 mm slice thickness was significantly better than that on the 1.25 mm slice thickness (ρ < 0.001). However, the image quality on the 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans was not significantly different from that on the 512 matrix high resolution chest CT scans (ρ = 0.678). The interobserver variation between the two observers was not significant (ρ = 0.691). We think that 1024 matrix image reconstruction for high resolution chest CT may not be clinical useful

  10. Optical and magneto-optical effects in Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P., E-mail: suhorukov@imp.uran.ru; Telegin, A. V.; Bebenin, N. G.; Zainullina, R. I.; Mostovshchikova, E. V.; Viglin, N. A. [Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics (Russian Federation); Gan’shina, E. A.; Zykov, G. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Menshchikova, T. K.; Buchkevich, A. A. [Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The concentration, temperature, and magnetic-field dependences of the magnetoreflection and magnetotransmission of natural light in the infrared spectral range and the Kerr effect in single crystals of ferromagnetic Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) spinels have been studied. A relationship of the magneto-optical properties to the electronic band structure of spinels has been established. The most significant changes in the spectra of magnetoreflection, magnetotransmission, and the Kerr effect are shown to be observed for 0.1 < x < 0.25 and are attributable to a rearrangement of the band structure as the composition changes.

  11. Multi-resolution voxel phantom modeling: a high-resolution eye model for computational dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracappa, Peter F; Rhodes, Ashley; Fiedler, Derek

    2014-09-21

    Voxel models of the human body are commonly used for simulating radiation dose with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Due to memory limitations, the voxel resolution of these computational phantoms is typically too large to accurately represent the dimensions of small features such as the eye. Recently reduced recommended dose limits to the lens of the eye, which is a radiosensitive tissue with a significant concern for cataract formation, has lent increased importance to understanding the dose to this tissue. A high-resolution eye model is constructed using physiological data for the dimensions of radiosensitive tissues, and combined with an existing set of whole-body models to form a multi-resolution voxel phantom, which is used with the MCNPX code to calculate radiation dose from various exposure types. This phantom provides an accurate representation of the radiation transport through the structures of the eye. Two alternate methods of including a high-resolution eye model within an existing whole-body model are developed. The accuracy and performance of each method is compared against existing computational phantoms.

  12. High resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy with 67Zn in metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potzel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Moessbauer experiments on metallic systems are described where the high resolution 93.3 keV resonance in 67 Zn is used. In the first part, the Cu-Zn alloy system is investigated and the high energy resolution of this Moessbauer transition is employed to determine small changes of the s-electron density at the 67 Zn nucleus when the Zn concentration is changed. In the second part, Zn metal is taken as an example to demonstrate that the 93.3 keV transition is also extremely sensitive to small changes of lattice dynamical effects. 7 refs., 18 figs. (author)

  13. High spatial resolution CT image reconstruction using parallel computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yin; Liu Li; Sun Gongxing

    2003-01-01

    Using the PC cluster system with 16 dual CPU nodes, we accelerate the FBP and OR-OSEM reconstruction of high spatial resolution image (2048 x 2048). Based on the number of projections, we rewrite the reconstruction algorithms into parallel format and dispatch the tasks to each CPU. By parallel computing, the speedup factor is roughly equal to the number of CPUs, which can be up to about 25 times when 25 CPUs used. This technique is very suitable for real-time high spatial resolution CT image reconstruction. (authors)

  14. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs

  15. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Quantifying and containing the curse of high resolution coronal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delouille

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO, InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts available at these resolution and cadence will provide a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. For example, if the inhomogeneities in the Quiet Sun emission prevail at higher resolution, one may hope to locally have more photon counts than in the case of a uniform source. It is relevant to quantify how inhomogeneous the quiet corona will be for a pixel pitch that is about 20 times smaller than in the case of SoHO/EIT, and 5 times smaller than TRACE. We perform a first step in this direction by analyzing and characterizing the spatial intermittency of Quiet Sun images thanks to a multifractal analysis. We identify the parameters that specify the scale-invariance behavior. This identification allows next to select a family of multifractal processes, namely the Compound Poisson Cascades, that can synthesize artificial images having some of the scale-invariance properties observed on the recorded images. The prevalence of self-similarity in Quiet Sun coronal images makes it relevant to study the ratio between the SNR present at SoHO/EIT images and in coarsened images. SoHO/EIT images thus play the role of "high resolution" images, whereas the "low-resolution" coarsened images are rebinned so as to simulate a smaller angular resolution and/or a larger distance to the Sun. For a fixed difference in angular resolution and in Spacecraft-Sun distance, we determine the proportion of pixels having a SNR preserved at high resolution given a particular increase in effective area. If scale-invariance continues to prevail at smaller scales, the conclusion reached with SoHO/EIT images can be transposed

  17. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. High resolution radar satellite imagery analysis for safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Christian; Eineder, Michael [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Department of SAR Signal Processing, Wessling, (Germany); Rezniczek, Arnold [UBA GmbH, Herzogenrath, (Germany); Niemeyer, Irmgard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institue of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Juelich, (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For monitoring nuclear sites, the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows essential promises. Unlike optical remote sensing instruments, radar sensors operate under almost all weather conditions and independently of the sunlight, i.e. time of the day. Such technical specifications are required both for continuous and for ad-hoc, timed surveillance tasks. With Cosmo-Skymed, TerraSARX and Radarsat-2, high-resolution SAR imagery with a spatial resolution up to 1m has recently become available. Our work therefore aims to investigate the potential of high-resolution TerraSAR data for nuclear monitoring. This paper focuses on exploiting amplitude of a single acquisition, assessing amplitude changes and phase differences between two acquisitions, and PS-InSAR processing of an image stack.

  19. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  20. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.