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Sample records for high resolution 3d

  1. High resolution, large deformation 3D traction force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennet Toyjanova

    Full Text Available Traction Force Microscopy (TFM is a powerful approach for quantifying cell-material interactions that over the last two decades has contributed significantly to our understanding of cellular mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. In addition, recent advances in three-dimensional (3D imaging and traction force analysis (3D TFM have highlighted the significance of the third dimension in influencing various cellular processes. Yet irrespective of dimensionality, almost all TFM approaches have relied on a linear elastic theory framework to calculate cell surface tractions. Here we present a new high resolution 3D TFM algorithm which utilizes a large deformation formulation to quantify cellular displacement fields with unprecedented resolution. The results feature some of the first experimental evidence that cells are indeed capable of exerting large material deformations, which require the formulation of a new theoretical TFM framework to accurately calculate the traction forces. Based on our previous 3D TFM technique, we reformulate our approach to accurately account for large material deformation and quantitatively contrast and compare both linear and large deformation frameworks as a function of the applied cell deformation. Particular attention is paid in estimating the accuracy penalty associated with utilizing a traditional linear elastic approach in the presence of large deformation gradients.

  2. 3D detectors with high space and time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, A.

    2018-01-01

    For future high luminosity LHC experiments it will be important to develop new detector systems with increased space and time resolution and also better radiation hardness in order to operate in high luminosity environment. A possible technology which could give such performances is 3D silicon detectors. This work explores the possibility of a pixel geometry by designing and simulating different solutions, using Sentaurus Tecnology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) as design and simulation tool, and analysing their performances. A key factor during the selection was the generated electric field and the carrier velocity inside the active area of the pixel.

  3. High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s −1  averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ≈20 ng min −1 . The average surface roughness, S a , achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica. (paper)

  4. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  5. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  6. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery

  7. Motion robust high resolution 3D free-breathing pulmonary MRI using dynamic 3D image self-navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenwen; Ong, Frank; Johnson, Kevin M; Nagle, Scott K; Hope, Thomas A; Lustig, Michael; Larson, Peder E Z

    2018-06-01

    To achieve motion robust high resolution 3D free-breathing pulmonary MRI utilizing a novel dynamic 3D image navigator derived directly from imaging data. Five-minute free-breathing scans were acquired with a 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence with 1.25 mm isotropic resolution. From this data, dynamic 3D self-navigating images were reconstructed under locally low rank (LLR) constraints and used for motion compensation with one of two methods: a soft-gating technique to penalize the respiratory motion induced data inconsistency, and a respiratory motion-resolved technique to provide images of all respiratory motion states. Respiratory motion estimation derived from the proposed dynamic 3D self-navigator of 7.5 mm isotropic reconstruction resolution and a temporal resolution of 300 ms was successful for estimating complex respiratory motion patterns. This estimation improved image quality compared to respiratory belt and DC-based navigators. Respiratory motion compensation with soft-gating and respiratory motion-resolved techniques provided good image quality from highly undersampled data in volunteers and clinical patients. An optimized 3D UTE sequence combined with the proposed reconstruction methods can provide high-resolution motion robust pulmonary MRI. Feasibility was shown in patients who had irregular breathing patterns in which our approach could depict clinically relevant pulmonary pathologies. Magn Reson Med 79:2954-2967, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. High resolution 3D gas-jet characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgraf, Bjoern; Kaluza, Malte C.; Spielmann, Christian; Schnell, Michael; Saevert, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We present a tomographic characterization of gas jets employed for high-intensity laser-plasma interaction experiments where the shape can be non-symmetrically. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer we measured the phase shift for different directions through the neutral density distribution of the gas jet. From the recorded interferograms it is possible to retrieve 3-dimensional neutral density distributions by tomographic reconstruction based on the filtered back projections. We report on criteria for the smallest number of recorded interferograms as well as a comparison with the widely used phase retrieval based on an Abel inversion. As an example for the performance of our approach, we present the characterization of nozzles with rectangular openings or gas jets with shock waves. With our setup we obtained a spatial resolution of less than 60 μm for an Argon density as low as 2 x 10 17 cm -3 .

  9. A 3D CZT high resolution detector for x- and gamma-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Zappettini, A.

    2014-01-01

    At DTU Space we have developed a high resolution three dimensional (3D) position sensitive CZT detector for high energy astronomy. The design of the 3D CZT detector is based on the CZT Drift Strip detector principle. The position determination perpendicular to the anode strips is performed using...

  10. 3D high-resolution two-photon crosslinked hydrogel structures for biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Laura; Urciuolo, Anna; Giulitti, Stefano; Della Giustina, Gioia; Tromayer, Maximilian; Liska, Robert; Elvassore, Nicola; Brusatin, Giovanna

    2017-06-01

    Hydrogels are widely used as matrices for cell growth due to the their tuneable chemical and physical properties, which mimic the extracellular matrix of natural tissue. The microfabrication of hydrogels into arbitrarily complex 3D structures is becoming essential for numerous biological applications, and in particular for investigating the correlation between cell shape and cell function in a 3D environment. Micrometric and sub-micrometric resolution hydrogel scaffolds are required to deeply investigate molecular mechanisms behind cell-matrix interaction and downstream cellular processes. We report the design and development of high resolution 3D gelatin hydrogel woodpile structures by two-photon crosslinking. Hydrated structures of lateral linewidth down to 0.5µm, lateral and axial resolution down to a few µm are demonstrated. According to the processing parameters, different degrees of polymerization are obtained, resulting in hydrated scaffolds of variable swelling and deformation. The 3D hydrogels are biocompatible and promote cell adhesion and migration. Interestingly, according to the polymerization degree, 3D hydrogel woodpile structures show variable extent of cell adhesion and invasion. Human BJ cell lines show capability of deforming 3D micrometric resolved hydrogel structures. The design and development of high resolution 3D gelatin hydrogel woodpile structures by two-photon crosslinking is reported. Significantly, topological and mechanical conditions of polymerized gelatin structures were suitable for cell accommodation in the volume of the woodpiles, leading to a cell density per unit area comparable to the bare substrate. The fabricated structures, presenting micrometric features of high resolution, are actively deformed by cells, both in terms of cell invasion within rods and of cell attachment in-between contiguous woodpiles. Possible biological targets for this 3D approach are customized 3D tissue models, or studies of cell adhesion

  11. High-resolution MRI of the labyrinth. Optimization of scan parameters with 3D-FSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Motomichi; Harada, Kuniaki; Shirase, Ryuji; Kumagai, Akiko; Ogasawara, Masashi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to optimize the parameters of high-resolution MRI of the labyrinth with a 3D fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) sequence. We investigated repetition time (TR), echo time (TE), Matrix, field of view (FOV), and coil selection in terms of CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio) and SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) by comparing axial images and/or three-dimensional images. The optimal 3D-FSE sequence parameters were as follows: 1.5 Tesla MR unit (Signa LX, GE Medical Systems), 3D-FSE sequence, dual 3-inch surface coil, acquisition time=12.08 min, TR=5000 msec, TE=300 msec, 3 number of excitations (NEX), FOV=12 cm, matrix=256 x 256, slice thickness=0.5 mm/0.0 sp, echo train=64, bandwidth=±31.5 kHz. High-resolution MRI of the labyrinth using the optimized 3D-FSE sequence parameters permits visualization of important anatomic details (such as scala tympani and scala vestibuli), making it possible to determine inner ear anomalies and the patency of cochlear turns. To obtain excellent heavily T2-weighted axial and three-dimensional images in the labyrinth, high CNR, SNR, and spatial resolution are significant factors at the present time. Furthermore, it is important not only to optimize the scan parameters of 3D-FSE but also to select an appropriate coil for high-resolution MRI of the labyrinth. (author)

  12. High-Resolution Printing of 3D Structures Using an Electrohydrodynamic Inkjet with Multiple Functional Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byeong Wan; Kim, Kukjoo; Lee, Heejoo; Kim, So-Yun; Shim, Yulhui; Lee, Dae-Young; Song, Jun Yeob; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-08-05

    Electrohydrodynamic-inkjet-printed high-resolution complex 3D structures with multiple functional inks are demonstrated. Printed 3D structures can have a variety of fine patterns, such as vertical or helix-shaped pillars and straight or rounded walls, with high aspect ratios (greater than ≈50) and narrow diameters (≈0.7 μm). Furthermore, the formation of freestanding, bridge-like Ag wire structures on plastic substrates suggests substantial potentials as high-precision, flexible 3D interconnects. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  14. 3D High Resolution l1-SPIRiT Reconstruction on Gadgetron based Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Hui; Kelmann, Peter; Inati, Souheil

    framework to support distributed computing in a cloud environment. This extension is named GT-Plus. A cloud version of 3D l1-SPIRiT was implemented on the GT-Plus framework. We demonstrate that a 3mins reconstruction could be achieved for 1mm3 isotropic resolution neuro scans with significantly improved......Applying non-linear reconstruction to high resolution 3D MRI is challenging because of the lengthy computing time needed for those iterative algorithms. To achieve practical processing duration to enable clinical usage of non-linear reconstruction, we have extended previously published Gadgetron...

  15. DEM GENERATION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES THROUGH A NEW 3D LEAST SQUARES MATCHING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated generation of digital elevation models (DEMs from high resolution satellite images (HRSIs has been an active research topic for many years. However, stereo matching of HRSIs, in particular based on image-space search, is still difficult due to occlusions and building facades within them. Object-space matching schemes, proposed to overcome these problem, often are very time consuming and critical to the dimensions of voxels. In this paper, we tried a new least square matching (LSM algorithm that works in a 3D object space. The algorithm starts with an initial height value on one location of the object space. From this 3D point, the left and right image points are projected. The true height is calculated by iterative least squares estimation based on the grey level differences between the left and right patches centred on the projected left and right points. We tested the 3D LSM to the Worldview images over 'Terrassa Sud' provided by the ISPRS WG I/4. We also compared the performance of the 3D LSM with the correlation matching based on 2D image space and the correlation matching based on 3D object space. The accuracy of the DEM from each method was analysed against the ground truth. Test results showed that 3D LSM offers more accurate DEMs over the conventional matching algorithms. Results also showed that 3D LSM is sensitive to the accuracy of initial height value to start the estimation. We combined the 3D COM and 3D LSM for accurate and robust DEM generation from HRSIs. The major contribution of this paper is that we proposed and validated that LSM can be applied to object space and that the combination of 3D correlation and 3D LSM can be a good solution for automated DEM generation from HRSIs.

  16. Analyzing 3D xylem networks in Vitis vinifera using High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) have made it possible to visualize three dimensional (3D) xylem networks without time consuming, labor intensive physical sectioning. Here we describe a new method to visualize complex vessel networks in plants and produce a quantitat...

  17. Integration of High-Resolution Laser Displacement Sensors and 3D Printing for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

  18. Integration of High-Resolution Laser Displacement Sensors and 3D Printing for Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM) studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution) were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

  19. Feasibility of fabricating personalized 3D-printed bone grafts guided by high-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Abigail L.; Newman, Benjamin T.; Khalid, Arbab; Teter, Olivia M.; Kobe, Elizabeth A.; Shukurova, Malika; Shinde, Rohit; Sipzner, Daniel; Pignolo, Robert J.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.

    2017-03-01

    Current methods of bone graft treatment for critical size bone defects can give way to several clinical complications such as limited available bone for autografts, non-matching bone structure, lack of strength which can compromise a patient's skeletal system, and sterilization processes that can prevent osteogenesis in the case of allografts. We intend to overcome these disadvantages by generating a patient-specific 3D printed bone graft guided by high-resolution medical imaging. Our synthetic model allows us to customize the graft for the patients' macro- and microstructure and correct any structural deficiencies in the re-meshing process. These 3D-printed models can presumptively serve as the scaffolding for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) engraftment in order to facilitate bone growth. We performed highresolution CT imaging of a cadaveric human proximal femur at 0.030-mm isotropic voxels. We used these images to generate a 3D computer model that mimics bone geometry from micro to macro scale represented by STereoLithography (STL) format. These models were then reformatted to a format that can be interpreted by the 3D printer. To assess how much of the microstructure was replicated, 3D-printed models were re-imaged using micro-CT at 0.025-mm isotropic voxels and compared to original high-resolution CT images used to generate the 3D model in 32 sub-regions. We found a strong correlation between 3D-printed bone volume and volume of bone in the original images used for 3D printing (R2 = 0.97). We expect to further refine our approach with additional testing to create a viable synthetic bone graft with clinical functionality.

  20. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, L.C., E-mail: lionelcg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11510 (Spain); López-Castro, J.D.; González-Rovira, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Corrosión, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Vázquez-Martínez, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Varela-Feria, F.M. [Servicio de Microscopía Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Marcos, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); and others

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We describe a method to acquire a high-angle tilt series of SEM images that is symmetrical respect to the zero tilt of the sample stage. The method can be applied in any SEM microscope. • Using the method, high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry can be applied on planar surfaces. • 3D models of three surfaces patterned with grooves are reconstructed with high resolution using multi-view freeware photogrammetry software as described in LC Gontard et al. Ultramicroscopy, 2016. • From the 3D models roughness parameters are measured • 3D SEM high-resolution photogrammetry is compared with two conventional methods used for roughness characetrization: stereophotogrammetry and contact profilometry. • It provides three-dimensional information with high-resolution that is out of reach for any other metrological technique. - Abstract: We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters.

  1. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  2. A Microscopic Optically Tracking Navigation System That Uses High-resolution 3D Computer Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masanori; Saito, Toki; Kin, Taichi; Nakagawa, Daichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics (CG) are useful for preoperative planning of neurosurgical operations. However, application of 3D CG to intraoperative navigation is not widespread because existing commercial operative navigation systems do not show 3D CG in sufficient detail. We have developed a microscopic optically tracking navigation system that uses high-resolution 3D CG. This article presents the technical details of our microscopic optically tracking navigation system. Our navigation system consists of three components: the operative microscope, registration, and the image display system. An optical tracker was attached to the microscope to monitor the position and attitude of the microscope in real time; point-pair registration was used to register the operation room coordinate system, and the image coordinate system; and the image display system showed the 3D CG image in the field-of-view of the microscope. Ten neurosurgeons (seven males, two females; mean age 32.9 years) participated in an experiment to assess the accuracy of this system using a phantom model. Accuracy of our system was compared with the commercial system. The 3D CG provided by the navigation system coincided well with the operative scene under the microscope. Target registration error for our system was 2.9 ± 1.9 mm. Our navigation system provides a clear image of the operation position and the surrounding structures. Systems like this may reduce intraoperative complications.

  3. High-resolution 3D laser imaging based on tunable fiber array link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sisi; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Song

    2017-10-01

    Airborne photoelectric reconnaissance system with the bore sight down to the ground is an important battlefield situational awareness system, which can be used for reconnaissance and surveillance of complex ground scene. Airborne 3D imaging Lidar system is recognized as the most potential candidates for target detection under the complex background, and is progressing in the directions of high resolution, long distance detection, high sensitivity, low power consumption, high reliability, eye safe and multi-functional. However, the traditional 3D laser imaging system has the disadvantages of lower imaging resolutions because of the small size of the existing detector, and large volume. This paper proposes a high resolution laser 3D imaging technology based on the tunable optical fiber array link. The echo signal is modulated by a tunable optical fiber array link and then transmitted to the focal plane detector. The detector converts the optical signal into electrical signals which is given to the computer. Then, the computer accomplishes the signal calculation and image restoration based on modulation information, and then reconstructs the target image. This paper establishes the mathematical model of tunable optical fiber array signal receiving link, and proposes the simulation and analysis of the affect factors on high density multidimensional point cloud reconstruction.

  4. Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buongiorno Nardelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The MyOcean R&D project MESCLA (MEsoSCaLe dynamical Analysis through combined model, satellite and in situ data was devoted to the high resolution 3-D retrieval of tracer and velocity fields in the oceans, based on the combination of in situ and satellite observations and quasi-geostrophic dynamical models. The retrieval techniques were also tested and compared with the output of a primitive equation model, with particular attention to the accuracy of the vertical velocity field as estimated through the Q vector formulation of the omega equation. The project focused on a test case, covering the region where the Gulf Stream separates from the US East Coast. This work demonstrated that innovative methods for the high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations can be used to build the next generations of operational observation-based products.

  5. Tracking Solid Oxide Cell Microstructure Evolution by High Resolution 3D Nano-Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Angelis, Salvatore

    . The degradation processes are mainly attributed to morphological changes occurring within the electrodes microstructure. Therefore, precise tracking of 3D microstructural evolution during operation is considered crucial to understanding the complex relationship between microstructure and performance. In this work......, X-ray ptychographic tomography is applied to SOC materials, demonstrating unprecedented spatial resolution and data quality. The eect of a complete redox cycle on the same Ni-YSZ microstructure is visualized ex-situ in 3D, showing major rearrangement of the nickel network after reduction......, the formation of cracks in the YSZ, and void formation in nickel oxide after oxidation. Capitalizing on the high resolution of ptychography, the eect of nickel coarsening on the Ni-YSZ microstructure evolution is studied ex-situ in three dimensions, while the sample is repeatedly scanned and treated at high...

  6. Markerless 3D Head Tracking for Motion Correction in High Resolution PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter

    relying on markers. Data-driven motion correction is problematic due to the physiological dynamics. Marker-based tracking is potentially unreliable, and it is extremely hard to validate when the tracking information is correct. The motion estimation is essential for proper motion correction of the PET......This thesis concerns application specific 3D head tracking. The purpose is to improve motion correction in position emission tomography (PET) brain imaging through development of markerless tracking. Currently, motion correction strategies are based on either the PET data itself or tracking devices...... images. Incorrect motion correction can in the worst cases result in wrong diagnosis or treatment. The evolution of a markerless custom-made structured light 3D surface tracking system is presented. The system is targeted at state-of-the-art high resolution dedicated brain PET scanners with a resolution...

  7. USER–APPROPRIATE VIEWER FOR HIGH RESOLUTION INTERACTIVE ENGAGEMENT WITH 3D DIGITAL CULTURAL ARTEFACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gillespie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008. The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013 and WebGL (Khronos, 2013, it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games

  8. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008). The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013) and WebGL (Khronos, 2013), it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games. This paper

  9. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  10. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  11. ) A Feasibility Study for High Resolution 3D Seismic In The Deep Offshore Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enuma, C.; Hope, R.; Mila, F.; Maurel, L.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Exploration 3D seismic in the Deep Offshore Nigeria is typically acquired with 4000m-6000m cable length at 6-8 depth and with flip-flop shooting, providing a shot point interval of 50m. the average resulting frequency content is typically between 10-60hz which is adequate for exploration interpretation. It has become common in the last few years. E.g. in Angola and the Gulf of Mexico, to re-acquire High Resolution 3D seismic, after a discovery, to improve definition of turbidite systems and accuracy of reservoir geometry for optimized delineation drilling. This feasibility study which was carried out in three different steps was due to the question on whether HR-Seismic should be acquired over TotalFinaElf AKPO discovery for optimized delineation drilling

  12. High-resolution 3D X-ray imaging of intracranial nitinol stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeren, Rudolph M.; With, Peter H.N. de; Soederman, Michael; Kroon, Johannes N.; Roijers, Ruben B.; Babic, Drazenko

    2012-01-01

    To assess an optimized 3D imaging protocol for intracranial nitinol stents in 3D C-arm flat detector imaging. For this purpose, an image quality simulation and an in vitro study was carried out. Nitinol stents of various brands were placed inside an anthropomorphic head phantom, using iodine contrast. Experiments with objects were preceded by image quality and dose simulations. We varied X-ray imaging parameters in a commercially interventional X-ray system to set 3D image quality in the contrast-noise-sharpness space. Beam quality was varied to evaluate contrast of the stents while keeping absorbed dose below recommended values. Two detector formats were used, paired with an appropriate pixel size and X-ray focus size. Zoomed reconstructions were carried out and snapshot images acquired. High contrast spatial resolution was assessed with a CT phantom. We found an optimal protocol for imaging intracranial nitinol stents. Contrast resolution was optimized for nickel-titanium-containing stents. A high spatial resolution larger than 2.1 lp/mm allows struts to be visualized. We obtained images of stents of various brands and a representative set of images is shown. Independent of the make, struts can be imaged with virtually continuous strokes. Measured absorbed doses are shown to be lower than 50 mGy Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). By balancing the modulation transfer of the imaging components and tuning the high-contrast imaging capabilities, we have shown that thin nitinol stent wires can be reconstructed with high contrast-to-noise ratio and good detail, while keeping radiation doses within recommended values. Experimental results compare well with imaging simulations. (orig.)

  13. 3D high- and super-resolution imaging using single-objective SPIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Remi; Grenci, Gianluca; Aravind, Ajay; Viasnoff, Virgile; Studer, Vincent; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-07-01

    Single-objective selective-plane illumination microscopy (soSPIM) is achieved with micromirrored cavities combined with a laser beam-steering unit installed on a standard inverted microscope. The illumination and detection are done through the same objective. soSPIM can be used with standard sample preparations and features high background rejection and efficient photon collection, allowing for 3D single-molecule-based super-resolution imaging of whole cells or cell aggregates. Using larger mirrors enabled us to broaden the capabilities of our system to image Drosophila embryos.

  14. Geant4 simulation of a 3D high resolution gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhdar, H.; Kezzar, K.; Aksouh, F.; Assemi, N.; AlGhamdi, S.; AlGarawi, M.; Gerl, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a 3D gamma camera with high position resolution and sensitivity relying on both distance/absorption and Compton scattering techniques and without using any passive collimation. The proposed gamma camera is simulated in order to predict its performance using the full benefit of Geant4 features that allow the construction of the needed geometry of the detectors, have full control of the incident gamma particles and study the response of the detector in order to test the suggested geometries. Three different geometries are simulated and each configuration is tested with three different scintillation materials (LaBr3, LYSO and CeBr3)

  15. High resolution 3D confocal microscope imaging of volcanic ash particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Gill, Ian; Petford, Nick

    2017-07-15

    We present initial results from a novel high resolution confocal microscopy study of the 3D surface structure of volcanic ash particles from two recent explosive basaltic eruptions, Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grimsvötn (2011), in Iceland. The majority of particles imaged are less than 100μm in size and include PM 10 s, known to be harmful to humans if inhaled. Previous studies have mainly used 2D microscopy to examine volcanic particles. The aim of this study was to test the potential of 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy as a reliable analysis tool for these materials and if so to what degree high resolution surface and volume data could be obtained that would further aid in their classification. First results obtained using an Olympus LEXT scanning confocal microscope with a ×50 and ×100 objective lens are highly encouraging. They reveal a range of discrete particle types characterised by sharp or concave edges consistent with explosive formation and sudden rupture of magma. Initial surface area/volume ratios are given that may prove useful in subsequent modelling of damage to aircraft engines and human tissue where inhalation has occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D high-resolution anorectal manometry in patients with perianal fistulas: comparison with 3D-anal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F; Vlietstra, Maarten S; Vollebregt, Paul F; Han-Geurts, Ingrid J M; Rempe-Sorm, Vera; Vander Mijnsbrugge, Grietje J H; Molenaar, Charlotte B H

    2018-04-04

    Perianal fistula surgery can damage the anal sphincters which may cause faecal incontinence. By measuring regional pressures, 3D-HRAM potentially provides better guidance for surgical strategy in patients with perianal fistulas. The aim was to measure regional anal pressures with 3D-HRAM and to compare these with 3D-EUS findings in patients with perianal fistulas. Consecutive patients with active perianal fistulas who underwent both 3D-EUS and 3D-HRAM at a clinic specialised in proctology were included. A group of 30 patients without fistulas served as controls. Data regarding demographics, complaints, previous perianal surgical procedures and obstetric history were collected. The mean and regional anal pressures were measured with 3D-HRAM. Fistula tract areas detected with 3D-EUS were analysed with 3D-HRAM by visual coding and the regional pressures of the corresponding and surrounding area of the fistula tract areas were measured. The study was granted by the VUmc Medical Ethical Committee. Forty patients (21 males, mean age 47) were included. Four patients had a primary fistula, 19 were previously treated with a seton/abscess drainage and 17 had a recurrence after previously performed fistula surgery. On 3D-HRAM, 24 (60%) fistula tract areas were good and 8 (20%) moderately visible. All but 7 (18%) patients had normal mean resting pressures. The mean resting pressure of the fistula tract area was significantly lower compared to the surrounding area (47 vs. 76 mmHg; p < 0.0001). Only 2 (5%) patients had a regional mean resting pressure < 10 mmHg of the fistula tract area. Using a Δ mean resting pressure ≥ 30 mmHg difference between fistula tract area and non-fistula tract area as alternative cut-off, 21 (53%) patients were identified. In 6 patients 3D-HRAM was repeated after surgery: a local pressure drop was detected in one patient after fistulotomy with increased complaints of faecal incontinence. Profound local anal pressure drops are found

  17. Process development for high-resolution 3D-printing of bioresorbable vascular stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Henry Oliver T.; Farsheed, Adam C.; van Lith, Robert; Baker, Evan; Ameer, Guillermo; Sun, Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The recent development of "continuous projection microstereolithography" also known as CLIP technology has successfully alleviated the main obstacles surrounding 3D printing technologies: production speed and part quality. Following the same working principle, we further developed the μCLIP process to address the needs for high-resolution 3D printing of biomedical devices with micron-scale precision. Compared to standard stereolithography (SLA) process, μCLIP fabrication can reduce fabrication time from several hours to as little as a few minutes. μCLIP can also produce better surface finish and more uniform mechanical properties than conventional SLA, as each individual "fabrication layer" continuously polymerizes into the subsequent layer. In this study, we report the process development in manufacturing high-resolution bioresorbable stents using our own μCLIP system. The bioresorbable photopolymerizable biomaterial (B-ink) used in this study is methacrylated poly(1, 12 dodecamethylene citrate) (mPDC). Through optimization of our μCLIP process and concentration of B-ink components, we have created a customizable bioresorbable stent with similar mechanical properties exhibited by nitinol stents. Upon optimization, fabricating a 2 cm tall vascular stent that comprises 4000 layers was accomplished in 26.5 minutes.

  18. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxley, Sean; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Domowicz, Miriam; Schwartz, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T 2 * -weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T 2 * and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm 3 and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T 2 * -weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in the water resonance that is not

  19. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxley, Sean, E-mail: sean.foxley@ndcn.ox.ac.uk; Karczmar, Gregory S. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Domowicz, Miriam [Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Schwartz, Nancy [Department of Pediatrics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  20. Feasibility analysis of high resolution tissue image registration using 3-D synthetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachna Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Registration of high-resolution tissue images is a critical step in the 3D analysis of protein expression. Because the distance between images (~4-5μm thickness of a tissue section is nearly the size of the objects of interest (~10-20μm cancer cell nucleus, a given object is often not present in both of two adjacent images. Without consistent correspondence of objects between images, registration becomes a difficult task. This work assesses the feasibility of current registration techniques for such images. Methods: We generated high resolution synthetic 3-D image data sets emulating the constraints in real data. We applied multiple registration methods to the synthetic image data sets and assessed the registration performance of three techniques (i.e., mutual information (MI, kernel density estimate (KDE method [1], and principal component analysis (PCA at various slice thicknesses (with increments of 1μm in order to quantify the limitations of each method. Results: Our analysis shows that PCA, when combined with the KDE method based on nuclei centers, aligns images corresponding to 5μm thick sections with acceptable accuracy. We also note that registration error increases rapidly with increasing distance between images, and that the choice of feature points which are conserved between slices improves performance. Conclusions: We used simulation to help select appropriate features and methods for image registration by estimating best-case-scenario errors for given data constraints in histological images. The results of this study suggest that much of the difficulty of stained tissue registration can be reduced to the problem of accurately identifying feature points, such as the center of nuclei.

  1. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. 3D high-resolution radar imaging of small body interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Paul; Asphaug, Erik

    2017-10-01

    Answering fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of small planetary bodies hinges on our ability to image their interior structure in detail and at high resolution (Asphaug, 2009). We often infer internal structure from surface observations, e.g. that comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is a primordial agglomeration of cometesimals (Massironi et al., 2015). However, the interior structure is not easily accessible without systematic imaging using, e.g., radar transmission and reflection data, as suggested by the CONSERT experiment on Rosetta. Interior imaging depends on observations from multiple viewpoints, as in medical tomography.We discuss radar imaging using methodology adapted from terrestrial exploration seismology (Sava et al., 2015). We primarily focus on full wavefield methods that facilitate high quality imaging of small body interiors characterized by complex structure and large contrasts of physical properties. We consider the case of a monostatic system (co-located transmitters and receivers) operated at two frequency bands, centered around 5 and 15 MHz, from a spacecraft in slow polar orbit around a spinning comet nucleus. Assuming that the spin period is significantly (e.g. 5x) faster than the orbital period, this configuration allows repeated views from multiple directions (Safaeinili et al., 2002)Using realistic numerical experiments, we argue that (1) the comet/asteroid imaging problem is intrinsically 3D and conventional SAR methodology does not satisfy imaging, sampling and resolution requirements; (2) imaging at different frequency bands can provide information about internal surfaces (through migration) and internal volumes (through tomography); (3) interior imaging can be accomplished progressively as data are being acquired through successive orbits around the studied object; (4) imaging resolution can go beyond the apparent radar frequency band by deconvolution of the point-spread-function characterizing the imaging system; and (5

  3. On the feasibility of comprehensive high-resolution 3D remote dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, Titania; Grant, Ryan; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Oldham, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the feasibility of remote high-resolution 3D dosimetry with the PRESAGE®/Optical-CT system. In remote dosimetry, dosimeters are shipped out from a central base institution to a remote institution for irradiation, then shipped back to the base institution for subsequent readout and analysis. Methods: Two nominally identical optical-CT scanners for 3D dosimetry were constructed and placed at the base (Duke University) and remote (Radiological Physics Center) institutions. Two formulations of PRESAGE® (SS1, SS2) radiochromic dosimeters were investigated. Higher sensitivity was expected in SS1, which had higher initiator content (0.25% bromotrichloromethane), while greater temporal stability was expected in SS2. Four unirradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters (two per formulation, cylindrical dimensions 11 cm diameter, 8.5–9.5 cm length) were imaged at the base institution, then shipped to the remote institution for planning and irradiation. Each dosimeter was irradiated with the same simple treatment plan: an isocentric 3-field “cross” arrangement of 4 × 4 cm open 6 MV beams configured as parallel opposed laterals with an anterior beam. This simple plan was amenable to accurate and repeatable setup, as well as accurate dose modeling by a commissioned treatment planning system (Pinnacle). After irradiation and subsequent (within 1 h) optical-CT readout at the remote institution, the dosimeters were shipped back to the base institution for remote dosimetry readout 3 days postirradiation. Measured on-site and remote relative 3D dose distributions were registered to the Pinnacle dose calculation, which served as the reference distribution for 3D gamma calculations with passing criteria of 5%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 3%/2 mm with a 10% dose threshold. Gamma passing rates, dose profiles, and color-maps were all used to assess and compare the performance of both PRESAGE® formulations for remote dosimetry. Results: The best agreements between the

  4. Depth geological model building: application to the 3D high resolution 'ANDRA' seismic block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, J.L.; Yven, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. 3D seismic blocks and logging data, mainly acoustic and density logs, are often used for geological model building in time. The geological model must be then converted from time to depth. Geostatistical approach for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is often used in many geo-modelling projects. From a geostatistical point of view, the time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is a classical estimation problem involving one or more secondary variables. Bayesian approach [1] provides an excellent estimator which is more general than the traditional kriging with external drift(s) and fits very well to the needs for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons. The time-to-depth conversion of the selected seismic horizons is used to compute a time-to-depth conversion model at the time sampling rate (1 ms). The 3D depth conversion model allows the computation of an interval velocity block which is compared with the acoustic impedance block to estimate a density block as QC. Non realistic density values are edited and the interval velocity block as well as the depth conversion model is updated. The proposed procedure has been applied on a 3D data set. The dataset comes from a High Resolution 3D seismic survey recorded in France at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in the vicinity of the Andra Center (National radioactive waste management Agency). The 3D design is a cross spread. The active spread is composed of 12 receiver lines with 120 stations each. The source lines are perpendicular to the receiver lines. The receiver and source line spacings are respectively 80 m and 120 m. The receiver and source point spacings are 20 m. The source is a Vibroseis source generating a signal in the 14 - 140 Hz frequency bandwidth.. The bin size is 10 x 10 m 2 . The nominal fold is 60. A conventional seismic sequence was applied to the data set. It includes amplitude recovery, deconvolution and wave

  5. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal-Gonzalez, J., E-mail: jacobo@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Herraiz, J.L. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Vicente, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Herranz, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Dpto. de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  6. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal-Gonzalez, J.; Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S.; Vicente, E.; Herranz, E.; Desco, M.; Vaquero, J.J.; Udias, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  7. Accelerated high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the brain At 7 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangel, G.

    2015-01-01

    With the announcement of the first series of magnetic resonance (MR) scanners with a field strength of 7 Tesla (T) intended for clinical practice, the development of high-performance sequences for higher field strengths has gained importance. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the brain currently offers the unique ability to spatially resolve the distribution of multiple metabolites simultaneously. Its big diagnostic potential could be applied to many clinical protocols, for example the assessment of tumour treatment or progress of Multiple Sclerosis. Moving to ultra-high fields like 7 T has the main benefits of increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and improved spectral quality, but brings its own challenges due to stronger field inhomogeneities. Necessary for a robust, flexible and useful MRSI sequence in the brain are high resolutions, shortened measurement times, the possibility for 3D-MRSI and the suppression of spectral contamination by trans-cranial lipids. This thesis addresses these limitations and proposes Hadamard spectroscopic imaging (HSI) as solution for multi-slice MRSI, the application of generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) and spiral trajectories for measurement acceleration, non-selective inversion recovery (IR) lipid-suppression as well as combinations of these methods. Further, the optimisation of water suppression for 7 T systems and the acquisition of ultra-high resolution (UHR)-MRSI are discussed. In order to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of these approaches, MRSI measurement results of a glioma patient are presented. The discussion of the obtained results in the context of the state-of-art in 7 T MRSI in the brain, possible future applications as well as potential further improvements of the MRSI sequences conclude this thesis. (author) [de

  8. South Ilan Plain High-Resolution 3-D S-Wave Velocity from Ambient Noise Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Xun Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan is located at a pivotal point where the Ryukyu trench subduction zone, the northern Taiwan crustal stretching zone, and the ongoing arc-continent collision zone converge. In contrast to the North Ilan Plain, the South Ilan Plain exhibits a thin unconsolidated sedimentary layer with depths ranging from 0 - 1 km, high on-land seismicity and significant SE movements relative to Penghu island. We deployed a dense network of 43 short-period vertical component Texan instruments from June to November 2013 in this study, covering most of the South Ilan Plain and its vicinity. We then used the ambient noise tomography method for simultaneous phase and group Rayleigh wave velocity measurements to invert a high-resolution 3-D S-wave for shallow structures (up to a depth of 2.5 km in the South Ilan Plain. We used the fast marching method for ray tracing to deal with ray bending in an inhomogeneous medium. The resulting rays gradually bend toward high velocity zones with increasing number of iterations. The high velocity zone results are modified by more iterations and the resolutions become higher because ray crossings are proportional to ray densities for evenly distributed stations. The final results agreed well with known sedimentary basement thickness patterns. We observed nearly EW trending fast anomalies beneath the mountainous terrain abutting to the South Ilan Plain. The Chingshui location consistently exhibited a low S-wave velocity zone to a depth of 1.5 km.

  9. Computation of a high-resolution MRI 3D stereotaxic atlas of the sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Arsène; Delgadillo, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu

    2017-02-15

    The sheep model was first used in the fields of animal reproduction and veterinary sciences and then was utilized in fundamental and preclinical studies. For more than a decade, magnetic resonance (MR) studies performed on this model have been increasingly reported, especially in the field of neuroscience. To contribute to MR translational neuroscience research, a brain template and an atlas are necessary. We have recently generated the first complete T1-weighted (T1W) and T2W MR population average images (or templates) of in vivo sheep brains. In this study, we 1) defined a 3D stereotaxic coordinate system for previously established in vivo population average templates; 2) used deformation fields obtained during optimized nonlinear registrations to compute nonlinear tissues or prior probability maps (nlTPMs) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) tissues; 3) delineated 25 external and 28 internal sheep brain structures by segmenting both templates and nlTPMs; and 4) annotated and labeled these structures using an existing histological atlas. We built a quality high-resolution 3D atlas of average in vivo sheep brains linked to a reference stereotaxic space. The atlas and nlTPMs, associated with previously computed T1W and T2W in vivo sheep brain templates and nlTPMs, provide a complete set of imaging space that are able to be imported into other imaging software programs and could be used as standardized tools for neuroimaging studies or other neuroscience methods, such as image registration, image segmentation, identification of brain structures, implementation of recording devices, or neuronavigation. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:676-692, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Airborne LIDAR and high resolution satellite data for rapid 3D feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawak, S. D.; Panditrao, S. N.; Luis, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    This work uses the canopy height model (CHM) based workflow for individual tree crown delineation and 3D feature extraction approach (Overwatch Geospatial's proprietary algorithm) for building feature delineation from high-density light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data in an urban environment and evaluates its accuracy by using very high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) (spatial) and 8-band (multispectral) WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery. LiDAR point cloud data over San Francisco, California, USA, recorded in June 2010, was used to detect tree and building features by classifying point elevation values. The workflow employed includes resampling of LiDAR point cloud to generate a raster surface or digital terrain model (DTM), generation of a hill-shade image and an intensity image, extraction of digital surface model, generation of bare earth digital elevation model (DEM) and extraction of tree and building features. First, the optical WV-2 data and the LiDAR intensity image were co-registered using ground control points (GCPs). The WV-2 rational polynomial coefficients model (RPC) was executed in ERDAS Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) using supplementary *.RPB file. In the second stage, ortho-rectification was carried out using ERDAS LPS by incorporating well-distributed GCPs. The root mean square error (RMSE) for the WV-2 was estimated to be 0.25 m by using more than 10 well-distributed GCPs. In the second stage, we generated the bare earth DEM from LiDAR point cloud data. In most of the cases, bare earth DEM does not represent true ground elevation. Hence, the model was edited to get the most accurate DEM/ DTM possible and normalized the LiDAR point cloud data based on DTM in order to reduce the effect of undulating terrain. We normalized the vegetation point cloud values by subtracting the ground points (DEM) from the LiDAR point cloud. A normalized digital surface model (nDSM) or CHM was calculated from the LiDAR data by subtracting the DEM from the DSM

  11. Two millennia of soil dynamics derived from ancient desert terraces using high resolution 3-D data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filin, Sagi; Arav, Reuma; Avni, Yoav

    2017-04-01

    Large areas in the arid southern Levant are dotted with ancient terrace-based agriculture systems which were irrigated by runoff harvesting techniques. They were constructed and maintained between the 3rd - 9th centuries AD and abandoned in the 10th century AD. During their 600 years of cultivation, these terraces documented the gradual aggradation of alluvial soils, erosion processes within the drainage basins, as well as flashflood damage. From their abandonment and onwards, they documented 1000 years and more of land degradation and soil erosion processes. Examination of these installations presents an opportunity to study natural and anthropogenic induced changes over almost two millennia. On a global scale, such an analysis is unique as it is rare to find intact manifestations of anthropogenic influences over such time-scales because of landscape dynamics. It is also rare to find a near millennia documentation of soil erosion processes. We study in this paper the aggradation processes within intact agriculture plots in the region surrounding the world heritage Roman-Byzantine ancient city of Avdat, Negev Highlands. We follow the complete cycle of the historical desert agriculture, from the configuration pre-dating the first anthropogenic intervention, through the centuries of cultivation, and up to the present erosion phase, which spans over more than a millennium. We use high resolution 3-D laser scans to document the erosion and the environmental dynamics during these two millennia. The high-resolution data is then utilized to compute siltation rates as well as erosion rates. The long-term measures of soil erosion and land degradation we present here significantly improve our understanding of the mechanism of long-term environmental change acting in arid environments. For sustainable desert inhabitation, the study offers insights into better planning of modern agriculture in similar zones as well as insights on strategies needed to protect such historical

  12. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E Z; Laufer, J G; Beard, P C; Pedley, R B

    2009-01-01

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  13. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, E Z; Laufer, J G; Beard, P C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Pedley, R B [UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O' Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-21

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  14. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS–SPM instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Fleming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the recently developed SIMS–SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios. In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet.

  15. The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershov, S.V.; Rusanov, A.V. [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)

  16. The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershov, S V; Rusanov, A V [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)

  17. A 3D high-resolution gamma camera for radiopharmaceutical studies with small animals

    CERN Document Server

    Loudos, G K; Giokaris, N D; Styliaris, E; Archimandritis, S C; Varvarigou, A D; Papanicolas, C N; Majewski, S; Weisenberger, D; Pani, R; Scopinaro, F; Uzunoglu, N K; Maintas, D; Stefanis, K

    2003-01-01

    The results of studies conducted with a small field of view tomographic gamma camera based on a Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube are reported. The system has been used for the evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in small animals. Phantom studies have shown a spatial resolution of 2 mm in planar and 2-3 mm in tomographic imaging. Imaging studies in mice have been carried out both in 2D and 3D. Conventional radiopharmaceuticals have been used and the results have been compared with images from a clinically used system.

  18. SAETTA: high resolution 3D mapping of the lightning activity around Corsica Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the French atmospheric observatory CORSiCA (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica), a total lightning activity detection system called SAETTA (Suivi de l'Activité Electrique Tridimensionnelle Totale de l'Atmosphère) has been deployed in Corsica Island in order to strengthen the potential of observation of convective events causing heavy rainfall and flash floods in the West Mediterranean basin. SAETTA is a network of 12 LMA stations (Lightning Mapping Array) developed by New Mexico Tech (USA). The instrument allows observing lightning flashes in 3D and real time, at high temporal (80 µs) and spatial resolutions. It detects the radiations emitted by cloud discharges in the 60-66 MHz band, in a radius of about 350 km from the centre of the network, in passive mode and standalone (solar panel and batteries). Initially deployed in May 2014, SAETTA operated from July 13 to October 20 in 2014 and from April 19 to December 1st in 2015. It is now in permanent operation since 16 April 2016. Many high quality observations have been performed so far that provide an accurate location in space and time of the convective events. They also bring interesting dynamical and microphysical features of those events. For example the intensity of the convective surges, the transport of charged ice particles in the stratiform area of the thunderclouds can be deduced from SAETTA observations. Specific events have also been detected as well: bolts-from-the-blue, inter cloud discharges, high level discharges in convective but also in stratiform areas, inverted dipoles. The specific lightning patterns of 2015 illustrate the complex influence of the relief, probably via slope and valley winds over Corsica and via induced lee-side convergences over the sea. SAETTA is expected to operate for at least a decade over Corsica so it will participate to the calibration/validation of upcoming lightning detectors from space such as MTG-LI. It will also be a key instrument during the field

  19. Zooming in: high resolution 3D reconstruction of differently stained histological whole slide images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Johannes; Berger, Judith; Müller, Benedikt; Breuhahn, Kai; Grabe, Niels; Heldmann, Stefan; Homeyer, André; Lahrmann, Bernd; Laue, Hendrik; Olesch, Janine; Schwier, Michael; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Warth, Arne

    2014-03-01

    Much insight into metabolic interactions, tissue growth, and tissue organization can be gained by analyzing differently stained histological serial sections. One opportunity unavailable to classic histology is three-dimensional (3D) examination and computer aided analysis of tissue samples. In this case, registration is needed to reestablish spatial correspondence between adjacent slides that is lost during the sectioning process. Furthermore, the sectioning introduces various distortions like cuts, folding, tearing, and local deformations to the tissue, which need to be corrected in order to exploit the additional information arising from the analysis of neighboring slide images. In this paper we present a novel image registration based method for reconstructing a 3D tissue block implementing a zooming strategy around a user-defined point of interest. We efficiently align consecutive slides at increasingly fine resolution up to cell level. We use a two-step approach, where after a macroscopic, coarse alignment of the slides as preprocessing, a nonlinear, elastic registration is performed to correct local, non-uniform deformations. Being driven by the optimization of the normalized gradient field (NGF) distance measure, our method is suitable for differently stained and thus multi-modal slides. We applied our method to ultra thin serial sections (2 μm) of a human lung tumor. In total 170 slides, stained alternately with four different stains, have been registered. Thorough visual inspection of virtual cuts through the reconstructed block perpendicular to the cutting plane shows accurate alignment of vessels and other tissue structures. This observation is confirmed by a quantitative analysis. Using nonlinear image registration, our method is able to correct locally varying deformations in tissue structures and exceeds the limitations of globally linear transformations.

  20. A low-cost microwell device for high-resolution imaging of neurite outgrowth in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Mlodzianoski, Michael J.; Cheun Lee, Aih; Huang, Fang; Suter, Daniel M.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Current neuronal cell culture is mostly performed on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which lack many of the important features of the native environment of neurons, including topographical cues, deformable extracellular matrix, and spatial isotropy or anisotropy in three dimensions. Although three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a more physiologically relevant environment than 2D systems, their popularity is greatly hampered by the lack of easy-to-make-and-use devices. We aim to develop a widely applicable 3D culture procedure to facilitate the transition of neuronal cultures from 2D to 3D. Approach. We made a simple microwell device for 3D neuronal cell culture that is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and fully compatible with commonly used imaging techniques, including super-resolution microscopy. Main results. We developed a novel gel mixture to support 3D neurite regeneration of Aplysia bag cell neurons, a system that has been extensively used for quantitative analysis of growth cone dynamics in 2D. We found that the morphology and growth pattern of bag cell growth cones in 3D culture closely resemble the ones of growth cones observed in vivo. We demonstrated the capability of our device for high-resolution imaging of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins as well as organelles. Significance. Neuronal cell culture has been a valuable tool for neuroscientists to study the behavior of neurons in a controlled environment. Compared to 2D, neurons cultured in 3D retain the majority of their native characteristics, while offering higher accessibility, control, and repeatability. We expect that our microwell device will facilitate a wider adoption of 3D neuronal cultures to study the mechanisms of neurite regeneration.

  1. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Representation in Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Maeva, E. Y.; Severin, F. M.

    Biometrics is an important field which studies different possible ways of personal identification. Among a number of existing biometric techniques fingerprint recognition stands alone - because very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are an important evidence that can be collected at a crime scene. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. Ultrasonic method of fingerprint imaging was originally introduced over a decade as the mapping of the reflection coefficient at the interface between the finger and a covering plate and has shown very good reliability and free from imperfections of previous two methods. This work introduces a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging, focusing on the imaging of the internal structures of fingerprints (including sweat pores) with raw acoustic resolution of about 500 dpi (0.05 mm) using a scanning acoustic microscope to obtain images and acoustic data in the form of 3D data array. C-scans from different depths inside the fingerprint area of fingers of several volunteers were obtained and showed good contrast of ridges-and-valleys patterns and practically exact correspondence to the standard ink-and-paper prints of the same areas. Important feature reveled on the acoustic images was the clear appearance of the sweat pores, which could provide additional means of identification.

  2. Evaluation of prospective motion correction of high-resolution 3D-T2-FLAIR acquisitions in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Sjoerd B; Micallef, Caroline; Barkhof, Frederik; Hill, Andrea; Winston, Gavin P; Ourselin, Sebastien; Duncan, John S

    2018-03-02

    T2-FLAIR is the single most sensitive MRI contrast to detect lesions underlying focal epilepsies but 3D sequences used to obtain isotropic high-resolution images are susceptible to motion artefacts. Prospective motion correction (PMC) - demonstrated to improve 3D-T1 image quality in a pediatric population - was applied to high-resolution 3D-T2-FLAIR scans in adult epilepsy patients to evaluate its clinical benefit. Coronal 3D-T2-FLAIR scans were acquired with a 1mm isotropic resolution on a 3T MRI scanner. Two expert neuroradiologists reviewed 40 scans without PMC and 40 with navigator-based PMC. Visual assessment addressed six criteria of image quality (resolution, SNR, WM-GM contrast, intensity homogeneity, lesion conspicuity, diagnostic confidence) on a seven-point Likert scale (from non-diagnostic to outstanding). SNR was also objectively quantified within the white matter. PMC scans had near-identical scores on the criteria of image quality to non-PMC scans, with the notable exception that intensity homogeneity was generally worse. Using PMC, the percentage of scans with bad image quality was substantially lower than without PMC (3.25% vs. 12.5%) on the other five criteria. Quantitative SNR estimates revealed that PMC and non-PMC had no significant difference in SNR (P=0.07). Application of prospective motion correction to 3D-T2-FLAIR sequences decreased the percentage of low-quality scans, reducing the number of scans that need to be repeated to obtain clinically useful data. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. High Resolution 3D Earth Observation Data Analysis for Safeguards Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, P.; Eineder, M.; Rossi, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the investigations performed in the last three years at DLR and highlights the application of SAR and optical data for 3D analysis in the context of Safeguards. The Research Center Juelich and the adjacent open cut mines were used as main test site, and a comprehensive stack of ascending and descending TerraSAR data was acquired over two years. TerraSAR data acquisition was performed, and various ways to visualize stacks of radar images were evaluated. Building height estimation was performed using a combination of ascending-descending radar images, as well as height-form-shadow, height-from-layover. A tutorial on building signatures from SAR images highlighted the sensor specific imaging characteristics. These topics were particularly relevant in safeguards activity with a ''small-budget'' as only a single image - or a couple - were employed. Interferometric coherence map interpretation allows the detection of used dirt roads. Digital surface models (DSM) were generated from TanDEM-X interferometric data and from optical VHR data. Sub-meterWorldview-2 and GeoEye-1 data was processed into highly detailed DSM with a grid spacing of 1 m, showing building structures. 3D change and volume detection was performed with both optical and radar DSMs. The TanDEM-X DSMs proved useful for volume change detection and computation in mining areas, and down to building level with optical data. Virtual fly-through were found to be a good tool to provide an intuitive understanding of site structure and might be useful for inspector briefing. Tools for most of the above mentioned tasks have been developed for the ENVI environment and can be used by IAEA internally. (author)

  4. On the limitations and optimisation of high-resolution 3D medical X-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuang; Brahme, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Based on a quantitative analysis of both attenuation and refractive properties of X-ray propagation in human body tissues and the introduction of a mathematical model for image quality analysis, some limitations and optimisation of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) medical X-ray imaging techniques are studied. A comparison is made of conventional attenuation-based X-ray imaging methods with the phase-contrast X-ray imaging modalities that have been developed recently. The results indicate that it is theoretically possible through optimal design of the X-ray imaging system to achieve high spatial resolution (<100 μm) in 3D medical X-ray imaging of the human body at a clinically acceptable dose level (<10 mGy) by introducing a phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique.

  5. Novel short-pulse laser diode source for high-resolution 3D flash lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Celine; Laugustin, Arnaud; Kohl, Andreas; Rabot, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Imaging based on laser illumination is present in various fields of applications such as medicine, security, defense, civil engineering and in the automotive sector. In this last domain, research and development to bring autonomous vehicles on the roads has been intensified the recent years. Among the various technologies currently studied, automotive lidars are a fast-growing one due to their accuracy to detect a wide range of objects at distances up to a few hundreds of meters in various weather conditions. First commercialized devices for ADAS were laser scanners. Since then, new architectures have recently appeared such as solid-state lidar and flash lidar that offer a higher compactness, robustness and a cost reduction. Flash lidars are based on time-of-flight measurements, with the particularity that they do not require beam scanners because only one short laser pulse with a large divergence is used to enlighten the whole scene. Depth of encountered objects can then be recovered from measurement of echoed light at once, hence enabling real-time 3D mapping of the environment. This paper will bring into the picture a cutting edge laser diode source that can deliver millijoule pulses as short as 12 ns, which makes them highly suitable for integration in flash lidars. They provide a 100-kW peak power highly divergent beam in a footprint of 4x5 cm2 (including both the laser diode and driver) and with a 30-% electrical-to-optical efficiency, making them suitable for integration in environments in which compactness and power consumption are a priority. Their emission in the range of 800-1000 nm is considered to be eye safe when taking into account the high divergence of the output beam. An overview of architecture of these state-of-the-art pulsed laser diode sources will be given together with some solutions for their integration in 3D mapping systems. Future work leads will be discussed for miniaturization of the laser diode and drastic cost reduction.

  6. Single-view volumetric PIV via high-resolution scanning, isotropic voxel restructuring and 3D least-squares matching (3D-LSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brücker, C; Hess, D; Kitzhofer, J

    2013-01-01

    Scanning PIV as introduced by Brücker (1995 Exp. Fluids 19 255–63, 1996a Appl. Sci. Res. 56 157–79) has been successfully applied in the last 20 years to different flow problems where the frame rate was sufficient to ensure a ‘frozen’ field condition. The limited number of parallel planes however leads typically to an under-sampling in the scan direction in depth; therefore, the spatial resolution in depth is typically considerably lower than the spatial resolution in the plane of the laser sheet (depth resolution = scan shift Δz ≫ pixel unit in object space). In addition, a partial volume averaging effect due to the thickness of the light sheet must be taken into account. Herein, the method is further developed using a high-resolution scanning in combination with a Gaussian regression technique to achieve an isotropic representation of the tracer particles in a voxel-based volume reconstruction with cuboidal voxels. This eliminates the partial volume averaging effect due to light sheet thickness and leads to comparable spatial resolution of the particle field reconstructions in x-, y- and z-axes. In addition, advantage of voxel-based processing with estimations of translation, rotation and shear/strain is taken by using a 3D least-squares matching method, well suited for reconstruction of grey-level pattern fields. The method is discussed in this paper and used to investigate the ring vortex instability at Re = 2500 within a measurement volume of roughly 75 × 75 × 50 mm 3 with a spatial resolution of 100 µm/voxel (750 × 750 × 500 voxel elements). The volume has been scanned with a number of 100 light sheets and scan rates of 10 kHz. The results show the growth of the Tsai–Widnall azimuthal instabilities accompanied with a precession of the axis of the vortex ring. Prior to breakdown, secondary instabilities evolve along the core with streamwise oriented striations. The front stagnation point's streamwise distance to the core starts to decrease

  7. High-Resolution Visual 3D Recontructions for Rapid Archaeological Characterization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The final output will be geotiffs and a custom 3D texture model format that allows for dynamic level-of-detail rendering. The work discussed in the proposal will...

  8. Robust automatic high resolution segmentation of SOFC anode porosity in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2008-01-01

    Routine use of 3D characterization of SOFCs by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning is generally restricted by the time consuming task of manually delineating structures within each image slice. We apply advanced image analysis algorithms to automatically segment the porosity phase of an SOFC...... anode in 3D. The technique is based on numerical approximations to partial differential equations to evolve a 3D surface to the desired phase boundary. Vector fields derived from the experimentally acquired data are used as the driving force. The automatic segmentation compared to manual delineation...... reveals and good correspondence and the two approaches are quantitatively compared. It is concluded that the. automatic approach is more robust, more reproduceable and orders of magnitude quicker than manual segmentation of SOFC anode porosity for subsequent quantitative 3D analysis. Lastly...

  9. High-resolution direct 3D printed PLGA scaffolds: print and shrink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional printing (3DP) produces the final part composed of the powder and binder used in fabrication. An advantage of direct 3DP is control over both the microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. Prints which use porogen incorporated in the powder result in high pore interconnectivity, uniform porosity, and defined pore size after leaching. The main limitations of direct 3DP for synthetic polymers are the use of organic solvents which can dissolve polymers used in most printheads and limited resolution due to unavoidable spreading of the binder droplet after contact with the powder. This study describes a materials processing strategy to eliminate the use of organic solvent during the printing process and to improve 3DP resolution by shrinking with a non-solvent plasticizer. Briefly, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) powder was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation to form polymer microparticles. The printing powder was composed of polymer microparticles dry mixed with sucrose particles. After printing with a water-based liquid binder, the polymer microparticles were fused together to form a network by solvent vapor in an enclosed vessel. The sucrose is removed by leaching and the resulting scaffold is placed in a solution of methanol. The methanol acts as a non-solvent plasticizer and allows for polymer chain rearrangement and efficient packing of polymer chains. The resulting volumetric shrinkage is ∼80% at 90% methanol. A complex shape (honey-comb) was designed, printed, and shrunken to demonstrate isotropic shrinking with the ability to reach a final resolution of ∼400 μm. The effect of type of alcohol (i.e. methanol or ethanol), concentration of alcohol, and temperature on volumetric shrinking was studied. This study presents a novel materials processing strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct 3DP to produce high resolution PLGA scaffolds. (paper)

  10. High-resolution direct 3D printed PLGA scaffolds: print and shrink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2014-12-17

    Direct three-dimensional printing (3DP) produces the final part composed of the powder and binder used in fabrication. An advantage of direct 3DP is control over both the microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. Prints which use porogen incorporated in the powder result in high pore interconnectivity, uniform porosity, and defined pore size after leaching. The main limitations of direct 3DP for synthetic polymers are the use of organic solvents which can dissolve polymers used in most printheads and limited resolution due to unavoidable spreading of the binder droplet after contact with the powder. This study describes a materials processing strategy to eliminate the use of organic solvent during the printing process and to improve 3DP resolution by shrinking with a non-solvent plasticizer. Briefly, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) powder was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation to form polymer microparticles. The printing powder was composed of polymer microparticles dry mixed with sucrose particles. After printing with a water-based liquid binder, the polymer microparticles were fused together to form a network by solvent vapor in an enclosed vessel. The sucrose is removed by leaching and the resulting scaffold is placed in a solution of methanol. The methanol acts as a non-solvent plasticizer and allows for polymer chain rearrangement and efficient packing of polymer chains. The resulting volumetric shrinkage is ∼80% at 90% methanol. A complex shape (honey-comb) was designed, printed, and shrunken to demonstrate isotropic shrinking with the ability to reach a final resolution of ∼400 μm. The effect of type of alcohol (i.e. methanol or ethanol), concentration of alcohol, and temperature on volumetric shrinking was studied. This study presents a novel materials processing strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct 3DP to produce high resolution PLGA scaffolds.

  11. Reconstruction of high resolution MLC leaf positions using a low resolution detector for accurate 3D dose reconstruction in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R; Godart, J; Wauben, D J L; Langendijk, J A; Van't Veld, A A; Korevaar, E W

    2016-01-01

    In pre-treatment dose verification, low resolution detector systems are unable to identify shifts of individual leafs of high resolution multi leaf collimator (MLC) systems from detected changes in the dose deposition. The goal of this study was to introduce an alternative approach (the shutter

  12. 3D high resolution tracking of ice flow using mutli-temporal stereo satellite imagery, Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, S.; Lin, J.; Ayoub, F.; Herman, F.; Avouac, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present the latest capabilities added to the Co-Registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) software, which aim at analyzing time-series of stereoscopic imagery to document 3D variations of the ground surface. We review the processing chain and present the new and improved modules for satellite pushbroom imagery, in particular the N-image bundle block adjustment to jointly optimize the viewing geometry of multiple acquisitions, the improved multi-scale image matching based on Semi-Global Matching (SGM) to extract high resolution topography, and the triangulation of multi-temporal disparity maps to derive 3D ground motion. In particular, processes are optimized to run on a cluster computing environment. This new suite of algorithms is applied to the study of Worldview stereo imagery above the Franz Josef, Fox, and Tasman Glaciers, New Zealand, acquired on 01/30/2013, 02/09/2013, and 02/28/2013. We derive high resolution (1m post-spacing) maps of ice flow in three dimensions, where ice velocities of up to 4 m/day are recorded. Images were collected in early summer during a dry and sunny period, which followed two weeks of unsettled weather with several heavy rainfall events across the Southern Alps. The 3D tracking of ice flow highlights the surface response of the glaciers to changes in effective pressure at the ice-bedrock interface due to heavy rainfall, at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  13. High-resolution digital 3D models of Algar do Penico Chamber: limitations, challenges, and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Silvestre M.Sc.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of karst and its geomorphological structures is important for understanding the relationships between hydrology and climate over geological time. In that context, we conducted a terrestrial laser-scan survey to map geomorphological structures in the karst cave of Algar do Penico in southern Portugal. The point cloud data set obtained was used to generate 3D meshes with different levels of detail, allowing the limitations of mapping capabilities to be explored. In addition to cave mapping, the study focuses on 3D-mesh analysis, including the development of two algorithms for determination of stalactite extremities and contour lines, and on the interactive visualization of 3D meshes on the Web. Data processing and analysis were performed using freely available open-source software. For interactive visualization, we adopted a framework based on Web standards X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM. This solution gives both the general public and researchers access to 3D models and to additional data produced from map tools analyses through a web browser, without the need for plug-ins.

  14. High-resolution 3D-GRE imaging of the abdomen using controlled aliasing acceleration technique - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Busireddy, Kiran K.R.; Liu, Baodong; Burke, Lauren M.; Altun, Ersan; Semelka, Richard C.; Dale, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of high-resolution 3D-gradient-recalled echo (GRE) fat-suppressed T1-weighted images using controlled aliasing acceleration technique (CAIPIRINHA-VIBE), and compare image quality and lesion detection to standard-resolution 3D-GRE images using conventional acceleration technique (GRAPPA-VIBE). Eighty-four patients (41 males, 43 females; age range: 14-90 years, 58.8 ± 15.6 years) underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 0.76 ± 0.04 mm] and GRAPPA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 1.17 ± 0.14 mm]. Two readers independently reviewed image quality, presence of artefacts, lesion conspicuity, and lesion detection. Kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for image qualitative pairwise comparisons. Logistic regression with post-hoc testing was used to evaluate statistical significance of lesions evaluation. Interobserver agreement ranged between 0.45-0.93. Pre-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and lesion conspicuity with decreased residual aliasing, but more noise enhancement and inferior image quality. Post-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and higher lesion conspicuity, with less respiratory motion and residual aliasing artefacts. Inferior fat-suppression was noticeable on CAIPIRINHA-VIBE sequences (p < 0.001). High in-plane resolution abdominal 3D-GRE fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging using controlled-aliasing acceleration technique is feasible and yields sharper images compared to standard-resolution images using standard acceleration, with higher post-contrast image quality and trend for improved hepatic lesions detection. (orig.)

  15. High-resolution 3D-GRE imaging of the abdomen using controlled aliasing acceleration technique - a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Busireddy, Kiran K.R.; Liu, Baodong; Burke, Lauren M.; Altun, Ersan; Semelka, Richard C. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Dale, Brian M. [Siemens Medical Solutions, MR Research and Development, Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To assess the feasibility of high-resolution 3D-gradient-recalled echo (GRE) fat-suppressed T1-weighted images using controlled aliasing acceleration technique (CAIPIRINHA-VIBE), and compare image quality and lesion detection to standard-resolution 3D-GRE images using conventional acceleration technique (GRAPPA-VIBE). Eighty-four patients (41 males, 43 females; age range: 14-90 years, 58.8 ± 15.6 years) underwent abdominal MRI at 1.5 T with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 0.76 ± 0.04 mm] and GRAPPA-VIBE [spatial resolution, 1.17 ± 0.14 mm]. Two readers independently reviewed image quality, presence of artefacts, lesion conspicuity, and lesion detection. Kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for image qualitative pairwise comparisons. Logistic regression with post-hoc testing was used to evaluate statistical significance of lesions evaluation. Interobserver agreement ranged between 0.45-0.93. Pre-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and lesion conspicuity with decreased residual aliasing, but more noise enhancement and inferior image quality. Post-contrast CAIPIRINHA-VIBE showed significantly (p < 0.001) sharper images and higher lesion conspicuity, with less respiratory motion and residual aliasing artefacts. Inferior fat-suppression was noticeable on CAIPIRINHA-VIBE sequences (p < 0.001). High in-plane resolution abdominal 3D-GRE fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging using controlled-aliasing acceleration technique is feasible and yields sharper images compared to standard-resolution images using standard acceleration, with higher post-contrast image quality and trend for improved hepatic lesions detection. (orig.)

  16. Intraoperative neuronavigation integrated high resolution 3D ultrasound for brainshift and tumor resection control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The link between the neurosurgeon’s knowledge and the scientific improvements made a dramatic change in the field expressed both in impressive drop in the mortality and morbidity rates that were operated in the beginning of the XXth century and in operating with high rates of success cases that were considered inoperable in the past. Neuronavigation systems have been used for many years on surgical orientation purposes especially for small, deep seated lesions where the use of neuronavigation is correlated with smaller corticotomies and with the extended use of transulcal approaches. The major problem of neuronavigation, the brainshift once the dura is opened can be solved either by integrated ultrasound or intraoperative MRI which is out of reach for many neurosurgical departments. METHOD: The procedure of neuronavigation and ultrasonic localization of the tumor is described starting with positioning the patient in the visual field of the neuronavigation integrated 3D ultrasonography system to the control of tumor resection by repeating the ultrasonographic scan in the end of the procedure. DISCUSSION: As demonstrated by many clinical trials on gliomas, the more tumor removed, the better long term control of tumor regrowth and the longer survival with a good quality of life. Of course, no matter how aggressive the surgery, no new deficits are acceptable in the modern era neurosurgery. There are many adjuvant methods for the neurosurgeon to achieve this maximal and safe tumor removal, including the 3T MRI combined with tractography and functional MRI, the intraoperative neuronavigation and neurophysiologic monitoring in both anesthetized and awake patients. The ultrasonography integrated in neuronavigaton comes as a welcomed addition to this adjuvants to help the surgeon achieve the set purpose. CONCLUSION: With the use of this real time imaging device, the common problem of brainshift encountered with the neuronavigation systems

  17. High-Resolution Multibeam Sonar Survey and Interactive 3-D Exploration of the D-Day Wrecks off Normandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L. A.; Calder, B.; Schmidt, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, archaeological investigations use sidescan sonar and marine magnetometers as initial search tools. Targets are then examined through direct observation by divers, video, or photographs. Magnetometers can demonstrate the presence, absence, and relative susceptibility of ferrous objects but provide little indication of the nature of the target. Sidescan sonar can present a clear image of the overall nature of a target and its surrounding environment, but the sidescan image is often distorted and contains little information about the true 3-D shape of the object. Optical techniques allow precise identification of objects but suffer from very limited range, even in the best of situations. Modern high-resolution multibeam sonar offers an opportunity to cover a relatively large area from a safe distance above the target, while resolving the true three-dimensional (3-D) shape of the object with centimeter-level resolution. The combination of 3-D mapping and interactive 3-D visualization techniques provides a powerful new means to explore underwater artifacts. A clear demonstration of the applicability of high-resolution multibeam sonar to wreck and artifact investigations occurred when the Naval Historical Center (NHC), the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (CCOM) at the University of New Hampshire, and Reson Inc., collaborated to explore the state of preservation and impact on the surrounding environment of a series of wrecks located off the coast of Normandy, France, adjacent to the American landing sectors The survey augmented previously collected magnetometer and high-resolution sidescan sonar data using a Reson 8125 high-resolution focused multibeam sonar with 240, 0.5° (at nadir) beams distributed over a 120° swath. The team investigated 21 areas in water depths ranging from about three -to 30 meters (m); some areas contained individual targets such as landing craft, barges, a destroyer, troop carrier, etc., while others contained multiple smaller

  18. High-Resolution Urban Greenery Mapping for Micro-Climate Modelling Based on 3d City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofierka, J.; Gallay, M.; Kaňuk, J.; Šupinský, J.; Šašak, J.

    2017-10-01

    Urban greenery has various positive micro-climate effects including mitigation of heat islands. The primary root of heat islands in cities is in absorption of solar radiation by the mass of building structures, roads and other solid materials. The absorbed heat is subsequently re-radiated into the surroundings and increases ambient temperatures. The vegetation can stop and absorb most of incoming solar radiation mostly via the photosynthesis and evapotranspiration process. However, vegetation in mild climate of Europe manifests considerable annual seasonality which can also contribute to the seasonal change in the cooling effect of the vegetation on the urban climate. Modern methods of high-resolution mapping and new generations of sensors have brought opportunity to record the dynamics of urban greenery in a high resolution in spatial, spectral, and temporal domains. In this paper, we use the case study of the city of Košice in Eastern Slovakia to demonstrate the methodology of 3D mapping and modelling the urban greenery during one vegetation season in 2016. The purpose of this monitoring is to capture 3D effects of urban greenery on spatial distribution of solar radiation in urban environment. Terrestrial laser scanning was conducted on four selected sites within Košice in ultra-high spatial resolution. The entire study area, which included these four smaller sites, comprised 4 km2 of the central part of the city was flown within a single airborne lidar and photogrammetric mission to capture the upper parts of buildings and vegetation. The acquired airborne data were used to generate a 3D city model and the time series of terrestrial lidar data were integrated with the 3D city model. The results show that the terrestrial and airborne laser scanning techniques can be effectively used to monitor seasonal changes in foliage of trees in order to assess the transmissivity of the canopy for microclimate modelling.

  19. High resolution 3-D shear wave velocity structure in South China from surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, S.; Guo, Z.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Using continuous data from a total of 638 seismic stations, including 484 from CEArray between 2008 and 2013 and 154 from SINOPROBE between 2014 and 2015, we perform both ambient noise and earthquake Rayleigh wave tomography across South China. Combining Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 6and 40s periods from ambient noise tomography and Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 20and 140s from teleseismic two-plane-wave tomography, we obtain phase velocity maps between 6 and140 s periods. We then invert Rayleigh wave phase velocity to construct a 3-D shear wave velocity structure of South China by Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Similar to other inversion results, our results correspond topography well. Moreover, our results also reveal that velocity structure of the eastern South China in mantle depth is similar to eastern North China, the core of the western South China, Sichuan Block (SB),still exists thick lithosphere. However, owing to much more data employed and some data quality control techniques in this research, our results reveal more detailed structures. Along Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt (QDOB), North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) and the Sichuan-Yunnan Rhombic Block (SYRB), there are obvious high speed anomalies in depths of 10-20 km, which possibly imply ancient intrusions. Moreover, it seems that Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (TLFZ) has already cut through QDOB, forming a deep fracture cutting through the crust of the whole China continent. Although SB still exists thick lithosphere, there are indications for thermal erosion. At the same time, the lithosphere of the central SYRB seems to be experiencing delamination process, obviously forming a barrier to prevent the hot Tibetan Plateau (TP) mantle material from flowing further southeast. Upwelling hot mantle material possibly triggered by this delamination process might be the cause of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province. There exists an intercontinental low velocity layer in the crust of the TP

  20. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle. The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by internal dynamics, to be followed in

  1. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle.

    The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by

  2. High-resolution 3D imaging of polymerized photonic crystals by lab-based x-ray nanotomography with 50-nm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Leilei; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Gelb, Jeff; Stevenson, Darren M.; Braun, Paul A.

    2010-09-01

    High resolution x-ray computed tomography is a powerful non-destructive 3-D imaging method. It can offer superior resolution on objects that are opaque or low contrast for optical microscopy. Synchrotron based x-ray computed tomography systems have been available for scientific research, but remain difficult to access for broader users. This work introduces a lab-based high-resolution x-ray nanotomography system with 50nm resolution in absorption and Zernike phase contrast modes. Using this system, we have demonstrated high quality 3-D images of polymerized photonic crystals which have been analyzed for band gap structures. The isotropic volumetric data shows excellent consistency with other characterization results.

  3. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  4. High-resolution acoustic imaging at low frequencies using 3D-printed metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Laureti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic metamaterial has been constructed using 3D printing. It contained an array of air-filled channels, whose size and shape could be varied within the design and manufacture process. In this paper we analyze both numerically and experimentally the properties of this polymer metamaterial structure, and demonstrate its use for the imaging of a sample with sub-wavelength dimensions in the audible frequency range.

  5. High-contrast differentiation resolution 3D imaging of rodent brain by X-ray computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikmund, T.; Novotná, M.; Kavková, M.; Tesařová, M.; Kaucká, M.; Szarowská, B.; Adameyko, I.; Hrubá, E.; Buchtová, M.; Dražanová, E.; Starčuk, Z.; Kaiser, J.

    2018-02-01

    The biomedically focused brain research is largely performed on laboratory mice considering a high homology between the human and mouse genomes. A brain has an intricate and highly complex geometrical structure that is hard to display and analyse using only 2D methods. Applying some fast and efficient methods of brain visualization in 3D will be crucial for the neurobiology in the future. A post-mortem analysis of experimental animals' brains usually involves techniques such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography. These techniques are employed to visualize abnormalities in the brains' morphology or reparation processes. The X-ray computed microtomography (micro CT) plays an important role in the 3D imaging of internal structures of a large variety of soft and hard tissues. This non-destructive technique is applied in biological studies because the lab-based CT devices enable to obtain a several-micrometer resolution. However, this technique is always used along with some visualization methods, which are based on the tissue staining and thus differentiate soft tissues in biological samples. Here, a modified chemical contrasting protocol of tissues for a micro CT usage is introduced as the best tool for ex vivo 3D imaging of a post-mortem mouse brain. This way, the micro CT provides a high spatial resolution of the brain microscopic anatomy together with a high tissue differentiation contrast enabling to identify more anatomical details in the brain. As the micro CT allows a consequent reconstruction of the brain structures into a coherent 3D model, some small morphological changes can be given into context of their mutual spatial relationships.

  6. Evaluation of the 3D high resolution seismic method at the Tournemire site around the IPSN experimental station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Nunez, J.

    2003-01-01

    The IPSN experimental station of Tournemire is localized at a 200 m depth inside an abandoned railway tunnel dug in a Jurassic clayey formation. The a priori knowledge of the existing geologic structures of the clayey formations allows to test the reliability of the 3D high resolution seismic survey technique and its capability to detect these structures and discontinuities. This test study is reported in this technical note. It comprises several steps: a bibliographic synthesis and a state-of-the-art of the 3D seismic survey technique, the construction of a velocity model for the different strata of the site, a simulation of the possible seismic response of these strata with respect to the velocities chosen, the processing of the data and finally their interpretation. (J.S.)

  7. Design, modeling and testing of integrated ring extractor for high resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yiwei; Dong, Jingyan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated ring extractor design in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, which can overcome the standoff height limitation in the EHD printing process, and improve printing capability for 3D structures. Standoff height in the EHD printing will affect printing processes and limit the height of the printed structure when the ground electrode is placed under the substrate. In this work, we designed and integrated a ring electrode with the printing nozzle to achieve a self-working printer head, which can start and maintain the printing process without the involvement of the substrate. We applied a FEA method to model the electric field potential distribution and strength to direct the ring extractor design, which provides a similar printing capability with the system using substrate as the ground electrode. We verified the ring electrode design by experiments, and those results from the experiments demonstrated a good match with results from the FEA simulation. We have characterized the printing processes using the integrated ring extractor, and successfully applied this newly designed ring extractor to print polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D structures. (paper)

  8. Reservoir core porosity in the Resende formation using 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Milena F.S.; Lima, Inaya; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Rocha, Paula Lucia F. da

    2009-01-01

    The storage capacity and production of oil are influenced, among other things, by rocks and fluids characteristics. Porosity is one of the most important characteristics to be analyzed in oil industry, mainly in oil prospection because it represents the direct capacity of storage fluids in the rocks. By definition, porosity is the ratio of pore volume to the total bulk volume of the formation, expressed in percentage, being able to be absolute or effective. The aim of this study was to calculate porosity by 3D High-Resolution X-ray Computed Microtomography using core plugs from Resende Formation which were collected in Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro State. This formation is characterized by sandstones and fine conglomerates with associated fine siliciclastic sediments, and the paleoenviroment is interpreted as a braided fluvial system. For acquisitions data, it was used a 3D high resolution microtomography system which has a microfocus X-ray tube (spot size < 5μm) and a 12-bit cooled X-ray camera (CCD fiber-optically coupled to a scintillator) operated at 100 kV and 100 μA. Twenty-two samples taken at different depths from two boreholes were analyzed. A total of 961 slices were performed with a resolution of 14.9 μm. The results demonstrated that μ-CT is a reliable and effective technique. Through the images and data it was possible to quantify the porosity and to view the size and shape of porous. (author)

  9. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontard, L C; López-Castro, J D; González-Rovira, L; Vázquez-Martínez, J M; Varela-Feria, F M; Marcos, M; Calvino, J J

    2017-06-01

    We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Denoising of high resolution small animal 3D PET data using the non-subsampled Haar wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa Domínguez, Humberto de Jesús; Máynez, Leticia O.; Vergara Villegas, Osslan O.; Mederos, Boris; Mejía, José M.; Cruz Sánchez, Vianey G.

    2015-01-01

    PET allows functional imaging of the living tissue. However, one of the most serious technical problems affecting the reconstructed data is the noise, particularly in images of small animals. In this paper, a method for high-resolution small animal 3D PET data is proposed with the aim to reduce the noise and preserve details. The method is based on the estimation of the non-subsampled Haar wavelet coefficients by using a linear estimator. The procedure is applied to the volumetric images, reconstructed without correction factors (plane reconstruction). Results show that the method preserves the structures and drastically reduces the noise that contaminates the image

  11. Denoising of high resolution small animal 3D PET data using the non-subsampled Haar wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Domínguez, Humberto de Jesús, E-mail: hochoa@uacj.mx [Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y computación, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chih. (Mexico); Máynez, Leticia O. [Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y computación, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chih. (Mexico); Vergara Villegas, Osslan O. [Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chih. (Mexico); Mederos, Boris; Mejía, José M.; Cruz Sánchez, Vianey G. [Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y computación, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-06-01

    PET allows functional imaging of the living tissue. However, one of the most serious technical problems affecting the reconstructed data is the noise, particularly in images of small animals. In this paper, a method for high-resolution small animal 3D PET data is proposed with the aim to reduce the noise and preserve details. The method is based on the estimation of the non-subsampled Haar wavelet coefficients by using a linear estimator. The procedure is applied to the volumetric images, reconstructed without correction factors (plane reconstruction). Results show that the method preserves the structures and drastically reduces the noise that contaminates the image.

  12. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R; Murshudov, Garib N; Short, Judith M; Scheres, Sjors H W; Henderson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  13. High Resolution 3d Imaging during the Construction of National Radioactive Waste Repository from BÁTAAPÁTI, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaich, A.; Deák, F.; Pötsch, M.

    2012-12-01

    investigation of the photorealistic 3D models reproducibility in the both cases JMX and SMX. Regularly geotechnical rock mass classifications (Q, RMR and GSI) were used on the basis of the 3D models without field experience of the given tunnel faces. All documentations were analysed with statistical methods considering the circumstances of scanning and picturing. The orientation of main characteristic discontinuities were defined by each geologist, but also some differences occured. These discrepancies had not occurred in the results of geotechnical evaluation. Due to several cases the information provided by the 3D modelling systems could be very useful in different phases of excavation works. These information were applied in geoscience researches for example in surface roughness determination, fracture system modelling of the host rock and geological or technical objects findings behind the shotcrete layer. Beside the above mentioned advanteges we have to emphasize that JMX and SMX systems provide contact free acqusition and assessment of rock and terrain surfaces by metric high resolution 3D images in very short time period.

  14. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Oldham, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of ∼5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 μm) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the 'gold standard' technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few millimeters of the

  15. High resolution model mesh and 3D printing of the Gaudí’s Porta del Drac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Juan; Garcia-Almirall, Pilar; Marco, Adria

    2017-10-01

    This article intends to explore the limits of scanning with the technology of 3D Laser Scanner and the 3D printing, as an approximation to its application for the survey and the study of singular elements of the architectural heritage. The case study we developed is the Porta del Drac, in the Pavelló Güell, designed by Antoni Gaudí. We divided the process in two parts, one about how to scan and optimize the survey with the Laser Scanner Technology, made with a Faro Forus3D x330 scanner. The second one, about the optimization of the survey as a high-resolution mesh to have a scaled 3D model to be printed in 3D, for the musealization of the Verdaguer House of Literature in Vil.la Joana (Barcelona), a project developed by the Museum of History of Barcelona, in tribute to Jacint Verdaguer. In the first place, we propose a methodology for the survey of this atypical model, which is of special interest for several factors: the geometric complexity in relation to the occlusions, the thickness of the metallic surfaces, the hidden internal structure partially seen from the outside, the produced noise in its interior, and the instrumental errors. These factors make the survey process complex from the data collection, having to perform several scans from different positions to cover the entire sculpture, which has a geometry composed of a variety of folds that cause occlusions. Also, the union of the positions and the average of the surfaces is of great relevance, since the elements of the sculpture are constructed by a metal plate of 2mm, therefore, the error in the union of all these many positions must be smaller than this. Moreover, optimization of the cloud has a great difficulty because of the noise created by the instrumental error as it is a metal sculpture and because of noise point clouds that are generated inside the internal folds of the wings, which are made with a welded wire mesh with little spaces between them. Finally, the added difficulty that there is an

  16. 3D printing for orthopedic applications: from high resolution cone beam CT images to life size physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Amiee; Ray, Lawrence A.; Dangi, Shusil; Ben-Zikri, Yehuda K.; Linte, Cristian A.

    2017-03-01

    With increasing resolution in image acquisition, the project explores capabilities of printing toward faithfully reflecting detail and features depicted in medical images. To improve safety and efficiency of orthopedic surgery and spatial conceptualization in training and education, this project focused on generating virtual models of orthopedic anatomy from clinical quality computed tomography (CT) image datasets and manufacturing life-size physical models of the anatomy using 3D printing tools. Beginning with raw micro CT data, several image segmentation techniques including thresholding, edge recognition, and region-growing algorithms available in packages such as ITK-SNAP, MITK, or Mimics, were utilized to separate bone from surrounding soft tissue. After converting the resulting data to a standard 3D printing format, stereolithography (STL), the STL file was edited using Meshlab, Netfabb, and Meshmixer. The editing process was necessary to ensure a fully connected surface (no loose elements), positive volume with manifold geometry (geometry possible in the 3D physical world), and a single, closed shell. The resulting surface was then imported into a "slicing" software to scale and orient for printing on a Flashforge Creator Pro. In printing, relationships between orientation, print bed volume, model quality, material use and cost, and print time were considered. We generated anatomical models of the hand, elbow, knee, ankle, and foot from both low-dose high-resolution cone-beam CT images acquired using the soon to be released scanner developed by Carestream, as well as scaled models of the skeletal anatomy of the arm and leg, together with life-size models of the hand and foot.

  17. A CZT high efficiency detector with 3D spatial resolution for Laue lens applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, N.; Basili, A.; Caroli, E.

    2010-01-01

    For X- and γ-ray astronomy in the coming decades, both ESA and NASA have indicated in their guidelines the importance of developing innovative instrumentation operating in the hard X- and soft γ-ray range where important scientific issues are still open, exploiting high sensitivity (50–100 times ...

  18. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Short, Judith M.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Henderson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  19. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Short, Judith M.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Henderson, Richard, E-mail: rh15@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

    2013-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  20. 3D High Resolution Mesh Deformation Based on Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Naziha; Elkefi, Akram; Bellil, Wajdi; Amar, Chokri Ben

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the features of a novel technique for large Laplacian boundary deformations using estimated rotations. The proposed method is based on a Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network structure founded on several mother wavelet families (MLWNN). The objective is to align features of mesh and minimize distortion with a fixed feature that minimizes the sum of the distances between all corresponding vertices. New mesh deformation method worked in the domain of Region of Interest (ROI). Our approach computes deformed ROI, updates and optimizes it to align features of mesh based on MLWNN and spherical parameterization configuration. This structure has the advantage of constructing the network by several mother wavelets to solve high dimensions problem using the best wavelet mother that models the signal better. The simulation test achieved the robustness and speed considerations when developing deformation methodologies. The Mean-Square Error and the ratio of deformation are low compared to other works from the state of the art. Our approach minimizes distortions with fixed features to have a well reconstructed object.

  1. High-resolution 3-D S-wave Tomography of upper crust structures in Yilan Plain from Ambient Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Xun; Chen, Po-Fei; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Chen, Li-Wei; Gung, YuanCheng

    2015-04-01

    The Yilan Plain (YP) in NE Taiwan locates on the western YP of the Okinawa Trough and displays high geothermal gradients with abundant hot springs, likely resulting from magmatism associated with the back-arc spreading as attested by the offshore volcanic island (Kueishantao). YP features NS distinctive characteristics that the South YP exhibits thin top sedimentary layer, high on-land seismicity and significant SE movements, relative those of the northern counterpart. A dense network (~2.5 km station interval) of 89 Texan instruments was deployed in Aug. 2014, covering most of the YP and its vicinity. The ray path coverage density of each 0.015 degree cells are greater than 150 km that could provide the robustness assessment of tomographic results. We analyze ambient noise signals to invert a high-resolution 3D S-wave model for shallow velocity structures in and around YP. The aim is to investigate the velocity anomalies corresponding to geothermal resources and the NS geological distinctions aforementioned. We apply the Welch's method to generate empirical Rayleigh wave Green's functions between two stations records of continuous vertical components. The group velocities of thus derived functions are then obtained by the multiple-filter analysis technique measured at the frequency range between 0.25 and 1 Hz. Finally, we implement a wavelet-based multi-scale parameterization technique to construct 3D model of S-wave velocity. Our first month results exhibit low velocity in the plain, corresponding existing sediments, those of whole YP show low velocity offshore YP and those of high-resolution south YP reveal stark velocity contrast across the Sanshin fault. Key words: ambient seismic noises, Welch's method, S-wave, Yilan Plain

  2. A simple and high-resolution stereolithography-based 3D bioprinting system using visible light crosslinkable bioinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zongjie; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Kim, Keekyoung; Abdulla, Raafa; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-01-01

    Bioprinting is a rapidly developing technique for biofabrication. Because of its high resolution and the ability to print living cells, bioprinting has been widely used in artificial tissue and organ generation as well as microscale living cell deposition. In this paper, we present a low-cost stereolithography-based bioprinting system that uses visible light crosslinkable bioinks. This low-cost stereolithography system was built around a commercial projector with a simple water filter to prevent harmful infrared radiation from the projector. The visible light crosslinking was achieved by using a mixture of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with eosin Y based photoinitiator. Three different concentrations of hydrogel mixtures (10% PEG, 5% PEG + 5% GelMA, and 2.5% PEG + 7.5% GelMA, all w/v) were studied with the presented systems. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the developed bioink were measured and discussed in detail. Several cell-free hydrogel patterns were generated to demonstrate the resolution of the solution. Experimental results with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells show that this system can produce a highly vertical 3D structure with 50 μm resolution and 85% cell viability for at least five days. The developed system provides a low-cost visible light stereolithography solution and has the potential to be widely used in tissue engineering and bioengineering for microscale cell patterning. (paper)

  3. A simple and high-resolution stereolithography-based 3D bioprinting system using visible light crosslinkable bioinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Abdulla, Raafa; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Kim, Keekyoung

    2015-12-22

    Bioprinting is a rapidly developing technique for biofabrication. Because of its high resolution and the ability to print living cells, bioprinting has been widely used in artificial tissue and organ generation as well as microscale living cell deposition. In this paper, we present a low-cost stereolithography-based bioprinting system that uses visible light crosslinkable bioinks. This low-cost stereolithography system was built around a commercial projector with a simple water filter to prevent harmful infrared radiation from the projector. The visible light crosslinking was achieved by using a mixture of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with eosin Y based photoinitiator. Three different concentrations of hydrogel mixtures (10% PEG, 5% PEG + 5% GelMA, and 2.5% PEG + 7.5% GelMA, all w/v) were studied with the presented systems. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the developed bioink were measured and discussed in detail. Several cell-free hydrogel patterns were generated to demonstrate the resolution of the solution. Experimental results with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells show that this system can produce a highly vertical 3D structure with 50 μm resolution and 85% cell viability for at least five days. The developed system provides a low-cost visible light stereolithography solution and has the potential to be widely used in tissue engineering and bioengineering for microscale cell patterning.

  4. Low resolution scans can provide a sufficiently accurate, cost- and time-effective alternative to high resolution scans for 3D shape analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marcy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Advances in 3D shape capture technology have made powerful shape analyses, such as geometric morphometrics, more feasible. While the highly accurate micro-computed tomography (µCT scanners have been the “gold standard,” recent improvements in 3D surface scanners may make this technology a faster, portable, and cost-effective alternative. Several studies have already compared the two devices but all use relatively large specimens such as human crania. Here we perform shape analyses on Australia’s smallest rodent to test whether a 3D scanner produces similar results to a µCT scanner. Methods We captured 19 delicate mouse (Pseudomys delicatulus crania with a µCT scanner and a 3D scanner for geometric morphometrics. We ran multiple Procrustes ANOVAs to test how variation due to scan device compared to other sources such as biologically relevant variation and operator error. We quantified operator error as levels of variation and repeatability. Further, we tested if the two devices performed differently at classifying individuals based on sexual dimorphism. Finally, we inspected scatterplots of principal component analysis (PCA scores for non-random patterns. Results In all Procrustes ANOVAs, regardless of factors included, differences between individuals contributed the most to total variation. The PCA plots reflect this in how the individuals are dispersed. Including only the symmetric component of shape increased the biological signal relative to variation due to device and due to error. 3D scans showed a higher level of operator error as evidenced by a greater spread of their replicates on the PCA, a higher level of multivariate variation, and a lower repeatability score. However, the 3D scan and µCT scan datasets performed identically in classifying individuals based on intra-specific patterns of sexual dimorphism. Discussion Compared to µCT scans, we find that even low resolution 3D scans of very small specimens are

  5. Extraction of Features from High-resolution 3D LiDaR Point-cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P.; Kreylos, O.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Cowgill, E. S.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Hering-Bertram, M.; Hagen, H.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne and tripod-based LiDaR scans are capable of producing new insight into geologic features by providing high-quality 3D measurements of the landscape. High-resolution LiDaR is a promising method for studying slip on faults, erosion, and other landscape-altering processes. LiDaR scans can produce up to several billion individual point returns associated with the reflection of a laser from natural and engineered surfaces; these point clouds are typically used to derive a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). Currently, there exist only few methods that can support the analysis of the data at full resolution and in the natural 3D perspective in which it was collected by working directly with the points. We are developing new algorithms for extracting features from LiDaR scans, and present method for determining the local curvature of a LiDaR data set, working directly with the individual point returns of a scan. Computing the curvature enables us to rapidly and automatically identify key features such as ridge-lines, stream beds, and edges of terraces. We fit polynomial surface patches via a moving least squares (MLS) approach to local point neighborhoods, determining curvature values for each point. The size of the local point neighborhood is defined by a user. Since both terrestrial and airborne LiDaR scans suffer from high noise, we apply additional pre- and post-processing smoothing steps to eliminate unwanted features. LiDaR data also captures objects like buildings and trees complicating greatly the task of extracting reliable curvature values. Hence, we use a stochastic approach to determine whether a point can be reliably used to estimate curvature or not. Additionally, we have developed a graph-based approach to establish connectivities among points that correspond to regions of high curvature. The result is an explicit description of ridge-lines, for example. We have applied our method to the raw point cloud data collected as part of the Geo

  6. EUV blank defect and particle inspection with high throughput immersion AFM with 1nm 3D resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, M.H. van; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2016-01-01

    Inspection of EUV mask substrates and blanks is demanding. We envision this is a good target application for massively parallel Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We envision to do a full surface characterization of EUV masks with AFM enabling 1nm true 3D resolution over the entire surface. The limiting

  7. High-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging of paint microstructure by synchrotron-based X-ray laminography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reischig, Peter; Helfen, Lukas; Wallert, Arie; Baumbach, Tilo; Dik, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of the microstructure and micromechanical behaviour of paint is key to a range of problems related to the conservation or technical art history of paintings. Synchrotron-based X-ray laminography is demonstrated in this paper to image the local sub-surface microstructure in paintings in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Based on absorption and phase contrast, the method can provide high-resolution 3D maps of the paint stratigraphy, including the substrate, and visualise small features, such as pigment particles, voids, cracks, wood cells, canvas fibres etc. Reconstructions may be indicative of local density or chemical composition due to increased attenuation of X-rays by elements of higher atomic number. The paint layers and their interfaces can be distinguished via variations in morphology or composition. Results of feasibility tests on a painting mockup (oak panel, chalk ground, vermilion and lead white paint) are shown, where lateral and depth resolution of up to a few micrometres is demonstrated. The method is well adapted to study the temporal evolution of the stratigraphy in test specimens and offers an alternative to destructive sampling of original works of art. (orig.)

  8. Scalable, incremental learning with MapReduce parallelization for cell detection in high-resolution 3D microscopy data

    KAUST Repository

    Sung, Chul; Woo, Jongwook; Goodman, Matthew; Huffman, Todd; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimation of neuronal count and distribution is central to the understanding of the organization and layout of cortical maps in the brain, and changes in the cell population induced by brain disorders. High-throughput 3D microscopy

  9. Characterization of a high resolution and high sensitivity pre-clinical PET scanner with 3D event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Rissi, M; Bolle, E; Dorholt, O; Hines, K E; Rohne, O; Skretting, A; Stapnes, S; Volgyes, D

    2012-01-01

    COMPET is a preclinical PET scanner aiming towards a high sensitivity, a high resolution and MRI compatibility by implementing a novel detector geometry. In this approach, long scintillating LYSO crystals are used to absorb the gamma-rays. To determine the point of interaction (P01) between gamma-ray and crystal, the light exiting the crystals on one of the long sides is collected with wavelength shifters (WLS) perpendicularly arranged to the crystals. This concept has two main advantages: (1) The parallax error is reduced to a minimum and is equal for the whole field of view (FOV). (2) The P01 and its energy deposit is known in all three dimension with a high resolution, allowing for the reconstruction of Compton scattered gamma-rays. Point (1) leads to a uniform point source resolution (PSR) distribution over the whole FOV, and also allows to place the detector close to the object being imaged. Both points (1) and (2) lead to an increased sensitivity and allow for both high resolution and sensitivity at the...

  10. High Resolution 3D Experimental Investigation of Flow Structures and Turbulence Statistics in the Viscous and Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy is implemented to perform 3D velocity measurement in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a square channel over a smooth wall at Reτ=1,400. The measurements are performed at a resolution of ˜1μm over a sample volume of 1.5x2x1.5mm (x^+=50, y^+=60, z^+=50), sufficient for resolving buffer layer structures and for measuring the instantaneous wall shear stress distributions from velocity gradients in the sublayer. The data provides detailed statistics on the spatial distribution of both wall shear stress components along with the characteristic flow structures, including streamwise counter-rotating vortex pairs, multiple streamwise vortices, and rare hairpins. Conditional sampling identifies characteristic length scales of 70 wall units in spanwise and 10 wall units in wall-normal direction. In the region of high stress, the conditionally averaged flow consists of a stagnation-like sweeping motion induced by a counter rotating pair of streamwise vortices. Regions with low stress are associated with ejection motion, also generated by pairs of counter-rotating vortices. Statistics on the local strain and geometric alignment between strain and vorticity shows that the high shear generating vortices are inclined at 45 to streamwise direction, indicating that vortices are being stretched. Results of on-going analysis examines statistics of helicity, strain and impacts of near-wall structures.

  11. High-resolution 3D volumetry versus conventional measuring techniques for the assessment of experimental lymphedema in the mouse hindlimb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Florian S.; Körbel, Christina; Gassert, Laura; Müller, Andreas; Gousopoulos, Epameinondas; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Giovanoli, Pietro; Laschke, Matthias W.; Menger, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment characterized by chronic limb swelling with interstitial inflammation. The rodent hindlimb is a widely used model for the evaluation of novel lymphedema treatments. However, the assessment of limb volume in small animals is challenging. Recently, high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities have been introduced for rodent limb volumetry. In the present study we evaluated the validity of microcomputed tomography (μCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound in comparison to conventional measuring techniques. For this purpose, acute lymphedema was induced in the mouse hindlimb by a modified popliteal lymphadenectomy. The 4-week course of this type of lymphedema was first assessed in 6 animals. In additional 12 animals, limb volumes were analyzed by μCT, 9.4 T MRI and 30 MHz ultrasound as well as by planimetry, circumferential length and paw thickness measurements. Interobserver correlation was high for all modalities, in particular for μCT analysis (r = 0.975, p < 0.001). Importantly, caliper-measured paw thickness correlated well with μCT (r = 0.861), MRI (r = 0.821) and ultrasound (r = 0.800). Because the assessment of paw thickness represents a time- and cost-effective approach, it may be ideally suited for the quantification of rodent hindlimb lymphedema. PMID:27698469

  12. Detection of latent fingerprints using high-resolution 3D confocal microscopy in non-planar acquisition scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    In digitized forensics the support of investigators in any manner is one of the main goals. Using conservative lifting methods, the detection of traces is done manually. For non-destructive contactless methods, the necessity for detecting traces is obvious for further biometric analysis. High resolutional 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) grants the possibility for a detection by segmentation approach with improved detection results. Optimal scan results with CLSM are achieved on surfaces orthogonal to the sensor, which is not always possible due to environmental circumstances or the surface's shape. This introduces additional noise, outliers and a lack of contrast, making a detection of traces even harder. Prior work showed the possibility of determining angle-independent classification models for the detection of latent fingerprints (LFP). Enhancing this approach, we introduce a larger feature space containing a variety of statistical-, roughness-, color-, edge-directivity-, histogram-, Gabor-, gradient- and Tamura features based on raw data and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) using high resolutional data. Our test set consists of eight different surfaces for the detection of LFP in four different acquisition angles with a total of 1920 single scans. For each surface and angles in steps of 10, we capture samples from five donors to introduce variance by a variety of sweat compositions and application influences such as pressure or differences in ridge thickness. By analyzing the present test set with our approach, we intend to determine angle- and substrate-dependent classification models to determine optimal surface specific acquisition setups and also classification models for a general detection purpose for both, angles and substrates. The results on overall models with classification rates up to 75.15% (kappa 0.50) already show a positive tendency regarding the usability of the proposed methods for LFP detection on varying surfaces in non

  13. WE-AB-BRB-00: Session in Memory of Robert J. Shalek: High Resolution Dosimetry from 2D to 3D to Real-Time 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread IMRT treatments at modern radiation therapy clinics, precise dosimetric commissioning of an IMRT system remains a challenge. In the most recent report from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), nearly 20% of institutions failed an end-to-end test with an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom, a test that has rather lenient dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria of 7% and 4 mm. The RPC report provides strong evidence that IMRT implementation is prone to error and that improved quality assurance tools are required. At the heart of radiation therapy dosimetry is the multidimensional dosimeter. However, due to the limited availability of water-equivalent dosimetry materials, research and development in this important field is challenging. In this session, we will review a few dosimeter developments that are either in the laboratory phase or in the pre-commercialization phase. 1) Radiochromic plastic. Novel formulations exhibit light absorbing optical contrast with very little scatter, enabling faster, broad beam optical CT design. 2) Storage phosphor. After irradiation, the dosimetry panels will be read out using a dedicated 2D scanning apparatus in a non-invasive, electro-optic manner and immediately restored for further use. 3) Liquid scintillator. Scintillators convert the energy from x-rays and proton beams into visible light, which can be recorded with a scientific camera (CCD or CMOS) from multiple angles. The 3D shape of the dose distribution can then be reconstructed. 4) Cherenkov emission imaging. Gated intensified imaging allows video-rate passive detection of Cherenkov emission during radiation therapy with the room lights on. Learning Objectives: To understand the physics of a variety of dosimetry techniques based upon optical imaging To investigate the strategies to overcome respective challenges and limitations To explore novel ideas of dosimeter design Supported in part by NIH Grants R01CA148853, R01CA182450, R01CA109558

  14. WE-AB-BRB-00: Session in Memory of Robert J. Shalek: High Resolution Dosimetry from 2D to 3D to Real-Time 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Despite widespread IMRT treatments at modern radiation therapy clinics, precise dosimetric commissioning of an IMRT system remains a challenge. In the most recent report from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), nearly 20% of institutions failed an end-to-end test with an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom, a test that has rather lenient dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria of 7% and 4 mm. The RPC report provides strong evidence that IMRT implementation is prone to error and that improved quality assurance tools are required. At the heart of radiation therapy dosimetry is the multidimensional dosimeter. However, due to the limited availability of water-equivalent dosimetry materials, research and development in this important field is challenging. In this session, we will review a few dosimeter developments that are either in the laboratory phase or in the pre-commercialization phase. 1) Radiochromic plastic. Novel formulations exhibit light absorbing optical contrast with very little scatter, enabling faster, broad beam optical CT design. 2) Storage phosphor. After irradiation, the dosimetry panels will be read out using a dedicated 2D scanning apparatus in a non-invasive, electro-optic manner and immediately restored for further use. 3) Liquid scintillator. Scintillators convert the energy from x-rays and proton beams into visible light, which can be recorded with a scientific camera (CCD or CMOS) from multiple angles. The 3D shape of the dose distribution can then be reconstructed. 4) Cherenkov emission imaging. Gated intensified imaging allows video-rate passive detection of Cherenkov emission during radiation therapy with the room lights on. Learning Objectives: To understand the physics of a variety of dosimetry techniques based upon optical imaging To investigate the strategies to overcome respective challenges and limitations To explore novel ideas of dosimeter design Supported in part by NIH Grants R01CA148853, R01CA182450, R01CA109558

  15. MR imaging of cranial nerve lesions using six different high-resolution T1- and T2(*)-weighted 3D and 2D sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.; Held, P.; Strotzer, M.; Voelk, M.; Nitz, W.R.; Dorenbeck, U.; Feuerbach, S. [Univ. Hospital of Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Stamato, S. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-07-01

    Purpose: To find a suitable high-resolution MR protocol for the visualization of lesions of all 12 cranial nerves. Material and Methods: Thirty-eight pathologically changed cranial nerves (17 patients) were studied with MR imaging at 1.5T using 3D T2*-weighted CISS, T1-weighted 3D MP-RAGE (without and with i.v. contrast medium), T2-weighted 3D TSE, T2-weighted 2D TSE and T1-weighted fat saturation 2D TSE sequences. Visibility of the 38 lesions of the 12 cranial nerves in each sequence was evaluated by consensus of two radiologists using an evaluation scale from 1 (excellently visible) to 4 (not visible). Results: The 3D CISS sequence provided the best resolution of the cranial nerves and their lesions when surrounded by CSF. In nerves which were not surrounded by CSF, the 2D T1-weighted contrast-enhanced fat suppression technique was the best sequence. Conclusions: A combination of 3D CISS, the 2D T1-weighted fat suppressed sequence and a 3D contrast-enhanced MP-RAGE proved to be the most useful sequence to visualize all lesions of the cranial nerves. For the determination of enhancement, an additional 3D MP-RAGE sequence without contrast medium is required. This sequence is also very sensitive for the detection of hemorrhage.

  16. MR imaging of cranial nerve lesions using six different high-resolution T1- and T2(*)-weighted 3D and 2D sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.; Held, P.; Strotzer, M.; Voelk, M.; Nitz, W.R.; Dorenbeck, U.; Feuerbach, S.; Stamato, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To find a suitable high-resolution MR protocol for the visualization of lesions of all 12 cranial nerves. Material and Methods: Thirty-eight pathologically changed cranial nerves (17 patients) were studied with MR imaging at 1.5T using 3D T2*-weighted CISS, T1-weighted 3D MP-RAGE (without and with i.v. contrast medium), T2-weighted 3D TSE, T2-weighted 2D TSE and T1-weighted fat saturation 2D TSE sequences. Visibility of the 38 lesions of the 12 cranial nerves in each sequence was evaluated by consensus of two radiologists using an evaluation scale from 1 (excellently visible) to 4 (not visible). Results: The 3D CISS sequence provided the best resolution of the cranial nerves and their lesions when surrounded by CSF. In nerves which were not surrounded by CSF, the 2D T1-weighted contrast-enhanced fat suppression technique was the best sequence. Conclusions: A combination of 3D CISS, the 2D T1-weighted fat suppressed sequence and a 3D contrast-enhanced MP-RAGE proved to be the most useful sequence to visualize all lesions of the cranial nerves. For the determination of enhancement, an additional 3D MP-RAGE sequence without contrast medium is required. This sequence is also very sensitive for the detection of hemorrhage

  17. An efficient implementation of 3D high-resolution imaging for large-scale seismic data with GPU/CPU heterogeneous parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jincheng; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Liu, Linong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2018-02-01

    De-absorption pre-stack time migration (QPSTM) compensates for the absorption and dispersion of seismic waves by introducing an effective Q parameter, thereby making it an effective tool for 3D, high-resolution imaging of seismic data. Although the optimal aperture obtained via stationary-phase migration reduces the computational cost of 3D QPSTM and yields 3D stationary-phase QPSTM, the associated computational efficiency is still the main problem in the processing of 3D, high-resolution images for real large-scale seismic data. In the current paper, we proposed a division method for large-scale, 3D seismic data to optimize the performance of stationary-phase QPSTM on clusters of graphics processing units (GPU). Then, we designed an imaging point parallel strategy to achieve an optimal parallel computing performance. Afterward, we adopted an asynchronous double buffering scheme for multi-stream to perform the GPU/CPU parallel computing. Moreover, several key optimization strategies of computation and storage based on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) were adopted to accelerate the 3D stationary-phase QPSTM algorithm. Compared with the initial GPU code, the implementation of the key optimization steps, including thread optimization, shared memory optimization, register optimization and special function units (SFU), greatly improved the efficiency. A numerical example employing real large-scale, 3D seismic data showed that our scheme is nearly 80 times faster than the CPU-QPSTM algorithm. Our GPU/CPU heterogeneous parallel computing framework significant reduces the computational cost and facilitates 3D high-resolution imaging for large-scale seismic data.

  18. True 3D kinematic analysis for slope instability assessment in the Siq of Petra (Jordan), from high resolution TLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, Giovanni; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Ruther, Heinz; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Most classifications of mass movements in rock slopes use relatively simple, idealized geometries for the basal sliding surface, like planar sliding, wedge sliding, toppling or columnar failures. For small volumes, the real sliding surface can be often well described by such simple geometries. Extended and complex rock surfaces, however, can exhibit a large number of mass movements, also showing various kind of kinematisms. As a consequence, the real situation in large rock surfaces with a complicate geometry is generally very complex and a site depending analysis, such as fieldwork and compass, cannot be comprehensive of the real situation. Since the outstanding development of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in recent years, rock slopes can now be investigated and mapped through high resolution point clouds, reaching the resolution of few mm's and accuracy less than a cm in most advanced instruments, even from remote surveying. The availability of slope surface digital data can offer a unique chance to determine potential kinematisms in a wide distributed area for all the investigated geomorphological processes. More in detail the proposed method is based on the definition of least squares fitting planes on clusters of points extracted by moving a sampling cube on the point cloud. If the associated standard deviation is below a defined threshold, the cluster is considered valid. By applying geometric criteria it is possible to join all the clusters lying on the same surface; in this way discontinuity planes can be reconstructed, rock mass geometrical properties are calculated and, finally, potential kinematisms established. The Siq of Petra (Jordan), is a 1.2 km naturally formed gorge, with an irregular horizontal shape and a complex vertical slope, that represents the main entrance to Nabatean archaeological site. In the Siq, discontinuities of various type (bedding, joints, faults), mainly related to geomorphological evolution of the slope, lateral stress

  19. Feasibility and evaluation of dual-source transmit 3D imaging of the orbits: Comparison to high-resolution conventional MRI at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Achim, E-mail: achim.seeger@gmx.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Schulze, Maximilian, E-mail: maximilian.schulze@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Schuettauf, Frank, E-mail: fschuettauf@uni-tuebingen.de [University Eye Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Schleichstrasse 12, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Klose, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.klose@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Ernemann, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.ernemann@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Hauser, Till-Karsten, E-mail: till-karsten.hauser@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tübingen 72076 (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Reduced FOV imaging enables a 3D approach for a very fast assessment of the orbits. • Conventional MRI exhibited higher eSNR values and consecutively higher scores for overall image quality in the subjective readers’ analysis. • All pathologies could be detected compared to high-resolution conventional MRI making 3D pTX SPACE to a potential alternative and fast imaging technique. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of orbital MR images obtained by using a dual-source parallel transmission (pTX) 3D sequence (Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolution, SPACE) with the image quality of conventional high-resolution standard protocol for clinical use in patients at 3T. Materials and methods: After obtaining institutional review board approval and patient consent, 32 patients with clinical indication for orbital MRI were examined using a high-resolution conventional sequences and 3D pTX SPACE sequences. Quantitative measurements, image quality of the healthy orbit, incidence of artifacts, and the subjective diagnostic performance to establish diagnosis was rated. Statistical significance was calculated by using a Student's t-test and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Length measurements were comparable in the two techniques, 3D pTX SPACE resulted in significant faster image acquisition with higher spatial resolution and less motion artifacts as well as better delineation of the optic nerve sheath. However, estimated contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise and overall image quality as well as subjective scores of the conventional TSE imaging were rated significantly higher. The conventional MR sequences were the preferred techniques by the readers. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of 3D pTX SPACE of the orbit resulting in a rapid acquisition of isotropic high-resolution images. Although no pathology was

  20. Breaking the Crowther limit: Combining depth-sectioning and tilt tomography for high-resolution, wide-field 3D reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovden, Robert, E-mail: rmh244@cornell.edu [School of Applied and Engineering Physics and Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ercius, Peter [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jiang, Yi [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Héctor D. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elser, Veit [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Muller, David A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics and Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    To date, high-resolution (<1 nm) imaging of extended objects in three-dimensions (3D) has not been possible. A restriction known as the Crowther criterion forces a tradeoff between object size and resolution for 3D reconstructions by tomography. Further, the sub-Angstrom resolution of aberration-corrected electron microscopes is accompanied by a greatly diminished depth of field, causing regions of larger specimens (>6 nm) to appear blurred or missing. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional imaging method that overcomes both these limits by combining through-focal depth sectioning and traditional tilt-series tomography to reconstruct extended objects, with high-resolution, in all three dimensions. The large convergence angle in aberration corrected instruments now becomes a benefit and not a hindrance to higher quality reconstructions. A through-focal reconstruction over a 390 nm 3D carbon support containing over 100 dealloyed and nanoporous PtCu catalyst particles revealed with sub-nanometer detail the extensive and connected interior pore structure that is created by the dealloying instability. - Highlights: • Develop tomography technique for high-resolution and large field of view. • We combine depth sectioning with traditional tilt tomography. • Through-focal tomography reduces tilts and improves resolution. • Through-focal tomography overcomes the fundamental Crowther limit. • Aberration-corrected becomes a benefit and not a hindrance for tomography.

  1. SEM-microphotogrammetry, a new take on an old method for generating high-resolution 3D models from SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, A D; Job, P A; Walker, A E L

    2017-08-01

    The method we present here uses a scanning electron microscope programmed via macros to automatically capture dozens of images at suitable angles to generate accurate, detailed three-dimensional (3D) surface models with micron-scale resolution. We demonstrate that it is possible to use these Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images in conjunction with commercially available software originally developed for photogrammetry reconstructions from Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) cameras and to reconstruct 3D models of the specimen. These 3D models can then be exported as polygon meshes and eventually 3D printed. This technique offers the potential to obtain data suitable to reconstruct very tiny features (e.g. diatoms, butterfly scales and mineral fabrics) at nanometre resolution. Ultimately, we foresee this as being a useful tool for better understanding spatial relationships at very high resolution. However, our motivation is also to use it to produce 3D models to be used in public outreach events and exhibitions, especially for the blind or partially sighted. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. High-resolution high-sensitivity elemental imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry: from traditional 2D and 3D imaging to correlative microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, T; Philipp, P; Audinot, J-N; Dowsett, D; Eswara, S

    2015-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) constitutes an extremely sensitive technique for imaging surfaces in 2D and 3D. Apart from its excellent sensitivity and high lateral resolution (50 nm on state-of-the-art SIMS instruments), advantages of SIMS include high dynamic range and the ability to differentiate between isotopes. This paper first reviews the underlying principles of SIMS as well as the performance and applications of 2D and 3D SIMS elemental imaging. The prospects for further improving the capabilities of SIMS imaging are discussed. The lateral resolution in SIMS imaging when using the microprobe mode is limited by (i) the ion probe size, which is dependent on the brightness of the primary ion source, the quality of the optics of the primary ion column and the electric fields in the near sample region used to extract secondary ions; (ii) the sensitivity of the analysis as a reasonable secondary ion signal, which must be detected from very tiny voxel sizes and thus from a very limited number of sputtered atoms; and (iii) the physical dimensions of the collision cascade determining the origin of the sputtered ions with respect to the impact site of the incident primary ion probe. One interesting prospect is the use of SIMS-based correlative microscopy. In this approach SIMS is combined with various high-resolution microscopy techniques, so that elemental/chemical information at the highest sensitivity can be obtained with SIMS, while excellent spatial resolution is provided by overlaying the SIMS images with high-resolution images obtained by these microscopy techniques. Examples of this approach are given by presenting in situ combinations of SIMS with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). (paper)

  3. Rapid, topology-based particle tracking for high-resolution measurements of large complex 3D motion fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mohak; Leggett, Susan E; Landauer, Alexander K; Wong, Ian Y; Franck, Christian

    2018-04-03

    Spatiotemporal tracking of tracer particles or objects of interest can reveal localized behaviors in biological and physical systems. However, existing tracking algorithms are most effective for relatively low numbers of particles that undergo displacements smaller than their typical interparticle separation distance. Here, we demonstrate a single particle tracking algorithm to reconstruct large complex motion fields with large particle numbers, orders of magnitude larger than previously tractably resolvable, thus opening the door for attaining very high Nyquist spatial frequency motion recovery in the images. Our key innovations are feature vectors that encode nearest neighbor positions, a rigorous outlier removal scheme, and an iterative deformation warping scheme. We test this technique for its accuracy and computational efficacy using synthetically and experimentally generated 3D particle images, including non-affine deformation fields in soft materials, complex fluid flows, and cell-generated deformations. We augment this algorithm with additional particle information (e.g., color, size, or shape) to further enhance tracking accuracy for high gradient and large displacement fields. These applications demonstrate that this versatile technique can rapidly track unprecedented numbers of particles to resolve large and complex motion fields in 2D and 3D images, particularly when spatial correlations exist.

  4. High-resolution fiber tract reconstruction in the human brain by means of three-dimensional polarized light imaging (3D-PLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eAxer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional interactions between different brain regions require connecting fiber tracts, the structural basis of the human connectome. To assemble a comprehensive structural understanding of neural network elements from the microscopic to the macroscopic dimensions, a multimodal and multiscale approach has to be envisaged. However, the integration of results from complementary neuroimaging techniques poses a particular challenge. In this paper, we describe a steadily evolving neuroimaging technique referred to as three-dimensional polarized light imaging (3D-PLI. It is based on the birefringence of the myelin sheaths surrounding axons, and enables the high-resolution analysis of myelinated axons constituting the fiber tracts. 3D-PLI provides the mapping of spatial fiber architecture in the postmortem human brain at a sub-millimeter resolution, i.e. at the mesoscale. The fundamental data structure gained by 3D-PLI is a comprehensive 3D vector field description of fibers and fiber tract orientations – the basis for subsequent tractography. To demonstrate how 3D-PLI can contribute to unravel and assemble the human connectome, a multiscale approach with the same technology was pursued. Two complementary state-of-the-art polarimeters providing different sampling grids (pixel sizes of 100 μm and 1.6 μm were used. To exemplarily highlight the potential of this approach, fiber orientation maps and 3D fiber models were reconstructed in selected regions of the brain (e.g., Corpus callosum, Internal capsule, Pons. The results demonstrate that 3D-PLI is an ideal tool to serve as an interface between the microscopic and macroscopic levels of organization of the human connectome.

  5. Studies on image quality, high contrast resolution and dose for the axial skeleton and limbs with a new, dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.; Kotsianos, D.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fischer, T.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of 3D-CT imaging of the axial skeleton and different joints of the lower and upper extremities with a new dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D) based on a mobile isocentric C-arm image amplifier. Material and Methods: 27 cadaveric specimes of different joints of the lower and upper extremities and of the spinal column were examined with 3D-CT imaging (ISO-C-3d). All images were evaluated by 3 radiologists for image quality using a semiquantitative score (score value 1: poor quality; score value 4: excellent quality). In addition, dose measurements and measurements of high contrast resolution were performed in comparison to conventional and low-dose spiral CT using a high contrast phantom (Catphan, Phantom Laboratories). Results: Adequate image quality (mean score values 3-4) could be achieved with an applied dose comparable to low-dose CT in smaller joints such as wrist, elbow, ankle and knee. A remarkably inferior image quality resulted in imaging of the hip, lumbar and thoracic spine (mean score values 2-3) in spite of almost doubling the dose (dose increased by 85 percent). The image quality of shoulder examinations was insufficient (mean score value 1). Phantom studies showed a high-contrast resolution comparable to helical CT in the xy-axis (9 lp/cm). Conclusion: Preliminary results show, that image quality of C-arm-based CT-imaging (ISO-C-3D) seems to be adequate in smaller joints. ISO-C-3D images of the hip and axial skeleton show a decreased image quality, which does not seem to be sufficient for diagnosing subtle fractures. (orig.) [de

  6. Scalable, incremental learning with MapReduce parallelization for cell detection in high-resolution 3D microscopy data

    KAUST Repository

    Sung, Chul

    2013-08-01

    Accurate estimation of neuronal count and distribution is central to the understanding of the organization and layout of cortical maps in the brain, and changes in the cell population induced by brain disorders. High-throughput 3D microscopy techniques such as Knife-Edge Scanning Microscopy (KESM) are enabling whole-brain survey of neuronal distributions. Data from such techniques pose serious challenges to quantitative analysis due to the massive, growing, and sparsely labeled nature of the data. In this paper, we present a scalable, incremental learning algorithm for cell body detection that can address these issues. Our algorithm is computationally efficient (linear mapping, non-iterative) and does not require retraining (unlike gradient-based approaches) or retention of old raw data (unlike instance-based learning). We tested our algorithm on our rat brain Nissl data set, showing superior performance compared to an artificial neural network-based benchmark, and also demonstrated robust performance in a scenario where the data set is rapidly growing in size. Our algorithm is also highly parallelizable due to its incremental nature, and we demonstrated this empirically using a MapReduce-based implementation of the algorithm. We expect our scalable, incremental learning approach to be widely applicable to medical imaging domains where there is a constant flux of new data. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Iodine and freeze-drying enhanced high-resolution MicroCT imaging for reconstructing 3D intraneural topography of human peripheral nerve fascicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liwei; Guo, Yongze; Qi, Jian; Zhu, Qingtang; Gu, Liqiang; Zheng, Canbin; Lin, Tao; Lu, Yutong; Zeng, Zitao; Yu, Sha; Zhu, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xi; Du, Yunfei; Yao, Zhi; Lu, Yao; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-08-01

    The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions. The complex intraneural aggregation and distribution of fascicles is typically assessed using histological techniques or MR imaging to acquire coarse axial three-dimensional (3D) maps. However, the disadvantages of histological techniques (static, axial manual registration, and data instability) and MR imaging (low-resolution) limit these applications in reconstructing the topography of nerve fascicles. Thus, enhanced microCT is a new technique for acquiring 3D intraneural topography of the human peripheral nerve fascicles both to improve our understanding of neurobiological principles and to guide accurate repair in the clinic. Additionally, 3D microstructure data can be used as a biofabrication model, which in turn can be used to fabricate scaffolds to repair long nerve gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical model of a fumarolic system inferred from a high-resolution 3-D Resistivity image of Solfatara volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Byrdina, Svetlana; Chiodini, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Johnson, Timothy C.; Ricci, Tullio; Petrillo, Zaccaria; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Lebourg, Thomas; Mangiacapra, Annarita

    2017-04-01

    Solfatara crater, located inside the Phlegrean Fields caldera, is showing a significant unrest activity since 10 years with a increase of ground deformation, degassing and heating. Electrical Resistivity Imaging was performed between 2012 and 2016 with the purpose of improving our knowledge of the shallow hydrothermal system. The complete dataset includes 43,432 D-C measurements inverted using the E4D code. This 3-D inversion was compared with the mappings of surface temperature, diffuse soil CO2 flux and self-potential in order to better constrain the interpretation of the observed resistivity structure in terms of lithological contrasts and hydrothermal signatures. For the first time, we highlighted in 3-D the main geological units: Monte Olibano lava dome and Solfatara crypto-dome appear as two relatively resistive bodies (50-100 Ω.m). Furthermore, the resistivity model clearly revealed the contrasting geometry of the hydrothermal circulation in the Solfatara crater. A channel-like conductive structure (7 Ω.m) represents the condensate that flows from the main fumarolic area down to the liquid-dominated Fangaia mud pool. This interpretation is consistent with the negative Self-Potential anomaly and with the surface observations. We imaged at a metric-resolution the two main fumaroles, Bocca Grande and Bocca Nuova, that have the following geochemical characteristics. Bocca Grande vent: 162°C, ˜150 t of CO2 released per day with a mass ratio CO2/H20 = 0.4 and Bocca Nuova vent: 148°C, ˜50 t of CO2 released per day with a mass ratio CO2/H20 = 0.45. The differences between these geochemical characteristics could lead one to believe that they are fed by two distinct sources at depth. On the contrary, our resistivity model shows that the two fumarolic vents are directly connected to a common resistive body (30-50 Ω.m) at a depth of 50 meters. This structure likely represents a single gas reservoir feeding the two fumaroles. Its depth corresponds indeed to a

  9. High-resolution study of the 3D collagen fibrillary matrix of Achilles tendons without tissue labelling and dehydrating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Ping; Swift, Benjamin John; Becker, Thomas; Squelch, Andrew; Wang, Allan; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Zhao, Xuelin; Xu, Jiake; Xue, Wei; Zheng, Minghao; Lloyd, David; Kirk, Thomas Brett

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the collagen structure of an Achilles tendon is critical to comprehend the physiology, biomechanics, homeostasis and remodelling of the tissue. Despite intensive studies, there are still uncertainties regarding the microstructure. The majority of studies have examined the longitudinally arranged collagen fibrils as they are primarily attributed to the principal tensile strength of the tendon. Few studies have considered the structural integrity of the entire three-dimensional (3D) collagen meshwork, and how the longitudinal collagen fibrils are integrated as a strong unit in a 3D domain to provide the tendons with the essential tensile properties. Using second harmonic generation imaging, a 3D imaging technique was developed and used to study the 3D collagen matrix in the midportion of Achilles tendons without tissue labelling and dehydration. Therefore, the 3D collagen structure is presented in a condition closely representative of the in vivo status. Atomic force microscopy studies have confirmed that second harmonic generation reveals the internal collagen matrix of tendons in 3D at a fibril level. Achilles tendons primarily contain longitudinal collagen fibrils that braid spatially into a dense rope-like collagen meshwork and are encapsulated or wound tightly by the oblique collagen fibrils emanating from the epitenon region. The arrangement of the collagen fibrils provides the longitudinal fibrils with essential structural integrity and endows the tendon with the unique mechanical function for withstanding tensile stresses. A novel 3D microscopic method has been developed to examine the 3D collagen microstructure of tendons without tissue dehydrating and labelling. The study also provides new knowledge about the collagen microstructure in an Achilles tendon, which enables understanding of the function of the tissue. The knowledge may be important for applying surgical and tissue engineering techniques to tendon reconstruction. © 2017 The Authors

  10. Comparison of 3D Maximum A Posteriori and Filtered Backprojection algorithms for high resolution animal imaging in microPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.; Qi, J.; Moore, A.; Annala, A.; Nguyen, K.; Leahy, R.M.; Cherry, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of two three dimensional reconstruction algorithms with data acquired from microPET, a high resolution tomograph dedicated to small animal imaging. The first was a linear filtered-backprojection algorithm (FBP) with reprojection of the missing data and the second was a statistical maximum-aposteriori probability algorithm (MAP). The two algorithms were evaluated in terms of their resolution performance, both in phantoms and in vivo. Sixty independent realizations of a phantom simulating the brain of a baby monkey were acquired, each containing 3 million counts. Each of these realizations was reconstructed independently with both algorithms. The ensemble of the sixty reconstructed realizations was used to estimate the standard deviation as a measure of the noise for each reconstruction algorithm. More detail was recovered in the MAP reconstruction without an increase in noise relative to FBP. Studies in a simple cylindrical compartment phantom demonstrated improved recovery of known activity ratios with MAP. Finally in vivo studies also demonstrated a clear improvement in spatial resolution using the MAP algorithm. The quantitative accuracy of the MAP reconstruction was also evaluated by comparison with autoradiography and direct well counting of tissue samples and was shown to be superior

  11. Max CAPR: high-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography with acquisition times under 5 seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R; Borisch, Eric A; Glockner, James F; Mostardi, Petrice M; Rossman, Phillip J; Young, Phillip M; Riederer, Stephen J

    2010-10-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution is desired in imaging of vascular abnormalities having short arterial-to-venous transit times. Methods that exploit temporal correlation to reduce the observed frame time demonstrate temporal blurring, obfuscating bolus dynamics. Previously, a Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction-like (CAPR) sampling method has been demonstrated for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced angiographic imaging of the lower legs using two-dimensional sensitivity-encoding acceleration and partial Fourier acceleration, providing 1mm isotropic resolution of the calves, with 4.9-sec frame time and 17.6-sec temporal footprint. In this work, the CAPR acquisition is further undersampled to provide a net acceleration approaching 40 by eliminating all view sharing. The tradeoff of frame time and temporal footprint in view sharing is presented and characterized in phantom experiments. It is shown that the resultant 4.9-sec acquisition time, three-dimensional images sets have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to clearly portray arterial and venous phases of contrast passage. It is further hypothesized that these short temporal footprint sequences provide diagnostic quality images. This is tested and shown in a series of nine contrast-enhanced MR angiography patient studies performed with the new method.

  12. Stability of dislocation structures in copper towards stress relaxation investigated by high angular resolution 3D X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bo; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Lienert, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    A 300 µm thick tensile specimen of OFHC copper is subjected to a tensile loading sequence and deformed to a maximal strain of 3.11%. Using the novel three-dimensional X-ray diffraction method High angular resolution 3DXRD', the evolution of the microstructure within a deeply embedded grain....... In contrast to the deformation stages, during each stress relaxation stage, number, size and orientation of subgrains are found to be constant, while a minor amount of clean-up of the microstructure is observed as narrowing of the radial X-ray diffraction line profile. The associated decrease in the width...

  13. Usefulness of high-resolution 3D multifusion medical imaging for preoperative planning in patients with posterior fossa hemangioblastoma: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masanori; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Kin, Taichi; Saito, Toki; Shono, Naoyuki; Nomura, Seiji; Nakagawa, Daichi; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Imai, Hideaki; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-07-01

    Successful resection of hemangioblastoma depends on preoperative assessment of the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins. Simultaneous 3D visualization of feeding arteries, draining veins, and surrounding structures is needed. The present study evaluated the usefulness of high-resolution 3D multifusion medical imaging (hr-3DMMI) for preoperative planning of hemangioblastoma. The hr-3DMMI combined MRI, MR angiography, thin-slice CT, and 3D rotated angiography. Surface rendering was mainly used for the creation of hr-3DMMI using multiple thresholds to create 3D models, and processing took approximately 3-5 hours. This hr-3DMMI technique was used in 5 patients for preoperative planning and the imaging findings were compared with the operative findings. Hr-3DMMI could simulate the whole 3D tumor as a unique sphere and show the precise penetration points of both feeding arteries and draining veins with the same spatial relationships as the original tumor. All feeding arteries and draining veins were found intraoperatively at the same position as estimated preoperatively, and were occluded as planned preoperatively. This hr-3DMMI technique could demonstrate the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins preoperatively and estimate the appropriate route for resection of the tumor. Hr-3DMMI is expected to be a very useful support tool for surgery of hemangioblastoma.

  14. High spatial resolution 3D MR cholangiography with high sampling efficiency technique (SPACE): Comparison of 3 T vs. 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizono, Shigeki [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: arizono@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Isoda, Hiroyoshi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: sayuki@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Maetani, Yoji S. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: mbo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Hirokawa, Yuusuke [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: yuusuke@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Shimada, Kotaro [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: kotaro@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nakamoto, Yuji [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: ynakamo1@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Shibata, Toshiya [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: ktogashi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate image quality of 3D MR cholangiography (MRC) using high sampling efficiency technique (SPACE) at 3 T compared with 1.5 T. Methods and materials: An IRB approved prospective study was performed with 17 healthy volunteers using both 3 and 1.5 T MR scanners. MRC images were obtained with free-breathing navigator-triggered 3D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence with SPACE (TR, >2700 ms; TE, 780 ms at 3 T and 801 ms at 1.5 T; echo-train length, 121; voxel size, 1.1 mm x 1.0 mm x 0.84 mm). The common bile duct (CBD) to liver contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were compared between 3 and 1.5 T. A five-point scale was used to compare overall image quality and visualization of the third branches of bile duct (B2, B6, and B8). The depiction of cystic duct insertion and the highest order of bile duct visible were also compared. The results were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Results: CNR between the CBD and liver was significantly higher at 3 T than 1.5 T (p = 0.0006). MRC at 3 T showed a significantly higher overall image quality (p = 0.0215) and clearer visualization of B2 (p = 0.0183) and B6 (p = 0.0106) than at 1.5 T. In all analyses of duct visibility, 3 T showed higher scores than 1.5 T. Conclusion: 3 T MRC using SPACE offered better image quality than 1.5 T. SPACE technique facilitated high-resolution 3D MRC with excellent image quality at 3 T.

  15. A numerical study of super-resolution through fast 3D wideband algorithm for scattering in highly-heterogeneous media

    KAUST Repository

    Létourneau, Pierre-David

    2016-09-19

    We present a wideband fast algorithm capable of accurately computing the full numerical solution of the problem of acoustic scattering of waves by multiple finite-sized bodies such as spherical scatterers in three dimensions. By full solution, we mean that no assumption (e.g. Rayleigh scattering, geometrical optics, weak scattering, Born single scattering, etc.) is necessary regarding the properties of the scatterers, their distribution or the background medium. The algorithm is also fast in the sense that it scales linearly with the number of unknowns. We use this algorithm to study the phenomenon of super-resolution in time-reversal refocusing in highly-scattering media recently observed experimentally (Lemoult et al., 2011), and provide numerical arguments towards the fact that such a phenomenon can be explained through a homogenization theory.

  16. High-resolution T2-weighted MR imaging of the inner ear using a long echo-train-length 3D fast spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Fukatsu, H.; Ishigaki, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Aoki, I.; Miyazaki, M.; Takai, H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of a long echo-train-length 3D fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) sequence in visualizing the inner ear structures. Ten normal ears and 50 patient ears were imaged on a 1.5T MR unit using a head coil. Axial high-resolution T2-weighted images of the inner ear and the internal auditory canal (IAC) were obtained in 15 min. In normal ears the reliability of the visualization for the inner ear structures was evaluated on original images and the targeted maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the labyrinth. In ten normal ears, 3D surface display (3D) images were also created and compared with MIP images. On the original images the cochlear aqueduct, the vessels in the vicinity of the IAC, and more than three branches of the cranial nerves were visualized in the IAC in all the ears. The visibility of the endolympathic duct was 80%. On the MIP images the visibility of the three semicircular canals, anterior and posterior ampulla, and of more than two turns of the cochlea was 100%. The MIP images and 3D images were almost comparable. The visibility of the endolymphatic duct was 80% in normal ears and 0% in the affected ears of the patients with Meniere's disease (p<0.001). In one patient ear a small intracanalicular tumor was depicted clearly. In conclusion, the long echo train length T2-weighted 3D-FSE sequence enables the detailed visualization of the tiny structures of the inner ear and the IAC within a clinically acceptable scan time. Furthermore, obtaining a high contrast between the soft/bony tissue and the cerebrospinal/endolymph/perilymph fluid would be of significant value in the diagnosis of the pathologic conditions around the labyrinth and the IAC. (orig.)

  17. Real-Time and High-Resolution 3D Face Measurement via a Smart Active Optical Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Guocai; Xing, Xiuwen

    2017-03-31

    The 3D measuring range and accuracy in traditional active optical sensing, such as Fourier transform profilometry, are influenced by the zero frequency of the captured patterns. The phase-shifting technique is commonly applied to remove the zero component. However, this phase-shifting method must capture several fringe patterns with phase difference, thereby influencing the real-time performance. This study introduces a smart active optical sensor, in which a composite pattern is utilized. The composite pattern efficiently combines several phase-shifting fringes and carrier frequencies. The method can remove zero frequency by using only one pattern. Model face reconstruction and human face measurement were employed to study the validity and feasibility of this method. Results show no distinct decrease in the precision of the novel method unlike the traditional phase-shifting method. The texture mapping technique was utilized to reconstruct a nature-appearance 3D digital face.

  18. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Karen; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; D'Amore, Domenic C; Rayfield, Emily J; Cunningham, Eleanor

    2008-06-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) displays a unique hold and pull-feeding technique. Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high degree of optimization, wherein use of materials is minimized. Here, using high-resolution finite element modelling based on dissection and in vivo bite and pull data, we present results detailing the mechanical performance of the giant lizard's skull. Unlike most modern predators, V. komodoensis applies minimal input from the jaw muscles when butchering prey. Instead it uses series of actions controlled by postcranial muscles. A particularly interesting feature of the performance of the skull is that it reveals considerably lower overall stress when these additional extrinsic forces are added to those of the jaw adductors. This remarkable reduction in stress in response to additional force is facilitated by both internal and external bone anatomy. Functional correlations obtained from these analyses also provide a solid basis for the interpretation of feeding ecology in extinct species, including dinosaurs and sabre-tooth cats, with which V. komodoensis shares various cranial and dental characteristics.

  19. Initial experience with 3D isotropic high-resolution 3 T MR arthrography of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John K; Nozaki, Taiki; Kaneko, Yasuhito; J Yu, Hon; Rafijah, Gregory; Hitt, David; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-16

    Our study was performed to evaluate the image quality of 3 T MR wrist arthrograms with attention to ulnar wrist structures, comparing image quality of isotropic 3D proton density fat suppressed turbo spin echo (PDFS TSE) sequence versus standard 2D 3 T sequences as well as comparison with 1.5 T MR arthrograms. Eleven consecutive 3 T MR wrist arthrograms were performed and the following sequences evaluated: 3D isotropic PDFS, repetition time/echo time (TR/TE) 1400/28.3 ms, voxel size 0.35x0.35x0.35 mm, acquisition time 5 min; 2D coronal sequences with slice thickness 2 mm: T1 fat suppressed turbo spin echo (T1FS TSE) (TR/TE 600/20 ms); proton density (PD) TSE (TR/TE 3499/27 ms). A 1.5 T group of 18 studies with standard sequences were evaluated for comparison. All MR imaging followed fluoroscopically guided intra-articular injection of dilute gadolinium contrast. Qualitative assessment related to delineation of anatomic structures between 1.5 T and 3 T MR arthrograms was carried out using Mann-Whitney test and the differences in delineation of anatomic structures among each sequence in 3 T group were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Quantitative assessment of mean relative signal intensity (SI) and relative contrast measurements was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean qualitative scores for 3 T sequences were significantly higher than 1.5 T (p < 0.01), with isotropic 3D PDFS sequence having highest mean qualitative scores (p < 0.05). Quantitative analysis demonstrated no significant difference in relative signal intensity among the 3 T sequences. Significant differences were found in relative contrast between fluid-bone and fluid-fat comparing 3D and 2D PDFS (p < 0.01). 3D isotropic PDFS sequence showed promise in both qualitative and quantitative assessment, suggesting this may be useful for MR wrist arthrograms at 3 T. Primary reasons for diagnostic potential include the ability to make reformations in any

  20. High-resolution 3D coronary vessel wall imaging with near 100% respiratory efficiency using epicardial fat tracking: reproducibility and comparison with standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Firmin, David N

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the performance and reproducibility of 3D spiral coronary artery wall imaging with beat-to-beat respiratory-motion-correction (B2B-RMC) compared to navigator gated 2D spiral and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisitions. High-resolution (0.7 × 0.7 mm) cross-sectional right coronary wall acquisitions were performed in 10 subjects using four techniques (B2B-RMC 3D spiral with alternate (2RR) and single (1RR) R-wave gating, navigator-gated 2D spiral (2RR) and navigator-gated 2D TSE (2RR)) on two occasions. Wall thickness measurements were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Reproducibility was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In all, 91% (73/80) of acquisitions were successful (failures: four TSE, two 3D spiral (1RR) and one 3D spiral (2RR)). Respiratory efficiency of the B2B-RMC was less variable and substantially higher than for navigator gating (99.6 ± 1.2% vs. 39.0 ± 7.5%, P B2B-RMC permits coronary vessel wall assessment over multiple thin contiguous slices in a clinically feasible duration. Excellent reproducibility of the technique potentially enables studies of disease progression/regression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. WE-F-16A-04: Micro-Irradiator Treatment Verification with High-Resolution 3D-Printed Rodent-Morphic Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bache, S; Belley, M; Benning, R; Adamovics, J; Stanton, I; Therien, M; Yoshizumi, T; Oldham, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Pre-clinical micro-radiation therapy studies often utilize very small beams (∼0.5-5mm), and require accurate dose delivery in order to effectively investigate treatment efficacy. Here we present a novel high-resolution absolute 3D dosimetry procedure, capable of ∼100-micron isotopic dosimetry in anatomically accurate rodent-morphic phantoms Methods: Anatomically accurate rat-shaped 3D dosimeters were made using 3D printing techniques from outer body contours and spinal contours outlined on CT. The dosimeters were made from a radiochromic plastic material PRESAGE, and incorporated high-Z PRESASGE inserts mimicking the spine. A simulated 180-degree spinal arc treatment was delivered through a 2 step process: (i) cone-beam-CT image-guided positioning was performed to precisely position the rat-dosimeter for treatment on the XRad225 small animal irradiator, then (ii) treatment was delivered with a simulated spine-treatment with a 180-degree arc with 20mm x 10mm cone at 225 kVp. Dose distribution was determined from the optical density change using a high-resolution in-house optical-CT system. Absolute dosimetry was enabled through calibration against a novel nano-particle scintillation detector positioned in a channel in the center of the distribution. Results: Sufficient contrast between regular PRESAGE (tissue equivalent) and high-Z PRESAGE (spinal insert) was observed to enable highly accurate image-guided alignment and targeting. The PRESAGE was found to have linear optical density (OD) change sensitivity with respect to dose (R 2 = 0.9993). Absolute dose for 360-second irradiation at isocenter was found to be 9.21Gy when measured with OD change, and 9.4Gy with nano-particle detector- an agreement within 2%. The 3D dose distribution was measured at 500-micron resolution Conclusion: This work demonstrates for the first time, the feasibility of accurate absolute 3D dose measurement in anatomically accurate rat phantoms containing variable density PRESAGE

  2. Acquisition and Processing of High Resolution Hyperspectral Imageries for the 3d Mapping of Urban Heat Islands and Microparticles of Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, R.; Baudouin, Y.; Cavayas, F.

    2017-10-01

    Ville de Montreal wanted to develop a system to identify heat islands and microparticles at the urban scale and to study their formation. UQAM and UdeM universities have joined their expertise under the framework "Observatoire Spatial Urbain" to create a representative geospatial database of thermal and atmospheric parameters collected during the summer months. They innovated in the development of a methodology for processing high resolution hyperspectral images (1-2 m). In partnership with Ville de Montreal, they integrated 3D geospatial data (topography, transportation and meteorology) in the process. The 3D mapping of intraurban heat islands as well as air micro-particles makes it possible, initially, to identify the problematic situations for future civil protection interventions during extreme heat. Moreover, it will be used as a reference for the Ville de Montreal to establish a strategy for public domain tree planting and in the analysis of urban development projects.

  3. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  4. Feasibility of creating a high-resolution 3D diffusion tensor imaging based atlas of the human brainstem: a case study at 11.7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Manisha; Zhang, Jiangyang; Pletnikova, Olga; Crain, Barbara; Troncoso, Juan; Mori, Susumu

    2013-07-01

    A three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the human brainstem based on high resolution ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is introduced. The atlas consists of high resolution (125-255 μm isotropic) three-dimensional DT images of the formalin-fixed brainstem acquired at 11.7 T. The DTI data revealed microscopic neuroanatomical details, allowing three-dimensional visualization and reconstruction of fiber pathways including the decussation of the pyramidal tract fibers, and interdigitating fascicles of the corticospinal and transverse pontine fibers. Additionally, strong gray-white matter contrasts in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps enabled precise delineation of gray matter nuclei in the brainstem, including the cranial nerve and the inferior olivary nuclei. Comparison with myelin-stained histology shows that at the level of resolution achieved in this study, the structural details resolved with DTI contrasts in the brainstem were comparable to anatomical delineation obtained with histological sectioning. Major neural structures delineated from DTI contrasts in the brainstem are segmented and three-dimensionally reconstructed. Further, the ex vivo DTI data are nonlinearly mapped to a widely-used in vivo human brain atlas, to construct a high-resolution atlas of the brainstem in the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotaxic coordinate space. The results demonstrate the feasibility of developing a 3D DTI based atlas for detailed characterization of brainstem neuroanatomy with high resolution and contrasts, which will be a useful resource for research and clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluid Lensing, Applications to High-Resolution 3D Subaqueous Imaging & Automated Remote Biosphere Assessment from Airborne and Space-borne Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, V.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid Lensing is a theoretical model and algorithm I present for fluid-optical interactions in turbulent flows as well as two-fluid surface boundaries that, when coupled with an unique computer vision and image-processing pipeline, may be used to significantly enhance the angular resolution of a remote sensing optical system with applicability to high-resolution 3D imaging of subaqueous regions and through turbulent fluid flows. This novel remote sensing technology has recently been implemented on a quadcopter-based UAS for imaging shallow benthic systems to create the first dataset of a biosphere with unprecedented sub-cm-level imagery in 3D over areas as large as 15 square kilometers. Perturbed two-fluid boundaries with different refractive indices, such as the surface between the ocean and air, may be exploited for use as lensing elements for imaging targets on either side of the interface with enhanced angular resolution. I present theoretical developments behind Fluid Lensing and experimental results from its recent implementation for the Reactive Reefs project to image shallow reef ecosystems at cm scales. Preliminary results from petabyte-scale aerial survey efforts using Fluid Lensing to image at-risk coral reefs in American Samoa (August, 2013) show broad applicability to large-scale automated species identification, morphology studies and reef ecosystem characterization for shallow marine environments and terrestrial biospheres, of crucial importance to understanding climate change's impact on coastal zones, global oxygen production and carbon sequestration.

  6. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-05: Validation of High-Resolution 3D Patient QA for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning and IMPT by Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardin, A; Avery, S; Ding, X; Kassaee, A; Lin, L [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maryanski, M [MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Validation of high-resolution 3D patient QA for proton pencil beam scanning and IMPT by polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: Four BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeters (manufactured by MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) were used for patient QA at the Robert's Proton Therapy Center (RPTC, Philadelphia, PA). All dosimeters were sealed in identical thin-wall Pyrex glass spheres. Each dosimeter contained a set of markers for 3D registration purposes. The dosimeters were mounted in a consistent and reproducible manner using a custom build holder. Two proton pencil beam scanning plans were designed using Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system: 1) A two-field intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan and 2) one single field uniform dose (SFUD) plan. The IMPT fields were evaluated as a composite plan and individual fields, the SFUD plan was delivered as a single field plan.Laser CT scanning was performed using the manufacturer's OCTOPUS-IQ axial transmission laser CT scanner using a 1 mm slice thickness. 3D registration, analysis, and OD/cm to absorbed dose calibrations were perfomed using DICOM RT-Dose and CT files, and software developed by the manufacturer. 3D delta index, a metric equivalent to the gamma tool, was used for dose comparison. Results: Very good agreement with single IMPT fields and with SFUD was obtained. Composite IMPT fields had a less satisfactory agreement. The single fields had 3D delta index passing rates (3% dose difference, 3 mm DTA) of 98.98% and 94.91%. The composite 3D delta index passing rate was 80.80%. The SFUD passing rate was 93.77%. Required shifts of the dose distributions were less than 4 mm. Conclusion: A formulation of the BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeter, suitable for 3D QA of proton patient plans is established and validated. Likewise, the mailed QA analysis service provided by the manufacturer is a practical option when required resources are unavailable. We fully disclose that the subject of this research regards a

  7. SU-E-T-296: Dosimetric Analysis of Small Animal Image-Guided Irradiator Using High Resolution Optical CT Imaging of 3D Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Y; Qian, X; Wuu, C; Adamovics, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator using a high-resolution of optical CT imaging of 3D dosimeters. Methods: PRESAEGE 3D dosimeters were used to determine dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator and compared with EBT2 films. Cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters with 7cm height and 6cm diameter were placed along the central axis of the beam. The films were positioned between 6×6cm 2 cubed plastic water phantoms perpendicular to the beam direction with multiple depths. PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films were then irradiated with the irradiator beams at 220kVp and 13mA. Each of irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters named PA1, PA2, PB1, and PB2, was independently scanned using a high-resolution single laser beam optical CT scanner. The transverse images were reconstructed with a 0.1mm high-resolution pixel. A commercial Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was used for readout of irradiated EBT2 films at a 0.4mm pixel resolution. PDD curves and beam profiles were measured for the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeters and EBT2 films. Results: The PDD agreements between the irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter PA1, PA2, PB1, PB2 and the EB2 films were 1.7, 2.3, 1.9, and 1.9% for the multiple depths at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50mm, respectively. The FWHM measurements for each PRESAEGE dosimeter and film agreed with 0.5, 1.1, 0.4, and 1.7%, respectively, at 30mm depth. Both PDD and FWHM measurements for the PRESAGE dosimeters and the films agreed overall within 2%. The 20%–80% penumbral widths of each PRESAGE dosimeter and the film at a given depth were respectively found to be 0.97, 0.91, 0.79, 0.88, and 0.37mm. Conclusion: Dosimetric characteristics of a small animal image-guided irradiator have been demonstrated with the measurements of PRESAGE dosimeter and EB2 film. With the high resolution and accuracy obtained from this 3D dosimetry system, precise targeting small animal irradiation can be achieved

  8. Real-time high resolution 3D imaging of the lyme disease spirochete adhering to and escaping from the vasculature of a living host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J Moriarty

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic spirochetes are bacteria that cause a number of emerging and re-emerging diseases worldwide, including syphilis, leptospirosis, relapsing fever, and Lyme borreliosis. They navigate efficiently through dense extracellular matrix and cross the blood-brain barrier by unknown mechanisms. Due to their slender morphology, spirochetes are difficult to visualize by standard light microscopy, impeding studies of their behavior in situ. We engineered a fluorescent infectious strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease pathogen, which expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP. Real-time 3D and 4D quantitative analysis of fluorescent spirochete dissemination from the microvasculature of living mice at high resolution revealed that dissemination was a multi-stage process that included transient tethering-type associations, short-term dragging interactions, and stationary adhesion. Stationary adhesions and extravasating spirochetes were most commonly observed at endothelial junctions, and translational motility of spirochetes appeared to play an integral role in transendothelial migration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of high resolution 3D and 4D visualization of dissemination of a bacterial pathogen in a living mammalian host, and provides the first direct insight into spirochete dissemination in vivo.

  9. Breaking the Crowther limit: Combining depth-sectioning and tilt tomography for high-resolution, wide-field 3D reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovden, Robert; Ercius, Peter; Jiang, Yi; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Héctor D.; Elser, Veit; Muller, David A.

    2014-01-01

    To date, high-resolution ( 6 nm) to appear blurred or missing. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional imaging method that overcomes both these limits by combining through-focal depth sectioning and traditional tilt-series tomography to reconstruct extended objects, with high-resolution, in all three dimensions. The large convergence angle in aberration corrected instruments now becomes a benefit and not a hindrance to higher quality reconstructions. A through-focal reconstruction over a 390 nm 3D carbon support containing over 100 dealloyed and nanoporous PtCu catalyst particles revealed with sub-nanometer detail the extensive and connected interior pore structure that is created by the dealloying instability. - Highlights: • Develop tomography technique for high-resolution and large field of view. • We combine depth sectioning with traditional tilt tomography. • Through-focal tomography reduces tilts and improves resolution. • Through-focal tomography overcomes the fundamental Crowther limit. • Aberration-corrected becomes a benefit and not a hindrance for tomography

  10. Large-scale propagation of ultrasound in a 3-D breast model based on high-resolution MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahura, Gheorghe; Tillett, Jason C; Metlay, Leon A; Waag, Robert C

    2010-06-01

    A 40 x 35 x 25-mm(3) specimen of human breast consisting mostly of fat and connective tissue was imaged using a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. The resolutions in the image plane and in the orthogonal direction were 130 microm and 150 microm, respectively. Initial processing to prepare the data for segmentation consisted of contrast inversion, interpolation, and noise reduction. Noise reduction used a multilevel bidirectional median filter to preserve edges. The volume of data was segmented into regions of fat and connective tissue by using a combination of local and global thresholding. Local thresholding was performed to preserve fine detail, while global thresholding was performed to minimize the interclass variance between voxels classified as background and voxels classified as object. After smoothing the data to avoid aliasing artifacts, the segmented data volume was visualized using isosurfaces. The isosurfaces were enhanced using transparency, lighting, shading, reflectance, and animation. Computations of pulse propagation through the model illustrate its utility for the study of ultrasound aberration. The results show the feasibility of using the described combination of methods to demonstrate tissue morphology in a form that provides insight about the way ultrasound beams are aberrated in three dimensions by tissue.

  11. High-resolution 3D Magnetic Resonance angiography in the evaluation of neck vessels and intracranial circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, A.; Di Guglielmo, L.; Campani, R.; Nicolato, A.; D'Amato, M.; Rodriguez y Balena, R.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a modern vascular imaging technique which allows the non-invasive and direct imaging of vessels. The authors aimed at evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of MRA in the study of pathologic conditions in the neck and intracranial vessels; spatial resolution of the technique was also investigated. Twenty-four healthy volunteers and 82 patients suffering from various diseases of the head and neck vessels were included in the study. First of all, MRA capabilities ware investigated in visualizing normal vessels of both neck and intracranial circle. The diagnostic accuracy of the method was then evaluated in the study of vascular diseases, and the results compared with conventional/digital angiographic findings. The comparison demonstrated how stenoses and atherosclerotic plaques tend to be overestimated by MRA because of technical artifacts inherent to the technique itself, whereas vascular ulcerations and aneurysms are frequently underestimated. However, this data was steady and therefore evaluable- the exact knowledge of the artifacts making diagnosis reliable. The diagnostic and technical problems relative to the various vascular diseases are discussed. Finally, several hypotheses of diagnostic iter are suggested

  12. Development of a lab-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.C.E.; Williams, J.J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of a modular high resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is highlighted in this paper. The design approach is detailed for meeting a specified set of instrument performance goals tailored towards experimental versatility and high resolution imaging. The XCT tool is unique in the detector and X-ray source design configuration, enabling control in the balance between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. The system package is also unique: The sample manipulation approach implemented enables a wide gamut of in situ experimentation to analyze structure evolution under applied stimulus, by optimizing scan conditions through a high degree of controllability. The component selection and design process is detailed: Incorporated components are specified, custom designs are shared, and the approach for their integration into a fully functional XCT scanner is provided. Custom designs discussed include the dual-target X-ray source cradle which maintains position and trajectory of the beam between the two X-ray target configurations with respect to a scintillator mounting and positioning assembly and the imaging sensor, as well as a novel large-format X-ray detector with enhanced adaptability. The instrument is discussed from an operational point of view, including the details of data acquisition and processing implemented for 3D imaging via micro-CT. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated on a silica-glass particle/hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) matrix binder PBX simulant. Post-scan data processing, specifically segmentation of the sample's relevant microstructure from the 3D reconstruction, is provided to demonstrate the utility of the instrument. - Highlights: • Custom built X-ray tomography system for microstructural characterization • Detector design for maximizing polychromatic X-ray detection efficiency • X-ray design offered for maximizing X-ray flux with respect to imaging resolution

  13. High-resolution 3D X-ray microtomography as tool to investigate size distribution of grain phase and pore space in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Holzheid, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    The geometry and internal structures of sandstone reservoirs, like grain size, sorting, degree of bioturbation, and the history of the diagenetic alterations determine the quantity, flow rates, and recovery of hydrocarbons present in the pore space. In this respect, processes influencing the deep reservoir quality in sandstones are either of depositional, shallow diagenetic, or deep-burial origin. To assess the effect of compaction and cementation on the pore space during diagenesis, we investigated a set of sandstone samples using high-resolution microtomography (µ-CT). By high-resolution µ-CT, size distributions (in 2D and 3D), surface areas and volume fractions of the grain skeleton and pore space of sandstones and - in addition - of mineral powders have been determined. For this study, we analysed aliquots of sandstones that exhibit either complete, partial or no cemententation of the pore space, and sets of mineral powders (quartz, feldspar, calcite). As the resolution of the µ-CT scans is in the µm-range, the surface areas determined for sandstones and powders do detect the geometric surface of the material (Kahl & Holzheid, 2010). Since there are differing approaches to "size" parameters like e.g., long/short particle axes, area equivalent radius, Feret-diameter (2D), and structural thickness (3D), we decided to illustrate the effect of various size determinations for (a) single grains, (b) grain skeletons, and (c) pore space. Therefor, the computer-aided morphometric analysis of the segmented 3D models of the reconstructed scan images comprises versatile calculation algorithms. For example, size distribution of the pore space of partially cemented sandstones can be used to infer the timing of the formation of the cement in respect to tectonic/diagenetic activities. In the case of a late-stage partial cementation of a Bunter sandstone, both pore space and cement phase show identical size distributions. On the contrary, the anhydrite cement of a

  14. Investigating the Mechanical Function of the Cervix during Pregnancy using Finite Element Models derived from High Resolution 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M.; House, M.; Jambawalikar, S.; Zork, N.; Vink, J.; Wapner, R.; Myers, K.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a strong contributor to perinatal mortality, and preterm infants that survive are at risk for long-term morbidities. During most of pregnancy appropriate mechanical function of the cervix is required to maintain the developing fetus in utero. Premature cervical softening and subsequent cervical shortening are hypothesized to cause preterm birth. Presently, there is a lack of understanding of the structural and material factors that influence the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. In this study we build finite element (FE) models of the pregnant uterus, cervix, and fetal membrane based on magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) data in order to examine the mechanical function of the cervix under the physiologic loading conditions of pregnancy. We calculate the mechanical loading state of the cervix for two pregnant patients: 22 weeks gestational age with a normal cervical length and 28 weeks with a short cervix. We investigate the influence of 1) anatomical geometry 2) cervical material properties, and 3) fetal membrane material properties, including its adhesion properties, on the mechanical loading state of the cervix under physiologically relevant intrauterine pressures. Our study demonstrates that membrane-uterus interaction, cervical material modeling, and membrane mechanical properties are factors that must be deliberately and carefully handled in order to construct a high quality mechanical simulation of pregnancy. PMID:25970655

  15. Implementation of PSF engineering in high-resolution 3D microscopy imaging with a LCoS (reflective) SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sharon V.; Doblas, Ana; Patwary, Nurmohammed; Saavedra, Genaro; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2014-03-01

    Wavefront coding techniques are currently used to engineer unique point spread functions (PSFs) that enhance existing microscope modalities or create new ones. Previous work in this field demonstrated that simulated intensity PSFs encoded with a generalized cubic phase mask (GCPM) are invariant to spherical aberration or misfocus; dependent on parameter selection. Additional work demonstrated that simulated PSFs encoded with a squared cubic phase mask (SQUBIC) produce a depth invariant focal spot for application in confocal scanning microscopy. Implementation of PSF engineering theory with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM) enables validation of WFC phase mask designs and parameters by manipulating optical wavefront properties with a programmable diffractive element. To validate and investigate parameters of the GCPM and SQUBIC WFC masks, we implemented PSF engineering in an upright microscope modified with a dual camera port and a LCoS SLM. We present measured WFC PSFs and compare them to simulated PSFs through analysis of their effect on the microscope imaging system properties. Experimentally acquired PSFs show the same intensity distribution as simulation for the GCPM phase mask, the SQUBIC-mask and the well-known and characterized cubic-phase mask (CPM), first applied to high NA microscopy by Arnison et al.10, for extending depth of field. These measurements provide experimental validation of new WFC masks and demonstrate the use of the LCoS SLM as a WFC design tool. Although efficiency improvements are needed, this application of LCoS technology renders the microscope capable of switching among multiple WFC modes.

  16. High-Resolution X-Ray Tomography: A 3D Exploration Into the Skeletal Architecture in Mouse Models Submitted to Microgravity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Giuliani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling process consists in a slow building phase and in faster resorption with the objective to maintain a functional skeleton locomotion to counteract the Earth gravity. Thus, during spaceflights, the skeleton does not act against gravity, with a rapid decrease of bone mass and density, favoring bone fracture. Several studies approached the problem by imaging the bone architecture and density of cosmonauts returned by the different spaceflights. However, the weaknesses of the previously reported studies was two-fold: on the one hand the research suffered the small statistical sample size of almost all human spaceflight studies, on the other the results were not fully reliable, mainly due to the fact that the observed bone structures were small compared with the spatial resolution of the available imaging devices. The recent advances in high-resolution X-ray tomography have stimulated the study of weight-bearing skeletal sites by novel approaches, mainly based on the use of the mouse and its various strains as an animal model, and sometimes taking advantage of the synchrotron radiation support to approach studies of 3D bone architecture and mineralization degree mapping at different hierarchical levels. Here we report the first, to our knowledge, systematic review of the recent advances in studying the skeletal bone architecture by high-resolution X-ray tomography after submission of mice models to microgravity constrains.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of interstitial pneumonia using 3D-curved high-resolution CT imaging parallel to the chest wall: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyasu Umakoshi

    Full Text Available To quantify the imaging findings of patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP and emphysema using three-dimensional curved high-resolution computed tomography (3D-cHRCT at a constant depth from the chest wall, and compare the results to visual assessment of IP and each patient's diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLco.We retrospectively reviewed the axial CT findings and pulmonary function test results of 95 patients with lung cancer (72 men and 23 women, aged 45-84 years with or without IP, as follows: non-IP (n = 47, mild IP (n = 31, and moderate IP (n = 17. The 3D-cHRCT images of the lung at a 1-cm depth from the chest wall were reconstructed automatically using original software; total area (TA, high-attenuation area (HAA >-500 HU, and low-attenuation area (LAA <-950 HU were calculated on a workstation. The %HAA and %LAA were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text].The %HAA and %LAA respective values were 3.2±0.9 and 27.7±8.2, 3.9±1.2 and 27.6±5.9, and 6.9±2.2 and 25.4±8.7 in non-IP, mild IP, and moderate IP patients, respectively. There were significant differences in %HAA between the 3 groups of patients (P<0.001, but no differences in %LAA (P = 0.558. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that %HAA and %LAA were negatively correlated with predicted DLco (standard partial regression coefficient [b*] = -0.453, P<0.001; b* = -0.447, P<0.001, respectively.The %HAA and %LAA values computed using 3D-cHRCT were significantly correlated with DLco and may be important quantitative parameters for both IP and emphysema.

  18. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  19. Comprehensive Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples Using High-Resolution Image-Based 3D Reconstructions and X-Ray CT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Established contemporary conservation methods within the fields of Natural and Cultural Heritage encourage an interdisciplinary approach to preservation of heritage material (both tangible and intangible) that holds "Outstanding Universal Value" for our global community. NASA's lunar samples were acquired from the moon for the primary purpose of intensive scientific investigation. These samples, however, also invoke cultural significance, as evidenced by the millions of people per year that visit lunar displays in museums and heritage centers around the world. Being both scientifically and culturally significant, the lunar samples require a unique conservation approach. Government mandate dictates that NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office develop and maintain protocols for "documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach" for both current and future collections of astromaterials. Documentation, considered the first stage within the conservation methodology, has evolved many new techniques since curation protocols for the lunar samples were first implemented, and the development of new documentation strategies for current and future astromaterials is beneficial to keeping curation protocols up to date. We have developed and tested a comprehensive non-destructive documentation technique using high-resolution image-based 3D reconstruction and X-ray CT (XCT) data in order to create interactive 3D models of lunar samples that would ultimately be served to both researchers and the public. These data enhance preliminary scientific investigations including targeted sample requests, and also provide a new visual platform for the public to experience and interact with the lunar samples. We intend to serve these data as they are acquired on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisistion and Curation website at http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/. Providing 3D interior and exterior documentation of astromaterial

  20. High-resolution 3D seismic reflection imaging across active faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimation in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kato, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    We collected and interpreted high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data across a hypothesized fault scarp, along the largest active fault that could generate hazardous earthquakes in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The processed and interpreted 3D seismic cube, linked with nearby borehole stratigraphy, suggests that a monocline that deforms lower Pleistocene units is unconformably overlain by middle Pleistocene conglomerates. Judging from structural patterns and vertical separation on the lower-middle Pleistocene units and the ground surface, the hypothesized scarp was interpreted as a terrace riser rather than as a manifestation of late Pleistocene structural growth resulting from repeated fault activity. Devastating earthquake scenarios had been predicted along the fault in question based on its proximity to the metropolitan area, however our new results lead to a significant decrease in estimated fault length and consequently in the estimated magnitude of future earthquakes associated with reactivation. This suggests a greatly reduced seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan area from earthquakes generated by active intraplate crustal faults.

  1. Sea Level History in 3D: Early results of an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, G. S.; Kucuk, H. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Newton, A.; Baldwin, K.; Johnson, C.; Stanley, J. N.; Bhatnagar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Although globally averaged sea level is rising at roughly 3 mm/yr (and is accelerating), rates of local sea-level change measured at coastlines may differ from this number by a factor of two or more; at some locations, sea level may even be falling. This is due to local processes that can match or even reverse the global trend, making it clear that reliable predictions of future impacts of sea-level rise require a firm understanding of processes at the local level. The history of local sea-level change and shoreline response is contained in the geologic record of shallow-water sediments. We report on a continuing study of sea-level history in sediments at the New Jersey continental margin, where compaction and glacial isostatic adjustment are currently adding 2 mm/yr to the globally averaged rise. We collected 570 sq km of ultra-high resolution 3D MCS data aboard the R/V Langseth in June-July 2015; innovative recording and preliminary results are described by Nedimovic et al. in this same session. The goal was to provide regional context to coring and logging at IODP Exp 313 sites 27-29 that were drilled 750 m into the New Jersey shelf in 2009. These sites recovered a nearly continuous record of post-Eocene sediments from non-marine soils, estuaries, shoreface, delta front, pro-delta and open marine settings. Existing seismic data are good but are 2D high-resolution profiles at line spacings too wide to enable mapping of key nearshore features. The Langseth 3D survey used shallow towing of a tuned air gun array to preserve high frequencies, and twenty-four 50-m PCables each 12.5 apart provided 6.25 x 3.125 m common-midpoint bins along seventy-seven 50-km sail lines. With this especially dense spatial resolution of a pre-stack time migrated volume we expect to map rivers, incised valleys, barrier islands, inlets and bays, pro-delta clinoforms, tidal deltas, sequence boundaries, debris flow aprons, and more. Seismic attributes linked to sedimentary facies and

  2. High-resolution 3D dose distribution measured for two low-energy x-ray brachytherapy seeds: 125I and 103Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massillon-JL, G.; Minniti, R.; Mitch, M.G.; Soares, C.G.; Hearn, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the 3D absorbed dose distribution around 125 I and 103 Pd low-energy photon brachytherapy seeds using a high-spatial-resolution gel scanning system to address the current difficulty in measuring absorbed dose at close distances to these sources as a consequence of high dose rate gradient. A new version of BANG-gel coupled with a small format laser CT scanner has been used. Measurements were performed with 100 μm resolution in all dimensions. In particular, radial dose function and absorbed dose rate in the plane parallel to the sources longitudinal-axis were derived at radial distances smaller than or equal to 1 cm. In addition, the energy dependence was evaluated, finding that, within measurement uncertainties, the gel response is independent of the energy for energy photon values between 20 keV and 1250 keV. We have observed that at distances larger than 1.4 mm from the source, the delivered dose is similar to predictions from published Monte Carlo calculations (MC) for the 125 I seed. For distances between 1 mm and 3 mm, differences in magnitude and shape are significant for the 103 Pd seed, where an enhancement is observed. In the enhancement region, a difference of up to 70% in the radial dose function was obtained. Such observation suggests a contribution from other radionuclides emitting beta-particles or electrons, and not considered by MC. To understand the effect, spectrometry measurements were performed. A small contribution of 102 Rh/ 102m Rh radionuclide relative to 103 Pd was observed and its importance on the absorbed dose measured at close distances to the seed is time dependent and consequently, avoids reproducible measurements. Finally, the results obtained in this work underscore the importance of using high-spatial-resolution and water-equivalent detectors for measuring absorbed dose in low-energy photon radiation fields.

  3. 2D and 3D high resolution seismic imaging of shallow Solfatara crater in Campi Flegrei (Italy): new insights on deep hydrothermal fluid circulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Landro, Grazia; Gammaldi, Sergio; Serlenga, Vincenzo; Amoroso, Ortensia; Russo, Guido; Festa, Gaetano; D'Auria, Luca; Bruno, Pier Paolo; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Seismic tomography can be used to image the spatial variation of rock properties within complex geological media such as volcanoes. Solfatara is a volcano located within the Campi Flegrei still active caldera, characterized by periodic episodes of extended, low-rate ground subsidence and uplift called bradyseism accompanied by intense seismic and geochemical activities. In particular, Solfatara is characterized by an impressive magnitude diffuse degassing, which underlines the relevance of fluid and heat transport at the crater and prompted further research to improve the understanding of the hydrothermal system feeding the surface phenomenon. In this line, an active seismic experiment, Repeated Induced Earthquake and Noise (RICEN) (EU Project MEDSUV), was carried out between September 2013 and November 2014 to provide time-varying high-resolution images of the structure of Solfatara. In this study we used the datasets provided by two different acquisition geometries: a) A 2D array cover an area of 90 x 115 m ^ 2 sampled by a regular grid of 240 vertical sensors deployed at the crater surface; b) two 1D orthogonal seismic arrays deployed along NE-SW and NW-SE directions crossing the 400 m crater surface. The arrays are sampled with a regular line of 240 receiver and 116 shots. We present 2D and 3D tomographic high-resolution P-wave velocity images obtained using two different tomographic methods adopting a multiscale strategy. The 3D image of the shallow (30-35 m) central part of Solfatara crater is performed through the iterative, linearized, tomographic inversion of the P-wave first arrival times. 2D P-wave velocity sections (60-70 m) are obtained using a non-linear travel-time tomography method based on the evaluation of a posteriori probability density with a Bayesian approach. The 3D retrieved images integrated with resistivity section and temperature and CO2 flux measurements , define the following characteristics: 1. A depth dependent P-wave velocity layer

  4. Application of Internal Standard Method for Several 3d-Transition Metallic Elements in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using a Multi-wavelength High-resolution Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Yusuke; Itagaki, Toshiko; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a simultaneous internal standard method in flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), in order to better the analytical precision of 3d-transition metals contained in steel materials. For this purpose, a new spectrometer system for FAAS, comprising a bright xenon lamp as the primary radiation source and a high-resolution Echelle monochromator, was employed to measure several absorption lines at a wavelength width of ca. 0.3 nm at the same time, which enables the absorbances of an analytical line and also an internal standard line to be estimated. In considering several criteria for selecting an internal standard element and the absorption line, it could be suggested that platinum-group elements: ruthenium, rhodium, or palladium, were suitable for an internal standard element to determine the 3d-transition metal elements, such as titanium, iron, and nickel, by measuring an appropriate pair of these absorption lines simultaneously. Several variances of the absorption signal, such as a variation in aspirated amounts of sample solution and a short-period drift of the primary light source, would be corrected and thus reduced, when the absorbance ratio of the analytical line to the internal standard line was measured. In Ti-Pd, Ni-Rh, and Fe-Ru systems chosen as typical test samples, the repeatability of the signal respnses was investigated with/without the internal standard method, resulting in better precision when the internal standard method was applied in the FAAS with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame rather than an air-acetylene flame.

  5. Reliable planning and monitoring tools by dismantling 3D photographic image of high resolution and document management systems. Application MEDS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vela Morales, F.

    2010-01-01

    MEDS system (Metric Environment Documentation System) is a method developed by CT3 based engineering documentation generation metric of a physical environment using measurement tools latest technology and high precision, such as the Laser Scanner. With this equipment it is possible to obtain three-dimensional information of a physical environment through the 3D coordinates of millions of points. This information is processed by software that is very useful tool for modeling operations and 3D simulations.

  6. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  7. Multitemporal field-based plant height estimation using 3D point clouds generated from small unmanned aerial systems high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malambo, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Murray, S. C.; Putman, E.; Pugh, N. A.; Horne, D. W.; Richardson, G.; Sheridan, R.; Rooney, W. L.; Avant, R.; Vidrine, M.; McCutchen, B.; Baltensperger, D.; Bishop, M.

    2018-02-01

    Plant breeders and agronomists are increasingly interested in repeated plant height measurements over large experimental fields to study critical aspects of plant physiology, genetics and environmental conditions during plant growth. However, collecting such measurements using commonly used manual field measurements is inefficient. 3D point clouds generated from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) images using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques offer a new option for efficiently deriving in-field crop height data. This study evaluated UAS/SfM for multitemporal 3D crop modelling and developed and assessed a methodology for estimating plant height data from point clouds generated using SfM. High-resolution images in visible spectrum were collected weekly across 12 dates from April (planting) to July (harvest) 2016 over 288 maize (Zea mays L.) and 460 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) plots using a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAS. The study compared SfM point clouds with terrestrial lidar (TLS) at two dates to evaluate the ability of SfM point clouds to accurately capture ground surfaces and crop canopies, both of which are critical for plant height estimation. Extended plant height comparisons were carried out between SfM plant height (the 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles and maximum height) per plot and field plant height measurements at six dates throughout the growing season to test the repeatability and consistency of SfM estimates. High correlations were observed between SfM and TLS data (R2 = 0.88-0.97, RMSE = 0.01-0.02 m and R2 = 0.60-0.77 RMSE = 0.12-0.16 m for the ground surface and canopy comparison, respectively). Extended height comparisons also showed strong correlations (R2 = 0.42-0.91, RMSE = 0.11-0.19 m for maize and R2 = 0.61-0.85, RMSE = 0.12-0.24 m for sorghum). In general, the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile height metrics had higher correlations to field measurements than the maximum metric though differences among them were not statistically significant. The

  8. Application of 3D documentation and geometric reconstruction methods in traffic accident analysis: with high resolution surface scanning, radiological MSCT/MRI scanning and real data based animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Braun, Marcel; Bolliger, Stephan; Friederich, Hans; Jackowski, Christian; Aghayev, Emin; Christe, Andreas; Vock, Peter; Dirnhofer, Richard; Thali, Michael J

    2007-07-20

    The examination of traffic accidents is daily routine in forensic medicine. An important question in the analysis of the victims of traffic accidents, for example in collisions between motor vehicles and pedestrians or cyclists, is the situation of the impact. Apart from forensic medical examinations (external examination and autopsy), three-dimensional technologies and methods are gaining importance in forensic investigations. Besides the post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the documentation and analysis of internal findings, highly precise 3D surface scanning is employed for the documentation of the external body findings and of injury-inflicting instruments. The correlation of injuries of the body to the injury-inflicting object and the accident mechanism are of great importance. The applied methods include documentation of the external and internal body and the involved vehicles and inflicting tools as well as the analysis of the acquired data. The body surface and the accident vehicles with their damages were digitized by 3D surface scanning. For the internal findings of the body, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were used. The analysis included the processing of the obtained data to 3D models, determination of the driving direction of the vehicle, correlation of injuries to the vehicle damages, geometric determination of the impact situation and evaluation of further findings of the accident. In the following article, the benefits of the 3D documentation and computer-assisted, drawn-to-scale 3D comparisons of the relevant injuries with the damages to the vehicle in the analysis of the course of accidents, especially with regard to the impact situation, are shown on two examined cases.

  9. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, F.; Andritschke, R.; Shaw, H.; Nefzger, C.; Zoglauer, A.; Schoenfelder, V.; Kanbach, G.

    2000-01-01

    New γ-ray calorimeter have been developed for the MEGA Compton camera. They consist of arrays of small CsI(Tl) scintillator bars read out by Silicon PIN-diodes and low noise, self-triggering frontend electronics. The length of the bars (the thickness of the calorimeter) can be varied for different applications to fit the stopping power needed and the light loss tolerable. In this paper we present calibration results from 2 cm long bars with diodes on one side, and 8 cm long bars with diodes on two opposite sides. Double-sided readout gives 3-D information of interactions which will be used to overcome the limited position resolution in Anger-cameras at high energies. Simpler detection devices like Anger-cameras might finally resolve only the centre of gravity. As events from γ-rays with energies of MeV do extend over several cm, it is a prerequisite for an imaging device to resolve the interaction structure in detail. Combining CsI(Tl) scintillators, Silicon PIN-photodiodes and frontend electronics inside the housing results in a cheap rugged design. While the development in our institute is mainly done for the Compton camera prototype, many other applications are conceivable

  10. CsI calorimeter with 3-D position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Shaw, H; Nefzger, C; Zoglauer, A; Schönfelder, V; Kanbach, G

    2000-01-01

    New gamma-ray calorimeter have been developed for the MEGA Compton camera. They consist of arrays of small CsI(Tl) scintillator bars read out by Silicon PIN-diodes and low noise, self-triggering frontend electronics. The length of the bars (the thickness of the calorimeter) can be varied for different applications to fit the stopping power needed and the light loss tolerable. In this paper we present calibration results from 2 cm long bars with diodes on one side, and 8 cm long bars with diodes on two opposite sides. Double-sided readout gives 3-D information of interactions which will be used to overcome the limited position resolution in Anger-cameras at high energies. Simpler detection devices like Anger-cameras might finally resolve only the centre of gravity. As events from gamma-rays with energies of MeV do extend over several cm, it is a prerequisite for an imaging device to resolve the interaction structure in detail. Combining CsI(Tl) scintillators, Silicon PIN-photodiodes and frontend electronics in...

  11. Disaster damage detection through synergistic use of deep learning and 3D point cloud features derived from very high resolution oblique aerial images, and multiple-kernel-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrivel, Anand; Gerke, Markus; Kerle, Norman; Nex, Francesco; Vosselman, George

    2018-06-01

    Oblique aerial images offer views of both building roofs and façades, and thus have been recognized as a potential source to detect severe building damages caused by destructive disaster events such as earthquakes. Therefore, they represent an important source of information for first responders or other stakeholders involved in the post-disaster response process. Several automated methods based on supervised learning have already been demonstrated for damage detection using oblique airborne images. However, they often do not generalize well when data from new unseen sites need to be processed, hampering their practical use. Reasons for this limitation include image and scene characteristics, though the most prominent one relates to the image features being used for training the classifier. Recently features based on deep learning approaches, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have been shown to be more effective than conventional hand-crafted features, and have become the state-of-the-art in many domains, including remote sensing. Moreover, often oblique images are captured with high block overlap, facilitating the generation of dense 3D point clouds - an ideal source to derive geometric characteristics. We hypothesized that the use of CNN features, either independently or in combination with 3D point cloud features, would yield improved performance in damage detection. To this end we used CNN and 3D features, both independently and in combination, using images from manned and unmanned aerial platforms over several geographic locations that vary significantly in terms of image and scene characteristics. A multiple-kernel-learning framework, an effective way for integrating features from different modalities, was used for combining the two sets of features for classification. The results are encouraging: while CNN features produced an average classification accuracy of about 91%, the integration of 3D point cloud features led to an additional

  12. High-resolution structural and functional assessments of cerebral microvasculature using 3D Gas ΔR2*-mMRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Chiao-Chi V; Siow, Tiing-Yee; Hsu, Sheng-Hsiou S; Hsu, Yi-Hua; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The ability to evaluate the cerebral microvascular structure and function is crucial for investigating pathological processes in brain disorders. Previous angiographic methods based on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast offer appropriate visualization of the cerebral vasculature, but these methods remain to be optimized in order to extract more comprehensive information. This study aimed to integrate the advantages of BOLD MRI in both structural and functional vascular assessments. The BOLD contrast was manipulated by a carbogen challenge, and signal changes in gradient-echo images were computed to generate ΔR2* maps. Simultaneously, a functional index representing the regional cerebral blood volume was derived by normalizing the ΔR2* values of a given region to those of vein-filled voxels of the sinus. This method is named 3D gas ΔR2*-mMRA (microscopic MRA). The advantages of using 3D gas ΔR2*-mMRA to observe the microvasculature include the ability to distinguish air-tissue interfaces, a high vessel-to-tissue contrast, and not being affected by damage to the blood-brain barrier. A stroke model was used to demonstrate the ability of 3D gas ΔR2*-mMRA to provide information about poststroke revascularization at 3 days after reperfusion. However, this technique has some limitations that cannot be overcome and hence should be considered when it is applied, such as magnifying vessel sizes and predominantly revealing venous vessels.

  13. Improved resolution of 3D printed scaffolds by shrinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) uses inkjet printheads to selectively deposit liquid binder to adjoin powder particles in a layer-by-layer fashion to create a computer-modeled 3D object. Two general approaches for 3DP have been described for biomedical applications (direct and indirect 3DP). The two approaches offer competing advantages, and both are limited by print resolution. This study describes a materials processing strategy to enhance 3DP resolution by controlled shrinking net-shape scaffolds. Briefly, porogen preforms are printed and infused with the desired monomer or polymer solution. After solidification or polymerization, the porogen is leached and the polymer is allowed to shrink by controlled drying. Heat treatment is performed to retain the dimensions against swelling forces. The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of polymer content and post-processing on dimension, microstructure, and thermomechanical properties of the scaffold. For polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA), reducing polymer content corresponded with greater shrinkage with maximum shrinkage of ∼80 vol% at 20% vol% PEG-DA. The secondary heat treatment retains the microarchitecture and new dimensions of the scaffolds, even when the heat-treated scaffolds are immersed into water. To demonstrate shrinkage predictability, 3D components with interlocking positive and negative features were printed, processed, and fitted. This material processing strategy provides an alternative method to enhance the resolution of 3D scaffolds, for a wide range of polymers, without optimizing the binder-powder interaction physics to print each material combination. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Super-resolution for asymmetric resolution of FIB-SEM 3D imaging using AI with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Higuchi, Takeshi; Jinnai, Hiroshi

    2018-04-12

    Scanning electron microscopy equipped with a focused ion beam (FIB-SEM) is a promising three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique for nano- and meso-scale morphologies. In FIB-SEM, the specimen surface is stripped by an ion beam and imaged by an SEM installed orthogonally to the FIB. The lateral resolution is governed by the SEM, while the depth resolution, i.e., the FIB milling direction, is determined by the thickness of the stripped thin layer. In most cases, the lateral resolution is superior to the depth resolution; hence, asymmetric resolution is generated in the 3D image. Here, we propose a new approach based on an image-processing or deep-learning-based method for super-resolution of 3D images with such asymmetric resolution, so as to restore the depth resolution to achieve symmetric resolution. The deep-learning-based method learns from high-resolution sub-images obtained via SEM and recovers low-resolution sub-images parallel to the FIB milling direction. The 3D morphologies of polymeric nano-composites are used as test images, which are subjected to the deep-learning-based method as well as conventional methods. We find that the former yields superior restoration, particularly as the asymmetric resolution is increased. Our super-resolution approach for images having asymmetric resolution enables observation time reduction.

  15. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...

  16. Spatial resolution of the HRRT PET scanner using 3D-OSEM PSF reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sibomana, Merence; Keller, Sune Høgild

    2009-01-01

    The spatial resolution of the Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) dedicated brain PET scanner installed at Copenhagen University Hospital (Rigshospitalet) was measured using a point-source phantom with high statistics. Further, it was demonstrated how the newly developed 3D-OSEM PSF...

  17. 3D super-resolution imaging with blinking quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Cai, En; Ng, Tony; Selvin, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots are promising candidates for single molecule imaging due to their exceptional photophysical properties, including their intense brightness and resistance to photobleaching. They are also notorious for their blinking. Here we report a novel way to take advantage of quantum dot blinking to develop an imaging technique in three-dimensions with nanometric resolution. We first applied this method to simulated images of quantum dots, and then to quantum dots immobilized on microspheres. We achieved imaging resolutions (FWHM) of 8–17 nm in the x-y plane and 58 nm (on coverslip) or 81 nm (deep in solution) in the z-direction, approximately 3–7 times better than what has been achieved previously with quantum dots. This approach was applied to resolve the 3D distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) molecules at, and inside of, the plasma membrane of resting basal breast cancer cells. PMID:24093439

  18. Collaborative Project. 3D Radiative Transfer Parameterization Over Mountains/Snow for High-Resolution Climate Models. Fast physics and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Kuo-Nan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Under the support of the aforementioned DOE Grant, we have made two fundamental contributions to atmospheric and climate sciences: (1) Develop an efficient 3-D radiative transfer parameterization for application to intense and intricate inhomogeneous mountain/snow regions. (2) Innovate a stochastic parameterization for light absorption by internally mixed black carbon and dust particles in snow grains for understanding and physical insight into snow albedo reduction in climate models. With reference to item (1), we divided solar fluxes reaching mountain surfaces into five components: direct and diffuse fluxes, direct- and diffuse-reflected fluxes, and coupled mountain-mountain flux. “Exact” 3D Monte Carlo photon tracing computations can then be performed for these solar flux components to compare with those calculated from the conventional plane-parallel (PP) radiative transfer program readily available in climate models. Subsequently, Parameterizations of the deviations of 3D from PP results for five flux components are carried out by means of the multiple linear regression analysis associated with topographic information, including elevation, solar incident angle, sky view factor, and terrain configuration factor. We derived five regression equations with high statistical correlations for flux deviations and successfully incorporated this efficient parameterization into WRF model, which was used as the testbed in connection with the Fu-Liou-Gu PP radiation scheme that has been included in the WRF physics package. Incorporating this 3D parameterization program, we conducted simulations of WRF and CCSM4 to understand and evaluate the mountain/snow effect on snow albedo reduction during seasonal transition and the interannual variability for snowmelt, cloud cover, and precipitation over the Western United States presented in the final report. With reference to item (2), we developed in our previous research a geometric-optics surface-wave approach (GOS) for the

  19. AN INTEGRATED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC AND PHOTOCLINOMETRIC APPROACH FOR PIXEL-RESOLUTION 3D MODELLING OF LUNAR SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution 3D modelling of lunar surface is important for lunar scientific research and exploration missions. Photogrammetry is known for 3D mapping and modelling from a pair of stereo images based on dense image matching. However dense matching may fail in poorly textured areas and in situations when the image pair has large illumination differences. As a result, the actual achievable spatial resolution of the 3D model from photogrammetry is limited by the performance of dense image matching. On the other hand, photoclinometry (i.e., shape from shading is characterised by its ability to recover pixel-wise surface shapes based on image intensity and imaging conditions such as illumination and viewing directions. More robust shape reconstruction through photoclinometry can be achieved by incorporating images acquired under different illumination conditions (i.e., photometric stereo. Introducing photoclinometry into photogrammetric processing can therefore effectively increase the achievable resolution of the mapping result while maintaining its overall accuracy. This research presents an integrated photogrammetric and photoclinometric approach for pixel-resolution 3D modelling of the lunar surface. First, photoclinometry is interacted with stereo image matching to create robust and spatially well distributed dense conjugate points. Then, based on the 3D point cloud derived from photogrammetric processing of the dense conjugate points, photoclinometry is further introduced to derive the 3D positions of the unmatched points and to refine the final point cloud. The approach is able to produce one 3D point for each image pixel within the overlapping area of the stereo pair so that to obtain pixel-resolution 3D models. Experiments using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera - Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC images show the superior performances of the approach compared with traditional photogrammetric technique. The results and findings from this

  20. Forward modelling of global gravity fields with 3D density structures and an application to the high-resolution ( 2 km) gravity fields of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šprlák, M.; Han, S.-C.; Featherstone, W. E.

    2017-12-01

    Rigorous modelling of the spherical gravitational potential spectra from the volumetric density and geometry of an attracting body is discussed. Firstly, we derive mathematical formulas for the spatial analysis of spherical harmonic coefficients. Secondly, we present a numerically efficient algorithm for rigorous forward modelling. We consider the finite-amplitude topographic modelling methods as special cases, with additional postulates on the volumetric density and geometry. Thirdly, we implement our algorithm in the form of computer programs and test their correctness with respect to the finite-amplitude topography routines. For this purpose, synthetic and realistic numerical experiments, applied to the gravitational field and geometry of the Moon, are performed. We also investigate the optimal choice of input parameters for the finite-amplitude modelling methods. Fourth, we exploit the rigorous forward modelling for the determination of the spherical gravitational potential spectra inferred by lunar crustal models with uniform, laterally variable, radially variable, and spatially (3D) variable bulk density. Also, we analyse these four different crustal models in terms of their spectral characteristics and band-limited radial gravitation. We demonstrate applicability of the rigorous forward modelling using currently available computational resources up to degree and order 2519 of the spherical harmonic expansion, which corresponds to a resolution of 2.2 km on the surface of the Moon. Computer codes, a user manual and scripts developed for the purposes of this study are publicly available to potential users.

  1. Marker-referred movement measurement with grey-scale coordinate extraction for high-resolution real-time 3D at 100 Hz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furnée, E.H.; Jobbá, A.; Sabel, J.C.; Veenendaal, H.L.J. van; Martin, F.; Andriessen, D.C.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A review of early history in photography highlights the origin of cinefilm as a scientific tool for image-based measurement of human and animal motion. The paper is concerned with scanned-area video sensors (CCD) and a computer interface for the real-time, high-resolution extraction of image

  2. MISTiC Winds, a Micro-Satellite Constellation Approach to High Resolution Observations of the Atmosphere using Infrared Sounding and 3D Winds Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2017-12-01

    MISTiCTM Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a ESPA-Class (50 kg) micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sun-synchronous sounding constellation that would provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. In this third year of a NASA Instrument incubator program, the compact infrared spectrometer has been integrated into an airborne version of the instrument for high-altitude flights on a NASA ER2. The purpose of these airborne tests is to examine the potential for improved capabilities for tracking atmospheric motion-vector wind tracer features, and determining their height using hyper-spectral sounding and

  3. MISTiC Winds, a Micro-Satellite Constellation Approach to High Resolution Observations of the Atmosphere Using Infrared Sounding and 3D Winds Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2016-01-01

    MISTiC(TM) Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiCs extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenasat much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  4. MISTiC Winds: A micro-satellite constellation approach to high resolution observations of the atmosphere using infrared sounding and 3D winds measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2016-09-01

    MISTiCTM Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  5. Mistic winds, a microsatellite constellation approach to high-resolution observations of the atmosphere using infrared sounding and 3d winds measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2016-10-01

    MISTiC Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  6. High-resolution T1-weighted 3D real IR imaging of the temporal bone using triple-dose contrast material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, 466-8550, Nagoya (Japan); Aoki, Ikuo [Medical System Company, Toshiba Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    The small structures in the temporal bone are surrounded by bone and air. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images acquired by fast spin-echo-based three-dimensional real inversion recovery (3D rIR) against those acquired by gradient echo-based 3D SPGR in the visualization of the enhancement of small structures in the temporal bone, and (b) to determine whether either 3D rIR or 3D SPGR is useful for visualizing enhancement of the cochlear lymph fluid. Seven healthy men (age range 27-46 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All MR imaging was performed using a dedicated bilateral quadrature surface phased-array coil for temporal bone imaging at 1.5 T (Visart EX, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan). The 3D rIR images (TR/TE/TI: 1800 ms/10 ms/500 ms) and flow-compensated 3D SPGR images (TR/TE/FA: 23 ms/10 ms/25 ) were obtained with a reconstructed voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm{sup 3}. Images were acquired before and 1, 90, 180, and 270 min after the administration of triple-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (0.3 mmol/kg). In post-contrast MR images, the degree of enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct, endolymphatic sac, subarcuate artery, geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve, and cochlear lymph fluid space was assessed by two radiologists. The degree of enhancement was scored as follows: 0 (no enhancement); 1 (slight enhancement); 2 (intermediate between 1 and 3); and 3 (enhancement similar to that of vessels). Enhancement scores for the endolymphatic sac, subarcuate artery, and geniculate ganglion were higher in 3D rIR than in 3D SPGR. Washout of enhancement in the endolymphatic sac appeared to be delayed compared with that in the subarcuate artery, suggesting that the enhancement in the endolymphatic sac may have been due in part to non-vascular tissue enhancement. Enhancement of the cochlear lymph space was not observed in any of the subjects in 3D rIR and 3D SPGR. The 3D rIR sequence may be more sensitive than the 3D SPGR sequence in

  7. An ROI multi-resolution compression method for 3D-HEVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chunli; Guan, Yudong; Xu, Guodong; Teng, Yidan; Miao, Xinyuan

    2017-09-01

    3D High Efficiency Video Coding (3D-HEVC) provides a significant potential on increasing the compression ratio of multi-view RGB-D videos. However, the bit rate still rises dramatically with the improvement of the video resolution, which will bring challenges to the transmission network, especially the mobile network. This paper propose an ROI multi-resolution compression method for 3D-HEVC to better preserve the information in ROI on condition of limited bandwidth. This is realized primarily through ROI extraction and compression multi-resolution preprocessed video as alternative data according to the network conditions. At first, the semantic contours are detected by the modified structured forests to restrain the color textures inside objects. The ROI is then determined utilizing the contour neighborhood along with the face region and foreground area of the scene. Secondly, the RGB-D videos are divided into slices and compressed via 3D-HEVC under different resolutions for selection by the audiences and applications. Afterwards, the reconstructed low-resolution videos from 3D-HEVC encoder are directly up-sampled via Laplace transformation and used to replace the non-ROI areas of the high-resolution videos. Finally, the ROI multi-resolution compressed slices are obtained by compressing the ROI preprocessed videos with 3D-HEVC. The temporal and special details of non-ROI are reduced in the low-resolution videos, so the ROI will be better preserved by the encoder automatically. Experiments indicate that the proposed method can keep the key high-frequency information with subjective significance while the bit rate is reduced.

  8. SU-F-J-93: Automated Segmentation of High-Resolution 3D WholeBrain Spectroscopic MRI for Glioblastoma Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreibmann, E; Shu, H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Cordova, J; Gurbani, S; Holder, C; Cooper, L; Shim, H [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We report on an automated segmentation algorithm for defining radiation therapy target volumes using spectroscopic MR images (sMRI) acquired at nominal voxel resolution of 100 microliters. Methods: Wholebrain sMRI combining 3D echo-planar spectroscopic imaging, generalized auto-calibrating partially-parallel acquisitions, and elliptical k-space encoding were conducted on 3T MRI scanner with 32-channel head coil array creating images. Metabolite maps generated include choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA), as well as Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cr ratio maps. Automated segmentation was achieved by concomitantly considering sMRI metabolite maps with standard contrast enhancing (CE) imaging in a pipeline that first uses the water signal for skull stripping. Subsequently, an initial blob of tumor region is identified by searching for regions of FLAIR abnormalities that also display reduced NAA activity using a mean ratio correlation and morphological filters. These regions are used as starting point for a geodesic level-set refinement that adapts the initial blob to the fine details specific to each metabolite. Results: Accuracy of the segmentation model was tested on a cohort of 12 patients that had sMRI datasets acquired pre, mid and post-treatment, providing a broad range of enhancement patterns. Compared to classical imaging, where heterogeneity in the tumor appearance and shape across posed a greater challenge to the algorithm, sMRI’s regions of abnormal activity were easily detected in the sMRI metabolite maps when combining the detail available in the standard imaging with the local enhancement produced by the metabolites. Results can be imported in the treatment planning, leading in general increase in the target volumes (GTV60) when using sMRI+CE MRI compared to the standard CE MRI alone. Conclusion: Integration of automated segmentation of sMRI metabolite maps into planning is feasible and will likely streamline acceptance of this

  9. Initial high-resolution microscopic mapping of active and inactive regulatory sequences proves non-random 3D arrangements in chromatin domain clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Marion; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Markaki, Yolanda; Hellmann, Ines; Maiser, Andreas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; John, Sam; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Cremer, Thomas

    2017-08-07

    The association of active transcription regulatory elements (TREs) with DNAse I hypersensitivity (DHS[+]) and an 'open' local chromatin configuration has long been known. However, the 3D topography of TREs within the nuclear landscape of individual cells in relation to their active or inactive status has remained elusive. Here, we explored the 3D nuclear topography of active and inactive TREs in the context of a recently proposed model for a functionally defined nuclear architecture, where an active and an inactive nuclear compartment (ANC-INC) form two spatially co-aligned and functionally interacting networks. Using 3D structured illumination microscopy, we performed 3D FISH with differently labeled DNA probe sets targeting either sites with DHS[+], apparently active TREs, or DHS[-] sites harboring inactive TREs. Using an in-house image analysis tool, DNA targets were quantitatively mapped on chromatin compaction shaped 3D nuclear landscapes. Our analyses present evidence for a radial 3D organization of chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) with layers of increasing chromatin compaction from the periphery to the CDC core. Segments harboring active TREs are significantly enriched at the decondensed periphery of CDCs with loops penetrating into interchromatin compartment channels, constituting the ANC. In contrast, segments lacking active TREs (DHS[-]) are enriched toward the compacted interior of CDCs (INC). Our results add further evidence in support of the ANC-INC network model. The different 3D topographies of DHS[+] and DHS[-] sites suggest positional changes of TREs between the ANC and INC depending on their functional state, which might provide additional protection against an inappropriate activation. Our finding of a structural organization of CDCs based on radially arranged layers of different chromatin compaction levels indicates a complex higher-order chromatin organization beyond a dichotomic classification of chromatin into an 'open,' active and 'closed

  10. High resolution 3D laboratory x-ray tomography data of femora from young, 1–14 day old C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emely L. Bortel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains high resolution (1.2 µm effective pixel size lab-based micro-computed tomography (µCT reconstructed volume data of the femoral mid-shafts from young C57BL/6 mice. This data formed the basis for the analyses of bone structural development in healthy mice, including closed and open porosity as reported in Bortel et al. [1]. The data reveals changes seen in bone material and porosity distribution observed when mouse bones transform from porous scaffolds into solid structures during normal organogenesis.

  11. Three dimensional and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear. Normal ears and anomaly scanned with 3D-CISS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Uechi, Yoko; Honjyo, Shiro; Yamashita, Koichi; Tonami, Hisao.

    1997-01-01

    The MRI system used in this study was a new scanning sequence, 3D-CISS (Three dimensional-constructive interference in steady state) with 1.5 Tesla. Ten normal ears and one ear with Mondini type anomaly were scanned and reconstructed. In imagings of normal inner ears, the cochlea has three spiral layers; basal, middle and apical turns. Each turn was separated into three parts; the scala vestibuli, osseous spiral lamina and scala tympani. Three semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule were also reconstructed in one frame. In the inner ear of Mondini anomaly, 3D MRI showed cochlear aplasia, hypoplasia of semicircular ducts and widely dilated vestibule. The imaging was identical with findings of ''common cavity''. The anomaly was easily recognized in 3D MRI more than in 2D imagings. The detailed and cubic imagings of the Mondini anomaly in 3D MRI could not be observed with conventional 2D MRI. 3D MRI is not invasive method and can scan a target very quickly. (author)

  12. Seismic attribute detection of faults and fluid pathways within an active strike-slip shear zone: New insights from high-resolution 3D P-Cable™ seismic data along the Hosgri Fault, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluesner, Jared W.; Brothers, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Poststack data conditioning and neural-network seismic attribute workflows are used to detect and visualize faulting and fluid migration pathways within a 13.7 km2 13.7 km2 3D P-Cable™ seismic volume located along the Hosgri Fault Zone offshore central California. The high-resolution 3D volume used in this study was collected in 2012 as part of Pacific Gas and Electric’s Central California Seismic Imaging Project. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data were acquired using a triple-plate boomer source (1.75 kJ) and a short-offset, 14-streamer, P-Cable system. The high-resolution seismic data were processed into a prestack time-migrated 3D volume and publically released in 2014. Postprocessing, we employed dip-steering (dip and azimuth) and structural filtering to enhance laterally continuous events and remove random noise and acquisition artifacts. In addition, the structural filtering was used to enhance laterally continuous edges, such as faults. Following data conditioning, neural-network based meta-attribute workflows were used to detect and visualize faults and probable fluid-migration pathways within the 3D seismic volume. The workflow used in this study clearly illustrates the utility of advanced attribute analysis applied to high-resolution 3D P-Cable data. For example, results from the fault attribute workflow reveal a network of splayed and convergent fault strands within an approximately 1.3 km wide shear zone that is characterized by distinctive sections of transpressional and transtensional dominance. Neural-network chimney attribute calculations indicate that fluids are concentrated along discrete faults in the transtensional zones, but appear to be more broadly distributed amongst fault bounded anticlines and structurally controlled traps in the transpressional zones. These results provide high-resolution, 3D constraints on the relationships between strike-slip fault mechanics, substrate deformation, and fluid migration along an active

  13. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-02-27

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  14. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S.; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C.; Chen, Li min; Landman, Bennett A.; Anderson, Adam W.

    2016-03-01

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  15. Monitoring post-fire changes in species composition and stand structure in boreal forests using high-resolution, 3-D aerial drone data and Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, M.; Morton, D. C.; Cook, B.; Andersen, H. E.; Mack, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The growing frequency and severity of boreal forest fires has important consequences for fire carbon emissions and ecosystem composition. Severe fires are typically associated with high degrees of both canopy and soil organic layer (SOL) consumption, particularly in black spruce stands. Complete canopy consumption can decrease the likelihood of spruce regeneration due to reduced viability of the aerial seedbank. Deeper burning of the SOL increases fire emissions and can expose mineral soil that promotes colonization by broadleaf species. There is mounting evidence that a disturbance-driven shift from spruce to broadleaf forests may indicate an ecological state change with feedbacks to regional and global climate. If post-fire successional dynamics can be characterized at an ecosystem scale using remote sensing data, we will be better equipped to constrain carbon and energy fluxes from SOL losses and albedo changes. In this study, we used Landsat time series, very high-resolution structure-from-motion (SFM) drone imagery, and field measurements to investigate post-fire regrowth 13 years after the 2004 Taylor Complex (TC) fires in interior Alaska. Twenty-seven TC plots span a gradient of moisture conditions and burn severity as estimated by loss of SOL. A range of variables potentially governing seedling species dominance (e.g., moisture status, distance to seed sources) have been collected systematically over the years following fire. In July 2017, we additionally collected drone imagery over 25 of the TC plots. We processed these highly overlapped, nadir-view and oblique angle photos into extremely dense (>700 pts/m2) RGB-colored point clouds using SFM techniques. With these point clouds and high resolution orthomosaics, we estimated: 1) snag heights and biomass, 2) remnant snag fine branching, and 3) species and structure of shrubs and groundcover that have regrown since fire. We additionally assembled a dense Landsat time series arranged by day-of-year to monitor

  16. A Novel 2D Image Compression Algorithm Based on Two Levels DWT and DCT Transforms with Enhanced Minimize-Matrix-Size Algorithm for High Resolution Structured Light 3D Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeq, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Image compression techniques are widely used on 2D image 2D video 3D images and 3D video. There are many types of compression techniques and among the most popular are JPEG and JPEG2000. In this research, we introduce a new compression method based on applying a two level discrete cosine transform (DCT) and a two level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in connection with novel compression steps for high-resolution images. The proposed image compression algorithm consists of four steps. (1) Transform an image by a two level DWT followed by a DCT to produce two matrices: DC- and AC-Matrix, or low and high frequency matrix, respectively, (2) apply a second level DCT on the DC-Matrix to generate two arrays, namely nonzero-array and zero-array, (3) apply the Minimize-Matrix-Size algorithm to the AC-Matrix and to the other high-frequencies generated by the second level DWT, (4) apply arithmetic coding to the output of previous steps. A novel decompression algorithm, Fast-Match-Search algorithm (FMS), is used to reconstruct all high-frequency matrices. The FMS-algorithm computes all compressed data probabilities by using a table of data, and then using a binary search algorithm for finding decompressed data inside the table. Thereafter, all decoded DC-values with the decoded AC-coefficients are combined in one matrix followed by inverse two levels DCT with two levels DWT. The technique is tested by compression and reconstruction of 3D surface patches. Additionally, this technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 algorithm through 2D and 3D root-mean-square-error following reconstruction. The results demonstrate that the proposed compression method has better visual properties than JPEG and JPEG2000 and is able to more accurately reconstruct surface patches in 3D.

  17. 3D geometry and kinematic evolution of the Wadi Mayh sheath fold, Oman, using detailed mapping from high-resolution photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Sam; Searle, Mike

    2017-08-01

    The Wadi Mayh sheath fold in north-eastern Oman is one of the largest and best-exposed sheath folds known, and presents a unique opportunity to better understand this somewhat enigmatic style of deformation. We undertook high-resolution photographic surveying along Wadi Mayh to document the sheath fold in 61 georeferenced panoramic photomerges. Here we present ten such images that provide a structural interpretation of the sheath fold and surrounding structure. We resolve this structure in a simplified three-dimensional model and in two orthogonal cross sections, and propose a kinematic evolution to explain the geometry. The Wadi Mayh sheath fold is the most prominent example within what we suggest is a composite sequence of sheath folds, which is itself enclosed within a SSW-closing recumbent syncline at the base of the major Saih Hatat nappe. Sheath folding is accommodated within Permian Saiq Formation limestones showing carpholite assemblages (6-8 kbar; 275-375 °C). A major discontinuity separates this sequence from enveloping older rock units. The sequence formed during progressive top-to-north, ductile shearing as the overlying nappe migrated northwards with respect to the underthrusting Hulw unit. This process occurred during SSW-directed exhumation of partially subducted continental crust in NE Oman, approximately 15 Ma after obduction of the Oman ophiolite initiated.

  18. Comparison of high-resolution contrast-enhanced 3D MRA with digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of hepatic arterial anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, M.; Tonami, H.; Kuginuki, M.; Yokota, H.; Takashima, S.; Yamamoto, I.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the validity of high-resolution contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in defining hepatic arterial anatomy and to compare this with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRA and DSA were performed in 30 patients. MRA was performed with breath-hold, gadolinium-enhanced, three-dimensional, fast low-angle shot sequence with a 512 pixel matrix. MRA was compared with DSA in terms of image quality and depiction of hepatic arterial anatomy. The agreement in image quality between MRA and DSA was determined with the kappa statistic. RESULTS: With respect to image quality, there was excellent or good correlation between MRA and DSA for the common hepatic artery (κ=0.85), proper hepatic artery (κ=0.72), gastroduodenal artery (κ=0.70), left hepatic artery (κ=0.49), left gastric artery (κ=0.50), splenic artery (κ=0.84), and superior mesenteric artery (κ=0.88). Poor correlation was found for the right hepatic artery (κ=0.18) and right gastric artery (κ=0.38). With regard to hepatic arterial anatomy, MRA correlated correctly with DSA in 28 of the 29 cases, i.e. 97% of patients. CONCLUSION: MRA is a useful technique for the evaluation of the hepatic artery, and for the vast majority of patients, MRA can replace intra-arterial DSA

  19. High spatial resolution free-breathing 3D late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy: quantitative assessment of scar mass and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizino, Maurice B; Tao, Qian; Amersfoort, Jacob; Siebelink, Hans-Marc J; van den Bogaard, Pieter J; van der Geest, Rob J; Lamb, Hildo J

    2018-04-06

    To compare breath-hold (BH) with navigated free-breathing (FB) 3D late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI (LGE-CMR) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were retrospectively included (34 ischaemic cardiomyopathy, 14 non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, three discarded). BH and FB 3D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequences were performed at 3T. FB datasets were reformatted into normal resolution (FB-NR, 1.46x1.46x10mm) and high resolution (FB-HR, isotropic 0.91-mm voxels). Scar mass, scar edge sharpness (SES), SNR and CNR were compared using paired-samples t-test, Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Scar mass was similar in BH and FB-NR (mean ± SD: 15.5±18.0 g vs. 15.5±16.9 g, p=0.997), with good correlation (r=0.953), and no bias (mean difference ± SD: 0.00±5.47 g). FB-NR significantly overestimated scar mass compared with FB-HR (15.5±16.9 g vs 14.4±15.6 g; p=0.007). FB-NR and FB-HR correlated well (r=0.988), but Bland-Altman demonstrated systematic bias (1.15±2.84 g). SES was similar in BH and FB-NR (p=0.947), but significantly higher in FB-HR than FB-NR (pFB-NR (pFB-HR than FB-NR (p<0.01). Navigated free-breathing 3D LGE-CMR allows reliable scar mass quantification comparable to breath-hold. During free-breathing, spatial resolution can be increased resulting in improved sharpness and reduced scar mass. • Navigated free-breathing 3D late gadolinium enhancement is reliable for myocardial scar quantification. • High-resolution 3D late gadolinium enhancement increases scar sharpness • Ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy patients can be imaged using free-breathing LGE CMR.

  20. IMPROVED DETERMINATION OF THE 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} ROTATIONAL FREQUENCY OF NH{sub 3}D{sup +} FROM THE HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTRUM OF THE {nu}{sub 4} INFRARED BAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, J. L.; Cueto, M.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I. [Molecular Physics Department, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir Km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Fuente, A., E-mail: jl.domenech@csic.es [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Apdo. 112, E-28803 Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The high-resolution spectrum of the {nu}{sub 4} band of NH{sub 3}D{sup +} has been measured by difference frequency IR laser spectroscopy in a multipass hollow cathode discharge cell. From the set of molecular constants obtained from the analysis of the spectrum, a value of 262817 {+-} 6 MHz ({+-}3{sigma}) has been derived for the frequency of the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} rotational transition. This value supports the assignment to NH{sub 3}D{sup +} of lines at 262816.7 MHz recorded in radio astronomy observations in Orion-IRc2 and the cold prestellar core B1-bS.

  1. FluidCam 1&2 - UAV-based Fluid Lensing Instruments for High-Resolution 3D Subaqueous Imaging and Automated Remote Biosphere Assessment of Reef Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, V.; Instrella, R.

    2016-02-01

    We present NASA ESTO FluidCam 1 & 2, Visible and NIR Fluid-Lensing-enabled imaging payloads for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Developed as part of a focused 2014 earth science technology grant, FluidCam 1&2 are Fluid-Lensing-based computational optical imagers designed for automated 3D mapping and remote sensing of underwater coastal targets from airborne platforms. Fluid Lensing has been used to map underwater reefs in 3D in American Samoa and Hamelin Pool, Australia from UAV platforms at sub-cm scale, which has proven a valuable tool in modern marine research for marine biosphere assessment and conservation. We share FluidCam 1&2 instrument validation and testing results as well as preliminary processed data from field campaigns. Petabyte-scale aerial survey efforts using Fluid Lensing to image at-risk reefs demonstrate broad applicability to large-scale automated species identification, morphology studies and reef ecosystem characterization for shallow marine environments and terrestrial biospheres, of crucial importance to improving bathymetry data for physical oceanographic models and understanding climate change's impact on coastal zones, global oxygen production, carbon sequestration.

  2. Studies on image quality, high contrast resolution and dose for the axial skeleton and limbs with a new, dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D); Untersuchungen zur Bildqualitaet, Hochkontrastaufloesung und Dosis am Stamm- und Gliedmassenskelett mit einem neuen dedizierten CT-System (ISO-C-3D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.; Kotsianos, D.; Linsenmaier, U. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Fischer, T. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (DE). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie] (and others)

    2002-02-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of 3D-CT imaging of the axial skeleton and different joints of the lower and upper extremities with a new dedicated CT system (ISO-C-3D) based on a mobile isocentric C-arm image amplifier. Material and Methods: 27 cadaveric specimes of different joints of the lower and upper extremities and of the spinal column were examined with 3D-CT imaging (ISO-C-3d). All images were evaluated by 3 radiologists for image quality using a semiquantitative score (score value 1: poor quality; score value 4: excellent quality). In addition, dose measurements and measurements of high contrast resolution were performed in comparison to conventional and low-dose spiral CT using a high contrast phantom (Catphan, Phantom Laboratories). Results: Adequate image quality (mean score values 3-4) could be achieved with an applied dose comparable to low-dose CT in smaller joints such as wrist, elbow, ankle and knee. A remarkably inferior image quality resulted in imaging of the hip, lumbar and thoracic spine (mean score values 2-3) in spite of almost doubling the dose (dose increased by 85 percent). The image quality of shoulder examinations was insufficient (mean score value 1). Phantom studies showed a high-contrast resolution comparable to helical CT in the xy-axis (9 lp/cm). Conclusion: Preliminary results show, that image quality of C-arm-based CT-imaging (ISO-C-3D) seems to be adequate in smaller joints. ISO-C-3D images of the hip and axial skeleton show a decreased image quality, which does not seem to be sufficient for diagnosing subtle fractures. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluierung der 3D-CT-Bildgebung mit einem C-Bogen-basierten dedizierten CT-System (ISO-C-3D, Fa. Siemens) an Extremitaetengelenken und am Stammskelett. Methodik: 27 humane Leichenpraeparate der unteren und oberen Extremitaet sowie des Stammskeletts wurden am ISO-C-3D untersucht und die Bilddaten anhand eines Bildqualitaetsscores von 3 Untersuchern semiquantitativ evaluiert (Score 1: nicht

  3. P-Cable 3D high-resolution seismic data as a powerful tool to characterize subglacial landforms and their genesis: A case study from the SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwald, Benjamin; Planke, Sverre; Matar, Mohammed; Daria Piasecka, Emilia

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution 3D seismic data have significantly increased our knowledge about petroleum reservoirs and submarine geohazards. However, little effort has been undertaken to evaluate the potential of such data for mapping subglacial landforms. The Barents Sea has been subjected to repeated Pleistocene glaciations, which intensively eroded the region, resulting in a generally thin (geology. The seismic data cover an area of 200 km2 in water depths of 380-470 m with a recorded in-line spacing of geology. Therefore high-resolution seismic data is beneficial in identifying and analyzing small-scale glacial structures and their expression in the underlying strata in great detail, contributing to the understanding of processes involved in paleo-ice stream dynamics.

  4. Locoregional deformation pattern of the patellar cartilage after different loading types. High-resolution 3D-MRI volumetry at 3 T in-vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, Annie; Raya, J.; Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern; Zscharn, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze locoregional deformation patterns indicative of contact areas in patellar cartilage after different loading exercises. Materials and Methods: 7 healthy patellae were examined in-vivo before and immediately after standardized loading (kneeling, squatting or knee bends) and after 90 minutes of rest using a sagittal 3D-T1-w FLASH WE sequence (22 msec/ 9.8msec/ 15 / 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.5 mm 3 ) at 3 T. After cartilage segmentation and 3D reconstruction, voxel-based and global precision errors (PR) were calculated. The former were used to determine significant differences in local cartilage thickness. Voxel-based 2σ-thickness difference maps were calculated to visualize locoregional deformation patterns. Global changes in volume (Vol), mean thickness (mTh) and cartilage-bone-interface area (CBIA) were calculated. Results: The voxel-based PR depended on cartilage thickness (D) ranging from 0.12 - 0.35 mm. For D ≥ 1 mm the RF was 3 (2.4 %) for Vol, 0.06 mm (2.0 %) for mTh and 16 mm 2 (1.4 %) for CBIA. The focal cartilage deformation equaled 14 % of the local thickness reduction. The deformation areas were oval and located in the peripheral medial (more vertically oriented, all exercises) and caudo-lateral (more horizontally oriented, kneeling and knee bends) aspects of the patella and were least pronounced in knee bends. Significant changes for Vol/mTh ranged from 2.1 to 3.7 %. Conclusion: This MRI-based study is the first to identify in-vivo voxel-based patellar cartilage deformation patterns indicating contact and loading zones after kneeling and squatting. These zones are anatomically and functionally plausible and may represent areas where stress induced degeneration and subsequent OA can originate. The data may facilitate understanding of individual knee loading properties and help to improve and validate biomechanical models for the knee. (orig.)

  5. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  6. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Paul M; Kley, Nathan J; Clarke, Julia A; Colbert, Matthew W; Morhardt, Ashley C; Cerio, Donald; Cost, Ian N; Cox, Philip G; Daza, Juan D; Early, Catherine M; Echols, M Scott; Henkelman, R Mark; Herdina, A Nele; Holliday, Casey M; Li, Zhiheng; Mahlow, Kristin; Merchant, Samer; Müller, Johannes; Orsbon, Courtney P; Paluh, Daniel J; Thies, Monte L; Tsai, Henry P; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-06-01

    Morphologists have historically had to rely on destructive procedures to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of animals. More recently, however, non-destructive techniques have come to the forefront. These include X-ray computed tomography (CT), which has been used most commonly to examine the mineralized, hard-tissue anatomy of living and fossil metazoans. One relatively new and potentially transformative aspect of current CT-based research is the use of chemical agents to render visible, and differentiate between, soft-tissue structures in X-ray images. Specifically, iodine has emerged as one of the most widely used of these contrast agents among animal morphologists due to its ease of handling, cost effectiveness, and differential affinities for major types of soft tissues. The rapid adoption of iodine-based contrast agents has resulted in a proliferation of distinct specimen preparations and scanning parameter choices, as well as an increasing variety of imaging hardware and software preferences. Here we provide a critical review of the recent contributions to iodine-based, contrast-enhanced CT research to enable researchers just beginning to employ contrast enhancement to make sense of this complex new landscape of methodologies. We provide a detailed summary of recent case studies, assess factors that govern success at each step of the specimen storage, preparation, and imaging processes, and make recommendations for standardizing both techniques and reporting practices. Finally, we discuss potential cutting-edge applications of diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) and the issues that must still be overcome to facilitate the broader adoption of diceCT going forward. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  7. Spatial resolution limits for the isotropic-3D PET detector X’tal cube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp; Tashima, Hideaki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-11

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a popular imaging method in metabolism, neuroscience, and molecular imaging. For dedicated human brain and small animal PET scanners, high spatial resolution is needed to visualize small objects. To improve the spatial resolution, we are developing the X’tal cube, which is our new PET detector to achieve isotropic 3D positioning detectability. We have shown that the X’tal cube can achieve 1 mm{sup 3} uniform crystal identification performance with the Anger-type calculation even at the block edges. We plan to develop the X’tal cube with even smaller 3D grids for sub-millimeter crystal identification. In this work, we investigate spatial resolution of a PET scanner based on the X’tal cube using Monte Carlo simulations for predicting resolution performance in smaller 3D grids. For spatial resolution evaluation, a point source emitting 511 keV photons was simulated by GATE for all physical processes involved in emission and interaction of positrons. We simulated two types of animal PET scanners. The first PET scanner had a detector ring 14.6 cm in diameter composed of 18 detectors. The second PET scanner had a detector ring 7.8 cm in diameter composed of 12 detectors. After the GATE simulations, we converted the interacting 3D position information to digitalized positions for realistic segmented crystals. We simulated several X’tal cubes with cubic crystals from (0.5 mm){sup 3} to (2 mm){sup 3} in size. Also, for evaluating the effect of DOI resolution, we simulated several X’tal cubes with crystal thickness from (0.5 mm){sup 3} to (9 mm){sup 3}. We showed that sub-millimeter spatial resolution was possible using cubic crystals smaller than (1.0 mm){sup 3} even with the assumed physical processes. Also, the weighted average spatial resolutions of both PET scanners with (0.5 mm){sup 3} cubic crystals were 0.53 mm (14.6 cm ring diameter) and 0.48 mm (7.8 cm ring diameter). For the 7.8 cm ring diameter, spatial

  8. High-Resolution Airborne UAV Imagery to Assess Olive Tree Crown Parameters Using 3D Photo Reconstruction: Application in Breeding Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A. Díaz-Varela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of reliable methods for the estimation of crown architecture parameters is a key issue for the quantitative evaluation of tree crop adaptation to environment conditions and/or growing system. In the present work, we developed and tested the performance of a method based on low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV imagery for the estimation of olive crown parameters (tree height and crown diameter in the framework of olive tree breeding programs, both on discontinuous and continuous canopy cropping systems. The workflow involved the image acquisition with consumer-grade cameras on board a UAV and orthomosaic and digital surface model generation using structure-from-motion image reconstruction (without ground point information. Finally, geographical information system analyses and object-based classification were used for the calculation of tree parameters. Results showed a high agreement between remote sensing estimation and field measurements of crown parameters. This was observed both at the individual tree/hedgerow level (relative RMSE from 6% to 20%, depending on the particular case and also when average values for different genotypes were considered for phenotyping purposes (relative RMSE from 3% to 16%, pointing out the interest and applicability of these data and techniques in the selection scheme of breeding programs.

  9. Investigating the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy using finite element models derived from high-resolution 3D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M; House, M; Jambawalikar, S; Zork, N; Vink, J; Wapner, R; Myers, K

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a strong contributor to perinatal mortality, and preterm infants that survive are at risk for long-term morbidities. During most of pregnancy, appropriate mechanical function of the cervix is required to maintain the developing fetus in utero. Premature cervical softening and subsequent cervical shortening are hypothesized to cause preterm birth. Presently, there is a lack of understanding of the structural and material factors that influence the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. In this study we build finite element models of the pregnant uterus, cervix, and fetal membrane based on magnetic resonance imagining data in order to examine the mechanical function of the cervix under the physiologic loading conditions of pregnancy. We calculate the mechanical loading state of the cervix for two pregnant patients: 22 weeks gestational age with a normal cervical length and 28 weeks with a short cervix. We investigate the influence of (1) anatomical geometry, (2) cervical material properties, and (3) fetal membrane material properties, including its adhesion properties, on the mechanical loading state of the cervix under physiologically relevant intrauterine pressures. Our study demonstrates that membrane-uterus interaction, cervical material modeling, and membrane mechanical properties are factors that must be deliberately and carefully handled in order to construct a high quality mechanical simulation of pregnancy.

  10. Enhancement of catalytic activity of enzymes by heating in anhydrous organic solvents: 3D structure of a modified serine proteinase at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Tyagi, R; Gupta, M N; Singh, T P

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, it is demonstrated that exposure of an enzyme to anhydrous organic solvents at optimized high temperature enhances its catalytic power through local changes at the binding region. Six enzymes, namely, proteinase K, wheat germ acid phosphatase, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, chymotrypsin and trypsin were exposed to acetonitrile at 70 degrees C for three hr. The activities of these enzymes were found to be considerably enhanced. In order to understand the basis of this change in the activity of these enzymes, proteinase K was analyzed in detail using X-ray diffraction method. The overall structure of the enzyme was found to be similar to the native structure in aqueous environment. The hydrogen bonding system of the catalytic triad remained intact after the treatment. However, the water structure in the substrate binding site underwent some rearrangement as some of the water molecules were either displaced or completely absent. The most striking observation concerning the water structure was the complete deletion of the water molecule which occupied the position at the so-called oxyanion hole in the active site of the native enzyme. Three acetonitrile molecules were found in the present structure. All the acetonitrile molecules were located in the recognition site. Interlinked through water molecules, the sites occupied by acetonitrile molecules were independent of water molecules. The acetonitrile molecules are involved in extensive interactions with the protein atoms. The methyl group of one of the acetonitrile molecules (CCN1) interacts simultaneously with the hydrophobic side chains of Leu 96, Ile 107 and Leu 133. The development of such a hydrophobic environment at the recognition site introduced a striking conformation change in Ile 107 by rotating its side chain about C alpha-C beta bond by 180 degrees to bring about the delta-methyl group within the range of attractive van der Waals interactions with the methyl group of CCN1. A similar

  11. 3D laser imaging for ODOT interstate network at true 1-mm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    With the development of 3D laser imaging technology, the latest iteration of : PaveVision3D Ultra can obtain true 1mm resolution 3D data at full-lane coverage in all : three directions at highway speed up to 60MPH. This project provides rapid survey ...

  12. Correction of a Depth-Dependent Lateral Distortion in 3D Super-Resolution Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Carlini

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D localization-based super-resolution microscopy (SR requires correction of aberrations to accurately represent 3D structure. Here we show how a depth-dependent lateral shift in the apparent position of a fluorescent point source, which we term `wobble`, results in warped 3D SR images and provide a software tool to correct this distortion. This system-specific, lateral shift is typically > 80 nm across an axial range of ~ 1 μm. A theoretical analysis based on phase retrieval data from our microscope suggests that the wobble is caused by non-rotationally symmetric phase and amplitude aberrations in the microscope's pupil function. We then apply our correction to the bacterial cytoskeletal protein FtsZ in live bacteria and demonstrate that the corrected data more accurately represent the true shape of this vertically-oriented ring-like structure. We also include this correction method in a registration procedure for dual-color, 3D SR data and show that it improves target registration error (TRE at the axial limits over an imaging depth of 1 μm, yielding TRE values of < 20 nm. This work highlights the importance of correcting aberrations in 3D SR to achieve high fidelity between the measurements and the sample.

  13. Crop 3D-a LiDAR based platform for 3D high-throughput crop phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghua; Wu, Fangfang; Pang, Shuxin; Zhao, Xiaoqian; Chen, Linhai; Liu, Jin; Xue, Baolin; Xu, Guangcai; Li, Le; Jing, Haichun; Chu, Chengcai

    2018-03-01

    With the growing population and the reducing arable land, breeding has been considered as an effective way to solve the food crisis. As an important part in breeding, high-throughput phenotyping can accelerate the breeding process effectively. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology that is capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) data accurately, and has a great potential in crop phenotyping. Given that crop phenotyping based on LiDAR technology is not common in China, we developed a high-throughput crop phenotyping platform, named Crop 3D, which integrated LiDAR sensor, high-resolution camera, thermal camera and hyperspectral imager. Compared with traditional crop phenotyping techniques, Crop 3D can acquire multi-source phenotypic data in the whole crop growing period and extract plant height, plant width, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf inclination angle and other parameters for plant biology and genomics analysis. In this paper, we described the designs, functions and testing results of the Crop 3D platform, and briefly discussed the potential applications and future development of the platform in phenotyping. We concluded that platforms integrating LiDAR and traditional remote sensing techniques might be the future trend of crop high-throughput phenotyping.

  14. [Controlled evaluation of a high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic detector system (3D-MAGMA) as a proof of concept - examination of healthy volunteers before and after application of Metoclopramide (MCP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, V Y P; Stallmach, A; Felber, J

    2016-06-01

    Changes in gastric and small bowel motility are a common clinical problem. Currently diagnostic options are limited because each method harbors certain disadvantages. It has been shown that the high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic detector system 3D-MAGMA is capable of reliably measuring gastric and small intestine motor activity. This system allows precise localization of a small magnetic marker and determination of its three-dimensional orientation inside a human body. The aim of the current study was to determine if 3D-MAGMA is reliably able to detect changes in gastric and small bowel motility under controlled conditions. MCP was used as a well known prokinetic agent to shorten the gastric and small bowel passage. 8 healthy volunteers (fasting) underwent motility testing of the stomach and small bowel by 3D-MAGMA with and without administration of MCP (10 mg orally). Among other data the time the capsule needed to pass through the stomach and the duodenum and the time the capsule needed to pass through the first 50 cm of the jejunum were recorded. The retention time of the capsule in the stomach under physiological conditions was 49.1 minutes (median; min. 18 min; max. 88.8 min). The median time the capsule needed to pass through the duodenum was 13.8 minutes (median; min. 1.7 min; max. 24.8 min). The time the capsule needed to pass through the first 50 cm of the jejunum under physiological conditions was 33.0 minutes (median; min. 20.2 min; max. 67.2 min). The retention time of the capsule in the stomach decreased significantly after administration of MCP to 20.9 minutes (median; min. 1.7 min; max. 62.8 min; p = 0.008). The time the capsule needed to pass through the duodenum was also reduced to 7.1 minutes (median; min. 3.1 min; max. 18.3 min; p = 0.055). The time the capsule needed to pass through the first 50 cm of the jejunum was also reduced to 21.7 minutes (median; min. 10.7 min; max. 31.2 min; p = 0.069). 3D-MAGMA is able

  15. A 3D HIDAC-PET camera with sub-millimeter resolution for imaging small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeavons, A.P.; Chandler, R.A.; Dettmar, C.A.R.

    1999-01-01

    A HIDAC-PET camera consisting essentially of 5 million 0.5 mm gas avalanching detectors has been constructed for small-animal imaging. The particular HIDAC advantage--a high 3D spatial resolution--has been improved to 0.95 mm fwhm and to 0.7 mm fwhm when reconstructing with 3D-OSEM methods incorporating resolution recovery. A depth-of-interaction resolution of 2.5 mm is implicit, due to the laminar construction. Scatter-corrected sensitivity, at 8.9 cps/kBq (i.e. 0.9%) from a central point source, or 7.2 cps/kBq (543 cps/kBq/cm 3 ) from a distributed (40 mm diameter, 60 mm long) source is now much higher than previous, and other, work. A field-of-view of 100 mm (adjustable to 200 mm) diameter by 210 mm axially permits whole-body imaging of small animals, containing typically 4MBqs of activity, at 40 kcps of which 16% are random coincidences, with a typical scatter fraction of 44%. Throughout the field-of-view there are no positional distortions and relative quantitation is uniform to ± 3.5%, but some variation of spatial resolution is found. The performance demonstrates that HIDAC technology is quite appropriate for small-animal PET cameras

  16. The Enhancement of 3D Scans Depth Resolution Obtained by Confocal Scanning of Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martisek, Dalibor; Prochazkova, Jana

    2017-12-01

    The 3D reconstruction of simple structured materials using a confocal microscope is widely used in many different areas including civil engineering. Nonetheless, scans of porous materials such as concrete or cement paste are highly problematic. The well-known problem of these scans is low depth resolution in comparison to the horizontal and vertical resolution. The degradation of the image depth resolution is caused by systematic errors and especially by different random events. Our method is focused on the elimination of such random events, mainly the additive noise. We use an averaging method based on the Lindeberg-Lévy theorem that improves the final depth resolution to a level comparable with horizontal and vertical resolution. Moreover, using the least square method, we also precisely determine the limit value of a depth resolution. Therefore, we can continuously evaluate the difference between current resolution and the optimal one. This substantially simplifies the scanning process because the operator can easily determine the required number of scans.

  17. The Enhancement of 3D Scans Depth Resolution Obtained by Confocal Scanning of Porous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martisek Dalibor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction of simple structured materials using a confocal microscope is widely used in many different areas including civil engineering. Nonetheless, scans of porous materials such as concrete or cement paste are highly problematic. The well-known problem of these scans is low depth resolution in comparison to the horizontal and vertical resolution. The degradation of the image depth resolution is caused by systematic errors and especially by different random events. Our method is focused on the elimination of such random events, mainly the additive noise. We use an averaging method based on the Lindeberg-Lévy theorem that improves the final depth resolution to a level comparable with horizontal and vertical resolution. Moreover, using the least square method, we also precisely determine the limit value of a depth resolution. Therefore, we can continuously evaluate the difference between current resolution and the optimal one. This substantially simplifies the scanning process because the operator can easily determine the required number of scans.

  18. Serum induced degradation of 3D DNA box origami observed by high speed atomic force microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Chuanxu

    2015-01-01

    3D DNA origami holds tremendous potential to encapsulate and selectively release therapeutic drugs. Observations of real-time performance of 3D DNA origami structures in physiological environment will contribute much to its further applications. Here, we investigate the degradation kinetics of 3D...... DNA box origami in serum using high-speed atomic force microscope optimized for imaging 3D DNA origami in real time. The time resolution allows characterizing the stages of serum effects on individual 3D DNA box origami with nanometer resolution. Our results indicate that the whole digest process...... is a combination of a rapid collapse phase and a slow degradation phase. The damages of box origami mainly happen in the collapse phase. Thus, the structure stability of 3D DNA box origami should be further improved, especially in the collapse phase, before clinical applications...

  19. Reliable planning and monitoring tools by dismantling 3D photographic image of high resolution and document management systems. Application MEDS system; Planificacion fiable y seguimiento del desmantelamiento mediante herramientas 3D, imagen fotografica de alta resolucion y sistemas de gestion documental. Aplicacion del sistema MEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela Morales, F.

    2010-07-01

    MEDS system (Metric Environment Documentation System) is a method developed by CT3 based engineering documentation generation metric of a physical environment using measurement tools latest technology and high precision, such as the Laser Scanner. With this equipment it is possible to obtain three-dimensional information of a physical environment through the 3D coordinates of millions of points. This information is processed by software that is very useful tool for modeling operations and 3D simulations.

  20. 3D single-molecule super-resolution microscopy with a tilted light sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Anna-Karin; Petrov, Petar N; Lee, Maurice Y; Shechtman, Yoav; Moerner, W E

    2018-01-09

    Tilted light sheet microscopy with 3D point spread functions (TILT3D) combines a novel, tilted light sheet illumination strategy with long axial range point spread functions (PSFs) for low-background, 3D super-localization of single molecules as well as 3D super-resolution imaging in thick cells. Because the axial positions of the single emitters are encoded in the shape of each single-molecule image rather than in the position or thickness of the light sheet, the light sheet need not be extremely thin. TILT3D is built upon a standard inverted microscope and has minimal custom parts. The result is simple and flexible 3D super-resolution imaging with tens of nm localization precision throughout thick mammalian cells. We validate TILT3D for 3D super-resolution imaging in mammalian cells by imaging mitochondria and the full nuclear lamina using the double-helix PSF for single-molecule detection and the recently developed tetrapod PSFs for fiducial bead tracking and live axial drift correction.

  1. 3D Super-Resolution Motion-Corrected MRI: Validation of Fetal Posterior Fossa Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Danielle B; Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Clancy, Sean; Kapur, Kush; Estroff, Judy A; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-09-01

    Current diagnosis of fetal posterior fossa anomalies by sonography and conventional MRI is limited by fetal position, motion, and by two-dimensional (2D), rather than three-dimensional (3D), representation. In this study, we aimed to validate the use of a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, 3D super-resolution motion-corrected MRI, to image the fetal posterior fossa. From a database of pregnant women who received fetal MRIs at our institution, images of 49 normal fetal brains were reconstructed. Six measurements of the cerebellum, vermis, and pons were obtained for all cases on 2D conventional and 3D reconstructed MRI, and the agreement between the two methods was determined using concordance correlation coefficients. Concordance of axial and coronal measurements of the transcerebellar diameter was also assessed within each method. Between the two methods, the concordance of measurements was high for all six structures (P fetal motion and orthogonal slice acquisition. This technique will facilitate further study of fetal abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Fabrication of highly modulable fibrous 3D extracellular microenvironments

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Fangfei; Syed, Ahad; Bukhari, Ebtihaj M.; Siang, Basil Chew Joo; Yang, Shan; Zhou, Bingpu; Wen, Wei-jia; Jiang, Dechen

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro scaffolds that mimic the irregular fibrous structures of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) are critical for many important biological applications. However, structural properties modulation of fibrous 3D scaffolds remains a challenge. Here, we report the first highly modulable 3D fibrous scaffolds self-assembled by high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microfibers. The scaffolds structural properties can be easily tailored to incorporate various physical cues, including geometry, stiffness, heterogeneity and nanotopography. Moreover, the fibrous scaffolds are readily and accurately patterned on desired locations of the substrate. Cell culture exhibits that our scaffolds can elicit strong bidirectional cell-material interactions. Furthermore, a functional disparity between the two-dimensional substrate and our 3D scaffolds is identified by cell spreading and proliferation data. These results prove the potential of the proposed scaffold as a biomimetic extracellular microenvironment for cell study.

  3. Fabrication of highly modulable fibrous 3D extracellular microenvironments

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-06-13

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro scaffolds that mimic the irregular fibrous structures of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) are critical for many important biological applications. However, structural properties modulation of fibrous 3D scaffolds remains a challenge. Here, we report the first highly modulable 3D fibrous scaffolds self-assembled by high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microfibers. The scaffolds structural properties can be easily tailored to incorporate various physical cues, including geometry, stiffness, heterogeneity and nanotopography. Moreover, the fibrous scaffolds are readily and accurately patterned on desired locations of the substrate. Cell culture exhibits that our scaffolds can elicit strong bidirectional cell-material interactions. Furthermore, a functional disparity between the two-dimensional substrate and our 3D scaffolds is identified by cell spreading and proliferation data. These results prove the potential of the proposed scaffold as a biomimetic extracellular microenvironment for cell study.

  4. Spatial resolution properties in 3D fast spin-echo using variable refocusing flip angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Masanori; Mizukami, Shinya; Hata, Hirofumi; Sato, Mayumi; Komi, Syotaro; Miyati, Tosiaki; Nozaki, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A new 3-dimensional fast spin-echo (3D FSE) method that uses a variable refocusing flip angle technique has recently been applied to imaging. The imaging pulse sequence can inhibit T 2 decay by varying the refocusing flip angle. Use of a long echo train length allows acquisition of 3D T 2 -weighted images with less blurring in a short scan time. The smaller refocusing flip angle in the new 3D FSE method than in the conventional method can reduce the specific absorption rate. However, T 2 decay differs between the new and conventional 3D FSE methods, so the resolution properties of the 2 methods may differ. We investigated the resolution properties of the new 3D FSE method using a variable refocusing flip angle technique. Varying the refocusing flip angle resulted in different resolution properties for the new 3D FSE method compared to the conventional method, a difference particularly noticeable when the imaging parameters were set for obtaining proton density weighted images. (author)

  5. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  6. Controlling Shear Stress in 3D Bioprinting is a Key Factor to Balance Printing Resolution and Stem Cell Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaeser, Andreas; Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Puster, Uta; Richtering, Walter; Stevens, Molly M; Fischer, Horst

    2016-02-04

    A microvalve-based bioprinting system for the manufacturing of high-resolution, multimaterial 3D-structures is reported. Applying a straightforward fluid-dynamics model, the shear stress at the nozzle site can precisely be controlled. Using this system, a broad study on how cell viability and proliferation potential are affected by different levels of shear stress is conducted. Complex, multimaterial 3D structures are printed with high resolution. This work pioneers the investigation of shear stress-induced cell damage in 3D bioprinting and might help to comprehend and improve the outcome of cell-printing studies in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High-speed 3D surface measurement with mechanical projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a method to overcome the light spectral range limitation of using digital-light-processing (DLP) projector for 3D shape measurement by developing a mechanical projector. The mechanical projector enables much broader spectral range of light than that the DLP projector allows. The rapidly spinning disk with binary structures can generate desired sinusoidal patterns at a frequency of 10 kHz or higher with a single DC motor. By precisely synchronizing the camera with the projector, phase-shifted fringe patterns can be accurately captured for high-accuracy 3D shape measurement. We further employed a computational framework that could enable absolute phase and thus absolute 3D shape measurement. We developed such prototype system that experimentally demonstrated the success of the proposed method.

  8. Tilted Light Sheet Microscopy with 3D Point Spread Functions for Single-Molecule Super-Resolution Imaging in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Anna-Karin; Petrov, Petar N; Lee, Maurice Y; Shechtman, Yoav; Moerner, W E

    2018-02-01

    To obtain a complete picture of subcellular nanostructures, cells must be imaged with high resolution in all three dimensions (3D). Here, we present tilted light sheet microscopy with 3D point spread functions (TILT3D), an imaging platform that combines a novel, tilted light sheet illumination strategy with engineered long axial range point spread functions (PSFs) for low-background, 3D super localization of single molecules as well as 3D super-resolution imaging in thick cells. TILT3D is built upon a standard inverted microscope and has minimal custom parts. The axial positions of the single molecules are encoded in the shape of the PSF rather than in the position or thickness of the light sheet, and the light sheet can therefore be formed using simple optics. The result is flexible and user-friendly 3D super-resolution imaging with tens of nm localization precision throughout thick mammalian cells. We validated TILT3D for 3D super-resolution imaging in mammalian cells by imaging mitochondria and the full nuclear lamina using the double-helix PSF for single-molecule detection and the recently developed Tetrapod PSF for fiducial bead tracking and live axial drift correction. We envision TILT3D to become an important tool not only for 3D super-resolution imaging, but also for live whole-cell single-particle and single-molecule tracking.

  9. Automated Finger Spelling by Highly Realistic 3D Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Beni, Gerardo

    2004-01-01

    We present the design of a new 3D animation tool for self-teaching (signing and reading) finger spelling the first basic component in learning any sign language. We have designed a highly realistic hand with natural animation of the finger motions. Smoothness of motion (in real time) is achieved via programmable blending of animation segments. The…

  10. Array diagnostics, spatial resolution, and filtering of undesired radiation with the 3D reconstruction algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Jørgensen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on three important features of the 3D reconstruction algorithm of DIATOOL: the identification of array elements improper functioning and failure, the obtainable spatial resolution of the reconstructed fields and currents, and the filtering of undesired radiation and scattering...

  11. Impact of mesh and DEM resolutions in SEM simulation of 3D seismic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Saad; van der Meijde, M.; van der Werff, H.M.A.; Shafique, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study shows that the resolution of a digital elevation model (DEM) and model mesh strongly influences 3D simulations of seismic response. Topographic heterogeneity scatters seismic waves and causes variation in seismic response (am-plification and deamplification of seismic amplitudes) at the

  12. Tilted light sheet microscopy with 3D point spread functions for single-molecule super-resolution imaging in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Anna-Karin; Petrov, Petar N.; Lee, Maurice Y.; Shechtman, Yoav; Moerner, W. E.

    2018-02-01

    To obtain a complete picture of subcellular nanostructures, cells must be imaged with high resolution in all three dimensions (3D). Here, we present tilted light sheet microscopy with 3D point spread functions (TILT3D), an imaging platform that combines a novel, tilted light sheet illumination strategy with engineered long axial range point spread functions (PSFs) for low-background, 3D super localization of single molecules as well as 3D super-resolution imaging in thick cells. TILT3D is built upon a standard inverted microscope and has minimal custom parts. The axial positions of the single molecules are encoded in the shape of the PSF rather than in the position or thickness of the light sheet, and the light sheet can therefore be formed using simple optics. The result is flexible and user-friendly 3D super-resolution imaging with tens of nm localization precision throughout thick mammalian cells. We validated TILT3D for 3D superresolution imaging in mammalian cells by imaging mitochondria and the full nuclear lamina using the double-helix PSF for single-molecule detection and the recently developed Tetrapod PSF for fiducial bead tracking and live axial drift correction. We envision TILT3D to become an important tool not only for 3D super-resolution imaging, but also for live whole-cell single-particle and single-molecule tracking.

  13. Fine resolution 3D temperature fields off Kerguelen from instrumented penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Park, Young-Hyang; Le Maho, Yvon; Bost, Charles-André

    2004-12-01

    The use of diving animals as autonomous vectors of oceanographic instruments is rapidly increasing, because this approach yields cost-efficient new information and can be used in previously poorly sampled areas. However, methods for analyzing the collected data are still under development. In particular, difficulties may arise from the heterogeneous data distribution linked to animals' behavior. Here we show how raw temperature data collected by penguin-borne loggers were transformed to a regular gridded dataset that provided new information on the local circulation off Kerguelen. A total of 16 king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) were equipped with satellite-positioning transmitters and with temperature-time-depth recorders (TTDRs) to record dive depth and sea temperature. The penguins' foraging trips recorded during five summers ranged from 140 to 600 km from the colony and 11,000 dives >100 m were recorded. Temperature measurements recorded during diving were used to produce detailed 3D temperature fields of the area (0-200 m). The data treatment included dive location, determination of the vertical profile for each dive, averaging and gridding of those profiles onto 0.1°×0.1° cells, and optimal interpolation in both the horizontal and vertical using an objective analysis. Horizontal fields of temperature at the surface and 100 m are presented, as well as a vertical section along the main foraging direction of the penguins. Compared to conventional temperature databases (Levitus World Ocean Atlas and historical stations available in the area), the 3D temperature fields collected from penguins are extremely finely resolved, by one order finer. Although TTDRs were less accurate than conventional instruments, such a high spatial resolution of penguin-derived data provided unprecedented detailed information on the upper level circulation pattern east of Kerguelen, as well as the iron-enrichment mechanism leading to a high primary production over the Kerguelen

  14. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  15. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Eric M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  16. Non Invasive 3D Characterization of Materials at Multi scale Resolution in Correlative and 4D microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a suite of novel lab-based X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems for high contrast 3D characterization of hard to soft materials with resolution across length scales. The system has similar resolution and contrast range obtained from x-ray micro and nano tomography systems in synchrotron radiation facilities, except it makes use of conventional lab sources. Samples with dimensions from several cm to several microns may be imaged non invasively at varying resolution from tens of microns to 20 nm voxel. The novel multi scale CT helps bridge the resolution, scaling and 3D visualization gap in the traditional destructive 2D imaging modalities such as optical microscopes, AFM, SEM, SEM-FIB and TEM. It provides a direct non-invasive volumetric imaging technique at the macro to nano scale, making it ideal for accurate prediction and modeling of whole systems and components. For example, using 3D visualization, segmentation and computational analysis tools, pore networks, FEA, fluid, thermal and ionic transport in various systems and materials from ceramics, geo materials, composites, metals, and coatings may be characterized and modeled. The high resolution and unique phase contrast features of the novel CTs also lend themselves very well to characterize inherently low contrast soft materials such as polymers; membranes and biological tissue or to differentiate small differences in material and mineral phases in geo material and composites. Tomography of samples may be acquired at different volume vs resolution using local tomography technique, often without sample destruction. In the emerging field of 3D correlative microscopy, these larger CT volumetric data sets can be correlated at the different length scales with conventional 2D imaging modalities. For example, after a CT scan, specimen may undergo destructive sample sectioning at specific region of interest, to obtain the corresponding 2D slices with SEM and TEM or with X-ray microanalysis derive its

  17. High-Speed 3D Printing of High-Performance Thermosetting Polymers via Two-Stage Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiao; Zhao, Zeang; Chen, Kaijuan; Fang, Daining; Kang, Guozheng; Qi, Hang Jerry

    2018-04-01

    Design and direct fabrication of high-performance thermosets and composites via 3D printing are highly desirable in engineering applications. Most 3D printed thermosetting polymers to date suffer from poor mechanical properties and low printing speed. Here, a novel ink for high-speed 3D printing of high-performance epoxy thermosets via a two-stage curing approach is presented. The ink containing photocurable resin and thermally curable epoxy resin is used for the digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing. After printing, the part is thermally cured at elevated temperature to yield an interpenetrating polymer network epoxy composite, whose mechanical properties are comparable to engineering epoxy. The printing speed is accelerated by the continuous liquid interface production assisted DLP 3D printing method, achieving a printing speed as high as 216 mm h -1 . It is also demonstrated that 3D printing structural electronics can be achieved by combining the 3D printed epoxy composites with infilled silver ink in the hollow channels. The new 3D printing method via two-stage curing combines the attributes of outstanding printing speed, high resolution, low volume shrinkage, and excellent mechanical properties, and provides a new avenue to fabricate 3D thermosetting composites with excellent mechanical properties and high efficiency toward high-performance and functional applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Reusable High Aspect Ratio 3-D Nickel Shadow Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandhi, M.M.H.; Leber, M.; Hogan, A.; Warren, D.J.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Shadow Mask technology has been used over the years for resistless patterning and to pattern on unconventional surfaces, fragile substrate and biomaterial. In this work, we are presenting a novel method to fabricate high aspect ratio (15:1) three-dimensional (3D) Nickel (Ni) shadow mask with vertical pattern length and width of 1.2 mm and 40 μm respectively. The Ni shadow mask is 1.5 mm tall and 100 μm wide at the base. The aspect ratio of the shadow mask is 15. Ni shadow mask is mechanically robust and hence easy to handle. It is also reusable and used to pattern the sidewalls of unconventional and complex 3D geometries such as microneedles or neural electrodes (such as the Utah array). The standard Utah array has 100 active sites at the tip of the shaft. Using the proposed high aspect ratio Ni shadow mask, the Utah array can accommodate 300 active sites, 200 of which will be along and around the shaft. The robust Ni shadow mask is fabricated using laser patterning and electroplating techniques. The use of Ni 3D shadow mask will lower the fabrication cost, complexity and time for patterning out-of-plane structures. PMID:29056835

  19. 3-D Mapping Technologies For High Level Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-01-01

    time-of-flight data (3D image) collected with a single laser pulse, high frame rates, direct calculation of range, blur-free images without motion distortion, no need for precision scanning mechanisms, ability to combine 3D flash LIDAR with 2D cameras for 2D texture over 3D depth, and no moving parts. The major disadvantage of the 3D flash LIDAR camera is the cost of approximately $150,000, not including the software development time and repackaging of the camera for deployment in the waste tanks.

  20. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The point-spread function measure of resolution for the 3-D electrical resistivity experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenborger, Greg A.; Routh, Partha S.

    2009-02-01

    The solution appraisal component of the inverse problem involves investigation of the relationship between our estimated model and the actual model. However, full appraisal is difficult for large 3-D problems such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We tackle the appraisal problem for 3-D ERT via the point-spread functions (PSFs) of the linearized resolution matrix. The PSFs represent the impulse response of the inverse solution and quantify our parameter-specific resolving capability. We implement an iterative least-squares solution of the PSF for the ERT experiment, using on-the-fly calculation of the sensitivity via an adjoint integral equation with stored Green's functions and subgrid reduction. For a synthetic example, analysis of individual PSFs demonstrates the truly 3-D character of the resolution. The PSFs for the ERT experiment are Gaussian-like in shape, with directional asymmetry and significant off-diagonal features. Computation of attributes representative of the blurring and localization of the PSF reveal significant spatial dependence of the resolution with some correlation to the electrode infrastructure. Application to a time-lapse ground-water monitoring experiment demonstrates the utility of the PSF for assessing feature discrimination, predicting artefacts and identifying model dependence of resolution. For a judicious selection of model parameters, we analyse the PSFs and their attributes to quantify the case-specific localized resolving capability and its variability over regions of interest. We observe approximate interborehole resolving capability of less than 1-1.5m in the vertical direction and less than 1-2.5m in the horizontal direction. Resolving capability deteriorates significantly outside the electrode infrastructure.

  3. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    , current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI...

  4. Fast MR Imaging of the Paediatric Abdomen with CAIPIRINHA-Accelerated T1w 3D FLASH and with High-Resolution T2w HASTE: A Study on Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxia Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the applicability of fast MR techniques to routine paediatric abdominopelvic MRI at 1.5 Tesla. “Controlled Aliasing in Parallel Imaging Results in Higher Acceleration-” (CAIPIRINHA- accelerated contrast-enhanced-T1w 3D FLASH imaging was compared to standard T1w 2D FLASH imaging with breath-holding in 40 paediatric patients and to respiratory-triggered T1w TSE imaging in 10 sedated young children. In 20 nonsedated patients, we compared T2w TIRM to fat-saturated T2w HASTE imaging. Two observers performed an independent and blinded assessment of overall image quality. Acquisition time was reduced by the factor of 15 with CAIPIRINHA-accelerated T1w FLASH and by 7 with T2w HASTE. With CAIPIRINHA and with HASTE, there were significantly less motion artefacts in nonsedated patients. In sedated patients, respiratory-triggered T1w imaging in general showed better image quality. However, satisfactory image quality was achieved with CAIPIRINHA in two sedated patients where respiratory triggering failed. In summary, fast scanning with CAIPIRINHA and HASTE presents a reliable high quality alternative to standard sequences in paediatric abdominal MRI. Paediatric patients, in particular, benefit greatly from fast image acquisition with less breath-hold cycles or shorter sedation.

  5. High repeatability from 3D experimental platform for quantitative analysis of cellular branch pattern formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Nobata, Rina; Kawahara, Tomohiro

    2018-04-24

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell and tissue cultures more closely mimic biological environments than two-dimensional (2D) cultures and are therefore highly desirable in culture experiments. However, 3D cultures often fail to yield repeatable experimental results because of variation in the initial culture conditions, such as cell density and distribution in the extracellular matrix, and therefore reducing such variation is a paramount concern. Here, we present a 3D culture platform that demonstrates highly repeatable experimental results, obtained by controlling the initial cell cluster shape in the gel cube culture device. A micro-mould with the desired shape was fabricated by photolithography or machining, creating a 3D pocket in the extracellular matrix contained in the device. Highly concentrated human bronchial epithelial cells were then injected in the pocket so that the cell cluster shape matched the fabricated mould shape. Subsequently, the cubic device supplied multi-directional scanning, enabling high-resolution capture of the whole tissue structure with only a low-magnification lens. The proposed device significantly improved the repeatability of the developed branch pattern, and multi-directional scanning enabled quantitative analysis of the developed branch pattern formations. A mathematical simulation was also conducted to reveal the mechanisms of branch pattern formation. The proposed platform offers the potential to accelerate any research field that conducts 3D culture experiments, including tissue regeneration and drug development.

  6. 2D and 3D imaging resolution trade-offs in quantifying pore throats for prediction of permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckingham, Lauren E.; Peters, Catherine A.; Um, Wooyong; Jones, Keith W.; Lindquist, W.Brent

    2013-09-03

    Although the impact of subsurface geochemical reactions on porosity is relatively well understood, changes in permeability remain difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling was used to predict permeability based on pore- and pore-throat size distributions determined from analysis of 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections and 3D X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) data. The analyzed specimens were a Viking sandstone sample from the Alberta sedimentary basin and an experimental column of reacted Hanford sediments. For the column, a decrease in permeability due to mineral precipitation was estimated, but the permeability estimates were dependent on imaging technique and resolution. X-ray CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network while 2D SEM imaging can easily analyze sub-grain and intragranular variations in mineralogy. Pore network models informed by analyses of 2D and 3D images at comparable resolutions produced permeability esti- mates with relatively good agreement. Large discrepancies in predicted permeabilities resulted from small variations in image resolution. Images with resolutions 0.4 to 4 lm predicted permeabilities differ- ing by orders of magnitude. While lower-resolution scans can analyze larger specimens, small pore throats may be missed due to resolution limitations, which in turn overestimates permeability in a pore-network model in which pore-to-pore conductances are statistically assigned. Conversely, high-res- olution scans are capable of capturing small pore throats, but if they are not actually flow-conducting predicted permeabilities will be below expected values. In addition, permeability is underestimated due to misinterpreting surface-roughness features as small pore throats. Comparison of permeability pre- dictions with expected and measured permeability values showed that the largest discrepancies resulted from the highest resolution images and the best predictions of

  7. Airborne 3D Imaging Lidar for Contiguous Decimeter Resolution Terrain Mapping and Shallow Water Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, J. J.; Wells, D. N.; Huet, H.; Chauvet, N.; Lawrence, D. W.; Mitchell, S. E.; Eklund, W. D.

    2005-12-01

    A 3D imaging lidar system, developed for the University of Florida at Gainesville and operating at the water transmissive wavelength of 532 nm, is designed to contiguously map underlying terrain and/or perform shallow water bathymetry on a single overflight from an altitude of 600 m with a swath width of 225 m and a horizontal spatial resolution of 20 cm. Each 600 psec pulse from a frequency-doubled, low power (~3 microjoules @ 8 kHz = 24 mW), passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip laser is passed through a holographic element which projects a 10x10 array of spots onto a 2m x 2m target area. The individual ground spots are then imaged onto individual anodes within a 10x10 segmented anode photomultiplier. The latter is followed by a 100 channel multistop ranging receiver with a range resolution of about 4 cm. The multistop feature permits single photon detection in daylight with wide range gates as well as multiple single photon returns per pixel per laser fire from volumetric scatterers such as tree canopies or turbid water columns. The individual single pulse 3D images are contiguously mosaiced together through the combined action of the platform velocity and a counter-rotating dual wedge optical scanner whose rotations are synchronized to the laser pulse train. The paper provides an overview of the lidar opto-mechanical design, the synchronized dual wedge scanner and servo controller, and the experimental results obtained to date.

  8. Resolution doubling in 3D-STORM imaging through improved buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Nicolas; Keller, Debora; Gönczy, Pierre; Manley, Suliana

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution imaging methods have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy by revealing the nanoscale organization of labeled proteins. In particular, single-molecule methods such as Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) provide resolutions down to a few tens of nanometers by exploiting the cycling of dyes between fluorescent and non-fluorescent states to obtain a sparse population of emitters and precisely localizing them individually. This cycling of dyes is commonly induced by adding different chemicals, which are combined to create a STORM buffer. Despite their importance, the composition of these buffers has scarcely evolved since they were first introduced, fundamentally limiting what can be resolved with STORM. By identifying a new chemical suitable for STORM and optimizing the buffer composition for Alexa-647, we significantly increased the number of photons emitted per cycle by each dye, providing a simple means to enhance the resolution of STORM independently of the optical setup used. Using this buffer to perform 3D-STORM on biological samples, we obtained images with better than 10 nanometer lateral and 30 nanometer axial resolution.

  9. Resolution doubling in 3D-STORM imaging through improved buffers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Olivier

    Full Text Available Super-resolution imaging methods have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy by revealing the nanoscale organization of labeled proteins. In particular, single-molecule methods such as Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM provide resolutions down to a few tens of nanometers by exploiting the cycling of dyes between fluorescent and non-fluorescent states to obtain a sparse population of emitters and precisely localizing them individually. This cycling of dyes is commonly induced by adding different chemicals, which are combined to create a STORM buffer. Despite their importance, the composition of these buffers has scarcely evolved since they were first introduced, fundamentally limiting what can be resolved with STORM. By identifying a new chemical suitable for STORM and optimizing the buffer composition for Alexa-647, we significantly increased the number of photons emitted per cycle by each dye, providing a simple means to enhance the resolution of STORM independently of the optical setup used. Using this buffer to perform 3D-STORM on biological samples, we obtained images with better than 10 nanometer lateral and 30 nanometer axial resolution.

  10. A highly simplified 3D BWR benchmark problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad

    2010-01-01

    The resurgent interest in reactor development associated with the nuclear renaissance has paralleled significant advancements in computer technology, and allowed for unprecedented computational power to be applied to the numerical solution of neutron transport problems. The current generation of core-level solvers relies on a variety of approximate methods (e.g. nodal diffusion theory, spatial homogenization) to efficiently solve reactor problems with limited computer power; however, in recent years, the increased availability of high-performance computer systems has created an interest in the development of new methods and codes (deterministic and Monte Carlo) to directly solve whole-core reactor problems with full heterogeneity (lattice and core level). This paper presents the development of a highly simplified heterogeneous 3D benchmark problem with physics characteristic of boiling water reactors. The aim of this work is to provide a problem for developers to use to validate new whole-core methods and codes which take advantage of the advanced computational capabilities that are now available. Additionally, eigenvalues and an overview of the pin fission density distribution are provided for the benefit of the reader. (author)

  11. RELAP5-3D Resolution of Known Restart/Backup Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesina, George L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, Nolan A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The state-of-the-art nuclear reactor system safety analysis computer program developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), RELAP5-3D, continues to adapt to changes in computer hardware and software and to develop to meet the ever-expanding needs of the nuclear industry. To continue at the forefront, code testing must evolve with both code and industry developments, and it must work correctly. To best ensure this, the processes of Software Verification and Validation (V&V) are applied. Verification compares coding against its documented algorithms and equations and compares its calculations against analytical solutions and the method of manufactured solutions. A form of this, sequential verification, checks code specifications against coding only when originally written then applies regression testing which compares code calculations between consecutive updates or versions on a set of test cases to check that the performance does not change. A sequential verification testing system was specially constructed for RELAP5-3D to both detect errors with extreme accuracy and cover all nuclear-plant-relevant code features. Detection is provided through a “verification file” that records double precision sums of key variables. Coverage is provided by a test suite of input decks that exercise code features and capabilities necessary to model a nuclear power plant. A matrix of test features and short-running cases that exercise them is presented. This testing system is used to test base cases (called null testing) as well as restart and backup cases. It can test RELAP5-3D performance in both standalone and coupled (through PVM to other codes) runs. Application of verification testing revealed numerous restart and backup issues in both standalone and couple modes. This document reports the resolution of these issues.

  12. Improving lateral resolution and image quality of optical coherence tomography by the multi-frame superresolution technique for 3D tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kai; Lu, Hui; Baig, Sarfaraz; Wang, Michael R

    2017-11-01

    The multi-frame superresolution technique is introduced to significantly improve the lateral resolution and image quality of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Using several sets of low resolution C-scan 3D images with lateral sub-spot-spacing shifts on different sets, the multi-frame superresolution processing of these sets at each depth layer reconstructs a higher resolution and quality lateral image. Layer by layer processing yields an overall high lateral resolution and quality 3D image. In theory, the superresolution processing including deconvolution can solve the diffraction limit, lateral scan density and background noise problems together. In experiment, the improved lateral resolution by ~3 times reaching 7.81 µm and 2.19 µm using sample arm optics of 0.015 and 0.05 numerical aperture respectively as well as doubling the image quality has been confirmed by imaging a known resolution test target. Improved lateral resolution on in vitro skin C-scan images has been demonstrated. For in vivo 3D SD-OCT imaging of human skin, fingerprint and retina layer, we used the multi-modal volume registration method to effectively estimate the lateral image shifts among different C-scans due to random minor unintended live body motion. Further processing of these images generated high lateral resolution 3D images as well as high quality B-scan images of these in vivo tissues.

  13. CCTV Coverage Index Based on Surveillance Resolution and Its Evaluation Using 3D Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungah Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach to evaluating how effectively a closed circuit television (CCTV system can monitor a targeted area. With 3D models of the target area and the camera parameters of the CCTV system, the approach produces surveillance coverage index, which is newly defined in this study as a quantitative measure for surveillance performance. This index indicates the proportion of the space being monitored with a sufficient resolution to the entire space of the target area. It is determined by computing surveillance resolution at every position and orientation, which indicates how closely a specific object can be monitored with a CCTV system. We present full mathematical derivation for the resolution, which depends on the location and orientation of the object as well as the geometric model of a camera. With the proposed approach, we quantitatively evaluated the surveillance coverage of a CCTV system in an underground parking area. Our evaluation process provided various quantitative-analysis results, compelling us to examine the design of the CCTV system prior to its installation and understand the surveillance capability of an existing CCTV system.

  14. Subnuclear foci quantification using high-throughput 3D image cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadduwage, Dushan N.; Parrish, Marcus; Choi, Heejin; Engelward, Bevin P.; Matsudaira, Paul; So, Peter T. C.

    2015-07-01

    Ionising radiation causes various types of DNA damages including double strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are often recognized by DNA repair protein ATM which forms gamma-H2AX foci at the site of the DSBs that can be visualized using immunohistochemistry. However most of such experiments are of low throughput in terms of imaging and image analysis techniques. Most of the studies still use manual counting or classification. Hence they are limited to counting a low number of foci per cell (5 foci per nucleus) as the quantification process is extremely labour intensive. Therefore we have developed a high throughput instrumentation and computational pipeline specialized for gamma-H2AX foci quantification. A population of cells with highly clustered foci inside nuclei were imaged, in 3D with submicron resolution, using an in-house developed high throughput image cytometer. Imaging speeds as high as 800 cells/second in 3D were achieved by using HiLo wide-field depth resolved imaging and a remote z-scanning technique. Then the number of foci per cell nucleus were quantified using a 3D extended maxima transform based algorithm. Our results suggests that while most of the other 2D imaging and manual quantification studies can count only up to about 5 foci per nucleus our method is capable of counting more than 100. Moreover we show that 3D analysis is significantly superior compared to the 2D techniques.

  15. Non-invasive 3D-microscopy with 10-μm spatial resolution inside alive small laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasov, A.; Dewaele, D.; De Clerck, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Small laboratory animals (mice and rats) are widely used in development of drugs and treatments. Micro-CT or microtomography allows non-invasive 3D imaging and measurements of the microstructure inside the body of alive animals. To recognise the internal changes of bones and different organs in the very early stage, high-resolution micro-CT scanner for in-vivo 3D-imaging has been developed. The Micro-CT scanner based on the X-ray geometry with source-detector pair rotation around the object instead of object rotation geometry, typical for other micro-CT systems. Object illuminated by an X-ray source with 5 microns spot size and 20-100keV energies. X-ray images collected by a digital x-ray camera. Projection images with 8000x1000x16bit format collected from several hundreds angular projections. On the base of this information cross sectional images can be reconstructed in 8000x8000x32bit full format or 1024x1024x32bit preview. Maximum object size (scanning volume) is 80mm in diameter by 200mm in length with 10-microns isotropic pixel size for reconstruction at any place of this space. All software for system control, reconstruction and 3D analysis runs on Pentium-4 2GHz or Dual Intel Xeon 1.7GHz computer under Microsoft Windows-2000. The instrument is widely used for scanning of physical phantoms as well as different alive small laboratory animals under anesthesia. Achieved spatial resolution is 20microns for low-contrast objects and 10-microns for high-contrast objects (bone, etc.). Typical scanning time is 20-120min, typical irradiation dose - 0.25-0.7Gy per scan. To avoid movement artefacts from breathing, the instrument can synchronise acquisition cycle with pulses from special breathing sensor. Software package includes dual-processor reconstruction software, 3D-rendering and measurement of all general and bone-specific morphological parameters. New in-vivo Micro-CT scanner allows non-destructive 3D-imaging and measurements of the internal

  16. 3D pin-by-pin power density profiles with high spatial resolution in the vicinity of a BWR control blade tip simulated with coupled neutronics/burn-up calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Nünighoff, K.; Allelein, H.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► High spatial resolution neutronic and burn-up calculations of quarter BWR fuel element section. ► Coupled MCNP(X)–ORIGEN2.2 simulation using VESTA. ► Control blade history effect was taken into account. ► Determining local power excursion after instantaneous control rod movement. ► Correlation between control blade geometry and occurrence of local power excursions. - Abstract: Pellet cladding interaction (PCI) as well as pellet cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) are well-known fuel failures in light water reactors, especially in boiling water reactors (BWR). Whereas the thermo-mechanical processes of PCI effects have been intensively investigated in the last decades, only rare information is available on the role of neutron physics. However, each power transient is primary due to neutron physics effects and thus knowledge of the neutron physical background is mandatory to better understand the occurrence of PCI effects in BWRs. This paper will focus on a study of local power excursions in a typical BWR fuel assembly during control rod movements. Burn-up and energy deposition were simulated with high spatial granularity, especially in the vicinity of the control blade tip. It could be shown, that the design of the control blade plays a dominant role for the occurrence of local power peaks while instantaneously moving down the control rod. The main result is, that the largest power peak occurs at the interface between steel handle and absorber rods. A full width half maximum (FWHM) of ±2.5 cm was observed. This means, the local power excursion due to neutron physics phenomena involve approximately five pellets. With the VESTA code coupled MCNP(X)/ORIGEN2.2 calculations were performed with more than 3400 burn-up zones in order to take history effects into account.

  17. 3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John H; Yahata, Brennan D; Hundley, Jacob M; Mayer, Justin A; Schaedler, Tobias A; Pollock, Tresa M

    2017-09-20

    Metal-based additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a potentially disruptive technology across multiple industries, including the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries. Building up metal components layer by layer increases design freedom and manufacturing flexibility, thereby enabling complex geometries, increased product customization and shorter time to market, while eliminating traditional economy-of-scale constraints. However, currently only a few alloys, the most relevant being AlSi10Mg, TiAl6V4, CoCr and Inconel 718, can be reliably printed; the vast majority of the more than 5,500 alloys in use today cannot be additively manufactured because the melting and solidification dynamics during the printing process lead to intolerable microstructures with large columnar grains and periodic cracks. Here we demonstrate that these issues can be resolved by introducing nanoparticles of nucleants that control solidification during additive manufacturing. We selected the nucleants on the basis of crystallographic information and assembled them onto 7075 and 6061 series aluminium alloy powders. After functionalization with the nucleants, we found that these high-strength aluminium alloys, which were previously incompatible with additive manufacturing, could be processed successfully using selective laser melting. Crack-free, equiaxed (that is, with grains roughly equal in length, width and height), fine-grained microstructures were achieved, resulting in material strengths comparable to that of wrought material. Our approach to metal-based additive manufacturing is applicable to a wide range of alloys and can be implemented using a range of additive machines. It thus provides a foundation for broad industrial applicability, including where electron-beam melting or directed-energy-deposition techniques are used instead of selective laser melting, and will enable additive manufacturing of other alloy systems, such as non-weldable nickel

  18. 3D printing of high-strength aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John H.; Yahata, Brennan D.; Hundley, Jacob M.; Mayer, Justin A.; Schaedler, Tobias A.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2017-09-01

    Metal-based additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a potentially disruptive technology across multiple industries, including the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries. Building up metal components layer by layer increases design freedom and manufacturing flexibility, thereby enabling complex geometries, increased product customization and shorter time to market, while eliminating traditional economy-of-scale constraints. However, currently only a few alloys, the most relevant being AlSi10Mg, TiAl6V4, CoCr and Inconel 718, can be reliably printed; the vast majority of the more than 5,500 alloys in use today cannot be additively manufactured because the melting and solidification dynamics during the printing process lead to intolerable microstructures with large columnar grains and periodic cracks. Here we demonstrate that these issues can be resolved by introducing nanoparticles of nucleants that control solidification during additive manufacturing. We selected the nucleants on the basis of crystallographic information and assembled them onto 7075 and 6061 series aluminium alloy powders. After functionalization with the nucleants, we found that these high-strength aluminium alloys, which were previously incompatible with additive manufacturing, could be processed successfully using selective laser melting. Crack-free, equiaxed (that is, with grains roughly equal in length, width and height), fine-grained microstructures were achieved, resulting in material strengths comparable to that of wrought material. Our approach to metal-based additive manufacturing is applicable to a wide range of alloys and can be implemented using a range of additive machines. It thus provides a foundation for broad industrial applicability, including where electron-beam melting or directed-energy-deposition techniques are used instead of selective laser melting, and will enable additive manufacturing of other alloy systems, such as non-weldable nickel

  19. 3D printable highly conductive and mechanically strong thermoplastic-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabiai, Ilyass; Therriault, Daniel

    Highly conductive 3D printable inks can be used to design electrical devices with various functionalities and geometries. We use the solvent evaporation assisted 3D-printing method to create high resolution structures made of poly(lactid) acid (PLA) reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs). We characterize fibers with diameters ranging between 100 μm to 330 μm and reinforced with MWCNTs from 0.5 up to 40wt% here. Tensile test, shrinkage ratio, density and electrical conductivity measurements of the printed nanocomposite are presented. The material's electrical conductivity is strongly improved by adding MWCNTs (up to 3000S/m), this value was found to be higher than any 3D-printable carbon based material available in the literature. It is observed that MWCNTs significantly increase the material's strength and stiffness while reducing its ductility. The ink's density was also higher while still being in the range of polymers' densities. The presented nanocomposite is light weight, highly conductive, has good mechanical properties and can be printed in a freeform fashion at the micro scale. A myriad of low power consumption with less resistive heating sensors and devices can potentially be designed using it and integrated into other 3D printable products.

  20. X-ray tomography: Biological cells in 3-D at better than 50 nm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larabell, C.; Le Gros, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: X-ray microscopy can be used to image whole, hydrated, specimens with a spatial resolution 5-10 times better than that obtained using visible light microscopy. X-ray imaging at photon energies below the K- absorption edge of oxygen, referred to as the water window, exploits the strong natural contrast for organic material embedded in a mostly water matrix. With a transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone plate optics, specimens up to 10 microns thick can be examined. The highest X-ray transmission in hydrated samples is obtained at a wavelength of 2.4 nm but, due to the low numerical aperture of zone plate lenses operated in st order diffraction mode the structures resolved are much larger than the X-ray wavelength. Because of the low NA of X-ray lenses (NA=0.05), combined with the effect of polychromatic illumination and a wavelength dependant focal length, the effective depth of ld is large (6-10 microns). The experiments presented here were performed at the Advanced Light Source using the full ld transmission X-ray microscope, XM-1. This microscope employs a bend magnet X-ray source and zone plate condenser and objective lenses. The condenser zone plate acts as a monochromator and the X-ray images are recorded directly on a cooled, back-thinned 1024x1024 pixel CCD camera. The sample holder was a rotationally symmetric glass tube; the region containing the sample was 10 microns in diameter with a wall thickness of 200 nm. Live yeast cells were loaded into the tube, rapidly frozen by a blast of liquid nitrogen-cooled helium gas, and maintained at 140 deg C by a steady flow of cold helium. The image sequence spanned 180 deg and consisted of 45 images spaced by 4 deg. The images were aligned to a common axis and computed tomographic reconstruction was used to obtain the 3-D X-ray linear absorption coefficient. Volume rendering and animation of reconstructed data was performed using the 3-D program, Amira. Acquisition time for 90 images was 3 min

  1. 3-D inversion of synthetic marine magnetotelluric data: resolution and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, N.; Baba, K.; Siripunvaraporn, W.; Uyeshima, M.; Utada, H.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, seafloor magnetotelluric (MT) observation is carried out by using an increasing number of ocean bottom electromagnetometers (OBEMs) not only along a line but also in 2-D array. Thus, imaging electrical conductivity structures under the seafloor in 3-D is now feasible. A 3-D approach is indispensable especially for marine MT data, because the electric and magnetic fields observed at the seafloor are heavily distorted by the rugged seafloor topography and the distribution of land and sea which are generally 3-D. It is very important to incorporate the topography in a 3-D model for an accurate estimation of the conductivity structure beneath seafloor that is generally more resistive than seawater by several orders of magnitude. WSINV3DMT (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) is one of 3-D inversion codes that are now of practical use, but the original WSINV3DMT is not applicable to marine MT data because of two reasons. 1) MT responses are calculated only at the boundary corresponding to the Earth surface. 2) We have to use fine mesh design because an observation site must locate exactly at the center of the top surface of a block, which needs large memory that even a highest performance computer can not handle. We propose an extended version of the WSINV3DMT by solving the two problems shown above so that it can be applied to the marine MT data. The extended version of the WSINV3DMT is tested using synthetic models including a 3-D anomaly, seawater and topographic variation. Here shown is an example of a checkerboard test by using a model in which 10 ohm-m and 100 ohm-m blocks are put alternately in both horizontal and vertical directions. The model is composed of 5 blocks in horizontal directions and of 4 blocks in vertical direction with a background of a 31.6 ohm-m half-space below actual topography. The calculation area in the inversion is 7440 × 7440 × 1008 km, and is discretized at 35 blocks in the x and y directions, and 69 blocks in the z

  2. Highly Realistic 3D Presentation Agents with Visual Attention Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A; Prendinger, H.; Bee, N.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ishizuka, M.

    2007-01-01

    This research proposes 3D graphical agents in the role of virtual presenters with a new type of functionality – the capability to process and respond to visual attention of users communicated by their eye movements. Eye gaze is an excellent clue to users’ attention, visual interest, and visual

  3. A multi-resolution approach for an automated fusion of different low-cost 3D sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jan; Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-04-24

    The 3D acquisition of object structures has become a common technique in many fields of work, e.g., industrial quality management, cultural heritage or crime scene documentation. The requirements on the measuring devices are versatile, because spacious scenes have to be imaged with a high level of detail for selected objects. Thus, the used measuring systems are expensive and require an experienced operator. With the rise of low-cost 3D imaging systems, their integration into the digital documentation process is possible. However, common low-cost sensors have the limitation of a trade-off between range and accuracy, providing either a low resolution of single objects or a limited imaging field. Therefore, the use of multiple sensors is desirable. We show the combined use of two low-cost sensors, the Microsoft Kinect and the David laserscanning system, to achieve low-resolved scans of the whole scene and a high level of detail for selected objects, respectively. Afterwards, the high-resolved David objects are automatically assigned to their corresponding Kinect object by the use of surface feature histograms and SVM-classification. The corresponding objects are fitted using an ICP-implementation to produce a multi-resolution map. The applicability is shown for a fictional crime scene and the reconstruction of a ballistic trajectory.

  4. Low-resolution characterization of the 3D structure of the Euglena gracilis photoreceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, Laura; Coltelli, Primo; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Vesentini, Nicoletta; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the first characterization of the structure of the photoreceptive organelle of the unicellular alga Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta). This organelle has a three-dimensional organization consisting of up to 50 closely stacked membrane lamellae. Ionically induced unstacking of the photoreceptor lamellae revealed ordered arrays well suited to structural analysis by electron microscopy and image analysis, which ultimately yielded a low-resolution picture of the structure. Each lamella is formed by the photoreceptive membrane protein of the cell assembled within the membrane layer in a hexagonal lattice. The first order diffraction spots in the calculated Fourier transform reveals the presence of 6-fold symmetrized topography (better resolution about 90 A). The 2D and 3D structural data are very similar with those recently published on proteorodopsin, a membrane protein used by marine bacterio-plankton as light-driven proton pump. In our opinion these similarity indicate that a photoreceptive protein belonging to the same superfamily of proteorodopsin could form the Euglena photoreceptor

  5. 3-D Experimental Fracture Analysis at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Jackson; Albert S. Kobayashi

    2001-09-14

    T*e, which is an elastic-plastic fracture parameter based on incremental theory of plasticity, was determined numerically and experimentally. The T*e integral of a tunneling crack in 2024-T3 aluminum, three point bend specimen was obtained through a hybrid analysis of moire interferometry and 3-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The results were verified by the good agreement between the experimentally and numerically determined T*e on the specimen surface.

  6. Locoregional deformation pattern of the patellar cartilage after different loading types. High-resolution 3D-MRI volumetry at 3 T in-vivo; Lokoregionaere Deformationsmuster im Patellarknorpel nach unterschiedlichen Belastungsparadigmen. Hochaufloesende 3-D-MR-Volumetrie bei 3 T in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie [University Hospital LMU Munich, Muenchen (Germany). Radiology; Raya, J. [New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States). Center of Biomedical Imaging; Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Zscharn, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (DE). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie] (and others)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To analyze locoregional deformation patterns indicative of contact areas in patellar cartilage after different loading exercises. Materials and Methods: 7 healthy patellae were examined in-vivo before and immediately after standardized loading (kneeling, squatting or knee bends) and after 90 minutes of rest using a sagittal 3D-T1-w FLASH WE sequence (22 msec/ 9.8msec/ 15 / 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.5 mm{sup 3}) at 3 T. After cartilage segmentation and 3D reconstruction, voxel-based and global precision errors (PR) were calculated. The former were used to determine significant differences in local cartilage thickness. Voxel-based 2{sigma}-thickness difference maps were calculated to visualize locoregional deformation patterns. Global changes in volume (Vol), mean thickness (mTh) and cartilage-bone-interface area (CBIA) were calculated. Results: The voxel-based PR depended on cartilage thickness (D) ranging from 0.12 - 0.35 mm. For D {>=} 1 mm the RF was < 0.31 mm (< voxel size), and for D {>=} 2 mm, the RF was < 0.22 mm. The global PR was 83 mm{sup 3} (2.4 %) for Vol, 0.06 mm (2.0 %) for mTh and 16 mm{sup 2} (1.4 %) for CBIA. The focal cartilage deformation equaled 14 % of the local thickness reduction. The deformation areas were oval and located in the peripheral medial (more vertically oriented, all exercises) and caudo-lateral (more horizontally oriented, kneeling and knee bends) aspects of the patella and were least pronounced in knee bends. Significant changes for Vol/mTh ranged from 2.1 to 3.7 %. Conclusion: This MRI-based study is the first to identify in-vivo voxel-based patellar cartilage deformation patterns indicating contact and loading zones after kneeling and squatting. These zones are anatomically and functionally plausible and may represent areas where stress induced degeneration and subsequent OA can originate. The data may facilitate understanding of individual knee loading properties and help to improve and validate biomechanical models for the knee

  7. Non-destructive testing of layer-to-layer fusion of a 3D print using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Maria, Michael; Feuchter, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decade, 3D printing has moved from a costly approach of building mechanical items to the present state-of-the-art phase where access to 3D printers is now common, both in industry and in private places. The plastic printers are the most common type of 3D printers providing prints...... on volume imaging of a 3D printed block made with 100% PLA fill. By employing ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) we show that some parts of the PLA volume reveal highly scattering interfaces which likely correspond to transitions from one layer to another. In doing so, we document that UHR-OCT can act...... as a powerful tool that can be used in detecting fractures between layers stemming from insufficient fusion between printed structure layers. UHR-OCT can therefore serve as an useful assessment method of quality of 3D prints....

  8. Fluids emission and gas chimneys imaged in high-resolution 3D seismic: Investigating the role of sedimentary structures in controlling vertical fluid migration (offshore of Ceará-Potiguar sub-basin, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Iacopini, David; Vittorio, Maselli

    2017-04-01

    Fluid emissions at seabed have been widely investigated during last years due to their potential in detecting new petroleum provinces and to their role in monitoring the environmental risk associated to CO2 storage and hydrocarbon leakage from the overburden. Fluid emission appears to be characterized by a variety of different processes and genetic mechanisms, and has been reported in different geological settings. We investigated a 45 by 25 km 3D seismic dataset located in the offshore Ceará state (Brazil), imaging the submarine slope system of the Potiguar sub-basin, part of the Ceará basin. The Paleogene sequence is characterized by a series of steep canyons acting as slope-bypass systems that force the transport of sediment basinward and promote the deposition in deepwater settings. The whole area seems to be affected by gravity driven processes in the form of turbidites and hyperpycnal flows that probably are responsible of the main submarine landslides observed and of the evolution of the canyons themselves. Bottom currents seem to play a key role in shaping the margin as well, by promoting the formation of sediment ridges and fields of sediment waves. In this setting, a series of widely distributed active pockmarks are observed both at the seabed and as paleo-pockmarks in the seismic subsurface, testifying the upward fluid migration and emission along gas chimneys and conduits. Active or recent pockmark varies from tens of meters up to about 2 km in diameters and are mainly circular to elliptical. A preliminary systematic mapping of those fluid escape features shows the strong control of the chutes and pools generated by fast turbidity currents on the chimney geometry pattern and fluid conduit. This evidence may suggest that the erosional/depositional features associated to turbidite sedimentation strongly control lateral permeability variations and, consequently, the vertical fluid migration.

  9. An Interdisciplinary Method for the Visualization of Novel High-Resolution Precision Photography and Micro-XCT Data Sets of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Create Combined Research-Grade 3D Virtual Samples for the Benefit of Astromaterials Collections Conservation, Curation, Scientific Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technologies make possible the advancement of documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. With increasing demands for accessibility to updated comprehensive data, and with new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop new standards for contemporary documentation and visualization methodologies. Our interdisciplinary team has expertise in the fields of heritage conservation practices, professional photography, photogrammetry, imaging science, application engineering, data curation, geoscience, and astromaterials curation. Our objective is to create virtual 3D reconstructions of Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples that are a fusion of two state-of-the-art data sets: the interior view of the sample by collecting Micro-XCT data and the exterior view of the sample by collecting high-resolution precision photography data. These new data provide researchers an information-rich visualization of both compositional and textural information prior to any physical sub-sampling. Since January 2013 we have developed a process that resulted in the successful creation of the first image-based 3D reconstruction of an Apollo Lunar Sample correlated to a 3D reconstruction of the same sample's Micro- XCT data, illustrating that this technique is both operationally possible and functionally beneficial. In May of 2016 we began a 3-year research period during which we aim to produce Virtual Astromaterials Samples for 60 high-priority Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples and serve them on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation website. Our research demonstrates that research-grade Virtual Astromaterials Samples are beneficial in preserving for posterity a precise 3D reconstruction of the sample prior to sub-sampling, which greatly improves documentation practices, provides unique and novel visualization of the sample's interior and

  10. High-Performance 3D Articulated Robot Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    In the domain of telerobotic operations, the primary challenge facing the operator is to understand the state of the robotic platform. One key aspect of understanding the state is to visualize the physical location and configuration of the platform. As there is a wide variety of mobile robots, the requirements for visualizing their configurations vary diversely across different platforms. There can also be diversity in the mechanical mobility, such as wheeled, tracked, or legged mobility over surfaces. Adaptable 3D articulated robot visualization software can accommodate a wide variety of robotic platforms and environments. The visualization has been used for surface, aerial, space, and water robotic vehicle visualization during field testing. It has been used to enable operations of wheeled and legged surface vehicles, and can be readily adapted to facilitate other mechanical mobility solutions. The 3D visualization can render an articulated 3D model of a robotic platform for any environment. Given the model, the software receives real-time telemetry from the avionics system onboard the vehicle and animates the robot visualization to reflect the telemetered physical state. This is used to track the position and attitude in real time to monitor the progress of the vehicle as it traverses its environment. It is also used to monitor the state of any or all articulated elements of the vehicle, such as arms, legs, or control surfaces. The visualization can also render other sorts of telemetered states visually, such as stress or strains that are measured by the avionics. Such data can be used to color or annotate the virtual vehicle to indicate nominal or off-nominal states during operation. The visualization is also able to render the simulated environment where the vehicle is operating. For surface and aerial vehicles, it can render the terrain under the vehicle as the avionics sends it location information (GPS, odometry, or star tracking), and locate the vehicle

  11. 3D micro-particle image modeling and its application in measurement resolution investigation for visual sensing based axial localization in an optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolai; Bi, Shusheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Visual sensing based three dimensional (3D) particle localization in an optical microscope is important for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Compared with the lateral ( X and Y ) localization, it is more challenging to achieve a high resolution measurement of axial particle location. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of different factors on axial measurement resolution through an analytical approach. Analytical models were developed to simulate 3D particle imaging in an optical microscope. A radius vector projection method was applied to convert the simulated particle images into radius vectors. With the obtained radius vectors, a term of axial changing rate was proposed to evaluate the measurement resolution of axial particle localization. Experiments were also conducted for comparison with that obtained through simulation. Moreover, with the proposed method, the effects of particle size on measurement resolution were discussed. The results show that the method provides an efficient approach to investigate the resolution of axial particle localization. (paper)

  12. 3D Shape Modeling Using High Level Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana

    features like thorns, bark and scales. Presented here is a simple method for easy modeling, transferring and editing that kind of texture. The method is an extension of the height-field texture, but incorporates an additional tilt of the height field. Related to modeling non-heightfield textures, a part...... of my work involved developing feature-aware resizing of models with complex surfaces consisting of underlying shape and a distinctive texture detail. The aim was to deform an object while preserving the shape and size of the features.......The goal of this Ph.D. project is to investigate and improve the methods for describing the surface of 3D objects, with focus on modeling geometric texture on surfaces. Surface modeling being a large field of research, the work done during this project concentrated around a few smaller areas...

  13. SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rilling, M [Department of physics, engineering physics and optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Goulet, M [Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, L; Archambault, L [Department of physics, engineering physics and optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Radiation oncology department, CHU de Quebec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Thibault, S [Center for optics, photonics and lasers, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a real-time three-dimensional scintillation dosimeter in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal resolution of 3D dose measurements. This study quantifies its efficiency in measuring low dose levels characteristic of EBRT dynamic treatments, and in reproducing field profiles for varying multileaf collimator (MLC) speeds. Methods: The dosimeter prototype uses a plenoptic camera to acquire continuous images of the light field emitted by a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillator. Using EPID acquisitions, ray tracing-based iterative tomographic algorithms allow millimeter-sized reconstruction of relative 3D dose distributions. Measurements were taken at 6MV, 400 MU/min with the scintillator centered at the isocenter, first receiving doses from 1.4 to 30.6 cGy. Dynamic measurements were then performed by closing half of the MLCs at speeds of 0.67 to 2.5 cm/s, at 0° and 90° collimator angles. A reference static half-field was obtained for measured profile comparison. Results: The SNR steadily increases as a function of dose and reaches a clinically adequate plateau of 80 at 10 cGy. Below this, the decrease in light collected and increase in pixel noise diminishes the SNR; nonetheless, the EPID acquisitions and the voxel correlation employed in the reconstruction algorithms result in suitable SNR values (>75) even at low doses. For dynamic measurements at varying MLC speeds, central relative dose profiles are characterized by gradients at %D{sub 50} of 8.48 to 22.7 %/mm. These values converge towards the 32.8 %/mm-gradient measured for the static reference field profile, but are limited by the dosimeter’s current acquisition rate of 1Hz. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the efficiency of the 3D dose distribution reconstructions, while identifying limits of the current prototype’s temporal resolution in terms of dynamic EBRT parameters. This work paves the way for providing an optimized, second

  14. SU-C-201-04: Noise and Temporal Resolution in a Near Real-Time 3D Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rilling, M; Goulet, M; Beaulieu, L; Archambault, L; Thibault, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a real-time three-dimensional scintillation dosimeter in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal resolution of 3D dose measurements. This study quantifies its efficiency in measuring low dose levels characteristic of EBRT dynamic treatments, and in reproducing field profiles for varying multileaf collimator (MLC) speeds. Methods: The dosimeter prototype uses a plenoptic camera to acquire continuous images of the light field emitted by a 10×10×10 cm"3 plastic scintillator. Using EPID acquisitions, ray tracing-based iterative tomographic algorithms allow millimeter-sized reconstruction of relative 3D dose distributions. Measurements were taken at 6MV, 400 MU/min with the scintillator centered at the isocenter, first receiving doses from 1.4 to 30.6 cGy. Dynamic measurements were then performed by closing half of the MLCs at speeds of 0.67 to 2.5 cm/s, at 0° and 90° collimator angles. A reference static half-field was obtained for measured profile comparison. Results: The SNR steadily increases as a function of dose and reaches a clinically adequate plateau of 80 at 10 cGy. Below this, the decrease in light collected and increase in pixel noise diminishes the SNR; nonetheless, the EPID acquisitions and the voxel correlation employed in the reconstruction algorithms result in suitable SNR values (>75) even at low doses. For dynamic measurements at varying MLC speeds, central relative dose profiles are characterized by gradients at %D_5_0 of 8.48 to 22.7 %/mm. These values converge towards the 32.8 %/mm-gradient measured for the static reference field profile, but are limited by the dosimeter’s current acquisition rate of 1Hz. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the efficiency of the 3D dose distribution reconstructions, while identifying limits of the current prototype’s temporal resolution in terms of dynamic EBRT parameters. This work paves the way for providing an optimized, second-generational real-time 3D

  15. High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jens; Hengsbach, Stefan; Tesari, Iwiza; Schwaiger, Ruth; Kraft, Oliver

    2014-02-18

    To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m(3); only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina-polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m(3).

  16. Synthetic biology's tall order: Reconstruction of 3D, super resolution images of single molecules in real-time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henriques, R

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available -to-use reconstruction software coupled with image acquisition. Here, we present QuickPALM, an Image plugin, enabling real-time reconstruction of 3D super-resolution images during acquisition and drift correction. We illustrate its application by reconstructing Cy5...

  17. Multiview 3D sensing and analysis for high quality point cloud reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satnik, Andrej; Izquierdo, Ebroul; Orjesek, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Multiview 3D reconstruction techniques enable digital reconstruction of 3D objects from the real world by fusing different viewpoints of the same object into a single 3D representation. This process is by no means trivial and the acquisition of high quality point cloud representations of dynamic 3D objects is still an open problem. In this paper, an approach for high fidelity 3D point cloud generation using low cost 3D sensing hardware is presented. The proposed approach runs in an efficient low-cost hardware setting based on several Kinect v2 scanners connected to a single PC. It performs autocalibration and runs in real-time exploiting an efficient composition of several filtering methods including Radius Outlier Removal (ROR), Weighted Median filter (WM) and Weighted Inter-Frame Average filtering (WIFA). The performance of the proposed method has been demonstrated through efficient acquisition of dense 3D point clouds of moving objects.

  18. The 3D Digital Story-telling Media on Batik Learning in Vocational High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiaty, I.; Achdiani, Y.; Kuntadi, I.; Mubaroq, S. R.; Zakaria, D.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to make 3D digital Story-telling Media on Batik Learning in Vocational High School. The digital story-telling developed in this research is focused on 3D-based story-telling. In contrast to the digital story-telling that has been developed in existing learning, this research is expected to be able to improve understanding of vocational students about the value of local wisdom batik more meaningful and “live”. The process of making 3D digital story-telling media consists of two processes, namely the creation of 3D objects and the creation of 3D object viewer.

  19. A computational framework for 3D mechanical modeling of plant morphogenesis with cellular resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Boudon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between genetic regulation and the definition of form and size during morphogenesis remains largely an open question in both plant and animal biology. This is partially due to the complexity of the process, involving extensive molecular networks, multiple feedbacks between different scales of organization and physical forces operating at multiple levels. Here we present a conceptual and modeling framework aimed at generating an integrated understanding of morphogenesis in plants. This framework is based on the biophysical properties of plant cells, which are under high internal turgor pressure, and are prevented from bursting because of the presence of a rigid cell wall. To control cell growth, the underlying molecular networks must interfere locally with the elastic and/or plastic extensibility of this cell wall. We present a model in the form of a three dimensional (3D virtual tissue, where growth depends on the local modulation of wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure. The model shows how forces generated by turgor-pressure can act both cell autonomously and non-cell autonomously to drive growth in different directions. We use simulations to explore lateral organ formation at the shoot apical meristem. Although different scenarios lead to similar shape changes, they are not equivalent and lead to different, testable predictions regarding the mechanical and geometrical properties of the growing lateral organs. Using flower development as an example, we further show how a limited number of gene activities can explain the complex shape changes that accompany organ outgrowth.

  20. Strategies for High-Resolution 3-D Millimeter Wave Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Co-Investigator K.S. Lee - Graduate Student (50%) P. Frangos - Graduate Student (50%) Y. Shen - Graduate Student (50%) K. Schultz - Graduate...period of this report: * P. Frangos (Ph.D.) - "One-Dinensionl Inverse Scattering: Exact Methods and Applications", * C.L. Werner (Ph.D.) - ŗ-D

  1. Towards High Density 3-D Memory in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Jacob; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Meriles, Carlos; Jayakumar, Harishankar

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is presently the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Of great utility is the ability to optically initialize the NV charge state, which has an immediate impact on the center's light emission properties. Here, we use two-color microscopy in NV-rich, type-1b diamond to demonstrate fluorescence-encoded long-term storage of classical information. As a proof of principle, we write, reset, and rewrite various patterns with 2-D binary bit density comparable to present DVD-ROM technology. The strong fluorescence signal originating from the diffraction-limited bit volume allows us to transition from binary to multi-valued encoding, which translates into a significant storage capacity boost. Finally, we show that our technique preserves information written on different planes of the diamond crystal and thus serves as a platform for three-dimensional storage. Substantial enhancement in the bit density could be achieved with the aid of super resolution microscopy techniques already employed to discriminate between NVs with sub-diffraction, nanometer accuracy, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed 1017 bytes/cm3 We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through Grant NSF-1314205.

  2. Convergence and resolution recovery of block-iterative EM algorithms modeling 3D detector response in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalush, D.S.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Karimi, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate fast reconstruction algorithms including ordered subsets-EM (OS-EM) and Rescaled Block Iterative EM (RBI-EM) in fully 3D SPECT applications on the basis of their convergence and resolution recovery properties as iterations proceed. Using a 3D computer-simulated phantom consisting of 3D Gaussian objects, we simulated projection data that includes only the effects of sampling and detector response of a parallel-hole collimator. Reconstructions were performed using each of the three algorithms (ML-EM, OS-EM, and RBI-EM) modeling the 3D detector response in the projection function. Resolution recovery was evaluated by fitting Gaussians to each of the four objects in the iterated image estimates at selected intervals. Results show that OS-EM and RBI-EM behave identically in this case; their resolution recovery results are virtually indistinguishable. Their resolution behavior appears to be very similar to that of ML-EM, but accelerated by a factor of twenty. For all three algorithms, smaller objects take more iterations to converge. Next, we consider the effect noise has on convergence. For both noise-free and noisy data, we evaluate the log likelihood function at each subiteration of OS-EM and RBI-EM, and at each iteration of ML-EM. With noisy data, both OS-EM and RBI-EM give results for which the log-likelihood function oscillates. Especially for 180-degree acquisitions, RBI-EM oscillates less than OS-EM. Both OS-EM and RBI-EM appear to converge to solutions, but not to the ML solution. We conclude that both OS-EM and RBI-EM can be effective algorithms for fully 3D SPECT reconstruction. Both recover resolution similarly to ML-EM, only more quickly

  3. Non-destructive testing of layer-to-layer fusion of a 3D print using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsen, Niels M.; Maria, Michael; Feuchter, Thomas; Podoleanu, Adrian; Bang, Ole

    2017-06-01

    Within the last decade, 3D printing has moved from a costly approach of building mechanical items to the present state-of-the-art phase where access to 3D printers is now common, both in industry and in private places. The plastic printers are the most common type of 3D printers providing prints that are light, robust and of lower cost. The robustness of the structure printed is only maintained if each layer printed is properly fused to its previously printed layers. In situations where the printed component has to accomplish a key mechanical role there is a need to characterize its mechanical strength. This may only be revealed by in-depth testing in order to discover unwanted air-gaps in the structure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an in-depth imaging method, that is sensitive to variations in the refractive index and therefore can resolve with high resolution translucid samples. We report on volume imaging of a 3D printed block made with 100% PLA fill. By employing ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) we show that some parts of the PLA volume reveal highly scattering interfaces which likely correspond to transitions from one layer to another. In doing so, we document that UHR-OCT can act as a powerful tool that can be used in detecting fractures between layers stemming from insufficient fusion between printed structure layers. UHR-OCT can therefore serve as an useful assessment method of quality of 3D prints.

  4. 3D MODELLING OF PROPHYLACTIC FOOTWEAR FOR A HIGH ARCHED FOOT

    OpenAIRE

    COSTEA Mariana; MIHAI Aura

    2016-01-01

    This article approaches the methodology of designing customized footwear for high arched foot. The authors propose to reconsider the classical structure of footwear bottom components for people with high arched foot and recommend incorporating custom components, with the role of compensation or adjustment. This study continues the authors’ research, starting from a foot’s 3D shape obtained by 3D scanning, the anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters, shoe lasts’ 3D modelling and continui...

  5. 3D ToF-SIMS Analysis of Peptide Incorporation into MALDI Matrix Crystals with Sub-micrometer Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körsgen, Martin; Pelster, Andreas; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-02-01

    The analytical sensitivity in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is largely affected by the specific analyte-matrix interaction, in particular by the possible incorporation of the analytes into crystalline MALDI matrices. Here we used time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to visualize the incorporation of three peptides with different hydrophobicities, bradykinin, Substance P, and vasopressin, into two classic MALDI matrices, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA). For depth profiling, an Ar cluster ion beam was used to gradually sputter through the matrix crystals without causing significant degradation of matrix or biomolecules. A pulsed Bi3 ion cluster beam was used to image the lateral analyte distribution in the center of the sputter crater. Using this dual beam technique, the 3D distribution of the analytes and spatial segregation effects within the matrix crystals were imaged with sub-μm resolution. The technique could in the future enable matrix-enhanced (ME)-ToF-SIMS imaging of peptides in tissue slices at ultra-high resolution. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. High precision 3D coordinates location technology for pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yong; Zhang Jiacheng; Zhou Jingbin; Tang Jun; Xiao Decheng; Wang Chuanke; Dong Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system, manual way has been used to collimate the pellet traditionally, which is time-consuming and low-level automated. A new method based on Binocular Vision is proposed, which can place the prospecting apparatus on the public diagnosis platform to reach relevant engineering target and uses the high precision two dimension calibration board. Iterative method is adopted to satisfy 0.1 pixel for corner extraction precision. Furthermore, SVD decomposition is used to remove the singularity corners and advanced Zhang's calibration method is applied to promote camera calibration precision. Experiments indicate that the RMS of three dimension coordinate measurement precision is 25 μm, and the max system RMS of distance measurement is better than 100 μm, satisfying the system index requirement. (authors)

  7. Adaptive multi-resolution 3D Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solver for nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, J. C.; Fann, G. I.; Harrison, R. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Shi, Yue; Thornton, S.

    2014-08-01

    Background: Complex many-body systems, such as triaxial and reflection-asymmetric nuclei, weakly bound halo states, cluster configurations, nuclear fragments produced in heavy-ion fusion reactions, cold Fermi gases, and pasta phases in neutron star crust, are all characterized by large sizes and complex topologies in which many geometrical symmetries characteristic of ground-state configurations are broken. A tool of choice to study such complex forms of matter is an adaptive multi-resolution wavelet analysis. This method has generated much excitement since it provides a common framework linking many diversified methodologies across different fields, including signal processing, data compression, harmonic analysis and operator theory, fractals, and quantum field theory. Purpose: To describe complex superfluid many-fermion systems, we introduce an adaptive pseudospectral method for solving self-consistent equations of nuclear density functional theory in three dimensions, without symmetry restrictions. Methods: The numerical method is based on the multi-resolution and computational harmonic analysis techniques with a multi-wavelet basis. The application of state-of-the-art parallel programming techniques include sophisticated object-oriented templates which parse the high-level code into distributed parallel tasks with a multi-thread task queue scheduler for each multi-core node. The internode communications are asynchronous. The algorithm is variational and is capable of solving coupled complex-geometric systems of equations adaptively, with functional and boundary constraints, in a finite spatial domain of very large size, limited by existing parallel computer memory. For smooth functions, user-defined finite precision is guaranteed. Results: The new adaptive multi-resolution Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) solver madness-hfb is benchmarked against a two-dimensional coordinate-space solver hfb-ax that is based on the B-spline technique and a three-dimensional solver

  8. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-10-14

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  9. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  10. Ambiguity Resolution for Phase-Based 3-D Source Localization under Fixed Uniform Circular Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Liu, Zhen; Wei, Xizhang

    2017-05-11

    Under fixed uniform circular array (UCA), 3-D parameter estimation of a source whose half-wavelength is smaller than the array aperture would suffer from a serious phase ambiguity problem, which also appears in a recently proposed phase-based algorithm. In this paper, by using the centro-symmetry of UCA with an even number of sensors, the source's angles and range can be decoupled and a novel algorithm named subarray grouping and ambiguity searching (SGAS) is addressed to resolve angle ambiguity. In the SGAS algorithm, each subarray formed by two couples of centro-symmetry sensors can obtain a batch of results under different ambiguities, and by searching the nearest value among subarrays, which is always corresponding to correct ambiguity, rough angle estimation with no ambiguity is realized. Then, the unambiguous angles are employed to resolve phase ambiguity in a phase-based 3-D parameter estimation algorithm, and the source's range, as well as more precise angles, can be achieved. Moreover, to improve the practical performance of SGAS, the optimal structure of subarrays and subarray selection criteria are further investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the satisfying performance of the proposed method in 3-D source localization.

  11. Permeability and 3-D melt geometry in shear-induced high melt fraction conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Cordonnier, B.; Qi, C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of dunite channels in ophiolites and uranium-series disequilibria in mid-ocean ridge basalt suggest that melt transport in the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is strongly channelized. Formation of high melt fraction conduits could result from mechanical shear, pyroxene dissolution, and lithological partitioning. Deformation experiments (e.g. Holtzman et al., 2003) demonstrate that shear stress causes initially homogeneously distributed melt to segregate into an array of melt-rich bands, flanked by melt-depleted regions. At the same average melt fraction, the permeability of high melt fraction conduits could be orders of magnitude higher than that of their homogenous counterparts. However, it is difficult to determine the permeability of melt-rich bands. Using X-ray synchrotron microtomography, we obtained high-resolution images of 3-dimensional (3-D) melt distribution in a partially molten rock containing shear-induced high melt fraction conduits. Sample CQ0705, an olivine-alkali basalt aggregate with a nominal melt fraction of 4%, was deformed in torsion at a temperature of 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa to a shear strain of 13.3. A sub-volume of CQ0705 encompassing 3-4 melt-rich bands was imaged. Microtomography data were reduced to binary form so that solid olivine is distinguishable from basalt glass. At a spatial resolution of 160 nm, the 3-D images reveal the shape and connectedness of melt pockets in the melt-rich bands. Thin melt channels formed at grain edges are connected at large melt nodes at grain corners. Initial data analysis shows a clear preferred orientation of melt pockets alignment subparallel to the melt-rich band. We use the experimentally determined geometrical parameters of melt topology to create a digital rock with identical 3-D microstructures. Stokes flow simulations are conducted on the digital rock to obtain the permeability tensor. Using this digital rock physics approach, we determine how deformation

  12. TORT-TD/ATTICA3D: a coupled neutron transport and thermal hydraulics code system for 3-D transient analysis of gas cooled high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapins, J.; Seubert, A.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive safety studies of high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTR) require full three dimensional coupled treatments of both neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulics. In a common effort, GRS and IKE developed the coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D for pebble bed type HTR that connects the 3-D transient discrete-ordinates transport code TORT-TD with the 3-D porous medium thermal-hydraulics code ATTICA3D. In this paper, the physical models and calculation capabilities of TORT-TD and ATTICA3D are presented, focusing on model improvements in ATTICA3D and extensions made in TORT-TD related to HTR application. For first applications, the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark has been chosen. Results obtained with TORT-TD/ATTICA3D will be shown for transient exercises, e.g. control rod withdrawal and a control rod ejection. Results are compared to other benchmark participants' solutions with special focus on fuel temperature modelling features of ATTICA3D. The provided “grey-curtain” nuclear cross section libraries have been used. First results on 3-D effects during a control rod withdrawal transient will be presented. (author)

  13. Highly Elastic, Transparent, and Conductive 3D-Printed Ionic Composite Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Odent, Jérémy

    2017-07-17

    Despite extensive progress to engineer hydrogels for a broad range of technologies, practical applications have remained elusive due to their (until recently) poor mechanical properties and lack of fabrication approaches, which constrain active structures to simple geometries. This study demonstrates a family of ionic composite hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties that can be rapidly 3D-printed at high resolution using commercial stereolithography technology. The new material design leverages the dynamic and reversible nature of ionic interactions present in the system with the reinforcement ability of nanoparticles. The composite hydrogels combine within a single platform tunable stiffness, toughness, extensibility, and resiliency behavior not reported previously in other engineered hydrogels. In addition to their excellent mechanical performance, the ionic composites exhibit fast gelling under near-UV exposure, remarkable conductivity, and fast osmotically driven actuation. The design of such ionic composites, which combine a range of tunable properties and can be readily 3D-printed into complex architectures, provides opportunities for a variety of practical applications such as artificial tissue, soft actuators, compliant conductors, and sensors for soft robotics.

  14. SPADAS: a high-speed 3D single-photon camera for advanced driver assistance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzi, D.; Zou, Y.; Bellisai, S.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.

    2015-02-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are the most advanced technologies to fight road accidents. Within ADAS, an important role is played by radar- and lidar-based sensors, which are mostly employed for collision avoidance and adaptive cruise control. Nonetheless, they have a narrow field-of-view and a limited ability to detect and differentiate objects. Standard camera-based technologies (e.g. stereovision) could balance these weaknesses, but they are currently not able to fulfill all automotive requirements (distance range, accuracy, acquisition speed, and frame-rate). To this purpose, we developed an automotive-oriented CMOS single-photon camera for optical 3D ranging based on indirect time-of-flight (iTOF) measurements. Imagers based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays offer higher sensitivity with respect to CCD/CMOS rangefinders, have inherent better time resolution, higher accuracy and better linearity. Moreover, iTOF requires neither high bandwidth electronics nor short-pulsed lasers, hence allowing the development of cost-effective systems. The CMOS SPAD sensor is based on 64 × 32 pixels, each able to process both 2D intensity-data and 3D depth-ranging information, with background suppression. Pixel-level memories allow fully parallel imaging and prevents motion artefacts (skew, wobble, motion blur) and partial exposure effects, which otherwise would hinder the detection of fast moving objects. The camera is housed in an aluminum case supporting a 12 mm F/1.4 C-mount imaging lens, with a 40°×20° field-of-view. The whole system is very rugged and compact and a perfect solution for vehicle's cockpit, with dimensions of 80 mm × 45 mm × 70 mm, and less that 1 W consumption. To provide the required optical power (1.5 W, eye safe) and to allow fast (up to 25 MHz) modulation of the active illumination, we developed a modular laser source, based on five laser driver cards, with three 808 nm lasers each. We present the full characterization of

  15. High-speed biometrics ultrasonic system for 3D fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, Roman G.; Severin, Fedar

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a new robust fingerprint identification technology based upon forming surface-subsurface (under skin) ultrasonic 3D images of the finger pads. The presented work aims to create specialized ultrasonic scanning methods for biometric purposes. Preliminary research has demonstrated the applicability of acoustic microscopy for fingerprint reading. The additional information from internal skin layers and dermis structures contained in the scan can essentially improve confidence in the identification. Advantages of this system include high resolution and quick scanning time. Operating in pulse-echo mode provides spatial resolution up to 0.05 mm. Technology advantages of the proposed technology are the following: • Full-range scanning of the fingerprint area "nail to nail" (2.5 x 2.5 cm) can be done in less than 5 sec with a resolution of up to 1000 dpi. • Collection of information about the in-depth structure of the fingerprint realized by the set of spherically focused 50 MHz acoustic lens provide the resolution ~ 0.05 mm or better • In addition to fingerprints, this technology can identify sweat porous at the surface and under the skin • No sensitivity to the contamination of the finger's surface • Detection of blood velocity using Doppler effect can be implemented to distinguish living specimens • Utilization as polygraph device • Simple connectivity to fingerprint databases obtained with other techniques • The digitally interpolated images can then be enhanced allowing for greater resolution • Method can be applied to fingernails and underlying tissues, providing more information • A laboratory prototype of the biometrics system based on these described principles was designed, built and tested. It is the first step toward a practical implementation of this technique.

  16. Creating Realistic 3D Graphics with Excel at High School--Vector Algebra in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of an experiment in which Excel applications that depict rotatable and sizable orthographic projection of simple 3D figures with face overlapping were developed with thirty gymnasium (high school) students of age 17-19 as an introduction to 3D computer graphics. A questionnaire survey was conducted to find out…

  17. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  18. Intelligent Multi-Resolution 3D Modeling, Compression, Registration, Fusion and Recognition, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions are being designed for multisensor data collection and synthesis using diverse temporal, spatial and spectral resolutions for use by multiple teams of...

  19. Intelligent Multi-Resolution 3D Modeling, Compression, Registration, Fusion and Recognition, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions are being designed for multi-sensor data collection and synthesis using diverse temporal, spatial and spectral resolutions for use by multiple teams of...

  20. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-10-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g-1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g-1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g-1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry.

  1. High nitrogen-containing cotton derived 3D porous carbon frameworks for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li-Zhen; Chen, Tian-Tian; Song, Wei-Li; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors fabricated by 3D porous carbon frameworks, such as graphene- and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based aerogels, have been highly attractive due to their various advantages. However, their high cost along with insufficient yield has inhibited their large-scale applications. Here we have demonstrated a facile and easily scalable approach for large-scale preparing novel 3D nitrogen-containing porous carbon frameworks using ultralow-cost commercial cotton. Electrochemical performance suggests that the optimal nitrogen-containing cotton-derived carbon frameworks with a high nitrogen content (12.1 mol%) along with low surface area 285 m2 g−1 present high specific capacities of the 308 and 200 F g−1 in KOH electrolyte at current densities of 0.1 and 10 A g−1, respectively, with very limited capacitance loss upon 10,000 cycles in both aqueous and gel electrolytes. Moreover, the electrode exhibits the highest capacitance up to 220 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and excellent flexibility (with negligible capacitance loss under different bending angles) in the polyvinyl alcohol/KOH gel electrolyte. The observed excellent performance competes well with that found in the electrodes of similar 3D frameworks formed by graphene or CNTs. Therefore, the ultralow-cost and simply strategy here demonstrates great potential for scalable producing high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors in the industry. PMID:26472144

  2. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. First study of small-cell 3D Silicon Pixel Detectors for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    E. Currás (1), J. Duarte-Campderrós (1), M. Fernández (1), A. García (1), G. Gómez (1), J. González (1), R. Jaramillo (1), D. Moya (1), I. Vila (1), S. Hidalgo (2), M. Manna (2), G. Pellegrini (2), D. Quirion (2), D. Pitzl (3), A. Ebrahimi (4), T. Rohe (5), S. Wiederkehr (5); ((1) Instituto de Física de Cantabria, (2) Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona - Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, (3) Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, (4) University of Hamburg, (5) Paul Scherrer Institut)

    2018-01-01

    A study of 3D pixel sensors of cell size 50 {\\mu}m x 50 {\\mu}m fabricated at IMB-CNM using double-sided n-on-p 3D technology is presented. Sensors were bump-bonded to the ROC4SENS readout chip. For the first time in such a small-pitch hybrid assembly, the sensor response to ionizing radiation in a test beam of 5.6 GeV electrons was studied. Results for non-irradiated sensors are presented, including efficiency, charge sharing, signal-to-noise, and resolution for different incidence angles.

  4. Ultrathin nickel hydroxide on carbon coated 3D-porous copper structures for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Ik-Hee; Ramadoss, Ananthakumar; Kim, Sun-I; Yoon, Jong-Chul; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2018-01-03

    An ultrathin nickel hydroxide layer electrodeposited on a carbon-coated three-dimensional porous copper structure (3D-C/Cu) is suggested as an additive and binder-free conductive electrode with short electron path distances, large electrochemical active sites, and improved structural stability, for high performance supercapacitors. The 3D-porous copper structure (3D-Cu) provides high electrical conductivity and facilitates electron transport between the Ni(OH) 2 active materials and the current collector of the Ni-plate. A carbon coating was applied to the 3D-Cu to prevent the oxidation of Cu, without degrading the electron transport behavior of the 3D-Cu. The 3D-Ni(OH) 2 /C/Cu exhibited a high specific capacitance of 1860 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , and good cycling performance, with an 86.5% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles. When tested in a two-electrode system, an asymmetric supercapacitor exhibited an energy density of 147.9 W h kg -1 and a power density of 37.0 kW kg -1 . These results open a new area of ultrahigh-performance supercapacitors, supported by 3D-Cu electrodes.

  5. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR 3D MODELLING OF HIGH-ALPINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Legat

    2016-03-01

    Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  6. Compact High Power 3D LiDAR System for (UAS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eotron has introduced a high performance 3D Time-of-Flight Laser illumination source based on its patented silicon packaging technology originally developed to...

  7. Macromolecular 3D SEM reconstruction strategies: Signal to noise ratio and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.D.; Wepf, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy generates quantitative volumetric structural data from SEM images of macromolecules. This technique provides a quick and easy way to define the quaternary structure and handedness of protein complexes. Here, we apply a variety of preparation and imaging methods to filamentous actin in order to explore the relationship between resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, structural preservation and dataset size. This information can be used to define successful imaging strategies for different applications. - Highlights: • F-actin SEM datasets were collected using 8 different preparation/ imaging techniques. • Datasets were reconstructed by back projection and compared/analyzed • 3DSEM actin reconstructions can be produced with <100 views of the asymmetric unit. • Negatively stained macromolecules can be reconstructed by 3DSEM to ∼3 nm resolution

  8. New techniques for resolution enhancement of 3D x-ray tomographic imaging from incomplete data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengrinovich, V.; Zolotarev, S.; Denkevich, Y.; Tillack, G.-R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of dimensions directly from tomographic images, restored from only few x-ray projections, made in a limited observation sector, is considered exploiting pipes wall thickness assessment like a typical example. Both experiments and simulations are used to extract main errors sources. It is taken from as known, that neglecting of the scattered radiation and beam hardening effects results in image blurring, strong artifacts and finally inaccurate sizing. The computerized technique is developed to simulate the contribution of scattered radiation and beam hardening for the purpose of their further extraction from projected data. After those accompanying effects extraction the iterative Bayesian techniques are applied to reconstruct images from the projections, using volumetric and/or shell representation of the objects like pipes. The achieved error of virtual pipe wall thickness assessment from 3D images can be as small as 300μk comparing to 1mm provided by modern techniques. Finally the conclusion was drawn that standard projection techniques using X- or Gamma rays in combination with X-ray film or imaging plates can be applied for the data acquisition to reconstruct finally wall thickness profiles in an in-field environment. (author)

  9. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC, and (ii heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  10. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  11. High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for 3D Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Yoon, Euisik

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is critical in studying cancer pathology and drug response. Though 3D cancer sphere culture can be performed in low-adherent dishes or well plates, the unregulated cell aggregation may skew the results. On contrary, microfluidic 3D culture can allow precise control of cell microenvironments, and provide higher throughput by orders of magnitude. In this chapter, we will look into engineering innovations in a microfluidic platform for high-throughput cancer cell sphere formation and review the implementation methods in detail.

  12. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-03-19

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl's law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3D-MIP platform when a larger number of cores is available.

  13. 3D Modeling Activity for Novel High Power Electron Guns at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of powerful electronic devices requires new approaches to overcome the known limitations of existing tube technology. Multi-beam and sheet beam approaches are novel concepts for the high power microwave devices. Direct and indirect modeling methods are being developed at SLAC to meet the new requirements in the 3D modeling. The direct method of solving of Poisson's equations for the multi-beam and sheet beam guns is employed in the TOPAZ 3D tool. The combination of TOPAZ 2D and EGUN (in the beginning) with MAFIA 3D and MAGIC 3D (at the end) is used in an indirect method to model the high power electron guns. Both methods complement each other to get reliable representation of the beam trajectories. Several gun ideas are under consideration at the present time. The collected results of these simulations are discussed

  14. 3D Modeling Activity for Novel High Power Electron Guns at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnykh, Anatoly K

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of powerful electronic devices requires new approaches to overcome the known limitations of existing tube technology. Multi-beam and sheet beam approaches are novel concepts for the high power microwave devices. Direct and indirect modeling methods are being developed at SLAC to meet the new requirements in the 3D modeling. The direct method of solving of Poisson's equations for the multi-beam and sheet beam guns is employed in the TOPAZ 3D tool. The combination of TOPAZ 2D and EGUN (in the beginning) with MAFIA 3D and MAGIC 3D (at the end) is used in an indirect method to model the high power electron guns. Both methods complement each other to get reliable representation of the beam trajectories. Several gun ideas are under consideration at the present time. The collected results of these simulations are discussed.

  15. Cabri 3D - assisted collaborative learning to enhance junior high school students’ spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntazhimah; Miatun, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the enhancement of spatial ability of junior high school students who learned through Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning. The methodology of this study was the nonequivalent group that was conducted to students of the eighth grade in a junior high school as a population. Samples consisted one class of the experimental group who studied with Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and one class as a control group who got regular learning activity. The instrument used in this study was a spatial ability test. Analyzing normalized gain of students’ spatial ability based on mathemathical prior knowledge (MPK) and its interactions was tested by two-way ANOVA at a significance level of 5% then continued with using Post Hoc Scheffe test. The research results showed that there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with Cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning, there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning in terms of MPK and there is no significant interaction between learning (Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and regular learning) with students’ MPK (high, medium, and low) toward the enhancement of students’ spatial abilities. From the above findings, it can be seen that cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning could enhance spatial ability of junior high school students.

  16. An Analysis of the Discrepancies between MODIS and INSAT-3D LSTs in High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Alavipanah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In many disciplines, knowledge on the accuracy of Land Surface Temperature (LST as an input is of great importance. One of the most efficient methods in LST evaluation is cross validation. Well-documented and validated polar satellites with a high spatial resolution can be used as references for validating geostationary LST products. This study attempted to investigate the discrepancies between a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS and Indian National Satellite (INSAT-3D LSTs for high temperatures, focusing on six deserts with sand dune land cover in the Middle East from 3 March 2015 to 24 August 2016. Firstly, the variability of LSTs in the deserts of the study area was analyzed by comparing the mean, Standard Deviation (STD, skewness, minimum, and maximum criteria for each observation time. The mean value of the LST observations indicated that the MYD-D observation times are closer to those of diurnal maximum and minimum LSTs. At all times, the LST observations exhibited a negative skewness and the STD indicated higher variability during times of MOD-D. The observed maximum LSTs from MODIS collection 6 showed higher values in comparison with the last versions of LSTs for hot spot regions around the world. After the temporal, spatial, and geometrical matching of LST products, the mean of the MODIS—INSAT LST differences was calculated for the study area. The results demonstrated that discrepancies increased with temperature up to +15.5 K. The slopes of the mean differences were relatively similar for all deserts except for An Nafud, suggesting an effect of View Zenith Angle (VZA. For modeling the discrepancies between two sensors in continuous space, the Diurnal Temperature Cycles (DTC of both sensors were constructed and compared. The sample DTC models approved the results from discrete LST subtractions and proposed the uncertainties within MODIS DTCs. The authors proposed that the observed LST discrepancies in high

  17. An alternative 3D inversion method for magnetic anomalies with depth resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chiappini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to invert magnetic anomaly data in a variety of non-complex contexts when a priori information about the sources is not available. The region containing magnetic sources is discretized into a set of homogeneously magnetized rectangular prisms, polarized along a common direction. The magnetization distribution is calculated by solving an underdetermined linear system, and is accomplished through the simultaneous minimization of the norm of the solution and the misfit between the observed and the calculated field. Our algorithm makes use of a dipolar approximation to compute the magnetic field of the rectangular blocks. We show how this approximation, in conjunction with other correction factors, presents numerous advantages in terms of computing speed and depth resolution, and does not affect significantly the success of the inversion. The algorithm is tested on both synthetic and real magnetic datasets.

  18. 3D printed high performance strain sensors for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; Moser, Russell; Zbib, Hussein M.; Ramana, C. V.; Panat, Rahul

    2018-01-01

    Realization of high temperature physical measurement sensors, which are needed in many of the current and emerging technologies, is challenging due to the degradation of their electrical stability by drift currents, material oxidation, thermal strain, and creep. In this paper, for the first time, we demonstrate that 3D printed sensors show a metamaterial-like behavior, resulting in superior performance such as high sensitivity, low thermal strain, and enhanced thermal stability. The sensors were fabricated using silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), using an advanced Aerosol Jet based additive printing method followed by thermal sintering. The sensors were tested under cyclic strain up to a temperature of 500 °C and showed a gauge factor of 3.15 ± 0.086, which is about 57% higher than that of those available commercially. The sensor thermal strain was also an order of magnitude lower than that of commercial gages for operation up to a temperature of 500 °C. An analytical model was developed to account for the enhanced performance of such printed sensors based on enhanced lateral contraction of the NP films due to the porosity, a behavior akin to cellular metamaterials. The results demonstrate the potential of 3D printing technology as a pathway to realize highly stable and high-performance sensors for high temperature applications.

  19. High-Precision Phenotyping of Grape Bunch Architecture Using Fast 3D Sensor and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rist

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine growers prefer cultivars with looser bunch architecture because of the decreased risk for bunch rot. As a consequence, grapevine breeders have to select seedlings and new cultivars with regard to appropriate bunch traits. Bunch architecture is a mosaic of different single traits which makes phenotyping labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a fast and high-precision phenotyping pipeline was developed. The optical sensor Artec Spider 3D scanner (Artec 3D, L-1466, Luxembourg was used to generate dense 3D point clouds of grapevine bunches under lab conditions and an automated analysis software called 3D-Bunch-Tool was developed to extract different single 3D bunch traits, i.e., the number of berries, berry diameter, single berry volume, total volume of berries, convex hull volume of grapes, bunch width and bunch length. The method was validated on whole bunches of different grapevine cultivars and phenotypic variable breeding material. Reliable phenotypic data were obtained which show high significant correlations (up to r2 = 0.95 for berry number compared to ground truth data. Moreover, it was shown that the Artec Spider can be used directly in the field where achieved data show comparable precision with regard to the lab application. This non-invasive and non-contact field application facilitates the first high-precision phenotyping pipeline based on 3D bunch traits in large plant sets.

  20. High-Precision Phenotyping of Grape Bunch Architecture Using Fast 3D Sensor and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Florian; Herzog, Katja; Mack, Jenny; Richter, Robert; Steinhage, Volker; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2018-03-02

    Wine growers prefer cultivars with looser bunch architecture because of the decreased risk for bunch rot. As a consequence, grapevine breeders have to select seedlings and new cultivars with regard to appropriate bunch traits. Bunch architecture is a mosaic of different single traits which makes phenotyping labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a fast and high-precision phenotyping pipeline was developed. The optical sensor Artec Spider 3D scanner (Artec 3D, L-1466, Luxembourg) was used to generate dense 3D point clouds of grapevine bunches under lab conditions and an automated analysis software called 3D-Bunch-Tool was developed to extract different single 3D bunch traits, i.e., the number of berries, berry diameter, single berry volume, total volume of berries, convex hull volume of grapes, bunch width and bunch length. The method was validated on whole bunches of different grapevine cultivars and phenotypic variable breeding material. Reliable phenotypic data were obtained which show high significant correlations (up to r² = 0.95 for berry number) compared to ground truth data. Moreover, it was shown that the Artec Spider can be used directly in the field where achieved data show comparable precision with regard to the lab application. This non-invasive and non-contact field application facilitates the first high-precision phenotyping pipeline based on 3D bunch traits in large plant sets.

  1. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  2. Edge placement error control and Mask3D effects in High-NA anamorphic EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, Eelco; Bottiglieri, Gerardo; de Winter, Laurens; McNamara, John; Rusu, Paul; Lubkoll, Jan; Rispens, Gijsbert; van Schoot, Jan; Neumann, Jens Timo; Roesch, Matthias; Kneer, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    To enable cost-effective shrink at the 3nm node and beyond, and to extend Moore's law into the next decade, ASML is developing a new high-NA EUV platform. The high-NA system is targeted to feature a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.55 to extend the single exposure resolution limit to 8nm half pitch. The system is being designed to achieve an on-product-overlay (OPO) performance well below 2nm, a high image contrast to drive down local CD errors and to obtain global CDU at sub-1nm level to be able to meet customer edge placement error (EPE) requirements for the devices of the future. EUV scanners employ reflective Bragg multi-layer mirrors in the mask and in the Projection Optics Box (POB) that is used to project the mask pattern into the photoresist on the silicon wafer. These MoSi multi-layer mirrors are tuned for maximum reflectivity, and thus productivity, at 13.5nm wavelength. The angular range of incident light for which a high reflectivity at the reticle can be obtained is limited to +/- 11o, exceeding the maximum angle occurring in current 0.33NA scanners at 4x demagnification. At 0.55NA the maximum angle at reticle level would extend up to 17o in the critical (scanning) direction and compromise the imaging performance of horizontal features severely. To circumvent this issue a novel anamorphic optics design has been introduced, which has a 4x demagnification in the X- (slit) direction and 8x demagnification in the Y- (scanning) direction as well as a central obscuration in the exit pupil. In this work we will show that the EUV high-NA anamorphic concept can successfully solve the angular reflectivity issues and provide good imaging performance in both directions. Several unique imaging challenges in comparison to the 0.33NA isomorphic baseline are being studied, such as the impact of the central obscuration in the POB and Mask-3D effects at increased NA that seem most pronounced for vertical features. These include M3D induced contrast loss and non

  3. A 3D Finite Element Model with Improved Spatial Resolution to Investigate the Effect of Varying Viscosity on Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, B.; van der Wal, W.; Pappa, F.; Ebbing, J.

    2017-12-01

    B. Blank1, H. Hu1, W. van der Wal1, F Pappa2, J. Ebbing21Delft University of Technology 2Christian-Albrechts-University of KielSince the beginning of the 2000's time-variable gravity data from GRACE has proved to be an effective method for mapping ice mass loss in Antarctica. However, Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models are required to correct for GIA induced mass changes. While most GIA models have adopted an Earth model that only varies radially in parameters, it has long been clear that the Earth structure also varies with longitude and latitude. For this study a new global 3D GIA model has been developed within the finite element software package ABAQUS, which can be modified to operate on a spatial resolution down to 50 km locally. The model is being benchmarked against normal model models for surface loading. It will be used to investigate the effects of a 3D varying lithosphere and upper asthenosphere in Antarctica. Viscosity which will be computed from temperature estimates with laboratory based flow laws. A new 3D temperature map of the Antarctic lithosphere has been developed within ESA's GOCE+ project based on seismic data as well as on GOCE and GRACE inferred gravity gradients. Output from the GIA model with this new temperature estimates will be compared to that of 1D viscosity profiles and other recent 3D viscosity models based on seismic data. From these side to side comparisons we want to investigate the influence of the viscosity map on uplift rates and horizontal movement. Finally the results can be compared to GPS measurement to investigate the validity of all models.

  4. 3D-SURFER: software for high-throughput protein surface comparison and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, David; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Li, Bin; Sael, Lee; Ueng, Stephen; Ahrendt, Steven; Kihara, Daisuke

    2009-11-01

    We present 3D-SURFER, a web-based tool designed to facilitate high-throughput comparison and characterization of proteins based on their surface shape. As each protein is effectively represented by a vector of 3D Zernike descriptors, comparison times for a query protein against the entire PDB take, on an average, only a couple of seconds. The web interface has been designed to be as interactive as possible with displays showing animated protein rotations, CATH codes and structural alignments using the CE program. In addition, geometrically interesting local features of the protein surface, such as pockets that often correspond to ligand binding sites as well as protrusions and flat regions can also be identified and visualized. 3D-SURFER is a web application that can be freely accessed from: http://dragon.bio.purdue.edu/3d-surfer dkihara@purdue.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Taku

    1994-01-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: 1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and 2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author)

  6. High-throughput 3D spheroid culture and drug testing using a 384 hanging drop array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Chung; Hsiao, Amy Y; Allen, Steven G; Torisawa, Yu-suke; Ho, Mitchell; Takayama, Shuichi

    2011-02-07

    Culture of cells as three-dimensional (3D) aggregates can enhance in vitro tests for basic biological research as well as for therapeutics development. Such 3D culture models, however, are often more complicated, cumbersome, and expensive than two-dimensional (2D) cultures. This paper describes a 384-well format hanging drop culture plate that makes spheroid formation, culture, and subsequent drug testing on the obtained 3D cellular constructs as straightforward to perform and adapt to existing high-throughput screening (HTS) instruments as conventional 2D cultures. Using this platform, we show that drugs with different modes of action produce distinct responses in the physiological 3D cell spheroids compared to conventional 2D cell monolayers. Specifically, the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has higher anti-proliferative effects on 2D cultures whereas the hypoxia activated drug commonly referred to as tirapazamine (TPZ) are more effective against 3D cultures. The multiplexed 3D hanging drop culture and testing plate provides an efficient way to obtain biological insights that are often lost in 2D platforms.

  7. Design for High Performance, Low Power, and Reliable 3D Integrated Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the design of through-silicon-via (TSV) based three-dimensional integrated circuits.  It includes details of numerous “manufacturing-ready” GDSII-level layouts of TSV-based 3D ICs, developed with tools covered in the book. Readers will benefit from the sign-off level analysis of timing, power, signal integrity, and thermo-mechanical reliability for 3D IC designs.  Coverage also includes various design-for-manufacturability (DFM), design-for-reliability (DFR), and design-for-testability (DFT) techniques that are considered critical to the 3D IC design process. Describes design issues and solutions for high performance and low power 3D ICs, such as the pros/cons of regular and irregular placement of TSVs, Steiner routing, buffer insertion, low power 3D clock routing, power delivery network design and clock design for pre-bond testability. Discusses topics in design-for-electrical-reliability for 3D ICs, such as TSV-to-TSV coupling, current crowding at the wire-to-TSV junction and the e...

  8. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  9. 3D Tendon Strain Estimation Using High-frequency Volumetric Ultrasound Images: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Catarina; Slagmolen, Pieter; Bogaerts, Stijn; Scheys, Lennart; D'hooge, Jan; Peers, Koen; Maes, Frederik; Suetens, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Estimation of strain in tendons for tendinopathy assessment is a hot topic within the sports medicine community. It is believed that, if accurately estimated, existing treatment and rehabilitation protocols can be improved and presymptomatic abnormalities can be detected earlier. State-of-the-art studies present inaccurate and highly variable strain estimates, leaving this problem without solution. Out-of-plane motion, present when acquiring two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) images, is a known problem and may be responsible for such errors. This work investigates the benefit of high-frequency, three-dimensional (3D) US imaging to reduce errors in tendon strain estimation. Volumetric US images were acquired in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo using an innovative acquisition approach that combines the acquisition of 2D high-frequency US images with a mechanical guided system. An affine image registration method was used to estimate global strain. 3D strain estimates were then compared with ground-truth values and with 2D strain estimates. The obtained results for in silico data showed a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.07%, 0.05%, and 0.27% for 3D estimates along axial, lateral direction, and elevation direction and a respective MAE of 0.21% and 0.29% for 2D strain estimates. Although 3D could outperform 2D, this does not occur in in vitro and ex vivo settings, likely due to 3D acquisition artifacts. Comparison against the state-of-the-art methods showed competitive results. The proposed work shows that 3D strain estimates are more accurate than 2D estimates but acquisition of appropriate 3D US images remains a challenge.

  10. Implication of the cause of differences in 3D structures of proteins with high sequence identity based on analyses of amino acid sequences and 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Masanari; Sugita, Masatake; Kikuchi, Takeshi

    2014-09-18

    Proteins that share a high sequence homology while exhibiting drastically different 3D structures are investigated in this study. Recently, artificial proteins related to the sequences of the GA and IgG binding GB domains of human serum albumin have been designed. These artificial proteins, referred to as GA and GB, share 98% amino acid sequence identity but exhibit different 3D structures, namely, a 3α bundle versus a 4β + α structure. Discriminating between their 3D structures based on their amino acid sequences is a very difficult problem. In the present work, in addition to using bioinformatics techniques, an analysis based on inter-residue average distance statistics is used to address this problem. It was hard to distinguish which structure a given sequence would take only with the results of ordinary analyses like BLAST and conservation analyses. However, in addition to these analyses, with the analysis based on the inter-residue average distance statistics and our sequence tendency analysis, we could infer which part would play an important role in its structural formation. The results suggest possible determinants of the different 3D structures for sequences with high sequence identity. The possibility of discriminating between the 3D structures based on the given sequences is also discussed.

  11. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  12. High-Speed 3D Printing of Millimeter-Size Customized Aspheric Imaging Lenses with Sub 7 nm Surface Roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangfan; Liu, Wenzhong; Dong, Biqin; Lee, Jongwoo; Ware, Henry Oliver T; Zhang, Hao F; Sun, Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Advancements in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology have the potential to transform the manufacture of customized optical elements, which today relies heavily on time-consuming and costly polishing and grinding processes. However the inherent speed-accuracy trade-off seriously constrains the practical applications of 3D-printing technology in the optical realm. In addressing this issue, here, a new method featuring a significantly faster fabrication speed, at 24.54 mm 3 h -1 , without compromising the fabrication accuracy required to 3D-print customized optical components is reported. A high-speed 3D-printing process with subvoxel-scale precision (sub 5 µm) and deep subwavelength (sub 7 nm) surface roughness by employing the projection micro-stereolithography process and the synergistic effects from grayscale photopolymerization and the meniscus equilibrium post-curing methods is demonstrated. Fabricating a customized aspheric lens 5 mm in height and 3 mm in diameter is accomplished in four hours. The 3D-printed singlet aspheric lens demonstrates a maximal imaging resolution of 373.2 lp mm -1 with low field distortion less than 0.13% across a 2 mm field of view. This lens is attached onto a cell phone camera and the colorful fine details of a sunset moth's wing and the spot on a weevil's elytra are captured. This work demonstrates the potential of this method to rapidly prototype optical components or systems based on 3D printing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. a Web-Based Interactive Tool for Multi-Resolution 3d Models of a Maya Archaeological Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agugiaro, G.; Remondino, F.; Girardi, G.; von Schwerin, J.; Richards-Rissetto, H.; De Amicis, R.

    2011-09-01

    Continuous technological advances in surveying, computing and digital-content delivery are strongly contributing to a change in the way Cultural Heritage is "perceived": new tools and methodologies for documentation, reconstruction and research are being created to assist not only scholars, but also to reach more potential users (e.g. students and tourists) willing to access more detailed information about art history and archaeology. 3D computer-simulated models, sometimes set in virtual landscapes, offer for example the chance to explore possible hypothetical reconstructions, while on-line GIS resources can help interactive analyses of relationships and change over space and time. While for some research purposes a traditional 2D approach may suffice, this is not the case for more complex analyses concerning spatial and temporal features of architecture, like for example the relationship of architecture and landscape, visibility studies etc. The project aims therefore at creating a tool, called "QueryArch3D" tool, which enables the web-based visualisation and queries of an interactive, multi-resolution 3D model in the framework of Cultural Heritage. More specifically, a complete Maya archaeological site, located in Copan (Honduras), has been chosen as case study to test and demonstrate the platform's capabilities. Much of the site has been surveyed and modelled at different levels of detail (LoD) and the geometric model has been semantically segmented and integrated with attribute data gathered from several external data sources. The paper describes the characteristics of the research work, along with its implementation issues and the initial results of the developed prototype.

  14. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amol A; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A; Tabaei, Seyed R; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode-based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents.

  15. High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puech, M; Thevenoud, J M; Launay, N; Arnal, N; Godinat, P; Andrieu, B; Gruffat, J M

    2006-01-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones

  16. An experimentally verified model for estimating the distance resolution capability of direct time of flight 3D optical imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, K Q K; Fisher, E M D; Walton, A J; Underwood, I

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces a new statistical model for time-resolved photon detection in a generic single-photon-sensitive sensor array. The model is validated by comparing modelled data with experimental data collected on a single-photon avalanche diode sensor array. Data produced by the model are used alongside corresponding experimental data to calculate, for the first time, the effective distance resolution of a pulsed direct time of flight 3D optical imaging system over a range of conditions using four peak-detection algorithms. The relative performance of the algorithms is compared. The model can be used to improve the system design process and inform selection of the optimal peak-detection algorithm. (paper)

  17. Single Additive Enables 3D Printing of Highly Loaded Iron Oxide Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodaei, Amin; Akhlaghi, Omid; Khani, Navid; Aytas, Tunahan; Sezer, Dilek; Tatli, Buse; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z; Koc, Bahattin; Akbulut, Ozge

    2018-03-21

    A single additive, a grafted copolymer, is designed to ensure the stability of suspensions of highly loaded iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) and to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) printing of these suspensions in the filament form. This poly (ethylene glycol)-grafted copolymer of N-[3(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide and acrylic acid harnesses both electrostatic and steric repulsion to realize an optimum formulation for 3D printing. When used at 1.15 wt % (by the weight of IOPs), the suspension attains ∼81 wt % solid loading-96% of the theoretical limit as calculated by the Krieger-Dougherty equation. Rectangular, thick-walled toroidal, and thin-walled toroidal magnetic cores and a porous lattice structure are fabricated to demonstrate the utilization of this suspension as an ink for 3D printing. The electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic cores are characterized through impedance spectroscopy (IS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), respectively. The IS indicates the possibility of utilizing wire-wound 3D printed cores as the inductive coils. The VSM verifies that the magnetic properties of IOPs before and after the ink formulation are kept almost unchanged because of the low dosage of the additive. This particle-targeted approach for the formulation of 3D printing inks allows embodiment of a fully aqueous system with utmost target material content.

  18. The effect of spatial micro-CT image resolution and surface complexity on the morphological 3D analysis of open porous structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyka, Grzegorz, E-mail: gregory.pyka@mtm.kuleuven.be [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kerckhofs, Greet [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Biomechanics Research Unit, Université de Liege, Chemin des Chevreuils 1 - BAT 52/3, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Schrooten, Jan; Wevers, Martine [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 – PB2450, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-01-15

    In material science microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques to visualise and quantify the internal structure of materials in 3D. Despite constant system improvements, state-of-the-art micro-CT images can still hold several artefacts typical for X-ray CT imaging that hinder further image-based processing, structural and quantitative analysis. For example spatial resolution is crucial for an appropriate characterisation as the voxel size essentially influences the partial volume effect. However, defining the adequate image resolution is not a trivial aspect and understanding the correlation between scan parameters like voxel size and the structural properties is crucial for comprehensive material characterisation using micro-CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spatial image resolution on the micro-CT based morphological analysis of three-dimensional (3D) open porous structures with a high surface complexity. In particular the correlation between the local surface properties and the accuracy of the micro-CT-based macro-morphology of 3D open porous Ti6Al4V structures produced by selective laser melting (SLM) was targeted and revealed for rough surfaces a strong dependence of the resulting structure characteristics on the scan resolution. Reducing the surface complexity by chemical etching decreased the sensitivity of the overall morphological analysis to the spatial image resolution and increased the detection limit. This study showed that scan settings and image processing parameters need to be customized to the material properties, morphological parameters under investigation and the desired final characteristics (in relation to the intended functional use). Customization of the scan resolution can increase the reliability of the micro-CT based analysis and at the same time reduce its operating costs. - Highlights: • We examine influence of the image resolution

  19. High-Throughput Fabrication of Nanocomplexes Using 3D-Printed Micromixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Boetker, Johan; Wang, Yingya

    2017-01-01

    3D printing allows a rapid and inexpensive manufacturing of custom made and prototype devices. Micromixers are used for rapid and controlled production of nanoparticles intended for therapeutic delivery. In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of micromixers using computational design and 3D...... via bulk mixing. Moreover, each micromixer could process more than 2 liters per hour with unaffected performance and the setup could easily be scaled-up by aligning several micromixers in parallel. This demonstrates that 3D printing can be used to prepare disposable high-throughput micromixers...... printing, which enable a continuous and industrial scale production of nanocomplexes formed by electrostatic complexation, using the polymers poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Several parameters including polymer concentration, flow rate, and flow ratio were...

  20. Hybrid UV Lithography for 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee [Inha Univ, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microstructures for biomedical applications (e.g., microneedle, microadhesive, etc.) are microfabricated using the hybrid ultraviolet (UV) lithography in which inclined, rotational, and reverse-side UV exposure processes are combined together. The inclined and rotational UV exposure processes are intended to fabricate tapered axisymmetric HAR microstructures; the reverse-side UV exposure process is designed to sharpen the end tip of the microstructures by suppressing the UV reflection on a bottom substrate which is inevitable in conventional UV lithography. Hybrid UV lithography involves fabricating 3D HAR microstructures with an epoxy-based negative photoresist, SU-8, using our customized UV exposure system. The effects of hybrid UV lithography parameters on the geometry of the 3D HAR microstructures (aspect ratio, radius of curvature of the end tip, etc.) are measured. The dependence of the end-tip shape on SU-8 soft-baking condition is also discussed.

  1. 3D modeling of high-Tc superconductors by finite element software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Coombs, T A

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is proposed to solve the electromagnetic problems involving transport current and background field of a high-T c superconducting (HTS) system. The model is characterized by the E–J power law and H-formulation, and is successfully implemented using finite element software. We first discuss the model in detail, including the mesh methods, boundary conditions and computing time. To validate the 3D model, we calculate the ac loss and trapped field solution for a bulk material and compare the results with the previously verified 2D solutions and an analytical solution. We then apply our model to test some typical problems such as superconducting bulk array and twisted conductors, which cannot be tackled by the 2D models. The new 3D model could be a powerful tool for researchers and engineers to investigate problems with a greater level of complicity.

  2. Hybrid UV Lithography for 3D High-Aspect-Ratio Microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microstructures for biomedical applications (e.g., microneedle, microadhesive, etc.) are microfabricated using the hybrid ultraviolet (UV) lithography in which inclined, rotational, and reverse-side UV exposure processes are combined together. The inclined and rotational UV exposure processes are intended to fabricate tapered axisymmetric HAR microstructures; the reverse-side UV exposure process is designed to sharpen the end tip of the microstructures by suppressing the UV reflection on a bottom substrate which is inevitable in conventional UV lithography. Hybrid UV lithography involves fabricating 3D HAR microstructures with an epoxy-based negative photoresist, SU-8, using our customized UV exposure system. The effects of hybrid UV lithography parameters on the geometry of the 3D HAR microstructures (aspect ratio, radius of curvature of the end tip, etc.) are measured. The dependence of the end-tip shape on SU-8 soft-baking condition is also discussed

  3. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Unidirectional high fiber content composites: Automatic 3D FE model generation and damage simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    A new method and a software code for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical FE models of unidirectional long-fiber-reinforced composite (LFRC) with high fiber volume fraction with random fiber arrangement are presented. The fiber arrangement in the cross-section is generated through random...

  5. Thermally stable cellulose nanocrystals toward high-performance 2D and 3D nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Jia; Huiyang Bian; Tingting Gao; Feng Jiang; Iain Michael Kierzewski; Yilin Wang; Yonggang Yao; Liheng Chen; Ziqiang Shao; J. Y. Zhu; Liangbing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials have attracted much attention in a broad range of fields such as flexible electronics, tissue engineering, and 3D printing for their excellent mechanical strength and intriguing optical properties. Economic, sustainable, and eco-friendly production of cellulose nanomaterials with high thermal stability, however, remains a tremendous challenge....

  6. High Temperature Test Facility Preliminary RELAP5-3D Input Model Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A RELAP5-3D input model is being developed for the High Temperature Test Facility at Oregon State University. The current model is described in detail. Further refinements will be made to the model as final as-built drawings are released and when system characterization data are available for benchmarking the input model.

  7. High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2010-01-01

    This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme O...

  8. Exploring the Potential of Aerial Photogrammetry for 3d Modelling of High-Alpine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legat, K.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Bollmannb, E.

    2016-03-01

    cameras of Microsoft's UltraCam series and the in-house processing chain centred on the Dense-Image-Matching (DIM) software SURE by nFrames. This paper reports the work carried out at AVT for the surface- and terrain modelling of several high-alpine areas using DIM- and ALS-based approaches. A special focus is dedicated to the influence of terrain morphology, flight planning, GNSS/IMU measurements, and ground-control distribution in the georeferencing process on the data quality. Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  9. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  10. Organic MEMS/NEMS-based high-efficiency 3D ITO-less flexible photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassegne, Sam; Moon, Kee; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Majzoub, Mohammad; Őzturk, Gunay; Desai, Krishna; Parikh, Mihir; Nguyen, Bao; Khosla, Ajit; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach based on three-dimensional (3D) architecture for polymeric photovoltaic cells made up of an array of sub-micron and nano-pillars which not only increase the area of the light absorbing surface, but also improve the carrier collection efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells is presented. The approach also introduces coating of 3D anodes with a new solution-processable highly conductive transparent polymer (Orgacon™) that replaces expensive vacuum-deposited ITO (indium tin oxide) as well as the additional hole-collecting layer of conventional PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate)). In addition, the described procedure is well suited to roll-to-roll high-throughput manufacturing. The high aspect-ratio 3D pillars which form the basis for this new architecture are patterned through micro-electromechanical-system- and nano-electromechanical-system-based processes. For the particular case of P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene)) and PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) active material, efficiencies in excess of 6% have been achieved for these photovoltaic cells of 3D architecture using ITO-less flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. This increase in efficiency turns out to be more than twice higher than those achieved for their 2D counterparts. (paper)

  11. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alverson, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Eulisse, G. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Muzaffar, S. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Osborne, I. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Taylor, L. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: lucas.taylor@cern.ch; Tuura, L.A. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user.

  12. 3D MODELLING OF PROPHYLACTIC FOOTWEAR FOR A HIGH ARCHED FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTEA Mariana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the methodology of designing customized footwear for high arched foot. The authors propose to reconsider the classical structure of footwear bottom components for people with high arched foot and recommend incorporating custom components, with the role of compensation or adjustment. This study continues the authors’ research, starting from a foot’s 3D shape obtained by 3D scanning, the anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters, shoe lasts’ 3D modelling and continuing with 3D footwear design. Including customized orthosis can help to stop the evolution of abnormalities, diminishes sensations of pain during walking and improves performance in various physical activities carried out during the day, walking, running, and standing. The prophylactic footwear has to meet four main requirements: to protect the foot and ankle during walking and static; to ensure the normal resistance systems (bones, muscle and joint of the foot; to prevent the installation of irreversible structural changes by reducing stress on the foot; to contribute to increased performance in conducting regular physical activity. It is presented the steps of modelling an orthosis, a virtual simulation of its cutting process, followed by the integration and development of the insole, filling and sole for a customized shoe. Delcam Crispin CAD system and its applications for orthopaedics are used to design the bottom components of prophylactic footwear for a high arched foot.

  13. IGUANA A high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    CERN Document Server

    Alverson, G; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L A

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high- performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, sl...

  14. IGUANA: a high-performance 2D and 3D visualisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverson, G.; Eulisse, G.; Muzaffar, S.; Osborne, I.; Taylor, L.; Tuura, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The IGUANA project has developed visualisation tools for multiple high-energy experiments. At the core of IGUANA is a generic, high-performance visualisation system based on OpenInventor and OpenGL. This paper describes the back-end and a feature-rich 3D visualisation system built on it, as well as a new 2D visualisation system that can automatically generate 2D views from 3D data, for example to produce R/Z or X/Y detector displays from existing 3D display with little effort. IGUANA has collaborated with the open-source gl2ps project to create a high-quality vector postscript output that can produce true vector graphics output from any OpenGL 2D or 3D display, complete with surface shading and culling of invisible surfaces. We describe how it works. We also describe how one can measure the memory and performance costs of various OpenInventor constructs and how to test scene graphs. We present good patterns to follow and bad patterns to avoid. We have added more advanced tools such as per-object clipping, slicing, lighting or animation, as well as multiple linked views with OpenInventor, and describe them in this paper. We give details on how to edit object appearance efficiently and easily, and even dynamically as a function of object properties, with instant visual feedback to the user

  15. Using kites for 3-D mapping of gullies at decimetre-resolution over several square kilometres: a case study on the Kamech catchment, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Feurer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring agricultural areas threatened by soil erosion often requires decimetre topographic information over areas of several square kilometres. Airborne lidar and remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS imagery have the ability to provide repeated decimetre-resolution and -accuracy digital elevation models (DEMs covering these extents, which is unrealistic with ground surveys. However, various factors hamper the dissemination of these technologies in a wide range of situations, including local regulations for RPAS and the cost for airborne laser systems and medium-format RPAS imagery. The goal of this study is to investigate the ability of low-tech kite aerial photography to obtain DEMs with decimetre resolution and accuracy that permit 3-D descriptions of active gullying in cultivated areas of several square kilometres. To this end, we developed and assessed a two-step workflow. First, we used both heuristic experimental approaches in field and numerical simulations to determine the conditions that make a photogrammetric flight possible and effective over several square kilometres with a kite and a consumer-grade camera. Second, we mapped and characterised the entire gully system of a test catchment in 3-D. We showed numerically and experimentally that using a thin and light line for the kite is key for a complete 3-D coverage over several square kilometres. We thus obtained a decimetre-resolution DEM covering 3.18 km2 with a mean error and standard deviation of the error of +7 and 22 cm respectively, hence achieving decimetre accuracy. With this data set, we showed that high-resolution topographic data permit both the detection and characterisation of an entire gully system with a high level of detail and an overall accuracy of 74 % compared to an independent field survey. Kite aerial photography with simple but appropriate equipment is hence an alternative tool that has been proven to be valuable for surveying gullies with sub

  16. 3D extrusion printing of high drug loading immediate release paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Shaban A; Alexander, Morgan R; Wildman, Ricky D; Wallace, Martin J; Sharpe, Sonja; Yoo, Jae; Roberts, Clive J

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of immediate release high drug loading paracetamol oral tablets was achieved using an extrusion based 3D printer from a premixed water based paste formulation. The 3D printed tablets demonstrate that a very high drug (paracetamol) loading formulation (80% w/w) can be printed as an acceptable tablet using a method suitable for personalisation and distributed manufacture. Paracetamol is an example of a drug whose physical form can present challenges to traditional powder compression tableting. Printing avoids these issues and facilitates the relatively high drug loading. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties including weight variation, friability, breaking force, disintegration time, and dimensions and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) was used to identify the physical form of the active. Additionally, XRPD, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess possible drug-excipient interactions. The 3D printed tablets were evaluated for drug release using a USP dissolution testing type I apparatus. The tablets showed a profile characteristic of the immediate release profile as intended based upon the active/excipient ratio used with disintegration in less than 60 s and release of most of the drug within 5 min. The results demonstrate the capability of 3D extrusion based printing to produce acceptable high-drug loading tablets from approved materials that comply with current USP standards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  18. High Performance Implementation of 3D Convolutional Neural Networks on a GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zelong; Wen, Mei; Zhang, Chunyuan; Wang, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional neural networks have proven to be highly successful in applications such as image classification, object tracking, and many other tasks based on 2D inputs. Recently, researchers have started to apply convolutional neural networks to video classification, which constitutes a 3D input and requires far larger amounts of memory and much more computation. FFT based methods can reduce the amount of computation, but this generally comes at the cost of an increased memory requirement. On the other hand, the Winograd Minimal Filtering Algorithm (WMFA) can reduce the number of operations required and thus can speed up the computation, without increasing the required memory. This strategy was shown to be successful for 2D neural networks. We implement the algorithm for 3D convolutional neural networks and apply it to a popular 3D convolutional neural network which is used to classify videos and compare it to cuDNN. For our highly optimized implementation of the algorithm, we observe a twofold speedup for most of the 3D convolution layers of our test network compared to the cuDNN version. PMID:29250109

  19. High Performance Implementation of 3D Convolutional Neural Networks on a GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qiang; Wang, Zelong; Wen, Mei; Zhang, Chunyuan; Wang, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional neural networks have proven to be highly successful in applications such as image classification, object tracking, and many other tasks based on 2D inputs. Recently, researchers have started to apply convolutional neural networks to video classification, which constitutes a 3D input and requires far larger amounts of memory and much more computation. FFT based methods can reduce the amount of computation, but this generally comes at the cost of an increased memory requirement. On the other hand, the Winograd Minimal Filtering Algorithm (WMFA) can reduce the number of operations required and thus can speed up the computation, without increasing the required memory. This strategy was shown to be successful for 2D neural networks. We implement the algorithm for 3D convolutional neural networks and apply it to a popular 3D convolutional neural network which is used to classify videos and compare it to cuDNN. For our highly optimized implementation of the algorithm, we observe a twofold speedup for most of the 3D convolution layers of our test network compared to the cuDNN version.

  20. A 3D heat conduction model for block-type high temperature reactors and its implementation into the code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, Silvio; Kliem, Soeren; Rohde, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The gas-cooled high temperature reactor is a concept to produce energy at high temperatures with a high level of inherent safety. It gets special attraction due to e.g. high thermal efficiency and the possibility of hydrogen production. In addition to the PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) the (V)HTR (Very high temperature reactor) concept has been established. The basic design of a prismatic HTR consists of the following elements. The fuel is coated with four layers of isotropic materials. These so-called TRISO particles are dispersed into compacts which are placed in a graphite block matrix. The graphite matrix additionally contains holes for the coolant gas. A one-dimensional model is sufficient to describe (the radial) heat transfer in LWRs. But temperature gradients in a prismatic HTR can occur in axial as well as in radial direction, since regions with different heat source release and with different coolant temperature heat up are coupled through the graphite matrix elements. Furthermore heat transfer into reflector elements is possible. DYN3D is a code system for coupled neutron and thermal hydraulics core calculations developed at the Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. Concerning neutronics DYN3D consists of a two-group and multi-group diffusion approach based on nodal expansion methods. Furthermore a 1D thermal-hydraulics model for parallel coolant flow channels is included. The DYN3D code was extensively verified and validated via numerous numerical and experimental benchmark problems. That includes the NEA CRP benchmarks for PWR and BWR, the Three-Miles-Island-1 main steam line break and the Peach Bottom Turbine Trip benchmarks, as well as measurements carried out in an original-size VVER-1000 mock-up. An overview of the verification and validation activities can be found. Presently a DYN3D-HTR version is under development. It involves a 3D heat conduction model to deal with higher-(than one)-dimensional effects of heat transfer and heat conduction in

  1. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  2. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  3. Free-standing 3D graphene/polyaniline composite film electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyong; Ma, Li; Gan, Mengyu; Fu, Shenna; Dai, Wenqin; Zhou, Tao; Sun, Xiaowu; Wang, Huihui; Wang, Huining

    2015-12-01

    The research paper describes polyaniline (PANI) nanowires array on flexible polystyrene microsphere/reduced graphene (PS/rGN) film is synthesized by dilute polymerization, and then the PS microspheres are removed to form free-standing three-dimensional (3D) rGN/PANI composite film. The chemical and structural properties of the 3D rGN/PANI film are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and the results confirm the 3D rGN/PANI film is synthesized successfully. When the film is used as a supercapacitor electrode, the maximum specific capacitance is as high as 740 F g-1 (or 581 F cm-3 for volumetric capacitance) at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 and the specific capacitance retains 87% of the initial after constant charge-discharge 1000 cycles at current density of 10 A g-1. It is believed that the free-standing 3D rGN/PANI film will have a great potential for application in supercapacitors.

  4. Synthesis of highly interconnected 3D scaffold from Arothron stellatus skin collagen for tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Singaravelu, Sivakumar; Raja, M D; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli

    2015-11-01

    The substrate which is avidly used for tissue engineering applications should have good mechanical and biocompatible properties, and all these parameters are often considered as essential for dermal reformation. Highly interconnected three dimensional (3D) wound dressing material with enhanced structural integrity was synthesized from Arothron stellatus fish skin (AsFS) collagen for tissue engineering applications. The synthesized 3D collagen sponge (COL-SPG) was further characterized by different physicochemical methods. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the material demonstrated that well interconnected pores with homogeneous microstructure on the surface aids higher swelling index and that the material also possessed good mechanical properties with a Young's modulus of 0.89±0.2 MPa. Biocompatibility of the 3D COL-SPG showed 92% growth for both NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Overall, the study revealed that synthesized 3D COL-SPG from fish skin will act as a promising wound dressing in skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a version of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D applicable for High Temperature Reactors; Entwicklung einer Version des Reaktordynamikcodes DYN3D fuer Hochtemperaturreaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Apanasevich, Pavel; Baier, Silvio; Duerigen, Susan; Fridman, Emil; Grahn, Alexander; Kliem, Soeren; Merk, Bruno

    2012-07-15

    Based on the reactor dynamics code DYN3D for the simulation of transient processes in Light Water Reactors, a code version DYN3D-HTR for application to graphitemoderated, gas-cooled block-type high temperature reactors has been developed. This development comprises: - the methodical improvement of the 3D steady-state neutron flux calculation for the hexagonal geometry of the HTR fuel element blocks - the development of methods for the generation of homogenised cross section data taking into account the double heterogeneity of the fuel element block structure - the implementation of a 3D model for heat conduction and heat transport in the graphite matrix. The nodal method for neutron flux calculation based on SP3 transport approximation was extended to hexagonal fuel element geometry, where the hexagons are subdivided into triangles, thus the method had finally to be derived for triangular geometry. In triangular geometry, a subsequent subdivision of the hexagonal elements can be considered, and therefore, the effect of systematic mesh refinement can be studied. The algorithm was verified by comparison with Monte Carlo reference solutions, on the node-wise level, as well as also on the pin-wise level. New procedures were developed for the homogenization of the double-heterogeneous fuel element structures. One the one hand, the so-called Reactivity equivalent Physical Transformation (RPT), the two-step homogenization method based on 2D deterministic lattice calculations, was extended to cells with different temperatures of the materials. On the other hand, the progress in development of Monte Carlo methods for spectral calculations, in particular the development of the code SERPENT, opened a new, fully consistent 3D approach, where all details of the structures on fuel particle, fuel compact and fuel block level can be taken into account within one step. Moreover, a 3D heat conduction and heat transport model was integrated into DYN3D to be able to simulate radial

  6. Polypyrrole shell@3D-Ni metal core structured electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao-Feng; Su, Yu-Zhi; Kuang, Pan-Yong; Liu, Zhao-Qing; Chen, Dao-Yi; Wu, Xu; Li, Nan; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2015-03-16

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanometal films serving as current collectors have attracted much interest recently owing to their promising application in high-performance supercapacitors. In the process of the electrochemical reaction, the 3D structure can provide a short diffusion path for fast ion transport, and the highly conductive nanometal may serve as a backbone for facile electron transfer. In this work, a novel polypyrrole (PPy) shell@3D-Ni-core composite is developed to enhance the electrochemical performance of conventional PPy. With the introduction of a Ni metal core, the as-prepared material exhibits a high specific capacitance (726 F g(-1) at a charge/discharge rate of 1 A g(-1)), good rate capability (a decay of 33% in Csp with charge/discharge rates increasing from 1 to 20 A g(-1)), and high cycle stability (only a small decrease of 4.2% in Csp after 1000 cycles at a scan rate of 100 mV s(-1)). Furthermore, an aqueous symmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated by using the as-prepared composite as electrodes; the device demonstrates a high energy density (≈21.2 Wh kg(-1)) and superior long-term cycle ability (only 4.4% and 18.6% loss in Csp after 2000 and 5000 cycles, respectively). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Thermally Stable Cellulose Nanocrystals toward High-Performance 2D and 3D Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chao; Bian, Huiyang; Gao, Tingting; Jiang, Feng; Kierzewski, Iain Michael; Wang, Yilin; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Liheng; Shao, Ziqiang; Zhu, J Y; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-30

    Cellulose nanomaterials have attracted much attention in a broad range of fields such as flexible electronics, tissue engineering, and 3D printing for their excellent mechanical strength and intriguing optical properties. Economic, sustainable, and eco-friendly production of cellulose nanomaterials with high thermal stability, however, remains a tremendous challenge. Here versatile cellulose nanocrystals (DM-OA-CNCs) are prepared through fully recyclable oxalic acid (OA) hydrolysis along with disk-milling (DM) pretreatment of bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp. Compared with the commonly used cellulose nanocrystals from sulfuric acid hydrolysis, DM-OA-CNCs show several advantages including large aspect ratio, carboxylated surface, and excellent thermal stability along with high yield. We also successfully demonstrate the fabrication of high-performance films and 3D-printed patterns using DM-OA-CNCs. The high-performance films with high transparency, ultralow haze, and excellent thermal stability have the great potential for applications in flexible electronic devices. The 3D-printed patterns with porous structures can be potentially applied in the field of tissue engineering as scaffolds.

  8. High Performance Programming Using Explicit Shared Memory Model on Cray T3D1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Horst D.; Saini, Subhash; Grassi, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The Cray T3D system is the first-phase system in Cray Research, Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing (MPP) program. This system features a heterogeneous architecture that closely couples DEC's Alpha microprocessors and CRI's parallel-vector technology, i.e., the Cray Y-MP and Cray C90. An overview of the Cray T3D hardware and available programming models is presented. Under Cray Research adaptive Fortran (CRAFT) model four programming methods (data parallel, work sharing, message-passing using PVM, and explicit shared memory model) are available to the users. However, at this time data parallel and work sharing programming models are not available to the user community. The differences between standard PVM and CRI's PVM are highlighted with performance measurements such as latencies and communication bandwidths. We have found that the performance of neither standard PVM nor CRI s PVM exploits the hardware capabilities of the T3D. The reasons for the bad performance of PVM as a native message-passing library are presented. This is illustrated by the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) programmed in explicit shared memory model on Cray T3D. In general, the performance of standard PVM is about 4 to 5 times less than obtained by using explicit shared memory model. This degradation in performance is also seen on CM-5 where the performance of applications using native message-passing library CMMD on CM-5 is also about 4 to 5 times less than using data parallel methods. The issues involved (such as barriers, synchronization, invalidating data cache, aligning data cache etc.) while programming in explicit shared memory model are discussed. Comparative performance of NPB using explicit shared memory programming model on the Cray T3D and other highly parallel systems such as the TMC CM-5, Intel Paragon, Cray C90, IBM-SP1, etc. is presented.

  9. A high-throughput in vitro ring assay for vasoactivity using magnetic 3D bioprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hubert; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Shen, Tsaiwei; Hebel, Chris; Barthlow, Herbert G.; Wagoner, Matthew; Souza, Glauco R.

    2016-01-01

    Vasoactive liabilities are typically assayed using wire myography, which is limited by its high cost and low throughput. To meet the demand for higher throughput in vitro alternatives, this study introduces a magnetic 3D bioprinting-based vasoactivity assay. The principle behind this assay is the magnetic printing of vascular smooth muscle cells into 3D rings that functionally represent blood vessel segments, whose contraction can be altered by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. A cost-effective imaging modality employing a mobile device is used to capture contraction with high throughput. The goal of this study was to validate ring contraction as a measure of vasoactivity, using a small panel of known vasoactive drugs. In vitro responses of the rings matched outcomes predicted by in vivo pharmacology, and were supported by immunohistochemistry. Altogether, this ring assay robustly models vasoactivity, which could meet the need for higher throughput in vitro alternatives. PMID:27477945

  10. 3D conditional generative adversarial networks for high-quality PET image estimation at low dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Yu, Biting; Wang, Lei; Zu, Chen; Lalush, David S; Lin, Weili; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Shen, Dinggang; Zhou, Luping

    2018-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a widely used imaging modality, providing insight into both the biochemical and physiological processes of human body. Usually, a full dose radioactive tracer is required to obtain high-quality PET images for clinical needs. This inevitably raises concerns about potential health hazards. On the other hand, dose reduction may cause the increased noise in the reconstructed PET images, which impacts the image quality to a certain extent. In this paper, in order to reduce the radiation exposure while maintaining the high quality of PET images, we propose a novel method based on 3D conditional generative adversarial networks (3D c-GANs) to estimate the high-quality full-dose PET images from low-dose ones. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) include a generator network and a discriminator network which are trained simultaneously with the goal of one beating the other. Similar to GANs, in the proposed 3D c-GANs, we condition the model on an input low-dose PET image and generate a corresponding output full-dose PET image. Specifically, to render the same underlying information between the low-dose and full-dose PET images, a 3D U-net-like deep architecture which can combine hierarchical features by using skip connection is designed as the generator network to synthesize the full-dose image. In order to guarantee the synthesized PET image to be close to the real one, we take into account of the estimation error loss in addition to the discriminator feedback to train the generator network. Furthermore, a concatenated 3D c-GANs based progressive refinement scheme is also proposed to further improve the quality of estimated images. Validation was done on a real human brain dataset including both the normal subjects and the subjects diagnosed as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Experimental results show that our proposed 3D c-GANs method outperforms the benchmark methods and achieves much better performance than the state

  11. Dense high-aspect ratio 3D carbon pillars on interdigitated microelectrode arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amato, Letizia; Heiskanen, Arto; Hansen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present high-aspect ratio carbon pillars (1.4 μm in diameter and ∼11 μm in height) on top of interdigitated electrode arrays to be used for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, different types of 2D and 3D pyrolysed carbon structures were fabricated and characterised...... of pyrolysed carbon films with increased film resistance due to oxidation during storage....

  12. Production of high-quality polydisperse construction mixes for additive 3D technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, M. D.; Brazhnik, Yu V.; Gorshkov, P. S.; Latyshev, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a new design of a mixer allowing production of high quality polydisperse powders, used in additive 3D technologies. A new principle of dry powder particle mixing is considered, implementing a possibility of a close-to-ideal distribution of such particles in common space. A mathematical model of the mixer is presented, allowing evaluating quality indicators of the produced mixture. Experimental results are shown and rational values of process parameters of the mixer are obtained.

  13. High-quality poly-dispersed mixtures applied in additive 3D technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, M. D.; Brazhnik, Yu V.; Gorshkov, P. S.; Latyshev, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the new mixer design to obtain high-quality poly-dispersed powders applied in additive 3D technologies. It also considers a new mixing principle of dry powder particles ensuring the distribution of such particles in the total volume, which is close to ideal. The paper presents the mathematical model of mixer operation providing for the quality assessment of the ready mixtures. Besides, it demonstrates experimental results and obtained rational values of mixer process parameters.

  14. High-precision real-time 3D shape measurement based on a quad-camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tianyang; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Minliang; Zuo, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Phase-shifting profilometry (PSP) based 3D shape measurement is well established in various applications due to its high accuracy, simple implementation, and robustness to environmental illumination and surface texture. In PSP, higher depth resolution generally requires higher fringe density of projected patterns which, in turn, lead to severe phase ambiguities that must be solved with additional information from phase coding and/or geometric constraints. However, in order to guarantee the reliability of phase unwrapping, available techniques are usually accompanied by increased number of patterns, reduced amplitude of fringe, and complicated post-processing algorithms. In this work, we demonstrate that by using a quad-camera multi-view fringe projection system and carefully arranging the relative spatial positions between the cameras and the projector, it becomes possible to completely eliminate the phase ambiguities in conventional three-step PSP patterns with high-fringe-density without projecting any additional patterns or embedding any auxiliary signals. Benefiting from the position-optimized quad-camera system, stereo phase unwrapping can be efficiently and reliably performed by flexible phase consistency checks. Besides, redundant information of multiple phase consistency checks is fully used through a weighted phase difference scheme to further enhance the reliability of phase unwrapping. This paper explains the 3D measurement principle and the basic design of quad-camera system, and finally demonstrates that in a large measurement volume of 200 mm × 200 mm × 400 mm, the resultant dynamic 3D sensing system can realize real-time 3D reconstruction at 60 frames per second with a depth precision of 50 μm.

  15. Fabrication of Composite Filaments with High Dielectric Permittivity for Fused Deposition 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingwei; Isakov, Dmitry; Grant, Patrick S

    2017-10-23

    Additive manufacturing of complex structures with spatially varying electromagnetic properties can enable new applications in high-technology sectors such as communications and sensors. This work presents the fabrication method as well as microstructural and dielectric characterization of bespoke composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing of microwave devices with a high relative dielectric permittivity ϵ = 11 in the GHz frequency range. The filament is composed of 32 vol % of ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) micro-particles in a polymeric acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) matrix. An ionic organic ester surfactant was added during formulation to enhance the compatibility between the polymer and the BaTiO 3 . To promote reproducible and robust printability of the fabricated filament, and to promote plasticity, dibutyl phthalate was additionally used. The combined effect of 1 wt % surfactant and 5 wt % plasticizer resulted in a uniform, many hundreds of meters, continuous filament of commercial quality capable of many hours of uninterrupted 3D printing. We demonstrate the feasibility of using the high dielectric constant filament for 3D printing through the fabrication of a range of optical devices. The approach herein may be used as a guide for the successful fabrication of many types of composite filament with varying functions for a broad range of applications.

  16. Fabrication of Composite Filaments with High Dielectric Permittivity for Fused Deposition 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing of complex structures with spatially varying electromagnetic properties can enable new applications in high-technology sectors such as communications and sensors. This work presents the fabrication method as well as microstructural and dielectric characterization of bespoke composite filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM 3D printing of microwave devices with a high relative dielectric permittivity ϵ = 11 in the GHz frequency range. The filament is composed of 32 vol % of ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO 3 micro-particles in a polymeric acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS matrix. An ionic organic ester surfactant was added during formulation to enhance the compatibility between the polymer and the BaTiO 3 . To promote reproducible and robust printability of the fabricated filament, and to promote plasticity, dibutyl phthalate was additionally used. The combined effect of 1 wt % surfactant and 5 wt % plasticizer resulted in a uniform, many hundreds of meters, continuous filament of commercial quality capable of many hours of uninterrupted 3D printing. We demonstrate the feasibility of using the high dielectric constant filament for 3D printing through the fabrication of a range of optical devices. The approach herein may be used as a guide for the successful fabrication of many types of composite filament with varying functions for a broad range of applications.

  17. Application of high efficiency and reliable 3D-designed integral shrouded blades to nuclear turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Eiichiro; Ohyama, Hiroharu; Tashiro, Hikaru; Sugitani, Toshiro; Kurosawa, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has recently developed new blades for nuclear turbines, in order to achieve higher efficiency and higher reliability. The 3D aerodynamic design for 41 inch and 46 inch blades, their one piece structural design (integral-shrouded blades: ISB), and the verification test results using a model steam turbine are described in this paper. The predicted efficiency and lower vibratory stress have been verified. Based on these 60Hz ISB, 50Hz ISB series are under development using 'the law of similarity' without changing their thermodynamic performance and mechanical stress levels. Our 3D-designed reaction blades which are used for the high pressure and low pressure upstream stages, are also briefly mentioned. (author)

  18. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated...... thermal behaviors in the IGBTs. In this paper, a new three-dimensional (3D) lumped thermal model is proposed, which can easily be characterized from Finite Element Methods (FEM) based simulation and acquire the thermal distribution in critical points. Meanwhile the boundary conditions including...... the cooling system and power losses are modeled in the 3D thermal model, which can be adapted to different real field applications of power electronic converters. The accuracy of the proposed thermal model is verified by experimental results....

  19. 3D printed stretchable capacitive sensors for highly sensitive tactile and electrochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Wei, Hong; Liu, Wenguang; Meng, Hong; Zhang, Peixin; Yan, Chaoyi

    2018-05-01

    Developments of innovative strategies for the fabrication of stretchable sensors are of crucial importance for their applications in wearable electronic systems. In this work, we report the successful fabrication of stretchable capacitive sensors using a novel 3D printing method for highly sensitive tactile and electrochemical sensing applications. Unlike conventional lithographic or templated methods, the programmable 3D printing technique can fabricate complex device structures in a cost-effective and facile manner. We designed and fabricated stretchable capacitive sensors with interdigital and double-vortex designs and demonstrated their successful applications as tactile and electrochemical sensors. Especially, our stretchable sensors exhibited a detection limit as low as 1 × 10-6 M for NaCl aqueous solution, which could have significant potential applications when integrated in electronics skins.

  20. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  1. Construction of 3D Skeleton for Polymer Composites Achieving a High Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yimin; Sun, Jiajia; Zeng, Xiaoliang; Sun, Rong; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the growing heat removal issue in modern electronic devices, electrically insulating polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have drawn much attention during the past decade. However, the conventional method to improve through-plane thermal conductivity of these polymer composites usually yields an undesired value (below 3.0 Wm -1 K -1 ). Here, construction of a 3D phonon skeleton is reported composed of stacked boron nitride (BN) platelets reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for epoxy composites by the combination of ice-templated and infiltrating methods. At a low filler loading of 13.16 vol%, the resulting 3D BN-rGO/epoxy composites exhibit an ultrahigh through-plane thermal conductivity of 5.05 Wm -1 K -1 as the best thermal-conduction performance reported so far for BN sheet-based composites. Theoretical models qualitatively demonstrate that this enhancement results from the formation of phonon-matching 3D BN-rGO networks, leading to high rates of phonon transport. The strong potential application for thermal management has been demonstrated by the surface temperature variations of the composites with time during heating and cooling. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High performance 3D adaptive filtering for DSP based portable medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable medical imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. Despite their constraints on power, size and cost, portable imaging devices must still deliver high quality images. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often cannot be run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore digital signal processors (DSP) have been developed that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms on a portable platform. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a DSP is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec with an Ultrasound 3D probe. Relative performance and power is addressed between a reference PC (Quad Core CPU) and a TMS320C6678 DSP from Texas Instruments.

  3. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  4. A continuous high-throughput bioparticle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Fang; Froude, Victoria E; Zhu, Yingxi; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2009-11-21

    We present a high throughput (maximum flow rate approximately 10 microl/min or linear velocity approximately 3 mm/s) continuous bio-particle sorter based on 3D traveling-wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) at an optimum AC frequency of 500 kHz. The high throughput sorting is achieved with a sustained twDEP particle force normal to the continuous through-flow, which is applied over the entire chip by a single 3D electrode array. The design allows continuous fractionation of micron-sized particles into different downstream sub-channels based on differences in their twDEP mobility on both sides of the cross-over. Conventional DEP is integrated upstream to focus the particles into a single levitated queue to allow twDEP sorting by mobility difference and to minimize sedimentation and field-induced lysis. The 3D electrode array design minimizes the offsetting effect of nDEP (negative DEP with particle force towards regions with weak fields) on twDEP such that both forces increase monotonically with voltage to further increase the throughput. Effective focusing and separation of red blood cells from debris-filled heterogeneous samples are demonstrated, as well as size-based separation of poly-dispersed liposome suspensions into two distinct bands at 2.3 to 4.6 microm and 1.5 to 2.7 microm, at the highest throughput recorded in hand-held chips of 6 microl/min.

  5. High-frequency 3D echodentographic imaging modality for early assessment of periodontal diseases: in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Ngan, Peter; Crout, Richard; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound in dentistry is still an open growing area of research. Currently, there is a lack of imaging modalities to accurately predict minute structures and defects in the jawbone. In particular, the inability of 2D radiographic images to detect bony periodontal defects resulted from infection of the periodontium. This study investigates the feasibility of high frequency ultrasound to reconstruct high resolution 3D surface images of human jawbone. Methods: A dentate and non-dentate mandibles were used in this study. The system employs high frequency single-element ultrasound focused transducers (15-30 MHz) for scanning. Continuous acquisition using a 1 GHz data acquisition card is synchronized with a high precision two-dimensional stage positioning system of +/-1 μm resolution for acquiring accurate and quantitative measurements of the mandible in vitro. Radio frequency (RF) signals are acquired laterally 44-45.5 μm apart for each frame. Different frames are reconstructed 500 μm apart for the 3D reconstruction. Signal processing algorithms are applied on the received ultrasound signals for filtering, focusing, and envelope detection before frame reconstruction. Furthermore, an edge detection technique is adopted to detect the bone surface in each frame. Finally, all edges are combined together in order to render a 3D surface image of the jawbone. Major anatomical landmarks on the resultant images were confirmed with the anatomical structures on the mandibles to show the efficacy of the system. Comparison were also made with conventional 2D radiographs to show the superiority of the ultrasound imaging system in diagnosing small defects in the lateral, axial and elevation planes of space. Results: The landmarks on all ultrasound images matched with those on the mandible, indicating the efficacy of the system in detecting small structures in human jaw bones. Comparison with conventional 2D radiographic images of the same mandible showed superiority of

  6. Fabrication of a Highly Aligned Neural Scaffold via a Table Top Stereolithography 3D Printing and Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Jun; Nowicki, Margaret; Harris, Brent; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a rapidly emerging technique in the field of tissue engineering to fabricate extremely intricate and complex biomimetic scaffolds in the range of micrometers. Such customized 3D printed constructs can be used for the regeneration of complex tissues such as cartilage, vessels, and nerves. However, the 3D printing techniques often offer limited control over the resolution and compromised mechanical properties due to short selection of printable inks. To address these limitations, we combined stereolithography and electrospinning techniques to fabricate a novel 3D biomimetic neural scaffold with a tunable porous structure and embedded aligned fibers. By employing two different types of biofabrication methods, we successfully utilized both synthetic and natural materials with varying chemical composition as bioink to enhance biocompatibilities and mechanical properties of the scaffold. The resulting microfibers composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer and PCL mixed with gelatin were embedded in 3D printed hydrogel scaffold. Our results showed that 3D printed scaffolds with electrospun fibers significantly improve neural stem cell adhesion when compared to those without the fibers. Furthermore, 3D scaffolds embedded with aligned fibers showed an enhancement in cell proliferation relative to bare control scaffolds. More importantly, confocal microscopy images illustrated that the scaffold with PCL/gelatin fibers greatly increased the average neurite length and directed neurite extension of primary cortical neurons along the fiber. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to create unique 3D neural tissue constructs by combining 3D bioprinting and electrospinning techniques.

  7. 3D range-gated super-resolution imaging based on stereo matching for moving platforms and targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan

    2017-11-01

    3D range-gated superresolution imaging is a novel 3D reconstruction technique for target detection and recognition with good real-time performance. However, for moving targets or platforms such as airborne, shipborne, remote operated vehicle and autonomous vehicle, 3D reconstruction has a large error or failure. In order to overcome this drawback, we propose a method of stereo matching for 3D range-gated superresolution reconstruction algorithm. In experiment, the target is a doll of Mario with a height of 38cm at the location of 34m, and we obtain two successive frame images of the Mario. To confirm our method is effective, we transform the original images with translation, rotation, scale and perspective, respectively. The experimental result shows that our method has a good result of 3D reconstruction for moving targets or platforms.

  8. Nitrogen-Superdoped 3D Graphene Networks for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weili; Xu, Chuan; Ma, Chaoqun; Li, Guoxian; Wang, Yuzuo; Zhang, Kaiyu; Li, Feng; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Du, Youwei; Tang, Nujiang; Ren, Wencai

    2017-09-01

    An N-superdoped 3D graphene network structure with an N-doping level up to 15.8 at% for high-performance supercapacitor is designed and synthesized, in which the graphene foam with high conductivity acts as skeleton and nested with N-superdoped reduced graphene oxide arogels. This material shows a highly conductive interconnected 3D porous structure (3.33 S cm -1 ), large surface area (583 m 2 g -1 ), low internal resistance (0.4 Ω), good wettability, and a great number of active sites. Because of the multiple synergistic effects of these features, the supercapacitors based on this material show a remarkably excellent electrochemical behavior with a high specific capacitance (of up to 380, 332, and 245 F g -1 in alkaline, acidic, and neutral electrolytes measured in three-electrode configuration, respectively, 297 F g -1 in alkaline electrolytes measured in two-electrode configuration), good rate capability, excellent cycling stability (93.5% retention after 4600 cycles), and low internal resistance (0.4 Ω), resulting in high power density with proper high energy density. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  10. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  11. 3D imaging of hematoxylin and eosin stained thick tissues with a sub-femtoliter resolution by using Cr:forsterite-laser-based nonlinear microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Ting; Wei, Ming-Liang; Liao, Yi-Hua; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2017-02-01

    Intraoperative assessment of excision tissues during cancer surgery is clinically important. The assessment is used to be guided by the examination for residual tumor with frozen pathology, while it is time consuming for preparation and is with low accuracy for diagnosis. Recently, reflection confocal microscopy (RCM) and nonlinear microscopy (NLM) were demonstrated to be promising methods for surgical border assessment. Intraoperative RCM imaging may enable detection of residual tumor directly on skin cancers patients during Mohs surgery. The assessment of benign and malignant breast pathologies in fresh surgical specimens was demonstrated by NLM. Without using hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) that are common dyes for histopathological diagnosis, RCM was proposed to image in vivo by using aluminum chloride for nuclear contrast on surgical wounds directly, while NLM was proposed to detect two photon fluorescence nuclear contrast from acrdine orange staining. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate 3D imaging of H and E stained thick tissues with a sub-femtoliter resolution by using Cr:forsterite-laser-based NLM. With a 1260 nm femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser as the excitation source, the hematoxylin will strongly enhance the third-harmonic generation (THG) signals, while eosin will illuminate strong fluorescence under three photon absorption. Compared with previous works, the 1260 nm excitation light provide high penetration and low photodamage to the exercised tissues so that the possibility to perform other follow-up examination will be preserved. The THG and three-photon process provides high nonlinearity so that the super resolution in 3D is now possible. The staining and the contrast of the imaging is also fully compatible with the current clinical standard on frozen pathology thus facilitate the rapid intraoperative assessment of excision tissues. This work is sponsored by National Health Research Institutes and supported by National Taiwan University

  12. Artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles subjected to high-temperature heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Nemytova, O. V.; Perov, D. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Kuznetsov, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature heat treatment has valuable impact on the structure and physical properties of artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles. Artificial crystals are obtained by means of introduction of particles into the interspherical voids of opal matrices. The magnetic properties are studied at the temperatures ranging from 2 to 300 K and in fields up to 350 kOe. Microwave properties are investigated in the millimeter frequency range. The complex dielectric permittivity of several nanocomposites is measured. The influence of heat treatment up to 960 °C on the structure of artificial crystals is clarified.

  13. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitative...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...

  14. 3D numerical thermal stress analysis of the high power target for the SLC Positron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, E.M.; Hodgson, J.A.

    1991-05-01

    The volumetrically nonuniform power deposition of the incident 33 GeV electron beam in the SLC Positron Source Target is hypothesized to be the most likely cause target failure. The resultant pulsed temperature distributions are known to generate complicated stress fields with no known closed-form analytical solution. 3D finite element analyses of these temperature distributions and associated thermal stress fields in the new High Power Target are described here. Operational guidelines based on the results of these analyses combined with assumptions made about the fatigue characteristics of the exotic target material are proposed. 6 refs., 4 figs

  15. High-accuracy critical exponents for O(N) hierarchical 3D sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godina, J. J.; Li, L.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    The critical exponent γ and its subleading exponent Δ in the 3D O(N) Dyson's hierarchical model for N up to 20 are calculated with high accuracy. We calculate the critical temperatures for the measure δ(φ-vector.φ-vector-1). We extract the first coefficients of the 1/N expansion from our numerical data. We show that the leading and subleading exponents agree with Polchinski equation and the equivalent Litim equation, in the local potential approximation, with at least 4 significant digits

  16. High speed display algorithm for 3D medical images using Multi Layer Range Image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Ryuuichi

    1993-01-01

    We propose high speed algorithm that display 3D voxel images obtained from medical imaging systems such as MRI. This algorithm convert voxel image data to 6 Multi Layer Range Image (MLRI) data, which is an augmentation of the range image data. To avoid the calculation for invisible voxels, the algorithm selects at most 3 MLRI data from 6 in accordance with the view direction. The proposed algorithm displays 256 x 256 x 256 voxel data within 0.6 seconds using 22 MIPS Workstation without a special hardware such as Graphics Engine. Real-time display will be possible on 100 MIPS class Workstation by our algorithm. (author)

  17. Semiconductive 3-D haloplumbate framework hybrids with high color rendering index white-light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-E; Xu, Gang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Cai, Li-Zhen; Li, Wen-Hua; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2015-12-01

    Single-component white light materials may create great opportunities for novel conventional lighting applications and display systems; however, their reported color rendering index (CRI) values, one of the key parameters for lighting, are less than 90, which does not satisfy the demand of color-critical upmarket applications, such as photography, cinematography, and art galleries. In this work, two semiconductive chloroplumbate (chloride anion of lead(ii)) hybrids, obtained using a new inorganic-organic hybrid strategy, show unprecedented 3-D inorganic framework structures and white-light-emitting properties with high CRI values around 90, one of which shows the highest value to date.

  18. UAV based 3D digital surface model to estimate paleolandscape in high mountainous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, János; Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs; Deák, Márton; Nagy, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    reliable results and resolution. Based on the sediment layers of the peat bog together with the generated 3D surface model the paleoenvironment, the largest paleowater level can be reconstructed and we can estimate the dimension of the landslide which created the basin of the peat bog.

  19. Intrinsic spatial resolution evaluation of the X'tal cube PET detector based on a 3D crystal block segmented by laser processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Moriya, Takahiro; Omura, Tomohide; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-01-01

    The X'tal cube is a depth-of-interaction (DOI)-PET detector which is aimed at obtaining isotropic resolution by effective readout of scintillation photons from the six sides of a crystal block. The X'tal cube is composed of the 3D crystal block with isotropic resolution and arrays of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). In this study, to fabricate the 3D crystal block efficiently and precisely, we applied a sub-surface laser engraving (SSLE) technique to a monolithic crystal block instead of gluing segmented small crystals. The SSLE technique provided micro-crack walls which carve a groove into a monolithic scintillator block. Using the fabricated X'tal cube, we evaluated its intrinsic spatial resolution to show a proof of concept of isotropic resolution. The 3D grids of 2 mm pitch were fabricated into an 18 × 18 × 18 mm(3) monolithic lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal by the SSLE technique. 4 × 4 MPPCs were optically coupled to each surface of the crystal block. The X'tal cube was uniformly irradiated by (22)Na gamma rays, and all of the 3D grids on the 3D position histogram were separated clearly by an Anger-type calculation from the 96-channel MPPC signals. Response functions of the X'tal cube were measured by scanning with a (22)Na point source. The gamma-ray beam with a 1.0 mm slit was scanned in 0.25 mm steps by positioning of the X'tal cube at vertical and 45° incident angles. The average FWHM resolution at both incident angles was 2.1 mm. Therefore, we confirmed the isotropic spatial resolution performance of the X'tal cube.

  20. Nanoscale Resolution 3D Printing with Pin-Modified Electrified Inkjets for Tailorable Nano/Macrohybrid Constructs for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong In; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2018-04-18

    Cells respond to their microenvironment, which is of a size comparable to that of the cells. The macroscale features of three-dimensional (3D) printing struts typically result in whole cell contact guidance (CCG). In contrast, at the nanoscale, where features are of a size similar to that of receptors of cells, the response of cells is more complex. The cell-nanotopography interaction involves nanoscale adhesion localized structures, which include cell adhesion-related particles that change in response to the clustering of integrin. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a technique for manufacturing tailorable nano/macrohybrid constructs capable of freely controlling the cellular activity. In this study, a hierarchical 3D nano- to microscale hybrid structure was fabricated by combinational processing of 3D printing and electrified inkjet spinning via pin motions. This method overcomes the disadvantages of conventional 3D printing, providing a novel combinatory technique for the fabrication of 3D hybrid constructs with excellent cell proliferation. Through a pin-modified electrified inkjet spinning, we have successfully fabricated customizable nano-/microscale hybrid constructs in a fibrous or mesh form, which can control the cell fate. We have conducted this study of cell-topography interactions from the fabrication approach to accelerate the development of next-generation 3D scaffolds.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of 3D-Printed Highly-Porous 3D LiFePO4 Electrodes by Low Temperature Direct Writing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 (LFP is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. In this study, low temperature direct writing (LTDW-based 3D printing was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D LFP electrodes for the first time. LFP inks were deposited into a low temperature chamber and solidified to maintain the shape and mechanical integrity of the printed features. The printed LFP electrodes were then freeze-dried to remove the solvents so that highly-porous architectures in the electrodes were obtained. LFP inks capable of freezing at low temperature was developed by adding 1,4 dioxane as a freezing agent. The rheological behavior of the prepared LFP inks was measured and appropriate compositions and ratios were selected. A LTDW machine was developed to print the electrodes. The printing parameters were optimized and the printing accuracy was characterized. Results showed that LTDW can effectively maintain the shape and mechanical integrity during the printing process. The microstructure, pore size and distribution of the printed LFP electrodes was characterized. In comparison with conventional room temperature direct ink writing process, improved pore volume and porosity can be obtained using the LTDW process. The electrochemical performance of LTDW-fabricated LFP electrodes and conventional roller-coated electrodes were conducted and compared. Results showed that the porous structure that existed in the printed electrodes can greatly improve the rate performance of LFP electrodes.

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of 3D-Printed Highly-Porous 3D LiFePO₄ Electrodes by Low Temperature Direct Writing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyong; Cheng, Xingxing; Li, Bohan; Chen, Zhangwei; Mi, Shengli; Lao, Changshi

    2017-08-10

    LiFePO₄ (LFP) is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. In this study, low temperature direct writing (LTDW)-based 3D printing was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) LFP electrodes for the first time. LFP inks were deposited into a low temperature chamber and solidified to maintain the shape and mechanical integrity of the printed features. The printed LFP electrodes were then freeze-dried to remove the solvents so that highly-porous architectures in the electrodes were obtained. LFP inks capable of freezing at low temperature was developed by adding 1,4 dioxane as a freezing agent. The rheological behavior of the prepared LFP inks was measured and appropriate compositions and ratios were selected. A LTDW machine was developed to print the electrodes. The printing parameters were optimized and the printing accuracy was characterized. Results showed that LTDW can effectively maintain the shape and mechanical integrity during the printing process. The microstructure, pore size and distribution of the printed LFP electrodes was characterized. In comparison with conventional room temperature direct ink writing process, improved pore volume and porosity can be obtained using the LTDW process. The electrochemical performance of LTDW-fabricated LFP electrodes and conventional roller-coated electrodes were conducted and compared. Results showed that the porous structure that existed in the printed electrodes can greatly improve the rate performance of LFP electrodes.

  3. 3D macroporous graphene frameworks for supercapacitors with high energy and power densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Yang, Minho; Hong, Won Hi; Choi, Jang Wook; Huh, Yun Suk

    2012-05-22

    In order to develop energy storage devices with high power and energy densities, electrodes should hold well-defined pathways for efficient ionic and electronic transport. Herein, we demonstrate high-performance supercapacitors by building a three-dimensional (3D) macroporous structure that consists of chemically modified graphene (CMG). These 3D macroporous electrodes, namely, embossed-CMG (e-CMG) films, were fabricated by using polystyrene colloidal particles as a sacrificial template. Furthermore, for further capacitance boost, a thin layer of MnO(2) was additionally deposited onto e-CMG. The porous graphene structure with a large surface area facilitates fast ionic transport within the electrode while preserving decent electronic conductivity and thus endows MnO(2)/e-CMG composite electrodes with excellent electrochemical properties such as a specific capacitance of 389 F/g at 1 A/g and 97.7% capacitance retention upon a current increase to 35 A/g. Moreover, when the MnO(2)/e-CMG composite electrode was asymmetrically assembled with an e-CMG electrode, the assembled full cell shows remarkable cell performance: energy density of 44 Wh/kg, power density of 25 kW/kg, and excellent cycle life.

  4. An airborne interferometric SAR system for high-performance 3D mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Martin; Gill, Paul

    2009-05-01

    With a vertical accuracy better than 1 m and collection rates up to 7000 km2/h, airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radars (InSAR) bridge the gap between space borne radar sensors and airborne optical LIDARs. This paper presents the latest generation of X-band InSAR sensors, developed by Intermap TechnologiesTM, which are operated on our four aircrafts. The sensors collect data for the NEXTMap(R) program - a digital elevation model (DEM) with 1 m vertical accuracy for the contiguous U.S., Hawaii, and most of Western Europe. For a successful operation, challenges like reduction of multipath reflections, very high interferometric phase stability, and a precise system calibration had to be mastered. Recent advances in sensor design, comprehensive system automation and diagnostics have increased the sensor reliability to a level where no radar operator is required onboard. Advanced flight planning significantly improved aircraft utilization and acquisition throughput, while reducing operational costs. Highly efficient data acquisition with straight flight lines up to 1200 km is daily routine meanwhile. The collected data pass though our automated processing cluster and finally are edited to our terrain model products. Extensive and rigorous quality control at every step of the workflow are key to maintain stable vertical accuracies of 1 m and horizontal accuracies of 2 m for our 3D maps. The combination of technical and operational advances presented in this paper enabled Intermap to survey two continents, producing 11 million km2 of uniform and accurate 3D terrain data.

  5. 3D printing of high drug loaded dosage forms using thermoplastic polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, G; Samaro, A; Grymonpré, W; Vanhoorne, V; Van Snick, B; Boone, M N; Hellemans, T; Van Hoorebeke, L; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2018-01-30

    It was the aim of this study to develop high drug loaded (>30%, w/w), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-based dosage forms via fused deposition modelling (FDM). Model drugs with different particle size and aqueous solubility were pre-processed in combination with diverse TPU grades via hot melt extrusion (HME) into filaments with a diameter of 1.75 ± 0.05 mm. Subsequently, TPU-based filaments which featured acceptable quality attributes (i.e. consistent filament diameter, smooth surface morphology and good mechanical properties) were printed into tablets. The sustained release potential of the 3D printed dosage forms was tested in vitro. Moreover, the impact of printing parameters on the in vitro drug release was investigated. TPU-based filaments could be loaded with 60% (w/w) fine drug powder without observing severe shark skinning or inconsistent filament diameter. During 3D printing experiments, HME filaments based on hard TPU grades were successfully converted into personalized dosage forms containing a high concentration of crystalline drug (up to 60%, w/w). In vitro release kinetics were mainly affected by the matrix composition and tablet infill degree. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrated that TPU-based FDM feedstock material offers a lot of formulation freedom for the development of personalized dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 3-D Spatial Resolution of 350 μm Pitch Pixelated CdZnTe Detectors for Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongzhi; Chen, Ximeng; Wu, Heyu; Komarov, Sergey; Garson, Alfred; Li, Qiang; Guo, Qingzhen; Krawczynski, Henric; Meng, Ling-Jian; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    We are currently investigating the feasibility of using highly pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors for sub-500 μ m resolution PET imaging applications. A 20 mm × 20 mm × 5 mm CdZnTe substrate was fabricated with 350 μ m pitch pixels (250 μ m anode pixels with 100 μ m gap) and coplanar cathode. Charge sharing among the pixels of a 350 μ m pitch detector was studied using collimated 122 keV and 511 keV gamma ray sources. For a 350 μ m pitch CdZnTe detector, scatter plots of the charge signal of two neighboring pixels clearly show more charge sharing when the collimated beam hits the gap between adjacent pixels. Using collimated Co-57 and Ge-68 sources, we measured the count profiles and estimated the intrinsic spatial resolution of 350 μ m pitch detector biased at -1000 V. Depth of interaction was analyzed based on two methods, i.e., cathode/anode ratio and electron drift time, in both 122 keV and 511 keV measurements. For single-pixel photopeak events, a linear correlation between cathode/anode ratio and electron drift time was shown, which would be useful for estimating the DOI information and preserving image resolution in CdZnTe PET imaging applications.

  7. High-Energy Impact Behaviors of Hybrid Composite Plates Strengthened with 3D-UHMWPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Youl Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with drop-impact effects of new hybrid concrete plates strengthened with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE. The proposed 3D-UHMWPE results in excellent mechanical properties such as high abrasion resistance, impact strength, and low coefficient of friction. These special properties allow the product to be used in several high-performance applications. In this study, we used two kinds of high-performance materials for the impact reinforcement of a structure made of conventional materials such as a concrete. In particular, the impact mechanism of a fiber-concrete hybrid structure was studied using various parameters. The parametric studies are focused on the various effects of drop-impact on the structural performance. The combined effects of using different fiber-reinforced materials on the impact behavers are also investigated.

  8. 3D-conformal radiotherapy treatment of high grade gliomas of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon Rivas, Ivonne; Chi Ramirez, Daysi; Alert Silva, Jose; Roca Muchuli, Carlos; Leon Gonzalez, Roberto; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with high grade gliomas of malignancy (A), have a high mortality rate, about 10% achieve survivals than one year due to poor local control resulting from the inability of high doses of radiation to tumor volume by dose-limiting provided by healthy peritumoral tissues and structures. 3D conformal radiotherapy (RT-3DC) achieves effective tumoricidal high doses with high precision on the tumor with minimal involvement of critical structures near the tumor target volume. From 2005 until 2008 at INOR, a total of 23 patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial gliomas location, histological subtypes of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in 8 patients (35%) and Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) in 15 patients (65%), aged between 18 and 65, Karnofski scale of 70 or more and total previous surgical resection in 10 patients (43%) or partial in 13 (57%) were included prospectively in this study. The total tumor dose of 66-70 Gy was prescribed with a daily fractionation of 1.8 Gy. All patients underwent CT images (CT) and MRI (MRI) cranial volumes were defined treatment planning according to the concepts of ICRU 50 and 62 with precise immobilization of the head by thermo deformed mask, CT 3mm cuts planning system and 3D treatment planning. Median survival was better in patients younger than 55 years, with high rates of Karnofski, histology of AA and higher percentage of surgical resection. Median survival (Kaplan-Meier method) obtained was 16 months. Survival at 1 and 2 years was 51% and 28% respectively. The RT-3DC can administer higher doses on the tumor with peritumoral healthy protection structures in selected patients with a diagnosis of AA or GBM, increasing local control and potentially overall survival without exacerbating toxicity, thus demonstrating the dose- response of malignant brain tumors. (Author)

  9. Ultra-low-cost 3D gaze estimation: an intuitive high information throughput compliment to direct brain-machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W. W.; Faisal, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements are highly correlated with motor intentions and are often retained by patients with serious motor deficiencies. Despite this, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for movement in impaired patients due to poor signal interpretation and lack of control flexibility. We propose that tracking the gaze position in 3D rather than 2D provides a considerably richer signal for human machine interfaces by allowing direct interaction with the environment rather than via computer displays. We demonstrate here that by using mass-produced video-game hardware, it is possible to produce an ultra-low-cost binocular eye-tracker with comparable performance to commercial systems, yet 800 times cheaper. Our head-mounted system has 30 USD material costs and operates at over 120 Hz sampling rate with a 0.5-1 degree of visual angle resolution. We perform 2D and 3D gaze estimation, controlling a real-time volumetric cursor essential for driving complex user interfaces. Our approach yields an information throughput of 43 bits s-1, more than ten times that of invasive and semi-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are vastly more expensive. Unlike many BMIs our system yields effective real-time closed loop control of devices (10 ms latency), after just ten minutes of training, which we demonstrate through a novel BMI benchmark—the control of the video arcade game ‘Pong’.

  10. 3D Online Submicron Scale Observation of Mixed Metal Powder's Microstructure Evolution in High Temperature and Microwave Compound Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37 μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth.

  11. Highly Conductive 3D Segregated Graphene Architecture in Polypropylene Composite with Efficient EMI Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr E. Alam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of electronic equipment in modern life causes potential electromagnetic pollution harmful to human health. Therefore, it is of great significance to enhance the electrical conductivity of polymers, which are widely used in electronic components, to screen out electromagnetic waves. The fabrication of graphene/polymer composites has attracted much attention in recent years due to the excellent electrical properties of graphene. However, the uniform distribution of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs in a non-polar polymer matrix like polypropylene (PP still remains a challenge, resulting in the limited improvement of electrical conductivity of PP-based composites achieved to date. Here, we propose a single-step approach to prepare GNPs/PP composites embedded with a segregated architecture of GNPs by coating PP particles with GNPs, followed by hot-pressing. As a result, the electrical conductivity of 10 wt % GNPs-loaded composites reaches 10.86 S·cm−1, which is ≈7 times higher than that of the composites made by the melt-blending process. Accordingly, a high electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE of 19.3 dB can be achieved. Our method is green, low-cost, and scalable to develop 3D GNPs architecture in a polymer matrix, providing a versatile composite material suitable for use in electronics, aerospace, and automotive industries.

  12. A High Precision $3.50 Open Source 3D Printed Rain Gauge Calibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Alcala, J. M.; Udell, C.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Currently available rain gauge calibrators tend to be designed for specific rain gauges, are expensive, employ low-precision water reservoirs, and do not offer the flexibility needed to test the ever more popular small-aperture rain gauges. The objective of this project was to develop and validate a freely downloadable, open-source, 3D printed rain gauge calibrator that can be adjusted for a wide range of gauges. The proposed calibrator provides for applying low, medium, and high intensity flow, and allows the user to modify the design to conform to unique system specifications based on parametric design, which may be modified and printed using CAD software. To overcome the fact that different 3D printers yield different print qualities, we devised a simple post-printing step that controlled critical dimensions to assure robust performance. Specifically, the three orifices of the calibrator are drilled to reach the three target flow rates. Laboratory tests showed that flow rates were consistent between prints, and between trials of each part, while the total applied water was precisely controlled by the use of a volumetric flask as the reservoir.

  13. Architected Lattices with High Stiffness and Toughness via Multicore-Shell 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jochen; Raney, Jordan R; Shea, Kristina; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2018-03-01

    The ability to create architected materials that possess both high stiffness and toughness remains an elusive goal, since these properties are often mutually exclusive. Natural materials, such as bone, overcome such limitations by combining different toughening mechanisms across multiple length scales. Here, a new method for creating architected lattices composed of core-shell struts that are both stiff and tough is reported. Specifically, these lattices contain orthotropic struts with flexible epoxy core-brittle epoxy shell motifs in the absence and presence of an elastomeric silicone interfacial layer, which are fabricated by a multicore-shell, 3D printing technique. It is found that architected lattices produced with a flexible core-elastomeric interface-brittle shell motif exhibit both high stiffness and toughness. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation of A High Precision 3D-Printed Ti6Al4V Compliant Parallel Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Tuan; Teo, Tat Joo; Huat Yeo, Song; Wang, Pan; Nai, Mui Ling Sharon

    2017-12-01

    A novel 3D printed compliant parallel manipulator (CPM) with θX - θX - Z motions is presented in this paper. This CPM is synthesized using the beam-based method, a new structural optimization approach, to achieve optimized stiffness properties with targeted dynamic behavior. The CPM performs high non-actuating stiffness based on the predicted stiffness ratios of about 3600 for translations and 570 for rotations, while the dynamic response is fast with the targeted first resonant mode of 100Hz. A prototype of the synthesized CPM is fabricated using the electron beam melting (EBM) technology with Ti6Al4V material. Driven by three voice-coil (VC) motors, the CPM demonstrated a positioning resolution of 50nm along the Z axis and an angular resolution of ~0.3 “about the X and Y axes, the positioning accuracy is also good with the measured values of ±25.2nm and ±0.17” for the translation and rotations respectively. Experimental investigation also shows that this large workspace CPM has a first resonant mode of 98Hz and the stiffness behavior matches the prediction with the highest deviation of 11.2%. Most importantly, the full workspace of 10° × 10° × 7mm of the proposed CPM can be achieved, that demonstrates 3D printed compliant mechanisms can perform large elastic deformation. The obtained results show that CPMs printed by EBM technology have predictable mechanical characteristics and are applicable in precise positioning systems.

  16. A stacked memory device on logic 3D technology for ultra-high-density data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Hong, Augustin J; Kim, Sung Min; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Song, Emil B; Hwang, Yongha; Xiu, Faxian; Galatsis, Kosmas; Chui, Chi On; Candler, Rob N; Wang, Kang L; Choi, Siyoung; Moon, Joo-Tae

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, a novel three-dimensional (3D) memory chip architecture of stacked-memory-devices-on-logic (SMOL) achieving up to 95% of cell-area efficiency by directly building up memory devices on top of front-end CMOS devices. In order to realize the SMOL, a unique 3D Flash memory device and vertical integration structure have been successfully developed. The SMOL architecture has great potential to achieve tera-bit level memory density by stacking memory devices vertically and maximizing cell-area efficiency. Furthermore, various emerging devices could replace the 3D memory device to develop new 3D chip architectures.

  17. High Performance Programming Using Explicit Shared Memory Model on the Cray T3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Cray T3D is the first-phase system in Cray Research Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing program. In this report we describe the architecture of the T3D, as well as the CRAFT (Cray Research Adaptive Fortran) programming model, and contrast it with PVM, which is also supported on the T3D We present some performance data based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks to illustrate both architectural and software features of the T3D.

  18. A stacked memory device on logic 3D technology for ultra-high-density data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Hong, Augustin J; Kim, Sung Min; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Song, Emil B; Hwang, Yongha; Xiu, Faxian; Galatsis, Kosmas; Chui, Chi On; Candler, Rob N; Wang, Kang L [Device Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Choi, Siyoung; Moon, Joo-Tae, E-mail: hbt100@ee.ucla.edu [Advanced Technology Development Team and Process Development Team, Memory R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-24

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, a novel three-dimensional (3D) memory chip architecture of stacked-memory-devices-on-logic (SMOL) achieving up to 95% of cell-area efficiency by directly building up memory devices on top of front-end CMOS devices. In order to realize the SMOL, a unique 3D Flash memory device and vertical integration structure have been successfully developed. The SMOL architecture has great potential to achieve tera-bit level memory density by stacking memory devices vertically and maximizing cell-area efficiency. Furthermore, various emerging devices could replace the 3D memory device to develop new 3D chip architectures.

  19. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be

  20. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  1. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  2. QUASI-OPTICAL 3-dB HYBRID FOR FUTURE HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    Phase-controlled wave combiners-commutators and isolators for protecting rf sources against reflection from the accelerating structure can be built using a 3-dB hybrid built around a metallic grating used in a ''magic-Y'' configuration. Models of the magic-Y were designed and tested, both at 34.272 GHz using the Omega-P Ka-band magnicon, and at 11.424 GHz using the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon. All elements of the magic-Y were optimized analytically and numerically. A non-vacuum 34 GHz model of the magic Y was built and tested experimentally at a low power. An engineering design for the high power (vacuum) compressor was configured. Similar steps were taken for the 11-GHz version

  3. Reversible Assembly of Graphitic Carbon Nitride 3D Network for Highly Selective Dyes Absorption and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuye; Zhou, Zhixin; Shen, Yanfei; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jianhai; Liu, Anran; Liu, Songqin; Zhang, Yuanjian

    2016-09-27

    Responsive assembly of 2D materials is of great interest for a range of applications. In this work, interfacial functionalized carbon nitride (CN) nanofibers were synthesized by hydrolyzing bulk CN in sodium hydroxide solution. The reversible assemble and disassemble behavior of the as-prepared CN nanofibers was investigated by using CO2 as a trigger to form a hydrogel network at first. Compared to the most widespread absorbent materials such as active carbon, graphene and previously reported supramolecular gel, the proposed CN hydrogel not only exhibited a competitive absorbing capacity (maximum absorbing capacity of methylene blue up to 402 mg/g) but also overcame the typical deficiencies such as poor selectivity and high energy-consuming regeneration. This work would provide a strategy to construct a 3D CN network and open an avenue for developing smart assembly for potential applications ranging from environment to selective extraction.

  4. A high sensitive 66 dB linear dynamic range receiver for 3-D laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Hao; Zhu, Zhangming

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a CMOS receiver chip realized in 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology and intended for high precision 3-D laser radar. The chip includes an adjustable gain transimpedance pre-amplifier, a post-amplifier and two timing comparators. An additional feedback is employed in the regulated cascode transimpedance amplifier to decrease the input impedance, and a variable gain transimpedance amplifier controlled by digital switches and analog multiplexer is utilized to realize four gain modes, extending the input dynamic range. The measurement shows that the highest transimpedance of the channel is 50 k {{Ω }}, the uncompensated walk error is 1.44 ns in a wide linear dynamic range of 66 dB (1:2000), and the input referred noise current is 2.3 pA/\\sqrt{{Hz}} (rms), resulting in a very low detectable input current of 1 μA with SNR = 5.

  5. Cones fabricated by 3D nanoimprint lithography for highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Hu Min; Ou Fungsuong; Li Zhiyong; Williams, R Stanley

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated a cost-effective and deterministic method of patterning 3D cone arrays over a large area by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Cones with tip radius of less than 10 nm were successfully duplicated onto the UV-curable imprint resist materials from the silicon cone templates. Such cone structures were shown to be a versatile platform for developing reliable, highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. In contrast to the silicon nanocones, the SERS substrates based on the Au coated cones made by the NIL offered significant improvement of the SERS signal. A further improvement of the SERS signal was observed when the polymer cones were imprinted onto a reflective metallic mirror surface. A sub-zeptomole detection sensitivity for a model molecule, trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)-ethylene (BPE), on the Au coated NIL cone surfaces was achieved.

  6. 3D printing PLGA: a quantitative examination of the effects of polymer composition and printing parameters on print resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Holzberg, Timothy R; Lim, Casey G; Gao, Feng; Gargava, Ankit; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2018-01-01

    In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meet patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science. In this study, we printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing a direct melt extrusion technique without additional ingredients. We investigated PLGA with various lactic acid: glycolic acid (LA:GA) molecular weight ratios and end caps to demonstrate the dependence of the extrusion process on the polymer composition. Micro-computed tomography was then used to evaluate printed scaffolds containing different LA:GA ratios, composed of different fiber patterns, and processed under different printing conditions. We built a statistical model to reveal the correlation and predominant factors that determine printing precision. Our model showed a strong linear relationship between the actual and predicted precision under different combinations of printing conditions and material compositions. This quantitative examination establishes a significant foreground to 3D print biomaterials following a systematic fabrication procedure. Additionally, our proposed statistical models can be applied to couple specific biomaterials and 3D printing applications for patient implants with particular requirements. PMID:28244880

  7. 3D printing PLGA: a quantitative examination of the effects of polymer composition and printing parameters on print resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Holzberg, Timothy R; Lim, Casey G; Gao, Feng; Gargava, Ankit; Trachtenberg, Jordan E; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2017-04-12

    In the past few decades, 3D printing has played a significant role in fabricating scaffolds with consistent, complex structure that meet patient-specific needs in future clinical applications. Although many studies have contributed to this emerging field of additive manufacturing, which includes material development and computer-aided scaffold design, current quantitative analyses do not correlate material properties, printing parameters, and printing outcomes to a great extent. A model that correlates these properties has tremendous potential to standardize 3D printing for tissue engineering and biomaterial science. In this study, we printed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) utilizing a direct melt extrusion technique without additional ingredients. We investigated PLGA with various lactic acid:glycolic acid (LA:GA) molecular weight ratios and end caps to demonstrate the dependence of the extrusion process on the polymer composition. Micro-computed tomography was then used to evaluate printed scaffolds containing different LA:GA ratios, composed of different fiber patterns, and processed under different printing conditions. We built a statistical model to reveal the correlation and predominant factors that determine printing precision. Our model showed a strong linear relationship between the actual and predicted precision under different combinations of printing conditions and material compositions. This quantitative examination establishes a significant foreground to 3D print biomaterials following a systematic fabrication procedure. Additionally, our proposed statistical models can be applied to couple specific biomaterials and 3D printing applications for patient implants with particular requirements.

  8. Developing a Pre-Engineering Curriculum for 3D Printing Skills for High School Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Hung

    2017-01-01

    This study developed an integrated-STEM CO[subscript 2] dragster design course using 3D printing technology. After developing a pre-engineering curriculum, we conducted a teaching experiment to assess students' differences in creativity, race forecast accuracy, and learning performance. We compared student performance in both 3D printing and…

  9. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Armin Michael

    2009-01-01

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE 23 Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T 2 * -decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T 2 * -decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T 2 * -decay and less image artefacts when B 0 -inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T 1 -, T 2 * - and Inversion-Recovery- 23 Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and 23 Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T 1 =29.0±0.3 ms; T 2s * ∼4 ms; T 2l * ∼31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T 1 =58.1±0.6 ms; T 2 * =55±3 ms (B 0 =3 T)). T 1 - und T 2 * -relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, 23 Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  10. High-Quality 3d Models and Their Use in a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.

  11. High-Efficiency Solar-Powered 3-D Printers for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of the open source 3-D printer known as the RepRap (a self-Replicating Rapid prototyper resulted in the potential for distributed manufacturing of products for significantly lower costs than conventional manufacturing. This development, coupled with open source-appropriate technology (OSAT, has enabled the opportunity for 3-D printers to be used for sustainable development. In this context, OSAT provides the opportunity to modify and improve the physical designs of their printers and desired digitally-shared objects. However, these 3-D printers require electricity while more than a billion people still lack electricity. To enable the utilization of RepRaps in off-grid communities, solar photovoltaic (PV-powered mobile systems have been developed, but recent improvements in novel delta-style 3-D printer designs allows for reduced costs and improved performance. This study builds on these innovations to develop and experimentally validate a mobile solar-PV-powered delta 3-D printer system. It is designed to run the RepRap 3-D printer regardless of solar flux. The electrical system design is tested outdoors for operating conditions: (1 PV charging battery and running 3-D printer; (2 printing under low insolation; (3 battery powering the 3-D printer alone; (4 PV charging the battery only; and (5 battery fully charged with PV-powered 3-D printing. The results show the system performed as required under all conditions providing feasibility for adoption in off-grid rural communities. 3-D printers powered by affordable mobile PV solar systems have a great potential to reduce poverty through employment creation, as well as ensuring a constant supply of scarce products for isolated communities.

  12. Local high precision 3D measurement based on line laser measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renwei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yongkang; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Jianwei; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the precision machining and assembly of the parts, the geometrical dimensions of the surface of the local assembly surfaces need to be strictly guaranteed. In this paper, a local high-precision three-dimensional measurement method based on line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve a high degree of accuracy of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the surface. Aiming at the problem of two-dimensional line laser measuring instrument which lacks one-dimensional high-precision information, a local three-dimensional profile measuring system based on an accurate single-axis controller is proposed. First of all, a three-dimensional data compensation method based on spatial multi-angle line laser measuring instrument is proposed to achieve the high-precision measurement of the default axis. Through the pretreatment of the 3D point cloud information, the measurement points can be restored accurately. Finally, the target spherical surface is needed to make local three-dimensional scanning measurements for accuracy verification. The experimental results show that this scheme can get the local three-dimensional information of the target quickly and accurately, and achieves the purpose of gaining the information and compensating the error for laser scanner information, and improves the local measurement accuracy.

  13. Towards High-Definition 3D Urban Mapping: Road Feature-Based Registration of Mobile Mapping Systems and Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Javanmardi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Various applications have utilized a mobile mapping system (MMS as the main 3D urban remote sensing platform. However, the accuracy and precision of the three-dimensional data acquired by an MMS is highly dependent on the performance of the vehicle’s self-localization, which is generally performed by high-end global navigation satellite system (GNSS/inertial measurement unit (IMU integration. However, GNSS/IMU positioning quality degrades significantly in dense urban areas with high-rise buildings, which block and reflect the satellite signals. Traditional landmark updating methods, which improve MMS accuracy by measuring ground control points (GCPs and manually identifying those points in the data, are both labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a novel and comprehensive framework for automatically georeferencing MMS data by capitalizing on road features extracted from high-resolution aerial surveillance data. The proposed framework has three key steps: (1 extracting road features from the MMS and aerial data; (2 obtaining Gaussian mixture models from the extracted aerial road features; and (3 performing registration of the MMS data to the aerial map using a dynamic sliding window and the normal distribution transform (NDT. The accuracy of the proposed framework is verified using field data, demonstrating that it is a reliable solution for high-precision urban mapping.

  14. 3D printing of high-strength bioscaffolds for the synergistic treatment of bone cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongshi; Li, Tao; Huan, Zhiguang; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Zezheng; Wang, Jinwu; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2018-04-01

    The challenges in bone tumor therapy are how to repair the large bone defects induced by surgery and kill all possible residual tumor cells. Compared to cancellous bone defect regeneration, cortical bone defect regeneration has a higher demand for bone substitute materials. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently few bifunctional biomaterials with an ultra-high strength for both tumor therapy and cortical bone regeneration. Here, we designed Fe-CaSiO3 composite scaffolds (30CS) via 3D printing technique. First, the 30CS composite scaffolds possessed a high compressive strength that provided sufficient mechanical support in bone cortical defects; second, synergistic photothermal and ROS therapies achieved an enhanced tumor therapeutic effect in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the presence of CaSiO3 in the composite scaffolds improved the degradation performance, stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of rBMSCs, and further promoted bone formation in vivo. Such 30CS scaffolds with a high compressive strength can function as versatile and efficient biomaterials for the future regeneration of cortical bone defects and the treatment of bone cancer.

  15. Evaluation of TSE- and T1-3D-GRE-sequences for focal cartilage lesions in vitro in comparison to ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, A.; Schulze, D.; Koops, A.; Kemper, J.; Adam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of TSE- and T 1 -3D-GRE-sequences for focal cartilage lesions in vitro in comparison to ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. Materials and methods: Forty artificial cartilage lesions in ten bovine patellae were immersed in a solution of iodinated contrast medium and assessed with ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. Fat-suppressed TSE images with intermediate- and T 2 -weighting at a slice thickness of 2, 3 and 4 mm as well as fat-suppressed T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH images with an effective slice thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm were acquired at 1.5 T. After adding Gd-DTPA to the saline solution containing the patellae, the T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH imaging was repeated. Results: All cartilage lesions were visualised and graded with ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT. The TSE images had a higher sensitivity and a higher inter- and intraobserver kappa compared to the FLASH-sequences (TSE: 70-95%; 0.82-0.83; 0.85-0.9; FLASH: 57.5-85%; 0.53-0.72; 0.73-0.82, respectively). An increase in slice thickness decreased the sensitivity, whereby deep lesions were even reliably depicted on TSE images at a slice thickness of 3 and 4 mm. Adding Gd-DTPA to the saline solution increased the sensitivity by 10% with no detectable advantage over the T 2 -weighted TSE images. Conclusion: TSE sequences and application of Gd-DTPA seemed to be superior to T 1 -weighted 3D-FLASH sequences without Gd-DTPA in the detection of focal cartilage lesions. The ultrahigh resolution multi-slice CT can serve as in vitro reference standard for focal cartilage lesions. (orig.) [de

  16. Fabrication of 3D Air-core MEMS Inductors for High Frequency Power Electronic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lê Thanh, Hoà; Mizushima, Io; Nour, Yasser

    2018-01-01

    footprints have an inductance from 34.2 to 44.6 nH and a quality factor from 10 to 13 at frequencies ranging from 30 to 72 MHz. The air-core inductors show threefold lower parasitic capacitance and up to a 140% higher-quality factor and a 230% higher-operation frequency than silicon-core inductors. A 33 MHz...... boost converter mounted with an air-core toroidal inductor achieves an efficiency of 68.2%, which is better than converters mounted with a Si-core inductor (64.1%). Our inductors show good thermal cycling stability, and they are mechanically stable after vibration and 2-m-drop tests.......We report a fabrication technology for 3D air-core inductors for small footprint and very-high-frequency power conversions. Our process is scalable and highly generic for fabricating inductors with a wide range of geometries and core shapes. We demonstrate spiral, solenoid, and toroidal inductors...

  17. High-Definition 3D Stereoscopic Microscope Display System for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kwan-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research has been performed by using advanced information techniques, and micro-high-quality stereo images have been used by researchers and/or doctors for various aims in biomedical research and surgery. To visualize the stereo images, many related devices have been developed. However, the devices are difficult to learn for junior doctors and demanding to supervise for experienced surgeons. In this paper, we describe the development of a high-definition (HD three-dimensional (3D stereoscopic imaging display system for operating a microscope or experimenting on animals. The system consists of a stereoscopic camera part, image processing device for stereoscopic video recording, and stereoscopic display. In order to reduce eyestrain and viewer fatigue, we use a preexisting stereo microscope structure and polarized-light stereoscopic display method that does not reduce the quality of the stereo images. The developed system can overcome the discomfort of the eye piece and eyestrain caused by use over a long period of time.

  18. A highly accurate boundary integral equation method for surfactant-laden drops in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgentone, Chiara; Tornberg, Anna-Karin

    2018-05-01

    The presence of surfactants alters the dynamics of viscous drops immersed in an ambient viscous fluid. This is specifically true at small scales, such as in applications of droplet based microfluidics, where the interface dynamics become of increased importance. At such small scales, viscous forces dominate and inertial effects are often negligible. Considering Stokes flow, a numerical method based on a boundary integral formulation is presented for simulating 3D drops covered by an