WorldWideScience

Sample records for high resolution gamma

  1. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  2. Gamma-Ray Imager With High Spatial And Spectral Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, John L.; Varnell, Larry S.; Wheaton, William A.; Mahoney, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma-ray instrument developed to enable both two-dimensional imaging at relatively high spatial resolution and spectroscopy at fractional-photon-energy resolution of about 10 to the negative 3rd power in photon-energy range from 10 keV to greater than 10 MeV. In its spectroscopic aspect, instrument enables identification of both narrow and weak gamma-ray spectral peaks.

  3. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions

  4. Application of the Oslo method to high resolution gamma spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.

    2015-10-01

    Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is a widely used tool for calculation of the reaction cross section, in particular for astrophysical processes. The HF model requires as an input an optical potential, gamma-strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) to properly model the statistical properties of the nucleus. The Oslo method is a well established technique to extract GSFs and LDs from experimental data, typically used for gamma-spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. Here, the first application of the Oslo method to high-resolution data obtained using the Ge detectors of the STARLITER setup at TAMU is discussed. The GSFs and LDs extracted from (p,d) and (p,t) reactions on 152154 ,Sm targets will be presented.

  5. Performance characteristics of high resolution semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naing, Ko Ko

    1994-05-01

    A high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector has been used in Nuclear Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yangon University for over fourteen years. Now it is still being used and it is coupled to new peripheral devices, such as spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter and computer fit-in S-100 multichannel analyser. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the important parameters: energy resolution, detecting efficiency and relative efficiency of the system. In the present work, these parameters were obtained by using mixed calibrated source. The results were compared to the data given by the manufacturer. Moreover, the parameters of another {gamma}-ray detecting system NaI(T1) were also determined. In conclusion the results obtained from the above two measurements were compared and discussed

  6. Unattented mode monitoring of high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.G.R.; Van Dyck, P.; Debraix, P.

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope Monitoring System (IMS) for unattended spectrum acquisition is described. This consists of a simple low cost flexible software package running on a Compaq 80386 and controlling up to 4 Canberra Packard System 100 multi-channel analyzer (MCA) cards. The IMS permits the independent configuration of each of the 4 MCA cards for different monitoring cycles and for different spectrum acquisition cycles each being based upon different trigger criteria. In this way IMS is able to automatically identify events, time tag them, and acquire and store valid spectra corresponding to those event. An additional feature of IMS permits to run a Multigroup Analysis (MGA) software package for the determination of plutonium isotopic compositions in batch mode. One particular application is discussed which consists of 4 high resolution gamma-ray detector systems connected together to the IMS for unattended spectrum acquisition. The off-line batch mode analysis of the spectra using MGA is also discussed

  7. Performance characteristics of high resolution semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko Ko Naing

    1994-05-01

    A high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector has been used in Nuclear Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yangon University for over fourteen years. Now it is still being used and it is coupled to new peripheral devices, such as spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter and computer fit-in S-100 multichannel analyser. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the important parameters: energy resolution, detecting efficiency and relative efficiency of the system. In the present work, these parameters were obtained by using mixed calibrated source. The results were compared to the data given by the manufacturer. Moreover, the parameters of another γ-ray detecting system NaI(T1) were also determined. In conclusion the results obtained from the above two measurements were compared and discussed

  8. Multidimensional analysis of high resolution. gamma. -ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S.; Huettmeier, U.J.; France, G. de; Haas, B.; Romain, P.; Theisen, C.; Vivien, J.P.; Zen, J. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 67 - Strasbourg (France)); Bednarczyk, P. (Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland))

    1992-08-15

    Algorithms are developed to analyze high-fold {gamma}-ray coincidences. Performances of the programs have been tested in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions using events generated with a Monte Carlo simulation. (orig.).

  9. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry; Laboratorio de espectrometria gamma de alta resolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B

    1992-01-15

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  10. The dynamic range of ultra-high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Shafinaz [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Terracol, Stephane F. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Drury, Owen B. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Friedrich, Stephan [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov

    2006-04-15

    We are developing high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma-ray detectors are composed of a bulk superconducting Sn foil absorber attached to a multilayer Mo/Cu transition-edge sensor (TES). The energy resolution of a detector with a 1x1x0.25 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber is 50-90 eV FWHM for {gamma}-rays up to 100 keV, and it decreases for larger absorbers. Here, we present the detector performance for different absorber volumes, and discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and dynamic range.

  11. Gamma-ray spectrometer system with high efficiency and high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Bernard, W.; Dowdy, E.J.; Garcia, C.; Lucas, M.C.; Pratt, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Our gamma-ray spectrometer system, designed for field use, offers high efficiency and high resolution for safeguards applications. The system consists of three 40% high-purity germanium detectors and a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system that calculates a composite spectrum for the three detectors. The LeCroy 3500 mainframe can be operated remotely from the detector array with control exercised through modems and the telephone system. System performance with a mixed source of 125 Sb, 154 Eu, and 155 Eu confirms the expected efficiency of 120% with the overall resolution showing little degradation over that of the worst detector

  12. High Resolution Gamma Ray Analysis of Medical Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillery, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Compton-suppressed high-purity Germanium detectors at the University of Massachusetts Lowell have been used to study medical radioisotopes produced at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP), in particular isotopes such as Pt-191 used for cancer therapy in patients. The ability to precisely analyze the concentrations of such radio-isotopes is essential for both production facilities such as Brookhaven and consumer hospitals across the U.S. Without accurate knowledge of the quantities and strengths of these isotopes, it is possible for doctors to administer incorrect dosages to patients, thus leading to undesired results. Samples have been produced at Brookhaven and shipped to UML, and the advanced electronics and data acquisition capabilities at UML have been used to extract peak areas in the gamma decay spectra. Levels of Pt isotopes in diluted samples have been quantified, and reaction cross-sections deduced from the irradiation parameters. These provide both cross checks with published work, as well as a rigorous quantitative framework with high quality state-of-the-art detection apparatus in use in the experimental nuclear physics community.

  13. CeBr3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Paul; Reed, Michael; Yuan Ding; Reed, Alexis; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2009-01-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr 3 ) has become a material of interest in the race for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at room temperature. This investigation quantified the potential of CeBr 3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector. The performance of CeBr 3 crystals was compared to other scintillation crystals of similar dimensions and detection environments. Comparison of self-activity of CeBr 3 to cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr 3 :Ce) was performed. Energy resolution and relative intrinsic efficiency were measured and are presented.

  14. The Dynamic Range of Ultra-High Resolution Cryogenic Gamma-ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S; Terracol, S F; Drury, O B; Friedrich, S

    2005-01-01

    We are developing high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma-ray detectors are composed of a bulk superconducting Sn foil absorber attached to multilayer Mo/Cu transition-edge sensors (TES). The energy resolution achieved with a 1 x 1 x 0.25 mm 3 Sn absorber is 50 -90eV for γ-rays up to 100 keV and it decreases for large absorber sizes. We discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and dynamic range, as well as development of TES arrays for higher count rates and better sensitivity

  15. Geant4 simulation of a 3D high resolution gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhdar, H.; Kezzar, K.; Aksouh, F.; Assemi, N.; AlGhamdi, S.; AlGarawi, M.; Gerl, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a 3D gamma camera with high position resolution and sensitivity relying on both distance/absorption and Compton scattering techniques and without using any passive collimation. The proposed gamma camera is simulated in order to predict its performance using the full benefit of Geant4 features that allow the construction of the needed geometry of the detectors, have full control of the incident gamma particles and study the response of the detector in order to test the suggested geometries. Three different geometries are simulated and each configuration is tested with three different scintillation materials (LaBr3, LYSO and CeBr3)

  16. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  17. An efficiency study of a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti Climent, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the different curves for the efficiency fit of a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer was made. These curves are used to fit the efficiency of our detector system. In order to study the goodness of the different fits various standards were used, and the ICRP GAM-83 exercise results were employed. (author)

  18. High-resolution gamma-ray measurement systems using a compact electro- mechanically cooled detector system and intelligent software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Neufeld, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Obtaining high-resolution gamma-ray measurements using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the field has been of limited practicality due to the need to use and maintain a supply of liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). This same constraint limits high-resolution gamma measurements in unattended safeguards or treaty Verification applications. We are developing detectors and software to greatly extend the applicability of high-resolution germanium-based measurements for these situations

  19. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency

  20. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates with a prototype High Purity Germanium detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. J.; Amman, M.; Vetter, K.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are required for applications in nuclear safeguards, emergency response, and fundamental nuclear physics. To overcome one of the shortcomings of conventional High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, we have developed a prototype device capable of achieving high event throughput and high energy resolution at very high count rates. This device, the design of which we have previously reported on, features a planar HPGe crystal with a reduced-capacitance strip electrode geometry. This design is intended to provide good energy resolution at the short shaping or digital filter times that are required for high rate operation and which are enabled by the fast charge collection afforded by the planar geometry crystal. In this work, we report on the initial performance of the system at count rates up to and including two million counts per second.

  1. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of culverts containing transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.

    1990-01-01

    A number of concrete culverts used to retrievably store drummed, dry, radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS), were suspected of containing ambiguous quantities of transuranic (TRU) nuclides. These culverts were assayed in place for Pu-239 content using thermal and fast neutron counting techniques. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy on 17 culverts, having neutron emission rates several times higher than expected, showed characteristic gamma-ray signatures of neutron emitters other than Pu-239 (e.g., Pu-238, Pu/Be, or Am/Be neutron sources). This study confirmed the Pu-239 content of the culverts with anomalous neutron rates and established limits on the Pu-239 mass in each of the 17 suspect culverts by in-field, non-intrusive gamma-ray measurements

  2. High spatial resolution gamma imaging detector based on a 5 inch diameter R3292 Hamamatsu PSPMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, R.; Majewski, S.; Kross, B.; Weisenberger, A.G.; Steinbach, D.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution imaging gamma-ray detectors were developed using Hamamatsu's 5 inch diameter R3292 position sensitive PMT (PSPMT) and a variety of crystal scintillator arrays. Special readout techniques were used to maximize the active imaging area while reducing the number of readout channels. Spatial resolutions approaching 1 mm were obtained in a broad energy range from 20 to 511 keV. Results are also presented of coupling the scintillator arrays to the PMT via imaging light guides consisting of acrylic optical fibers

  3. Monte Carlo Simulations of Ultra-High Energy Resolution Gamma Detectors for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, A.; Drury, O.B.; Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-high energy resolution superconducting gamma-ray detectors can improve the accuracy of non-destructive analysis for unknown radioactive materials. These detectors offer an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over conventional high purity germanium detectors. The increase in resolution reduces errors from line overlap and allows for the identification of weaker gamma-rays by increasing the magnitude of the peaks above the background. In order to optimize the detector geometry and to understand the spectral response function Geant4, a Monte Carlo simulation package coded in C++, was used to model the detectors. Using a 1 mm 3 Sn absorber and a monochromatic gamma source, different absorber geometries were tested. The simulation was expanded to include the Cu block behind the absorber and four layers of shielding required for detector operation at 0.1 K. The energy spectrum was modeled for an Am-241 and a Cs-137 source, including scattering events in the shielding, and the results were compared to experimental data. For both sources the main spectral features such as the photopeak, the Compton continuum, the escape x-rays and the backscatter peak were identified. Finally, the low energy response of a Pu-239 source was modeled to assess the feasibility of Pu-239 detection in spent fuel. This modeling of superconducting detectors can serve as a guide to optimize the configuration in future spectrometer designs.

  4. Multi-dimensional analysis of high resolution {gamma}-ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S.; Huettmeier, U.J.; France, G. de; Haas, B.; Romain, P.; Theisen, Ch.; Vivien, J.P.; Zen, J. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1992-12-31

    A new generation of high resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometers capable of recording high-fold coincidence events with a large efficiency will soon be available. Algorithms are developed to analyze high-fold {gamma}-ray coincidences. As a contribution to the software development associated with the EUROGAM spectrometer, the performances of computer codes designed to select multi-dimensional gates from 3-, 4- and 5-fold coincidence databases were tested. The tests were performed on events generated with a Monte Carlo simulation and also on real experimental triple data recorded with the 8{pi} spectrometer and with a preliminary version of the EUROGAM array. (R.P.) 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs.

  5. The Generalized Gamma-DBN for High-Resolution SAR Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zhao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of resolution, effective characterization of synthetic aperture radar (SAR image becomes one of the most critical problems in many earth observation applications. Inspired by deep learning and probability mixture models, a generalized Gamma deep belief network (g Γ-DBN is proposed for SAR image statistical modeling and land-cover classification in this work. Specifically, a generalized Gamma-Bernoulli restricted Boltzmann machine (gΓB-RBM is proposed to capture high-order statistical characterizes from SAR images after introducing the generalized Gamma distribution. After stacking the g Γ B-RBM and several standard binary RBMs in a hierarchical manner, a gΓ-DBN is constructed to learn high-level representation of different SAR land-covers. Finally, a discriminative neural network is constructed by adding an additional predict layer for different land-covers over the constructed deep structure. Performance of the proposed approach is evaluated via several experiments on some high-resolution SAR image patch sets and two large-scale scenes which are captured by ALOS PALSAR-2 and COSMO-SkyMed satellites respectively.

  6. Improved yield of high resolution mercuric iodide gamma-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrish, V.; van den Berg, L.

    1990-01-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) exhibits properties which make it attractive for use as a solid state nuclear radiation detector. The wide bandgap (E g = 2.1 eV) and low dark current allow room temperature operation, while the high atomic number provides a large gamma-ray cross section. However, poor hole transport has been a major limitation in the routine fabrication of high-resolution spectrometers using this material. This paper presents the results of gamma-ray response and charge transport parameter measurements conducted during the past year at EG ampersand G/EM on 96 HgI 2 spectrometers. The gamma-ray response measurements reveal that detector quality is correlated with the starting material used in the crystal growth. In particular, an increased yield of high-resolution spectrometers was obtained from HgI 2 which was synthesized by precipitation from an aqueous solution, as opposed to using material from commercial vendors. Data are also presented which suggest that better spectrometer performance is tied to improved hole transport. Finally, some initial results on a study of detector uniformity reveal spatial variations which may explain why the correlation between hole transport parameters and spectrometer performance is sometimes violated. 6 refs., 3 figs

  7. High-resolution gamma ray attenuation density measurements on mining exploration drill cores, including cut cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.-S.; Bourke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical property measurements are increasingly important in mining exploration. For density determinations on rocks, one method applicable on exploration drill cores relies on gamma ray attenuation. This non-destructive method is ideal because each measurement takes only 10 s, making it suitable for high-resolution logging. However calibration has been problematic. In this paper we present new empirical, site-specific correction equations for whole NQ and BQ cores. The corrections force back the gamma densities to the "true" values established by the immersion method. For the NQ core caliber, the density range extends to high values (massive pyrite, 5 g/cm3) and the correction is thought to be very robust. We also present additional empirical correction factors for cut cores which take into account the missing material. These "cut core correction factors", which are not site-specific, were established by making gamma density measurements on truncated aluminum cylinders of various residual thicknesses. Finally we show two examples of application for the Abitibi Greenstone Belt in Canada. The gamma ray attenuation measurement system is part of a multi-sensor core logger which also determines magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and mineralogy on rock cores, and performs line-scan imaging.

  8. High spectral resolution studies of gamma ray bursts on new missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, U. D.; Acuna, M. H.; Cline, T. L.; Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    Two new missions will be launched in 1996 and 1997, each carrying X-ray and gamma ray detectors capable of high spectral resolution at room temperature. The Argentine Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC-B) and the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) Clark missions will each carry several arrays of X-ray detectors primarily intended for the study of solar flares and gamma-ray bursts. Arrays of small (1 cm 2 ) cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) units will provide x-ray measurements in the 10 to 80 keV range with an energy resolution of ≅6 keV. Arrays of both silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD) and P-intrinsic-N (PIN) photodiodes (for the SAC-B mission only) will provide energy coverage from 2-25 keV with ≅1 keV resolution. For SAC-B, higher energy spectral data covering the 30-300 keV energy range will be provided by CsI(Tl) scintillators coupled to silicon APDs, resulting in similar resolution but greater simplicity relative to conventional CsI/PMT systems. Because of problems with the Pegasus launch vehicle, the launch of SAC-B has been delayed until 1997. The launch of the SSTI Clark mission is scheduled for June 1996

  9. A clinical gamma camera-based pinhole collimated system for high resolution small animal SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y., E-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular; Castro, A.A. de; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Leite, J.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Braga, J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica

    2010-11-15

    The main objective of the present study was to upgrade a clinical gamma camera to obtain high resolution tomographic images of small animal organs. The system is based on a clinical gamma camera to which we have adapted a special-purpose pinhole collimator and a device for positioning and rotating the target based on a computer-controlled step motor. We developed a software tool to reconstruct the target's three-dimensional distribution of emission from a set of planar projections, based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. We present details on the hardware and software implementation. We imaged phantoms and heart and kidneys of rats. When using pinhole collimators, the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the imaging system depend on parameters such as the detector-to-collimator and detector-to-target distances and pinhole diameter. In this study, we reached an object voxel size of 0.6 mm and spatial resolution better than 2.4 and 1.7 mm full width at half maximum when 1.5- and 1.0-mm diameter pinholes were used, respectively. Appropriate sensitivity to study the target of interest was attained in both cases. Additionally, we show that as few as 12 projections are sufficient to attain good quality reconstructions, a result that implies a significant reduction of acquisition time and opens the possibility for radiotracer dynamic studies. In conclusion, a high resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system was developed using a commercial clinical gamma camera, allowing the acquisition of detailed volumetric images of small animal organs. This type of system has important implications for research areas such as Cardiology, Neurology or Oncology. (author)

  10. BiI3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Juan C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Baciak, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Johns, Paul [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sulekar, Soumitra [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Totten, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Nimmagadda, Jyothir [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-04-12

    BiI3 had been investigated for its unique properties as a layered compound semiconductor for many decades. However, despite the exceptional atomic, physical, and electronic properties of this material, good resolution gamma ray spectra had never been reported for BiI3. The shortcomings that previously prevented BiI3 from reaching success as a gamma ray sensor were, through this project, identified and suppressed to unlock the performance of this promising compound. Included in this work were studies on a number of methods which have, for the first time, enabled BiI3 to exhibit spectral performance rivaling many other candidate semiconductors for room temperature gamma ray sensors. New approaches to crystal growth were explored that allow BiI3 spectrometers to be fabricated with up to 2.2% spectral resolution at 662 keV. Fundamental studies on trap states, dopant incorporation, and polarization were performed to enhance performance of this compound. Additionally, advanced detection techniques were applied to display the capabilities of high quality BiI3 spectrometers. Overall, through this work, BiI3 has been revealed as a potentially transformative material for nuclear security and radiation detection sciences.

  11. In-situ high-resolution gamma-spectrometric survey of burial ground-monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1981-09-01

    In situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with an intrinsic germanium detector assembly of special design surveyed the burial ground monitoring wells to locate and identify gamma emitters that may have migrated from the burial trenches toward the water table. Gamma-ray spectra were acquired as a function of depth in each well and recorded on magnetic tape. These spectra were reduced by a series of computer programs to produce count rate versus depth profiles for natural and man-made activities. The original spectra and the profiles have been archived on magnetic tape for comparison with similar future surveys. Large amounts of man-made activities were observed in some of the burial trenches; however, below the trench bottoms, only very low but detectable amounts of 60 Co and 137 Cs were observed in eleven wells. The highest level of man-made gamma activity observed below the trench bottoms has a count rate roughly equal to that observed for uranium daughter activities which are natural to the subsoil

  12. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy applied to bulk sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosanke, K.L.; Koch, C.D.; Wilson, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    A high resolution Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer has been installed and made operational for use in routine bulk sample analysis by the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) geochemical analysis department. The Ge(Li) spectrometer provides bulk sample analyses for potassium, uranium, and thorium that are superior to those obtained by the BFEC sodium iodide spectrometer. The near term analysis scheme permits a direct assay for uranium that corrects for bulk sample self-absorption effects and is independent of the uranium/radium disequilibrium condition of the sample. A more complete analysis scheme has been developed that fully utilizes the gamma-ray data provided by the Ge(Li) spectrometer and that more properly accounts for the sample self-absorption effect. This new analysis scheme should be implemented on the BFEC Ge(Li) spectrometer at the earliest date

  13. A micro-machined retro-reflector for improving light yield in ultra-high-resolution gamma cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, J.W.T.; Korevaar, M.A.N.; Kreuger, R.; Ligtvoet, C.M.; Schotanus, P.; Beekman, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution imaging of x-ray and gamma-ray distributions can be achieved with cameras that use charge coupled devices (CCDs) for detecting scintillation light flashes. The energy and interaction position of individual gamma photons can be determined by rapid processing of CCD images of

  14. Large microcalorimeter arrays for high-resolution X- and gamma-rayspectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, A.S., E-mail: ahoover@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hoteling, N.; Rabin, M.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ullom, J.N.; Bennett, D.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Karpius, P.J.; Vo, D.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Doriese, W.B.; Hilton, G.C.; Horansky, R.D.; Irwin, K.D.; Kotsubo, V. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Lee, D.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Vale, L.R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Microcalorimeter detectors provide unprecedented energy resolution for the measurement of X-rays and soft gamma-rays. Energy resolution in the 100 keV region can be up to an order of magnitude better than planar high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology is well-suited to analysis of materials with complex spectra presenting closely spaced photopeaks. One application area is the measurement and assay of nuclear materials for safeguards and fuel cycle applications. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of a 256-pixel array, and present results of a head-to-head comparison of isotopic determination measurements with high-purity germanium using a plutonium standard. We show that the uncertainty of a single measurement is smaller for the microcalorimeter data compared to the HPGe data when photopeak areas are equal. We identify several key areas where analysis codes can be optimized that will likely lead to improvement in the microcalorimeter performance.

  15. High-resolution imaging gamma-ray spectroscopy with externally segmented germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, J. L.; Mahoney, W. A.; Varnell, L. S.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Externally segmented germanium detectors promise a breakthrough in gamma-ray imaging capabilities while retaining the superb energy resolution of germanium spectrometers. An angular resolution of 0.2 deg becomes practical by combining position-sensitive germanium detectors having a segment thickness of a few millimeters with a one-dimensional coded aperture located about a meter from the detectors. Correspondingly higher angular resolutions are possible with larger separations between the detectors and the coded aperture. Two-dimensional images can be obtained by rotating the instrument. Although the basic concept is similar to optical or X-ray coded-aperture imaging techniques, several complicating effects arise because of the penetrating nature of gamma rays. The complications include partial transmission through the coded aperture elements, Compton scattering in the germanium detectors, and high background count rates. Extensive electron-photon Monte Carlo modeling of a realistic detector/coded-aperture/collimator system has been performed. Results show that these complicating effects can be characterized and accounted for with no significant loss in instrument sensitivity.

  16. Magnetic Microcalorimeter (MMC) Gamma Detectors with Ultra-High Energy Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    The goal of this LCP is to develop ultra-high resolution gamma detectors based on magnetic microcalorimeters (MMCs) for accurate non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. For highest energy resolution, we will introduce erbium-doped silver (Ag:Er) as a novel sensor material, and implement several geometry and design changes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The detector sensitivity will be increased by developing arrays of 32 Ag:Er pixels read out by 16 SQUID preamplifiers, and by developing a cryogenic Compton veto to reduce the spectral background. Since best MMC performance requires detector operation at ~10 mK, we will purchase a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature <10 mK and adapt it for MMC operation. The detector performance will be tested with radioactive sources of interest to the safeguards community.

  17. High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Kawabata, N.; Ikeda, H.; Kamada, K.

    2013-05-01

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 × 105 at + 20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ± 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

  18. High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T; Kataoka, J; Nakamori, T; Kishimoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Sato, K; Ishikawa, Y; Yamamura, K; Kawabata, N; Ikeda, H; Kamada, K

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 × 10 5 at + 20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ± 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to ≤ 400 kcps per channel. We selected Ce-doped (Lu,Y) 2 (SiO 4 )O (Ce:LYSO) and a brand-new scintillator, Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) due to their high light yield and density. To improve the spatial resolution, these scintillators were fabricated into 15 × 15 matrices of 0.5 × 0.5 mm 2 pixels. The Ce:LYSO and Ce:GAGG scintillator matrices were assembled into phosphor sandwich (phoswich) detectors, and then coupled to the MPPC array along with an acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22 Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

  19. High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Imaging Measurements Using Externally Segmented Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, J.; Mahoney, W.; Skelton, R.; Varnell, L.; Wheaton, W.

    1994-01-01

    Fully two-dimensional gamma-ray imaging with simultaneous high-resolution spectroscopy has been demonstrated using an externally segmented germanium sensor. The system employs a single high-purity coaxial detector with its outer electrode segmented into 5 distinct charge collection regions and a lead coded aperture with a uniformly redundant array (URA) pattern. A series of one-dimensional responses was collected around 511 keV while the system was rotated in steps through 180 degrees. A non-negative, linear least-squares algorithm was then employed to reconstruct a 2-dimensional image. Corrections for multiple scattering in the detector, and the finite distance of source and detector are made in the reconstruction process.

  20. The application of computer technique in routine neutron activation analysis using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, Z.; Plejewska, M.; Staszelis, J.

    1982-01-01

    A full system of four computer programs for routine - qualitative and quantitative - neutron activation analysis (NAA) using high resolution gamma ray-spectrometry had been elaborated. The structure and possibilities of the ''data flow'' programs i.e. programs DIDPDP and DIDCDC, dedicated for fast and reliable ''off line'' data transfer between the buffer memory of the spectrometric line (9-track magnetic tape) and the fast access memory (disc) of the used computers PDP-11/45 and CYBER-73 had been presented. The structure and organization of the ''data processing'' programs i.e. programs SAWAPS and MAZYG had been presented as well. The utility and reliability of these programs in the case of the large-scale, routine NAA, exampled by analysis of filters with air polutants, had been tested and discussed. Programs are written mainly in FORTRAN. (author)

  1. Determination of Pu isotopic composition and 241Am by high resolution gamma spectrometry on solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Arnab; Paul, Sumana; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Tomar, Bhupendra S.

    2011-08-01

    The present report gives a detailed account of the development of non-destructive assay technique using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (HRGS) for determination of plutonium (Pu) isotopic composition and the 241 Am content in solid Pu samples. Energy range 120-420 keV was used in this study. The methodology involves in situ relative efficiency calibration during the measurement process itself, to reduce the errors and increase the reliability of the method. Twenty solid Pu samples of power reactor and research reactor grade were analyzed by this method and the results were compared with those obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the final results depends strongly upon the accuracy of the available nuclear data (decay constant, gamma abundance etc.). MATLAB based programme was written to perform the analysis. A counting time of 4 hour was chosen for achieving good statistics on the results for samples having 100-200 mg of Pu. The attainable accuracy is found to be 0.5-1% for the fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu + 241 Pu) and 5-10% for 241 Am content. (author)

  2. High-resolution measurement of the {sup 16}O({gamma},pn) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, L.

    1996-10-01

    The {sup 16}O({gamma},pn) reaction has been measured with a resolution high enough to resolve individual low-lying states in the residual {sup 14}N nucleus. Partial cross-sections, available to the acceptance of the detector system, have been extracted for the individual states, and compared to a recent calculation based on absorption on one-pion exchange currents and the {Delta} resonance current. The experiment was performed at the Maxlab accelerator laboratory in Lund, Sweden, using tagged photons at an energy of 67 - 76 MeV. The proton detector angular range was 60 - 100 deg and the corresponding for the neutron detector 81 - 103 deg. A missing energy resolution of 1.5 MeV was obtained. The relative population of the states in the residual {sup 14}N nucleus indicates that the reaction takes place predominantly on proton-neutron pairs coupled to (J{sup {pi}},T) = (1{sup +},0). The cross-section for absorption on (0{sup +},1) pairs is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the relative population of the states indicates that both L=0 and L=2 pairs participate in the reaction. 45 refs.

  3. Multi-dimensional analysis of high resolution {gamma}-ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S; Huttmeier, U J; France, G de; Haas, B; Romain, P; Theisen, Ch; Vivien, J P; Zen, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Bednarczyk, P [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-08-01

    High resolution {gamma}-ray multi-detectors capable of measuring high-fold coincidences with a large efficiency are presently under construction (EUROGAM, GASP, GAMMASPHERE). The future experimental progress in our understanding of nuclear structure at high spin critically depends on our ability to analyze the data in a multi-dimensional space and to resolve small photopeaks of interest from the generally large background. Development of programs to process such high-fold events is still in its infancy and only the 3-fold case has been treated so far. As a contribution to the software development associated with the EUROGAM spectrometer, we have written and tested the performances of computer codes designed to select multi-dimensional gates from 3-, 4- and 5-fold coincidence databases. The tests were performed on events generated with a Monte Carlo simulation and also on experimental data (triples) recorded with the 8{pi} spectrometer and with a preliminary version of the EUROGAM array. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. SAMPO 90 - High resolution interactive gamma spectrum analysis including automation with macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Nikkinen, M.T.; Routti, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    SAMPO 90 is a high performance gamma spectrum analysis program for personal computers. It uses high resolution color graphics to display calibrations, spectra, fitting results as multiplet components, and analysis results. All the analysis phases can be done either under full interactive user control or by using macros for automated measurement and analysis sequences including the control of MCAs and sample changers. Semi-automated calibrations for peak shapes (Gaussian with exponential tails), detector efficiency, and energy are available with a possibility for user intervention through interactive graphics. Accurate peak area determination of even the most complex multiplets, of up to 32 components, is accomplished using linear, non-linear and mixed mode fitting, where the component energies and areas can be either frozen or allowed to float in arbitrary combinations. Nuclide identification is done using associated lines techniques which allow interference correction for fully overlapping peaks. Peaked Background Subtraction can be performed and Minimum Detectable Activities calculated. Attenuation corrections can be taken into account in detector efficiency calculation. The most common PC-based MCA spectrum formats (Canberra S100, Ortec ACE, Nucleus PCA, ND AccuSpec) are supported as well as ASCII spectrum files. A gamma-line library is included together with an editor for user configurable libraries. The analysis reports and program parameters are fully customizable. Function key macros can be used to automate the most common analysis procedures. Small batch type modules are additionally available for routine work. SAMPO 90 is a result of over twenty man years of programming and contains 25,000 lines of Fortran, 10,000 lines of C, and 12,000 lines of assembler

  5. A Modular Pipelined Processor for High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Alejandro; Grunfeld, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The design of a digital signal processor for gamma-ray applications is presented in which a single ADC input can simultaneously provide temporal and energy characterization of gamma radiation for a wide range of applications. Applying pipelining techniques, the processor is able to manage and synchronize very large volumes of streamed real-time data. Its modular user interface provides a flexible environment for experimental design. The processor can fit in a medium-sized FPGA device operating at ADC sampling frequency, providing an efficient solution for multi-channel applications. Two experiments are presented in order to characterize its temporal and energy resolution.

  6. Gamma-line intensity difference method for sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn at high resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Remeikis, V; Mazeika, K

    1998-01-01

    The method for detection of small differences in the gamma-spectrum line intensity for the radionuclide in different environments has been developed for measurements at high resolution. The experiments were realized with the pure germanium planar detector. Solution of the methodical problems allowed to measure the relative difference DELTA IOTA subgamma/IOTA subgamma=(3.4+-1.5)*10 sup - sup 4 of the sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn 156.02 keV gamma-line intensity for the radionuclide in SnO sub 2 with respect to SnS from the difference in the gamma-spectra. The error of the result is caused mainly by the statistical accuracy. It is limited by the highest counting rate at sufficiently high energy resolution and relatively short half-life of sup 1 sup 1 sup 7 sup m Sn. (author)

  7. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy and the fascinating angular momentum realm of the atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, M A; Simpson, J; Paul, E S

    2016-01-01

    In 1974 Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson predicted the different ‘phases’ that may be expected in deformed nuclei as a function of increasing angular momentum and excitation energy all the way up to the fission limit. While admitting their picture was highly conjectural they confidently stated ‘...with the ingenious experimental approaches that are being developed, we may look forward with excitement to the detailed spectroscopic studies that will illuminate the behaviour of the spinning quantised nucleus’ . High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy has indeed been a major tool in studying the structure of atomic nuclei and has witnessed numerous significant advances over the last four decades. This article will select highlights from investigations at the Niels Bohr Institute, Denmark, and Daresbury Laboratory, UK, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, some of which have continued at other national laboratories in Europe and the USA to the present day. These studies illustrate the remarkable diversity of phenomena and symmetries exhibited by nuclei in the angular momentum–excitation energy plane that continue to surprise and fascinate scientists. (invited comment)

  8. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy and the fascinating angular momentum realm of the atomic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, M. A.; Simpson, J.; Paul, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    In 1974 Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson predicted the different ‘phases’ that may be expected in deformed nuclei as a function of increasing angular momentum and excitation energy all the way up to the fission limit. While admitting their picture was highly conjectural they confidently stated ‘...with the ingenious experimental approaches that are being developed, we may look forward with excitement to the detailed spectroscopic studies that will illuminate the behaviour of the spinning quantised nucleus’. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy has indeed been a major tool in studying the structure of atomic nuclei and has witnessed numerous significant advances over the last four decades. This article will select highlights from investigations at the Niels Bohr Institute, Denmark, and Daresbury Laboratory, UK, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, some of which have continued at other national laboratories in Europe and the USA to the present day. These studies illustrate the remarkable diversity of phenomena and symmetries exhibited by nuclei in the angular momentum-excitation energy plane that continue to surprise and fascinate scientists.

  9. Cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors with a high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, L.A.; Dorogov, P.G.; Ivanov, V.I.; Khusainov, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers the possibility of improving the energy resolution of cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors through the choice of the geometry and size of the sensitive region of the detector. The optimum ratio of the product of the mobility and lifetime for electrons to the same product for holes from the point of view of energy resolution is greater than or equal to 10 2 for a detector of spherical geometry and should be less than or equal to 10 for a cylindrical geometry and approximately 1 for a planar geometry. The optimum values of the major and minor radii of a spherical detector are calculated

  10. A 3D high-resolution gamma camera for radiopharmaceutical studies with small animals

    CERN Document Server

    Loudos, G K; Giokaris, N D; Styliaris, E; Archimandritis, S C; Varvarigou, A D; Papanicolas, C N; Majewski, S; Weisenberger, D; Pani, R; Scopinaro, F; Uzunoglu, N K; Maintas, D; Stefanis, K

    2003-01-01

    The results of studies conducted with a small field of view tomographic gamma camera based on a Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube are reported. The system has been used for the evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in small animals. Phantom studies have shown a spatial resolution of 2 mm in planar and 2-3 mm in tomographic imaging. Imaging studies in mice have been carried out both in 2D and 3D. Conventional radiopharmaceuticals have been used and the results have been compared with images from a clinically used system.

  11. A high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer based on superconducting microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D. A.; Horansky, R. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80208 (United States); Schmidt, D. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Kotsubo, V.; Mates, J. A. B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Hoover, A. S.; Winkler, R.; Rabin, M. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Alpert, B. K.; Beall, J. A.; Fitzgerald, C. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; O' Neil, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schima, F. J.; Swetz, D. S.; Vale, L. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); and others

    2012-09-15

    Improvements in superconductor device fabrication, detector hybridization techniques, and superconducting quantum interference device readout have made square-centimeter-sized arrays of gamma-ray microcalorimeters, based on transition-edge sensors (TESs), possible. At these collecting areas, gamma microcalorimeters can utilize their unprecedented energy resolution to perform spectroscopy in a number of applications that are limited by closely-spaced spectral peaks, for example, the nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials. We have built a 256 pixel spectrometer with an average full-width-at-half-maximum energy resolution of 53 eV at 97 keV, a useable dynamic range above 400 keV, and a collecting area of 5 cm{sup 2}. We have demonstrated multiplexed readout of the full 256 pixel array with 236 of the pixels (91%) giving spectroscopic data. This is the largest multiplexed array of TES microcalorimeters to date. This paper will review the spectrometer, highlighting the instrument design, detector fabrication, readout, operation of the instrument, and data processing. Further, we describe the characterization and performance of the newest 256 pixel array.

  12. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Fission Product Migration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Blackadder, W H; Ronqvist, N

    1967-04-15

    The migration of solid fission products, in particular caesium and ruthenium, in high temperature oxide fuel can create a severe problem during the application of non-destructive burn-up methods employing gamma spectrometry, since caesium-137 is otherwise the most convenient long-lived burn-up monitor and ruthenium-106 can be used to distinguish between fissions in U-235 and Pu-239. As part of an experimental programme to develop burn-up methods, gamma scanning experiments have been performed on slices of irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets using a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The usefulness of the technique for migration studies has been demonstrated by comparing the fission product distribution curves across the specimen diameters with the microstructure of the specimens after polishing and etching.

  13. A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Zappettini, A.

    2014-01-01

    At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using...

  14. A specially designed cut-off gamma camera for high resolution SPECT of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.A.; Bergstrand, G.; Bergstedt, H.; Berg, J.; Flygare, O.; Schnell, P.O.; Anderson, N.; Lagergren, C.

    1984-01-01

    A modern gamma camera system for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has been modified in order to optimize examinations of the head. By cutting off a part of the detector housing at one edge, it has been possible to rotate the camera close to the skull, still covering the entire brain and the skull base. The minimum radius of rotation used was thereby reduced, in the mean, from 21.2 cm to 13.0 cm in examination of 18 patients. In combination with an adjustment of the 64 x 64 acquisition matrix to a field of view of 26x26 cm/sup 2/, the spatial resolution improved from 18.6 mm (FWHM) to 12.6 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the conventional LEGP-collimator and to 10.4 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the LEHR-collimator. No other modification than a slight cut of the light guide was made in the internal construction of the camera. Thus, the physical properties of the detector head are not essentially changed from those of a non-modified unit. The improved spatial resolution of the cut-off camera SPECT-system implies certain clinical advantages in studies of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-space and the skull base

  15. High resolution gamma spectrometry of size-separated soils from high background areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.R.; Sadasivan, S.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Soil samples from a high background area of Kerala were analysed for their natural radionuclide content and distribution with particle size. The samples exhibited inhomogeneity in activity distribution. The smaller size particles had higher activity. The open air dose estimates are also presented. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Characterization of high density SiPM non-linearity and energy resolution for prompt gamma imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Cozzi, G.; Ferri, A.; Fiorini, C.; Paternoster, G.; Piemonte, C.; Rucatti, D.; Zappalà, G.; Zorzi, N.; Gola, A.

    2017-07-01

    Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) (Trento, Italy) has recently introduced High Density (HD) and Ultra High-Density (UHD) SiPMs, featuring very small micro-cell pitch. The high cell density is a very important factor to improve the linearity of the SiPM in high-dynamic-range applications, such as the scintillation light readout in high-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy and in prompt gamma imaging for proton therapy. The energy resolution at high energies is a trade-off between the excess noise factor caused by the non-linearity of the SiPM and the photon detection efficiency of the detector. To study these effects, we developed a new setup that simulates the LYSO light emission in response to gamma photons up to 30 MeV, using a pulsed light source. We measured the non-linearity and energy resolution vs. energy of the FBK RGB-HD e RGB-UHD SiPM technologies. We considered five different cell sizes, ranging from 10 μm up to 25 μm. With the UHD technology we were able to observe a remarkable reduction of the SiPM non-linearity, less than 5% at 5 MeV with 10 μm cells, which should be compared to a non-linearity of 50% with 25 μm-cell HD-SiPMs. With the same setup, we also measured the different components of the energy resolution (intrinsic, statistical, detector and electronic noise) vs. cell size, over-voltage and energy and we separated the different sources of excess noise factor.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of high purity silver using high resolution gamma-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.N.; Veriovkin, G.V.; Botchkaryov, B.N.; Godovikov, A.A.; Zhavoronkov, V.Ya.; Mikhailov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of neutron activation determination of microimpurities in high purity silver has been developed. For matrix activity separation the extraction of silver by dibuthylsulfide /DBS/ was employed. The purification coefficient was 10 8 after triple extraction. To study the behaviour of microimpurities in the extraction procedure and to determine their chemical yields some tracer experiments were undertaken with radionuclides of Na, Se, Fe, Co, Cu, As, Sc, Te, Zr, Hf, Mo, W, Cd, In, Sb, La, Ce, Eu, Ta, Re, Ir, Ru. All the elements studied were found to remain in the aqueous phase up to 96-99% after triple extraction with DBS. To estimate the accuracy of the method and to study the mutual influence of the elements in the sample in various relative amounts on the accuracy of the analysis, a number of experiments of ''added-found'' type was performed and the results were treated statistically. In these experiments model mixtures of 30 nuclides were analysed after triple DBS extraction. The t-criterion values for the confidence interval at P=0.95 show the absence of systematic errors. Variation coefficient values do not exceed 15%. Using Ge/Li/ detector it was possible to determine 30 elements simultaneously in silver samples. (T.G.)

  18. Report on Ultra-high Resolution Gamma-/X-ray Analysis of Uranium Skull Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Velazquez, M.; Drury, O.; Salaymeh, S.

    2009-01-01

    We have utilized the high energy resolution and high peak-to-background ratio of superconducting TES γ-detectors at very low energies for non-destructive analysis of a skull oxide derived from reprocessed nuclear fuel. Specifically, we demonstrate that superconducting detectors can separate and analyze the strong actinide emission lines in the spectral region below 60 keV that are often obscured in γ-measurements with conventional Ge detectors.

  19. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin [Canberra UK Ltd, Unit 1 B528.1, Harwell Science Campus, Oxfordshire OX11 0DF (United Kingdom); Chard, Patrick [Canberra UK Ltd, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7UZ (United Kingdom); Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, Connecticut, 06450 (United States); MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William [Dounreay Site Restoration Limited, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  20. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ''Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung'' of the association ''Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.'' to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [de

  1. SAMPO 90 high resolution interactive gamma-spectrum analysis including automation with macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Nikkinen, M.T.; Routti, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    SAMPO 90 is high performance gamma-spectrum analysis program for personal computers. It uses color graphics to display calibrations, spectra, fitting results as multiplet components, and analysis results. All the analysis phases can be done either under full interactive user control or macros and programmable function keys can be used for completely automated measurement and analysis sequences including the control of MACs and sample changers. Accurate peak area determination of even the most complex multiplets, of up to 32 components, is accomplished using linear and mixed mode fitting. Nuclide identification is done using associated lines techniques allowing interference correction for fully overlapping peaks. Peaked Background Subtraction can be performed and Minimum Detectable Activities calculated. The analysis reports and program parameters are fully customizable. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig

  2. Imaging of gamma rays with the WINKLER high-resolution germanium spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, T.R.; Hamilton, T.W.; Hawley, J.D.; Kilner, J.R.; Murphy, M.J.; Nakano, G.H. (Luckheed Palo Alto Research Lab., Palo Alto, CA (US))

    1990-06-01

    The WINKLER spectrometer is a matrix of nine high-purity {ital n}-type germanium detectors developed for astrophysical observations and terrestrial radiation monitoring. The spectrometer has been fitted with a set of modulation collimator grids designed for imaging hard x-ray and gamma-ray sources by the Mertz, Nakano, and Kilner method. This technique employs a pair of gridded collimators in front of each detector with the number of grid bars varying from one to {ital N}, where {ital N} is the number of detectors. When the collimator pairs are rotated through a full 360-degree angular range, the detector signals provide the information for a two-dimensional band-limited Fourier reconstruction of order {ital N}. Tests of the spectrometer with single and multiple point sources as well as continuous source distributions are reported.

  3. High-resolution studies of momentum distributions using perfect crystal gamma diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krexner, G.; Bischof, G.; Jentschel, M.; Boerner, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Positron annihilation spectroscopy has turned out to be highly successful in the investigation of Fermi surfaces, electronic structures and various kinds of defects. On the other hand, algorithms based on density functional theory have made enormous progress in recent years and calculations for the contributions of both delocalized and core electrons in a rapidly increasing number of systems is either already feasible today or to be expected in the near future. By comparison, over the last decades there has been little improvement in the experimental limitations which are still set by the energy resolution of germanium detectors (slightly above 1 keV for annihilation photons close to 500 keV) and the angular resolution in ACAR studies (superior by about one order of magnitude). In addition, coincidence techniques are hampered by low count rates. An alternative is suggested by the fact that, in principle, Bragg diffraction techniques using perfect single crystals provide a way for the precise determination of wavelengths corresponding to energies in the MeV range. The single crystal analyzer instrument PN3 at the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) offers the unique possibility to determine the energy of annihilation photons with an accuracy close to about 1 eV, i.e. an improvement of up to three orders of magnitude in comparison to conventional semiconductor detectors. We discuss possible applications of this spectrometer in high-resolution studies of momentum distributions for both delocalized and core electrons. (author)

  4. In-Situ Assay Of Transuranic Radionuclides In The Vadose Zone Using High-Resolution Spectral Gamma Logging - A Hanford Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Henwood, P.; McCain, R.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes is used to detect and quantify transuranic radionuclides in the subsurface. Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-241, and Np-237 are identified based on characteristic decay gammas. Typical minimum detectable levels are on the order of 20 to 40 nCi/g. In intervals of high transuranic concentrations, gamma rays from other sources may complicate analysis and interpretation. Gamma rays detected in the borehole may originate from three sources: decay of the parent transuranic radionuclide or a daughter; alpha interactions; and interactions with neutrons resulting from either spontaneous fission or alpha particle interactions.

  5. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noroozian, Omid [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Kang, Zhao [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/√(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=λ/Δλ>10{sup 3}.

  6. High-Quality Medium-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectra from Certified Reference Uranium and Plutonium Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsigrai, J.; Muehleisen, A.; ); Weber, A.-L.; Funk, P.; Berlizov, A.; Mintcheva, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) has made an effort to record a collection of medium resolution gamma-ray spectra from well-characterized U and Pu certified reference materials CRM-171 (also known as SRM-969), CBNM-271, and Harwell PIDIE standards. The goal of this exercise was twofold: (i) to complement the international database of reference gamma-ray spectra with high-quality data for medium resolution spectrometers, and (ii) to feed Phase I of the U/Pu isotopic inter-comparison exercise that is being jointly organized by the ESARDA NDA Working Group and IAEA. Phase II of the exercise will be fed by similar spectra recorded by Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). These activities are supported through a joint Member State Support Programmes (MSSP) task and aimed at delivering reliable methodologies for the determination of U/Pu isotopic composition using medium resolution gamma-spectrometers. The latter have obvious benefits for in-field applications, amongst which are better usability, portability and maintainability. As the spectra will be made available online for software developers and end users, ultimately this will also contribute to sustainability as well as the improved and validated performance of existing U/Pu isotopic codes. The spectra were recorded using the IAEA's standard Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3(Ce)) (2.0'' x 0.5'') and Cadmium Zink Telluride (CdZnTe) (500 mm''3) detectors and acquisition electronics. Aiming to acquire the highest quality reference data, the spectra were measured for long acquisition times, ensuring very good counting statistics across potentially useful spectral intervals — up to 1 MeV for the CdZnTe and up to 2.6 MeV for the LaBr3(Ce) detectors. Great attention was also paid to ensure that the measurement geometry was stable and reproducible, and the spectra had minimum influence from background radiation and pile-up effects. The paper will briefly

  7. High-Resolution and -Efficiency Gamma-Ray Detection for the FRIB Decay Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Hannah; Leach, Kyle; Natzke, Connor; FRIB Decay Station Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    As we push our knowledge of nuclear structure to the frontier of the unknown with FRIB, a new high-efficiency, -resolution, and -sensitivity photon-detection device is critical. The FRIB Decay Station Collaboration is working to create a new detector array that meets the needs of the exploratory nature of FRIB by minimizing cost and maximizing efficiency. GEANT4 simulations are being utilized to combine detectors in various configurations to test their feasibility. I will discuss these simulations and how they compare to existing simulations of past-generation decay-spectroscopy equipment. This work has been funded by the DOE Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  8. Cooperation on Improved Isotopic Identification and Analysis Software for Portable, Electrically Cooled High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Jonathan G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Tzu-Fang [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vo, Duc T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, Pierre F. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Weber, Anne-Laure [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2017-07-20

    Under a 2006 agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America and the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) of France, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) within DOE and IRSN initiated a collaboration to improve isotopic identification and analysis of nuclear material [i.e., plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U)]. The specific aim of the collaborative project was to develop new versions of two types of isotopic identification and analysis software: (1) the fixed-energy response-function analysis for multiple energies (FRAM) codes and (2) multi-group analysis (MGA) codes. The project is entitled Action Sheet 4 – Cooperation on Improved Isotopic Identification and Analysis Software for Portable, Electrically Cooled, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Systems (Action Sheet 4). FRAM and MGA/U235HI are software codes used to analyze isotopic ratios of U and Pu. FRAM is an application that uses parameter sets for the analysis of U or Pu. MGA and U235HI are two separate applications that analyze Pu or U, respectively. They have traditionally been used by safeguards practitioners to analyze gamma spectra acquired with high-resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) systems that are cooled by liquid nitrogen. However, it was discovered that these analysis programs were not as accurate when used on spectra acquired with a newer generation of more portable, electrically cooled HRGS (ECHRGS) systems. In response to this need, DOE/NNSA and IRSN collaborated to update the FRAM and U235HI codes to improve their performance with newer ECHRGS systems. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed this work for DOE/NNSA.

  9. Formation properties from high resolution neutron activation gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, D.W.; Underwood, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A neutron activation logging tool has been developed comprising a Five Curie /sup 241/ Am-Be neutron source and a large n-type hyper-pure germanium gamma-ray detector. The tool maintains a constant temperature cryogenic environment for periods in excess of twenty hours. No liquid nitrogen or other consumable material is used in the operating or recharging stages. A large calibration tank in simulated well-bore geometry has been constructed with sand bodies saturated with oil and low salinity water (14,000 ppm NaCl). In the water zone prompt neutron capture gamma-rays from silicon, hydrogen and chlorine were prominent; gamma-rays from inelastic scattering on oxygen and silicon were detected. No gamma-rays arising from inelastic scattering on carbon were detected. These data have been interpreted to yield the porosity, fluid saturations, salinity and matrix composition. In the oil zone, gamma-rays arising from inelastic scattering on oxygen, silicon and carbon were detected. The intensity of the carbon line was very poor, and inadequate for quantitative purposes

  10. Standard guide for high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of soil samples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the identification and quantitative determination of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in soil samples by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. It is applicable to nuclides emitting gamma rays with an approximate energy range of 20 to 2000 keV. For typical gamma-ray spectrometry systems and sample types, activity levels of about 5 Bq (135 pCi) are measured easily for most nuclides, and activity levels as low as 0.1 Bq (2.7 pCi) can be measured for many nuclides. It is not applicable to radionuclides that emit no gamma rays such as the pure beta-emitting radionuclides hydrogen-3, carbon-14, strontium-90, and becquerel quantities of most transuranics. This guide does not address the in situ measurement techniques, where soil is analyzed in place without sampling. Guidance for in situ techniques can be found in Ref (1) and (2). This guide also does not discuss methods for determining lower limits of detection. Such discussions can be found in Refs (3), (4), (5), and (6). 1.2 This guide can be us...

  11. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Axial and Diametral Scanning Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Blackadder, W H; Ronqvist, N

    1967-02-15

    In the gamma spectrometric determination of burn-up the use of a single fission product as a monitor of the specimen fission rate is subject to errors caused by activity saturation or, in certain cases, fission product migration. Results are presented of experiments in which all the resolvable gamma peaks in the fission product spectrum have been used to calculate the fission rate; these results form a pattern which reflect errors in the literature values of the gamma branching ratios, fission yields etc., and also represent a series of empirical correction factors. Axial and diametral scanning experiments on a long-irradiated low-enrichment fuel element are also described and demonstrate that it is possible to differentiate between fissions in U-235 and in Pu-239 respectively by means of the ratios of the Ru-106 activity to the activities of the other fission products.

  12. Advanced techniques for high resolution spectroscopic observations of cosmic gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, J.L.; Pelling, M.R.; Peterson, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    We describe an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer that is currently in development. It will obtain a sensitivity of -4 ph/cm -2 -sec in a 6 hour balloon observation and uses innovative techniques for background reduction and source imaging

  13. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, Sergej; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Tamii, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF) in nuclei in an energy range of about 5-23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method) allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) crucial for the modelling of (n,γ) and (γ,n) reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  14. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassauer Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF in nuclei in an energy range of about 5–23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR crucial for the modelling of (n,γ and (γ,n reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  15. Preliminary Determination of Natural Radioactivity Levels of the State of Qatar using High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiti, H.A.; Regan, P.H.; Bradley, D.A.; Matthews, M.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.

    2009-01-01

    The State of Qatar is a peninsula with a total area of 11,437 km 2 which lies over a geological formation comprising a sequence of limestone, chalk, clay and gypsum. Establishing a baseline for the radioactivity concentration in Qatar's soil is the main purpose behind the present study. The project is focused on obtaining measurements of representative soil samples from various areas in Qatar to establish concentrations of the 235 U, 238 U and 232 Th natural decay chains and also the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K. The 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A wide range of different gamma-ray energy transitions lines arising from the multiple decay products from the 235 U, 238 U and 232 Th decay chains have been analyzed separately to obtain more statistically significant overall results

  16. Rapid non-destructive quantitative estimation of urania/ thoria in mixed thorium uranium di-oxide pellets by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriwastwa, B.B.; Kumar, Anil; Raghunath, B.; Nair, M.R.; Abani, M.C.; Ramachandran, R.; Majumdar, S.; Ghosh, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    A non-destructive technique using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been standardised for quantitative estimation of uranium/thorium in mixed (ThO 2 -UO 2 ) fuel pellets of varying composition. Four gamma energies were selected; two each from the uranium and thorium series and the time of counting has been optimised. This technique can be used for rapid estimation of U/Th percentage in a large number of mixed fuel pellets from a production campaign

  17. High Resolution X-ray Diffraction Dataset for Bacillus licheniformis Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase-acivicin complex: SUMO-Tag Renders High Expression and Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shobha; Pal, Ravi Kant; Gupta, Rani; Goel, Manisha

    2017-02-01

    Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, (GGT) is a ubiquitous protein which plays a central role in glutathione metabolism and has myriad clinical implications. It has been shown to be a virulence factor for pathogenic bacteria, inhibition of which results in reduced colonization potential. However, existing inhibitors are effective but toxic and therefore search is on for novel inhibitors, which makes it imperative to understand the interactions of various inhibitors with the protein in substantial detail. High resolution structures of protein bound to different inhibitors can serve this purpose. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis is one of the model systems that have been used to understand the structure-function correlation of the protein. The structures of the native protein (PDB code 4OTT), of its complex with glutamate (PDB code 4OTU) and that of its precursor mimic (PDB code 4Y23) are available, although at moderate/low resolution. In the present study, we are reporting the preliminary analysis of, high resolution X-ray diffraction data collected for the co-crystals of B. licheniformis, Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, with its inhibitor, Acivicin. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffract X-ray to 1.45 Å resolution. This is the highest resolution data reported for all GGT structures available till now. The use of SUMO fused expression system enhanced yield of the target protein in the soluble fraction, facilitating recovery of protein with high purity. The preliminary analysis of this data set shows clear density for the inhibitor, acivicin, in the protein active site.

  18. Peak fitting and identification software library for high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uher, Josef; Roach, Greg; Tickner, James

    2010-01-01

    A new gamma-ray spectral analysis software package is under development in our laboratory. It can be operated as a stand-alone program or called as a software library from Java, C, C++ and MATLAB TM environments. It provides an advanced graphical user interface for data acquisition, spectral analysis and radioisotope identification. The code uses a peak-fitting function that includes peak asymmetry, Compton continuum and flexible background terms. Peak fitting function parameters can be calibrated as functions of energy. Each parameter can be constrained to improve fitting of overlapping peaks. All of these features can be adjusted by the user. To assist with peak identification, the code can automatically measure half-lives of single or multiple overlapping peaks from a time series of spectra. It implements library-based peak identification, with options for restricting the search based on radioisotope half-lives and reaction types. The software also improves the reliability of isotope identification by utilizing Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  19. High-Resolution Measurement of the {sup 4}He({gamma},n) Reaction in the Giant Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Bjoern

    2003-03-01

    A comprehensive near-threshold {sup 4}He(gamma,n) absolute cross section measurement has been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 20 < Eg < 45 MeV tagged photons (covering the Giant Dipole Resonance energy region) were directed towards a liquid {sup 4}He target, and knocked-out neutrons were detected in a pair of 60 cm x 60 cm vetoed NE213A liquid scintillator arrays. The intense and varying charge-neutral experimental backgrounds were carefully quantified and removed from the data using a precision fitting procedure. Eight average laboratory angles (30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 deg) were investigated for eight photon energy bins (25, 27, 29, 31, 35, 36, 39, and 41 MeV), resulting in 64 differential cross sections. These angular distributions were integrated to produce total cross sections as a function of photon energy. The resulting cross sections peak at 1.9 mb at a photon energy of 27 MeV, and fall off to a near-constant value of 1.1 mb by 36 MeV. Further, they are in excellent agreement with those measured by Sims et al. using tagged photons in the Quasi-Deuteron energy region. Overall, the results favor modern theoretical models which are based upon a charge-symmetric nucleon-nucleon force, in marked contrast to the recommendations made by Calarco et al. in 1983 based on the sparse {sup 4}He(gamma,n) data available at the time.

  20. Programme in Basic-Applesoft language for microcomputer to analyse pulse spectra from a high-resolution gamma ray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Marques, D.A.; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Nadai, E.A. de; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1988-01-01

    A programme in BASIC-Applesoft language has been developed for low cost microcomputer to analyze spectra from a high-resolution gamma-ray system (high-purity germanium and 4096 channels analyzer). Data is received by the microcomputer directly from analyzer (4 min) or keyboard and shown on video (4 min) or printed (9,7 min). Graphics of parts of the spectrum can be either shown on video (a cursor is used to identify peaks) or printed. The peak search, centroid, energy, net photopeak area, standard deviation and relative standard deviation are included in the programme (5 min), besides filing of data in flexible disk (1,3 min). The programme was used on a 12 h real-time detection in Marinelli beaker of 1265 g sandy soil sample (Ref-Yellow Latosol, 0-3 cm layer). Thirty-one peaks from U-238 and Th-232 daughters were analyzed (rsd less than 20%), besides natural K-40 and artificial Cs-137, from fallout. (author) [pt

  1. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report; Hochaufloesende Gamma-Spektrometrie an Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern. Erfahrungen, Empfehlungen. Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` of the association ``Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.`` to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz der hochaufloesenden Gammaspektroskopie in Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern hat in den letzten Jahren stetig zugenommen. Der ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` des Fachverbandes fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. hat darum bisherige Erfahrungen zusammengetragen und Empfehlungen fuer den Einsatz dieser Messtechnik erarbeitet. Der Schwerpunkt der Tagung lag beim Vergleich von Germaniumhalbleiter- mit Natriumjodid-Festszintillationsdetektoren.Tl-Detektoren eignen sich v.a. beim Vorhandensein bekannter und zeitlich konstanter Nuklidvektoren (Kernkraftwerke, Nuklearmedizin). Bei unbekanntem bzw. variablem Nuklidvektor (Stoerfall, Unfall, Forschung) sollen Ge-Detektoren benutzt werden (orig./ABI)

  2. A study of radiocaesium concentrations in the Irish marine environment using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal-Quadras, A.; Mitchell, P.I.

    1983-01-01

    A selection of marine samples collected in the vicinity of Dublin Bay on the East Coast of Ireland and Galway Bay on the West Coast have been analyzed with a high resolution Compton suppression spectrometer designed for the analysis of low-level environmental samples. Radiocaesium levels in these samples are compared and some preliminary conclusions presented. The principal components of the spectrometer, which is described in detail, are (I) an upward-locking Ge(Li) detector mounted in a special NPR-type cryostat, (II) active shielding in the form of a well detector fashioned from NE102A scintillator and a NaI(T1) detector, (III) an anti-Compton analyzer and (IV) a multichannel analyzer. The multichannel analyzer is interfaced with a 32K microcomputer to a Digital VAX-11/780 computer where up-to-date gamma spectroscopy techniques are employed for the deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line and estimation of the activity of each radionuclide. (author)

  3. The effect of energy peak drift on the calibration of a high resolution gamma-ray soil density gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    High spatial resolution is obtained from a gamma-ray transmission density gauge by restricting the measured counts to a narrow band of the energy spectrum, close to the emission energy peak. The effect on measurement accuracy of any movement of this measurement window relative to the energy peak was investigated. The findings were related to anticipated energy peak movements in a proposed LED-based gain-stabilization system. Movements of the energy peaks during recording of unstabilized spectra prevented direct comparisons of spectra at different positions. A simulation procedure was, therefore, developed in which movements of the measurement window relative to sets of stable calibration spectra were examined. When analysing spectra, recorded using a gauge with a different gain-stabilization system, accuracy was found to be unaffected by simulated peak movements of up to 0.03 MeV in the direction of increasing energy. However, movements of stabilized spectra in the direction of decreasing energy, and of unstabilized spectra in either direction, increased measurement errors to twice the level of inherent measurement errors within 0.02 MeV, with errors in bulk density of up to 0.7 Mg m −3 for movements of 0.1 MeV. The spectra of the new LED-based stabilization system are expected to behave in a manner similar to the unstabilized system, therefore requiring regular monitoring of the peak position. (author)

  4. Curved crystals for high-resolution focusing of X and gamma rays through a Laue lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Neri, Ilaria

    2013-08-01

    Crystals with curved diffracting planes have been investigated as high-efficiency optical components for the realization of a Laue lens for satellite-borne experiments in astrophysics. At Sensor and Semiconductor Laboratory (Ferrara, Italy) a research and development plan to implement Si and Ge curved crystals by surface grooving technique has been undertaken. The method of surface grooving allows obtaining Si and Ge curved crystals with self-standing curvature, i.e., with no need for external bending device, which is a mandatory issue in satellite-borne experiments. Si and Ge grooved crystals have been characterized by X-ray diffraction at ESRF and ILL to prove their functionality for a high-reflectivity Laue lens.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of high resolution gamma-ray detection for safeguards monitoring at natural uranium conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, S.A., E-mail: dewjisa@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Hertel, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008 MS-6335, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Under the policies proposed by recent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) circulars and policy papers, implementation of safeguards exists when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exists. Under IAEA Policy Paper 18, the starting point for nuclear material under safeguards was reinterpreted, suggesting that purified uranium compounds should be subject to safeguards procedures no later than the first point in the conversion process. In response to this technical need, a combination of simulation models and experimental measurements were employed in previous work to develop and validate gamma-ray nondestructive assay monitoring systems in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). In particular, uranyl nitrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) solution exiting solvent extraction was identified as a key measurement point (KMP). Passive nondestructive assay techniques using high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy were evaluated to determine their viability as a technical means for drawing safeguards conclusions at NUCPs, and if the IAEA detection requirements of 1 significant quantity (SQ) can be met in a timely manner. Building upon the aforementioned previous validation work on detector sensitivity to varying concentrations of uranyl nitrate via a series of dilution measurements, this work investigates detector response parameter sensitivities to gamma-ray signatures of uranyl nitrate. The full energy peak efficiency of a detection system is dependent upon the sample, geometry, absorption, and intrinsic efficiency parameters. Perturbation of these parameters translates into corresponding variations of the 185.7 keV peak area of the {sup 235}U in uranyl nitrate. Such perturbations in the assayed signature impact the quality or versatility of the safeguards conclusions drawn. Given the potentially high throughput of uranyl nitrate in NUCPs, the ability to assay 1 SQ of material requires

  6. Advanced Collimators for Verification of the Pu Isotopic Composition in Fresh Fuel by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, Alain; Berlizov, Andriy

    2013-06-01

    IAEA verification of the nuclear material contained in fresh nuclear fuel assemblies is usually based on neutron coincidence counting (NCC). In the case of uranium fuel, active NCC provides the total content of uranium-235 per unit of length which, combined with active length verification, fully supports the verification. In the case of plutonium fuel, passive NCC provides the plutonium-240 equivalent content which needs to be associated with a measurement of the isotopic composition and active length measurement to complete the verification. Plutonium isotopic composition is verified by high resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) applied on fresh fuel assemblies assuming all fuel rods are fabricated from the same plutonium batch. For particular verifications when such an assumption cannot be reasonably made, there is a need to optimize the HRGS measurement so that contributions of internal rods to the recorded spectrum are maximized, thus providing equally strong verification of the internal fuel rods. This paper reports on simulation work carried out to design special collimators aimed at reducing the relative contribution of external fuel rods while enhancing the signal recorded from internal rods. Both cases of square lattices (e.g. 17x17 pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel) and hexagonal compact lattices (e.g. BN800 fast neutron reactor (FNR) fuel) have been addressed. In the case of PWR lattices, the relatively large optical path to internal pins compensates for low plutonium concentrations and the large size of the fuel assemblies. A special collimator based on multiple, asymmetrical, vertical slots allows recording a spectrum from internal rods only when needed. In the FNR case, the triangular lattice is much more compact and the optical path to internal rods is very narrow. However, higher plutonium concentration and use of high energy ranges allow the verification of internal rods to be significantly strengthened. Encouraging results from the simulation

  7. Determination of 137Cs activity in soil from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K.S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D.A.; Bukhari, S.; Matthews, M.; Regan, P.H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Al Sadig, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    With interest in establishing baseline concentrations of 137 Cs in soil from the Qatarian peninsula, we focus on determination of the activity concentrations in 129 soil samples collected across the State of Qatar prior to the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. As such, the data provides the basis of a reference map for the detection of releases of this fission product. The activity concentrations were measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector enclosed in a copper-lined passive lead shield that was situated in a low-background environment. The activity concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg, with a median value of 1 Bq/kg, the greatest activity concentration being observed in a sample obtained from northern Qatar. Although it cannot be confirmed, it is expected that this contamination is mainly due to releases from the Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986, there being a lack of data from Qatar before the accident. The values are typically within but are sometimes lower than the range indicated by data from other countries in the region. The lower values than those of others is suggested to be due to variation in soil characteristics as well as metrological factors at the time of deposition. - Highlights: • A baseline for the radionuclide 137 Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar was established. • 129 soil samples collected across the landscape. • Samples were collected before the most recent accident “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi NNP accident”. • The highest activity concentration was found to be 15.41±0.67 Stat. and 0.11 Syst. • The relatively high concentrations can be attributed to rain washout.

  8. Rapid non-destructive quantitative estimation of urania/ thoria in mixed thorium uranium di-oxide pellets by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriwastwa, B.B.; Kumar, Anil; Raghunath, B.; Nair, M.R.; Abani, M.C.; Ramachandran, R.; Majumdar, S.; Ghosh, J.K

    2001-06-01

    A non-destructive technique using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been standardised for quantitative estimation of uranium/thorium in mixed (ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2}) fuel pellets of varying composition. Four gamma energies were selected; two each from the uranium and thorium series and the time of counting has been optimised. This technique can be used for rapid estimation of U/Th percentage in a large number of mixed fuel pellets from a production campaign.

  9. Development of high-resolution gamma detector using sub-mm GAGG crystals coupled to TSV-MPPC array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipovec, A.; Shimazoe, K.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a high-resolution gamma detector based on an array of sub-millimeter Ce:GAGG (Cerium doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 ) crystals read out by an array of surface-mount type of TSV-MPPC was developed. MPPC sensor from Hamamatsu which has a 26 by 26 mm 2 detector area with 64 channels was used. One channel has a 3 by 3 mm 2 photosensitive area with 50 μ m pitch micro cells. MPPC sensor provides 576 mm 2 sensing area and was used to decode 48 by 48 array with 0.4 by 0.4 by 20 mm 3 Ce:GAGG crystals of 500 μ m pitch. The base of the detector with the crystal module was mounted to a read out board which consists of charge division circuit, thus allowing for a read out of four channels to identify the position of the incident event on the board. The read out signals were amplified using charge sensitive amplifiers. The four amplified signals were digitized and analyzed to produce a position sensitive event. For the performance analysis a 137 Cs source was used. The produced events were used for flood histogram and energy analysis. The effects of the glass thickness between the Ce:GAGG and MPPC were analyzed using the experimental flood diagrams and Geant4 simulations. The glass between the scintillator and the detector allows the spread of the light over different channels and is necessary if the channel's sensitive area is bigger than the scintillator's area. The initial results demonstrate that this detector module is promising and could be used for applications requiring compact and high-resolution detectors. Experimental results show that the detectors precision increases using glass guide thickness of 1.35 mm and 1.85 mm; however the precision using 2.5 mm are practically the same as if using 0.8 mm or 1.0 mm glass guide thicknesses. In addition, simulations using Geant4 indicate that the light becomes scarcer if thicker glass is used, thus reducing the ability to indicate which crystal was targeted. When 2.5 mm glass thickness is used, the scarce

  10. Imaging of radiocesium uptake dynamics in a plant body using a newly developed high-resolution gamma camera for radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawachi, Naoki; Yin, Yong-Gen; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishii, Satomi; Fujimaki, Shu [Radiotracer Imaging Gr., Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Yoshihara, Toshihiro [Plant Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Environmental Science, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 1646 Abiko, Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Vast agricultural and forest areas around the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan were contaminated with radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) after the accident following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. A variety of agricultural studies, such as fertilizer management and plant breeding, have been undertaken intensively for reduction of radiocesium uptake in crops, or, enhancement of uptake in phyto-remediation. In this study, we newly developed a gamma camera specific for plant nutritional research, and performed quantitative analyses on uptake and partitioning of radiocesium in intact plant bodies. In general, gamma camera is a common technology in medical imaging, but it is not applicable to high-energy gamma rays such as emissions from Cs-137 (662 keV). Therefore, we designed our new gamma camera to prevent the penetration and scattering of the high-energy gamma rays. A single-crystal scintillator, Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ce:GAGG), was employed, which has a relatively high density, a large light output, no natural radioactivity and no hygroscopicity. A 44 x 44 matrix of the Ce:GAGG pixels, with dimensions of 0.85 mm x 0.85 mm x 10 mm for each pixel, was coupled to a high-quantum efficiency position sensitive photomultiplier tube. This gamma detector unit was encased in a 20-mm-thick tungsten container with a tungsten pinhole collimator on the front. By using this gamma camera, soybean plants (Glycine max), grown in hydroponic solutions and fed with 1-2 MBq of Cs-137, were imaged for 6.5 days in maximum to investigate and visualize the uptake dynamics into/within the areal part. As a result, radiocesium gradually appeared in the shoot several hours after feeding of Cs-137, and then accumulated intensively in the maturing pods and seeds in a characteristic pattern. Our results also demonstrated that this gamma-camera method enables quantitative evaluation of plant ability to absorb, transport

  11. EXILL - a high-efficiency, high-resolution setup for gamma-spectroscopy at an intense cold neutron beam facility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jentschel, M.; Blanc, A.; de France, G.; Koster, U.; Leoni, S.; Mutti, P.; Simpson, G. S.; Krtička, M.; Tomandl, Ivo; Valenta, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku P11003. ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumentation for neutron sources * gamma detectors * spectrometers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  12. Fission-product yields for thermal-neutron fission of 243Cm determined from measurements with a high-resolution low-energy germanium gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, L.D.

    1984-04-01

    Cumulative fission-product yields have been determined for 13 gamma rays emitted during the decay of 12 fission products created by thermal-neutron fission of 243 Cm. A high-resolution low-energy germanium detector was used to measure the pulse-height spectra of gamma rays emitted from a 77-nanogram sample of 243 Cm after the sample had been irradiated by thermal neutrons. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification and matching of gamma-ray energies and half-lives to individual radioisotopes. From these results, 12 cumulative fission product yields were deduced for radionuclides with half-lives between 4.2 min and 84.2 min. 7 references

  13. High Resolution Gamma Ray Spectroscopy at MHz Counting Rates With LaBr3 Scintillators for Fusion Plasma Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Olariu, A.; Olariu, S.; Pereira, R. C.; Chugunov, I. N.; Fernandes, A.; Gin, D. B.; Grosso, G.; Kiptily, V. G.; Neto, A.; Shevelev, A. E.; Silva, M.; Sousa, J.; Gorini, G.

    2013-04-01

    High resolution γ-ray spectroscopy measurements at MHz counting rates were carried out at nuclear accelerators, combining a LaBr 3(Ce) detector with dedicated hardware and software solutions based on digitization and off-line analysis. Spectra were measured at counting rates up to 4 MHz, with little or no degradation of the energy resolution, adopting a pile up rejection algorithm. The reported results represent a step forward towards the final goal of high resolution γ-ray spectroscopy measurements on a burning plasma device.

  14. Occult Breast Cancer: Scintimammography with High-Resolution Breast-specific Gamma Camera in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Jocelyn A. Rapelyea; , Gilat Zisman; Kevin Mohtashemi; Joyce Raub; Christine B. Teal; Stan Majewski; Benjamin L. Welch

    2005-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate a high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera for depicting occult breast cancer in women at high risk for breast cancer but with normal mammographic and physical examination findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained. The study was HIPAA compliant. Ninety-four high-risk women (age range, 36-78 years; mean, 55 years) with normal mammographic (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] 1 or 2) and physical examination findings were evaluated with scintimammography. After injection with 25-30 mCi (925-1110 MBq) of technetium 99m sestamibi, patients were imaged with a high-resolution small-field-of-view breast-specific gamma camera in craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique projections. Scintimammograms were prospectively classified according to focal radiotracer uptake as normal (score of 1), with no focal or diffuse uptake; benign (score of 2), with minimal patchy uptake; probably benign (score of 3), with scattered patchy uptake; probably abnormal (score of 4), with mild focal radiotracer uptake; and abnormal (score of 5), with marked focal radiotracer uptake. Mammographic breast density was categorized according to BI-RADS criteria. Patients with normal scintimammograms (scores of 1, 2, or 3) were followed up for 1 year with an annual mammogram, physical examination, and repeat scintimammography. Patients with abnormal scintimammograms (scores of 4 or 5) underwent ultrasonography (US), and those with focal hypoechoic lesions underwent biopsy. If no lesion was found during US, patients were followed up with scintimammography. Specific pathologic findings were compared with scintimammographic findings. RESULTS: Of 94 women, 78 (83%) had normal scintimammograms (score of 1, 2, or 3) at initial examination and 16 (17%) had abnormal scintimammograms (score of 4 or 5). Fourteen (88%) of the 16 patients had either benign findings at biopsy or no focal abnormality at US; in two

  15. Occult Breast Cancer: Scintimammography with High-Resolution Breast-specific Gamma Camera in Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel F. Brem; Jocelyn A. Rapelyea; , Gilat Zisman; Kevin Mohtashemi; Joyce Raub; Christine B. Teal; Stan Majewski; Benjamin L. Welch

    2005-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate a high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera for depicting occult breast cancer in women at high risk for breast cancer but with normal mammographic and physical examination findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained. The study was HIPAA compliant. Ninety-four high-risk women (age range, 36-78 years; mean, 55 years) with normal mammographic (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] 1 or 2) and physical examination findings were evaluated with scintimammography. After injection with 25-30 mCi (925-1110 MBq) of technetium 99m sestamibi, patients were imaged with a high-resolution small-field-of-view breast-specific gamma camera in craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique projections. Scintimammograms were prospectively classified according to focal radiotracer uptake as normal (score of 1), with no focal or diffuse uptake; benign (score of 2), with minimal patchy uptake; probably benign (score of 3), with scattered patchy uptake; probably abnormal (score of 4), with mild focal radiotracer uptake; and abnormal (score of 5), with marked focal radiotracer uptake. Mammographic breast density was categorized according to BI-RADS criteria. Patients with normal scintimammograms (scores of 1, 2, or 3) were followed up for 1 year with an annual mammogram, physical examination, and repeat scintimammography. Patients with abnormal scintimammograms (scores of 4 or 5) underwent ultrasonography (US), and those with focal hypoechoic lesions underwent biopsy. If no lesion was found during US, patients were followed up with scintimammography. Specific pathologic findings were compared with scintimammographic findings. RESULTS: Of 94 women, 78 (83%) had normal scintimammograms (score of 1, 2, or 3) at initial examination and 16 (17%) had abnormal scintimammograms (score of 4 or 5). Fourteen (88%) of the 16 patients had either benign findings at biopsy or no focal abnormality at US; in two

  16. High-resolution mini gamma camera for diagnosis and radio-guided surgery in diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopinaro, F.; Capriotti, G.; Di Santo, G.; Capotondi, C.; Micarelli, A.; Massari, R.; Trotta, C.; Soluri, A.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis is often difficult. 99m Tc-WBC (White Blood Cell) scintigraphy plays a key role in the diagnosis of bone infections. Spatial resolution of Anger camera is not always able to differentiate soft tissue from bone infection. Aim of present study is to verify if HRD (High-Resolution Detector) is able to improve diagnosis and to help surgery. Patients were studied by HRD showing 25.7x25.7 mm 2 FOV, 2 mm spatial resolution and 18% energy resolution. The patients were underwent to surgery and, when necessary, bone biopsy, both guided by HRD. Four patients were positive at Anger camera without specific signs of osteomyelitis. HRS (High-Resolution Scintigraphy) showed hot spots in the same patients. In two of them the hot spot was bar-shaped and it was localized in correspondence of the small phalanx. The presence of bone infection was confirmed at surgery, which was successfully guided by HRS. 99m Tc-WBC HRS was able to diagnose pedal infection and to guide the surgery of diabetic foot, opening a new way in the treatment of infected diabetic foot

  17. High-resolution mini gamma camera for diagnosis and radio-guided surgery in diabetic foot infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scopinaro, F. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Capriotti, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Di Santo, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Capotondi, C. [Unit of Radiology, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Micarelli, A. [Nuclear Medicine, Sulmona Hospital, Sulmona (AQ) (Italy); Massari, R. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Trotta, C. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Soluri, A. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy)]. E-mail: soluri@isib.cnr.it

    2006-12-20

    The diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis is often difficult. {sup 99m}Tc-WBC (White Blood Cell) scintigraphy plays a key role in the diagnosis of bone infections. Spatial resolution of Anger camera is not always able to differentiate soft tissue from bone infection. Aim of present study is to verify if HRD (High-Resolution Detector) is able to improve diagnosis and to help surgery. Patients were studied by HRD showing 25.7x25.7 mm{sup 2} FOV, 2 mm spatial resolution and 18% energy resolution. The patients were underwent to surgery and, when necessary, bone biopsy, both guided by HRD. Four patients were positive at Anger camera without specific signs of osteomyelitis. HRS (High-Resolution Scintigraphy) showed hot spots in the same patients. In two of them the hot spot was bar-shaped and it was localized in correspondence of the small phalanx. The presence of bone infection was confirmed at surgery, which was successfully guided by HRS. {sup 99m}Tc-WBC HRS was able to diagnose pedal infection and to guide the surgery of diabetic foot, opening a new way in the treatment of infected diabetic foot.

  18. Development of ultrahigh energy resolution gamma spectrometers for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, O.B.; Velazquez, M.; Dreyer, J.G.; Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing superconducting ultrahigh resolution gamma-detectors for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials, and specifically for spent fuel characterization in nuclear safeguards. The detectors offer an energy resolution below 100 eV FWHM at 100 keV, and can therefore significantly increase the precision of NDA at low energies where line overlap affects the errors of the measurement when using germanium detectors. They also increase the peak-to-background ratio and thus improve the detection limits for weak gamma emissions from the fissile Pu and U isotopes at low energy in the presence of an intense Compton background from the fission products in spent fuel. Here we demonstrate high energy resolution and high peak-to-background ratio of our superconducting Gamma detectors, and discuss their relevance for measuring actinides in spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  19. Velocity-space observation regions of high-resolution two-step reaction gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Dopplerbroadened γ-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ)12C...

  20. Evaluation of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in environmental samples from Kuwait using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoga, Abubakar D.

    A study of natural radioactivity from ninety different soil samples across the state of Kuwait was carried out with a view to ascertain the level of natural and/or man-made radioactivity from that area. There has been some concern on the levels of NORM following the First Gulf War in which approximately 300 tons of depleted uranium shells were used and in particular, whether it has a significant impact in the surrounding environment. This study uses gamma-spectroscopy in a low background measuring system employing a high resolution Hyper-Pure Germanium detector. The calculated specific activity concentrations are determined for the radionuclides 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi and 228Ac, 212Pb, 208Tl following the decays of the primordial radionuclides 238U and 232Th, respectively. The analysis also includes evaluations for the 235U decay chain. In particular, the 186 keV doublet transition is used together with the activity concentration values established from the decays of 214Bi and 214Pb to establish the 226Ra and 235U specific activity concentrations, which can be used to estimate the 235U:238U isotopic ratios and compare to the accepted value for naturally occurring material of 1:138. Specific activity concentration values have also been determined for the 40K and the anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs (from fallout) were detected within the same samples. Results of the activity concentration gives mean value of 16.99±0.21, 12.79±0.14, 333±37 and 2.18±0.11 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs, respectively. The associated radiological hazard indices from these samples were found to have mean values of 29.13±0.35 nG/hr, 60.20±0.68 Bq/kg, and 35.30±0.40 µSv/year for the dose rates, radium equivalent, and annual dose equivalent, respectively. Analysed results of elemental concentrations of Uranium, Thorium and Potassium were also determined, and were found to range from 0.96±0.02 ppm to 2.53±0.02 ppm, 2.26±0.04 ppm to 5.23±0.05 ppm and a mean value of 1.21±0

  1. Evaluation of a high-resolution, breast-specific, small-field-of-view gamma camera for the detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brem, R.F.; Kieper, D.A.; Rapelyea, J.A.; Majewski, S.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to review the state of the art in nuclear medicine imaging of the breast (scintimammography) and to evaluate a novel, high-resolution, breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suspicious breast lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with 58 breast lesions in whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a HRBGC prototype. Nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal/benign) or positive (suspicious/malignant) by two radiologists, blinded to mammographic and histologic results with both the conventional and high-resolution. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: Included in this study were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. Specificity of both systems was 93.3% (28/30). In the 18 nonpalpable cancers, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and HRBGC, respectively. In cancers ≤ 1cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four of the cancers (median size, 8.5 mm) detected with the HRBGC were missed by the conventional camera Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breasts lesions with a high resolution, breast-specific gamma camera results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer with greater improvement demonstrated in nonpalpable and ≤1 cm cancers

  2. Near-intrinsic energy resolution for 30–662 keV gamma rays in a high pressure xenon electroluminescent TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T.H.V.T.; Díaz, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, data and results from the NEXT prototype for Double Beta and Dark Matter (NEXT-DBDM) detector, a high-pressure gaseous natural xenon electroluminescent time projection chamber (TPC) that was built at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is a prototype of the planned NEXT-100 136 Xe neutrino-less double beta decay (0νββ) experiment with the main objectives of demonstrating near-intrinsic energy resolution at energies up to 662 keV and of optimizing the NEXT-100 detector design and operating parameters. Energy resolutions of ∼1% FWHM for 662 keV gamma rays were obtained at 10 and 15 atm and ∼5% FWHM for 30 keV fluorescence xenon X-rays. These results demonstrate that 0.5% FWHM resolutions for the 2459 keV hypothetical neutrino-less double beta decay peak are realizable. This energy resolution is a factor 7–20 better than that of the current leading 0νββ experiments using liquid xenon and thus represents a significant advancement. We present also first results from a track imaging system consisting of 64 silicon photo-multipliers recently installed in NEXT–DBDM that, along with the excellent energy resolution, demonstrates the key functionalities required for the NEXT-100 0νββ search

  3. High resolution {sup 12}C({gamma},p) experiments at E{sub {gamma}} {approx_equal} 25-75 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruijter, H

    1995-08-01

    Absolute differential cross sections for the {sup 12}C({gamma},p){sup 11}B reaction have been measured over proton detection angels ranging from 30 to 150 deg, using tagged photons of 25-75 MeV energy, for low-lying regions of residual excitation energy in {sup 11}B. Four experiments were performed at the MAX laboratory in Lund in order to provide data. Previously reported cross sections for the reaction had systematic uncertainties of a magnitude which made them agree, in spite of a large spread in absolute values. The cross sections reported, with a systematic uncertainty of 8%, remove previous ambiguities for E{sub {gamma}}=40-75 MeV. A reinterpretation of the states excited in{sup 11}B at E about 7 MeV is also presented. The data are compared with quasi-elastic (e,e`p) results in PWIA in the same recoil momentum range. It is found that the momentum distributions do not scale for the two reaction types. Furthermore, the data are compared with the results for the inverse reaction (p,{gamma}) in the centre-of-momentum system by detailed balance. The comparison with respect to missing momentum indicates an angular dependence in the ({gamma},p) reaction which is not present in the inverse (p,{gamma}) reaction. Recent results from the MAX laboratory for the ({gamma},n) reaction are compared to the ({gamma},p) results. The mirror nuclei {sup 11}C and {sup 11}B have almost identical excitation energy spectra at E{sub {gamma}}=60 MeV. It is concluded that HF-RPA calculations with essential contributions of meson exchange currents provide a qualitative description of the angular distributions obtained for the ({gamma},p) reaction. An extension of the spherical symmetric basis for the wave function is suggested for the states at E about 7 MeV in {sup 11}B. 108 refs, 83 figs.

  4. Comparison of laser fluorimetry, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis techniques for determination of uranium content in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, A.; Asgharizadeh, F.; Salimi, B.; Abbasi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Much more concern is given nowadays for exposure of the world population to natural radiation especially to uranium since 57% of that exposure is due to radon-222, which is a member of uranium decay series. Most of the methods used for uranium determination is low concentration require either tedious separation and preconcentration or the accessibility to special instrumentation for detection of uranium at this low level. this study compares three techniques and methods for uranium analysis among different soil sample with variable uranium contents. Two of these techniques, neutron activation analysis and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry , are non-destructive while the other, laser fluorimetry is done via chemical extraction of uranium. Analysis of standard materials is done also to control the quality and accuracy of the work. In spite of having quite variable ranges of detection limit, results obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on the assumption of having secular equilibrium between uranium and its daughters, which causes deviation whenever this condition was missed. For samples with reasonable uranium content, neutron activation analysis would be a rapid and reliable technique, while for low uranium content laser fluorimetry would be the most appropriate and accurate technique

  5. Nuclear energy - Waste-packages activity measurement - Part.1: high-resolution gamma spectrometry in integral mode with open geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 14850:2004 describes a procedure for measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclide activity in homogeneous objects such as unconditioned waste (including process waste, dismantling waste, etc.), waste conditioned in various matrices (bitumen, hydraulic binder, thermosetting resins, etc.), notably in the form of 100 L, 200 L, 400 L or 800 L drums, and test specimens or samples, (vitrified waste), and waste packaged in a container, notably technological waste. It also specifies the calibration of the gamma spectrometry chain. The gamma energies used generally range from 0,05 MeV to 3 MeV. (authors)

  6. Validation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  7. Validation of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  8. Inter-pulse high-resolution gamma-ray spectra using a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L.G.; Trombka, J.I.; Jensen, D.H.; Stephenson, W.A.; Hoover, R.A.; Mikesell, J.L.; Tanner, A.B.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A neutron generator pulsed at 100 s-1 was suspended in an artificial borehole containing a 7.7 metric ton mixture of sand, aragonite, magnetite, sulfur, and salt. Two Ge(HP) gamma-ray detectors were used: one in a borehole sonde, and one at the outside wall of the sample tank opposite the neutron generator target. Gamma-ray spectra were collected by the outside detector during each of 10 discrete time windows during the 10 ms period following the onset of gamma-ray build-up after each neutron burst. The sample was measured first when dry and then when saturated with water. In the dry sample, gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering, neutron capture, and decay were counted during the first (150 ??s) time window. Subsequently only capture and decay gamma rays were observed. In the wet sample, only neutron capture and decay gamma rays were observed. Neutron capture gamma rays dominated the spectrum during the period from 150 to 400 ??s after the neutron burst in both samples, but decreased with time much more rapidly in the wet sample. A signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) analysis indicates that optimum conditions for neutron capture analysis occurred in the 350-800 ??s window. A poor S/N in the first 100-150 ??s is due to a large background continuum during the first time interval. Time gating can be used to enhance gamma-ray spectra, depending on the nuclides in the target material and the reactions needed to produce them, and should improve the sensitivity of in situ well logging. ?? 1984.

  9. Near-optimum procedure for half-life measurement by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A near-optimum procedure for using high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry to measure the half-lives of appropriate γ-ray- emitting-nuclides is presented. Among the important points of the procedure are the employment of the reference source method for implicit correction of pileup and deadtime losses; the use of full-energy peak-area ratios as the fundamental measured quantities; and continuous, high-rate data acquisition to obtain good results in a fraction of a half-life if desired. Equations are given for estimating the precision of the computed half-lives in terms of total measurement time, number of spectral acquisitions, and the precision of peak-area ratios. Results of 169 Yb half-life measurements are given as an example of the procedure's application. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  10. New imaging spectrometer CdTe very high spatial and spectral resolution for X and gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubos, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    The thesis work presented in this manuscript corresponds to the first development phase of the MC2 project, an ambitious R and D effort to realize a new type of cadmium telluride (CdTe) -based imaging spectrometer for future hard X- and gamma-rays astronomy missions. The final goal is to achieve a 300 micron-pitch pixelated detector plane hybridized with a very low noise front-end electronics for a total pixel density multiplied by 4 compared to the most advanced System recently available in the laboratory, the Caliste HD imaging spectrometer. Moreover, thanks to the joint development of readout circuits adapted to the interconnection of pixelated detectors with low capacitance and low leakage current, spectroscopic performances of such system are assumed to approach inherent limitations of the CdTe detector, especially for the lowest energies. The work was organized in parallel and complementary areas: evaluation of current Systems, feedback and identification of issues associated with the development of highly-resolved detection planes, implementation and complete characterization of a new two-dimensional ASIC specifically developed for this application, and modeling and study of the associated sensor to optimize the design of the detector pattern. Finally, a first hybrid prototype was completed and first experimental tests thereby conducted. (author) [fr

  11. Prepared for the thirtieth annual conference on bioassay analytical and environmental chemistry. Reliable analysis of high resolution gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Buschbom, R.; Rieksts, G.A.; Palmer, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A new method has been developed to reliably analyze pulse height-energy spectra obtained from measurements employing high resolution germanium detectors. The method employs a simple data transformation and smoothing function to calculate background and identify photopeaks and isotopic analysis. This technique is elegant in its simplicity because it avoids dependence upon complex spectrum deconvolution, stripping, or other least-square-fitting techniques which complicate the assessment of measurement reliability. A moving median was chosen for data smoothing because, unlike moving averages, medians are not dominated by extreme data points. Finally, peaks are identified whenever the difference between the background spectrum and the transformed spectrum exceeds a pre-determined number of standard deviations

  12. Coupled multi-group neutron photon transport for the simulation of high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Kimberly A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples.

  13. Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Christiansen, A.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Facilities that process special nuclear material perform periodic inventories. In bulk facilities that process low-enriched uranium, these inventories and their audits are based primarily on weight and enrichment measurements. Enrichment measurements determine the 211 U weight fraction of the uranium compound from the passive gamma-ray emissions of the sample. Both international inspectors and facility operators rely on the capability to make in-field gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment. These users require rapid, portable measurement capability. Some in-field measurements have been biased, forcing the inspectors to resort to high-resolution measurements or mass spectrometry to accomplish their goals

  14. Investigation of high resolution compact gamma camera module based on a continuous scintillation crystal using a novel charge division readout method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Qiusheng; Zhao Cuilan; Qi Yujin; Zhang Hualin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate a high performance and lower cost compact gamma camera module for a multi-head small animal SPECT system. A compact camera module was developed using a thin Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystal slice coupled to a Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). A two-stage charge division readout board based on a novel subtractive resistive readout with a truncated center-of-gravity (TCOG) positioning method was developed for the camera. The performance of the camera was evaluated using a flood 99m Tc source with a four-quadrant bar-mask phantom. The preliminary experimental results show that the image shrinkage problem associated with the conventional resistive readout can be effectively overcome by the novel subtractive resistive readout with an appropriate fraction subtraction factor. The response output area (ROA) of the camera shown in the flood image was improved up to 34%, and an intrinsic spatial resolution better than 2 mm of detector was achieved. In conclusion, the utilization of a continuous scintillation crystal and a flat-panel PSPMT equipped with a novel subtractive resistive readout is a feasible approach for developing a high performance and lower cost compact gamma camera. (authors)

  15. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,{alpha}), (n,n{alpha}), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 {le} {times} {le} 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base.

  16. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,α), (n,nα), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 ≤ x ≤ 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base

  17. The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonchev, A.P. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States)]. E-mail: tonchev@tunl.duke.edu; Boswell, M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Karwowski, H.J. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [North Carolina State University and TUNL, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Wu, Y.K. [Duke University and Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0319 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) utilizes intra-cavity backscattering of free electron laser photons from the Duke electron storage ring to produce a unique monoenergetic beam of high-flux {gamma}-rays with high polarization and selectable energy resolution. At present, {gamma}-ray beams with energies from 2 to 58 MeV are available with intensities as high as 10{sup 5}-5 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}/s, energy spreads of 3% or better, and nearly 100% linear polarization. The quality and intensity of the {gamma}-ray beams at HI{gamma}S are responsible for the unprecedented performance of this facility in a broad range of research programs in nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear applications. Recent results from excitation of isomeric states in ({gamma}, n) reactions and parity assignments of dipole states determined via the ({gamma}, {gamma}') reaction are presented.

  18. Enrichment Meter Dataset from High-Resolution Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of U3O8 Enrichment Standards and UF6 Cylinder Wall Equivalents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, Andrew D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shephard, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Enrichment Meter Principle (EMP) is the basis for a commonly used standard test method for the non-destructive assay of 235U enrichment in bulk compounds [1]. The technique involves determining the net count rate in the direct 186 keV peak using medium or high energy gamma-ray spectrometry in a fixed geometry. With suitable correction for wall attenuation, compound type, rate loss (live time), and peaked background (if significant), the atom fraction of 235U may be obtained from the counting rate from a linear relationship through the origin. The widespread use of this method for field verification of enrichment [2,3] together with the fact that the response function rests on fundamental physics considerations (i.e., is not represented by a convenient but arbitrary form) makes it an interesting example of uncertainty quantification, one in which one can expect a valid measurement model can be applied. When applied using NaI(Tl) and region of interest analysis, the technique is susceptible to both interference error and bias [2-4]. When implemented using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, the spectrum interpretation is considerable simplified and more robust [5]. However, a practical challenge to studying the uncertainty budget of the EMP method (for example, to test linearity, extract wall corrections and so forth using modern methods) is the availability of quality experimental data that can be referenced and shared. To fill this gap, the research team undertook an experimental campaign [6]. A measurement campaign was conducted to produce high-resolution gamma spectroscopy enrichment meter data comparable to UF6 cylinder measurements. The purpose of this report is to provide both an introduction to and quality assurance (QA) of the raw data produced. This report is intended for the analyst or researcher who uses the raw data. Unfortunately, the raw data (i.e., the spectra files) are too voluminous to include in this report

  19. Study and development of a high resolution tomograph for the {gamma} radio-imagery in vivo of small animals; Etude et developpement d`un tomographe haute resolution pour la radio-imagerie {gamma} in vivo de petits animaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valda Ochoa, A

    1995-06-23

    By the use of molecular radio-labelled tracers, molecular biology can reveal some aspects of the functional organisation of the brain. Non invasive in vivo brain research on small laboratory animals, like mice or rats, require analysis of structures of some cubic millimeters present in a brain of the order of a cubic centimeter. Since imaging performances of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) fail in this research field, we present here a high resolution tomograph (TOHR) based on an original principle that allows to overcome the compromise between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. TOHR is a radiation counter device having a large solid angle focusing collimator. By the use of radio-tracers decaying by a cascade of two photons, coincidence detection offers an accurate delimitation of the analysed region and improves spatial resolution. TOHR acts as a scanner, so the image is built voxel by voxel by moving the animal relative to the detector. A numerical feasibility study of such a system shows that a sub millimeter spatial resolution can be achieved. We show that the chemical etching technique is well suited for manufacturing a multi-module focusing collimator by building and testing two such modules. Finally a numerical simulation exhibits TOHR`s performance in a neuro-pharmacological experiment on a rat. From these results, other application of TOHR are envisaged, such as oncology (in vivo evolution of tumours) or gene therapy (distribution of viral particles in the brain). (author). 51 refs., 73 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K.S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D.A.; Bukhari, S.; Matthews, M.; Regan, P.H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technologically enhanced levels of radiation in 34 representative soil samples that have been collected from an inshore oil field area which was found to have, in a previous study, the highest observed value of 226 Ra concentration among 129 soil samples. The activity concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra have been inferred from gamma-ray transitions associated with their decay progenies and measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for all the samples collected from NW Dukhan. Discrete-line, gamma-ray energy transitions from spectral lines ranging in energy from ∼100 keV up to 2.6 MeV have been associated with characteristic decays of the various decay products within the 235.8 U and 232 Th radioactive decay chains. These data have been analyzed, under the assumption of secular equilibrium for the U and Th decay chains. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented. The weighted mean value of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra in one of the samples was found to be around a factor of 2 higher than the values obtained in the previous study and approximately a factor of 10 higher than the accepted worldwide average value of 35 Bq/kg. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K were also deduced and found to be within the worldwide average values of 30 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. Our previous study reported a value of 201.9±1.5 Stat. ±13 Syst. Bq/kg for 226 Ra in one sample and further investigation in the current work determined a measured value for 226 Ra of 342.00±1.9 Stat. ±25 Syst. Bq/kg in a sample taken from the same locality. This is significantly higher

  1. Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Radiation Protection and Chemicals Department, Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 7634, Doha (Qatar); Nasir, Tabassum [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Gomal University, D.I. Khan (Pakistan); Al Mugren, K S [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Alkhomashi, N [King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Dahan, N [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kerbala, Kerbala (Iraq); Al-Dosari, M [Radiation Protection and Chemicals Department, Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 7634, Doha (Qatar); Bradley, D A [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bukhari, S [Information Systems Management Department, Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 7634, Doha (Qatar); Matthews, M [Centre of Environmental Health Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Regan, P H [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Santawamaitre, T [Radiation Protection and Chemicals Department, Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 7634, Doha (Qatar); Malain, D; Habib, A [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technologically enhanced levels of radiation in 34 representative soil samples that have been collected from an inshore oil field area which was found to have, in a previous study, the highest observed value of {sup 226}Ra concentration among 129 soil samples. The activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra have been inferred from gamma-ray transitions associated with their decay progenies and measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for all the samples collected from NW Dukhan. Discrete-line, gamma-ray energy transitions from spectral lines ranging in energy from {approx}100 keV up to 2.6 MeV have been associated with characteristic decays of the various decay products within the {sup 235.8}U and {sup 232}Th radioactive decay chains. These data have been analyzed, under the assumption of secular equilibrium for the U and Th decay chains. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented. The weighted mean value of the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra in one of the samples was found to be around a factor of 2 higher than the values obtained in the previous study and approximately a factor of 10 higher than the accepted worldwide average value of 35 Bq/kg. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were also deduced and found to be within the worldwide average values of 30 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. Our previous study reported a value of 201.9{+-}1.5{sub Stat.}{+-}13{sub Syst.} Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra in one sample and further investigation in the current work determined a measured value for {sup 226}Ra of 342.00{+-}1.9{sub Stat.}{+-}25{sub Syst

  2. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Application of high resolution NMR, ESR, and gamma-ray scintillation spectroscopy to the study of ligand binding in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancione, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectroscopy has been employed to study the nature of the ligand binding site of alpha-1-antitrypsin. Spectra of spin-labeled alpha-1-antitrypsin were recorded at pH's ranging from 2.4 to 12.5. This data demonstrates the tight binding of the spin-label to the protease, and the sensitivity of the bound spin-label to informational changes in the protease inhibitor. A molecular dipstick approach has also been applied to this system and has yielded information on the geometry of the cleft accommodating the spin-label. 160 Terbium(III) exchange experiments have been performed on the acetylcholine receptor protein isolated from Torpedo californica, employing a specially designed flow dialysis apparatus constructed in the laboratory. The apparatus is designed to allow continuous monitoring of 160 Tb(III) gamma-ray emission from the protein compartment of the flow dialysis cell. Nicotinic ligand-induced displacement of 160 Tb(III) from the nicotinic binding site of the receptor was monitored as a funtion of (1) the concentration of nicotinic ligand in the washout buffer, and (2) the nature of the nicotinic ligand in the buffer. Measured 160 Tb(III) exchange half-lives indicate (1) a direct relationship between 160 Tb(III) displacement and nicotinic ligand concentration in the wash-out buffer, and (2) an enhanced 160 Tb(III) displacement for nicotinic agents possessing quaternary ammonium functions

  4. ISPA - a high accuracy X-ray and gamma camera Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    ISPA offers ... Ten times better resolution than Anger cameras High efficiency single gamma counting Noise reduction by sensitivity to gamma energy ...for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

  5. High-resolution emission tomography of small laboratory animals: physics and gamma-astronomy meet molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, F.J.; Colijn, A.P.; Vastenhouw, B.; Wiegant, V.M.; Gerrits, M.A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging can be defined as the characterization and measurement of biological processes in living animals, model systems and humans at the cellular and molecular level using remote imaging detectors. An example concerns the mapping of the distributions of radioactively labeled molecules in laboratory animals which is of crucial importance for life sciences. Tomographic methods like Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) offer a possibility to visualize distributions of radioactively labeled molecules in living animals. Miniature tomography systems, derived from their clinical counterparts, but with a much higher image resolution are under development in several institutes. An example is U-SPECT that will be discussed in the present paper. Such systems are expected to accelerate several biomedical research procedures, the understanding of gene and protein function, as well as pharmaceutical development

  6. Development of a high energy resolution magnetic bolometer for the determination of photon emission intensities by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.

    2007-12-01

    In this research thesis, a first chapter describes the metrological difficulties for the determination of radionuclide photon emission intensities. Then, it discusses the understanding and the required tools for the computing of a magnetic bolometer signal with respect to the different operation parameters and to the sensor geometry. The author describes the implementation of the experimental device and its validation with a first sensor. The new sensor is then optimised for the measurement of photon emission intensities with a good efficiency and a theoretical energy resolution less than 100 eV up to 200 keV. The sensor's detection efficiency and operation have been characterized with a 133 Ba source. The author finally presents the obtained results

  7. A review of the evaluation of TENORM levels at the produced water lagoon of the Minagish oil field using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, H. M.; Bradley, D. A.; Alshammari, H.; Regan, P. H.

    2017-11-01

    An evaluation of the specific activity concentrations associated with technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) and anthropogenic radionuclides has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a radiological map of the outer boundary of the produced water lagoon located in the Minagish oil field in the south west of the State of Kuwait. The lagoon contains material from the discharge of produced water which is a by-product of oil production in the region. The lagoon samples were prepared and placed into sealed, marinelli beakers for a full gamma-ray spectrometric analysis using a high-resolution, low-background, high-purity germanium detection systems at the University of Surrey Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory. Of particular interest are the calculation of the activity concentrations associated with members of the decay chains following decays of the primordial radionuclides of the 238U chain (226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi) and the 232Th chain (228Ra, 228Ac, 212Pb, 212Bi, 208Tl), and the enhanced concentrations of radium isotopes. This conference paper presents an overview summary of the experimental samples which have been measured and the analysis techniques applied, including isotopic correlation plots across the sample region. The result shows the expected significant increase in 226Ra (and progeny) concentrations compared to the NORM values previously reported by our group for the overall terrain in Kuwait.

  8. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  9. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  10. High energy resolution and high count rate gamma spectrometry measurement of primary coolant of generation 4 sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors are under development for the fourth generation of nuclear reactor. Breeders reactors could gives solutions for the need of energy and the preservation of uranium resources. An other purpose is the radioactive wastes production reduction by transmutation and the control of non-proliferation using a closed-cycle. These thesis shows safety and profit advantages that could be obtained by a new generation of gamma spectrometry system for SFR. Now, the high count rate abilities, allow us to study new methods of accurate power measurement and fast clad failure detection. Simulations have been done and an experimental test has been performed at the French Phenix SFR of the CEA Marcoule showing promising results for these new measurements. (author) [fr

  11. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  12. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  13. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  14. Portable high energy gamma ray imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru, S.V.; Squillante, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    To satisfy the needs of high energy gamma ray imagers for industrial nuclear imaging applications, three high energy gamma cameras are presented. The RMD-Pinhole camera uses a lead pinhole collimator and a segmented BGO detector viewed by a 3 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). This pinhole gamma camera displayed an energy resolution of 25.0% FWHM at the center of the camera at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 6.2 FWHM at 412 keV. The fixed multiple hole collimated camera (FMCC), used a multiple hole collimator and a continuous slab of NaI(Tl) detector viewed by the same PSPMT. The FMCC displayed an energy resolution of 12.4% FWHM at 662 keV at the center of the camera and an angular resolution of 6.0 FWHM at 412 keV. The rotating multiple hole collimated camera (RMCC) used a 180 antisymmetric rotation modulation collimator and CsI(Tl) detectors coupled to PIN silicon photodiodes. The RMCC displayed an energy resolution of 7.1% FWHM at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 4.0 FWHM at 810 keV. The performance of these imagers is discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  15. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Whipple Observatory High Resolution Camera will be used in a vigorous program of observations to search for new sources of very-high-energy gamma rays. In addition, a search for antimatter using the moon-earth system as an ion spectrometer will be begun. The first phase of GRANITE, the new 37-element 11-m camera, will be concluded with first light scheduled for September, 1991. The two cameras will operate in support of the Gamma Ray Observatory mission in the winter of 1991/2

  16. Fast-ion energy resolution by one-step reaction gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The spectral broadening of γ-rays from fusion plasmas can be measured in high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). We derive weight functions that determine the observable velocity space and quantify the velocity-space sensitivity of one-step reaction high-resolution GRS measurements in magne...

  17. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  18. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  19. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  20. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  1. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  2. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Spectra from Slightly-Irradiated Uranium and Plutonium between 400-830 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Ronqvist, N

    1966-08-15

    Previously published studies of the short-cooled fission product spectra of irradiated uranium have been severely restricted by the poor energy resolution of the sodium iodide detectors used. In this report are presented fission product spectra of irradiated uranium and plutonium obtained by means of a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The resolved gamma peaks have been assigned to various fission products by correlation of measured energy and half-life values with published data. By simultaneous study of the spectra of two irradiated mixtures of plutonium and uranium, the possibility of using the activities of Ru-103 and Ru-106 as a measure of the relative fission rate in U-235 and Pu-239 has been briefly examined.

  3. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Spectra from Slightly-Irradiated Uranium and Plutonium between 400-830 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Ronqvist, N.

    1966-08-01

    Previously published studies of the short-cooled fission product spectra of irradiated uranium have been severely restricted by the poor energy resolution of the sodium iodide detectors used. In this report are presented fission product spectra of irradiated uranium and plutonium obtained by means of a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The resolved gamma peaks have been assigned to various fission products by correlation of measured energy and half-life values with published data. By simultaneous study of the spectra of two irradiated mixtures of plutonium and uranium, the possibility of using the activities of Ru-103 and Ru-106 as a measure of the relative fission rate in U-235 and Pu-239 has been briefly examined

  4. Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements. Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This part of ISO 11929 addresses the field of ionizing radiation measurements in which events (in particular pulses) are counted by high resolution gamma spectrometry registrating a pulse-heights distribution (acquisition of a multichannel spectrum), for example on samples. It considers exclusively the random character of radioactive decay and of pulse counting and ignores all other influences (e.g. arising from sample treatment, weighing, enrichment or the instability of the test setup). It assumes that the distance of neighbouring peaks of gamma lines is not smaller than four times the full width half maximum (FWHM) of gamma line and that the background near to gamma line is nearly a straight line. Otherwise ISO 11929-1 or ISO 11929-2 should be used. ISO 11929 consists of the following parts, under the general title Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements: Part 1: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements without the influence of sample treatment; Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment; Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment; Part 4: Fundamentals and application to measurements by use of linear scale analogue ratemeters, without the influence of sample treatment. This part of ISO 11929 was prepared in parallel with other International Standards prepared by WG2 (now WG 17): ISO 11932:1996, Activity measurements of solid materials considered for recycling, re-use or disposal as nonradioactive waste, and ISO 11929-1, ISO 11929-2 and ISO 11929-4, and is, consequently, complementary to these documents

  5. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  6. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  7. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  8. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  9. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  10. Gamma dosimetry of high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, T.; Galvan G, A.; Canizal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The gamma dosimetry of high doses is problematic in almost all the classic dosemeters either based on the thermoluminescence, electric, chemical properties, etc., because they are saturated to very high dose and they are no longer useful. This work carries out an investigation in the interval of high doses. The solid system of heptahydrate ferrous sulfate, can be used as solid dosemeter of routine for high doses of radiation. The proposed method is simple, cheap and it doesn't require sophisticated spectrophotometers or spectrometers but expensive and not common in some laboratories

  11. Very high resolution detection of gamma radiation at room-temperature using P-I-N detectors of CdZnTe and HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. J.; Rhiger, D. R.; Sen, S.; Kalisher, M. H.; James, K.; Reid, C. P.; Gerrish, V.; Baccash, C. O.

    1994-08-01

    High-energy photon detectors have been constructed by engineering and fabricating p-i-n diode structures consisting of bulk CdZnTe and epitaxial HgCdTe. The p-i-n structure was obtained by liquid-phase epitaxial growth of p and n doped HgCdTe layers on 'intrinsic' CdZnTe material about 1mm thick and approximately 25mm square. Curve tracing shows I-V curves with diode characteristics having resistivity above 1011 Omega -cm and leakage current of less than 400 pA to about - 60V reverse bias on a typical test piece approximately 5 x 8 x 1 mm. Spectra of similar test pieces have been obtained at room temperature with various nuclear isotopic sources over the range of 22 keV to 662 keV which show exceptionally high energy resolution. Resolution as good as 1.82% FWHM was obtained for the 356 keV line of 133Ba with a P/V = 3.4. The performance of these detectors combined with contemporary infrared technology capable of fabricating 2D arrays of these II-VI materials opens up manifold exciting applications in astrophysics, medical, industrial, environmental, and defense spectroscopy and imaging.

  12. Angular resolution study of a combined gamma-neutron coded aperture imager for standoff detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear threat source observables at standoff distances of tens of meters from mCi class sources include both gamma-rays and neutrons. This work uses simulations to investigate the effects of the angular resolution of a mobile gamma-ray and neutron coded aperture imaging system upon orphan source detection significance and specificity. The design requires maintaining high sensitivity and specificity while keeping the system size as compact as possible to reduce weight, footprint, and cost. A mixture of inorganic and organic scintillators was considered in the detector plane for high sensitivity to both gamma-rays and fast neutrons. For gamma-rays (100 to 2500 keV) and fission spectrum neutrons, angular resolutions of 1–9° and radiation angles of incidence appropriate for mobile search were evaluated. Detection significance for gamma-rays considers those events that contribute to the photopeak of the image pixel corresponding the orphan source location. For detection of fission spectrum neutrons, energy depositions above a set pulse shape discrimination threshold were tallied. The results show that the expected detection significance for the system at an angular resolution of 1° is significantly lower compared to its detection significance an angular resolution of ∼3–4°. An angular resolution of ∼3–4° is recommended both for better detection significance and improved false alarm rate, considering that finer angular resolution does not result in improved background rejection when the coded aperture method is used. Instead, over-pixelating the search space may result in an unacceptably high false alarm rate

  13. Isotopic composition of uranium in U3O8 by neutron induced reactions utilizing thermal neutrons from critical facility and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Pujari, P.K.; Goel, Lokesh

    2015-01-01

    Uranium in oxide and metal forms is used as fuel material in nuclear power reactors. For chemical quality control, it is necessary to know the isotopic composition (IC) of uranium i.e., 235 U to 238 U atom ratio as well as 235 U atom % in addition to its total concentration. Uranium samples can be directly assayed by passive gamma ray spectrometry for obtaining IC by utilizing 185 keV (γ-ray abundance 57.2%) of 235 U and 1001 keV (γ-ray abundance 0.837%) of 234m Pa (decay product of 238 U). However, due to low abundance of 1001 keV, often it is not practiced to obtain IC by this method as it gives higher uncertainty even if higher mass of sample and counting time are used. IC of uranium can be determined using activity ratio of neutron induced fission product of 235 U to activation product of 238 U ( 239 Np). In the present work, authors have demonstrated methodologies for determination of IC of U as well as 235 U atom% in natural ( 235 U 0.715%) and low enriched uranium (LEU, 3-20 atom % of 235 U) samples of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) by utilizing ratio of counts at 185 keV γ-ray or γ-rays of fission products with respect to 277 keV of 239 Np. Natural and enriched samples (about 25 mg) were neutron irradiated for 4 hours in graphite reflector position of AHWR Critical Facility (CF) using highly thermalized (>99.9% thermal component) neutron flux (∼10 7 cm -2 s -1 )

  14. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  15. Rapid objective measurement of gamma camera resolution using statistical moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hander, T A; Lancaster, J L; Kopp, D T; Lasher, J C; Blumhardt, R; Fox, P T

    1997-02-01

    An easy and rapid method for the measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution of a gamma camera was developed. The measurement is based on the first and second statistical moments of regions of interest (ROIs) applied to bar phantom images. This leads to an estimate of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of a line spread function (LSF). Bar phantom images were acquired using four large field-of-view (LFOV) gamma cameras (Scintronix, Picker, Searle, Siemens). The following factors important for routine measurements of gamma camera resolution with this method were tested: ROI placement and shape, phantom orientation, spatial sampling, and procedural consistency. A 0.2% coefficient of variation (CV) between repeat measurements of MTF was observed for a circular ROI. The CVs of less than 2% were observed for measured MTF values for bar orientations ranging from -10 degrees to +10 degrees with respect to the x and y axes of the camera acquisition matrix. A 256 x 256 matrix (1.6 mm pixel spacing) was judged sufficient for routine measurements, giving an estimate of the FWHM to within 0.1 mm of manufacturer-specified values (3% difference). Under simulated clinical conditions, the variation in measurements attributable to procedural effects yielded a CV of less than 2% in newer generation cameras. The moments method for determining MTF correlated well with a peak-valley method, with an average difference of 0.03 across the range of spatial frequencies tested (0.11-0.17 line pairs/mm, corresponding to 4.5-3.0 mm bars). When compared with the NEMA method for measuring intrinsic spatial resolution, the moments method was found to be within 4% of the expected FWHM.

  16. The efficiency calibration and development of environmental correction factors for an in situ high-resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. Absolute efficiency calibration of the GSLS was performed using simple cylindrical borehole geometry. The calibration source incorporated naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) that emitted photons ranging from 186-keV to 2,614-keV. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software. A linear relationship was found between increasing source thickness and relative photon fluence rates at the detector. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, relative photon fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Attenuation effects due to iron, water, PVC, and concrete cylindrical shields were found to agree with previous studies. Regression analyses produced energy-dependent equations for efficiency corrections applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs collected under non-standard borehole conditions

  17. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  18. Simultaneous use of 82Br and 24Na radionuclides in the whole-body counting of animals by high-resolution gamma-ray spektrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav; Babický, Arnošt; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 3 (2008), s. 571-574 ISSN 0236-5731 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHG-CT-2004-511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gamma-spectrometry * whole-body counting * radionuclide Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008

  19. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzger Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF (“Visual RobFit” which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  20. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Robert; Riper, Kenneth Van; Lasche, George

    2017-09-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF ("Visual RobFit") which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  1. Criteria for assembly of in vivo measuring systems using high-resolution {gamma}-spectroscopy for evaluation of incorporated radionuclides; Kriterien zum Aufbau von In Vivo Messsystemen zur hochaufloesenden {gamma}-Spektrometrie inkorporierter Radionuklide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, W. [GSF Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    1997-12-01

    The paper reviews the available, fundamental measuring methods relying on {gamma}-spectroscopy for their possible application in whole-body and partial-body counters for detection of manifold incorporation of radionuclides. Particular emphasis is placed on the response functions of various detectors, the assembly, the differentiated radioactivity distribution in the body, the various components of background activity and the corresponding suppression mechanisms, and possible ways of using the energy dependence for optimised detection of specific {gamma} energies in a given body region. Criteria and relations as well as their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Diese Arbeit prueft die zur Verfuegung stehenden grundlegenden, {gamma}-spektroskopischen Messmethoden auf deren moegliche Anwendung im Spektrum der Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehler zum Nachweis der mannigfach inkorporierten Radionuklide. Insbesondere wird eingegangen auf die Response Funktionen verschiedener Detektoren, die Anordnung, die differenzierte Aktivitaetsverteilung im Koerper, die verschiedenen Untergrundkomponenten und deren Unterdrueckungsmechanismen sowie die Beeinflussung durch die Energieabhaengigkeit zum optimalen Nachweis spezifischer {gamma}-Energien an einem bestimmten Ort am Koerper. Kriterien und Relationen sowie deren Vor- und Nachteile werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  2. Spectroscopic gamma camera for use in high dose environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yuichiro, E-mail: yuichiro.ueno.bv@hitachi.com [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Fujishima, Yasutake; Kometani, Yutaka [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuhiko [Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Ome-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Umegaki, Kikuo [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-21

    We developed a pinhole gamma camera to measure distributions of radioactive material contaminants and to identify radionuclides in extraordinarily high dose regions (1000 mSv/h). The developed gamma camera is characterized by: (1) tolerance for high dose rate environments; (2) high spatial and spectral resolution for identifying unknown contaminating sources; and (3) good usability for being carried on a robot and remotely controlled. These are achieved by using a compact pixelated detector module with CdTe semiconductors, efficient shielding, and a fine resolution pinhole collimator. The gamma camera weighs less than 100 kg, and its field of view is an 8 m square in the case of a distance of 10 m and its image is divided into 256 (16×16) pixels. From the laboratory test, we found the energy resolution at the 662 keV photopeak was 2.3% FWHM, which is enough to identify the radionuclides. We found that the count rate per background dose rate was 220 cps h/mSv and the maximum count rate was 300 kcps, so the maximum dose rate of the environment where the gamma camera can be operated was calculated as 1400 mSv/h. We investigated the reactor building of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using the gamma camera and could identify the unknown contaminating source in the dose rate environment that was as high as 659 mSv/h.

  3. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  4. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  5. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  6. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  7. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  8. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  9. High activity gamma irradiators developed in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.

    1997-01-01

    The development of high activity Gamma irradiators began in Hungary already in the early years of 60s. The very first designs were serving research in irradiation chemistry, radiation physics, food and agricultural research, radiation sterilization, plastic radiation chemistry, radiobiology, cancer therapy, personal and high dose dosimetry, following the international trends. Domestic and new international demands forced us to design and construct High Activity Gamma Irradiators: Multipurpose Pilot, Portable and Large scale bulk, Multipurpose Industrial scale types

  10. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  11. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  12. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  13. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  14. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  15. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Cryostat for Ultrahigh Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, J.G.; Hertrich, T.; Drury, O.B.; Hohne, J.; Friedrich, S.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing ultra-high energy resolution gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear non-proliferation and fundamental science applications. They use bulk tin absorbers attached to molybdenum-copper multilayer TESs, and have achieved an energy resolution between 50 and 90 eV FWHM for gamma-ray energies below 122 keV. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a cryostat that attains the required detector operating temperature of 0.1 K at the push of a button without the use of cryogenic liquids. It uses a two-stage mechanical pulse tube refrigerator for precooling to ∼3 K, and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for cooling to the base temperature. The cryostat is fully automated, attains a base temperature below 30 mK without the use of cryogenic liquids, and has a hold time of ∼2 days at 0.1 K between 1-hour demagnetization cycles. Here we discuss the performance of the cryostat for operation in a Gamma-spectrometer with 112-pixel arrays of superconducting TES detectors

  16. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  17. The goals of gamma-ray spectroscopy in high energy astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.; Higdon, James C.; Leventhal, Marvin; Ramaty, Reuven; Woosley, Stanford E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy in astrophysics is discussed with specific attention given to the application of the Nuclear Astrophysics Explorer (NAE). The gamma-ray lines from nuclear transitions in radionucleic decay and positron annihilation permits the study of current sites, rates and models of nucleosynthesis, and galactic structure. Diffuse galactic emission is discussed, and the high-resolution observations of gamma-ray lines from discrete sites are also described. Interstellar mixing and elemental abundances can also be inferred from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of nucleosynthetic products. Compact objects can also be examined by means of gamma-ray emissions, allowing better understanding of neutron stars and the accreting black hole near the galactic center. Solar physics can also be investigated by examining such features as solar-flare particle acceleration and atmospheric abundances.

  18. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  19. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  20. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  1. Improving the spatial resolution of the multiple multiwire proportional chamber gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1978-03-01

    Results are presented showing how the spatial resolution of the multiple multiwire proportional chamber (MMPC) gamma camera may be improved. Under the best conditions 1.6 mm bars can be resolved. (author)

  2. Two-dimensional diced scintillator array for innovative, fine-resolution gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a technique to fabricate fine spatial resolution (FWHM<0.5mm) and cost-effective photon counting detectors, by using silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) coupled with a finely pixelated scintillator plate. Unlike traditional X-ray imagers that use a micro-columnar CsI(Tl) plate, we can pixelate various scintillation crystal plates more than 1 mm thick, and easily develop large-area, fine-pitch scintillator arrays with high precision. Coupling a fine pitch scintillator array with a SiPM array results in a compact, fast-response detector that is ideal for X-ray, gamma-ray, and charged particle detection as used in autoradiography, gamma cameras, and photon counting CTs. As the first step, we fabricated a 2-D, cerium-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillator array of 0.25 mm pitch, by using a dicing saw to cut micro-grooves 50μm wide into a 1.0 mm thick Ce:GAGG plate. The scintillator plate is optically coupled with a 3.0×3.0mm pixel 4×4 SiPM array and read-out via the resistive charge-division network. Even when using this simple system as a gamma camera, we obtained excellent spatial resolution of 0.48 mm (FWHM) for 122 keV gamma-rays. We will present our plans to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the image, and also discuss a variety of possible applications in the near future

  3. Development of a high resolution gamma imager for cancerology: from surgery treatment of cancer to the study on small animals; Developpement d'un imageur gamma haute resolution pour la cancerologie: du traitement chirurgical du cancer a l'etude sur petits animaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitre, St

    2002-12-01

    In the context of the surgical treatment of cancer, counting probes of radioactivity have been introduced in a theater bloc to assist the surgeon in real time for the excision of the radio-labeled tumors. This technique of radio-guided surgery allows to reach the precise localization and the complete excision of pathological tissues. To reinforce this surgical practice we developed a mini gamma-camera called POCI (Per-Operative Compact Imager). The objective of this work was to determine the role of this new generation of detectors to assist the surgeon in the excision of tumors and to also approach cancer research involving studies on small animals. From the instrumental point of view, the principle of detection based on the photodiode with intensified localization has been validated in a first prototype which was extended to a large field of analysis imagery without degrading the spatial performances and with miniaturizing the dimensions of the camera. The prototype of the realized camera has a 40 mm diameter field of view and a total weight of 1.2 kg. At 140 keV, the spatial resolution is 2.1 mm for an efficiency of 2.8 10{sup -4}%. POCI was estimated through the sentinel node protocol in breast cancer staging according to two approaches: one based on a comparative study of the performances of detection of a probe and POCI and an other one based on a clinical evaluation in collaboration with Institute Gustave Roussy. This study has permit to establish the complementarity between the imager and the probe considering various clinical configurations. The detection performances of POCI were also estimated in mice to study the biodistribution of iodine in the thyroid and the mammary glands. All these encouraging results allows to consider the use of the detector in a wider frame of investigations clinical as well as biological. (author)

  4. Development of a high resolution gamma imager for cancerology: from surgery treatment of cancer to the study on small animals; Developpement d'un imageur gamma haute resolution pour la cancerologie: du traitement chirurgical du cancer a l'etude sur petits animaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitre, St

    2002-12-01

    In the context of the surgical treatment of cancer, counting probes of radioactivity have been introduced in a theater bloc to assist the surgeon in real time for the excision of the radio-labeled tumors. This technique of radio-guided surgery allows to reach the precise localization and the complete excision of pathological tissues. To reinforce this surgical practice we developed a mini gamma-camera called POCI (Per-Operative Compact Imager). The objective of this work was to determine the role of this new generation of detectors to assist the surgeon in the excision of tumors and to also approach cancer research involving studies on small animals. From the instrumental point of view, the principle of detection based on the photodiode with intensified localization has been validated in a first prototype which was extended to a large field of analysis imagery without degrading the spatial performances and with miniaturizing the dimensions of the camera. The prototype of the realized camera has a 40 mm diameter field of view and a total weight of 1.2 kg. At 140 keV, the spatial resolution is 2.1 mm for an efficiency of 2.8 10{sup -4}%. POCI was estimated through the sentinel node protocol in breast cancer staging according to two approaches: one based on a comparative study of the performances of detection of a probe and POCI and an other one based on a clinical evaluation in collaboration with Institute Gustave Roussy. This study has permit to establish the complementarity between the imager and the probe considering various clinical configurations. The detection performances of POCI were also estimated in mice to study the biodistribution of iodine in the thyroid and the mammary glands. All these encouraging results allows to consider the use of the detector in a wider frame of investigations clinical as well as biological. (author)

  5. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  6. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  7. High resolution eddy current microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M. A.; Jarvis, S. P.; Tokumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample. To achieve a high sensitivity, we used a cantilever with an FeNdBLa particle mounted on the tip. Resistivity measurements are demonstrated on a silicon test structure with a staircase doping profile. Regions with resistivities of 0.0013, 0.0041, and 0.022 Ω cm are clearly resolved with a lateral resolution of approximately 180 nm. For this range of resistivities, the eddy current induced damping is found to depend linearly on the sample resistivity.

  8. New stage in high-energy gamma-ray studies with GAMMA-400 after Fermi-LAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topchiev N.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermi-LAT has made a significant contribution to the study of high-energy gamma-ray diffuse emission and the observations of 3000 discrete sources. However, one third of all gamma-ray sources (both galactic and extragalactic are unidentified, the data on the diffuse gamma-ray emission should be clarified, and signatures of dark matter particles in the high-energy gamma-ray range are not observed up to now. GAMMA-400, the currently developing gamma-ray telescope, will have angular (∼0.01∘ at 100 GeV and energy (∼1% at 100 GeV resolutions in the energy range of 10–1000 GeV which are better than Fermi-LAT (as well as ground gamma-ray telescopes by a factor of 5–10. It will observe some regions of the Universe (such as the Galactic Center, Fermi Bubbles, Crab, Cygnus, etc. in a highly elliptic orbit (without shading the telescope by the Earth continuously for a long time. It will allow us to identify many discrete sources, to clarify the structure of extended sources, to specify the data on the diffuse emission, and to resolve gamma rays from dark matter particles.

  9. Nuclear energy. Waste-packages activity measurement. Part. 1: high-resolution gamma spectrometry in integral mode with open geometry; ISO 14850-1: 2004. Energie nucleaire -- Mesurage de l'activite de colis de dechets. Partie 1: Spectrometrie gamma haute resolution en mode integral et geometrie ouverte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    ISO 14850:2004 describes a procedure for measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclide activity in homogeneous objects such as unconditioned waste (including process waste, dismantling waste, etc.), waste conditioned in various matrices (bitumen, hydraulic binder, thermosetting resins, etc.), notably in the form of 100 L, 200 L, 400 L or 800 L drums, and test specimens or samples, (vitrified waste), and waste packaged in a container, notably technological waste. It also specifies the calibration of the gamma spectrometry chain. The gamma energies used generally range from 0,05 MeV to 3 MeV.

  10. Nuclear energy - Waste-packages activity measurement - Part.1: high-resolution gamma spectrometry in integral mode with open geometry; ISO 14850-1:2004. Energie nucleaire - Mesurage de l'activite de colis de dechets - Partie 1: spectrometrie gamma haute resolution en mode integral et geometrie ouverte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    ISO 14850:2004 describes a procedure for measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclide activity in homogeneous objects such as unconditioned waste (including process waste, dismantling waste, etc.), waste conditioned in various matrices (bitumen, hydraulic binder, thermosetting resins, etc.), notably in the form of 100 L, 200 L, 400 L or 800 L drums, and test specimens or samples, (vitrified waste), and waste packaged in a container, notably technological waste. It also specifies the calibration of the gamma spectrometry chain. The gamma energies used generally range from 0,05 MeV to 3 MeV. (authors)

  11. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  12. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Whipple Observatory's atmospheric Cerenkov camera has detected TeV radiation from four galactic sources: the Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and 4U0115+63. Recent simulations encourage the view that unwanted cosmic-ray background showers may be suppressed by a large factor. Emphasis in the coming year will be on determining optimum selection criteria for enhancing gamma-ray signals and in developing a prototype camera with finer angular resolution as a first step towards implementation of the HERCULES concept

  13. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive

  14. Quantifying the benefits of ultrahigh energy resolution for Gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Owen B.; Terracol, Stephane F.; Friedrich, Stephan [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-270, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Cryogenic Gamma-ray spectrometers operating at temperatures of {proportional_to}0.1 K provide an order of magnitude better energy resolution than conventional germanium detectors. Ultra-high energy resolution improves the accuracy of non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials, since a better separation of lines reduces statistical errors as well as systematic errors from background subtraction and efficiency correction. We are developing cryogenic Gamma-spectrometers based on bulk tin absorbers and superconducting molybdenum-copper sensors for nuclear forensics and non-proliferation applications. Here we quantify the improvements in accuracy for isotope analysis with cryogenic detectors in terms of detector performance for different cases of line separation, line intensity ratios and background levels. Precise measurements of isotope ratios are crucial in the context of nuclear attribution, since they provide signatures of composition, age, origin, intended purpose and processing history of illicit nuclear materials. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  16. Detectors for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Tomography is the technique of producing a photographic image of an opaque specimen by transmitting a beam of x-rays or gamma rays through the specimen onto an adjacent photographic film. The image results from variations in thickness, density, and chemical composition, of the specimen. This technique is used to study the metabolism of the human brain. This article examines the design of equipment used for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography. 27 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  17. A high-resolution study of the sup 20 Ne( sup 3 He,t) sup 20 Na reaction and the sup 19 Ne(p,. gamma. ) sup 20 Na reaction rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M S; Magnus, P V; Hahn, K I; Howard, A J; Parker, P D [A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Lab., Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Champagne, A E; Mao, Z Q [Dept. of Physics, Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1992-01-13

    A high-precision measurement of the {sup 20}Ne({sup 3}He,t){sup 20}Na reaction has been made using implanted {sup 20}Ne transmission targets to obtain pertinent information on the low-energy resonances in the {sup 19}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 20}Na reaction. Resonance energies (447{+-}5, 658{+-}5, 787{+-}5, and 857{+-}5 keV) and upper limits on total intrinsic widths (<10, <6, <10, and <16 keV) have been measured for four excited states above the 2.199 MeV proton threshold in {sup 20}Na. The stellar {sup 19}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 20}Na reaction rate is calculated for temperatures between 1x10{sup 8} and 1x10{sup 9} K. When combined with a recent study of the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reaction, a new estimate is made of the conditions required for breakout from the Hot CNO cylce to the rapid proton capture process. (orig.).

  18. Front-illuminated versus back-illuminated photon-counting CCD-based gamma camera: important consequences for spatial resolution and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, Jan W T; Westra, Albert H; Linotte, Peter M; Ligtvoet, Kees M; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Beekman, Freek J

    2007-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) coupled to scintillation crystals can be used for high-resolution imaging with x-rays and gamma rays. When the CCD images can be read out fast enough, the energy and interaction position of individual gamma quanta can be estimated by a real-time image analysis of the scintillation light flashes ('photon-counting mode'). The electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) is well suited for fast read out, since even at high frame rates it has extremely low read-out noise. Back-illuminated (BI) EMCCDs have much higher quantum efficiency than front-illuminated (FI) EMCCDs. Here we compare the spatial and energy resolution of gamma cameras based on FI and BI EMCCDs. The CCDs are coupled to a 1000 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) crystal for the purpose of Tc-99m and I-125 imaging. Intrinsic spatial resolutions of 44 μm for I-125 and 49 μm for Tc-99m were obtained when using a BI EMCCD, which is an improvement by a factor of about 1.2-2 over the FI EMCCD. Furthermore, in the energy spectrum of the BI EMCCD, the I-125 signal could be clearly separated from the background noise, which was not the case for the FI EMCCD. The energy resolution of a BI EMCCD for Tc-99m was estimated to be approximately 36 keV, full width at half maximum, at 141 keV. The excellent results for the BI EMCCD encouraged us to investigate the cooling requirements for our setup. We have found that for the BI EMCCD, the spatial and energy resolution, as well as image noise, remained stable over a range of temperatures from -50 deg. C to -15 deg. C. This is a significant advantage over the FI EMCCD, which suffered from loss of spatial and especially energy resolution at temperatures as low as -40 deg. C. We conclude that the use of BI EMCCDs may significantly improve the imaging capabilities and the cost efficiency of CCD-based high-resolution gamma cameras. (note)

  19. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  20. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah; William Higgins; Edgar V. Van Loef

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr 3 :Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr 3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr 3 :Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr 3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr 3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr 3 and LaI 3 ) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBr x I 3-x :Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr 3 and LaCl 3 ) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr 3 :Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower than that for LaBr 3 :Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl 3 is lower than that of LaBr 3 ), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce than LaBr 3 :Ce since in some instances (for example, Cd x Zn 1-x Te), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu 2+ and Pr 3+ , tried in LaBr 3 host crystals, the Eu 2+ doped samples exhibited

  1. Multi element high resolution scintillator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    A gamma camera scintillator structure, suitable for detecting high energy gamma photons which, in a single scintillator camera, would require a comparatively thick scintillator crystal, so resulting in unacceptable dispersion of light photons, comprises a collimator array of a high Z material with elongated, parallel wall channels with the scintillator material being disposed in one end of the channels so as to form an integrated collimator/scintillator structure. The collimator channel walls are preferably coated with light reflective material and further light reflective surfaces being translucent to gamma photons, may be provided in each channel. The scintillators may be single crystals or preferably comprise a phosphor dispersed in a thermosetting translucent matrix as disclosed in GB2012800A. The light detectors of the assembled camera may be photomultiplier tubes charge coupled devices or charge injection devices. (author)

  2. Numerical simulations on efficiency and measurement of capabilities of BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray

    CERN Document Server

    Wen Wan Xin

    2002-01-01

    The energy resolution and time resolution of two phi 75 x 100 BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray newly made were measured with sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co resources. The two characteristic gamma rays of high energy emitted from the thermal neutron capture of germanium in BGO crystal were used for the energy calibration of gamma spectra. The intrinsic photopeak efficiency, single escape probability and double escape probabilities of BGO detectors in photon energy range of 4-30 MeV are numerically calculated with GEANT code. The real count response and count ratio of the uniformly distributed incident photons in energy range of 0-30 MeV are also calculated. The distortion of gamma spectra caused by the photon energy loss extension to lower energy in detection medium is discussed

  3. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  4. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    It is apparent that very high gamma-ray astronomy, at the very end of the electromagnetic spectrum, is just at the threshold of becoming an important channel of astronomical information. The author discusses how, to fully develop, it requires telescopes with improved minimum flux sensitivity; development of techniques that characterize the nature of the primary; more overlapping observations to remove any question of the reality of the detected phenomenon; more consistency in the application of statistics among experimenters and more openness about methods used; development of models that will predict the phenomenon to be expected rather than explain what has been observed; and more accurate calibrations to determine absolute fluxes and energies

  5. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments Experimental Apparatus-Mass Spectrum Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-08-15

    The gamma-radiation from fission fragments was studied as a function of the fragment mass. The mass was determined from the fragment energies using solid state detectors. The mass resolution which can be achieved by this method is treated in detail. The average initial fragment mass and the initial mass resolution is calculated as a function of the measured (apparent) mass yield for three different thicknesses of the fissile material deposit. This treatment gives a clear indication of those factors most important for good mass resolution work. A detailed description of the experimental apparatus is given in the appendices.

  6. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  7. High dose gamma-ray standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrin, R.; Moraru, R.

    1999-01-01

    The high gamma-ray doses produced in a gamma irradiator are used, mainly, for radiation processing, i.e. sterilization of medical products, processing of food, modifications of polymers, irradiation of electronic devices, a.s.o. The used absorbed doses depend on the application and cover the range 10 Gy to 100 MGy. The regulations in our country require that the response of the dosimetry systems, used for the irradiation of food and medical products, be calibrated and traceable to the national standards. In order to be sure that the products receive the desired absorbed dose, appropriate dosimetric measurements must be performed, including the calibration of the dosemeters and their traceability to the national standards. The high dose gamma-ray measurements are predominantly based on the use of reference radiochemical dosemeters. Among them the ferrous sulfate can be used as reference dosemeter for low doses (up to 400 Gy) but due to its characteristics it deserves to be considered a standard dosemeter and to be used for transferring the conventional absorbed dose to other chemical dosemeters used for absorbed doses up to 100 MGy. The study of the ferrous sulfate dosemeter consisted in preparing many batches of solution by different operators in quality assurance conditions and in determining for all batches the linearity, the relative intrinsic error, the repeatability and the reproducibility. The principal results are the following: the linear regression coefficient: 0.999, the relative intrinsic error: max.6 %, the repeatability (for P* = 95 %): max.3 %, the reproducibility (P* = 95%): max.5 %. (authors)

  8. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

  9. High-resolution spectrum of the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations of the Galactic center region indicate the presence of a narrow gamma-ray line feature at 170 keV, and theoretical speculations suggest it may result from Compton backscattering of the 511 keV annihilation radiation. The high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer on HEAO 3 observed the Galactic center in the fall of 1979 and in the spring of 1980. In view of the recent developments, the HEAO data were re-examined to search for this new feature and to look for possible correlations with the 511 keV line emisison. No evidence for such Compton backscattered radiation was found and the derived upper limits for emission in a line feature near 170 keV were well below previously reported fluxes, indicating possible time variability.

  10. De-excitation gamma-ray technique for improved resolution in intermediate energy photonuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.; Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.; Adler, J.O.; Fissum, K.; Issaksson, L.; Ruijter, H.; Schroeder, B.; Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Crawford, G.I.; Gregel, J.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 C (γ,p) reaction was studied. The experiment was done at the MAX Laboratory of Lund University, using tagged photons with energy between 50 and 70 MeV and natural carbon targets. It has been possible to detect γ-ray emitted from the residual nucleus, in coincidence with photoprotons leading to the excited residual state. The 200 KeV gamma-ray resolution permitted the identification of the residual states and allowed off-line cuts to be made in order to identify the excitation region in 11 B from what particular de-excitation gamma-ray were seen. 9 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  11. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Anix [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Analisis y Evalucion

    1992-12-31

    In this work {sup 29} Si and {sup 27} Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Anix

    1991-01-01

    In this work 29 Si and 27 Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author)

  13. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  14. High resolution CT of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  15. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  16. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  17. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  18. High tracking resolution detectors. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  19. Maximum likelihood positioning algorithm for high-resolution PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Weege, Nicolas; Schug, David; Hallen, Patrick; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET), lightsharing elements are incorporated into typical detector stacks to read out scintillator arrays in which one scintillator element (crystal) is smaller than the size of the readout channel. In order to identify the hit crystal by means of the measured light distribution, a positioning algorithm is required. One commonly applied positioning algorithm uses the center of gravity (COG) of the measured light distribution. The COG algorithm is limited in spatial resolution by noise and intercrystal Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to develop a positioning algorithm which overcomes this limitation. Methods: The authors present a maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm which compares a set of expected light distributions given by probability density functions (PDFs) with the measured light distribution. Instead of modeling the PDFs by using an analytical model, the PDFs of the proposed ML algorithm are generated assuming a single-gamma-interaction model from measured data. The algorithm was evaluated with a hot-rod phantom measurement acquired with the preclinical HYPERION II D PET scanner. In order to assess the performance with respect to sensitivity, energy resolution, and image quality, the ML algorithm was compared to a COG algorithm which calculates the COG from a restricted set of channels. The authors studied the energy resolution of the ML and the COG algorithm regarding incomplete light distributions (missing channel information caused by detector dead time). Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of using a filter based on the likelihood values on sensitivity, energy resolution, and image quality. Results: A sensitivity gain of up to 19% was demonstrated in comparison to the COG algorithm for the selected operation parameters. Energy resolution and image quality were on a similar level for both algorithms. Additionally, the authors demonstrated that the performance of the ML

  20. Single-acquisition method for simultaneous determination of extrinsic gamma-camera sensitivity and spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.A.M. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil do Porto, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: a.miranda@portugalmail.pt; Sarmento, S. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil do Porto, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Alves, P.; Torres, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, A.L. [Servico de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil do Porto, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Ponte, F. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil do Porto, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    A new method for measuring simultaneously both the extrinsic sensitivity and spatial resolution of a gamma-camera in a single planar acquisition was implemented. A dual-purpose phantom (SR phantom; sensitivity/resolution) was developed, tested and the results compared with other conventional methods used for separate determination of these two important image quality parameters. The SR phantom yielded reproducible and accurate results, allowing an immediate visual inspection of the spatial resolution as well as the quantitative determination of the contrast for six different spatial frequencies. It also proved to be useful in the estimation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the image formation collimator/detector system at six different frequencies and can be used to estimate the spatial resolution as function of the direction relative to the digital matrix of the detector.

  1. Single-acquisition method for simultaneous determination of extrinsic gamma-camera sensitivity and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A.M.; Sarmento, S.; Alves, P.; Torres, M.C.; Bastos, A.L.; Ponte, F.

    2008-01-01

    A new method for measuring simultaneously both the extrinsic sensitivity and spatial resolution of a gamma-camera in a single planar acquisition was implemented. A dual-purpose phantom (SR phantom; sensitivity/resolution) was developed, tested and the results compared with other conventional methods used for separate determination of these two important image quality parameters. The SR phantom yielded reproducible and accurate results, allowing an immediate visual inspection of the spatial resolution as well as the quantitative determination of the contrast for six different spatial frequencies. It also proved to be useful in the estimation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the image formation collimator/detector system at six different frequencies and can be used to estimate the spatial resolution as function of the direction relative to the digital matrix of the detector

  2. Study of the parabolic-spherical shape on the energy resolution in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Joao Carlos Pereira da

    1997-01-01

    In gamma spectrometry, the energy resolution is an important parameter. This parameter measures the capability of the system to separate two photopeaks that are together. Scintillation systems have various factors that affect the energy resolution: energy deposition, light emission, light collection and electric signal processing. Light collection depended on the mechanisms of light transport until light strikes on the photocathode. In this trajectory the light losses energy by attenuation and refractions on the surfaces. In order to minimize these effects, a parabolic-spherical shape is proposed. The energy resolutions of hemispherical and parabolic-spherical shapes were measured. The results show a better resolution for the new shape, about 33% for Compton edge due to a 137 Cs radioactive source. (author)

  3. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  4. Some aspects related to the high performance in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe; Mihaiu, Ramona; Nistor, Viorica

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma spectroscopy is the science (or art) of identification and/or quantification of radionuclides through gamma-ray energy spectrum analysis. It is a recognized technique, well illustrated by the following examples: environmental radioactivity monitoring, health physics personnel monitoring, reactor corrosion monitoring, nuclear materials safeguards and homeland security, as well as nuclear forensics, materials testing, nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals, and industrial process monitoring. Within the Reliability and Testing Laboratory of INR Pitesti there is now available such a detector of high performance that includes all aspects related to cooling, signal processing (with a high resolution) and the dedicated software applications. At the present time, taking into account the 'nuclear renaissance' the new experimental testing laboratories require complete set-up rather than laboratories having a mixture of the old equipment. The paper presents the mechanically cooled HPGe spectrometers with an undergoing rapid evolution, which eliminate traditional intensive liquid nitrogen management. Also, there are described the digital signal processing virtually by eliminating system drift, and, at the same time, requiring recalibrations much less frequently. Another important aspect presented is related to the software applications, which cover a broad spectrum of nuclear measurement techniques. (authors)

  5. High energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinston, J.A.; Nifenecker, H.; Nifenecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental techniques used to study high energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions are reviewed. High energy photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. Semi-classical descriptions of the nucleus-nucleus gamma reactions are introduced. Nucleon-nucleon gamma cross sections are considered, including theoretical aspects and experimental data. High energy gamma ray production in proton-nucleus reactions is explained. Theoretical explanations of photon emission in nucleus-nucleus collisions are treated. The contribution of charged pion currents to photon production is mentioned

  6. A high energy gamma ray astronomy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstadter, R.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes work involving NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). GRO exemplifies the near zero principle because it investigates new gamma ray phenomena by relying on the space program to take us into the region of zero interference above the earth's atmosphere. In its present form GRO has four experiments

  7. Benign prostatic hypertrophy with high levels of gamma-seminoprotein (gamma-Sm), prostate specific antigen: report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    浅川, 正純; 安本, 亮二; 上水流, 雅人; 前川, 正信

    1988-01-01

    gamma-Seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) is recently being noted as a tumor marker of prostatic cancer. However, since gamma-Sm is a specific antigen against the prostatic tissue, high levels are also observed in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In this report, two patients with BPH who had high levels of gamma-Sm were studied.

  8. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of {sigma} phase in Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Jianxin, E-mail: jianxin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Pan [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Feng Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Han Xiaodong; Mao Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2012-09-25

    Graphical abstract: (a) TEM micrograph of {sigma} phase; (b) HRTEM image of {sigma}/{gamma} interface corresponding to the area of the white frame in (a); (c) an enlarged image of area from the white frame in (b). The combination of {sigma}/{gamma} interface appears very well, and a two-atomic-layer step is shown on the {sigma}/{gamma} interface. In addition, {sigma} phase has the orientation relationship of [0 0 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 2{sup Macron }]{sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron} 2 0){sub {gamma}}//(1{sup Macron} 1 0){sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron }2{sup Macron} 0){sub {gamma}}//(1 1 1){sub {sigma}}; [0 1 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 0]{sub {sigma}}, (1 1{sup Macron} 1){sub {gamma}}//(0 0 1{sup Macron }){sub {sigma}} with the {gamma} phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental characteristic of {sigma} phase is studied by HAADF techniques and EDS analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial characteristics of {sigma}/{gamma} interface are revealed by HRTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An atomic structural {sigma}/{gamma} interface with a two-atomic-layer step has been proposed. - Abstract: By means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark-field image technique (HAADF), morphological of plate-shaped {sigma} phase and interfacial characteristics between plate-shaped {sigma} phase and {gamma} phase in Ni-based single crystal superalloys have been studied. On the basis of HRTEM observations, an atomic structural interface between {sigma} phase and {gamma} phase with a step has been proposed. {sigma} Phase has the relationship of [0 0 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 2{sup Macron }]{sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron} 2 0){sub {gamma}}//(1{sup Macron} 1 0){sub {sigma},} (2{sup Macron }2{sup Macron} 0){sub {gamma}}//(1 1 1){sub {sigma}}; [0 1 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 0]{sub {sigma}}, (1 1{sup Macron} 1){sub {gamma}}//(0 0 1{sup Macron }){sub {sigma}} with the {gamma} phase. The compositional characteristics of the {sigma} phase which

  9. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  10. $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ and $\\gamma$-p events at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, Gerhard A.; Gerhard A Schuler; Torbjorn Sjostrand

    1994-01-01

    A real photon has a complicated nature, whereby it may remain unresolved or fluctuate into a vector meson or a perturbative q-qbar pair. Based on this picture, we previously presented a model for gamma-p events that is based on the presence of three main event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. In gamma-gamma events, a natural generalization gives three-by-three combinations of the nature of the two incoming photons, and thus six distinct event classes. The properties of these classes are constrained by the choices already made, in the gamma-p model, of cut-off procedures and other aspects. It is therefore possible to predict the energy-dependence of the cross section for each of the six components separately. The total cross section thus obtained is in good agreement with data, and also gives support to the idea that a simple factorized ansatz with a pomeron and a reggeon term can be a good approximation. Event properties undergo a logical evolution from p-p to gamma-p to gamma-gamma events, with larger cha...

  11. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  12. High resolution neutron spectroscopy for helium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; Klages, H.O.; Schmalz, G.; Haesner, B.H.; Kecskemeti, J.; Schwarz, P.; Wilczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution fast neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described, neutron time-of-flight spectra are taken using a specially designed TDC in connection to an on-line computer. The high time-of-flight resolution of 5 ps/m enabled the study of the total cross section of 4 He for neutrons near the 3/2 + resonance in the 5 He nucleus. The resonance parameters were determined by a single level Breit-Winger fit to the data. (orig.)

  13. The future of high energy gamma ray astronomy and its potential astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Future satellites should carry instruments having over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far as well as improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance knowledge of: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies; and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The relevant aspects of extragalactic gamma ray phenomena are emphasized along with the instruments planned. The high energy gamma ray results of forthcoming programs such as GAMMA-1 and the Gamma Ray Observatory should justify even more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the space station currently being considered by NASA.

  14. Portable gamma-ray holdup and attributes measurements of high- and variable-burnup plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, T.R.; Russo, P.A.; Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Takahashi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Aoki, I.

    1991-01-01

    High burnup-plutonium holdup has been assayed quantitatively by low resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The assay was calibrated with four plutonium standards representing a range of fuel burnup and 241 Am content. Selection of a calibration standard based on its qualitative spectral similarity to gamma-ray spectra of the process material is partially responsible for the success of these holdup measurements. The spectral analysis method is based on the determination of net counts in a single spectral region of interest (ROI). However, the low-resolution gamma-ray assay signal for the high-burnup plutonium includes unknown amounts of contamination from 241 Am. For most needs, the range of calibration standards required for this selection procedure is not available. A new low-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis procedure for assay of 239 Pu has been developed. The procedure uses the calculated isotope activity ratios and the measured net counts in three spectral ROIs to evaluate and remove the 241 Am contamination from the 239 Pu assay signal on a spectrum-by-spectrum basis. The calibration for the new procedure requires only a single plutonium standard. The procedure also provides a measure of the burnup and age attributes of holdup deposits. The new procedure has been demonstrated using portable gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment for a wide range of plutonium standards and has also been applied to the assay of 239 Pu holdup in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.

  16. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  17. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  18. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  19. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  20. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  1. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  2. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166 degrees C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen

  3. Impact of detector efficiency and energy resolution on gamma-ray background rejection in mobile spectroscopy and imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucott, Timothy J., E-mail: Timothy.Aucott@SRS.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bandstra, Mark S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Negut, Victor; Curtis, Joseph C. [University of California, Berkeley, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Meyer, Ross E.; Chivers, Daniel H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [University of California, Berkeley, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The presence of gamma-ray background significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, and the systematic variability in the background will limit the size and energy resolution of systems that can be used effectively. An extensive survey of the background was performed using both sodium iodide and high-purity germanium. By using a bivariate negative binomial model for the measured counts, these measurements can be resampled to simulate the performance of a detector array of arbitrary size and resolution. The response of the system as it moved past a stationary source was modeled for spectroscopic and coded aperture imaging algorithms and used for source injection into the background. The performance of both techniques is shown for various sizes and resolutions, as well as the relative performance for sodium iodide and germanium. It was found that at smaller detector sizes or better energy resolution, spectroscopy has higher detection sensitivity than imaging, while imaging is better suited to larger or poorer resolution detectors.

  4. Detectors for high resolution dynamic pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report reviews the motivation for high spatial resolution in dynamic positron emission tomography of the head and the technical problems in realizing this objective. We present recent progress in using small silicon photodiodes to measure the energy deposited by 511 keV photons in small BGO crystals with an energy resolution of 9.4% full-width at half-maximum. In conjunction with a suitable phototube coupled to a group of crystals, the photodiode signal to noise ratio is sufficient for the identification of individual crystals both for conventional and time-of-flight positron tomography

  5. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  6. High-energy gamma-ray emission in compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Four gamma-ray sources have been associated with binary systems in our Galaxy: the micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 and the gamma-ray binaries LS I +61 degrees 303, LS 5039 and PSR B1259-63. These systems are composed of a massive companion star and a compact object of unknown nature, except in PSR B1259-63 where there is a young pulsar. I propose a comprehensive theoretical model for the high-energy gamma-ray emission and variability in gamma-ray emitting binaries. In this model, the high-energy radiation is produced by inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons on ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs injected by a young pulsar in gamma-ray binaries and in a relativistic jet in micro-quasars. Considering anisotropic inverse Compton scattering, pair production and pair cascade emission, the TeV gamma-ray emission is well explained in LS 5039. Nevertheless, this model cannot account for the gamma-ray emission in LS I +61 degrees 303 and PSR B1259-63. Other processes should dominate in these complex systems. In Cygnus X-3, the gamma-ray radiation is convincingly reproduced by Doppler-boosted Compton emission of pairs in a relativistic jet. Gamma-ray binaries and micro-quasars provide a novel environment for the study of pulsar winds and relativistic jets at very small spatial scales. (author)

  7. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  8. Resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction for a high-resolution animal SPECT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, Navid; Sajedi, Salar; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Arabi, Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-01

    The small-animal High-Resolution SPECT (HiReSPECT) is a dedicated dual-head gamma camera recently designed and developed in our laboratory for imaging of murine models. Each detector is composed of an array of 1.2 × 1.2 mm(2) (pitch) pixelated CsI(Na) crystals. Two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) are coupled to each head's crystal. In this paper, we report on a resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction code applicable to the system and present the experimental results achieved using different phantoms and mouse scans. Collimator-detector response functions (CDRFs) were measured via a pixel-driven method using capillary sources at finite distances from the head within the field of view (FOV). CDRFs were then fitted by independent Gaussian functions. Thereafter, linear interpolations were applied to the standard deviation (σ) values of the fitted Gaussians, yielding a continuous map of CDRF at varying distances from the head. A rotation-based maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was used for reconstruction. A fast rotation algorithm was developed to rotate the image matrix according to the desired angle by means of pre-generated rotation maps. The experiments demonstrated improved resolution utilizing our resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction. While the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) radial and tangential resolution measurements of the system were over 2 mm in nearly all positions within the FOV without resolution recovery, reaching around 2.5 mm in some locations, they fell below 1.8 mm everywhere within the FOV using the resolution-recovery algorithm. The noise performance of the system was also acceptable; the standard deviation of the average counts per voxel in the reconstructed images was 6.6% and 8.3% without and with resolution recovery, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  10. {gamma}*{gamma}*->{rho}{rho} at very high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pire, B. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France, UMR 7644 du CNRS (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland) and Universite de Liege, B4000 Liege (Belgium); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite d' Orsay, F 91405-Orsay (France); UMR 8627 du CNRS (France)

    2005-06-13

    The next generation of e{sup +}e{sup -}-colliders will offer a possibility of clean testing of QCD dynamics in the Regge limit. Recent progress in the theoretical description of exclusive processes permits for many of them a consistent use of the perturbative QCD methods. We advocate that the exclusive diffractive production of two {rho} mesons from virtual photons at very high energies should be measurable at the future linear collider (LC)

  11. High-spin research with HERA [High Energy-Resolution Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The topic of this report is high spin research with the High Energy Resolution Array (HERA) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This is a 21 Ge detector system, the first with bismuth germanate (BGO) Compton suppression. The array is described briefly and some of the results obtained during the past year using this detector facility are discussed. Two types of studies are described: observation of superdeformation in the light Nd isotopes, and rotational damping at high spin and excitation energy in the continuum gamma ray spectrum

  12. Use of an iterative convolution approach for qualitative and quantitative peak analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Robin P.; Ai Xianyun; Peeples, Cody R.; Wang, Jiaxin; Lee, Kyoung; Peeples, Johanna L.; Calderon, Adan

    2011-01-01

    In many applications, low resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, such as sodium iodide scintillation detectors, are widely used primarily due to their relatively low cost and high detection efficiency. There is widespread interest in improved methods for analyzing spectral data acquired with such devices, using inverse analysis. Peak means and peak areas in gamma- and X-ray spectra are needed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper introduces the PEAKSI code package that was developed at the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR). The basic approach described here is to use accurate forward models and iterative convolution instead of direct deconvolution. Rather than smoothing and differentiation a combination of linear regression and non-linear searching is used to minimize the reduced chi-square, since this approach retains the capability of establishing uncertainties in the estimated peak parameters. The PEAKSI package uses a Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) non-linear search method combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) to minimize the reduced chi-square value for fitting single or multiple overlapping peaks to determine peak parameters, including peak means, peak standard deviations or full width at half maximum (FWHM), net peak counts, and background counts of peaks in experimental gamma-ray spectra. This approach maintains the natural error structure so that parameter uncertainties can be estimated. The plan is to release this code to the public in the near future.

  13. High power green lasers for gamma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Magali; Sevillano, Pierre; Alexaline, Olivier; Sangla, Damien; Casanova, Alexis; Aubourg, Adrien; Saci, Abdelhak; Courjaud, Antoine

    2018-02-01

    A high intensity Gamma source is required for Nuclear Spectroscopy, it will be delivered by the interaction between accelerated electron and intense laser beams. Those two interactions lasers are based on a multi-stage amplification scheme that ended with a second harmonics generation to deliver 200 mJ, 5 ps pulses at 515 nm and 100 Hz. A t-Pulse oscillator with slow and fast feedback loop implemented inside the oscillator cavity allows the possibility of synchronization to an optical reference. A temporal jitter of 120 fs rms is achieved, integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz. Then a regenerative amplifier, based on Yb:YAG technology, pumped by fiber-coupled QCW laser diodes, delivers pulses up to 30 mJ. The 1 nm bandwidth was compressed to 1.5 ps with a good spatial quality: M2 of 1.1. This amplifier is integrated in a compact sealed housing (750 x 500 x 150 mm), which allows a pulse-pulse stability of 0.1 % rms, and a long-term stability of 1,9 % over 100 hours (with +/-1°C environment). The main amplification stage uses a cryocooled Yb:YAG crystal in an active mirror configuration. The crystal is cooled at 130 K via a compact and low-vibration cryocooler, avoiding any additional phase noise contribution, 340 mJ in a six pass scheme was achieved, with 0.9 of Strehl ratio. The trade off to the gain of a cryogenic amplifier is the bandwidth reduction, however the 1030 nm pulse was compressed to 4.4 ps. As for the regenerative amplifier a long-term stability of 1.9 % over 30 hours was achieved in an environment with +/-1°C temperature fluctuations The compression and Second Harmonics Generation Stages have allowed the conversion of 150 mJ of uncompressed infrared beam into 60 mJ at 515 nm.

  14. High Energy Neutron Induced Gamma Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.; Johnson, M.; Navratil, P.

    2007-01-01

    N Division has an interest in improving the physics and accuracy of the gamma data it provides to its customers. It was asked to look into major gamma producing reactions for 14 MeV incident neutrons for several low-Z materials and determine whether LLNL's processed data files faithfully represent the current state of experimental and theoretical knowledge for these reactions. To address this, we surveyed the evaluations of the requested materials, made recommendations for the next ENDL release and noted isotopes that will require further experimental study. This process uncovered several major problems in our translation and processing of the ENDF formatted evaluations, most of which have been resolved

  15. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  16. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  17. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubor, Nenad M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  18. Gamma and Xray spectroscopy at high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author determines that for many interesting problems in gamma and Xray spectroscopy it is necessary to use crystal diffractometers. The basic features of such instruments are discussed and the special performance of crystal spectrometers is demonstrated by means of typical examples of various applications

  19. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  20. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  1. Detection and localization of carcinoma within the prostate using high resolution transrectal gamma imaging (TRGI) of monoclonal antibody directed at prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)—Proof of concept and initial imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franc, Benjamin L.; Cho, Steve Y.; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Cui, Yonggang; Tsui, Benjamin; Vandewalker, Kristen M.N.; Holz, Andrew L.; Poonamallee, Uday; Pomper, Martin G.; James, Ralph B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Molecular imaging methods may identify primary prostate cancer foci and potentially guide biopsy and optimal management approaches. In this exploratory study, safety and first human imaging experience of a novel solid state endocavity transrectal gamma-imaging (TRGI) device was evaluated. Methods: Twelve patients received 5 ± 0.5 mCi In-111 capromab pendetide (ProstaScint ® ) intravenously and the prostate of each was imaged 4 days later transrectally using an endoluminal cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based compact gamma camera (ProxiScan™, Hybridyne Imaging Technologies, Inc.). Immediate and 5–7-day post imaging safety assessments were performed. In those patients with a prostate cancer diagnosis (N = 10), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis were also acquired. Images were reviewed and sites of suspected cancer were localized by prostate quadrant by consensus of two nuclear medicine physicians. Pathology from TRUS biopsy, or surgical pathology following prostatectomy (N = 3) when available, served as the gold standard. Results: There were no serious adverse events associated with TRGI. No focal signal was detected in patients without a diagnosis of prostate cancer (N = 2). Of 40 quadrants evaluated in the cancer cohort (N = 10), 22 contained malignancy. In 8 of these 10 patients, the most focal site of uptake on TRGI corresponded to a prostatic quadrant with biopsy-proven malignancy. In 6 cancer-containing quadrants, TRGI was positive where SPECT-CT was negative; MRI showed a detectable abnormality in only 1 of these 6 quadrants. Qualitative image review of the planar TRGI images for prostate cancer localization was severely limited in some cases by scatter artifact within the vicinity of the prostate gland arising from physiologic urine and blood pool activity from nearby structures. Conclusions: TRGI is a safe imaging method that can potentially detect radiopharmaceutical uptake

  2. Quantifying K, U and Th contents of marine sediments using shipboard natural gamma radiation spectra measured on DV JOIDES Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, David; Dunlea, Ann G.; Auer, Gerald; Anderson, Chloe H.; Brumsack, Hans; de Loach, Aaron; Gurnis, Michael C.; Huh, Youngsook; Ishiwa, Takeshige; Jang, Kwangchul; Kominz, Michelle A.; März, Christian; Schnetger, Bernhard; Murray, Richard W.; Pälike, Heiko; Expedition 356 shipboard scientists, IODP

    2017-04-01

    During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions, shipboard-generated data provide the first insights into the cored sequences. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) of the recovered material, for example, is routinely measured on the ocean drilling research vessel DV JOIDES Resolution. At present, only total NGR counts are readily available as shipboard data, although full NGR spectra (counts as a function of gamma-ray energy level) are produced and archived. These spectra contain unexploited information, as one can estimate the sedimentary contents of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) from the characteristic gamma-ray energies of isotopes in the 40K, 232Th, and 238U radioactive decay series. Dunlea et al. [2013] quantified K, Th and U contents in sediment from the South Pacific Gyre by integrating counts over specific energy levels of the NGR spectrum. However, the algorithm used in their study is unavailable to the wider scientific community due to commercial proprietary reasons. Here, we present a new MATLAB algorithm for the quantification of NGR spectra that is transparent and accessible to future NGR users. We demonstrate the algorithm's performance by comparing its results to shore-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), and quantitative wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Samples for these comparisons come from eleven sites (U1341, U1343, U1366-U1369, U1414, U1428-U1430, U1463) cored in two oceans during five expeditions. In short, our algorithm rapidly produces detailed high-quality information on sediment properties during IODP expeditions at no extra cost. Dunlea, A. G., R. W. Murray, R. N. Harris, M. A. Vasiliev, H. Evans, A. J. Spivack, and S. D'Hondt (2013), Assessment and use of NGR instrumentation on the JOIDES Resolution to quantify U, Th, and K concentrations in marine sediment, Scientific Drilling, 15, 57-63.

  3. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  4. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  5. A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Salwen, C.; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype gamma-ray spectrometers utilizing xenon gas at high pressure, suitable for applications in the nuclear safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation communities, have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These spectrometers function as ambient-temperature ionization chambers detecting gamma rays with good efficiency in the energy range 50 keV - 2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. They are capable of prolonged, low-power operation without a requirement for cryogenic fluids or other cooling mechanisms, and with the addition of small quantities of 3 He gas, can function simultaneously as efficient thermal neutron detectors

  6. One dimensional spatial resolution optimization on a hybrid low field MRI-gamma detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agulles-Pedrós, L., E-mail: lagullesp@unal.edu.co; Abril, A., E-mail: ajabrilf@unal.edu.co [Medical Physics Group, Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    Hybrid systems like Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) and MRI/gamma camera, offer advantages combining the resolution and contrast capability of MRI with the better contrast and functional information of nuclear medicine techniques. However, the radiation detectors are expensive and need an electronic set-up, which can interfere with the MRI acquisition process or viceversa. In order to improve these drawbacks, in this work it is presented the design of a low field NMR system made up of permanent magnets compatible with a gamma radiation detector based on gel dosimetry. The design is performed using the software FEMM for estimation of the magnetic field, and GEANT4 for the physical process involved in radiation detection and effect of magnetic field. The homogeneity in magnetic field is achieved with an array of NbFeB magnets in a linear configuration with a separation between the magnets, minimizing the effect of Compton back scattering compared with a no-spacing linear configuration. The final magnetic field in the homogeneous zone is ca. 100 mT. In this hybrid proposal, although the gel detector do not have spatial resolution per se, it is possible to obtain a dose profile (1D image) as a function of the position by using a collimator array. As a result, the gamma detector system described allows a complete integrated radiation detector within the low field NMR (lfNMR) system. Finally we present the better configuration for the hybrid system considering the collimator parameters such as height, thickness and distance.

  7. Processing method for high resolution monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya

    2006-12-01

    A processing method for high resolution monochromator (HRM) has been developed at Japanese Atomic Energy Agency/Quantum Beam Science Directorate/Synchrotron Radiation Research unit at SPring-8. For manufacturing a HRM, a sophisticated slicing machine and X-ray diffractometer have been installed for shaping a crystal ingot and orienting precisely the surface of a crystal ingot, respectively. The specification of the slicing machine is following; Maximum size of a diamond blade is φ 350mm in diameter, φ 38.1mm in the spindle diameter, and 2mm in thickness. A large crystal such as an ingot with 100mm in diameter, 200mm in length can be cut. Thin crystal samples such as a wafer can be also cut using by another sample holder. Working distance of a main shaft with the direction perpendicular to working table in the machine is 350mm at maximum. Smallest resolution of the main shaft with directions of front-and-back and top-and-bottom are 0.001mm read by a digital encoder. 2mm/min can set for cutting samples in the forward direction. For orienting crystal faces relative to the blade direction adjustment, a one-circle goniometer and 2-circle segment are equipped on the working table in the machine. A rotation and a tilt of the stage can be done by manual operation. Digital encoder in a turn stage is furnished and has angle resolution of less than 0.01 degrees. In addition, a hand drill as a supporting device for detailed processing of crystal is prepared. Then, an ideal crystal face can be cut from crystal samples within an accuracy of about 0.01 degrees. By installation of these devices, a high energy resolution monochromator crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and a beam collimator are got in hand and are expected to be used for nanotechnology studies. (author)

  8. Characterization of Compton-suppressed TIGRESS detectors for high energy gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.S.; Galinski, N.; Ball, G.C.; Djongolov, M.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Hackman, G.; Orce, J.N.; Pearson, C.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S.J.; Drake, T.; Smalley, D.; Svensson, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape- Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) will consist of 12 large-volume, 32-fold segmented HPGe clover detectors. Each detector is shielded by a 20-fold segmented Compton suppression shield. For performing discrete gamma-ray spectroscopy of light mass nuclei with TIGRESS, we need information about full energy peak efficiency, resolution and lineshape of full energy peaks for high energy gamma-rays. However, suitable radioactive sources having decay gamma-rays of energies greater than ∼ 3.5 MeV are not easily available. So the characteristics of gamma spectrometers at energies higher than 3.5 MeV are usually determined from simulation data. Predictions from GEANT4 simulations (experimentally validated from 0.3 to 3 MeV) indicate that TIGRESS will be capable for single 10 MeV gamma-rays of absolute detection efficiency of 1.5% for backward configuration of the array. It has been observed experimentally that simulation results work well up to certain energies and might deviate at higher energies. So, it is essential to check the validity of simulation results for energies above 3.3 MeV. We have investigated the high energy performance of seven TIGRESS detectors up to 8 MeV

  9. Canine serum protein patterns using high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, O; Zanatta, R; Malisano, T; Dotta, U

    2000-03-01

    Serum protein values were determined in 26 healthy dogs using agarose gel electrophoresis (SPE), splitting the electrophoretic separation into six regions: albumin, alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), beta(2)and gamma globulins. High-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was used to separate single proteins. Serum proteins from dogs (26 healthy and 20 affected by various diseases) were then characterized by electrophoretic immunofixation (IFE) and Sudan black staining on HRE film. Haemoglobin and normal canine plasma and serum were used to identify haptoglobin and fibrinogen, respectively. In the standard pattern, determined by HRE, the following proteins were identified: albumin, alpha(1)-lipoprotein (alpha(1)-region), haptoglobin and alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)-region), beta -lipoprotein and C3 (beta(1)-region), transferrin and IgM (beta(2)-region), IgG (mostly in gamma -region and partly in beta(2)-region). The HRE pattern shown by healthy dogs could be compared with those of dogs affected by various diseases to obtain clinical information. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.D.; Bowers, C.W.; Feldman, P.D.; Meier, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 angstrom and 1860 angstrom at 2 angstrom resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 angstrom at 7 angstrom resolution on this flight and on a sounding rocket flight on August 29, 1983, under similar viewing geometries and solar zenith angles. Three bands of the N 2 c' 4 system are seen clearly resolved in the dayglow. Analysis of high-resolution N 2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield data shows no anomalous vibrational distribution as has been reported from other observations. The altitude profiles of the observed O and N 2 emissions demonstrate that the MSIS-83 model O and N 2 densities are appropriate for the conditions of both the 1983 and 1985 rocket flights. A reduction of a factor of 2 in the model O 2 density is required for both flights to reproduce the low-altitude atomic oxygen emission profiles. The volume excitation rates calculated using the Hinteregger et al. (1981) SC number-sign 21REFW solar reference spectrum and the photoelectron flux model of Strickland and Meier (1982) need to be scaled upward by a factor of 1.4 for both fights to match the observations

  11. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  12. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  13. Silicon detectors for x and gamma-ray with high radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpoca, Valerica; Popescu, Ion V.; Ruscu, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Silicon detectors are widely used in X and gamma-ray spectroscopy for direct detection or coupled with scintillators in high energy nuclear physics (modern collider experiments are representative), medicine and industrial applications. In X and gamma dosimetry, a low detection limit (under 6 KeV) with silicon detectors becomes available. Work at the room temperature is now possible due to the silicon processing evolution, which assures low reverse current and high life time of carriers. For several years, modern semiconductor detectors have been the primary choice for the measurement of nuclear radiation in various scientific fields. Nowadays the recently developed high resolution silicon detectors found their way in medical applications. As a consequence many efforts have been devoted to the development of high sensitivity and radiation hardened X and gamma-ray detectors for the energy range of 5 - 150 keV. The paper presents some results concerning the technology and behaviour of X and Gamma ray silicon detectors used in physics research, industrial and medical radiography. The electrical characteristics of these detectors, their modification after exposure to radiation and the results of spectroscopic X and Gamma-ray measurements are discussed. The results indicated that the proposed detectors enables the development of reliable silicon detectors to be used in controlling the low and high radiation levels encountered in a lot of application

  14. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  15. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  16. High energy photons and neutrinos from gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble space telescope has recently discovered thousands of gigantic comet-like objects in a ring around the central star in the nearest planetary nebula. It is suggested that such circumstellar rings exist around most of stars. Collisions of the relativistic debris from gamma ray bursts in dense stellar regions with such gigantic comet-like objects, which have been stripped off from the circumstellar rings by gravitational perturbations, produce detectable fluxes of high energy gamma-rays and neutrinos from gamma ray bursts

  17. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  18. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  19. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  20. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  1. Novel high resolution tactile robotic fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Jankovics, Vince; Gorsic, Matija

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel robotic fingertip based on piezoresistive rubber that can sense pressure tactile stimuli with a high spatial resolution over curved surfaces. The working principle is based on a three-layer sandwich structure (conductive electrodes on top and bottom and piezoresistive...... with specialized data acquisition electronics that acquire 500 frames per second provides rich information regarding contact force, shape and angle for bio- inspired robotic fingertips. Furthermore, a model of estimating the force of contact based on values of the cells is proposed....

  2. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  3. High resolution and high speed positron emission tomography data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgiss, S.G.; Byars, L.G.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution positron emission tomography (PET) requires many detectors. Thus, data collection systems for PET must have high data rates, wide data paths, and large memories to histogram the events. This design uses the VMEbus to cost effectively provide these features. It provides for several modes of operation including real time sorting, list mode data storage, and replay of stored list mode data

  4. Comparative Study of the Methods Used for the Computer Resolution of Composite Gamma-Ray Spectra; Etude Comparative des Methodes Utilisees pour la Resolution de Spectres Gamma Complexes au Moyen d'un Ordinateur; Sravnitel'noe izuchenie metodov razresheniya sostavnykh gamma-spektrov pri pomoshchi schetno-reshayushchego ustrojstva; Estudio Comparativo de los Metodos Aplicados para Resolver Espectros Gamma Complejos Mediante Calculadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaan, A. Jr.; Leventhal, L.; Benson, P. [Tracerlab, Richmond, CA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    The resolution of complex mixtures of gamma-ray emitters has been expedited by the use of highly sophisticated gamma-ray spectrometers in association with digital computers. These instruments have now become generally available or easily accessible to technical laboratories. This paper discusses the techniques used in this laboratory to obtain the concentrations of individual gamma-emitting radionuclides in fallout samples and compares the results obtained by the various mathematical methods on composite samples. The computer derived data are compared with results obtained by radiochemical analysis of the sample. Binary mixtures were analysed by methods outlined below and then the analysis was extended to the many component system. A computer method was developed which normalizes gamma-ray spectra to minimize the effect of long-term spectrometer drift and converts the spectrum to an energy co-ordinate system. The effects of an ''unexpected photopeak, ''zero intensity component, and overlapping peaks on the solution by the various methods were investigated with special emphasis on low-level samples. The most common mathematical methods for resolving a composite gamma-ray spectrum into its components were investigated. Most of these procedures lead to estimates for the concentrations of the different gamma-ray emitters by one of the following methods: (1) The successive elimination of the radionuclides with higher energy photopeaks subtracting the pure spectrum from the composite spectrum until it has been resolved; (2) Peak resolution without stripping; (3) The establishment of a set of simultaneous linear equations of the same order as the number of radionuclides in the mixture and its solution; (4) The estimation of the unknown concentrations by the method of least-squares, either conventional or weighted; (5) A combined statistical and least-squares method employing stepwise multiple linear regression, an attempt to integrate decision-making processes into the

  5. Very high energy gamma ray astronomy from Hanle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Varsha R.

    2015-01-01

    Over a past decade very high energy (VHE) gamma ray astronomy has emerged as a major astronomical discipline. In India, we have a long tradition of experiments in this field. Few years ago, multi-institutional Himalayan Gamma Ray Observatory (HiGRO) collaboration was formed to set up VHE gamma rays experiments at Hanle, a high altitude location in Himalayas. HAGAR, the first phase of this collaboration is operational since 2008. HAGAR has successfully detected VHE gamma ray emission from some of the extragalactic objects like Mrk 421, Mrk 501 as well as galactic sources including Crab nebula/pulsar. Details of HAGAR telescope system and results obtained will be discussed. HiGRO is now gearing up for the next phase, i.e. 21 m diameter MACE telescope, which is being installed at Hanle at present. Details of MACE telescope system and future plans will be discussed. (author)

  6. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  7. Cosmic very high-energy {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article gives a brief overview, aimed at nonspecialists, about the goals and selected recent results of the detection of very-high energy {gamma}-rays (energies above 100 GeV) with ground based detectors. The stress is on the physics questions, specially the origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays and the emission of TeV {gamma}-radiation from active galaxies. Moreover some particle-physics questions which are addressed in this area are discussed.

  8. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  9. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  10. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  11. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1990-02-01

    Our scientific goal is to discover and study by means of gamma-ray astronomy those regions of the universe where particles are accelerated to extreme energies. The atmospheric Cherenkov technique provides a unique and potentially sensitive window in the region of 10 11 to approximately 10 14 eV for this purpose. The Whipple Observatory Collaboration is currently engaged in the development of a Cherenkov camera which has the ultimate capability of distinguishing gamma-ray showers from the numerous cosmic-ray background showers by imaging the Cherenkov light from each shower. We have recently demonstrated the potential of the imaging technique with our 18 sigma detection of TeV photons from the Crab Nebula using a camera of 10 elements, pixel spacing 0.25 degrees. This detection represents a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity compared to a non-imaging detector. The next step in the development of the detector is to obtain a second large reflector, similar to the present 10 meter instrument, for stereoscopic viewing of showers. This project, named GRANITE, is now approved by DOE. With GRANITE it should be possible to probe more deeply in space by a factor of 7, and to fully investigate the possibility of new physics which has been suggested by reports of anomalous radiation from Hercules X-1. 18 refs

  12. High Resolution Displays Using NCAP Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, A. Brian; Jones, Phil; White, Larry

    1989-07-01

    Nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystals have been found useful for high information content video displays. NCAP materials are liquid crystals which have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix and which have a light transmission which is variable with applied electric fields. Because NCAP materials do not require polarizers, their on-state transmission is substantially better than twisted nematic cells. All dimensional tolerances are locked in during the encapsulation process and hence there are no critical sealing or spacing issues. By controlling the polymer/liquid crystal morphology, switching speeds of NCAP materials have been significantly improved over twisted nematic systems. Recent work has combined active matrix addressing with NCAP materials. Active matrices, such as thin film transistors, have given displays of high resolution. The paper will discuss the advantages of NCAP materials specifically designed for operation at video rates on transistor arrays; applications for both backlit and projection displays will be discussed.

  13. High resolution crystal calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneegans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Lebeau, M.; Vivargent, M.

    1991-01-01

    The search for Higgs bosons above Lep200 reach could be one of the main tasks of the future pp and ee colliders. In the intermediate mass region, and in particular in the range 80-140 GeV/c 2 , only the 2-photon decay mode of a Higgs produced inclusively or in association with a W, gives a good chance of observation. A 'dedicated' very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. A crystal calorimeter can be considered as a conservative approach to such a detector, since a large design and operation experience already exists. The extensive R and D needed for finding a dense, fast and radiation hard crystal, is under way. Guide-lines for designing an optimum calorimeter for LHC are discussed and preliminary configurations are given. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. An Analysis on Some Factors Which Affect the Energy Resolution of a Low-background Anti-compton HPGe Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Dai Junjie; Lei Junniu; Zhang Jiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the basic construction and performing theory of a set of low-background anti-compton high purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. On the basis of experiments, some factors which affect the energy resolution of the system are discussed. The optimum parameters configuration for the system is presented and it provides a decision-making ground for purchasing, installation and alignment of analogous system. (authors)

  15. Medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Addleman, R.S.; Davidson, J.D.; Douglas, M.; Meier, D.; Mullen, O.D.; Myjak, M.; Jones, M.E.; Woodring, M.L.; Johnson, B.; Santschi, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters. The system is designed to extract and preconcentrate isotopes of interest from natural waters prior to detection in order to eliminate signal attenuation of the gamma rays traveling through water and lower the overall background from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes ( 40 K and U-Th series radionuclides). Filtration is used to preconcentrate target isotopes residing on suspended particles, while chemosorption is employed to preferentially extract truly dissolved components from the water column. Used filter and chemosorbent media will be counted autonomously using two LaBr 3 detectors in a near 4-π configuration around the samples. A compact digital pulse processing system, developed in-house and capable of running in coincidence mode, is used to process the signal from the detectors to a small on-board computer. The entire system is extremely compact (9' dia. x 30' len.) and platform independent, but designed for initial deployment on a research buoy. A variety of commercial and in-house nano-porous chemosorbents have been selected, procured or produced, and these and filter and detector components have been tested. (author)

  16. Plutonium characterisation with prompt high energy gamma-rays from (n,gamma) reactions for nuclear warhead dismantlement verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postelt, Frederik; Gerald, Kirchner [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker-Centre for Science and Peace Research, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of neutron induced gammas allow the characterisation of fissile material (i.e. plutonium and uranium), despite self- and additional shielding. Most prompt gamma-rays from radiative neutron capture reactions in fissile material have energies between 3 and 6.5 MeV. Such high energy photons have a high penetrability and therefore minimise shielding and self-absorption effects. They are also isotope specific and therefore well suited to determine the isotopic composition of fissile material. As they are non-destructive, their application in dismantlement verification is desirable. Disadvantages are low detector efficiencies at high gamma energies, as well as a high background of gammas which result from induced fission reactions in the fissile material, as well as delayed gammas from both, (n,f) and(n,gamma) reactions. In this talk, simulations of (n,gamma) measurements and their implications are presented. Their potential for characterising fissile material is assessed and open questions are addressed.

  17. Disinfection of wastewaters: high-energy electron vs gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, S [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Kurucz, C N; Waite, T D [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States); Cooper, W J [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Drinking Water Research Center

    1993-07-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the sensitivity of a wastewater population of coliphage, total coliforms and total flora present in raw sewage and secondary effluent after irradiating with similar doses delivered by a high-energy electron beam and [gamma]-radiation. The electron beam study was conducted on a large scale at the Virginia Key Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami, Florida. The facility is equipped with a 1.5 MeV, 50 mA electron accelerator, with a wastewater flow rate of 8ls[sup -1]. Concurrent [gamma]-radiation studies were conducted at laboratory scale using a 5000 Ci, [sup 60]Co [gamma]-source. Three logs reduction of all three test organisms were observed at an electron beam dose of 500 krads, while at least four logs reduction were observed at the same dose utilizing the [gamma]'source. (Author).

  18. High energy astrophysics with ground-based gamma ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, F; Buckley, J; Kifune, T; Sinnis, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in ground-based gamma ray astronomy have led to the discovery of more than 70 sources of very high energy (E γ ≥ 100 GeV) gamma rays, falling into a number of source populations including pulsar wind nebulae, shell type supernova remnants, Wolf-Rayet stars, giant molecular clouds, binary systems, the Galactic Center, active galactic nuclei and 'dark' (yet unidentified) galactic objects. We summarize the history of TeV gamma ray astronomy up to the current status of the field including a description of experimental techniques and highlight recent astrophysical results. We also discuss the potential of ground-based gamma ray astronomy for future discoveries and describe possible directions for future instrumental developments

  19. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  20. Calibration of the High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Detection Systems from the Environmental Radioactivity Unit and Radiological Surveillance (ARU and RV); Calibracion de los Sistemas Detectores de Espectrometria Gamma de Alta Resolucion de la Unidad de Radiactividad Ambiental y Vigilancia Radiologica (URA y VR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, J. A.; Gasco, C.; Arana, M.; Suanez, A.

    2012-11-01

    In accordance with international regulations and with the quality criteria imposed by the internal quality system of the laboratory of gamma spectrometry, which belongs to the Unit of Environmental Radioactivity and Radiation Monitoring (URA y VR), it is necessary to perform a periodic calibration of the measurement systems of gamma spectrometry. The equipment calibration carries with the need for the preparation of the geometries of measurement and calibration in energy and in efficiencies. This report reflects the procedures for the preparation of the wide range of geometries available in the laboratory, as well as the different calibrations performed with those geometries in almost all the laboratory gamma detectors using the CANBERRA software Genie 2k. (Author) 9 refs.

  1. High resolution computed tomography of positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Jackson, H.G.

    1976-10-01

    High resolution computed transaxial radionuclide tomography has been performed on phantoms containing positron-emitting isotopes. The imaging system consisted of two opposing groups of eight NaI(Tl) crystals 8 mm x 30 mm x 50 mm deep and the phantoms were rotated to measure coincident events along 8960 projection integrals as they would be measured by a 280-crystal ring system now under construction. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed images is 7.5 mm FWHM at the center of the ring and approximately 11 mm FWHM at a radius of 10 cm. We present measurements of imaging and background rates under various operating conditions. Based on these measurements, the full 280-crystal system will image 10,000 events per sec with 400 μCi in a section 1 cm thick and 20 cm in diameter. We show that 1.5 million events are sufficient to reliably image 3.5-mm hot spots with 14-mm center-to-center spacing and isolated 9-mm diameter cold spots in phantoms 15 to 20 cm in diameter

  2. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  3. Characterization of a high resolution and high sensitivity pre-clinical PET scanner with 3D event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Rissi, M; Bolle, E; Dorholt, O; Hines, K E; Rohne, O; Skretting, A; Stapnes, S; Volgyes, D

    2012-01-01

    COMPET is a preclinical PET scanner aiming towards a high sensitivity, a high resolution and MRI compatibility by implementing a novel detector geometry. In this approach, long scintillating LYSO crystals are used to absorb the gamma-rays. To determine the point of interaction (P01) between gamma-ray and crystal, the light exiting the crystals on one of the long sides is collected with wavelength shifters (WLS) perpendicularly arranged to the crystals. This concept has two main advantages: (1) The parallax error is reduced to a minimum and is equal for the whole field of view (FOV). (2) The P01 and its energy deposit is known in all three dimension with a high resolution, allowing for the reconstruction of Compton scattered gamma-rays. Point (1) leads to a uniform point source resolution (PSR) distribution over the whole FOV, and also allows to place the detector close to the object being imaged. Both points (1) and (2) lead to an increased sensitivity and allow for both high resolution and sensitivity at the...

  4. High resolution CT of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Harumi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-02-01

    The emergence of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s has greatly contributed to diagnostic radiology. The brain was the first organ examined with CT, followed by the abdomen. For the chest, CT has also come into use shortly after the introduction in the examination of the thoracic cavity and mediastinum. CT techniques were, however, of limited significance in the evaluation of pulmonary diseases, especially diffuse pulmonary diseases. High-resolution CT (HRCT) has been introduced in clinical investigations of the lung field. This article is designed to present chest radiographic and conventional tomographic interpretations and to introduce findings of HRCT corresponding to the same shadows, with a summation of the significance of HRCT and issues of diagnostic imaging. Materials outlined are tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, bronchopneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphangitic carcinomatosis, sarcoidosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema. Finally, an overview of basic investigations evolved from HRCT is given. (N.K.) 140 refs.

  5. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  6. A high resolution jet analysis for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, S.

    1992-11-01

    A high resolution multijet analysis of hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilation at a C.M.S. energy of 91.2 GeV is described. Hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilations are generated using the Monte Carlo program JETSET7.3 with its two options: Matrix Element (M.E.) and Parton Showers (P.S.). The shower option is used with its default parameter values while the M.E. option is used with an invariant mass cut Y CUT =0.01 instead of 0.02. This choice ensures a better continuity in the evolution of the event shape variables. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 26 figs.; 1 tab

  7. High resolution VUV facility at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, G.; Saraswathy, P.; Rao, P.M.R.; Mishra, A.P.; Kartha, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) generated in the electron storage rings is an unique source for the study of atomic and molecular spectroscopy especially in the vacuum ultra violet region. Realizing the potential of this light source, efforts are in progress to develop a beamline facility at INDUS-1 to carry out high resolution atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This beam line consists of a fore-optic which is a combination of three cylindrical mirrors. The mirrors are so chosen that SR beam having a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) divergence is focussed onto a slit of a 6.65 metre off-plane spectrometer in Eagle Mount equipped with horizontal slit and vertical dispersion. The design of the various components of the beam line is completed. It is decided to build the spectrometer as per the requirements of the user community. Details of the various aspects of the beam line will be presented. (author). 3 figs

  8. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  9. High resolution tomography using analog coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Chesler, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a 30-year program in the development of positron instrumentation, the authors have developed a high resolution bismuth germanate (BGO) ring tomography (PCR) employing 360 detectors and 90 photomultiplier tubes for one plane. The detectors are shaped as trapezoid and are 4 mm wide at the front end. When assembled, they form an essentially continuous cylindrical detector. Light from a scintillation in the detector is viewed through a cylindrical light pipe by the photomultiplier tubes. By use of an analog coding scheme, the detector emitting light is identified from the phototube signals. In effect, each phototube can identify four crystals. PCR is designed as a static device and does not use interpolative motion. This results in considerable advantage when performing dynamic studies. PCR is the positron tomography analog of the γ-camera widely used in nuclear medicine

  10. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  11. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  12. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  13. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensammar, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report here very early results of high resolution (5x10 3 - 4x10 4 ) infrared spectroscopy (1 - 2.5 μm) of different symbiotic stars (T CrB, RW Hya, CI Cyg, PU Vul) observed with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the 3.60m Canada France Hawaii Telescope. These stars are usually considered as interacting binaries and only little details are known about the nature of their cool component. CO absorption lines are detected for the four stars. Very different profiles of hydrogen Brackett γ and helium 10830 A lines are shown for CI Cyg observed at different phases, while Pu Vul shows very intense emission lines

  14. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  15. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  16. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  17. High resolution imaging detectors and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan K

    2015-01-01

    Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control...

  18. Relative mass resolution technique for optimum design of a gamma nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Duck Joon

    1995-02-01

    Nondestructive assay(NDA) is a widely used nuclear technology for quantitative elemental and isotopic assay. Nondestructive assay is performed by the detection of an identifying radiation emerging from the sample, which can be unambiguously related to the element or isotope of interest. In every assay we can identify two distinct factors that lead to measurement uncertainty. We refer to these as statistical and spatial uncertainties. If the spatial distribution of the analyte and the matrix material in the sample are known and fairly constant from sample to sample, then the major source of measurement uncertainty is the statistical uncertainty resulting from randomness in the counting process. The spatial uncertainty is independent of the measurement time and therefore sets a lower limit to the measurement uncertainty, which is inherent in the assay system in conjunction with the population of samples to be measured. The only way to minimize the spatial uncertainty is an optimized design of the assay system. Therefore we have to decide on the type and number of detectors to be used, their deployment around the sample, the type of radiation to be measured, the duration of each measurement, the size and shape of the sample drum. The design procedure leading to the optimal assay system should be based on a quantitative(RMR:Relative Mass Resolution) comparison of the performance of each proposed design. For NDA system design of low level radwaste, a specific purpose Monte Carlo code has been developed to simulate point-source responses for sources within an assayed radwaste drum and to analyze the effect of scattered gammas from higher energy gammas on the spectrum of a low energy gamma-ray. We could use the well-known Monte Carlo code, such as MCNP for the simulation of NDA in the case of low level radwaste. But, MCNP is a multi-purpose Monte Carlo transport code for several geometries which requires large memory and long CPU time. For some cases in nuclear

  19. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...... high resolution spectral performance by observing emission from hot water vapor in a butane gas burner....

  20. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  1. Resolution, efficiency and stability of HPGe detector operating in a magnetic field at various gamma-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanska, K.; Achenbach, P.; Agnello, M.; Botta, E.; Bracco, A.; Bressani, T.; Camera, F.; Cederwall, B.; Feliciello, A.; Ferro, F.; Gerl, J.; Iazzi, F.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Saito, T.R.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Tegner, P.-E.; Wieland, O.

    2008-01-01

    The use of High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe) has been planned in some future experiments of hadronic physics. The crystals will be located close to large spectrometers where the magnetic fringing field will not be negligible and their performances might change. Moreover high precision is required in these experiments. The contribution of magnetic field presence and long term measurements is unique. In this paper the results of systematic measurements of the resolution, stability and efficiency of a crystal operating inside a magnetic field of 0.8 T, using radioactive sources in the energy range from 0.08 to 1.33 MeV, are reported. The measurements have been repeated during several months in order to test if any permanent damage occurred. The resolution at 1.117 and 1.332 MeV gamma-rays from a 60 Co source has been measured at different magnetic fields in the range of 0-0.8 T and the results are compared with the previous data

  2. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  3. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  4. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  5. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  6. 235U, 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in marine sediments along the northern coast of Oman Sea using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2012-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in sediment samples of the northern coast of Oman Sea, covering the coastal strip from Hormoz canyon to Goatr seaport, as the first time has been determined. The results of measurements will serve as background reference level for Oman Sea coastlines. Sediments from 36 coastal and near shore locations were collected for analysis. Analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs using two high purity germanium detectors with 38.5% and 55% relative efficiencies. The concentration of 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.01 and 2.87 Bq/kg, 11.83 and 22.68 Bq/kg, 10.7 and 25.02 Bq/kg, 222.89 and 535.07 Bq/kg and 0.14 and 2.8 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose.

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  8. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  9. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milinchuk, V; KIRJUKHIN, V; KLINSHPONT, E

    1977-06-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibers were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene, 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures.

  10. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  11. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of

  12. Design optimization of high speed gamma-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maad, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns research and development of efficient gamma-ray systems for high speed tomographic imaging of hydrocarbon flow dynamics with a particular focus on gas liquid imaging. The Bergen HSGT (High Speed Gamma-ray Tomograph) based on instant imaging with a fixed source-detector geometry setup, has been thoroughly characterized with a variety of image reconstruction algorithms and flow conditions. Experiments in flow loops have been carried out for reliable characterization and error analysis, static flow phantoms have been applied for the majority of experiments to provide accurate imaging references. A semi-empirical model has been developed for estimation of the contribution of scattered radiation to each HSGT detector and further for correction of this contribution prior to data reconstruction. The Bergen FGGT (Flexible Geometry Gamma-ray Tomograph) has been further developed, particularly on the software side. The system emulates any fan beam tomography. Based on user input of geometry and other conditions, the new software perform scanning, data acquisition and storage, and also weight matrix calculation and image reconstruction with the desired method. The FGGT has been used for experiments supporting those carried out with the HSGT, and in addition for research on other fan beam geometries suitable for hydrocarbon flow imaging applications. An instant no-scanning tomograph like the HSGT has no flexibility with respect to change of geometry, which usually is necessary when applying the tomograph for a new application. A computer controlled FGGT has been designed and built at the UoB. The software developed for the FGGT controls the scanning procedure, the data acquisition, calculates the weight matrix necessary for the image reconstruction, reconstructs the image using standard reconstruction algorithms, and calculates the error of the reconstructed image. The performance of the geometry has been investigated using a 100 mCi 241 Am disk source, a

  13. On the possible effects of gluon number fluctuations on {gamma}{gamma} collisions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    We investigate the effects of the fluctuations on the total {gamma}{gamma}, {gamma}*{gamma}* cross sections and the real photon structure function F{sup {gamma}}{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}), considering a saturation phenomenological model for the dipole-dipole cross section and scattering amplitude with fluctuations included.

  14. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  15. Decay studies of Sr isotpes with high resolution and total absorption techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Cerdan, Ana-Belen

    2012-04-03

    High Resolution measurements The beta/EC decay of 77,78Sr and 76,78Rb have been studied in this work. Measurements were carried out of the energies and intensities of the emitted gamma-rays and conversion electrons as well as gamma-gamma and gamma-X-ray coincidences in the decays of 77,78Sr, which have extended our knowledge of their decay schemes including spin and parity assignments to the levels populated in the daughter nucleus, 77Rb and 78Rb respectively. For the decay of 78Sr, 16 new levels and 44 new gamma-ray transitions have been identified. The very much improved experimental knowledge of the 78Rb levels populated in the decay and the strong link between the parent and the daughter states has allowed us to infer some possible level configurations by comparison with HF+BCS calculations using the SG2 Skyrme force. For the decay of 77Sr, 9 new levels and 15 new gamma-ray transitions have been identified. The levels in the low energy part of the level scheme have been discussed in terms of HF+BCS+QRPA c...

  16. High-resolution EM-CCD scintillation gamma cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, M.A.N.

    2013-01-01

    The development of medical imaging techniques has dramatically changed clinical practice and biomedical science in the 20th century. Nuclear Medicine imaging techniques reveal the function of organs and tissues in vivo with the aid of radioactively labeled tracer molecules. These techniques, such as

  17. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor is based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 μl. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure

  18. Photoionization of Ar2 at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The relative photoionization cross section of Ar 2 was determined at a resolution of 0.07 A in the wavelength region from 800 to 850 A using a new photoionization mass spectrometer that combines a high intensity helium continuum lamp with a free supersonic molecular beam source. In the region studied, the photoionization cross section is dominated by autoionization of molecular Rydberg states, and the structure is diffuse owing to the combined effects of autoionization and predissociation. The molecular photoionization spectrum is extremely complex and shows little resemblence either to the corresponding atomic spectrum (indicating that the spectrum of the dimer is not simply a perturbed atomic spectrum) or to the molecular absorption spectrum at longer wavelengths. The regular vibrational progressions seen at longer wavelengths are absent above the first ionization potential. Detailed spectroscopic analysis is possible for only a small fraction of the observed features; however, vibrational intervals of 50--100 cm -1 suggest that some of the Rydberg states have B 2 Pi/sub 3/2g/ ionic cores. A comparison of the absorption and photoionization spectra shows that, at wavelengths shorter than approx.835 A, many of the excited states decay via mechanisms other than autoionization

  19. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  20. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  1. [Application of two-dimensional imaging to very high energy gamma ray astronomy]: Progress report, 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The major accomplishment of this project was the development of a gamma camera for detection of very weak flux from the Crab Nebula. In addition, the detection of a pulsed flux from Hercules X-1 and the installation of a new high resolution camera are reported. 6 figs

  2. Ultra high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowczyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data on ultra high energy γ-rays are reviewed and a comparison of the properties of photon and proton initiated shower is made. The consequences of the existence of the strong ultra high energy γ-ray sources for other observations is analysed and possible mechanisms for the production of ultra high energy γ-rays in the sources are discussed. It is demonstrated that if the γ-rays are produced via cosmic ray interactions the sources have to produce very high fluxes of cosmic ray particles. In fact it is possible that a small number of such sources can supply the whole Galactic cosmic ray flux

  3. Cosmic gamma radiation of ultra high energy of primordial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino Filho, F.G. de.

    1984-01-01

    The quantum mechanical effects near a collapsing black hole as shown by Stephen W.Hawking in 1974 to produce streaming particles through tunneling effect was explored in the context of cosmic gamma ray production. In this thesis, we show the possible production of gamma rays of high energies (ν approx 10 41 Hz) in the initial stages of the formation of the Universe by the explosion of primordial mini black holes. These mini black hole explosions happening at 10 -43 s to 10 -37 s after the start perhaps may account for the existing universal cosmic background radiation of 2.7 0 K. (Author) [pt

  4. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-February 1, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.G.; Lewis, D.A.

    1988-02-01

    The Whipple observatory Gamma Ray Collaboration has continued to make steady progress in its development of a highly sensitive stereoscopic imaging gamma-ray telescope (known as the HERCULES project). The milestones in this year's development include: the demonstration of the success of the imaging concept with a single camera by the detection of a very weak flux of gamma rays from the Crab Nebula at a high level of statistical significance (7 sigma), the confirmation of our detection of an anomalous pulsed flux from Hercules X-1 in the summer of 1986 by two other groups; this result has serious implications for the mechanism for gamma-ray emission in this binary source. The construction and installation of the new high resolution camera on the 10 m reflector; the realistic simulation of the sensitivity of this camera as well as that of the full HERCULES system was also undertaken. These, and other highlights of this year's program at the Iowa State University and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, are discussed in this paper. 6 figs

  5. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  6. CELESTE: an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for high energy gamma astrophysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paré, E.; Balauge, B.; Bazer-Bachi, R.; Bergeret, H.; Berny, F.; Briand, N.; Bruel, P.; Cerutti, M.; Collon, J.; Cordier, A.; Cornbise, P.; Debiais, G.; Dezalay, J. P.; Dumora, D.; Durand, E.; Eschstruth, P.; Espigat, P.; Fabre, B.; Fleury, P.; Gilly, J.; Gouillaud, J. C.; Gregory, C.; Hérault, N.; Holder, J.; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Incerti, S.; Jouenne, A.; Kalt, L.; LeGallou, R.; Lott, B.; Manigot, P.; Neveu, J.; Olive, J. F.; Palatka, Miroslav; Perez, A.; Rebii, A.; Rob, L.; Sans, J. L.; Schovánek, Petr; Villard, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 490, - (2002), s. 71-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : gamma-ray astronopy * atmospheric Cherenkov detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  7. [Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high T c superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect

  8. The High-Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Terebey, Susan; Prince, Thomas A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg is less than b is less than 4.7 deg), along with the molecular clouds in Orion, rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga, has been produced at 60 and 100 microns from IRAS data. The atlas consists of resolution-enhanced co-added images with 1 min - 2 min resolution and co-added images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory H(sub I) line/21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) Galactic plane surveys, which both have similar (approx. 1 min) resolution to the IRAS atlas, provides a powerful tool for studying the interstellar medium, star formation, and large-scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the atlas.

  9. A high resolution β-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Cuzon, J.C.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    1987-01-01

    We present a detector which associates a charge coupled device to a light amplifier. This image sensor must detect weak β-activity, with a 10 μm resolution and should replace the autoradiographic films used for molecular hybridization. The best results are obtained with the 35 S emittor, for which the resolution and the efficiency are respectively 20 μm and 100% (relative to the measured standard source)

  10. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  11. Spectra of gamma-ray bursts at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matz, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1980 February and 1983 August the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM) observed 71 gamma-ray bursts. These events form a representative subset of the class of classical gamma-ray bursts. Since their discovery more than 15 years ago, hundreds of gamma-ray bursts have been detected; however, most observations have been limited to an energy range of roughly 30 keV-1 MeV. The large sensitive area and spectral range of the GRS allow, for the first time, an investigation of the high energy (>1 MeV) behavior of a substantial number of gamma-ray bursts. It is found that high-energy emission is seen in a large fraction of all events and that the data are consistent with all bursts emitting to at least 5 MeV with no cut-offs. Further, no burst spectrum measured by GRS has a clear high-energy cut-off. The high-energy emission can be a significant part of the total burst energy on the average about 30% of the observed energy above 30 keV is contained in the >1 MeV photons. The fact that the observations are consistent with the presence of high-energy emission in all events implies a limit on the preferential beaming of high-energy photons, from any mechanism. Single-photon pair-production in a strong magnetic field produces such beaming; assuming that the low-energy emission is isotropic, the data imply an upper limit of 1 x 10 12 G on the typical magnetic field at burst radiation sites

  12. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    extinguishing actions, leaving more resources to improve safety in areas at risk. With the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk with high spatial resolution (900 m2) based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November- April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. About 48000 fire perimeters which burnt about 5500 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 30 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime at national level contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extensible to other geographical areas.

  13. High energy particles from {gamma}-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxman, E [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2001-11-15

    A review is presented of the fireball model of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs), and of the production in GRB fireballs of high energy protons and neutrinos. Constraints imposed on the model by recent afterglow observations, which support the association of GRB and ultra-high energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) sources, are discussed. Predictions of the GRB model for UHECR production, which can be tested with planned large area UHECR detectors and with planned high energy neutrino telescopes, are reviewed. (author)

  14. Mapping mountain meadow with high resolution and polarimetric SAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Bangsen; Li, Zhen; Xu, Juan; Fu, Sitao; Liu, Jiuli

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to map the large grassland in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau with the high resolution polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) imagery. When PolSAR imagery is used for land cover classification, the brightness of a SAR image is affected by topography due to varying projection between ground and image coordinates. The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) we first extend the theory of SAR terrain correction to the polarimetric case, to utilize the entire available polarimetric signature, where correction is performed explicitly based on a matrix format like covariance matrix. (2) Next, the orthoectified PolSAR is applied to classify mountain meadow and investigate the potential of PolSAR in mapping grassland. In this paper, the gamma naught radiometric correction estimates the local illuminated area at each grid point in the radar geometry. Then, each element of the coherency matrix is divided by the local area to produce a polarimetric product. Secondly, the impact of radiometric correction upon classification accuracy is investigated. A supervised classification is performed on the orthorectified Radarsat-2 PolSAR to map the spatial distribution of meadow and evaluate monitoring capabilities of mountain meadow

  15. Zeolites - a high resolution electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredsson, V.

    1994-10-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to investigate a number of zeolites (EMT, FAU, LTL, MFI and MOR) and a member of the mesoporous M41S family. The electron optical artefact, manifested as a dark spot in the projected centre of the large zeolite channels, caused by insufficient transfer of certain reflections in the objective lens has been explained. The artefact severely hinders observation of materials confined in the zeolite channels and cavities. It is shown how to circumvent the artefact problem and how to image confined materials in spite of disturbance caused by the artefact. Image processing by means of a Wiener filter has been applied for removal of the artefact. The detailed surface structure of FAU has been investigated. Comparison of experimental micrographs with images simulated using different surface models indicates that the surface can be terminated in different ways depending on synthesis methods. The dealuminated form of FAU (USY) is covered by an amorphous region. Platinum incorporated in FAU has a preponderance to aggregate in the (111) twin planes, probably due to a local difference in cage structure with more spacious cages. It is shown that platinum is intra-zeolitic as opposed to being located on the external surface of the zeolite crystal. This could be deduced from tomography of ultra-thin sections among observations. HRTEM studies of the mesoporous MCM-41 show that the pores have a hexagonal shape and also supports the mechanistic model proposed which involves a cooperative formation of a mesophase including the silicate species as well as the surfactant. 66 refs, 24 figs

  16. Relationship between image quality and changes in spatial resolution for the gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hozumi; Kishimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Ohmura, Masahiro; Kosakai, Kazuhisa; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine quantitatively the relationship between visual image quality and degradation in spatial resolution for a gamma camera by the increase in distance from collimator. The relationship between the proportion (p) of images identified the difference of image quality and the difference (δFWHM) in FWHM between paired images was showed in a sigmoid curve. Using Dendy's method, minimum level to be correctly identified the difference of image quality on three out of four occasions (p=0.75) was corresponded to 0.4 mm in δFWHM. Using fuzzy theory, the level to be identified the difference of image quality was examind under various conditions. The truth-value of fuzzy sets-degraded or slightly degraded and not-degraded in image quality between paired images-was gained the peak at 0.5 mm of δFWHM. It was founded that changes of 0.4-0.5 mm in FWHM-corresponding about 2 cm distance from collimator-could be sufficiently identified in the difference of image quality. (author)

  17. Full energy peak efficiency of composite detectors for high energy gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Experiments involving radioactive beams demand high detection efficiencies. One of the ways to obtain high detection efficiency without deteriorating the energy resolution or timing characteristics is the use of composite detectors which are composed of standard HPGe crystals arranged in a compact way. Two simplest composite detectors are the clover and cluster detectors. The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) comprises of 16 large volume, 32-fold segmented HPGe clover detectors, where each detector is shielded by a 20-fold segmented escape suppression shield (ESS)

  18. High-Z Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposites for Gamma-Ray Scintillation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao

    An affordable and reliable solution for spectroscopic gamma-ray detection has long been sought after due to the needs from research, defense, and medical applications. Scintillators resolve gamma energy by proportionally converting a single high-energy photon into a number of photomultiplier-tube-detectable low-energy photons, which is considered a more affordable solution for general purposes compared to the delicate semiconductor detectors. An ideal scintillator should simultaneously exhibit the following characteristics: 1) high atomic number (Z) for high gamma stopping power and photoelectron production; 2) high light yield since the energy resolution is inversely proportional to the square root of light yield; 3) short emission decay lifetime; and 4) low cost and scalable production. However, commercial scintillators made from either inorganic single crystals or plastics fail to satisfy all requirements due to their intrinsic material properties and fabrication limitations. The concept of adding high-Z constituents into plastic scintillators to harness high Z, low cost, and fast emission in the resulting nanocomposite scintillators is not new in and of itself. Attempts have been made by adding organometallics, quantum dots, and scintillation nanocrystals into the plastic matrix. High-Z organometallics have long been used to improve the Z of plastic scintillators; however, their strong spin-orbit coupling effect entails careful triplet energy matching using expensive triplet emitters to avoid severe quenching of the light yield. On the other hand, reported quantum dot- and nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposites suffer from moderate Z and high optical loss due to aggregation and self-absorption at loadings higher than 10 wt%, limiting their potential for practical application. This dissertation strives to improve the performance of nanoparticle-based nanocomposite scintillators. One focus is to synthesize transparent nanocomposites with higher loadings of high

  19. High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method

  20. Development of High-Resolution Scintillator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry A. Franks; Warnick J. Kernan

    2007-01-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) is a well known material for the direct detection of gamma-rays; however, the largest volume achievable is limited by the thickness of the detector which needs to be a small fraction of the average trapping length for electrons. We report results of using HgI2 crystals to fabricate photocells used in the readout of scintillators. The optical spectral response and efficiency of these photocells were measured and will be reported. Nuclear response from an HgI2 photocell that was optically matched to a cerium-activated scintillator is presented and discussed. Further improvements can be expected by optimizing the transparent contact technology

  1. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2008-01-01

    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  2. Method for improvement of gamma-transition cascade spectra amplitude resolution by computer processing of coincidence codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method of improvement of amplitude resolution in the case of record of coinciding codes on the magnetic tape is suggested. It is shown on the record with Ge(Li) detectors of cascades of gamma-transitions from the 35 Cl(n, #betta#) reaction that total width at a half maximum of the peak may decrease by a factor of 2.6 for quanta with the energy similar to the neutron binding energy. Efficiency loss is absent

  3. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  4. The high resolution spaghetti hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.; Sonderegger, P.; Paar, H.P.; Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to build a prototype for a hadron calorimeter with scintillating plastic fibres as active material. The absorber material is lead. Provided that these components are used in the appropriate volume ratio, excellent performance may be expected, e.g. an energy resolution of 30%/√E for jet detection. The proposed design offers additional advantages compared to the classical sandwich calorimeter structures in terms of granularity, hermiticity, uniformity, compactness, readout, radiation resistivity, stability and calibration. 22 refs.; 7 figs

  5. Synthetic Pulse Dilation - PMT Model for high bandwidth gamma measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, H.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Meaney, K. D.; Lopez, F. E.; Khater, H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, T.; Milnes, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Cherenkov mechanism used in Gas Cherenkov Detectors (GCD) is exceptionally fast. However, the temporal resolution of GCDs, such as the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH), is limited by the current state-of-the-art photomultiplier tube (PMT) to 100 ps. The new pulse dilation - PMT (PD-PMT) for NIF allows for a temporal resolution comparable to that of the gas cell, or of 10ps. Enhanced resolution will contribute to the quest for ignition in a crucial way through precision measurement of reaction history and areal density (ρ R) history, leading to better constrained models. Features such as onset of alpha heating, shock reverberations and burn truncation due to dynamically evolving failure modes will become visible for the first time. PD-PMT will be deployed on GCD-3 at NIF in 2018. Our synthetic PD-PMT model evaluates the capabilities of these future measurements, as well as minimum yield requirements for measurements performed in a well at 3.9 m from target chamber center (TCC), and within a diagnostic inserter at 0.2m from TCC.

  6. Investigation of PBAT dosimetric properties for high gamma dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Elisete L.; Schimitberger, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) is an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester which is biodegradable. It is a non-photoluminescent copolyester that becomes photoluminescent after previous exposure to gamma doses higher than 100 kGy. After the previous high energy irradiation, the material shows the highest photo-stimulated luminescence emission when excited with a LED source at wavelengths ranging from 370 to 405 nm. In this work we investigated the enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) and dosimetric properties of PBAT, after exposure to high doses of gamma radiation ranging from 50 to 4,000 kGy. In this investigation we demonstrate that increasing the PBAT film thickness by 100 μm enhances the PL output by 3.5 times, when irradiated with 500 kGy. Also, besides the already known color green brightness, the PL intensity can also be used for high dose dosimetry purposes for doses ranging from 50 to 750 kGy. The FTIR analysis has demonstrated that the there is a linear relationship between peak intensity and dose for doses ranging from 100 and 2,000 kGy for the absorbance peaks at 3,241 cm -1 and 3271 cm -1 , with linear correlation coefficients of 0.9981 and 0.9992, respectively. The results indicate that PBAT has great potential for applications in bio-imaging devices and high gamma dose dosimetry. (author)

  7. Investigation of PBAT dosimetric properties for high gamma dose dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Elisete L.; Schimitberger, Thiago, E-mail: elisete.cunha@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Cristiana M.; Faria, Luiz O., E-mail: farialo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) is an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester which is biodegradable. It is a non-photoluminescent copolyester that becomes photoluminescent after previous exposure to gamma doses higher than 100 kGy. After the previous high energy irradiation, the material shows the highest photo-stimulated luminescence emission when excited with a LED source at wavelengths ranging from 370 to 405 nm. In this work we investigated the enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) and dosimetric properties of PBAT, after exposure to high doses of gamma radiation ranging from 50 to 4,000 kGy. In this investigation we demonstrate that increasing the PBAT film thickness by 100 μm enhances the PL output by 3.5 times, when irradiated with 500 kGy. Also, besides the already known color green brightness, the PL intensity can also be used for high dose dosimetry purposes for doses ranging from 50 to 750 kGy. The FTIR analysis has demonstrated that the there is a linear relationship between peak intensity and dose for doses ranging from 100 and 2,000 kGy for the absorbance peaks at 3,241 cm{sup -1} and 3271 cm{sup -1}, with linear correlation coefficients of 0.9981 and 0.9992, respectively. The results indicate that PBAT has great potential for applications in bio-imaging devices and high gamma dose dosimetry. (author)

  8. THE HIGH-ENERGY, ARCMINUTE-SCALE GALACTIC CENTER GAMMA-RAY SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyakova, M.; Malyshev, D.; Aharonian, F. A.; Crocker, R. M.; Jones, D. I.

    2011-01-01

    Employing data collected during the first 25 months of observations by the Fermi-LAT, we describe and subsequently seek to model the very high energy (>300 MeV) emission from the central few parsecs of our Galaxy. We analyze the morphological, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the central source, 1FGL J1745.6-2900. The data show a clear, statistically significant signal at energies above 10 GeV, where the Fermi-LAT has angular resolution comparable to that of HESS at TeV energies. This makes a meaningful joint analysis of the data possible. Our analysis of the Fermi data (alone) does not uncover any statistically significant variability of 1FGL J1745.6-2900 at GeV energies on the month timescale. Using the combination of Fermi data on 1FGL J1745.6-2900 and HESS data on the coincident, TeV source HESS J1745-290, we show that the spectrum of the central gamma-ray source is inflected with a relatively steep spectral region matching between the flatter spectrum found at both low and high energies. We model the gamma-ray production in the inner 10 pc of the Galaxy and examine cosmic ray (CR) proton propagation scenarios that reproduce the observed spectrum of the central source. We show that a model that instantiates a transition from diffusive propagation of the CR protons at low energy to almost rectilinear propagation at high energies can explain well the spectral phenomenology. We find considerable degeneracy between different parameter choices which will only be broken with the addition of morphological information that gamma-ray telescopes cannot deliver given current angular resolution limits. We argue that a future analysis performed in combination with higher-resolution radio continuum data holds out the promise of breaking this degeneracy.

  9. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  10. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  11. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  12. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  13. Development of high resolution x-ray CT technique for irradiated fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimi, Akihiro; Katsuyama, Kozo; Maeda, Koji; Asaga, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    High X-ray CT technique was developed to observe the irradiation performance of FBR fuel assembly and MOX fuel. In this technique, the high energy X-ray pulse (12MeV) was used synchronizing detection system with the X-ray pulse to reduce the effect of the gamma ray emissions from the irradiated fuel assembly. In this study, this technique was upgraded to obtain high resolution X-ray CT image. In this upgrading, the collimator which had slit width of 0.1 mm and X-ray detector of a highly sensitive silicon semiconductor detector (100 channels) was introduced in the X-ray CT system. As a result of these developments, high resolution X-ray CT images could be obtained on the transverse cross section of irradiated fuel assembly. (author)

  14. High resolution transmission imaging without lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, J M; Hurst, A C; Maiden, A

    2010-01-01

    The whole history of transmission imaging has been dominated by the lens, whether used in visible-light optics, electron optics or X-ray optics. Lenses can be thought of as a very efficient method of processing a wave front scattered from an object into an image of that object. An alternative approach is to undertake this image-formation process using a computational technique. The crudest scattering experiment is to simply record the intensity of a diffraction pattern. Recent progress in so-called diffractive imaging has shown that it is possible to recover the phase of a scattered wavefield from its diffraction pattern alone, as long as the object (or the illumination on the object) is of finite extent. In this paper we present results from a very efficient phase retrieval method which can image infinitely large fields of view. It may have important applications in improving resolution in electron microscopy, or at least allowing low specification microscopes to achieve resolution comparable to state-of-the-art machines.

  15. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  16. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  17. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  18. High resolution UV spectroscopy and laser-focused nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis combines two at first glance different techniques: High Resolution Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) of small aromatic molecules and Laser Focusing of atoms for Nanofabrication. The thesis starts with the introduction to the high resolution LIF technique of small aromatic

  19. High-Resolution Sonars: What Resolution Do We Need for Target Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailhas Yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognition in sonar imagery has long been an active research area in the maritime domain, especially in the mine-counter measure context. Recently it has received even more attention as new sensors with increased resolution have been developed; new threats to critical maritime assets and a new paradigm for target recognition based on autonomous platforms have emerged. With the recent introduction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar systems and high-frequency sonars, sonar resolution has dramatically increased and noise levels decreased. Sonar images are distance images but at high resolution they tend to appear visually as optical images. Traditionally algorithms have been developed specifically for imaging sonars because of their limited resolution and high noise levels. With high-resolution sonars, algorithms developed in the image processing field for natural images become applicable. However, the lack of large datasets has hampered the development of such algorithms. Here we present a fast and realistic sonar simulator enabling development and evaluation of such algorithms.We develop a classifier and then analyse its performances using our simulated synthetic sonar images. Finally, we discuss sensor resolution requirements to achieve effective classification of various targets and demonstrate that with high resolution sonars target highlight analysis is the key for target recognition.

  20. Ultra high resolution X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, U.; Buehler, M.; Hentig, R. von; Hertrich, T.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; Hoehne, J.

    2001-01-01

    CSP Cryogenic Spectrometers GmbH is developing cryogenic energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting detector technology. Superconducting sensors exhibit at least a 10-fold improvement in energy resolution due to their low energy gap compared to conventional Si(Li) or Ge detectors. These capabilities are extremely valuable for the analysis of light elements and in general for the analysis of the low energy range of the X-ray spectrum. The spectrometer is based on a mechanical cooler needing no liquid coolants and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) stage which supplies the operating temperature of below 100 mK for the superconducting sensor. Applications include surface analysis in semiconductor industry as well material analysis for material composition e.g. in ceramics or automobile industry

  1. Textural Segmentation of High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale

    1995-01-01

    .... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...

  2. Texton-based super-resolution for achieving high spatiotemporal resolution in hybrid camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Kenji; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2010-05-01

    Many super-resolution methods have been proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of images by using iteration and multiple input images. In a previous paper, we proposed the example-based super-resolution method to enhance an image through pixel-based texton substitution to reduce the computational cost. In this method, however, we only considered the enhancement of a texture image. In this study, we modified this texton substitution method for a hybrid camera to reduce the required bandwidth of a high-resolution video camera. We applied our algorithm to pairs of high- and low-spatiotemporal-resolution videos, which were synthesized to simulate a hybrid camera. The result showed that the fine detail of the low-resolution video can be reproduced compared with bicubic interpolation and the required bandwidth could be reduced to about 1/5 in a video camera. It was also shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of the images improved by about 6 dB in a trained frame and by 1.0-1.5 dB in a test frame, as determined by comparison with the processed image using bicubic interpolation, and the average PSNRs were higher than those obtained by the well-known Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method. Compared with that of the Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method, the computational time of our method was reduced to almost 1/10.

  3. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  4. Energy resolution and throughput of a new real time digital pulse processing system for x-ray and gamma ray semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbene, L; Gerardi, G; Raso, G; Brai, M; Principato, F; Basile, S

    2013-01-01

    New generation spectroscopy systems have advanced towards digital pulse processing (DPP) approaches. DPP systems, based on direct digitizing and processing of detector signals, have recently been favoured over analog pulse processing electronics, ensuring higher flexibility, stability, lower dead time, higher throughput and better spectroscopic performance. In this work, we present the performance of a new real time DPP system for X-ray and gamma ray semiconductor detectors. The system is based on a commercial digitizer equipped with a custom DPP firmware, developed by our group, for on-line pulse shape and height analysis. X-ray and gamma ray spectra measurements with cadmium telluride (CdTe) and germanium (Ge) detectors, coupled to resistive-feedback preamplifiers, highlight the excellent performance of the system both at low and high rate environments (up to 800 kcps). A comparison with a conventional analog electronics showed the better high-rate capabilities of the digital approach, in terms of energy resolution and throughput. These results make the proposed DPP system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research and for the development of advanced detection systems for high-rate-resolution spectroscopic imaging, recently proposed in diagnostic medicine, industrial imaging and security screening

  5. Assessment of ambient-temperature, high-resolution detectors for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution, gamma- and x-ray spectrometry are used routinely in nuclear safeguards verification measurements of plutonium and uranium in the field. These measurements are now performed with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors that require cooling liquid-nitrogen temperatures, thus limiting their utility in field and unattended safeguards measurement applications. Ambient temperature semiconductor detectors may complement HPGe detectors for certain safeguards verification applications. Their potential will be determined by criteria such as their performance, commercial availability, stage of development, and costs. We have conducted as assessment of ambient temperature detectors for safeguards measurement applications with these criteria in mind

  6. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  7. High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-04-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron light sources in combination with x-ray focusing devices such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors make Laue diffraction on a submicron length scale possible. Analysis of Laue images enables us to determine the deviatoric part of the 3D strain tensor to an accuracy of 2×10-4 in strain with a spatial resolution comparable to the grain size in our thin films. In this paper the application of x-ray microdiffraction to the temperature dependence of the mechanical behavior of a sputtered blanket Cu film and of electroplated damascene Cu lines will be presented. Microdiffraction reveals very large variations in the strain of a film or line from grain to grain. When the strain is averaged over a macroscopic region the results are in good agreement with direct macroscopic stress measurements. However, the strain variations are so large that in some cases in which the average stress is tensile there are some grains actually under compression. The full implications of these observations are still being considered, but it is clear that the mechanical properties of thin film materials are now accessible with new visibility.

  8. Improved GAMMA 10 tandem mirror confinement in high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Minami, R.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Saosaki, S.; Takemura, Y.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in high density experiments after the last IAEA fusion energy conference in 2000 where we reported the production of the high density plasma through use of ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency and neutral beam injection in the anchor cells. However, the diamagnetic signal of the plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating was applied for the potential formation. Recently a high density plasma has been obtained without degradation of the diamagnetic signal and with much improved reproducibility than before. The high density plasma was attained through adjustment of the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions. The potential confinement of the plasma has been extensively studied. Dependences of the ion confinement time, ion-energy confinement time and plasma confining potential on plasma density were obtained for the first time in the high density region up to a density of 4x10 18 m -3 . (author)

  9. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  10. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  11. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  12. High-resolution MRI in detecting subareolar breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peifen; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Okamoto, Kyoko; Nakajima, Yasuo; Fukuda, Mamoru; Maeda, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    Because subareolar breast abscess has a high recurrence rate, a more effective imaging technique is needed to comprehensively visualize the lesions and guide surgery. We performed a high-resolution MRI technique using a microscopy coil to reveal the characteristics and extent of subareolar breast abscess. High-resolution MRI has potential diagnostic value in subareolar breast abscess. This technique can be used to guide surgery with the aim of reducing the recurrence rate.

  13. The structure of the ISM in the Zone of Avoidance by high-resolution multi-wavelength observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, L. V.; Doi, Y.; Pinter, S.; Kovács, T.; Zahorecz, S.; Bagoly, Z.; Balázs, L. G.; Horvath, I.; Racz, I. I.; Onishi, T.

    2018-05-01

    We estimate the column density of the Galactic foreground interstellar medium (GFISM) in the direction of extragalactic sources. All-sky AKARI FIS infrared sky survey data might be used to trace the GFISM with a resolution of 2 arcminutes. The AKARI based GFISM hydrogen column density estimates are compared with similar quantities based on HI 21cm measurements of various resolution and of Planck results. High spatial resolution observations of the GFISM may be important recalculating the physical parameters of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using the updated foreground parameters.

  14. High-energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Atoyan, Armen

    2003-01-01

    We treat high-energy neutrino production in gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Detailed calculations of photomeson neutrino production are presented for the collapsar model, where internal nonthermal synchrotron radiation is the primary target photon field, and the supranova model, where external pulsar-wind synchrotron radiation provides important additional target photons. Detection of > or approx. 10 TeV neutrinos from GRBs with Doppler factors > or approx. 200, inferred from γ-ray observations, would support the supranova model. Detection of or approx. 3x10 -4 erg cm -2 offer a realistic prospect for detection of ν μ

  15. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is ∼2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach

  16. Gamma-resonance Contraband Detection using a high current tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B. F.; Beis, J.; Dale, D.; Rogers, J.; Ruegg, R.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Melnychuk, S.; Rathke, J.; Sredniawski, J.

    1999-01-01

    TRIUMF and Northrop Grumman have developed a new system for the detection of concealed explosives and drugs. This Contraband Detection System (CDS) is based on the resonant absorption by 14 N of gammas produced using 13 C(p,γ) 14 N. The chosen reaction uses protons at 1.75 MeV and the gammas have an energy of 9.17 MeV. By measuring both the resonant and the non-resonant absorption using detectors with good spatial resolution, and applying standard tomographic techniques, we are able to produce 3D images of both the nitrogen partial density and the total density. The images together may be utilized with considerable confidence to determine if small amounts of nitrogen based explosives, heroin or cocaine are present in the interrogated containers. Practical Gamma Resonant Absorption (GRA) scanning requires an intense source of protons. However this proton source must also be very stable, have low energy spread, and have good spatial definition. These demands suggested a tandem as the accelerator of choice. We have therefore constructed a 2 MeV H - tandem optimized for high current (10 mA) operation, while minimizing the overall size of the accelerator. This has required several special innovations which will be presented in the paper. We will also present initial commissioning results

  17. Beta activity measurements in high, variable gamma backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanga, D.; Sandu, E.; Craciun, L.

    1997-01-01

    In many cases beta activity measurements must be performed in high and variable gamma backgrounds. In such instances it is necessary to use well-shielded detectors but this technique is limited to laboratory equipment and frequently insufficient. In order to perform in a simple manner beta activity measurements in high and variable backgrounds a software-aided counting technique have been developed and a counting system have been constructed. This technique combines the different counting techniques with traditional method of successive measurement of the sample and background. The counting system is based on a programmable multi-scaler which is endowed with appropriate software and allow all operations to be performed via keyboard in an interactive fashion. Two large - area proportional detectors were selected in order to have the same background and the same gamma response within 5%. A program has been developed for the counting data analysis and beta activity computing. The software-aided counting technique has been implemented for beta activity measurement in high and variable backgrounds. (authors)

  18. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants{close_quotes}, stacks that have the potential to emit {ge} 1 {mu}Sv y{sup {minus}1} (0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}) to the maximally exposed individual are considered {open_quotes}major{close_quotes} and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method, and 15 were assessed. (The method could not be applied at seven stacks because of excessive background radiation or because no gamma emitting particles appear in the emission stream.) The most significant result from this study was the redesignation of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes}, and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements.

  19. Multi-group transport methods for high-resolution neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K. A.; Smith, L. E.; Gesh, C. J.; Shaver, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. In these applications, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used to preserve as much information as possible about the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used modeling tool for this type of problem, but computational times for many problems can be prohibitive. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of neutron activation problems. Central to this work is the development of a method for generating multi-group neutron-photon cross-sections in a way that separates the discrete and continuum photon emissions so that the key signatures in neutron activation analysis (i.e., the characteristic line energies) are preserved. The mechanics of the cross-section preparation method are described and contrasted with standard neutron-gamma cross-section sets. These custom cross-sections are then applied to several benchmark problems. Multi-group results for neutron and photon flux are compared to MCNP results. Finally, calculated responses of high-resolution spectrometers are compared. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP. A detailed discussion of the potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach, in terms of accuracy, and computational efficiency, is provided. (authors)

  20. Dynamics of High-Resolution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran

    the unprecedented amounts of information collected by mobile phones to gain detailed insight into the dynamics of social systems. This dissertation presents an unparalleled data collection campaign, collecting highly detailed traces for approximately 1000 people over the course of multiple years. The availability...... are we all affected by an ever changing network structure? Answering these questions will enrich our understanding of ourselves, our organizations, and our societies. Yet, mapping the dynamics of social networks has traditionally been an arduous undertaking. Today, however, it is possible to use...... of such dynamic maps allows us to probe the underlying social network and understand how individuals interact and form lasting friendships. More importantly, these highly detailed dynamic maps provide us new perspectives at traditional problems and allow us to quantify and predict human life....

  1. A Forward-Looking High-Resolution GPR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kositsky, Joel; Milanfar, Peyman

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) system was designed to help define the optimal radar parameters needed for the efficient standoff detection of buried and surface-laid antitank mines...

  2. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  3. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climate model in recent years ... surface initialization using a regional climate model. ...... ization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Clim. Appl.

  4. High spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    brief overview of some highlights of high spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN is given, mainly obtained with the RGS of XMM-Newton. Future prospects for such observations with XMM-Newton are given.

  5. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  6. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  7. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  8. A temperature-compensated high spatial resolution distributed strain sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belal, Mohammad; Cho, Yuh Tat; Ibsen, Morten; Newson, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme which utilizes the temperature dependence of spontaneous Raman scattering to provide temperature compensation for a high spatial resolution Brillouin frequency-based strain sensor

  9. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  10. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  11. Scene Classification Using High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Jamada

    2002-01-01

    ...), High-spatial resolution (8-meter), 4-color MSI data from IKONOS provide a new tool for scene classification, The utility of these data are studied for the purpose of classifying the Elkhorn Slough and surrounding wetlands in central...

  12. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  13. High resolution measurements and study of the neutron inelastic scattering reaction on 56Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, E.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution measures of neutrons inelastic scattering cross section, have been performed on 56 Fe from 862 KeV to 3 MeV. The time of flight method has been used on the GELINA source of the IRMM in Geel (Belgium). Four barium fluoride scintillators, placed around the samples, recorded the gamma rays emissions coming from the iron and the boron. A study of the correlations between the partial elastic and inelastic lengths has been performed taking into account first transmission measures realized at Geel. (A.L.B.)

  14. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri; Gholamreza Hamsi; Tayeb Ramim

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM) of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed...

  15. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  16. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  17. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  18. High resolution computed tomography of auditory ossicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, M.; Murata, K.; Ohta, F.; Yoshida, A.; Ishida, O.; Kinki Univ., Osaka

    1990-01-01

    Auditory ossicular sections were scanned at section thicknesses (mm)/section interspaces (mm) of 1.5/1.5 (61 patients), 1.0/1.0 (13 patients) or 1.5/1.0 (33 patients). At any type of section thickness/interspace, the malleal and incudal structures were observed with almost equal frequency. The region of the incudostapedial joint and each component part of the stapes were shown more frequently at a section interspace of 1.0 mm than at 1.5 mm. The visualization frequency of each auditory ossicular component on two or more serial sections was investigated. At a section thickness/section interspace of 1.5/1.5, the visualization rates were low except for large components such as the head of the malleus and the body of the incus, but at a slice interspace of 1.0 mm, they were high for most components of the auditory ossicles. (orig.)

  19. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-01-01

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit Δ-Σ ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent

  20. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  1. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  2. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-08-06

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  3. High resolution charmonium spectroscopy with antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultimate goal of all physics is to understand the elementary interactions and their manifestations in nature. Remarkable success has been achieved in the understanding of the electromagnetic and weak interactions. However, similar success has eluded the understanding of the strong interactions. Quantum ChromoDynamics, QCD, is the attempt to construct an elementary theory of strong interactions patterned after the highly successful electroweak theory [1]. In this paper, it is claimed that QCD is the theory of strong interactions, and that: hadrons are color singlets made of quarks and antiquarks, each of three colors and (so far) three generations. (u.d), (s.c) and (b.t) and six flavors; the short range WCD interaction is correctly patterned after QED as that due to one-gluon exchange and therefore proportional to 1/r; the additional unique feature of QCD is confinement. It is well approximated by a linear confining potential proportional r. The fact of the matter is that none of the above assertions can be proved. They have to be checked against experimental observations

  4. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  5. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-01-01

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  6. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  7. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  8. Least square fitting of low resolution gamma ray spectra with cubic B-spline basis functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Menghua; Liu Lianggang; Qi Dongxu; You Zhong; Xu Aoao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the least square fitting method with the cubic B-spline basis functions is derived to reduce the influence of statistical fluctuations in the gamma ray spectra. The derived procedure is simple and automatic. The results show that this method is better than the convolution method with a sufficient reduction of statistical fluctuation. (authors)

  9. A Multi-Contact, Low Capacitance HPGe Detector for High Rate Gamma Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Christopher [XIA LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-12-04

    The detection, identification and non-destructive assay of special nuclear materials and nuclear fission by-products are critically important activities in support of nuclear non-proliferation programs. Both national and international nuclear safeguard agencies recognize that current accounting methods for spent nuclear fuel are inadequate from a safeguards perspective. Radiation detection and analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in this field, but no instrument exists that can deliver the required performance (energy resolution and detection sensitivity) in the presence of very high background count rates encountered in the nuclear safeguards arena. The work of this project addresses this critical need by developing a unique gamma-ray detector based on high purity germanium that has the previously unachievable property of operating in the 1 million counts-per-second range while achieving state-of-the-art energy resolution necessary to identify and analyze the isotopes of interest. The technical approach was to design and fabricate a germanium detector with multiple segmented electrodes coupled to multi-channel high rate spectroscopy electronics. Dividing the germanium detector’s signal electrode into smaller sections offers two advantages; firstly, the energy resolution of the detector is potentially improved, and secondly, the detector is able to operate at higher count rates. The design challenges included the following; determining the optimum electrode configuration to meet the stringent energy resolution and count rate requirements; determining the electronic noise (and therefore energy resolution) of the completed system after multiple signals are recombined; designing the germanium crystal housing and vacuum cryostat; and customizing electronics to perform the signal recombination function in real time. In this phase I work, commercial off-the-shelf electrostatic modeling software was used to develop the segmented germanium crystal geometry

  10. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu; Mjøs, Svein Are; David, Fabrice P.A.; Schmid, Adrien W.

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  11. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Mjøs, Svein Are, E-mail: svein.mjos@kj.uib.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); David, Fabrice P.A. [Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core Facility, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schmid, Adrien W. [Proteomics Core Facility, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  12. Radiation Build-Up Of High Energy Gamma In Shielding Of High Atomic Number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliati, Helfi; Akhadi, Mukhlis

    2000-01-01

    Research to observe effect of radiation build-up factor (b) in iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) for high energy gamma shielding from exp.137 Cs (E gamma : 662 keV) and exp.60 Co (E gamma : 1332 keV) sources has been carried out. Research was conducted bt counting of radiation intensity behind shielding with its thickness vary from 1 to 5 times of half value thickness (HVT). NaI (TI) detector which connected to multi channel analyzer (MCA) was used for the counting. Calculation result show that all of b value are near to 1 (b∼1) both for Fe and Pb. Without inserting b in calculation, from the experiment it was obtained HVT value of Fe for high gamma radiation of 662 and 1332 keV were : (12,94 n 0,03) mm and (17,33 n 0,01) mm with their deviation standards were 0,2% and 0,06% respectively. Value of HVT for Pb with the same energy were : (6,31 n 0,03) mm and (11,86 n 0,03) mm with their deviation standars were : 0,48% and 0,25% respectively. HVL concept could be applied directly to estimate shielding thickness of high atomic number of high energy gamma radiation, without inserting correction of radiation build-up factor

  13. A multi-channel high-resolution time recorder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Xiaojun; Song Kezhu; Wang Yanfang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-channel and high-speed time recorder system, which was originally designed to work in the experiments of quantum cryptography research. The novelty of the system is that all the hardware logic is performed by only one FPGA. The system can achieve several desirable features, such as simplicity, high resolution and high processing speed. (authors)

  14. Some aspects of ultra high energy gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, O.C.

    1983-11-01

    A short review of ultra high energy (UHE) gamma ray astronomy (10 11 14 eV) as well as a description of a planned experiment to be erected at Potchefstroom is given in the introduction. This experiment will be the first and only one in the Southern Hemisphere and as such may play an important role in this new field of astronomy and astrophysics. In the first part the necessary infrastructure for astronomical observations of known celestial objects is developed. This embodies the special physical, mechanical and astronomical constraints in this type of astronomy, such as the definition of the various astronomical coordinate systems and transformations between them, the effect of precession and nutation on the source position etc. This leads to automatic observation schedules for the various applicable techniques of observation. In the second part the various effects which may influence the arrival time of a gamma ray at the telescope is investigated. It is found that dispersion and relativistic effects are negligible, given the special type of analysis used in this low counting rate system. The classic Doppler effect due to the motion of Earth as well as the configuration of the telescope does have a major effect and must be taken into consideration when analysing the data. A simple method, depending only on the movement of Earth around the sun, is developed to simplify the identification of pulsars at the planned observatory where computing facilities are limited

  15. High Energy Gamma-rays from FR I Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, M

    2003-01-01

    Thanks to Hubble and Chandra telescopes, some of the large scale jets in extragalactic radio sources are now being observed at optical and X-ray frequencies. For the FR I objects the synchrotron nature of this emission is surely established, although a lot of uncertainties--connected for example with the particle acceleration processes involved--remain. In this paper we study production of high energy gamma-rays in FR I kiloparsec-scale jets by inverse-Compton emission of the synchrotron-emitting electrons. We consider different origin of seed photons contributing to the inverse-Compton scattering, including nuclear jet radiation as well as ambient, stellar and circumstellar emission of the host galaxies. We discuss how future detections or non-detections of the evaluated gamma-ray fluxes can provide constraints on the unknown large scale jet parameters, i.e. the magnetic field intensity and the jet Doppler factor. For the nearby sources Centaurus A and M 87, we find measurable fluxes of TeV photons resulting...

  16. Resolution enhancement of low-quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Q.; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Schutte, Klamer

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of corresponding LR-HR pairs of image patches from the HR still image, high-frequency details are transferred from the HR source to the LR video. The DCT-domain algorithm is much faster than example-based SR in spatial domain 6 because of a reduction in search dimensionality, which is a direct result of the compact and uncorrelated DCT representation. Fast searching techniques like tree-structure vector quantization 16 and coherence search1 are also key to the improved efficiency. Preliminary results on MJPEG sequence show promising result of the DCT-domain SR synthesis approach.

  17. New detector developments for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.; Lorenz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The strength of quantitative, functional imaging using positron emission tomography, specially in small animals, is limited due to the spatial resolution. Therefore, various tomograph designs employing new scintillators, light sensors, or coincidence electronic are investigated to improve resolution without losses in sensitivity. Luminous scintillators with short light decay time in combination with novel readout schemes using photomultipliers or semiconductor detectors are currently tested by several groups and are implemented in tomographs for small animals. This review summarises the state of development in high resolution positron emission tomography with a detailed description of a system incorporating avalanche photodiode arrays and small scintillation crystals. (orig.) [de

  18. High resolution resistivity measurements at the Down Ampney research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Jackson, P.D.; Rainsbury, M.; Raines, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new high resolution resistivity surveying method is described for fault detection and characterisation. The resolution is shown to be significantly higher than conventional apparent resistivity profiling when applied to geological discontinuities such as faults. Nominal fault locations have been determined to an accuracy of 0.5 m, as proven by drilling. Two dimensional profiling and image enhancement of the resulting 2-D data set indicated the possibility of subsidiary fractures and/or lateral changes within the clay to clay' fault zone. The increased resolution allows greater confidence to be placed on both the fault detection and lateral perturbations derived from processed resistance and resistivity images. (Author)

  19. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  20. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  1. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  2. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  3. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A; Angelis, Georgios I; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C; Reader, Andrew J; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-01

    Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The

  4. Two high-frequency mutual inductance bridges with high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Kreuwel, H.J.M.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two mutual inductance bridges are described for operation up to about 100 kHz. Special attention is paid to the sensitivity and resolution of the bridges. Both bridges can be used to measure variations of about 10 pH in the mutual inductance. The first bridge consists of passive elements only

  5. A novel gamma-ray detector with submillimeter resolutions using a monolithic MPPC array with pixelized Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T., E-mail: katou.frme.8180@asagi.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Miura, T.; Matsuda, H.; Kishimoto, A. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Nakamura, S.; Kawabata, N. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Ikeda, H. [ISAS/JAXA, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Yamamoto, S. [Kobe City College of Technology, 8-3, Gakuenhigashimati, Nishi-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyougo 651-2194 (Japan); Kamada, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Furukawa Co., Ltd., 1-25-13, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    We have developed a large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) array consisting of 4×4 channels with a three-side buttable package. Each channel has a photosensitive area of 3×3 mm{sup 2} and 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs). For typical operational gain of 7.5×10{sup 5} at +20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ±5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to ≤400kcps per channel. We first fabricated a gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array with one-to-one coupling to a Ce-doped (Lu,Y){sub 2}(SiO{sub 4})O (Ce:LYSO) crystal array (4×4 array of 3×3×10 mm{sup 3} crystals). Energy and time resolutions of 11.5±0.5% (FWHM at 662 keV) and 493±22ps were obtained, respectively. When using the charge division resistor network, which compiles signals into four position-encoded analog outputs, the ultimate positional resolution is estimated as 0.19 mm in both X and Y directions, while energy resolution of 10.2±0.4% (FWHM) was obtained. Finally, we fabricated submillimeter Ce:LYSO and Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12} (Ce:GGAG) scintillator matrices each consisting of 1.0×1.0, 0.7×0.7 and 0.5×0.5 mm{sup 2} pixels, to further improve the spatial resolution. In all types of Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG matrices, each crystal was clearly resolved in the position histograms when irradiated by a {sup 137}Cs source. The energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays for each Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG scintillator matrix were ≤14.3%. These results suggest excellent potential for its use as a high spatial medical imaging device, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET). -- Highlights: ► We developed a newly designed large-area monolithic MPPC array. ► We obtained fine gain uniformity, and good energy and time resolutions when coupled to the LYSO scintillator. ► We fabricated gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array and submillimeter pixelized LYSO and GGAG scintillators. ► In

  6. NEW FERMI-LAT EVENT RECONSTRUCTION REVEALS MORE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bregeon, J.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Tinivella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Chekhtman, A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Cohen-Tanugi, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Drlica-Wagner, A.; Omodei, N.; Rochester, L. S.; Usher, T. L. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Longo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Razzaque, S. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Zimmer, S., E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it, E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: granot@openu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy ({approx}147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.

  7. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Ye Weiguo; Han Hui; Li Pengyu

    2003-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronic is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  8. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Li Pengyu; Han Hui; Ye Yanlin

    2005-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronics is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  9. Infrared emission high spectral resolution atlas of the stratospheric limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, William C.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Herath, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    An atlas of high resolution infrared emission spectra identifies a number of gaseous atmospheric features significant to stratospheric chemistry in the 770-900/cm and 1100-1360/cm regions at six zenith angles from 86.7 to 95.1 deg. A balloon-borne Michelson interferometer was flown to obtain about 0.03/cm resolution spectra. Two 10/cm extracts are presented here.

  10. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized #betta#-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10 7 s - 1 ) of background-free polarized #betta# rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (δE = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV #betta# rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the #betta#-ray energy up to 700 MeV

  11. High-resolution regional climate model evaluation using variable-resolution CESM over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effect of climate change at regional scales remains a topic of intensive research. Though computational constraints remain a problem, high horizontal resolution is needed to represent topographic forcing, which is a significant driver of local climate variability. Although regional climate models (RCMs) have traditionally been used at these scales, variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) have recently arisen as an alternative for studying regional weather and climate allowing two-way interaction between these domains without the need for nudging. In this study, the recently developed variable-resolution option within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is assessed for long-term regional climate modeling over California. Our variable-resolution simulations will focus on relatively high resolutions for climate assessment, namely 28km and 14km regional resolution, which are much more typical for dynamically downscaled studies. For comparison with the more widely used RCM method, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model will be used for simulations at 27km and 9km. All simulations use the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) protocols. The time period is from 1979-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (UTC), and year 1979 was discarded as spin up time. The mean climatology across California's diverse climate zones, including temperature and precipitation, is analyzed and contrasted with the Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF) model (as a traditional RCM), regional reanalysis, gridded observational datasets and uniform high-resolution CESM at 0.25 degree with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core. The results show that variable-resolution CESM is competitive in representing regional climatology on both annual and seasonal time scales. This assessment adds value to the use of VRGCMs for projecting climate change over the coming century and improve our understanding of both past and future regional climate related to fine

  12. Limits to the Fraction of High-energy Photon Emitting Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang

    2013-02-01

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  13. LIMITS TO THE FRACTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PHOTON EMITTING GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang

    2013-01-01

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  14. Validation of High-resolution Climate Simulations over Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Two AMIP2-type (Gates 1992) experiments have been performed with climate versions of ARPEGE/IFS model examine for North Atlantic North Europe, and Norwegian region and analyzed the effect of increasing resolution on the simulated biases. The ECMWF reanalysis or ERA-15 has been used to validate the simulations. Each of the simulations is an integration of the period 1979 to 1996. The global simulations used observed monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SST) as lower boundary condition. All aspects but the horizontal resolutions are similar in the two simulations. The first simulation has a uniform horizontal resolution of T63L. The second one has a variable resolution (T106Lc3) with the highest resolution in the Norwegian Sea. Both simulations have 31 vertical layers in the same locations. For each simulation the results were divided into two seasons: winter (DJF) and summer (JJA). The parameters investigated were mean sea level pressure, geopotential and temperature at 850 hPa and 500 hPa. To find out the causes of temperature bias during summer, latent and sensible heat flux, total cloud cover and total precipitation were analyzed. The high-resolution simulation exhibits more or less realistic climate over Nordic, Artic and European region. The overall performance of the simulations shows improvements of generally all fields investigated with increasing resolution over the target area both in winter (DJF) and summer (JJA).

  15. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    of the massive amounts of data. We present an automated data processing method to quantitatively compare large numbers of spectra from the analysis of complex mixtures, exploiting the full quality of high-resolution mass spectra. By projecting all detected ions - within defined intervals on both the time...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... infusion analyses of crude extract to find the relationship between species from several species terverticillate Penicillium, and also that the ions responsible for the segregation can be identified. Furthermore the process can automate the process of detecting unique species and unique metabolites....

  16. High resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentine, Fernando P P; Herbella, Fernando A M; Silva, Luciana C; Patti, Marco G

    2011-12-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal epiphrenic diverticula is still uncertain even though a concomitant motility disorder is found in the majority of patients in different series. High resolution manometry may allow detection of motor abnormalities in a higher number of patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula compared with conventional manometry. This study aims to evaluate the high resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula. Nine individuals (mean age 63 ± 10 years, 4 females) with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula underwent high resolution manometry. A single diverticulum was observed in eight patients and multiple diverticula in one. Visual analysis of conventional tracings and color pressure plots for identification of segmental abnormalities was performed by two researchers experienced in high resolution manometry. Upper esophageal sphincter was normal in all patients. Esophageal body was abnormal in eight patients; lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in seven patients. Named esophageal motility disorders were found in seven patients: achalasia in six, diffuse esophageal spasm in one. In one patient, a segmental hypercontractile zone was noticed with pressure of 196 mm Hg. High resolution manometry demonstrated motor abnormalities in all patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

  17. High-z Universe with Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in space and trace the cosmic star formation history back to the first generations of stars. Their bright afterglows allow us to trace the abundances of heavy elements to large distances, thereby measuring cosmic chemical evolution. To date GRBs have been detected up to distances of z=8.23 and possibly even beyond z9. This makes GRBs a unique and powerful tool to probe the high-z Universe up to the re-ionization era. We discuss the current status of the field, place it in context with other probes, and also discuss new mission concepts that have been planned to utilize GRBs as probes.

  18. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, E.P.; Strathman, M.D.; Reed, D.A.; Odom, R.W.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10 10 ), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 μm for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 μm) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 μm has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  19. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, E P [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Strathman, M D [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Reed, D A [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Odom, R W [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Morse, D H [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Pontau, A E [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10[sup 10]), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 [mu]m for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 [mu]m) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 [mu]m has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  20. Three-layer GSO depth-of-interaction detector for high-energy gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Watabe, H.; Kawachi, N.; Fujimaki, S.; Kato, K.; Hatazawa, J.

    2014-01-01

    Using Ce-doped Gd 2 SiO 5 (GSO) of different Ce concentrations, three-layer DOI block detectors were developed to reduce the parallax error at the edges of a pinhole gamma camera for high-energy gamma photons. GSOs with Ce concentrations of 1.5 mol% (decay time ∼40 ns), 0.5 mol% crystal (∼60 ns), 0.4 mol% (∼80 ns) were selected for the depth of interaction (DOI) detectors. These three types of GSOs were optically coupled in the depth direction, arranged in a 22×22 matrix and coupled to a flat panel photomultiplier tube (FP-PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Sizes of these GSO cells were 1.9 mm×1.9 mm×4 mm, 1.9 mm×1.9 mm×5 mm, and 1.9 mm×1.9 mm×6 mm for 1.5 mol%, 0.5 mol%, and 0.4 mol%, respectively. With these combinations of GSOs, all spots corresponding to GSO cells were clearly resolved in the position histogram. Pulse shape spectra showed three peaks for these three decay times of GSOs. The block detector was contained in a 2-cm-thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator with a 0.5-mm aperture was mounted. With pulse shape discrimination, we separated the point source images of the Cs-137 for each DOI layer. The point source image of the lower layer was detected at the most central part of the field-of-view, and the distribution was the smallest. The point source image of the higher layer was detected at the most peripheral part of the field-of-view, and the distribution was widest. With this information, the spatial resolution of the pinhole gamma camera can be improved. We conclude that DOI detection is effective for pinhole gamma cameras for high energy gamma photons

  1. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.

    2009-01-01

    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  2. 1024 matrix image reconstruction: usefulness in high resolution chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Chong, Se Min; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    We tried to evaluate whether high resolution chest CT with a 1,024 matrix has a significant advantage in image quality compared to a 512 matrix. Each set of 512 and 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans with both 0.625 mm and 1.25 mm slice thickness were obtained from 26 patients. Seventy locations that contained twenty-four low density lesions without sharp boundary such as emphysema, and forty-six sharp linear densities such as linear fibrosis were selected; these were randomly displayed on a five mega pixel LCD monitor. All the images were masked for information concerning the matrix size and slice thickness. Two chest radiologists scored the image quality of each ar rowed lesion as follows: (1) undistinguishable, (2) poorly distinguishable, (3) fairly distinguishable, (4) well visible and (5) excellently visible. The scores were compared from the aspects of matrix size, slice thickness and the different observers by using ANOVA tests. The average and standard deviation of image quality were 3.09 (± .92) for the 0.625 mm x 512 matrix, 3.16 (± .84) for the 0.625 mm x 1024 matrix, 2.49 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 512 matrix, and 2.35 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 1024 matrix, respectively. The image quality on both matrices of the high resolution chest CT scans with a 0.625 mm slice thickness was significantly better than that on the 1.25 mm slice thickness (ρ < 0.001). However, the image quality on the 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans was not significantly different from that on the 512 matrix high resolution chest CT scans (ρ = 0.678). The interobserver variation between the two observers was not significant (ρ = 0.691). We think that 1024 matrix image reconstruction for high resolution chest CT may not be clinical useful

  3. Development of Fast High-Resolution Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High Counting Rates

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00287945; Dubbert, J.; Horvat, S.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Adomeit, S.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.; Zibell, A.

    2011-01-01

    Pressurized drift-tube chambers are e?cient detectors for high-precision tracking over large areas. The Monitored Drift-Tube (MDT) chambers of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reach a spatial resolution of 35 micons and almost 100% tracking e?ciency with 6 layers of 30 mm diameter drift tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas mixture at 3 bar and a gas gain of 20000. The ATLAS MDT chambers are designed to cope with background counting rates due to neutrons and gamma-rays of up to about 300 kHz per tube which will be exceeded for LHC luminosities larger than the design value of 10-34 per square cm and second. Decreasing the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm while keeping the other parameters, including the gas gain, unchanged reduces the maximum drift time from about 700 ns to 200 ns and the drift-tube occupancy by a factor of 7. New drift-tube chambers for the endcap regions of the ATLAS muon spectrometer have been designed. A prototype chamber consisting of 12 times 8 l...

  4. Least-squares resolution of gamma-ray spectra in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, L.G.; Seale, S.K.; Liggett, W.S.

    1977-08-01

    The use of ALPHA-M, a least squares computer program for analyzing NaI (Tl) gamma spectra of environmental samples, is evaluated. Included is a comprehensive set of program instructions, listings, and flowcharts. Two other programs, GEN4 and SIMSPEC, are also described. GEN4 is used to create standard libraries for ALPHA-M, and SIMSPEC is used to simulate spectra for ALPHA-M analysis. Tests to evaluate the standard libraries selected for use in analyzing environmental samples are provided. An evaluation of the results of sample analyses is discussed

  5. Multi-resolution voxel phantom modeling: a high-resolution eye model for computational dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracappa, Peter F; Rhodes, Ashley; Fiedler, Derek

    2014-09-21

    Voxel models of the human body are commonly used for simulating radiation dose with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Due to memory limitations, the voxel resolution of these computational phantoms is typically too large to accurately represent the dimensions of small features such as the eye. Recently reduced recommended dose limits to the lens of the eye, which is a radiosensitive tissue with a significant concern for cataract formation, has lent increased importance to understanding the dose to this tissue. A high-resolution eye model is constructed using physiological data for the dimensions of radiosensitive tissues, and combined with an existing set of whole-body models to form a multi-resolution voxel phantom, which is used with the MCNPX code to calculate radiation dose from various exposure types. This phantom provides an accurate representation of the radiation transport through the structures of the eye. Two alternate methods of including a high-resolution eye model within an existing whole-body model are developed. The accuracy and performance of each method is compared against existing computational phantoms.

  6. High resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy with 67Zn in metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potzel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Moessbauer experiments on metallic systems are described where the high resolution 93.3 keV resonance in 67 Zn is used. In the first part, the Cu-Zn alloy system is investigated and the high energy resolution of this Moessbauer transition is employed to determine small changes of the s-electron density at the 67 Zn nucleus when the Zn concentration is changed. In the second part, Zn metal is taken as an example to demonstrate that the 93.3 keV transition is also extremely sensitive to small changes of lattice dynamical effects. 7 refs., 18 figs. (author)

  7. High spatial resolution CT image reconstruction using parallel computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yin; Liu Li; Sun Gongxing

    2003-01-01

    Using the PC cluster system with 16 dual CPU nodes, we accelerate the FBP and OR-OSEM reconstruction of high spatial resolution image (2048 x 2048). Based on the number of projections, we rewrite the reconstruction algorithms into parallel format and dispatch the tasks to each CPU. By parallel computing, the speedup factor is roughly equal to the number of CPUs, which can be up to about 25 times when 25 CPUs used. This technique is very suitable for real-time high spatial resolution CT image reconstruction. (authors)

  8. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs

  9. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Design and assessment of a 6 ps-resolution time-to-digital converter with 5 MGy gamma-dose tolerance for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y.; Leroux, P.; De Cock, W.; Steyaert, M.

    2011-01-01

    Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) are key building blocks in time-based mixed-signal systems, used for the digitization of analog signals in time domain. A short survey on state-of-the-art TDCs is given. In order to realize a TDC with picosecond time resolution as well as multi MGy gamma-dose radiation tolerance, a novel multi-stage noise-shaping (MASH) delta-sigma (ΔΣ) TDC structure is proposed. The converter, implemented in 0.13 μm, achieves a time resolution of 5.6 ps and an ENOB of 11 bits, when the over sampling ratio (OSR) is 250. The TDC core consumes only 1.7 mW, and occupies an area of 0.11 mm 2 . Owing to the usage of circuit level radiation hardened-by-design techniques, such as passive RC oscillators and constant-g m biasing, the TDC exhibits enhanced radiation tolerance. At a low dose rate of 1.2 kGy/h, the frequency of the counting clock in the TDC remains constant up to at least 160 kGy. Even after a total dose of 3.4 MGy at a high dose rate of 30 kGy/h, the TDC still achieves a time resolution of 10.5 ps with an OSR of 250. (authors)

  11. Design and assessment of a 6 ps-resolution time-to-digital converter with 5 MGy gamma-dose tolerance for nuclear instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y. [ESAT-MICAS Div., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Leroux, P. [ESAT-MICAS Div., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); ICT-RELIC Div., Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); De Cock, W. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Steyaert, M. [ESAT-MICAS Div., Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) are key building blocks in time-based mixed-signal systems, used for the digitization of analog signals in time domain. A short survey on state-of-the-art TDCs is given. In order to realize a TDC with picosecond time resolution as well as multi MGy gamma-dose radiation tolerance, a novel multi-stage noise-shaping (MASH) delta-sigma ({Delta}{Sigma}) TDC structure is proposed. The converter, implemented in 0.13 {mu}m, achieves a time resolution of 5.6 ps and an ENOB of 11 bits, when the over sampling ratio (OSR) is 250. The TDC core consumes only 1.7 mW, and occupies an area of 0.11 mm{sup 2}. Owing to the usage of circuit level radiation hardened-by-design techniques, such as passive RC oscillators and constant-g{sub m} biasing, the TDC exhibits enhanced radiation tolerance. At a low dose rate of 1.2 kGy/h, the frequency of the counting clock in the TDC remains constant up to at least 160 kGy. Even after a total dose of 3.4 MGy at a high dose rate of 30 kGy/h, the TDC still achieves a time resolution of 10.5 ps with an OSR of 250. (authors)

  12. Quantifying and containing the curse of high resolution coronal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delouille

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO, InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts available at these resolution and cadence will provide a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. For example, if the inhomogeneities in the Quiet Sun emission prevail at higher resolution, one may hope to locally have more photon counts than in the case of a uniform source. It is relevant to quantify how inhomogeneous the quiet corona will be for a pixel pitch that is about 20 times smaller than in the case of SoHO/EIT, and 5 times smaller than TRACE. We perform a first step in this direction by analyzing and characterizing the spatial intermittency of Quiet Sun images thanks to a multifractal analysis. We identify the parameters that specify the scale-invariance behavior. This identification allows next to select a family of multifractal processes, namely the Compound Poisson Cascades, that can synthesize artificial images having some of the scale-invariance properties observed on the recorded images. The prevalence of self-similarity in Quiet Sun coronal images makes it relevant to study the ratio between the SNR present at SoHO/EIT images and in coarsened images. SoHO/EIT images thus play the role of "high resolution" images, whereas the "low-resolution" coarsened images are rebinned so as to simulate a smaller angular resolution and/or a larger distance to the Sun. For a fixed difference in angular resolution and in Spacecraft-Sun distance, we determine the proportion of pixels having a SNR preserved at high resolution given a particular increase in effective area. If scale-invariance continues to prevail at smaller scales, the conclusion reached with SoHO/EIT images can be transposed

  13. Characterisation of a Compton suppressed Clover detector for high energy gamma rays (=<11MeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha Sarkar, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)]. E-mail: maitrayee.sahasarkar@saha.ac.in; Kshetri, Ritesh [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Raut, Rajarshi [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Mukherjee, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Sinha, Mandira [Gurudas College, Narkeldanga, Kolkata-700054 (India); Ray, Maitreyi [Behala College, Parnashree, Kolkata-700060 (India); Goswami, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Basu, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Majumder, H. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Dasmahapatra, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectra of two (p,{gamma}) resonances have been utilised for the characterisation of the Clover detector at energies beyond 5MeV. Apart from the efficiency and the resolution of the detector, the shapes of the full energy peaks as well as the nature of the escape peaks which are also very crucial at higher energies have been analysed with special attention. Proper gain matching in software have checked deterioration in the energy resolution and distortion in the peak shape due to addback. The addback factors show sharp increasing trend even at energies around 11MeV.

  14. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Bursts of the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission at high and ultra-high energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidvansky A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by the ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes and 100 TeV (EAS arrays are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, maybe the difference between “flares” and “waves” recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by the AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  16. High resolution radar satellite imagery analysis for safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Christian; Eineder, Michael [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Department of SAR Signal Processing, Wessling, (Germany); Rezniczek, Arnold [UBA GmbH, Herzogenrath, (Germany); Niemeyer, Irmgard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institue of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Juelich, (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For monitoring nuclear sites, the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows essential promises. Unlike optical remote sensing instruments, radar sensors operate under almost all weather conditions and independently of the sunlight, i.e. time of the day. Such technical specifications are required both for continuous and for ad-hoc, timed surveillance tasks. With Cosmo-Skymed, TerraSARX and Radarsat-2, high-resolution SAR imagery with a spatial resolution up to 1m has recently become available. Our work therefore aims to investigate the potential of high-resolution TerraSAR data for nuclear monitoring. This paper focuses on exploiting amplitude of a single acquisition, assessing amplitude changes and phase differences between two acquisitions, and PS-InSAR processing of an image stack.

  17. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  18. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  19. A cloud mask methodology for high resolution remote sensing data combining information from high and medium resolution optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter; Strobl, Peter; Kucera, Jan; Vogt, Peter; Seebach, Lucia; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2011-09-01

    This study presents a novel cloud masking approach for high resolution remote sensing images in the context of land cover mapping. As an advantage to traditional methods, the approach does not rely on thermal bands and it is applicable to images from most high resolution earth observation remote sensing sensors. The methodology couples pixel-based seed identification and object-based region growing. The seed identification stage relies on pixel value comparison between high resolution images and cloud free composites at lower spatial resolution from almost simultaneously acquired dates. The methodology was tested taking SPOT4-HRVIR, SPOT5-HRG and IRS-LISS III as high resolution images and cloud free MODIS composites as reference images. The selected scenes included a wide range of cloud types and surface features. The resulting cloud masks were evaluated through visual comparison. They were also compared with ad-hoc independently generated cloud masks and with the automatic cloud cover assessment algorithm (ACCA). In general the results showed an agreement in detected clouds higher than 95% for clouds larger than 50 ha. The approach produced consistent results identifying and mapping clouds of different type and size over various land surfaces including natural vegetation, agriculture land, built-up areas, water bodies and snow.

  20. High resolution satellite imagery : from spies to pipeline management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S. [Canadian Geomatic Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Farrell, M. [TransCanada Transmission, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The launch of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite in September 1999 has opened the door for corridor applications. The technology has been successfully implemented by TransCanada PipeLines in mapping over 1500 km of their mainline. IKONOS is the world's first commercial high resolution satellite which collects data at 1-meter black/white and 4-meter multi-spectral. Its use is regulated by the U.S. government. It is the best source of high resolution satellite image data. Other sources include the Indian Space Agency's IRS-1 C/D satellite and the Russian SPIN-2 which provides less reliable coverage. In addition, two more high resolution satellites may be launched this year to provide imagery every day of the year. IKONOS scenes as narrow as 5 km can be purchased. TransCanada conducted a pilot study to determine if high resolution satellite imagery is as effective as ortho-photos for identifying population structures within a buffer of TransCanada's east line right-of-way. The study examined three unique segments where residential, commercial, industrial and public features were compared. It was determined that IKONOS imagery is as good as digital ortho-photos for updating structures from low to very high density areas. The satellite imagery was also logistically easier than ortho-photos to acquire. This will be even more evident when the IKONOS image archives begins to grow. 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Cucchiara, A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, D. F. (Mexico); Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  2. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z phot , of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z phot < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z phot in the ranges of 4 < z phot ≲ 8 and 9 < z phot < 10 and can robustly determine when z phot > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z phot < 4 when z sim > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  3. Constraining Stochastic Parametrisation Schemes Using High-Resolution Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H. M.; Dawson, A.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic parametrisations are used in weather and climate models as a physically motivated way to represent model error due to unresolved processes. Designing new stochastic schemes has been the target of much innovative research over the last decade. While a focus has been on developing physically motivated approaches, many successful stochastic parametrisation schemes are very simple, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) multiplicative scheme `Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies' (SPPT). The SPPT scheme improves the skill of probabilistic weather and seasonal forecasts, and so is widely used. However, little work has focused on assessing the physical basis of the SPPT scheme. We address this matter by using high-resolution model simulations to explicitly measure the `error' in the parametrised tendency that SPPT seeks to represent. The high resolution simulations are first coarse-grained to the desired forecast model resolution before they are used to produce initial conditions and forcing data needed to drive the ECMWF Single Column Model (SCM). By comparing SCM forecast tendencies with the evolution of the high resolution model, we can measure the `error' in the forecast tendencies. In this way, we provide justification for the multiplicative nature of SPPT, and for the temporal and spatial scales of the stochastic perturbations. However, we also identify issues with the SPPT scheme. It is therefore hoped these measurements will improve both holistic and process based approaches to stochastic parametrisation. Figure caption: Instantaneous snapshot of the optimal SPPT stochastic perturbation, derived by comparing high-resolution simulations with a low resolution forecast model.

  4. The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, K.E.; Gosnell, T.B.; Knapp, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications

  5. Real-time database for high resolution neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian T.; Rother, Oliver M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide network of standardised neutron monitors is, after 50 years, still the state-of-the-art instrumentation to measure spectral variations of the primary cosmic ray component. These measurements are an ideal complement to space based cosmic ray measurements. Data from the approximately 50 IGY and NM64 neutron monitors is stored locally but also available through data collections sites like the World Data Center (WDC) or the IZMIRAN ftp server. The data from the WDC is in a standard format, but only hourly values are available. IZMIRAN collects the data in the best available time resolution, but the data arrives on the ftp server only hours, sometimes days, after the measurements. Also, the high time-resolution measurements of the different stations do not have a common format, a conversion routine for each station is needed before they can be used for scientific analysis. Supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, we are setting up a real-time database where high resolution cosmic ray measurements will be stored and accessible immediately after the measurement. Stations that do not have 1-minute resolution measurements will be upgraded to 1-minute or better resolution with an affordable standard registration system, that will submit the measurements to the database via the internet in real-time.

  6. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  7. The development of high resolution silicon x-ray microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. S.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Recently we have produced x-ray microcalorimeters with resolving powers approaching 2000 at 5.9 keV using a spare XRS microcalorimeter array. We attached 400 um square, 8 um thick HgTe absorbers using a variety of attachment methods to an XRS array and ran the detector array at temperatures between 40 and 60 mK. The best results were for absorbers attached using the standard XRS absorber-pixel thermal isolation scheme utilizing SU8 polymer tubes. In this scenario we achieved a resolution of 3.2 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. Substituting a silicon spacer for the SU8 tubes also yielded sub-4eV results. In contrast, absorbers attached directly to the thermistor produced significant position dependence and thus degraded resolution. Finally, we tested standard 640um-square XRS detectors at reduced bias power at 50mK and achieved a resolution of 3.7eV, a 50% improvement over the XRS flight instrument. Implanted silicon microcalorimeters are a mature flight-qualified technology that still has a substantial phase space for future development. We will discuss these new high resolution results, the various absorber attachment schemes, planned future improvements, and, finally, their relevance to future high resolution x-ray spectrometers including Constellation-X.

  8. High resolution muon computed tomography at neutrino beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suerfu, B.; Tully, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials

  9. Anomalous quartic W W gamma gamma, Z Z gamma gamma, and trilinear WW gamma couplings in two-photon processes at high luminosity at the LHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chapon, E.; Royon, C.; Kepka, Oldřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 7 (2010), 074003/1-074003/22 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : anomalous coupling * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.964, year: 2010 http://arxiv.org/pdf/0912.5161

  10. Immersion Gratings for Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kaji, Sayumi; Sukegawa, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Takao; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared wavelength range is essential for observations of minor isotopologues, such as HDO for water, and prebiotic organic molecules like hydrocarbons/P-bearing molecules because numerous vibrational molecular bands (including non-polar molecules) are located in this wavelength range. High spectral resolution enables us to detect weak lines without spectral line confusion. This technique has been widely used in planetary sciences, e.g., cometary coma (H2O, CO, and organic molecules), the martian atmosphere (CH4, CO2, H2O and HDO), and the upper atmosphere of gas giants (H3+ and organic molecules such as C2H6). Spectrographs with higher resolution (and higher sensitivity) still have a potential to provide a plenty of findings. However, because the size of spectrographs scales with the spectral resolution, it is difficult to realize it.Immersion grating (IG), which is a diffraction grating wherein the diffraction surface is immersed in a material with a high refractive index (n > 2), provides n times higher spectral resolution compared to a reflective grating of the same size. Because IG reduces the size of spectrograph to 1/n compared to the spectrograph with the same spectral resolution using a conventional reflective grating, it is widely acknowledged as a key optical device to realize compact spectrographs with high spectral resolution.Recently, we succeeded in fabricating a CdZnTe immersion grating with the theoretically predicted diffraction efficiency by machining process using an ultrahigh-precision five-axis processing machine developed by Canon Inc. Using the same technique, we completed a practical germanium (Ge) immersion grating with both a reflection coating on the grating surface and the an AR coating on the entrance surface. It is noteworthy that the wide wavelength range from 2 to 20 um can be covered by the two immersion gratings.In this paper, we present the performances and the applications of the immersion

  11. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Dye laser light for high-resolution classical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    The test run with the bubble chamber HOLEBC in October 1981 offered the opportunity of checking the usefulness of de-speckled dye laser light for illumination purposes in high-resolution classical dark field photography of small bubble chambers. (orig./HSI)

  13. High-resolution seismic imaging of the Sohagpur Gondwana basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the high-resolution seismic data depends mainly on the data ..... metric rift geometry. Based on the .... Biswas S K 2003 Regional tectonic framework of the .... Sheth H C, Ray J S, Ray R, Vanderkluysen L, Mahoney J. J, Kumar A ...

  14. Pulmonary Gaucher's disease: high-resolution computed tomographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, A.; Berkmen, Y.M.; Goekmen, E.

    1995-01-01

    CT findings in pulmonary Gaucher's disease have not been previously reported. Chest radiograph of a patient with pulmonary involvement in type I Gaucher's disease proven by biopsy showed linear and reticulo-nodular opacities. High-resolution CT demonstrated thickening of the interlobular septa and between four and six small nodules within secondary lobules, probably each corresponding to an acinus. (orig.)

  15. High resolution techniques using scanning proton microprobe (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Laird, J.S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Bardos, R.A.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Stuart, S.A.; Howard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The very high resolution (down to 50 nm) achieved with low beam currents (fA) in a scanning ion microprobe have lead to many nondestructive techniques of microanalysis. This paper discusses recent developments and applications in the use of 3-D STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) Tomography, channeling STIM and IBIC (ion beam induced charge). (orig.)

  16. Structure Identification in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Kling, Jens; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2014-01-01

    A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present ...

  17. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve analysis as an affordable diagnostic mutation scanning tool in a South African cohort. ... Genetic screening for D/BMD in South Africa currently includes multiple ligase-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for exonic deletions and duplications and linkage ...

  18. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences · Resonance – Journal of Science ... Land surface characteristics; high resolution mesoscale model; Uttarakhand ... to predict realistic location, timing, amount,intensity and distribution of rainfall ... region embedded within two low pressure centers over Arabian Seaand Bay of Bengal.

  19. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: siruguri@csr.ernet.in. Abstract. In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator ...

  20. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.