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Sample records for high range beta

  1. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchard, Neil; Elzein, Abier; Trafford, Clare; Rockett, Kirk; Pinder, Margaret; Jallow, Muminatou; Harding, Rosalind; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; McKenzie, Colin

    2007-08-10

    The sickle (betas) mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB) occurs on five "classical" betas haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the betas allele - a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes - has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical betas haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical betas haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI). The most common betas sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P haplotypes were highly conserved, with very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) extending a megabase across the betas mutation. Two different classical betas haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of betas haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from beta-globin.

  2. High beta multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  3. Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallow Muminatou

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sickle (βs mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB occurs on five "classical" βs haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the βs allele – a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes – has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical βs haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical βs haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI. Results The most common βs sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P s mutation. Conclusion Two different classical βs haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of βs haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from β-globin.

  4. Beta- and gamma-range human lower limb corticomuscular coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Gwin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherence between electroencephalography (EEG recorded on the scalp above the motor cortex and electromyography (EMG recorded on the skin of the limbs is thought to reflect corticospinal coupling between motor cortex and muscle motor units. Beta-range (13-30 Hz corticomuscular coherence has been extensively documented during static force output while gamma-range (31-45 Hz coherence has been linked to dynamic force output. However, the explanation for this beta-to-gamma coherence shift remains unclear. We recorded 264-channel EEG and 8-channel lower limb electromyography (EMG while 8 healthy subjects performed isometric and isotonic, knee and ankle exercises. Adaptive mixture independent component analysis (AMICA parsed EEG into models of underlying source signals. We computed magnitude squared coherence between electrocortical source signals and EMG. Significant coherence between contralateral motor cortex electrocortical signals and lower limb EMG was observed in the beta- and gamma-range for all exercise types. Gamma-range coherence was significantly greater for isotonic exercises than for isometric exercises. We conclude that active muscle movement modulates the speed of corticospinal oscillations. Specifically, isotonic contractions shift corticospinal oscillations towards the gamma-range while isometric contractions favor beta-range oscillations. Prior research has suggested that tasks requiring increased integration of visual and somatosensory information may shift corticomuscular coherence to the gamma-range. The isometric and isotonic tasks studied here likely required similar amounts of visual and somatosensory integration. This suggests that muscle dynamics, including the amount and type of proprioception, may play a role in the beta-to-gamma shift.

  5. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  6. High power beta electron device - Beyond betavoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, William M; Gentile, Charles A

    2018-01-01

    Developing watt level power sources with beta emitting radioisotopes has been limited by the inability to utilize high energy (> 100KeV) beta emitters at high radioisotope loadings without damaging the energy conversion materials. A new type of beta electron power source is described that removes those restrictions. The approach contains the radioisotope in a beta transparent titanium tube and confines beta electrons emitted through the tube wall to spiral trajectories around the tube with an axial magnetic field. The confined beta electrons dissipate energy though multiple interactions with surrounding excimer precursor gas atoms to efficiently generate photons. Photovoltaic cells convert the photons to electrical power. Since the beta electrons dissipate energy in the excimer precursor gas, the device can be loaded with more than 1013Bq of radioisotope to generate 100 milliwatt to watt levels of electrical power without damaging the device materials or degrading its performance. The power source can use a variety of beta radioisotopes and scales by stacking the devices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, G.A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Mauel, M.E.; Sabbagh, S.A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Kesner, J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new regime of high poloidal beta operation in TFTR was developed in the course of the first two years of this project (9/25/89 to 9/24/91). Our proposal to continue this successful collaboration between Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for a three year period (9/25/91 to 9/24/94) to continue to investigate improved confinement and tokamak performance in high poloidal beta plasmas in TFTR through the DT phase of operation was approved by the DOE and this is a report of our progress during the first 9 month budget period of the three year grant (9/25/91 to 6/24/92). During the approved three year project period we plan to (1) extend and apply the low current, high QDD discharges to the operation of TFTR using Deuterium and Tritium plasma; (2) continue the analysis and plan experiments on high poloidal beta phenomena in TFTR including: stability properties, enhanced global confinement, local transport, bootstrap current, and divertor formation; (3) plan and carry out experiments on TFTR which attempt to elevate the central q to values > 2 where entry to the second stability regime is predicted to occur; and (4) collaborate on high beta experiments using bean-shaped plasmas with a stabilizing conducting shell in PBX-M. In the seven month period covered by this report we have made progress in each of these four areas through the submission of 4 TFTR Experimental Proposals and the partial execution of 3 of these using a total of 4.5 run days during the August 1991 to February 1992 run.

  8. Long-range alpha/beta and short-range gamma EEG synchronization distinguishes phasic and tonic REM periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Blaskovich, Borbála; Bódizs, Róbert

    2017-12-23

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is characterized by the alternation of two markedly different microstates, phasic and tonic REM. These periods differ in awakening and arousal thresholds, sensory processing, and spontaneous cortical oscillations. Previous studies indicate that whereas in phasic REM, cortical activity is independent of the external environment, attentional functions and sensory processing are partially maintained during tonic periods. Large-scale synchronization of oscillatory activity, especially in the alpha and beta frequency ranges can accurately distinguish different states of vigilance and cognitive processes of enhanced alertness and attention. Therefore, we examined long-range inter-and intrahemispheric, as well as short-range EEG synchronization during phasic and tonic REM periods quantified by the weighted phase lag index. Based on the nocturnal polysomnographic data of 19 healthy, adult participants we showed that long-range inter-and intrahemispheric alpha and beta synchrony were enhanced in tonic REM states in contrast to phasic ones, and resembled alpha and beta synchronization of resting wakefulness. On the other hand, short-range synchronization within the gamma frequency range was higher in phasic as compared to tonic periods. Increased short-range synchrony might reflect local, and inwardly driven sensorimotor activity during phasic REM periods, whereas enhanced long-range synchrony might index frontoparietal activity that reinstates environmental alertness after phasic REM periods. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briancon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Janout, Z.; Koníček, J.; Kovalík, A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kubašta, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Revenko, A. V.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vorobel, V.; Vylov, Ts.

    1996-02-01

    A high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) has been developed. It is based on 16 HPGe detectors of volume 1200 × 6 mm 3 each in the same cryostat. The TGV spectrometer was proposed for the study of ultrarare nuclear processes (e.g. 2νββ, 0νββ, 2νEC/EC). Details of the TGV spectrometer construction are described, the principles of background suppression, the results of Monte Carlo simulations and the results of test background measurements (in Dubna and Modane underground laboratory) are provided.

  10. Molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding beta-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin in Trypanosoma rangeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, C B; Steindel, M; Sousa, M A; Tavares, C C

    2001-01-01

    The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of beta-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70) and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of beta-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain.

  11. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas.

  12. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng

    2016-11-29

    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  13. Pre-beta-HDL formation relates to high-normal free thyroxine in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienhoven-Wind, van Lynnda; Perton, Frank G.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objectives: Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. Associations between variation in thyroid function and pre-beta-high density lipoproteins (pre-beta-HDL), i.e. lipid-poor or lipid free HDL particles that act as initial acceptor of

  14. Study of High Beta Optics Solution for TOTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhardt, H; White, S; Levinsen, Y

    2009-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment requires special high beta optics solutions. We report on studies of optics for an intermediate β* = 90m, as well as a solutions for a very high β* of 1535 m, which respect all known constraints. These optics are rather different from the normal physics optics and will require global tune changes or adjustments.

  15. Localization of beta and high-frequency oscillations within the subthalamic nucleus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.M. van Wijk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinsonian bradykinesia and rigidity are typically associated with excessive beta band oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus. Recently another spectral peak has been identified that might be implicated in the pathophysiology of the disease: high-frequency oscillations (HFO within the 150–400 Hz range. Beta-HFO phase-amplitude coupling (PAC has been found to correlate with severity of motor impairment. However, the neuronal origin of HFO and its usefulness as a potential target for deep brain stimulation remain to be established. For example, it is unclear whether HFO arise from the same neural populations as beta oscillations. We intraoperatively recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus while advancing DBS electrodes in 2 mm steps from 4 mm above the surgical target point until 2 mm below, resulting in 4 recording sites. Data from 26 nuclei from 14 patients were analysed. For each trajectory, we identified the recording site with the largest spectral peak in the beta range (13–30 Hz, and the largest peak in the HFO range separately. In addition, we identified the recording site with the largest beta-HFO PAC. Recording sites with largest beta power and largest HFO power coincided in 50% of cases. In the other 50%, HFO was more likely to be detected at a more superior recording site in the target area. PAC followed more closely the site with largest HFO (45% than beta power (27%. HFO are likely to arise from spatially close, but slightly more superior neural populations than beta oscillations. Further work is necessary to determine whether the different activities can help fine-tune deep brain stimulation targeting.

  16. High Resolution, Range/Range-Rate Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to develop a design for a small, lightweight, high resolution, in x, y, and z Doppler imager to assist in the guidance, navigation and control...

  17. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  18. On the Demand for High-beta Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Simutin, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have documented that pension plan sponsors often monitor a fund’s performance relative to a benchmark. We use a first-difference approach to show that in an effort to beat benchmarks, fund managers controlling large pension assets tend to increase their exposure to high-beta stocks...

  19. Dynamic Hysteresis Probes High-{\\beta} Nanolaser Emission Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Si Hui; Amili, Abdelkrim El; Vallini, Felipe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2016-01-01

    The quest for an integrated light source that promises high energy efficiency and fast modulation for high-performance photonic circuits has led to the development of room-temperature telecom-wavelength nanoscale laser with high spontaneous emission factors, \\beta. The coherence characterization of this type of lasers is inherently difficult with the conventional measurement of output light intensity versus input pump intensity due to the diminishing kink in the measurement curve. We demonstrate the transition from chaotic to coherent emission of a high-{\\beta} pulse-pump metallo-dielectric nanolaser can be determined by examining the width of a second order intensity correlation peak, which shrinks below and broadens above threshold. Photon fluctuation study, first one ever reported for this type of nanolaser, confirms the validity of this measurement technique. Additionally, we show that the width variation above threshold results from the delayed threshold phenomenon, providing the first indirect observati...

  20. Thermomechanical treatment of {beta}-treated Zircaloy-4 within the upper {alpha}-range; Traitements thermomecaniques dans le haut domaine {alpha} du zircaloy-4 trempe-{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvy, C

    2004-09-15

    Zircaloy-4 is a Zr base alloy mainly used for nuclear applications. This study deals with its behaviour during forming, with a special interest for physical mechanisms acting in the upper {alpha}-range. The {beta}-treated Zircaloy-4 is first described in terms of microstructure and texture. The {alpha} plates are organised in colonies with alternating crystallographic orientations. The Burgers relationships have also been checked. The mechanical behaviour shows two distinct domains (with or without hardening). This could be linked to interactions between the solutes (Sn, O) and mobile dislocations. The evolution of crystallographic texture is characterised by X-ray diffraction. At 550 C, twinning is shown to be the main deformation mechanism under specific experimental conditions. Globularization of the initial lamellar structure is identified as a continuous dynamic recrystallization process, more efficient at higher temperature. High strains are necessary to achieve this phenomenon but meta-dynamic recrystallization can also be used to obtain an equiaxed microstructure after limited strains. (author)

  1. High-density SNP genotyping to define beta-globin locus haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Muralidhar, Shalini; Singh, Manisha; Sylvan, Caprice; Kalra, Inderdeep S; Quinn, Charles T; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Pace, Betty S

    2009-01-01

    Five major beta-globin locus haplotypes have been established in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from the Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian populations. Historically, beta-haplotypes were established using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis across the beta-locus, which consists of five functional beta-like globin genes located on chromosome 11. Previous attempts to correlate these haplotypes as robust predictors of clinical phenotypes observed in SCD have not been successful. We speculate that the coverage and distribution of the RFLP sites located proximal to or within the globin genes are not sufficiently dense to accurately reflect the complexity of this region. To test our hypothesis, we performed RFLP analysis and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the beta-locus using DNA samples from healthy African Americans with either normal hemoglobin A (HbAA) or individuals with homozygous SS (HbSS) disease. Using the genotyping data from 88 SNPs and Haploview analysis, we generated a greater number of haplotypes than that observed with RFLP analysis alone. Furthermore, a unique pattern of long-range linkage disequilibrium between the locus control region and the beta-like globin genes was observed in the HbSS group. Interestingly, we observed multiple SNPs within the HindIII restriction site located in the Ggamma-globin intervening sequence II which produced the same RFLP pattern. These findings illustrated the inability of RFLP analysis to decipher the complexity of sequence variations that impacts genomic structure in this region. Our data suggest that high-density SNP mapping may be required to accurately define beta-haplotypes that correlate with the different clinical phenotypes observed in SCD.

  2. Perceived glossiness in high dynamic range scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T; Boyaci, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how spatial pattern, background, and dynamic range affect perceived gloss in brightly lit real scenes. Observers viewed spherical objects against uniform backgrounds. There were three possible objects. Two were black matte spheres with circular matte white dots painted on them (matte-dot spheres). The third sphere was painted glossy black (glossy black sphere). Backgrounds were either black or white matte, and observers saw each of the objects in turn on each background. Scenes were illuminated by an intense collimated source. On each trial, observers matched the apparent albedo of the sphere to an albedo reference scale and its apparent gloss to a gloss reference scale. We found that matte-dot spheres and the black glossy sphere were perceived as glossy on both backgrounds. All spheres were judged to be significantly glossier when in front of the black background. In contrast with previous research using conventional computer displays, we find that background markedly affects perceived gloss. This finding is surprising because darker surfaces are normally perceived as glossier (F. Pellacini, J. A. Ferwerda, & D. P. Greenberg, 2000). We conjecture that there are cues to surface material signaling glossiness present in high dynamic range scenes that are absent or weak in scenes presented using conventional computer displays.

  3. Long-range order in V/sub 2/H near the. beta. -epsilon phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, B.; Moss, S.C.; Kjaer, K.

    1987-10-01

    The integrated intensity I of h/2 0 h/2-bar superstructure reflections has been measured with x rays for a single crystal of V/sub 2/H. Just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the ..beta..-epsilon phase transition, I varies as (1-T/T/sub c/)/sup 2//sup ..beta../ with ..beta.. = 0.153 +- 0.007, increasing to ..beta.. = 0.17 and 0.20 when referred to a rigid volume and c lattice parameter, respectively, through a lattice-expansion correction. By comparing heating and cooling runs the second-order character of this phase transition has been demonstrated. A shift of T/sub c/, however, was observed when data were taken without first thermally cycling the crystal close to T/sub c/.

  4. a Numerical Study of the Columbia High Beta Device: Torus -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Ralph

    1981-08-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time -scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus -II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes. The plasma is heated by turbulent poloidal skin currents, induced by a fast reversal of the toroidal magnetic field which converts the toroidal z-pinch into a high beta tokamak. The heating dynamics are simulated by solving single-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically in one- and two-dimensions. Inertia terms are kept to capture the fast-time-scale plasma dynamics. The equations are driven by prescribed boundary conditions for the poloidal flux and current functions. Since the plasma containment vessel is a non-conductor, specification of poloidal flux on the boundary is difficult. Inductance codes are used to describe the flux distribution realistically. Using heating results as initial conditions, a one-dimensional MHD diffusion code, complete with resistivity, thermal conductivity, and radiation losses, is used to simulate the high beta phase. The zero-dimensional code contains more than ionization and recombination modeling. We also include bremsstrahlung and line radiation, ohmic heating of electrons, wave heating of ions, electron-ion energy transfer and other effects. Therefore, the code is useful in linking the above MHD computations. We present results for charge state evolution of all species, as

  5. Ancestrally high elastic modulus of gecko setal beta-keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peattie, Anne M; Majidi, Carmel; Corder, Andrew; Full, Robert J

    2007-12-22

    Typical bulk adhesives are characterized by soft, tacky materials with elastic moduli well below 1MPa. Geckos possess subdigital adhesives composed mostly of beta-keratin, a relatively stiff material. Biological adhesives like those of geckos have inspired empirical and modelling research which predicts that even stiff materials can be effective adhesives if they take on a fibrillar form. The molecular structure of beta-keratin is highly conserved across birds and reptiles, suggesting that material properties of gecko setae should be similar to that of beta-keratin previously measured in birds, but this has yet to be established. We used a resonance technique to measure elastic bending modulus in two species of gecko from disparate habitats. We found no significant difference in elastic modulus between Gekko gecko (1.6 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae) and Ptyodactylus hasselquistii (1.4 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae). If the elastic modulus of setal keratin is conserved across species, it would suggest a design constraint that must be compensated for structurally, and possibly explain the remarkable variation in gecko adhesive morphology.

  6. Nucleotide sequence analysis of beta tubulin gene in a wide range of dermatophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Satoh, Kazuo; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the resolving power of the beta tubulin protein-coding gene (BT2) for systematic study of dermatophyte fungi. Initially, 144 standard and clinical strains belonging to 26 species in the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were identified by internal transcribe spacer

  7. High Dynamic Range Digital Imaging of Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Brian A.; Chalmers, Alan; Debattista, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The ability to capture engineering imagery with a wide degree of dynamic range during rocket launches is critical for post launch processing and analysis [USC03, NNC86]. Rocket launches often present an extreme range of lightness, particularly during night launches. Night launches present a two-fold problem: capturing detail of the vehicle and scene that is masked by darkness, while also capturing detail in the engine plume.

  8. Cluster observes formation of high-beta plasma blobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Late in a sequence of four moderate substorms on 26 July 2001, Cluster observed periods of a few minutes durations of high-beta plasma events (BR=19RE and at about 5°N GSM. These events began late in the recovery phase of the second and about 5min before onset of the third substorm and lasted for three hours, way beyond the recovery phase of the fourth substorm. The most remarkable observation is that the onset coincided with the arrival of energetic (E~7keV O+ ions and energetic electrons obviously from the ionosphere, which tended to dominate the plasma composition throughout the remaining time. The magnetic flux and plasma transport is continuously directed equatorward and earthward, with oscillatory east-west movements superposed. Periods of the order of 5-10min and strong correlations between the magnetic elevation angle and log β (correlation coefficient 0.78 are highly reminiscent of the high-beta plasma blobs discovered with Equator-S and Geotail between 9 and 11RE in the late night/early morning sector (Haerendel et al., 1999. We conclude that Cluster observed the plasma blob formation in the tail plasma sheet, which seems to occur predominantly in the recovery and post-recovery phases of substorms. This is consistent with the finding of Equator-S and Geotail. The origin is a pulsed earthward plasma transport with velocity amplitudes of only several tens of km/s.

  9. Prominent facilitation at beta and gamma frequency range revealed with physiological calcium concentration in adult mouse piriform cortex in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Gleizes

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity is characterized by a diversity of oscillatory phenomena that are associated with multiple behavioral and cognitive processes, yet the functional consequences of these oscillations are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether and how these different oscillatory activities affect short-term synaptic plasticity (STP, using the olfactory system as a model. In response to odorant stimuli, the olfactory bulb displays a slow breathing rhythm as well as beta and gamma oscillations. Since the firing of olfactory bulb projecting neurons is phase-locked with beta and gamma oscillations, structures downstream from the olfactory bulb should be driven preferentially at these frequencies. We examined STP exhibited by olfactory bulb inputs in slices of adult mouse piriform cortex maintained in vitro in an in vivo-like ACSF (calcium concentration: 1.1 mM. We replaced the presynaptic neuronal firing rate by repeated electrical stimulation (frequency between 3.125 and 100 Hz applied to the lateral olfactory tract. Our results revealed a considerable enhancement of postsynaptic response amplitude for stimulation frequencies in the beta and gamma range. A phenomenological model of STP fitted to the data suggests that the experimental results can be explained by the interplay between three mechanisms: a short-term facilitation mechanism (time constant ≈160 msec, and two short-term depression mechanisms (recovery time constants <20 msec and ≈140 msec. Increasing calcium concentration (2.2 mM resulted in an increase in the time constant of facilitation and in a strengthening of the slowest depression mechanism. As a result, response enhancement was reduced and its peak shifted toward the low beta and alpha ranges while depression became predominant in the gamma band. Using environmental conditions corresponding to those that prevail in vivo, our study shows that STP in the lateral olfactory tract to layer Ia synapse allows

  10. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena  (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  11. Extension of high-beta plasma operation to low-collisionality regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Funaba, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Ohdachi, S.; Ida, K.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Morisaki, T.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; LHD Experiment Group

    2017-06-01

    In the large helical device, plasma with more than 4% average beta was successfully produced by multi-pellet injections in a regime with a collisionality one order of magnitude lower than that in previous high-beta operations. An improvement in particle confinement was observed during a high-beta discharge produced by a gas puff, and particle flux to the divertor was reduced by more than 40%. High instabilities at the plasma edge occurred and suppressed the increment of the average beta to 3.4%. A spontaneous change in the magnetic topology contributes to an increase in the average beta value while triggering the excitation of edge MHD instabilities.

  12. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract [number sign]DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  13. 28-Day oral toxicity study in rats with high purity barley beta-glucan (Glucagel™)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, D.; Hasselwander, O.; Tervilä-Wilo, A.; Tenning, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    Beta-glucans are glucose polymers present in cereal grains, particularly barley and oat. Consumption of these grains or concentrated beta-glucan preparations has been shown to lower blood cholesterol. The present study was conducted to assess the safety of a high purity (>75%) barley beta-glucan

  14. Structural reconstruction: a milestone in the hydrothermal synthesis of highly active Sn-Beta zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiguo; Xu, Hao; Jiang, Jingang; Wu, Haihong; Wu, Peng

    2017-11-21

    A novel structural reconstruction strategy is proposed to prepare an active Sn-Beta catalyst with high Sn contents and a hydrophobic nature. Compared with post-synthesized Sn-Beta and state-of-the-art classic fluoride-mediated Sn-Beta-F, this Sn-Beta zeolite exhibits unparalleled active site-based turnover frequency for desirable products and in particular catalyst weight-based space-time-yields in various redox reactions of ketones.

  15. Development of high $\\beta^*$-optics for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Wessels, Johannes Peter

    This thesis describes a feasibility study for a special optical configuration in Insertion Region 2 (IR2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is host of the ALICE detector. This configuration allows the study of elastic and diffractive scattering during LHC high-intensity proton operation, in parallel to the nominal physics studies in all LHC experiments at the design energy of 7 TeV per beam. Such measurements require the instal- lation of additional Roman Pot (RP) detectors in the very forward region, at longitudinal distances of 150 m to 220 m from the Interaction Point (IP). Apart from being adjusted for a specific betatron phase advance between the IP and the RP detectors, such a configuration must be optimized for the largest possible $\\beta^*$ -value, to be sensitive for the smallest possible four-momentum transfer $|t|$. A value of $\\beta^*$ = 18 m is compatible with a bunch spacing of 25 ns, considering the LHC design emittance of N = 3.75 μm rad, and a required bunch-bunch separation of $12 \\...

  16. Ohmic ignition with high engineering beta based on the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarff, J. S.; Anderson, J. K.; Chapman, B. E.; McCollam, K. J.

    2017-10-01

    The RFP configuration allows the possibility of ohmic ignition for fusion energy, eliminating the need for auxiliary heating by rf or neutral beam injection. Complex plasma-facing antennas and NBI sources are therefore not required, simplifying the difficult fusion materials challenge. While all toroidal configurations require a volume-average 〈 B 〉 >= 5 T, the field strength at the magnet in the RFP is only Bcoil 3T since plasma current generates almost all of the field. Engineering beta is therefore maximized. We summarize access to ohmic ignition by examining a Lawson-like power balance for an RFP fusion plasma comparable to the ARIES-AT advanced tokamak, which generates neutron wall loading Pn / A 5 MW/m2. The required energy confinement for ohmic ignition in an RFP is similar to that for a tokamak. Confinement in MST is comparable to a same-size, same-field tokamak plasma, but 〈 B 〉 in MST is only 1/20th that required for fusion. While transport could ultimately be dominated by micro turbulence, extrapolation of stochastic transport using Lundquist number scaling for MHD tearing indicates standard RFP confinement (not enhanced by current profile control) could be sufficient to access ohmic ignition. This bolsters the possibility for steady-state inductive sustainment using oscillating field current drive. The high beta and classical energetic ion confinement measured in MST also bolster the RFP's fusion potential. Work supported by U.S. DoE.

  17. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta blockers Beta blockers, also called beta-adrenergic blocking agents, treat a variety of conditions, such as high blood pressure and migraines. ... this class of medication. By Mayo Clinic Staff Beta blockers, also known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents, are ...

  18. Cluster observes formation of high-beta plasma blobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Late in a sequence of four moderate substorms on 26 July 2001, Cluster observed periods of a few minutes durations of high-beta plasma events (B<10nT, β=2-30, connected with dipolarizations of the magnetic field. Cluster was located near 02:45 MLT, at R=19RE and at about 5°N GSM. These events began late in the recovery phase of the second and about 5min before onset of the third substorm and lasted for three hours, way beyond the recovery phase of the fourth substorm. The most remarkable observation is that the onset coincided with the arrival of energetic (E~7keV O+ ions and energetic electrons obviously from the ionosphere, which tended to dominate the plasma composition throughout the remaining time. The magnetic flux and plasma transport is continuously directed equatorward and earthward, with oscillatory east-west movements superposed. Periods of the order of 5-10min and strong correlations between the magnetic elevation angle and log β (correlation coefficient 0.78 are highly reminiscent of the high-beta plasma blobs discovered with Equator-S and Geotail between 9 and 11RE in the late night/early morning sector (Haerendel et al., 1999.

    We conclude that Cluster observed the plasma blob formation in the tail plasma sheet, which seems to occur predominantly in the recovery and post-recovery phases of substorms. This is consistent with the finding of Equator-S and Geotail. The origin is a pulsed earthward plasma transport with velocity amplitudes of only several tens of km/s.

  19. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  20. Equilibrium and stability properties of high-beta torsatrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Garcia, L.; Harris, J.H.; Hender, T.C.; Masden, B.F.

    1983-08-01

    Equilibrium and stability properties of high-beta torsatrons have been investigated using numerical and semianalytical techniques based on the method of toroidal averaging. The averaged equilibria have been compared with those obtained using full three-dimensional codes. Good agreement is obtained, thus validating the averaged method approach. We have studied the stability of plamsas for configurations with different aspect ratios and numbers of field periods. The role of the vertical field has also been studied in detail. The main conclusion is that for moderate aspect ratio torsatrons (A/sub p/ less than or equal to 8), the self-stabilizing effect of the magnetic axis shift is large enough to open a direct path to the second stability region.

  1. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena 
    (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  2. Analytic, High-beta Solutions of the Helical Grad-Shafranov Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Smith; A.H. Reiman

    2004-05-19

    We present analytic, high-beta ({beta} {approx} O(1)), helical equilibrium solutions for a class of helical axis configurations having large helical aspect ratio, with the helix assumed to be tightly wound. The solutions develop a narrow boundary layer of strongly compressed flux, similar to that previously found in high beta tokamak equilibrium solutions. The boundary layer is associated with a strong localized current which prevents the equilibrium from having zero net current.

  3. Energy-confinement scaling for high-beta plasmas in the W7-AS stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, R; Dinklage, A; Weller, A

    2007-12-14

    High-beta energy-confinement data are subjected to comparisons of scaling invariant, first-principles physical models. The models differ in the inclusion of basic equations indicating the nature of transport. The result for high-beta data of the W7-AS stellarator is that global transport is described best with a collisional high-beta model, which is different from previous outcomes for low-beta data. Model predictive calculations indicate the validation of energy-confinement prediction with respect to plasma beta and collisionality nu*. The finding of different transport behaviors in distinct beta regimes is important for the development of fusion energy based on magnetic confinement and for the assessment of different confinement concepts.

  4. Range-based covariance estimation using high-frequency data: The realized co-range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bannouh (Karim); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); M.P.E. Martens (Martin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce the realized co-range, utilizing intraday high-low price ranges to estimate asset return covariances. Using simulations we find that for plausible levels of bid-ask bounce and infrequent and non-synchronous trading the realized co-range improves upon the realized covariance,

  5. Longe-Range Order in beta-Brass Studied by Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1974-01-01

    The long-range order, M(T), in β-brass has been measured by neutron diffraction from a small extinction-free crystal. The results agree with those obtained recently by x-ray diffraction. Near Tc our data are in accordance with a power law M(T)=D(1-T/Tc)β with the critical exponent β=0...

  6. High-Range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes development of a conceptual design for a High-range Scalar Helium Magnetometer (HSHM) for the field range +/-16 Gauss. The HSHM...

  7. DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE POWER COUPLER LINE FOR HIE-ISOLDE HIGH BETA CAVITY

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, A

    2011-01-01

    The design parameters of the HIE-ISOLDE high beta superconducting (SC) cavity foresee to have a power dissipated on the cavity wall of 7W with a Q0=6.6·108 for an accelerating field of 6MV/m. The cavity will be fed via a moveable antenna that, in operating condition, is designed to reach a maximum overcoupled condition β=130 in order to get a bandwidth at the resonant frequency of ≈20Hz. A wide dynamic range (Qext ranging from 104 to 109) is requested in order to allow tests and conditioning both at room temperature and in superconducting operating mode. A “dust free” sliding mechanism has been integrated in the mechanical concept which will be presented below together the full e-m analysis of the coupler line.

  8. Reward feedback stimuli elicit high-beta EEG oscillations in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HajiHosseini, Azadeh; Hosseini, Azadeh Haji; Holroyd, Clay B

    2015-08-17

    Reward-related feedback stimuli have been observed to elicit a burst of power in the beta frequency range over frontal areas of the human scalp. Recent discussions have suggested possible neural sources for this activity but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on the question. Here we recorded EEG from participants while they navigated a virtual T-maze to find monetary rewards. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the reward feedback stimuli elicited an increase in beta power (20-30 Hz) over a right-frontal area of the scalp. Source analysis indicated that this signal was produced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These findings align with previous observations of reward-related beta oscillations in the DLPFC in non-human primates. We speculate that increased power in the beta frequency range following reward receipt reflects the activation of task-related neural assemblies that encode the stimulus-response mapping in working memory.

  9. High Precision Ranging and Range-Rate Measurements over Free-Space-Laser Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision ranging and range-rate measurement system via an optical-ranging or combined ranging-communication link. A complete bench-top optical communication system was built. It included a ground terminal and a space terminal. Ranging and range rate tests were conducted in two configurations. In the communication configuration with 622 data rate, we achieved a two-way range-rate error of 2 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 9 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. Ranging and range-rate as a function of Bit Error Rate of the communication link is reported. They are not sensitive to the link error rate. In the single-frequency amplitude modulation mode, we report a two-way range rate error of 0.8 microns/s, or a modified Allan deviation of 2.6 x 10 (exp -15) with 10 second averaging time. We identified the major noise sources in the current system as the transmitter modulation injected noise and receiver electronics generated noise. A new improved system will be constructed to further improve the system performance for both operating modes.

  10. High-$\\gamma$ Beta Beams within the LAGUNA design study

    CERN Document Server

    Orme, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Within the LAGUNA design study, seven candidate sites are being assessed for their feasibility to host a next-generation, very large neutrino observatory. Such a detector will be expected to feature within a future European accelerator neutrino programme (Superbeam or Beta Beam), and hence the distance from CERN is of critical importance. In this article, the focus is a $^{18}$Ne and $^{6}$He Beta Beam sourced at CERN and directed towards a 50 kton Liquid Argon detector located at the LAGUNA sites: Slanic (L=1570 km) and Pyh\\"{a}salmi (L=2300 km). To improve sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, these baselines are then combined with a concurrent run with the same flux directed towards a large Water \\v{C}erenkov detector located at Canfranc (L=650 km). This degeneracy breaking combination is shown to provide comparable physics reach to the conservative Magic Baseline Beta Beam proposals. For $^{18}$Ne ions boosted to $\\gamma=570$ and $^{6}$He ions boosted to $\\gamma=350$, the correct mass ordering can be...

  11. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  12. A minimal Beta Beam with high-Q ions to address CP violation in the leptonic sector

    CERN Document Server

    Coloma, P; Migliozzi, P; Lavina, L Scotto; Terranova, F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a Beta Beam setup that tries to leverage at most existing European facilities: i.e. a setup that takes advantage of facilities at CERN to boost high-Q ions (8Li and 8B) aiming at a far detector located at L = 732 Km in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The average neutrino energy for 8Li and 8B ions boosted at \\gamma ~ 100 is in the range E_\

  13. High glucose induces suppression of insulin signalling and apoptosis via upregulation of endogenous IL-1beta and suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 in mouse pancreatic beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieratos, Panagiotis D; Drossopoulou, Garyfalia I; Kapodistria, Katerina D; Tsilibary, Effie C; Kitsiou, Paraskevi V

    2010-05-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia and inflammatory cytokines disrupt and/or attenuate signal transduction pathways that promote normal beta-cell survival, leading to the destruction of endocrine pancreas in type 2 diabetes. There is convincing evidence that autocrine insulin signalling exerts protective anti-apoptotic effects on beta cells. Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) were induced by several cytokines and inhibit insulin-initiated signal transduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high glucose can influence endogenous interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and SOCS expression thus affecting insulin signalling and survival in insulin-producing mouse pancreatic beta cells (betaTC-6). Results showed that prolonged exposure of betaTC-6 cells to increased glucose concentrations resulted in significant inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) as well as PI3-kinase activation. These changes were accompanied by impaired activation of the anti-apoptotic signalling protein Akt and annulment of Akt-mediated suppression of the Forkhead family of transcription factors (FoxO) activation. Glucose-induced attenuation of IRS-2/Akt-mediated signalling was associated with increased IL-1beta expression. Enhanced endogenous IL-1beta specifically induced mRNA and protein expression of SOCS-1 in betaTC-6 cells. Inhibition of SOCS-1 expression by SOCS-1-specific small interfering RNA restored IRS-2/PI3K-mediated Akt phosphorylation suppressed by high glucose. The upregulation of endogenous cytokine signalling and FoxO activation were accompanied by enhanced caspase-3 activation and increased susceptibility of cells to apoptosis. These results indicated that glucose-induced endogenous IL-1beta expression increased betaTC-6 cells apoptosis by inhibiting, at least in part, IRS-2/Akt-mediated signalling through SOCS-1 upregulation. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzymatic production of highly soluble myricitrin glycosides using beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Shimabayashi, Hiroshi; Moriwaki, Masamitsu

    2006-04-01

    Myricitrin, a botanical flavonol glycoside, could be a useful ingredient of functional foods, cosmetics, and medicines because of its high anti-oxidative activity. However, due to its insolubility in water, it has a limited range of use. To improve this solubility, we glycosylated myricitrin by an enzymatic transglycosylate reaction. Myricitrin was galactosylated by beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans using lactose as a sugar donor. The reaction product was 480 times more soluble than myricitrin. Four myricitrin galactosides were isolated from the reaction products by column chromatography, and their molecular structures were identified by using ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C HMQC and 1H-13C HMBC analysis. The solubility of these four myricitrin galactosides was more than 3.9 x 10(3) fold that of myricitrin, and each had similar anti-oxidative activity to that of myricitrin.

  15. Scenario development toward high beta steady-state operation at KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S. W.; Jeon, Y. M.; Kim, H. S.; Woo, M. H.; Hahn, S. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kang, J. S.; Na, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, H. K.; Kstar Team

    2017-10-01

    Solving issues for high-beta long-pulse operation is one of the essential topics for superconducting tokamaks and sustainment of a fully non-inductive H-mode discharge with high performance is successfully demonstrated upto record-long 70 seconds at KSTAR. Typical plasma parameters are 0.4MA(Ip) , max 5MW (NBI +ECH), βp 3, fBS 0.5, H98 1.3 and in a wide range of q95 = 6 12. Though an internal transport barrier is not identified yet, the developed scenario has many features in common with the so called ``high βp discharge' at DIII-D. The thermal confinement is sensitive on the deposition layer of the central ECH heating 1MW and it correlates with MHD activities in the range of TAE frequency (100 200kHz) suggesting strong interaction TAE with fast ion transport. Based on the transport/stability analysis on the present discharge, improved performance is also estimated with higher NBI +ECH heating power envisaged in near future. Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology.

  16. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling. Progress report, March 15, 1988--May 14, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract {number_sign}DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  17. [Determination of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Chen, Meilan; Zhu, Yan

    2010-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of two optical isomers of arbutin (alpha-arbutin and beta-arbutin) and niacinamide in cosmetics was developed. The samples were extracted by the mixture of salt water and chloroform (2:1, v/v). The separation was performed on an ODS-BP column (200 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm, Elite) with methanol-water (10:90, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 220 nm and the sample injection volume was 20 microL. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentration and the peak areas of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in the ranges of 0.07-50, 0.06-50 and 0.05-50 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7) of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide were 1.65%, 1.73% and 1.33%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in cosmetics with recoveries of 91.7%-109.6%. This method is rapid, simple and suitable for the detection of whitening ingredients in cosmetic.

  18. Beta decay of medium and high spin isomers in sup 9 sup 4 Ag

    CERN Document Server

    La Commara, M; Döring, J; Galanopoulos, S; Grawe, H; Harissopoulos, S V; Hellström, M; Janas, Z; Kirchner, R; Mazzocchi, C; Ostrowski, A N; Plettner, C; Rainovski, G; Roeckl, E; Schmidt, K

    2002-01-01

    The very neutron-deficient isotope sup 9 sup 4 Ag was produced at the GSI on-line mass separator by using the reaction sup 5 sup 8 Ni( sup 4 sup 0 Ca, p3n). The beta-decay properties of sup 9 sup 4 Ag were studied by detecting for the first time beta-delayed gamma rays and beta-gamma-gamma coincidences. Both the population of excited levels in the daughter nucleus sup 9 sup 4 Pd and the beta-decay half-life of sup 9 sup 4 Ag were investigated. The major part of the feeding was assigned to the decay of an I suppi=(7 sup +) isomer with a half-life of (0.36+-0.03) s. A weak beta-decay branch was found to populate high-spin levels in the sup 9 sup 4 Pd daughter with I>=18. It is tentatively assigned to the decay of a high-spin parent state in sup 9 sup 4 Ag with I>=17 and a half-life (0.3+-0.2) s. The measured beta-decay properties as well as the level structure of sup 9 sup 4 Ag and sup 9 sup 4 Pd are discussed in comparison with shell-model predictions.

  19. A new {beta}-diketone complex with high color purity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adati, R.D. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Lima, S.A.M. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Davolos, M.R. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: davolos@iq.unesp.br; Jafelicci, M. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-20

    In this work a new europium (III) complex with the following formula NH{sub 4}[Eu(bmdm){sub 4}] was synthesized and characterized. The bmdm (butyl methoxy-dibenzoyl-methane) is a {beta}-diketone molecule used as UV radiation absorber in sunscreen formulations. Coordination of this ligand to the Eu{sup 3+} ion was confirmed by FT-IR, while the Raman spectrum suggests the presence of NH{sub 4} {sup +} ions. The photoluminescence spectra present narrow lines arising from f-f intra-configurational transitions {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 0,1,2,3,4}, dominated by the hypersensitive {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. In the spectrum recorded at 77 K, all transitions split into 2J + 1 lines suggesting that there is just one symmetry site around Eu{sup 3+} ion. This symmetry is not centrosymmetric. The calculated intensity parameters are {omega} {sub 2} = 30.5 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} and {omega} {sub 4} = 5.91 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} for this complex. The CIE chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.67 and y = 0.32) show a dominant wavelength of 615 nm. The color gamut achieved by this complex is a 100% in the CIE color space.

  20. Balsamic Vinegar Improves High Fat-Induced Beta Cell Dysfunction via Beta Cell ABCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Seok

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balsamic vinegar on β-cell dysfunction.MethodsIn this study, 28-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats were fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD and were provided with tap water or dilute balsamic vinegar for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests and histopathological analyses were performed thereafter.ResultsIn rats fed both the both chow diet and the HFD, the rats given balsamic vinegar showed increased insulin staining in islets compared with tap water administered rats. Balsamic vinegar administration also increased β-cell ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1 expression in islets and decreased cholesterol levels.ConclusionThese findings provide the first evidence for an anti-diabetic effect of balsamic vinegar through improvement of β-cell function via increasing β-cell ABCA1 expression.

  1. High Range Resolution Profile Construction Exploiting Modified Fractional Fourier Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the discrimination of closely spaced high speed group targets with radar transmitting linear frequency modulation (LFM pulses. The high speed target motion leads to range migration and target dispersion and thereby the discriminating capability of the high range resolution profile (HRRP deteriorating significantly. An effective processing approach composed of stretch processing (SP, modified fractional Fourier transform (FrFT, and multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. Firstly, SP is adopted to transform the received LFM with Doppler distortions into narrow band LFM signals. Secondly, based on the two-dimensional range/velocity plane constructed by the modified FrFT, the velocity of the high speed group target is estimated and compensated with just one single pulse. After the compensation of range migration and target dispersion simultaneously, the resolution of the HRRP achieved by single pulse transmission improves significantly in the high speed group targets scenarios. Finally, MUSIC algorithm with superresolution capability is utilized to make a more explicit discrimination between the scatterers in comparison with the conventional SP method. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  2. Genetic variation in codons 167, 198 and 200 of the beta-tubulin gene in whipworms (Trichuris spp.) from a range of domestic animals and wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    and used to amplify a ~476 bp fragment of the beta-tubulin gene. The PCR products were sequenced, analysed and evaluated. We did not identify SNPs in codons 167, 198 or 200 that led to amino acid substitutions in any of the studied Trichuris spp., but genetic variation expected to be related to species......A recurrent problem in the control of whipworm (Trichuris spp.) infections in many animal species and man is the relatively low efficacy of treatment with a single application of benzimidazoles (BZs). The presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in codons 167, 198 and 200 in the beta...... to investigate the presence of these SNPs in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichuris spp. obtained from a range of animals. DNA was extracted from a total of 121 Trichuris spp. adult whipworm specimens obtained from 6 different host species. The number of worms from each host was pig: 31, deer: 21, sheep: 18, mouse...

  3. Reconstructing Interlaced High-Dynamic-Range Video Using Joint Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inchang; Baek, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Min H

    2017-11-01

    For extending the dynamic range of video, it is a common practice to capture multiple frames sequentially with different exposures and combine them to extend the dynamic range of each video frame. However, this approach results in typical ghosting artifacts due to fast and complex motion in nature. As an alternative, video imaging with interlaced exposures has been introduced to extend the dynamic range. However, the interlaced approach has been hindered by jaggy artifacts and sensor noise, leading to concerns over image quality. In this paper, we propose a data-driven approach for jointly solving two specific problems of deinterlacing and denoising that arise in interlaced video imaging with different exposures. First, we solve the deinterlacing problem using joint dictionary learning via sparse coding. Since partial information of detail in differently exposed rows is often available via interlacing, we make use of the information to reconstruct details of the extended dynamic range from the interlaced video input. Second, we jointly solve the denoising problem by tailoring sparse coding to better handle additive noise in low-/high-exposure rows, and also adopt multiscale homography flow to temporal sequences for denoising. We anticipate that the proposed method will allow for concurrent capture of higher dynamic range video frames without suffering from ghosting artifacts. We demonstrate the advantages of our interlaced video imaging compared with the state-of-the-art high-dynamic-range video methods.

  4. Beta-alanine supplementation enhances judo-related performance in highly-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Kratz, Caroline; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; de Andrade Nemezio, Kleiner Márcio; da Silva, Rafael Pires; Franchini, Emerson; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2017-04-01

    In official judo competitions, athletes usually engage in 5-7 matches in the same day, performing numerous high-intensity efforts interspersed by short recovery intervals. Thus, glycolytic demand in judo is high and acidosis may limit performance. Carnosine is a relevant intracellular acid buffer whose content is increased with beta-alanine supplementation. Thus, we hypothesized that beta-alanine supplementation could attenuate acidosis and improve judo performance. Twenty-three highly-trained judo athletes were randomly assigned to receive either beta-alanine (6.4gday-1) or placebo (dextrose, same dosage) for 4 weeks. Performance was assessed before (PRE) and after (POST) supplementation through a 5-min simulated fight (randori) followed by 3 bouts of the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT). Blood samples were collected for blood pH, bicarbonate (HCO3-) and lactate determination. Beta-alanine supplementation improved the number of throws per set and the total number of throws (both p0.05). Blood pH and HCO3- reduced after exercise (all p0.05). However, the lactate response to exercise increased in the beta-alanine group as compared to placebo (pjudo-related performance in highly-trained athletes. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dry-boxes for manipulation of high-energy {beta} emitters; Bottes pour manipulation d'emetteurs {beta} energiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boclet, K.; Laurent, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Because of the thinners of latex or neoprene gloves and the high intensity of Bremsstrahlung radiation, manipulation of pure high-energy {beta}{sup -} emitters is impossible in ordinary dry-boxes. There are many types of box equipped with heavy lead or steel protection, but their use for radioelements such as {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y is not justified. We have devised units known as 'tong boxes' which, while retaining much of the flexibility of operation found in dry-boxes, provide adequate protection. 1 curie of {sup 32}P placed in the centre of the enclosure gives about 15 mR/ 8 h. at the part of the wall closest to the source. (author) [French] La faible epaisseur des gants de latex ou de neoprene et l'importance du rayonnement de freinage rendent impossible la manipulation des emetteurs {beta}{sup -} purs energiques dans des boites a gants normales. Il existe de nombreux types d'enceintes dotees d'une forte protection de plomb ou d'acier dont l'emploi n'est pas justifie pour des radioelements tels que {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y. Nous avons realise des ensembles appeles 'Boites a Pinces', qui tout en conservant une grande partie de la souplesse d'utilisation des boites a gants sont dotees d'une protection suffisante. 1 curie de {sup 32}P place au centre de l'enceinte donne environ 15 mR/ 8 h au contact de la paroi la plus rapprochee de la source. (auteur)

  6. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Karen; Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu; Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa; Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H2O2 assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H2O2 levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High dynamic range (HDR) virtual bronchoscopy rendering for video tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Teo; Choi, Jae

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a new rendering method based on high dynamic range (HDR) lighting and exposure control. This rendering method is applied to create video images for a 3D virtual bronchoscopy system. One of the main optical parameters of a bronchoscope's camera is the sensor exposure. The exposure adjustment is needed since the dynamic range of most digital video cameras is narrower than the high dynamic range of real scenes. The dynamic range of a camera is defined as the ratio of the brightest point of an image to the darkest point of the same image where details are present. In a video camera exposure is controlled by shutter speed and the lens aperture. To create the virtual bronchoscopic images, we first rendered a raw image in absolute units (luminance); then, we simulated exposure by mapping the computed values to the values appropriate for video-acquired images using a tone mapping operator. We generated several images with HDR and others with low dynamic range (LDR), and then compared their quality by applying them to a 2D/3D video-based tracking system. We conclude that images with HDR are closer to real bronchoscopy images than those with LDR, and thus, that HDR lighting can improve the accuracy of image-based tracking.

  8. High-Capacity Short-Range Optical Communication Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna

    Over the last decade, we have observed a tremendous spread of end-user mobile devices. The user base of a mobile application can grow or shrink by millions per day. This situation creates a pressing need for highly scalable server infrastructure; a need nowadays satisfied through cloud computing...... offered by data centers. As the popularity of cloud computing soars, the demand for high-speed, short-range data center links grows. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multimode fibers (MMF) prove especially well-suited for such scenarios. VCSELs have high modulation bandwidths......, we achieve 10 Gbps over 400 m and then conrm the approach in an optimized system at 25 Gbps over 300 m. The techniques described in this thesis leverage additional degrees of freedom to better utilize the available resources of short-range links. The proposed schemes enable higher speeds and longer...

  9. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-04-23

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  10. High beta-Lactamase Levels Change the Pharmacodynamics of beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hengzhuang; Ciofu, Oana; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is a frequent problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This resistance is mainly due to the hyperproduction of chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase and biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate t...

  11. An objective method for High Dynamic Range source content selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narwaria, Manish; Mantel, Claire; Da Silva, Matthieu Perreira

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the immersive experience of the end user, High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging has been gaining popularity. Therefore, proper validation and performance benchmarking of HDR processing algorithms is a key step towards standardization and commercial deployment. A crucial compo...... visible errors on contrast reduction. This information is subsequently analyzed via fuzzy clustering to enable a probabilistic interpretation. To evaluate the proposed approach, we performed an experimental study on a large set of publicly available HDR images....

  12. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Optimal use of beta-blockers in high-risk hypertension: a guide to dosing equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Janet B

    2010-06-01

    Hypertension is the number one diagnosis made by primary care physicians, placing them in a unique position to prescribe the antihypertensive agent best suited to the individual patient. In individuals with diabetes mellitus, blood pressure (BP) levels>130/80 mmHg confer an even higher risk for cardiovascular and renal disease, and these patients will benefit from aggressive antihypertensive treatment using a combination of agents. beta-blockers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of hypertension in high-risk patients. beta-blockers are a heterogeneous class of agents, and this review presents the differences between beta-blockers and provides evidence-based protocols to assist in understanding dose equivalence in the selection of an optimal regimen in patients with complex needs. The clinical benefits provided by beta-blockers are only effective if patients adhere to medication treatment long term. beta-blockers with proven efficacy, once-daily dosing, and lower side effect profiles may become instrumental in the treatment of hypertensive diabetic and nondiabetic patients.

  14. Long-lived, high-strength states of ICAM-1 bonds to beta2 integrin, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Leung, Andrew; Simon, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Using single-molecule force spectroscopy to probe ICAM-1 interactions with recombinant alphaLbeta2 immobilized on microspheres and beta2 integrin on neutrophils, we quantified an impressive hierarchy of long-lived, high-strength states of the integrin bond, which start from basal levels......-out and outside-in signaling in neutrophils on the lifetimes and mechanical strengths of ICAM-1 bonds to beta2 integrin on the cell surface. Even though ICAM-1 bonds to recombinant alphaLbeta2 on microspheres in Mg2+ or Mn2+ can live for long periods of time under slow pulling, here we show that stimulation...... with activation in solutions of divalent cations and shift dramatically upward to hyperactivated states with cell signaling. Taking advantage of very rare events, we used repeated measurements of bond lifetimes under steady ramps of force to achieve a direct assay for the off-rates of ICAM-1 from beta2 integrin...

  15. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the growth and beta-carotene production of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sui-Lou; Chen, De-Jing; Deng, Bai-Wan; Wu, Xiao-Zong

    2008-04-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the biomass and beta-carotene biosynthesis of Rhodotorula glutinis R68 were studied. After treatment with five repeated cycles at 300 MPa for 15 min, the barotolerant mutant PR68 was obtained. After 72 h of culture, the biomass of mutant PR68 was 21.6 g/l, decreased by 8.5% compared to the parental strain R68, but its beta-carotene production reached 19.4 mg/l, increased by 52.8% compared to the parental strain R68. The result of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis suggested that mutant strain PR68 was likely to change in nucleic acid level, and thus enhanced beta-carotene production in this strain as a result of gene mutation induced by HHP treatment. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Proposal for the construction of a High-Beta Tokamak at LASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Laan, P.C.T.; Freidberg, J.P.; Thomas, K.S.

    1976-06-01

    The large heating rate inherent to implosion heating allows the rapid generation of high-beta tokamak plasmas. A study of these plasmas in the proposed HBT machine can give information on how MHD equilibrium and stability limit ..beta.. and q. Both a wide current profile and a moderate elongation of the minor cross section should help to raise the permissible peak ..beta.. values in HBT to at least 20 percent. The longer term loss processes occurring in MHD-stable plasmas are to be investigated. The main parameters of HBT are: R = 0.30 m, minor cross section a racetrack of width and height 0.24 m and 0.48 m, B/sub phi/ = 2 T, I/sub phi/ approximately 750 kA.

  17. Shadow correction in high dynamic range images for generating orthophotos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Chikatsu, Hirofumi

    2011-07-01

    High dynamic range imagery is widely used in remote sensing. With the widespread use of aerial digital cameras such as the DMC, ADS40, RMK-D, and UltraCamD, high dynamic range imaging is generally expected for generating minuteness orthophotos in digital aerial photogrammetry. However, high dynamic range images (12-bit, 4,096 gray levels) are generally compressed into an 8-bit depth digital image (256 gray levels) owing to huge amount of data and interface with peripherals such as monitors and printers. This means that a great deal of image data is eliminated from the original image, and this introduces a new shadow problem. In particular, the influence of shadows in urban areas causes serious problems when generating minuteness orthophotos and performing house detection. Therefore, shadow problems can be solved by addressing the image compression problems. There is a large body of literature on image compression techniques such as logarithmic compression and tone mapping algorithms. However, logarithmic compression tends to cause loss of details in dark and/or light areas. Furthermore, the logarithmic method intends to operate on the full scene. This means that high-resolution luminance information can not be obtained. Even though tone mapping algorithms have the ability to operate over both full scene and local scene, background knowledge is required. To resolve the shadow problem in digital aerial photogrammetry, shadow areas should be recognized and corrected automatically without the loss of luminance information. To this end, a practical shadow correction method using 12-bit real data acquired by DMC is investigated in this paper.

  18. Joint focus stacking and high dynamic range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qinchun; Gunturk, Bahadir K.; Batur, Aziz U.

    2013-01-01

    Focus stacking and high dynamic range (HDR) imaging are two paradigms of computational photography. Focus stacking aims to produce an image with greater depth of field (DOF) from a set of images taken with different focus distances, whereas HDR imaging aims to produce an image with higher dynamic range from a set of images taken with different exposure settings. In this paper, we present an algorithm which combines focus stacking and HDR imaging in order to produce an image with both higher dynamic range and greater DOF than any of the input images. The proposed algorithm includes two main parts: (i) joint photometric and geometric registration and (ii) joint focus stacking and HDR image creation. In the first part, images are first photometrically registered using an algorithm that is insensitive to small geometric variations, and then geometrically registered using an optical flow algorithm. In the second part, images are merged through weighted averaging, where the weights depend on both local sharpness and exposure information. We provide experimental results with real data to illustrate the algorithm. The algorithm is also implemented on a smartphone with Android operating system.

  19. Sparse Representation Denoising for Radar High Resolution Range Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profile has attracted considerable attention in radar automatic target recognition. In practice, radar return is usually contaminated by noise, which results in profile distortion and recognition performance degradation. To deal with this problem, in this paper, a novel denoising method based on sparse representation is proposed to remove the Gaussian white additive noise. The return is sparsely described in the Fourier redundant dictionary and the denoising problem is described as a sparse representation model. Noise level of the return, which is crucial to the denoising performance but often unknown, is estimated by performing subspace method on the sliding subsequence correlation matrix. Sliding window process enables noise level estimation using only one observation sequence, not only guaranteeing estimation efficiency but also avoiding the influence of profile time-shift sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the return, leading to a high-quality profile.

  20. High-dose dosimetry of beta rays using blue beryl dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do, E-mail: lsatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Bittencour, Jose F., E-mail: Lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High dose radiation is widely used in industrial applications as sterilization of medical products, improvement of materials properties, color enhancement of jewelry stones, etc. The radiation dosimetry of high doses is quite important for these applications. In this work we have investigated the usage of blue beryl crystal also known as aquamarine in high dose dosimetry of beta rays. Some works have shown that silicate minerals exhibit a good Thermoluminescent response when irradiated up to 2000 kGy of gamma rays. Here, we have produced small beryl pellets of approximately 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thickness to measure high doses of beta rays produced at an electron accelerator at IPEN. Twelve beryl dosimeters were made and six of them were irradiated from 10kGy up to 100 kGy. The technique used to create a calibration curve was the thermoluminescence using the glow peak at 310°C. (author)

  1. Characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor beta-arrestin 2 interaction: a high-affinity receptor phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Martini, Lene; Schwartz, Thue W

    2005-01-01

    that (beta)arr2 interaction locks the receptor in a high-affinity conformation, which can be explored by some, but not all, ligands. The fusion constructs adopted a signaling phenotype governed by the tethered (beta)arr2 with an attenuated G protein-mediated cAMP signal and a higher maximal internalization...... for the fusion constructs was observed. We conclude that the glucagon-like peptide 1 fusion construct mimics the natural interaction of the receptor with (beta)arr2 with respect to binding peptide ligands, G protein-mediated signaling and internalization, and that this distinct molecular phenotype is reminiscent......To dissect the interaction between beta-arrestin ((beta)arr) and family B G protein-coupled receptors, we constructed fusion proteins between the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor and (beta)arr2. The fusion constructs had an increase in apparent affinity selectively for glucagon, suggesting...

  2. New fabrication techniques for high dynamic range tunneling sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David T.; Stratton, Fred P.; Kubena, Randall L.; Vickers-Kirby, Deborah J.; Joyce, Richard J.; Schimert, Thomas R.; Gooch, Roland W.

    2000-08-01

    We have developed high dynamic range (105-106 g's) tunneling accelerometers1,2 that may be ideal for smart munitions applications by employing both surface and bulk micromachining processing techniques. The highly miniaturized surface-micromachined devices can be manufactured at very low cost and integrated on chip with the control electronics. Bulk-micromachined devices with Si as the cantilever material should have reduced long-term bias drift as well as better stability at higher temperatures. Fully integrated sensors may provide advantages in minimizing microphonics for high-g applications. Previously, we described initial test results using electrostatic forces generated by a self-test electrode located under a Au cantilever3. In this paper, we describe more recent testing of Ni and Au cantilever devices on a shaker table using a novel, low input voltage (5 V) servo controller on both printed wiring board and surface-mount control circuitry. In addition, we report our initial test results for devices packaged using a low-temperature wafer-level vacuum packaging technique for low-cost manufacturing.

  3. Optimization of {beta}-carotene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles preparation using a high shear homogenization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael D., E-mail: triplettm@battelle.or [Battelle Memorial Institute, Health and Life Sciences Global Business (United States); Rathman, James F. [The Ohio State University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Using statistical experimental design methodologies, the solid lipid nanoparticle design space was found to be more robust than previously shown in literature. Formulation and high shear homogenization process effects on solid lipid nanoparticle size distribution, stability, drug loading, and drug release have been investigated. Experimentation indicated stearic acid as the optimal lipid, sodium taurocholate as the optimal cosurfactant, an optimum lecithin to sodium taurocholate ratio of 3:1, and an inverse relationship between mixing time and speed and nanoparticle size and polydispersity. Having defined the base solid lipid nanoparticle system, {beta}-carotene was incorporated into stearic acid nanoparticles to investigate the effects of introducing a drug into the base solid lipid nanoparticle system. The presence of {beta}-carotene produced a significant effect on the optimal formulation and process conditions, but the design space was found to be robust enough to accommodate the drug. {beta}-Carotene entrapment efficiency averaged 40%. {beta}-Carotene was retained in the nanoparticles for 1 month. As demonstrated herein, solid lipid nanoparticle technology can be sufficiently robust from a design standpoint to become commercially viable.

  4. [Behaviors of beta-glucan from Grifola frondosa in high performance gel permeation chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Letian; Yu, Guangli; Zhao, Xia; Gao, Haodong; Yang, Xiaohua; Yang, Hai

    2007-05-01

    The high performance gel permeation chromatographic (HPGPC) behaviors of four beta-1, 3/1, 6-glucans (GF1, GF2, GF3, GF4) with different protein contents and one alpha-1, 4/1, 6-glucan (P100) from Grifola frondosa were examined with different concentrations of NaCl solution and pH values. The experimental results showed that the relative molecular mass (M(r)) of the beta-glucans sharply dropped as the NaCl concentration was less than 0.025 mol/L and then tended to be stable as the NaCl concentration was raised from 0.1 to 0.2 mol/L, the M(r) increased quickly from pH 3 to 6, and then maintained stable from pH 6 to 9, but slightly increased as the pH value was higher than 9. However, the M(r) of the alpha-1, 4/1, 6-glucan was slightly affected by either different concentrations of NaCl or different pH values. The beta-glucan existed in a super-helix structure in aqueous solution, which could be influenced by the NaCl concentration and pH value. These factors led to the different molecular aggregation states, and the increase or decrease of the M(r) of beta-glucans, displaying a variety of HPGPC behaviors.

  5. Color Sensitivity Multiple Exposure Fusion using High Dynamic Range Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Borole

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a high dynamic range imaging (HDRI method using a capturing camera image using normally exposure, over exposure and under exposure. We make three different images from a multiple input image using local histogram stretching. Because the proposed method generated three histogram-stretched images from a multiple input image, ghost artifacts that are the result of the relative motion between the camera and objects during exposure time, are inherently removed. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied to a consumer compact camera to provide the ghost artifacts free HDRI. Experiments with several sets of test images with different exposures show that the proposed method gives a better performance than existing methods in terms of visual results and computation time.

  6. The addition of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and isomaltulose to whey protein improves recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Kupchak, Brian R; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Sterczala, Adam J; DuPont, William H; Pryor, J Luke; Luk, Hiu-Ying; Maladoungdock, Jesse; McDermott, Danielle; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a combination of whey protein (WP), calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrate exert additive effects on recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise. Thirteen resistance-trained men (age: 22.6 ± 3.9 years; height: 175.3 ± 12.2 cm; weight: 86.2 ± 9.8 kg) completed a double-blinded, counterbalanced, within-group study. Subjects ingested EAS Recovery Protein (RP; EAS Sports Nutrition/Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) or WP twice daily for 2 weeks prior to, during, and for 2 days following 3 consecutive days of intense resistance exercise. The workout sequence included heavy resistance exercise (day 1) and metabolic resistance exercise (days 2 and 3). The subjects performed no physical activity during day 4 (+24 hours) and day 5 (+48 hours), where recovery testing was performed. Before, during, and following the 3 workouts, treatment outcomes were evaluated using blood-based muscle damage markers and hormones, perceptual measures of muscle soreness, and countermovement jump performance. Creatine kinase was lower for the RP treatment on day 2 (RP: 166.9 ± 56.4 vs WP: 307.1 ± 125.2 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05), day 4 (RP: 232.5 ± 67.4 vs WP: 432.6 ± 223.3 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05), and day 5 (RP: 176.1 ± 38.7 vs 264.5 ± 120.9 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 was lower for the RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 1.2 ± 0.2 vs WP: 1.6 ± 0.6 pg · ml(-1), p ≤ 0.05) and day 5 (RP: 1.1 ± 0.2 vs WP: 1.6 ± 0.4 pg · ml(-1), p ≤ 0.05). Muscle soreness was lower for RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 2.0 ± 0.7 vs WP: 2.8 ± 1.1 cm, p ≤ 0.05). Vertical jump power was higher for the RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 5983.2 ± 624 vs WP 5303.9 ± 641.7 W, p ≤ 0.05) and day 5 (RP: 5792.5 ± 595.4 vs WP: 5200.4 ± 501 W, p ≤ 0.05). Our findings suggest that during times of intense conditioning, the recovery benefits of WP are enhanced with the addition of HMB and a slow-release carbohydrate. We

  7. Quantitative high dynamic range beam profiling for fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T. J., E-mail: t.j.mitchell@dur.ac.uk; Saunter, C. D.; O’Nions, W.; Girkin, J. M.; Love, G. D. [Centre for Advanced Instrumentation and Biophysical Sciences Institute, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Modern developmental biology relies on optically sectioning fluorescence microscope techniques to produce non-destructive in vivo images of developing specimens at high resolution in three dimensions. As optimal performance of these techniques is reliant on the three-dimensional (3D) intensity profile of the illumination employed, the ability to directly record and analyze these profiles is of great use to the fluorescence microscopist or instrument builder. Though excitation beam profiles can be measured indirectly using a sample of fluorescent beads and recording the emission along the microscope detection path, we demonstrate an alternative approach where a miniature camera sensor is used directly within the illumination beam. Measurements taken using our approach are solely concerned with the illumination optics as the detection optics are not involved. We present a miniature beam profiling device and high dynamic range flux reconstruction algorithm that together are capable of accurately reproducing quantitative 3D flux maps over a large focal volume. Performance of this beam profiling system is verified within an optical test bench and demonstrated for fluorescence microscopy by profiling the low NA illumination beam of a single plane illumination microscope. The generality and success of this approach showcases a widely flexible beam amplitude diagnostic tool for use within the life sciences.

  8. Wide-range antifungal antagonism of Paenibacillus ehimensis IB-X-b and its dependence on chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuganov, G; Melentjev, A; Galimzianova, N; Khalikova, E; Korpela, T; Susi, P

    2008-07-01

    Previously, we isolated a strain of Bacillus that had antifungal activity and produced lytic enzymes with fungicidal potential. In the present study, we identified the bacterium as Paenibacillus ehimensis and further explored its antifungal properties. In liquid co-cultivation assays, P. ehimensis IB-X-b decreased biomass production of several pathogenic fungi by 45%-75%. The inhibition was accompanied by degradation of fungal cell walls and alterations in hyphal morphology. Residual medium from cultures of P. ehimensis IB-X-b inhibited fungal growth, indicating the inhibitors were secreted into the medium. Of the 2 major lytic enzymes, chitinases were only induced by chitin-containing substrates, whereas beta-1,3-glucanase showed steady levels in all carbon sources. Both purified chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase degraded cell walls of macerated fungal mycelia, whereas only the latter also degraded cell walls of intact mycelia. The results indicate synergism between the antifungal action mechanisms of these enzymes in which beta-1,3-glucanase is the initiator of the cell wall hydrolysis, whereas the degradation process is reinforced by chitinases. Paenibacillus ehimensis IB-X-b has pronounced antifungal activity with a wide range of fungi and has potential as a biological control agent against plant pathogenic fungi.

  9. Catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions using alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrroles as highly reactive monodentate alpha,beta-unsaturated ester surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki; Kinoshita, Tomofumi; Okada, Shigemitsu; Harada, Shinji; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2004-06-23

    Synthesis and application of alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrroles as highly reactive, monodentate ester surrogates in the catalytic asymmetric epoxidation and Michael reactions are described. alpha,beta-Unsaturated N-acylpyrroles with various functional groups were synthesized by the Wittig reaction using ylide 2. A Sm(O-i-Pr)(3)/H(8)-BINOL complex was the most effective catalyst for the epoxidation to afford pyrrolyl epoxides in up to 100% yield and >99% ee. Catalyst loading was successfully reduced to as little as 0.02 mol % (substrate/catalyst = 5000). The high turnover frequency and high volumetric productivity of the present reaction are also noteworthy. In addition, a sequential Wittig olefination-catalytic asymmetric epoxidation reaction was developed, providing efficient one-pot access to optically active epoxides from various aldehydes in high yield and ee (96-->99%). In a direct catalytic asymmetric Michael reaction of hydroxyketone promoted by the Et(2)Zn/linked-BINOL complex, Michael adducts were obtained in good yield (74-97%), dr (69/31-95/5), and ee (73-95%). This represents the first direct catalytic asymmetric Michael reaction of unmodified ketone to an alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivative. The properties of alpha,beta-unsaturated N-acylpyrrole are also discussed. Finally, the utility of the N-acylpyrrole unit for further transformations is demonstrated.

  10. Free-boundary high-beta tokamaks. II. Mathematical intermezzo: Hilbert transforms and conformal mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedbloed, J.P.

    1982-11-01

    Mathematical techniques are described that facilitate the reduction of the stability problem of a toroidal free-boundary high-..beta.. tokamak equilibrium with skin currents to one that is basically one-dimensional. This includes the conformal mapping of the simply connected plasma region onto a circular disk and the conformal mapping of the doubly connected vacuum region onto an annulus by means of the Theodorsen and Garrick nonlinear integral equations. Henrici's method of constructing the discretized Hilbert transforms for periodic functions on the boundaries of these domains provides both the basis for constructing the mappings and the tool for the study of the perturbations. The methods are applied to problems of two-dimensional potential flow with a discontinuity of which the stability of sharp-boundary high-..beta.. tokamaks is just a special case.

  11. Role of explosive instabilities in high-$\\beta$ disruptions in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Aydemir, A Y; Lee, S G; Seol, J; Park, B H; In, Y K

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically explosive growth of a ballooning finger is demonstrated in nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic calculations of high-$\\beta$ disruptions in tokamaks. The explosive finger is formed by an ideally unstable n=1 mode, dominated by an m/n=2/1 component. The quadrupole geometry of the 2/1 perturbed pressure field provides a generic mechanism for the formation of the initial ballooning finger and its subsequent transition from exponential to explosive growth, without relying on secondary processes. The explosive ejection of the hot plasma from the core and stochastization of the magnetic field occur in Alfv\\'enic time scales, accounting for the extremely fast growth of the precursor oscillations and the rapidity of the thermal quench in some high-$\\beta$ disruptions.

  12. The neuronal nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor has a high maximal probability of being open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Steinbach, Joe H

    2010-08-01

    A fundamental property of transmitter-gated ion channels is the probability a channel will be open (P(open)) when stimulated by a concentration of agonist that elicits a maximal response. This value is critical for interpreting steady-state concentration-response relationships in terms of channel activation, and for understanding the actions of drugs that potentiate responses. We used analysis of non-stationary noise to estimate the maximal probability the nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor is open. HEK293 cells stably transfected to express human alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors were studied using whole-cell voltage clamp. Nicotinic agonists (acetylcholine, nicotine, cytisine and 5-iodo A-85380) were applied, and the relationship between variance of the elicited whole-cell current and mean current was analysed. The variance did not increase linearly with the mean current. For acetylcholine and nicotine the relationship between variance and mean indicates that the maximal P(open) is greater than 0.8. The number of agonist-activatable channels was estimated to be about 1000 per cell. The mean single channel conductance at -60 mV was indistinguishable when currents were elicited by acetylcholine (18 pS), nicotine (17 pS) or 5-iodo A-85380 (17 pS), whereas the value for cytisine was larger (24 pS). The neuronal nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptor has a maximal probability of being open that is greater than 0.8. This conclusion applies to the receptor containing three alpha4 and two beta2 subunits (the low-sensitivity stoichiometry), but may not apply to the receptor containing two alpha4 and three beta2 subunits (the high-sensitivity stoichiometry).

  13. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartoukh, Stephane [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Shatilov, Dmitry [BINP, Novosibirsk

    2015-06-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical $\\beta^{\\ast}$values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  14. Amyloid-beta binds catalase with high affinity and inhibits hydrogen peroxide breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, N G

    1999-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) specifically bound purified catalase with high affinity and inhibited catalase breakdown of H(2)O(2). The Abeta-induced catalase inhibition involved formation of the inactive catalase Compound II and was reversible. CatalaseAbeta interactions provide rapid functional assays for the cytotoxic domain of Abeta and suggest a mechanism for some of the observed actions of Abeta plus catalase in vitro.

  15. High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Chang, C. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Pistone, K.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Fahey, L.

    2016-12-01

    High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera TrackingThe NASA Ames Sun-photometer-Satellite Group, DOE, PNNL Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, and NASA Goddard's AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) team recently collaborated on the development of a new airborne sunphotometry instrument that provides information on gases and aerosols extending far beyond what can be derived from discrete-channel direct-beam measurements, while preserving or enhancing many of the desirable AATS features (e.g., compactness, versatility, automation, reliability). The enhanced instrument combines the sun-tracking ability of the current 14-Channel NASA Ames AATS-14 with the sky-scanning ability of the ground-based AERONET Sun/sky photometers, while extending both AATS-14 and AERONET capabilities by providing full spectral information from the UV (350 nm) to the SWIR (1,700 nm). Strengths of this measurement approach include many more wavelengths (isolated from gas absorption features) that may be used to characterize aerosols and detailed (oversampled) measurements of the absorption features of specific gas constituents. The Sky Scanning Sun Tracking Airborne Radiometer (3STAR) replicates the radiometer functionality of the AATS-14 instrument but incorporates modern COTS technologies for all instruments subsystems. A 19-channel radiometer bundle design is borrowed from a commercial water column radiance instrument manufactured by Biospherical Instruments of San Diego California (ref, Morrow and Hooker)) and developed using NASA funds under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The 3STAR design also incorporates the latest in robotic motor technology embodied in Rotary actuators from Oriental motor Corp. having better than 15 arc seconds of positioning accuracy. Control system was designed, tested and simulated using a Hybrid-Dynamical modeling methodology. The design also replaces the classic quadrant detector tracking sensor with a

  16. Specific recognition of the C-terminal end of A beta 42 by a high affinity monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Trine Veje; Holm, Arne; Birkelund, Svend

    2009-01-01

    The neurotoxic peptide A beta(42) is derived from the amyloid precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and is deposited in the brain of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we generate a high affinity monoclonal antibody that targets the C-terminal end of A beta(42......) with high specificity. By this is meant that the paratope of the antibody must enclose the C-terminal end of A beta(42) including the carboxy-group of amino acid 42, and not just recognize a linear epitope in the C-terminal part of A beta. This has been accomplished by using a unique antigen construct made...... by the Ligand Presenting Assembly technology (LPA technology). This strategy results in dimeric presentation of the free C-terminal end of A beta(42). The generated Mab A beta1.1 is indeed specific for the C-terminal end of A beta(42) to which it binds with high affinity. Mab A beta1.1 recognizes the epitope...

  17. Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy with high temporal dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael; Huber, Heinz P

    2012-04-23

    Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy is a common method for time and space resolved imaging of short and ultra-short pulse laser ablation. The temporal delay between the ablating pump pulse and the illuminating probe pulse is tuned either by an optical delay, resulting in several hundred femtoseconds temporal resolution for delay times up to a few ns, or by an electronic delay, resulting in several nanoseconds resolution for longer delay times. In this work we combine both delay types for temporally high resolved observations of complete ablation processes ranging from femtoseconds to microseconds, while ablation is initiated by an ultrafast 660 fs laser pump pulse. For this purpose, we also demonstrate the calibration of the delay time zero point, the synchronization of both probe sources, as well as a method for image quality enhancing. In addition, we present for the first time to our knowledge pump-probe microscopy investigations of the complete substrate side selective ablation process of molybdenum films on glass. The initiation of mechanical film deformation is observed at about 400 ps, continues until approximately 15 ns, whereupon a Mo disk is sheared off free from thermal effects due to a directly induced laser lift-off ablation process. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  18. High-dynamic range DMD-based IR scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julia R.; Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Benedict-Gill, Ryan; Newbry, Scott P.

    2013-03-01

    OPTRA is developing a next-generation digital micromirror device (DMD) based two-band infrared scene projector (IRSP) with infinite bit-depth independent of frame rate and an order of magnitude improvement in contrast over the state of the art. Traditionally DMD-based IRSPs have offered larger format and superior uniformity and pixel operability relative to resistive and diode arrays, however, they have been limited in contrast and also by the inherent bitdepth / frame rate tradeoff imposed by pulse width modulation (PWM). OPTRA's high dynamic range IRSP (HIDRA SP) has broken this dependency with a dynamic structured illumination solution. The HIDRA SP uses a source conditioning DMD to impose the structured illumination on two projector DMDs - one for each spectral band. The source conditioning DMD is operated in binary mode, and the relay optics which form the structured illumination act as a low pass spatial filter. The structured illumination is therefore spatially grayscaled and more importantly is analog with no PWM. In addition, the structured illumination concentrates energy where bright object will be projected and extinguishes energy in dark regions; the result is a significant improvement in contrast. The projector DMDs are operated with 8-bit PWM, however the total projected image is analog with no bit-depth / frame rate dependency. In this paper we describe our progress towards the development, build, and test of a prototype HIDRA SP.

  19. High-dynamic range DMD-based infrared scene projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, David J.; Vaillancourt, Robert; Benedict-Gill, Ryan; Newbry, Scott P.; Rentz Dupuis, Julia

    2013-05-01

    OPTRA is developing a next-generation digital micromirror device (DMD) based two-band infrared scene projector (IRSP) with infinite bit-depth independent of frame rate and an order of magnitude improvement in contrast over the state of the art. Traditionally DMD-based IRSPs have offered larger format and superior uniformity and pixel operability relative to resistive and diode arrays, however, they have been limited in contrast and also by the inherent bitdepth / frame rate tradeoff imposed by pulse width modulation (PWM). OPTRA's high dynamic range IRSP (HIDRA SP) has broken this dependency with a dynamic structured illumination solution. The HIDRA SP uses a source conditioning DMD to impose the structured illumination on two projector DMDs - one for each spectral band. The source conditioning DMD is operated in binary mode, and the relay optics which form the structured illumination act as a low pass spatial filter. The structured illumination is therefore spatially grayscaled and more importantly is analog with no PWM. In addition, the structured illumination concentrates energy where bright object will be projected and extinguishes energy in dark regions; the result is a significant improvement in contrast. The projector DMDs are operated with 8-bit PWM, however the total projected image is analog with no bit-depth / frame rate dependency. In this paper we describe our progress towards the development, build, and test of a prototype HIDRA SP.

  20. High dynamic range algorithm based on HSI color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Liu, Xiaohua; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a High Dynamic Range algorithm based on HSI color space. To keep hue and saturation of original image and conform to human eye vision effect is the first problem, convert the input image data to HSI color space which include intensity dimensionality. To raise the speed of the algorithm is the second problem, use integral image figure out the average of every pixel intensity value under a certain scale, as local intensity component of the image, and figure out detail intensity component. To adjust the overall image intensity is the third problem, we can get an S type curve according to the original image information, adjust the local intensity component according to the S type curve. To enhance detail information is the fourth problem, adjust the detail intensity component according to the curve designed in advance. The weighted sum of local intensity component after adjusted and detail intensity component after adjusted is final intensity. Converting synthetic intensity and other two dimensionality to output color space can get final processed image.

  1. Oat beta-glucan ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods: This study sought to evaluate the impact of oat beta-glucan on insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet with fructose (10%, w/v added in drinking water for 10 weeks. Results: The results showed that supplementation with oat beta-glucan could significantly reduce the insulin resistance both in low-dose (200 mg/kg−1 body weight and high-dose (500 mg/kg−1 body weight groups, but the high-dose group showed a more significant improvement in insulin resistance (P<0.01 compared with model control (MC group along with significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level, oral glucose, and insulin tolerance. Moreover, hepatic glucokinase activity was markedly enhanced both in low-dose and high-dose groups compared with that of MC group (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results suggested that supplementation of oat beta-glucan alleviated insulin resistance and the effect was dose dependent.

  2. Long-lived, high-strength states of ICAM-1 bonds to beta2 integrin, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Evan; Kinoshita, Koji; Simon, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Using single-molecule force spectroscopy to probe ICAM-1 interactions with recombinant alphaLbeta2 immobilized on microspheres and beta2 integrin on neutrophils, we quantified an impressive hierarchy of long-lived, high-strength states of the integrin bond, which start from basal levels with inte......Using single-molecule force spectroscopy to probe ICAM-1 interactions with recombinant alphaLbeta2 immobilized on microspheres and beta2 integrin on neutrophils, we quantified an impressive hierarchy of long-lived, high-strength states of the integrin bond, which start from basal levels...... with integrin activation in solutions of divalent cations and shift dramatically upward to hyperactivated states with cell signaling in leukocytes. Taking advantage of very rare events, we used repeated measurements of bond lifetimes under steady ramps of force to achieve a direct assay for the off......-rates of ICAM-1 from beta2 integrin in each experiment. Of fundamental importance, the assay for off-rates does not depend on how the force is applied over time, and remains valid when the rates of dissociation change with different levels of force. In this first article, we present results from tests...

  3. In-Vivo High Dynamic Range Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Current vector flow systems are limited in their detectable range of blood flow velocities. Previous work on phantoms has shown that the velocity range can be extended using synthetic aperture directional beamforming combined with an adaptive multi-lag approach. This paper presents a first invivo...

  4. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  5. AXEL : Neutrinoless double beta decay search with a high pressure xenon gas Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Sei; AXEL Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    AXEL is a high pressure xenon gas TPC detector being developed for neutrinoless double-beta decay search. It is operated at the proportional scintillation mode. We have developed a new electroluminescence light detection scheme to achieve very high energy resolution with a large detector. The detector has a capability of tracking which can be used to reduce background. The project is in a R&D phase, and we report the current status of our prototype chamber with 10 L and 4 bar Xe gas.

  6. High-dynamic-range and high-capacity RF and microwave fiber optic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Novel fiber optic transmitter control methodologies, high optical power and low RIN source lasers, high performance photodiodes and DWDM laser capability provide high dynamic range and high capacity transport for a wide range of sensing and communications applications. Measured component and system level test data demonstrates these performance improvements. Higher spur free dynamic range in excess of 110 dB·Hz2/3 over broad range of K-band frequencies is demonstrated, increasing the practical use of fiber as a transport method for high sensitivity applications. Multichannel DWDM operation provides simplified capacity expansion without compromising system performance, allowing arrayed photonic systems to be deployed. System characterization for a wide range of optical wavelengths and RF frequencies is provided to demonstrate these levels of performance in practical applications. Photonic component cost reductions combined with compact packaging further increase the ability of high performance fiber optic transport to address a wider range of applications, as the size, weight and performance barriers are eliminated. This paper provides a summary of the current state of the art of commercially available photonic components for high performance externally modulated analog optical links from a practical perspective.

  7. Suppression of diamagnetism by neutrals pressure in partially ionized, high-beta plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Yano, Kazuki; Fruchtman, Amnon

    2016-12-01

    Suppression of diamagnetism in a partially ionized plasma with high beta was experimentally investigated by the use of Langmuir and Hall sensor probes, focusing on a neutrals pressure effect. The plasma beta, which is the ratio of plasma to vacuum magnetic pressures, varied from ˜1% to >100% while the magnetic field varied from ˜120 G to ˜1 G. Here, a uniform magnetized argon plasma was operated mostly in an inductive mode, using a helicon plasma source of the Large Helicon Plasma Device [S. Shinohara et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 057104 (2009)] with a diameter of 738 mm and an axial length of 4860 mm. Electron density varied from 5 × 1015 m-3 to diamagnetic effect was smaller than that expected by the plasma beta. This suppressed diamagnetism is explained by the neutrals pressure replacing magnetic pressure in balancing plasma pressure. Diamagnetism is weakened if neutrals pressure is comparable to the plasma pressure and if the coupling of plasma and neutrals pressures by ion-neutral collisions is strong enough.

  8. High plasma concentration of beta-D-glucan after administration of sizofiran for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tokuyasu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirokazu Tokuyasu1, Kenichi Takeda1, Yuji Kawasaki1, Yasuto Sakaguchi2, Noritaka Isowa2, Eiji Shimizu3, Yasuto Ueda31Divisions of Respiratory Medicine, 2Thoracic Surgery, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, 200 Horomachi, Matsue, Shimane; 3Division of Medical Oncology and Molecular Respirology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, JapanAbstract: A 69-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer was admitted to our hospital for further investigation of abnormal shadows on her chest roentgenogram. Histologic examination of transbronchial lung biopsy specimens revealed epithelioid cell granuloma, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the bronchial lavage fluid. The plasma level of (1→3-beta-D-glucan was very high, and this elevated level was attributed to administration of sizofiran for treatment of cervical cancer 18 years previously. Therefore, in patients with cervical cancer, it is important to confirm whether or not sizofiran has been administered before measuring (1→3-beta-D-glucan levels.Keywords: (1→3-beta-D-glucan, cervical cancer, Mycobacterium intracellulare, sizofiran

  9. Development of HEROICs: High-Sensitivity, High-Dynamic Range Detector Systems for Ultraviolet Astronomy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose a four-year program for the fabrication and characterization of high dynamic range, low background photon counting detectors that will support the next...

  10. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, Na

  11. EFEK DIET TINGGI KARBOHIDRAT DAN DIET TINGGI LEMAK TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN KEPADATAN SEL BETA PANKREAS PADA TIKUS WISTAR (EFFECT OF HIGH CARBOHYDRATE DIET AND HIGH FAT DIET ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND BETA CELL PANCREAS DENSITY IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Mutiyani

    2014-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes the clustering of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and obesity associated with the increasing risk of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and death both in less developed and developed countries in the world. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increasES every year. The aim of this study was to assess blood glucose level using Glucose Oksidase (GOD-PAP and beta cell pancreas density using microscope.  Blood glucose concentration and beta cell pancreas density were compared in rats fed isocalorically a high carbohydrate diet for 12 w (80,57% carbohydrate, 14% protein, and 5.41% fat or a high fat diet for 12 w (55,63% carbohydrate; 14,25% protein; and 30,10% fat. At the end of the study, high carbohydrate rats had higher blood glucose concentration than the high fat group (293.57 mg/dl. High carbohydrate and high fat diet both resulted in elevated beta cell pancreas density, but the density was seen lowest in high carbohydrate fed (45,06 mm2. The findings suggest that both high carbohydrate and high fat fed elevated blood glucose concentration and decreased the density of beta cell in rats. Keywords: high carbohydrate diet, high fat diet, blood glucose, beta cell pancreas density

  12. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R

    2002-11-13

    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for

  13. Design of a high capacity long range cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    1994-01-01

    This report examines the design of a long range cargo transport to attempt to reduce ton-mile shipping costs and to stimulate the air cargo market. This design effort involves the usual issues but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; cargo loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This report reviews the long range transport design problem and several solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University. The results show that it will be difficult to build large transports unless the infrastructure is changed and unless the basic form of the airplane changes so that aerodynamic and structural efficiencies are employed.

  14. Determination of Beta-Lactam residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Brandão de Brito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay beta-lactam residues in milk was developed and validated. Milk samples were spiked with standard solutions and deproteinated. The extract was cleaned-up on C18 SPE cartridge, the antibiotics eluted with acetonitrile:water (50:50 v/v and derivatized with acetic anhydride and 1-methyl-imidazole solution containing HgCl2. The chromatographic analysis was performed on C18 column using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5 in the presence of Na2S2O3 gradient and detection at 325 nm. The method was selective for ampicillin, penicillin G and penicillin V, the latter used as internal standard. Average recoveries for ampicillin and penicillin G ranged, respectively, from 60.0% to 104.9% and from 82.7% to 109.2%, with coefficients of variation from 11.1% to 24.6%, and from 2.1% to 25.2%, indicating accuracy and precision. Detection limit of 4.0 µg/L for ampicillin and 3.0 µg/L for penicillin G, and quantification limits of 4.0 µg/L for both were estimated.Um método para determinar resíduos de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi desenvolvido e validado. Amostras brancas foram adicionadas de padrão e desproteinizadas. O extrato foi purificado por extração em fase sólida C18, os antibióticos eluídos com acetonitrila:água (50:50 v/v e posteriormente derivatizados com anidrido acético e solução de 1-metil-imidazol contendo HgCl2. A análise cromatográfica foi realizada utilizando coluna C18, fase móvel composta por acetonitrila e tampão fosfato pH 6,5, na presença de Na2S2O3 em gradiente e detecção a 325 nm. O método foi seletivo para ampicilina, penicilina G e penicilina V, sendo este último utilizado como padrão interno. As médias de recuperação para ampicilina e penicilina G situaram-se, respectivamente, na faixa de 60,0% a 104,9% e de 82,7% a 109,2%, com coeficientes de varia

  15. Shaper Design in CMOS for High Dynamic Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo G.; Li S.

    2011-10-12

    We start with an analysis of the configurations commonly adopted to implement linear shapers. We show that, once the ENC from the charge amplifier is defined, the dynamic range of the system is set by the voltage swing and the value of the capacitance realizing the poles. The configuration used to realize the poles has also an impact, and those configurations based on passive components in feedback are expected to offer a higher dynamic range than the ones that use both active and passive components, like scaling mirrors. Finally, we introduce the concept of delayed dissipative feedback (DDF), which consists of delaying the resistive feedbacks from the furthest available nodes along the shaping chain. We will show that, in order to implement semi-Gaussian shapers, a small capacitor in positive feedback is required. The DDF technique can overcome some of the limitations of the more classical configurations. For example, in a third order shaper a factor of two higher dynamic range can be obtained or, at equal dynamic range, about 25% of the capacitance is needed (i.e. about 30% of the area in practical cases).

  16. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jie

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  17. Classical Impurity Transport: New Effects in High-Beta, Anisotropic, and Rotating 1D Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Ian; Kolmes, Elijah; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2017-10-01

    The classical impurity pinch arises from the Braginskii and diamagnetic frictional forces between high-Z impurities and low-Z ions, and leads to the well-known result that peaked temperature profiles can flush impurities that will otherwise accumulate in the plasma core. However, in high-beta systems, or systems with field line curvature, grad-B and curvature drifts will also influence the impurity transport. We analyze the impurity pinch with these drifts added, in the simple context of a screw pinch with constant rotational transform. We find that high plasma beta tends to help flush impurities, while a large rotational transform tends to cause impurities to accumulate in the plasma core. Extensions to anisotropic temperature distributions and the rotating screw pinch are discussed. The results are relevant for tokamaks at large aspect ratio, magnetized liner fusion, and the newly-proposed wave-driven rotating torus (WDRT) fusion concept. This work is supported by DOE Grants DE-SC0016072 and DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  18. Drift stabilization of ballooning modes in a high-langβrang LHD configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, L.; Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, G. A.; Narushima, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.

    2010-02-01

    Ideal MHD yields at best inconclusive predictions about the stability of the LHD heliotron for langβrang >= 3%. We investigate the impact of the drift stabilization of ballooning modes for the inward-shifted LHD configuration (vacuum magnetic axis R0 ~ 3.5 m). The background equilibrium is considered anisotropic in which the neutral beam ions contribute about 1/4 fraction of the total diamagnetic beta, langβdiarang. A drift corrected ballooning mode equation obtained from the linearized gyrokinetic equation is expanded assuming that the hot particle drifts are much larger than the mode frequency. The fast particle pressure gradients contribute weakly to both the instability drive and the diamagnetic drift stabilization (which is dominated by the thermal ion diamagnetic drifts) for langβdiarang in [0, 4.8]%. In the single-fluid limit (diamagnetic drifts ignored), the thermal pressure gradients drive ballooning modes in a broad region encompassing the outer 60-90% of the plasma volume at langβdiarang ≈ 4.8%. To stabilize these modes, we find that diamagnetic drift corrections must be invoked (mainly due to the thermal ions). The energetic ion diamagnetic drifts play a role only for low wave number values, kα <= 8. It has been verified that the fast particle drift ordering imposed by the model is amply satisfied for on-axis hot particle to thermal density Nh0/Ni0 ≈ 1% even at high langβdiarang.

  19. High-pressure synthesis and crystal structures of beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I)

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X; Yamanaka, S

    2002-01-01

    The single crystals of six kinds of metal nitride halide, beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I), were grown in sealed Au (or Pt) tubes by the reaction of M N or M NX powders with NH sub 4 X as fluxes under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions such as 3-5 GPa at 900-1200 sup o C. The x-ray structure analysis revealed that all six kinds of compound crystallize in a rhombohedral space group R3-bar m, Z = 6. beta-ZrNCl, beta-ZrNBr, and beta-HfNCl are isotypic with SmSI, and the others isostructural with YOF.

  20. Transfer of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides to disaccharides by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Arthrobacter protophormiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kiyotaka; Miyamura, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Mutsumi; Kato, Ikunoshin; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Arthrobacter protophormiae (Endo-A) has transglycosylation activity, and high-mannose-type oligosaccharides are transferred to suitable glycosides as acceptor substrates. The acceptor specificity of Endo-A-catalyzed transglycosylation toward various disaccharides was investigated. To identify an effective acceptor for the transglycosylation by Endo-A, the reaction was carried out using various disaccharides. Endo-A transferred high-mannose-type oligosaccharides more efficiently to beta-linked disaccharides (cellobiose, gentiobiose, sophorose, and laminaribiose) than to alpha-linked disaccharides (isomaltose, maltose, nigerose, kojibiose, and trehalose) as acceptor substrates. The transglycosylation products, (Man)6GlcNAc-Glc-beta-Glc, were more rapidly hydrolyzed than (Man)6GlcNAc-Glc-alpha-Glc. These results indicate that Endo-A recognizes the anomeric configuration of the acceptor substrates, and beta-linked glycosides are suitable for the synthesis of transglycosylation products.

  1. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases exhibits various strain rate hardening effects, both failure through adiabatic shear band. Ti-5553 alloy with Widmannstatten microstructure exhibit more obvious strain rate hardening effect, lower critical strain rate for ASB nucleation, compared with the alloy with Bimodal microstructures. Under dynamic compression, shock-induced beta to alpha” martensite transformation occurs.

  2. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  3. High-dose insulin therapy in beta-blocker and calcium channel-blocker poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Kristin M; Kaczmarek, Kathleen M; Morgan, Jenifer; Holger, Joel S

    2011-04-01

    INTRODUCTION. High-dose insulin therapy, along with glucose supplementation, has emerged as an effective treatment for severe beta-blocker and calcium channel-blocker poisoning. We review the experimental data and clinical experience that suggests high-dose insulin is superior to conventional therapies for these poisonings. PRESENTATION AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT. Hypotension, bradycardia, decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and cardiogenic shock are characteristic features of beta-blocker and calcium-channel blocker poisoning. Initial treatment is primarily supportive and includes saline fluid resuscitation which is essential to correct vasodilation and low cardiac filling pressures. Conventional therapies such as atropine, glucagon and calcium often fail to improve hemodynamic status in severely poisoned patients. Catecholamines can increase blood pressure and heart rate, but they also increase SVR which may result in decreases in cardiac output and perfusion of vascular beds. The increased myocardial oxygen demand that results from catecholamines and vasopressors may be deleterious in the setting of hypotension and decreased coronary perfusion. METHODS. The Medline, Embase, Toxnet, and Google Scholar databases were searched for the years 1975-2010 using the terms: high-dose insulin, hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia, beta-blocker, calcium-channel blocker, toxicology, poisoning, antidote, toxin-induced cardiovascular shock, and overdose. In addition, a manual search of the Abstracts of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology and the Congress of the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists published in Clinical Toxicology for the years 1996-2010 was undertaken. These searches identified 485 articles of which 72 were considered relevant. MECHANISMS OF HIGH-DOSE INSULIN BENEFIT. There are three main mechanisms of benefit: increased inotropy, increased intracellular glucose transport, and vascular dilatation. EFFICACY OF HIGH

  4. Characterization of cDNA of lycopene beta-cyclase responsible for a high level of beta-carotene accumulation in Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Qian

    2008-06-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (Lyc-B) is the key enzyme in the catalysis of linear lycopene to form cyclic beta-carotene, an indispensable part of the photosynthetic apparatus and an important source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. Studies showing that the microalga Dunaliella salina can accumulate a high level of beta-carotene are lacking. We hypothesize that D. salina is closely involved with the catalytic mechanism of Lyc-B and the molecular regulation of its gene. In this study, we used RT-PCR and RACE-PCR to isolate a 2475 bp cDNA with a 1824 bp open reading frame, encoding a putative Lyc-B, from D. salina. Homology studies showed that the deduced amino acid sequence had a significant overall similarity with sequences of other green algae and higher plants, and that it shared the highest sequence identity, up to 64%, with Lyc-B of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Codon analysis showed that synonymous codon usage in the enzyme has a strong bias towards codons ending with adenosine. Two motifs were found in the Lyc-B sequence, one at the N terminus, for binding the hypothetical cofactor FAD, and the other was a substrate carrier motif in oxygenic organisms shared by an earlier carotenogenesis enzyme, phytoene desaturase, and Lyc-B. A tertiary structure prediction suggested that the catalytic or binding site structure within LycB from D. salina is superior to that of both H. pluvialis and C. reinhardtii. The LycB protein from D. salina was quite removed from that of H. pluvialis and C. reinhardtii in the phylogenetic tree. Taken as a whole, this information provides insight into the regulatatory mechanism of Lyc-B at the molecular level and the high level of beta-carotene accumulation in the microalga D. salina.

  5. Low Power High Dynamic Range A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Rombach, Pirmin

    on this knowledge, a new method is proposed for the reduction of the transient glitches, based on linear extrapolation of the channel output signal. The design of a low power continuous-time (CT) Delta-Sigma (∆Σ) ADC for use in the adaptive A/D conversion channel is also presented. When designing a CT ∆Σ ADC...... in the conversion channel in order to avoid distortion for large input signals. In combination with a low resolution A/D converter (ADC) and a digital gain block, the adaptive A/D conversion channel achieves an extended dynamic range beyond that of the ADC. This in turn reduces the current consumption......, the choice of e.g. integrator topology, feedback waveform, feedback type, noise transfer function, and quantization levels, results in a large design space, both at the modulator and circuit level. A new optimization method is presented, that seeks to minimize the current consumption of the ADC. Based...

  6. High-dynamic-range cationic two-photon photopolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Yuri B.; Costa, Joannes M.; Wang, Mark M.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2001-06-01

    Cationic-induced two-photon photopolymerization is demonstrated at 710 nm, using an isopropylthioxanthone/diarylidonium salt initiating system for the cationic polymerization of an epoxide. The polymerization threshold J2th is found to be approximately 1 GW/cm2, with a dynamic range of > 100, i.e. the material can be fully polymerized at intensities > 100 times the threshold level without damage. The polymerization rate R is found to be proportional to the m equals 1.7 power of the intensity, or R equals [C (J-J2th)]m equals [C (J-J2th)]1.7, which implies a significantly stronger localization of the photochemical response than that of free radical photoinitiators. R and J2th significantly improve when the concentration z of the initiator (onium salt) increases.

  7. High-Beta, Improved Confinement Reversed-Field Pinch Plasmas at High Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Chapman, B. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ahn, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Almagri, A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Italy; Brower, D. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Craig, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Hartog, D. J. Den [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Deng, B. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ding, W. X. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ebrahimi, F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ennis, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Fiksel, G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Franz, P. [EURATOM / ENEA, Italy; Gangadhara, S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Goetz, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; O' Connell, R, [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Oliva, S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Prager, S. C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reusch, J. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sarff, J. S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Yates, T. [University of California, Los Angeles

    2008-01-01

    In Madison Symmetric Torus Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 1991 discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching ne=41019 m 3. Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch.

  8. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  9. Alarming decline and range reduction of the highly threatened Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Great Bustard Otis tarda survey carried out in spring 2015 in Morocco confirmed the decline of this highly endangered population. Bustards were only seen at two of the seven leks occupied ten years ago. The total number of birds counted was 40-44, which represents a 40% decline over the last decade. The sex-ratio ...

  10. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is a well-studied prototype for heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that respond to diffusible hormones and neurotransmitters. To overcome the structural flexibility of the beta2AR and to facilitate its...... crystallization, we engineered a beta2AR fusion protein in which T4 lysozyme (T4L) replaces most of the third intracellular loop of the GPCR ("beta2AR-T4L") and showed that this protein retains near-native pharmacologic properties. Analysis of adrenergic receptor ligand-binding mutants within the context...

  11. Cationic two-photon induced polymerization with high dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Yuri B.; Costa, Joannes; Wang, Mark M.; Esener, Sadik C.

    2001-05-01

    Cationic-induced two-photon photo-polymerization is demonstrated at 710 nm, using an isopropylthioxanthone / diarylidonium salt initiating system for the cationic polymerization of an epoxide. In-situ monitoring of the polymer conversion using interferometry allows for determination of the polymerization threshold J2th, polymerization rate R and its dependence of initiator's concentration z. Best J2th achieved is 1 GW/cm 2 , with a dynamic range of > 100, i.e. the material can be fully polymerized at intensities > 100 times the threshold level without damage. The R is found to be proportional to the m=1.7 power of the intensity, or R =[C(J-J2th)]m =[C(J-J2th)]1.7 , which implies a significantly stronger localization of the photochemical response than that of free radical photoinitiators. Both R and J2th significantly improve when the concentration z of the initiator (onium salt) increases, reduction of J2th exhibiting z -m trend.

  12. The assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to short-range Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides. State of the art and proposals for lines of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, F; Barbey, P; Bardiès, M; Biau, A; Blanchardon, E; Chetioui, A; Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Pasquier, J L

    2013-03-01

    The assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to ionising radiation are defined by the general radiological protection system, proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This system is regarded by a large majority of users as a robust system although there are a number of dissenting voices, claiming that it is not suitable for estimating the risks resulting from internal exposures. One of the specific issues of internal exposure involves short-range radiations such as Auger and beta particles. Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides can be distributed preferentially in certain tissue structures and even in certain cellular organelles, according to their chemical nature and the vector with which they are associated. Given the limited range of the low-energy electrons in biological matter, this heterogeneous distribution can generate highly localised energy depositions and exacerbate radiotoxic responses at cellular level. These particularities in energy distribution and cellular responses are not taken into account by the conventional methods for the assessment of risk.Alternative systems have been proposed, based on dosimetry conducted at the cellular or even molecular level, whose purpose is to determine the energy deposition occurring within the DNA molecule. However, calculation of absorbed doses at the molecular level is not sufficient to ensure a better assessment of the risks incurred. Favouring such a microdosimetric approach for the risk assessments would require a comprehensive knowledge of the biological targets of radiation, the dose-response relationships at the various levels of organisation, and the mechanisms leading from cellular energy deposition to the appearance of a health detriment. The required knowledge is not fully available today and it is not yet possible to link an intracellular energy deposition to a probability of occurrence of health effects or to use methods based on cellular

  13. MHD stability analysis and global mode identification preparing for high beta operation in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Jiang, Y.; Ahn, J. H.; Han, H. S.; Bak, J. G.; Park, B. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Kim, J.; Hahn, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Ko, J. S.; in, Y. K.; Yoon, S. W.; Oh, Y. K.; Wang, Z.; Glasser, A. H.

    2017-10-01

    H-mode plasma operation in KSTAR has surpassed the computed n = 1 ideal no-wall stability limit in discharges exceeding several seconds in duration. The achieved high normalized beta plasmas are presently limited by resistive tearing instabilities rather than global kink/ballooning or RWMs. The ideal and resistive stability of these plasmas is examined by using different physics models. The observed m/ n = 2/1 tearing stability is computed by using the M3D-C1 code, and by the resistive DCON code. The global MHD stability modified by kinetic effects is examined using the MISK code. Results from the analysis explain the stabilization of the plasma above the ideal MHD no-wall limit. Equilibrium reconstructions used include the measured kinetic profiles and MSE data. In preparation for plasma operation at higher beta utilizing the planned second NBI system, three sets of 3D magnetic field sensors have been installed and will be used for RWM active feedback control. To accurately determine the dominant n-component produced by low frequency unstable RWMs, an algorithm has been developed that includes magnetic sensor compensation of the prompt applied field and the field from the induced current on the passive conductors. Supported by US DOE Contracts DE-FG02-99ER54524 and DE-SC0016614.

  14. High-productivity mask writer with broad operating range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ki-Ho; Chakarian, Varoujan; Dean, Bob; Lu, Maiying; Naber, Robert J.; Newman, Thomas H.; Wiltse, Mark; Abboud, Frank E.

    2001-09-01

    Photomask complexity increases rapidly as semiconductor devices continue to shrink and as optical proximity correction becomes commonplace. This trend stresses the performance of mask pattern generators due to the increase in both primary and subresolution features. However, the next-generation MEBES raster scan architecture is well-suited to the challenge of maintaining throughput regardless of increases in pattern complexity. In addition, this new system provides an operating envelope that is sufficiently broad to expose all practical resist materials with a fixed number of writing passes. Write time is independent of material sensitivity, which has the benefits of allowing high-dose processes to be optimized, and also of supporting a wide selection of chemically amplified resist candidates for critical mask patterning. The new system shows the promise of being extendible to the 70 nm technology generation.

  15. High Dynamic Range Cognitive Radio Front Ends: Architecture to Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Arun; Subbiah, Iyappan; Varga, Gabor; Schrey, Moritz; Heinen, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Advent of TV white space digitization has released frequencies from 470 MHz to 790 MHz to be utilized opportunistically. The secondary user can utilize these so called TV spaces in the absence of primary users. The most important challenge for this coexistence is mutual interference. While the strong TV stations can completely saturate the receiver of the cognitive radio (CR), the cognitive radio spurious tones can disturb other primary users and white space devices. The aim of this paper is to address the challenges for enabling cognitive radio applications in WLAN and LTE. In this process, architectural considerations for the design of cognitive radio front ends are discussed. With high-IF converters, faster and flexible implementation of CR enabled WLAN and LTE are shown. The effectiveness of the architecture is shown by evaluating the CR front ends for compliance of standards namely 802.11b/g (WLAN) and 3GPP TS 36.101 (LTE).

  16. Measurement of Q{sub {beta}} values of neutron-rich Tc to Pd isotopes in the mass range A=110 to A=117; Messung von Q{sub {beta}}-Werten neutronenreicher Tc- bis Pd-Isotope im Massenbereich A=110 bis A=117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckl, Ingo

    2008-06-15

    The present work describes the measuring of Q{sub {beta}} values of {beta}-instable isotopes of Tc, Ru, Rh and Pd. The mass range A=110 to 117 comprises neutron-rich, short-living isotopes. Due to their small (fission) abundances, few data are known, especially regarding level schemes or gamma radiation. The proton-induced fission and a fast online mass separation was used to produce these nuclides in the IGISOL facility located in Jyvaeskylaein Finland. The {beta},{gamma},X coincidence apparatus used during the experiments allows measuring Q{sub {beta}} values as well as {gamma},X coincidences. The latter represent the basic input data for a calculation of Q{sub {beta}} values out of {beta},{gamma} coincidences. It is so possible to examine nuclides with incomplete level schemes; similarly, these level schemes can be extended using beta,gamma coincidence data. Twelve Q{sub {beta}} values of neutron-rich Tc to Pd isotopes could be determined, yielding nuclear masses, mass defects and neutron separation energies. Eight of them were determined for the first time; another one could be confirmed. For three more, the error of earlier values could be decreased by a factor of nearly ten. The resulting data are of interest for the review of nuclear mass models, they represent also input in astrophysical network calculations. (orig.)

  17. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard Poulsen, H

    1993-05-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs.

  18. Long-range measurement system using ultrasonic range sensor with high-power transmitter array in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sahdev; Furuhashi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    A long-range measurement system comprising an ultrasonic range sensor with a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array in air was investigated. The system is simple in construction and can be used under adverse conditions such as fog, rain, darkness, and smoke. However, due to ultrasonic waves are well absorbed by air molecules, the measurable range is limited to a few meters. Therefore, we developed a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array consisting of 144 transmitting elements. All elements are arranged in the form of a 12×12 array pattern. The sound pressure level at 5m from the transmitter array was >30dB higher than that of a single element. A measuring range of over 25m was achieved using this transmitter array in conjunction with a receiver array having 32 receiving elements. The characteristics of the transmitter array and range sensor system are discussed by comparing simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of a high beta maneuvering reentry vehicle using dynamic inversion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, Alfred Chapman

    2005-05-01

    The design of flight control systems for high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles presents a significant challenge to the control systems designer. These vehicles typically have a much higher ballistic coefficient than crewed vehicles like as the Space Shuttle or proposed crew return vehicles such as the X-38. Moreover, the missions of high performance vehicles usually require a steeper reentry flight path angle, followed by a pull-out into level flight. These vehicles then must transit the entire atmosphere and robustly perform the maneuvers required for the mission. The vehicles must also be flown with small static margins in order to perform the required maneuvers, which can result in highly nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics that frequently transition from being aerodynamically stable to unstable as angle of attack increases. The control system design technique of dynamic inversion has been applied successfully to both high performance aircraft and low beta reentry vehicles. The objective of this study was to explore the application of this technique to high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles, including the basic derivation of the dynamic inversion technique, followed by the extension of that technique to the use of tabular trim aerodynamic models in the controller. The dynamic inversion equations are developed for high performance vehicles and augmented to allow the selection of a desired response for the control system. A six degree of freedom simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the dynamic inversion approach, and results for both nominal and off nominal aerodynamic characteristics are presented.

  20. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  1. Nonlinear evolution of a large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave: High beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics following saturation of the parametric instabilities of a monochromatic field-aligned large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave is investigated via direct numerical simulation in the case of high plasma beta and no wave dispersion. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code permits nonlinear couplings in the parallel direction to the ambient magnetic field and one perpendicular direction. Compressibility is included in the form of a polytropic equation of state. Turbulent cascades develop after saturation of two coupled oblique three-wave parametric instabilities; one of which is an oblique filamentationlike instability reported earlier. Remnants of the parametric processes, as well as of the original Alfven pump wave, persist during late nonlinear times. Nearly incompressible MHD features such as spectral anisotropies appear as well.

  2. Specific recognition of the C-terminal end of A beta 42 by a high affinity monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, T.V.; Holm, A.; Birkelund, S.

    2009-01-01

    ) with high specificity. By this is meant that the paratope of the antibody must enclose the C-terminal end of A beta(42) including the carboxy-group of amino acid 42, and not just recognize a linear epitope in the C-terminal part of A beta. This has been accomplished by using a unique antigen construct made...... in human AD tissue and stains plaques with high specificity. Therefore the monoclonal antibody can thus be useful in the histological investigations of the AD pathology Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7...

  3. Severe beta blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose: Role of high dose insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegobin, Karan; Maharaj, Satish; Deosaran, Ansuya; Reddy, Pramod

    2018-01-10

    A 54-year-old female presented after taking an overdose of an unknown amount of hydrochlorothiazide, doxazocin, atenolol and amlodipine. She was initially refractory to treatment with conventional therapy (intravenous fluids, activated charcoal, glucagon 5 mg followed with glucagon drip, calcium gluconate 10%, and atropine). Furthermore, insulin at 4 U/kg was not effective in improving her hemodynamics. Shortly after high dose insulin was achieved with 10 U/kg, there was dramatic improvement in hemodynamics resulting in three of five vasopressors being weaned off in 8 h. She was subsequently off all vasopressors after six additional hours. The role of high dose insulin has been documented in prior cases, however it is generally recommended after other conventional therapies have failed. However, there are other reports that suggest it as initial therapy. Our patient failed conventional therapies and responded well only with maximum dose of insulin. Physicians should consider high dose insulin early in severe beta blocker or calcium channel blocker overdose for improvement in hemodynamics. This leads to early discontinuation of vasopressors. It is important that emergency physicians be aware of the beneficial effects of high dose insulin when initiated early as opposed to waiting for conventional therapy to fail; as these patients often present first to the emergency department. Early initiation in the emergency department can be beneficial in these patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Proceedings of the US-Japan workshop and the satellite meeting of ITC-9 on physics of high beta plasma confinement in innovative fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Satoru [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high {beta} plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high {beta} systems; Formation of high {beta} plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Development of room temperature crossbar-H-mode cavities for proton and ion acceleration in the low to medium beta range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clemente

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The crossbar H-mode (CH cavity is an accelerating structure operated in the H_{21(0} mode. The robustness of the crossbar geometry allows one to realize room temperature as well as superconducting linac cavities. The shunt impedance characteristics of this structure are attractive to develop proton and heavy ion linacs in the low and medium beta range. A first room temperature eight-cell prototype has proven the feasibility of the crossbar design in terms of mechanical construction, copper plating, and cooling. An innovative rf coupling concept has been developed where two CH cavities are connected by a two gap E_{010}-mode resonator which, at the same time, provides transverse focusing by a quadrupole triplet. The concept has been applied in the design of the new FAIR proton linac and a scaled model of the second cavity of this injector has been built and tested too. The full scale prototype is now under construction at the University of Frankfurt. In this paper, the room temperature CH cavity development as well as the general layout of the FAIR proton injector (70 MeV, 325 MHz, 70 mA is presented and discussed.

  6. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojković, Z; Sandrini, M P; Piskur, J

    2001-01-01

    beta-Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamyl-beta-alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta-alanine synthase activity was used to clone analogous genes from different eukaryotes. Putative PYD3 sequences from the yeast S. kluyveri, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster complemented the pyd3 defect. When the S. kluyveri PYD3 gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae, which has no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl-beta-alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta-alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial N-carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta-alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine, but not by uracil. This work establishes S. kluyveri as a model organism for studying pyrimidine degradation and beta-alanine production in eukaryotes. PMID:11454750

  7. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, N; Chatti, K; Coulon, P; Maitrejean, S; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.03.014

    2004-01-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of beta radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as /sup 99m/Tc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range gamma -rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm/sup 2/ for /sup 3/H and 0.01 for /sup 14/C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10/sup 4/) and spatial resolution (50 mu m for /sup 3/H or /sup 99m/Tc to 150 mu m for /sup 32/P or /sup 18/F ( beta /sup +/)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitte...

  8. Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçiu-Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Ramë; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend

    2016-10-01

    Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and albumin (r= -0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.69, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (r=0.58, p < 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.53, p<0.001). There was no correlation of β2M with C- reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the follow-up period of three years, 6 out of 40 patients have died from cardiovascular events. In high-flux membrane hemodialysis patients, we observed a significant relationship of β2M with dyslipidemia and mineral bone disorders, but there was no correlation with inflammation.

  9. High tolerance to simultaneous active-site mutations in TEM-1 beta-lactamase: Distinct mutational paths provide more generalized beta-lactam recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wals, Pierre-Yves; Doucet, Nicolas; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2009-01-01

    The diversity in substrate recognition spectra exhibited by various beta-lactamases can result from one or a few mutations in the active-site area. Using Escherichia coli TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a template that efficiently hydrolyses penicillins, we performed site-saturation mutagenesis simultaneously on two opposite faces of the active-site cavity. Residues 104 and 105 as well as 238, 240, and 244 were targeted to verify their combinatorial effects on substrate specificity and enzyme activity and to probe for cooperativity between these residues. Selection for hydrolysis of an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, cefotaxime (CTX), led to the identification of a variety of novel mutational combinations. In vivo survival assays and in vitro characterization demonstrated a general tendency toward increased CTX and decreased penicillin resistance. Although selection was undertaken with CTX, productive binding (K(M)) was improved for all substrates tested, including benzylpenicillin for which catalytic turnover (k(cat)) was reduced. This indicates broadened substrate specificity, resulting in more generalized (or less specialized) variants. In most variants, the G238S mutation largely accounted for the observed properties, with additional mutations acting in an additive fashion to enhance these properties. However, the most efficient variant did not harbor the mutation G238S but combined two neighboring mutations that acted synergistically, also providing a catalytic generalization. Our exploration of concurrent mutations illustrates the high tolerance of the TEM-1 active site to multiple simultaneous mutations and reveals two distinct mutational paths to substrate spectrum diversification.

  10. High normal fasting glucose level in obese youth: a marker for insulin resistance and beta cell dysregulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Malley, G

    2010-06-01

    A high but normal fasting plasma glucose level in adults is a risk factor for future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether normal fasting plasma glucose levels (<5.60 mmol\\/l) are associated with decreases in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, as well as an adverse cardiovascular profile in obese youth.

  11. High-beta equilibria in tokamaks with pressure anisotropy and toroidal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, B.; Hole, M. J.; Ridden-Harper, R.

    2015-12-01

    We extend previous analytical calculations of 2D high-β equilibria in order-unity aspect ratio tokamaks with toroidal flow to include pressure anisotropy, assuming guiding-center theory for a bi-Maxwellian plasma and the ideal MHD Ohm's law. Equilibrium solutions are obtained in the core region (which fills most of the plasma volume) and the boundary layer. We find that pressure anisotropy with p∥>p⊥ ( p∥diamagnetism relative to the isotropic case whenever an equilibrium solution exists. Sufficiently fast toroidal flows ( Ω>Ωmin ) were previously found to suppress the field-free region (diamagnetic hole) that exists in static isotropic high-β equilibria. We find that all equilibrium solutions with pressure anisotropy suppress the diamagnetic hole. For the static case with a volume-averaged toroidal beta of 70%, plasmas with max (p∥/p⊥)>α1=1.07 have equilibrium solutions. We find that α1 decreases with increasing toroidal flow speed, and above the flow threshold Ωmin we find α1=1 , so that all p∥>p⊥ plasmas have equilibrium solutions. On the other hand, for p∥diamagnetic hole in the isotropic case), equilibrium solutions exist for α2p⊥ , while the converse is true for p∥

  12. The Cytotoxic Role of Intermittent High Glucose on Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. Methods. Cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L, constant high glucose (CHG (25 mmol/L, and IHG (rotation per 24 h in 11.1 or 25 mmol/L for 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, xanthine oxidase (XOD level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1, p21, p27, and Skp2 were determined. Results. We found that IHG induced more significant apoptosis than CHG and normal glucose; intracellular ROS and XOD levels were more markedly increased in cells exposed to IHG. Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle related proteins such as cyclinD1 and Skp2 were decreased significantly, but expressions of p27 and p21 were increased markedly. Conclusions. This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells induced by IHG.

  13. Phantom bursting is highly sensitive to noise and unlikely to account for slow bursting in beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells show bursting electrical activity with a wide range of burst periods ranging from a few seconds, often seen in isolated cells, over tens of seconds (medium bursting), usually observed in intact islets, to several minutes. The phantom burster model [Bertram, R., Previte, J......., Sherman, A., Kinard, T.A., Satin, L.S., 2000. The phantom burster model for pancreatic beta-cells. Biophys. J. 79, 2880-2892] provided a framework, which covered this span, and gave an explanation of how to obtain medium bursting combining two processes operating on different time scales. However, single...... cells are subjected to stochastic fluctuations in plasma membrane currents, which are likely to disturb the bursting mechanism and transform medium bursters into spikers or very fast bursters. We present a polynomial, minimal, phantom burster model and show that noise modifies the plateau fraction...

  14. First Parity Evaluation of Body Condition, Weight, and Blood Beta-Hydroxybutyrate During Lactation of Range Cows Developed in the Same Ecophysiological System but Receiving Different Harvested Feed Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility for producers. The objective of this study was to measure body condition and weight as well as blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations for primiparous beef ...

  15. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M.; Skovgaard Poulsen, H.

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF b...

  16. Modified point spread function for efficient high dynamic range LED backlight capable of high uniformity, high contrast, and smooth gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Jakob; Whitehead, Lorne A

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the effect of new point spread functions (PSFs) on the uniformity and contrast of high dynamic range displays that use local dimming of LEDs to yield a large dynamic range. A PSF shaped like a quadratic B-spline was hypothesized to create a uniform brightness backlight, as well as producing linear and quadratic gradients, while maintaining a very high contrast. We have found a practical optical structure to produce such a PSF, yielding a nonuniformity of only ±0.8%, while enabling a contrast ratio of 5∶1 and 33∶1 over distances of one and two unit cell spacings, respectively.

  17. Ranking beta sheet topologies of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Helles, Glennie; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of protein structure prediction is to identify long-range interactions between amino acids. To reliably predict such interactions, we enumerate, score and rank all beta-topologies (partitions of beta-strands into sheets, orderings of strands within sheets and orientations...... of paired strands) of a given protein. We show that the beta-topology corresponding to the native structure is, with high probability, among the top-ranked. Since full enumeration is very time-consuming, we also suggest a method to deal with proteins with many beta-strands. The results reported...... in this paper are highly relevant for ab initio protein structure prediction methods based on decoy generation. The top-ranked beta-topologies can be used to find initial conformations from which conformational searches can be started. They can also be used to filter decoys by removing those with poorly...

  18. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kruuse, Christina; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2017-04-01

    Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at risk of later psychiatric events. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves for unadjusted associations and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses for adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). We identified 12,147 healthy students with exam-related beta-blocker use and 12,147 matched healthy students with no current or prior use of beta-blockers (median age, 19 years; 80.3% women). Among all healthy students, 0.14% had a first-time prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period with the highest proportion among students aged 19 years (0.39%). Eighty-one percent of the students filled only that single prescription for a beta-blocker during follow-up. During follow-up, 2225 (18.3%) beta-blocker users and 1400 (11.5%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed an antidepressant (p Exam-related beta-blocker use was associated with an increased risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p exam period was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric outcomes and might identify psychologically vulnerable students who need special attention.

  19. Heat transport in PBX-M high {beta}{sub p} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, B.; Kaye, S.; Bell, R.; Fishman, H.; Hatcher, R.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kugel, H.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Asakura, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki, Naka (Japan); Duperrex, P. [Laboratoire pour l`Armement, Bernes (Switzerland); Gammel, G. [Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States); Holland, A. [ARACOR, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Levinton, F. [Fusion Physics and Technologies, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    PBX-M high beta poloidal discharges routinely transition into the H-mode regime: typically, a quiescent phase followed by an MHD active phase characterize the H-mode period. An analysis of the energy transport during these phases is conducted using the experimental data and the TRANSP code; effective diffusivities are computed to quantify the energy transport of the thermal component of the plasma. Compared to the L-mode, the quiescent H-phase is characterized by a decrease of the thermal ion energy transport and a flattening of the associated effective diffusivity profile. An error analysis is presented. Enhanced fast-ion losses are observed during the MHD active phase: particles in the lower end of the fast-ion energy spectrum with large perpendicular velocity component are predominantly affected. These losses must be taken into account in the analysis in order to reproduce the measured stored energy and time evolution of the neutron production rate during the MHD active phase.

  20. High molecular weight of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-06-07

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a well-known mushroom in traditional Chinese food and medicine. HE extracts from the fruiting body and mycelia not only exhibit immunomodulatory, antimutagenic and antitumor activity but also have neuroprotective properties. Here, we purified HE polysaccharides (HEPS), composed of two high molecular weight polysaccharides (1.7 × 10(5) Da and 1.1 × 10(5) Da), and evaluated their protective effects on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. HEPS were prepared and purified using a 95 % ethanol extraction method. The components of HEPS were analyzed and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The neuroprotective effects of the polysaccharides were evaluated through a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and an MTT assay and by quantifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in cells. Our results showed that 250 μg/ml HEPS was harmless and promoted cell viability with 1.2 μM Aβ treatment. We observed that the free radical scavenging rate exceeded 90 % when the concentration of HEPS was higher than 1 mg/mL in cells. The HEPS decreased the production of ROS from 80 to 58 % in a dose-dependent manner. Cell pretreatment with 250 μg/mL HEPS significantly reduced Aβ-induced high MMPs from 74 to 51 % and 94 to 62 % at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Finally, 250 μg/mL of HEPS prevented Aβ-induced cell shrinkage and nuclear degradation of PC12 cells. Our results demonstrate that HEPS exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in neurons.

  1. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  2. A high affinity conformational state on VLA integrin heterodimers induced by an anti-beta 1 chain monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, A G; García-Pardo, A; Sánchez-Madrid, F

    1993-05-05

    The VLA integrin subfamily includes receptors for extracellular matrix proteins as well as receptors involved in cell-cell adhesive interactions. We have previously described the up-regulation of VLA integrin-mediated cell attachment to different ligands by the anti-beta 1 TS2/16 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (Arroyo, A. G., Sánchez-Mateos, P., Campanero, M. R., Martín-Padura, I., Dejana, E., and Sánchez-Madrid, F. (1992) J. Cell Biol. 117, 659-670). In this report, we have investigated the mechanism involved in this regulatory effect. The anti-beta 1-mediated regulatory effect on cell adhesion did not require "de novo" protein synthesis, since it was not affected by pretreatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. To quantitate the effect of the regulatory anti-beta 1 TS2/16 mAb on the affinity of VLA-5 for its ligand, an RGD-containing fragment of fibronectin (FN80), we performed binding studies of radiolabeled soluble FN80 to U-937 cells. The affinity of VLA-5 for FN80 was enhanced about 4-fold in the presence of TS2/16 mAb (Kd = 0.98 +/- 0.07 microM) compared to the functionally irrelevant anti-beta 1 Alex 1/4 mAb (Kd = 4.23 +/- 0.92 microM), whereas no alteration in the number of binding sites was observed. Indeed, the anti-beta 1 TS2/16 mAb is inducing this high affinity state on VLA heterodimers by a direct change on the conformation of these receptors as demonstrated by affinity chromatography analysis using extracellular matrix proteins covalently bound to Sepharose. The yield of VLA-5 fibronectin receptor bound to FN80-Sepharose columns was strongly increased upon treatment of U-937 cell lysates with mAb TS2/16. Moreover, higher concentrations of EDTA were required for eluting the VLA-5 integrin from this matrix. This up-regulatory effect was also observed with F(ab')2 and Fab fragments of the anti-beta 1 TS2/16 mAb, and was also exerted on the purified VLA-5 receptor. Similarly, the yield of VLA-2 retained on a collagen I-Sepharose column was

  3. Plasma beta dependence of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence: high-resolution 2D hybrid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We investigate properties of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence by means of two-dimensional high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box and add a spectrum of in-plane, large-scale, magnetic and kinetic fluctuations. We perform a set of simulations with different values of the plasma beta, distributed over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 to 10. In all the cases, once turbulence is fully developed, we observe a power-law spectrum of the fluctuating magnetic field on large scales (in the inertial range) with a spectral index close to -5/3, while in the sub-ion range we observe another power-law spectrum with a spectral index systematically varying with $\\beta$ (from around -3.6 for small values to around -2.9 for large ones). The two ranges are separated by a spectral break around ion scales. The length scale at which this transition occurs is found to be proportional to the ion inertial length, $d_i$...

  4. Optimization of beta-carotene production by Rhodotorula glutinis using high hydrostatic pressure and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S-L; Sun, J-S; Han, B-Z; Wu, X-Z

    2007-10-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis RG6 was treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) of 300 MPa for 15 min for improving its ability of beta-carotene production. After the treatments of 5 repeated cycles, the mutant strain RG6p was obtained, beta-carotene production of which reached 10.01 mg/L, increased by 57.89% compared with 6.34 mg/L from parent strain RG6. To optimize the medium for beta-carotene fermentation by mutant RG6p, a response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used in conjunction with a factorial design and a central composite design, and the maximum yield of beta-carotene (13.43 mg/L), an increase of 34.17% compared to the control, was obtained at a pH 6.7 with an optimum medium (40 mL/250 mL) of yeast extract (4.23 g/L), glucose (12.11 g/L), inoculum (30 mL/L), tomato extract (2.5 mL/L), peanut oil (0.5 mL/L), and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) (5 g/L).

  5. Lipopolysaccharide from an Escherichia coli htrB msbB mutant induces high levels of MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta secretion without inducing TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, D M; Powell, J; Crowley, R W; Maneval, D; Lewis, G K

    1998-01-01

    To identify a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that retains the capacity to induce beta-chemokine secretion without the concomitant activation of pyrogenic cytokines. LPS was extracted from strain MLK986 (mLPS), an htrB1::Tn10, msbB::ocam mutant of Escherichia coli that is defective for lipid A synthesis, and from wild-type parent E coli strains, W3110 (wtLPS). The capacity of these LPS preparations to induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and macrophage inflammatory proteins 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and MIP-1 beta was assessed using a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) activation assay. Stimulation of PBMCs with mLPS did not induce measurable levels of pyrogenic cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, whereas wtLPS induced high levels of these cytokines. Furthermore, mLPS antagonized the induction of TNF-alpha secretion by wtLPS. Nonetheless, mLPS retained a discrete agonist activity that induced MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta secretion by PBMCs. This latter agonist activity appears to be unique to mLPS, since two previously documented LPS antagonists, Rhodobacter sphaeroides diphosphoryl lipid A and synthetic lipid IVA, did not induce MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta secretion. Furthermore, synthetic lipid IVA was an antagonist of MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta induction by mLPS. These results show that mLPS exhibits a novel bipartite activity, being an effective antagonist of TNF-alpha induction by wtLPS, while paradoxically being an agonist of MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta secretion.

  6. Autoantibodies to IA-2beta improve diabetes risk assessment in high-risk relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, P; Bonifacio, E; Williams, A J K

    2008-01-01

    . METHODS: Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) and IA-2 (IA2A) were measured in 549 participants at study entry, and IA2A-positive samples tested for IA2betaA. First-phase insulin response (FPIR) and oral glucose tolerance were determined at baseline. RESULTS: Of 212 ICA/IA2A......-positive participants (median age 12.1 years; 57% male), 113 developed diabetes (5 year cumulative risk 56%), and 148 were also GADA-positive and IAA-positive (4Ab-positive). IA2betaA were detected in 137 (65%) ICA/IA2A-positive participants and were associated with an increased 5 year diabetes risk (IA2beta...

  7. Plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes for high ionizing radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adadurov, A.F., E-mail: adadurov@isma.kharkov.ua [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhmurin, P.N.; Lebedev, V.N.; Kovalenko, V.N. [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Luminescent and scintillation properties of polystyrene-based plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes are investigated. A scintillator with dibenzoylmethane Eu complex containing two phenyl groups demonstrates the maximum scintillating efficiency. It is shown that plastic scintillators efficiency is dramatically decreased if {beta}-diketone derivatives contain no phenyl groups as substituents. This fact can be explained by exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a matrix to Eu complex. - Highlights: > Fluorescent properties of polystyrene scintillators with {beta}-diketone complexes of Eu were studied. > Scintillating efficiency is increased with the number of phenyl groups in Eu complex. > This is related to exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a polymer matrix to Eu complex.

  8. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves......-blocker users attempted suicide (p = 0.03). Exam-related beta-blocker use was associated with an increased risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p suicide attempts...

  9. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...... and explanatory variables previously associated with the cross-section of expected stock returns....

  10. Long-ranged interactions in bcc NbMoTaW high-entropy alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormann, F.H.W.; Ruban, A.V.; Sluiter, M.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    We reveal that in a prototypical bcc high-entropy alloy NbMoTaW chemical interactions are long ranged and highly frustrated. We show that this is the reason that bcc solid solutions in NbMoTaW can persist to low temperatures. The ab initio-computed long-ranged interactions strongly impact

  11. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  12. High-Chern-number bands and tunable Dirac cones in beta-graphyne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miert, Guido; Smith, Cristiane Morais; Juricic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Graphynes represent an emerging family of carbon allotropes that recently attracted much interest due to the tunability of the Dirac cones in the band structure. Here, we show that the spin-orbit couplings in beta-graphyne could produce various effects related to the topological properties of its

  13. High-resolution (He-3,t) reaction on the double-beta decaying nucleus Xe-136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puppe, P.; Frekers, D.; Adachi, T.; Akimune, H.; Aoi, N.; Bilgier, B.; Ejiri, H.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Ganioglu, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hatanaka, K.; Holl, M.; Kozer, H. C.; Lee, J.; Lennarz, A.; Matsubara, H.; Miki, K.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    A (He-3, t) charge-exchange reaction experiment on the double-beta decaying nucleus Xe-136 has been performed at an incident energy of 420 MeV with the objective to measure the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distribution in Cs-136. The measurements have been carried out at the dispersion-matched WS beam

  14. Chromobacterium spp. harbour Ambler class A beta-lactamases showing high identity with KPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jayol, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The origin of KPC is unknown. The aim of this study was to detect progenitors of KPC in silico and to functionally verify their beta-lactam hydrolysis activity. Methods: The sequence of KPC-2 was used to mine the NCBI protein sequence database. The best non-KPC hits were analysed...

  15. High-pressure behavior of beta-Ga2O3 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.; He, Y.; Chen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Freestanding nanocrystalline beta-Ga2O3 particles with an average grain size of 14 nm prepared by chemical method was investigated by angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction in diamond-anvil cell up to 64.9 GPa at ambient temperature. The evolution of x-ray diffraction patterns indicated t...

  16. The Effect of Plasma Beta on High-n Ballooning Stability at Low Magnetic Shear

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, J W; Hastie, R J

    2016-01-01

    An explanation of the observed improvement in H-mode pedestal characteristics with increasing core plasma pressure or poloidal beta, as observed in MAST and JET, is sought in terms of the impact of the Shafranov shift, d', on ideal ballooning MHD stability.

  17. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  18. Development of ^{100}Mo-containing scintillating bolometers for a high-sensitivity neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengaud, E.; Augier, C.; Barabash, A. S.; Beeman, J. W.; Bekker, T. B.; Bellini, F.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Bergmann, T.; Billard, J.; Boiko, R. S.; Broniatowski, A.; Brudanin, V.; Camus, P.; Capelli, S.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Chernyak, D. M.; de Combarieu, M.; Coron, N.; Danevich, F. A.; Dafinei, I.; Jesus, M. De; Devoyon, L.; Domizio, S. Di; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Enss, C.; Ferroni, F.; Fleischmann, A.; Foerster, N.; Gascon, J.; Gastaldo, L.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Grigorieva, V. D.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Hervé, S.; Humbert, V.; Ivannikova, N. V.; Ivanov, I. M.; Jin, Y.; Juillard, A.; Kleifges, M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Koskas, F.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Laubenstein, M.; Sueur, H. Le; Loidl, M.; Magnier, P.; Makarov, E. P.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Nagorny, S.; Navick, X.-F.; Nikolaichuk, M. O.; Nones, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Pagnanini, L.; Pari, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Plantevin, O.; Poda, D. V.; Queguiner, E.; Redon, T.; Rodrigues, M.; Rozov, S.; Rusconi, C.; Sanglard, V.; Schäffner, K.; Scorza, S.; Shlegel, V. N.; Siebenborn, B.; Strazzer, O.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tomei, C.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vagneron, L.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.; Velázquez, M.; Vignati, M.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; Zolotarova, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on the development of a technology involving ^{100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers, compatible with the goals of CUPID, a proposed next-generation bolometric experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Large mass (˜ 1 kg), high optical quality, radiopure ^{100}Mo-containing zinc and lithium molybdate crystals have been produced and used to develop high performance single detector modules based on 0.2-0.4 kg scintillating bolometers. In particular, the energy resolution of the lithium molybdate detectors near the Q-value of the double-beta transition of ^{100}Mo (3034 keV) is 4-6 keV FWHM. The rejection of the α -induced dominant background above 2.6 MeV is better than 8σ . Less than 10 μ Bq/kg activity of ^{232}Th (^{228}Th) and ^{226}Ra in the crystals is ensured by boule recrystallization. The potential of ^{100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers to perform high sensitivity double-beta decay searches has been demonstrated with only 10 kg× d exposure: the two neutrino double-beta decay half-life of ^{100}Mo has been measured with the up-to-date highest accuracy as T_{1/2} = [6.90 ± 0.15(stat.) ± 0.37(syst.)] × 10^{18} years. Both crystallization and detector technologies favor lithium molybdate, which has been selected for the ongoing construction of the CUPID-0/Mo demonstrator, containing several kg of ^{100}Mo.

  19. Analysis of toroidal momentum dissipation by non-axisymmetric fields in high beta, low aspect ratio tokamak experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wubiao

    Sustained passive stabilization of ideal MHD modes in tokamaks and the spherical torus (ST) can be obtained by maintaining high plasma rotation. However, the rotation has been theoretically predicted and experimentally found to decay, eliminating passive stabilization and impeding sustainment of high beta. Understanding the physical mechanisms leading to plasma momentum dissipation is extremely important to determine how the favorable plasma rotation can be sustained and maximized and how the plasma rotation profile can be controlled in the future tokamaks. The present work first quantitatively examines the agreement between electromagnetic torque theory and localized resonant plasma rotation damping by resistive MHD instabilities. The drag caused by the interaction of the tearing mode with the wall eddy currents can quantitatively explain localized resonant plasma toroidal rotation damping induced by the tearing mode. The remainder of the study focuses on quantitative comparison of theory to the observed global plasma rotation damping by applied non-axisymmetric fields and ideal MHD instabilities. Plasmas with beta below, approaching, and above the calculated no-wall beta limit are created to study the non-resonant plasma toroidal rotation damping physics. At low beta, external applied field perturbations are used to study the braking effects of n = 1 and n = 3 field configurations. At beta close to the no-wall limit, resonant field amplification (RFA)/stabilized RWM effects are added to the model in computing the braking magnetic field. At beta well above the no-wall limit, the unstable RWM damps the plasma rotation strongly, and the theoretically computed mode eigenfunction is used to determine the field. An NBI source term, resonant EM torque, fluid viscous force and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque in both plateau and collisionless 1/nu are included in the model. Inclusion of a broad toroidal and poloidal field spectrum is required for quantitative

  20. Absence of reptation in the high-temperature folding of the trpzip2 beta-hairpin peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jed W; Haque, Imran; Swope, William C

    2006-04-14

    We have carried out extensive all atom explicit solvent simulations of the high-temperature folding and unfolding of the trpzip2 beta-hairpin peptide and examined the resulting trajectories for evidence of folding via a reptation mechanism. Over 300 microcanonical simulations of 10 ns each were initiated from a Boltzmann ensemble of conformations at 425 K. Though we observed numerous folding and unfolding events, no evidence of reptation was found. The diffusional dynamics of the peptide are orders of magnitude faster than any observed reptation-like motion. Our data suggest that the dominant mechanisms for beta-hairpin folding under these conditions are hydrophobic collapse and turn formation, and that rearrangements occur via significant expansion of the polypeptide chain.

  1. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U.......S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  2. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....

  3. A new highly efficient beta-glucosidase from the novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette

    . This is a sustainable solution that is expected to replace today’s oil refineries. Main components of lignocellulosic biomass, primarily consisting of plant cell walls, are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis for generating sugar monomers, the biomass is pretreated. The pretreatment...... mainly opens up the cell wall structure and partly hydrolyzes hemicellulose, so that cellulose is the main target for enzyme hydrolysis. Beta-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) play an essential role in efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. By hydrolysis of cellobiose, beta-glucosidases relieve inhibiting...... extract of strain AP was compared with Novozym 188 and Cellic CTec. In terms of cellobiose hydrolysis, the extract of strain AP was found to be a valid substitute for Novozym 188, corresponding to the previous result where filter cake inoculated with the fungus was directly used in hydrolysis...

  4. Low-frequency waves in a high-beta collisionless plasma Polarization, compressibility and helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the linear theory of waves near and below the ion cyclotron frequency in an isothermal electron-ion Vlasov plasma which is isotropic, homogeneous and magnetized. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation for the magnetosonic/whistler and Alfven/ion cyclotron modes at beta(i) = 1.0 are presented, and the polarizations, compressibilities, helicities, ion Alfven ratios and ion cross-helicities are exhibited and compared. At sufficiently large beta(i) and theta, the angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, the real part of the polarization of the Alfven/ion cyclotron wave changes sign, so that, for such parameters, this mode is no longer left-hand polarized. The Alfven/ion cyclotron mode becomes more compressive as the wavenumber increases, whereas the magnetosonic/whistler becomes more compressive with increasing theta.

  5. Design and use of a mobile, x-band, high range resolution, radar research facility

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available High range resolution (HRR) radar measurements can provide important feature information when performing non-cooperative target recognition. This paper presents a joint development of a mobile, X-band, HRR research radar facility, by the research...

  6. Phenotypic and gene expression changes between low (glucose-responsive) and High (glucose non-responsive) MIN-6 beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Driscoll, L.; Gammell, p.; McKierman, E.

    2006-01-01

    , high passage) were determined by ELISA (assessing GSIS and cellular (pro)insulin content), proliferation assays, phase contrast light microscopy and analysis of alkaline phosphatase expression. Differential mRNA expression was investigated using microarray, bioinformatics and real-time PCR technologies......, to be significantly affected by passaging/ long-term culture. Loss/reduced levels, in high passage cells, of certain transcripts associated with the mature beta cell, together with increased levels of neuron/glia-associated mRNAs, suggest that, with time in culture, MIN-6 cells may revert to an early (possibly multi...

  7. Quercetin and beta-sitosterol prevent high fat diet induced dyslipidemia and hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Kunal; Das, Nilanjan; Kesh, Swaraj Bandhu; Dey, Sanjit

    2014-01-01

    High fat diet group showed a significant rise in serum and hepatic total cholesterol, triglyceride and atherogenic index which are major biomarkers of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk. The liver function markers, lipid peroxidation and proinflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in high fat diet group whereas antioxidant levels significantly reduced. These findings manifest hepatic damage which was further confirmed by histological findings. Quercetin and beta-sitosterol though structurally different yet both ameliorate the sickening changes in different mechanism. The current investigation is perhaps the first report of the mechanistic role of two polyphenols over dyslipidemia and subsequent hepatotoxicity.

  8. Mutation analysis in {beta}{sub 2-}adrenergic receptor gene by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.B.; Oh, C.H.; Kim, J.W.; Jang, W.C. [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    We analysed mutation of {beta}{sub 2-}adrenergic receptor gene that controls bronchial asthma by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) according to ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC). We extracted genomic DNA from 50 asthma patients, amplified DNA using PCR, and analysed PCR product by DHPLC. As a result, we obtained that mutation frequency was 15(30%) among 50 cases. Consequently DHPLC mutation detection was confirmed that the result of direct sequencing was coincide exactly. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Motion Compensation of Moving Targets for High Range Resolution Stepped-Frequency Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High range resolution (HRR profiling using stepped-frequency pulse trains suffers from range shift and the attenuation/dispersion of range profiles while the target of interest is moving. To overcome these two drawbacks, a new algorithm based on the maximum likelihood (ML estimation is proposed in this paper. Without altering the conventional stepped-frequency waveform, this algorithm can estimate the target velocity and thereby compensate the phase errors caused by the target’s motion. It is shown that the velocity can be accurately estimated and the range profile can be correctly reconstructed.

  10. OTDM Networking for Short Range High-Capacity Highly Dynamic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros

    This PhD thesis aims at investigating the possibility of designing energy-efficient high-capacity (up to Tbit/s) optical network scenarios, leveraging on the effect of collective switching of many bits simultaneously, as is inherent in high bit rate serial optical data signals. The focus...... Tbit/s data packets, and time lens based serial-to-parallel converter is employed to demultiplex each high-capacity packet into lower bit rate tributaries. A novel optical label scheme is suggested and experimentally demonstrated, where the label information is inserted in-band in the broad signal...... from 640 Gbit/s variable length data packets. Finally, three optical switching scenarios of high-capacity data packets, including a record-high 1×2 optical packet switching of 1.28 Tbit/s serial packets, are experimentally demonstrated using electro-optic based LiNbO3 switches....

  11. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  12. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  13. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  14. Perceptions of the Full Range Leadership Model Practiced by Select High School Administrators in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the three leadership styles on the Full Range Leadership Model (FRLM) practiced by high school administrators in the educational organization. The aspects of studying leadership styles was to determine the degree high school administrators practiced leadership styles; the degree of perceptional congruence…

  15. Long-range correlations in high multiplicity pp and pA collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... ... long-range azimuthal correlations in high multiplicity collisions. These correlations, which resemble those seen in ultrarelativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions, provide a unique window into the physics of the very early collision stage in high energy nuclear interactions. Here we present a compilation of the ...

  16. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and high......-speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good correlation was again found. These measurements all demonstrate the high accuracy of the lidar and indicate a possible...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels....

  17. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm

    2012-01-01

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and high......-speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good correlation was again found. These measurements all demonstrate the high accuracy of the lidar and indicate a possible...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels....

  18. High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human beta2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherezov, Vadim; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Hanson, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of eukaryotic signal transduction proteins that communicate across the membrane. We report the crystal structure of a human beta2-adrenergic receptor-T4 lysozyme fusion protein bound...... to the partial inverse agonist carazolol at 2.4 angstrom resolution. The structure provides a high-resolution view of a human G protein-coupled receptor bound to a diffusible ligand. Ligand-binding site accessibility is enabled by the second extracellular loop, which is held out of the binding cavity by a pair...

  19. Magnetic Effects in a Moderate-Temperature, High-Beta, Toroidal Plasma Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W. F.; Singh, A. K.; Held, E. D.

    2011-10-01

    A small toroidal machine (STOR-1M; minor radius 4.5 cm), on loan from the University of Saskatchewan, has been modified to operate at hydrogen ionization levels ~0.1%, beta values between 0.1 and 1, electron number density ~5x1016/m3, temperature ~5 eV, and applied toroidal magnetic field ~20 gauss. Plasma is generated using magnetron-produced microwaves. Langmuir and Hall probes determine radial profiles of electron number density, temperature, and magnetic field. For most values of the externally-applied magnetic field, the internal field is the same with or without plasma, however, in a narrow window of B, diamagnetism and other effects are present. The effect is observed with no externally induced current; plasma currents are self generated through some sort of relaxation process. Beta and radius conditions correlate well with similar magnetic structures in the laboratory (eg., plasma focus, Z pinch) and in space (eg., Venus flux ropes, solar coronal loops).

  20. Approximate solutions of range for constant altitude - constant high subsonic speed flight of transport aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavcar, A.; Cavcar, M. [Anadolu Univ., School of Civil Aviation, Eskisehir, (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    Approximate cruise range solutions are introduced for the constant altitude constant high subsonic speed flight of turbojet/fan transport aircraft with cambered wing design. The variation of the specific fuel consumption with Mach number is also considered in derivation of the approximate solutions. The method aims at estimation of the cruise range of aircraft during conceptual or preliminary design phase. An application of the solutions is also presented. (author)

  1. Gyrokinetic analysis of low-n shear Alfvén and ion sound wave spectra in a high-beta tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwage, Andreas; Lauber, Philipp

    2017-11-01

    Using the linear gyrokinetic code LIGKA, we study the structure of the continuous spectra Ω(ρ) = ω(ρ) + iγ(ρ) of shear Alfvén waves (SAW) and ion sound waves (ISW) in a high-beta JT-60U tokamak plasma and look for evidence of Alfvén acoustic couplings or mode conversion. Here, Ω is the complex local eigenfrequency, ρ is a radial coordinate, and we consider waves with low toroidal mode number n=3 . We focus on the frequency range ω_BAE ≲ ω ≲ ω_TAE between the beta-induced and toroidicity-induced Alfvén frequency gaps. The real frequencies ω(ρ) of the gyrokinetic ISW continua are remarkably similar to MHD results. The kinetic damping rates are of order -γ/ω ∼ 30% for T_e/Ti ≈ 1.7 , and reduce to 15% when the temperature ratio is raised to T_e/Ti ≈ 4.8 . It is shown that SAW and ISW continua can be simultaneously excited with an antenna and that the global response of the ISWs is significantly enhanced when the on-axis beta value is raised from β0 = 1.7% to 3.6% while keeping T_e/Ti > 1 . In contrast, when the ion temperature is increased such that T_e/Ti ≈ 0.4 , ISW branches become undetectable in spite of higher β0 . At the same time, a large part of the SAW continuum is locally destabilized by ion temperature gradients and a set of discrete global modes was found, some of which are weakly damped or unstable and interpreted as kinetic beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes. It is estimated that the kinetic damping of such low-n Alfvénic modes contributes much more to the anomalous bulk ion heating than the excitation of nearby ISW continua, so that Alfvén acoustic couplings in the frequency band ω_BAE ≲ ω ≲ ω_TAE are irrelevant within the scope of the model used.

  2. Implementation of two telemeter designs for high accuracy laser ranging of kilometer scale distances in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courde, C.; Phung, D. H.; Brillet, A.; Lintz, M.

    2017-11-01

    We present two different laser ranging systems under development, both based on the use of a high frequency modulated beam. The first range meter makes no use of interferometry: only the phase of the return beam is detected, in a way that rejects cyclic errors due to optical and electronic crosstalk. An Allan deviation slightly better than 10nm has been obtained with this simple system. The other range meter should provide better resolution, at the expense of a somewhat more sophisticated procedure, as it involves both time-of-flight and interferometry measurements.

  3. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched [Formula: see text]Se for the LUCIFER experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Benetti, P; Cardani, L; Casali, N; Chiesa, D; Clemenza, M; Dafinei, I; Domizio, S Di; Ferroni, F; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gotti, C; Laubenstein, M; Maino, M; Nagorny, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Orio, F; Pagnanini, L; Pattavina, L; Pessina, G; Piperno, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rusconi, C; Schäffner, K; Tomei, C; Vignati, M

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of [Formula: see text]Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched [Formula: see text]Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched [Formula: see text]Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of [Formula: see text]Th, [Formula: see text]U and [Formula: see text]U are respectively: [Formula: see text]61, [Formula: see text]110 and [Formula: see text]74 [Formula: see text]Bq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the [Formula: see text]Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of [Formula: see text]Se to 0[Formula: see text], 2[Formula: see text] and 2[Formula: see text] excited states of [Formula: see text]Kr of 3.4[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text], 1.3[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text] and 1.0[Formula: see text]10[Formula: see text] y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  4. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  5. Floquet engineering of long-range p -wave superconductivity: Beyond the high-frequency limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng-Zhao; Lam, Chi-Hang; You, J. Q.

    2017-10-01

    It has been shown that long-range p -wave superconductivity in a Kitaev chain can be engineered via an ac field with a high frequency [M. Benito et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 205127 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.205127]. For its experimental realization, however, theoretical understanding of Floquet engineering with a broader range of driving frequencies becomes important. In this paper, focusing on the ac-driven tunneling interactions of a Kitaev chain, we investigate effects from the leading correction to the high-frequency limit on the emergent p -wave superconductivity. Importantly, we find new engineered long-range p -wave pairing interactions that can significantly alter the ones in the high-frequency limit at long interaction ranges. We also find that the leading correction additionally generates nearest-neighbor p -wave pairing interactions with a renormalized pairing energy, long-range tunneling interactions, and, in particular, multiple pairs of Floquet Majorana edge states that are destroyed in the high-frequency limit.

  6. A high dynamic range programmable CMOS front-end filter with a tuning range from 1850 to 2400 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Lee, Thomas H.; Bruun, Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a highly programmable front-end filter and amplifier intended to replace SAW filters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) in multi-mode direct conversion radio receivers. The filter has a 42 MHz bandwidth, is tunable from 1850 to 2400 MHz, achieves a 5.8 dB NF, -25 dBm in-band 1-d...

  7. V&V of MCNP 6.1.1 Beta Against Intermediate and High-Energy Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-08

    This report presents a set of validation and verification (V&V) MCNP 6.1.1 beta results calculated in parallel, with MPI, obtained using its event generators at intermediate and high-energies compared against various experimental data. It also contains several examples of results using the models at energies below 150 MeV, down to 10 MeV, where data libraries are normally used. This report can be considered as the forth part of a set of MCNP6 Testing Primers, after its first, LA-UR-11-05129, and second, LA-UR-11-05627, and third, LA-UR-26944, publications, but is devoted to V&V with the latest, 1.1 beta version of MCNP6. The MCNP6 test-problems discussed here are presented in the /VALIDATION_CEM/and/VALIDATION_LAQGSM/subdirectories in the MCNP6/Testing/directory. README files that contain short descriptions of every input file, the experiment, the quantity of interest that the experiment measures and its description in the MCNP6 output files, and the publication reference of that experiment are presented for every test problem. Templates for plotting the corresponding results with xmgrace as well as pdf files with figures representing the final results of our V&V efforts are presented. Several technical “bugs” in MCNP 6.1.1 beta were discovered during our current V&V of MCNP6 while running it in parallel with MPI using its event generators. These “bugs” are to be fixed in the following version of MCNP6. Our results show that MCNP 6.1.1 beta using its CEM03.03, LAQGSM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA, event generators describes, as a rule, reasonably well different intermediate- and high-energy measured data. This primer isn’t meant to be read from cover to cover. Readers may skip some sections and go directly to any test problem in which they are interested.

  8. Reduced CGP12177 binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in hyperglycemic high-fat-diet-fed, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, James T.; Parsa-Nezhad, Maryam; Kenk, Miran; Thorn, Stephanie L. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); Kolajova, Maria [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Beanlands, Rob S.B. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); DaSilva, Jean N., E-mail: jdasilva@ottawaheart.ca [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Abnormal sympathetic nervous system and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) signaling is associated with diabetes. [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 is a nonselective {beta}-AR antagonist that can be labeled with carbon-11 for positron emission tomography. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of this tracer for evaluation of altered {beta}-AR expression in diabetic rat hearts. Methods: Ex vivo biodistribution with [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 was carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats for evaluation of specific binding and response to continuous {beta}-AR stimulation by isoproterenol. In a separate group, high-fat-diet feeding imparted insulin resistance and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle evoked hyperglycemia (blood glucose >11 mM). [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 biodistribution was assessed at 2 and 8 weeks post-STZ to measure {beta}-AR binding in heart, 30 min following tracer injection. Western blotting of {beta}-AR subtypes was completed in parallel. Results: Infusion of isoproterenol over 14 days did not affect cardiac binding of [{sup 3}H]CGP12177. Approximately half of rats treated with STZ exhibited sustained hyperglycemia and progressive hypoinsulinemia. Myocardial [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding was unchanged at 2 weeks post-STZ but significantly reduced by 30%-40% at 8 weeks in hyperglycemic but not euglycemic STZ-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Western blots supported a significant decrease in {beta}{sub 1}-AR in hyperglycemic rats. Conclusions: Reduced cardiac [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding in the presence of sustained hyperglycemia corresponds to a decrease in relative {beta}{sub 1}-AR expression. These data indirectly support the use of [{sup 11}C]CGP12177 for assessment of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes.

  9. Supplement of TCA cycle intermediates protects against high glucose/palmitate-induced INS-1 beta cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-E; Lee, Youn-Jung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Chung, Joo Hee; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Youngsoo; Jun, Hee-Sook; Kang, Yup

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of mitochondrial metabolism on high glucose/palmitate (HG/PA)-induced INS-1 beta cell death. Long-term treatment of INS-1 cells with HG/PA impaired energy-producing metabolism accompanying with depletion of TCA cycle intermediates. Whereas an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 augmented HG/PA-induced INS-1 cell death, stimulators of fatty acid oxidation protected the cells against the HG/PA-induced death. Furthermore, whereas mitochondrial pyruvate carboxylase inhibitor phenylacetic acid augmented HG/PA-induced INS-1 cell death, supplementation of TCA cycle metabolites including leucine/glutamine, methyl succinate/α-ketoisocaproic acid, dimethyl malate, and valeric acid or treatment with a glutamate dehydrogenase activator, aminobicyclo-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), significantly protected the cells against the HG/PA-induced death. In particular, the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier inhibitor, benzene tricarboxylate (BTA), also showed a strong protective effect on the HG/PA-induced INS-1 cell death. Knockdown of glutamate dehydrogenase or tricarboxylate carrier augmented or reduced the HG/PA-induced INS-1 cell death, respectively. Both BCH and BTA restored HG/PA-induced reduction of energy metabolism as well as depletion of TCA intermediates. These data suggest that depletion of the TCA cycle intermediate pool and impaired energy-producing metabolism may play a role in HG/PA-induced cytotoxicity to beta cells and thus, HG/PA-induced beta cell glucolipotoxicity can be protected by nutritional or pharmacological maneuver enhancing anaplerosis or reducing cataplerosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High throughput holographic imaging-in-flow for the analysis of a wide plankton size range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourassowsky, Catherine; Dubois, Frank

    2014-03-24

    We developed a Digital Holographic Microscope (DHM) working with a partial coherent source specifically adapted to perform high throughput recording of holograms of plankton organisms in-flow, in a size range of 3 µm-300 µm, which is of importance for this kind of applications. This wide size range is achieved with the same flow cell and with the same microscope magnification. The DHM configuration combines a high magnification with a large field of view and provides high-resolution intensity and quantitative phase images refocusing on high sample flow rate. Specific algorithms were developed to detect and extract automatically the particles and organisms present in the samples in order to build holograms of each one that are used for holographic refocusing and quantitative phase contrast imaging. Experimental results are shown and discussed.

  11. Wide-range vortex shedding flowmeter for high-temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Herndon, P.G.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The existing design of a commercially available vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was modified and optimized to produce three 4-in. and one 6-in. high-performance VSFMs for measuring helium flow in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) test loop. The project was undertaken because of the significant economic and performance advantages to be realized by using a single flowmeter capable of covering the 166:1 flow range (at 350/sup 0/C and 45:1 pressure range) of the tests. A detailed calibration in air and helium at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station showed an accuracy of +-1% of reading for a 100:1 helium flow range and +-1.75% of reading for a 288:1 flow range in both helium and air. At an extended gas temperature of 450/sup 0/C, water cooling was necessary for reliable flowmeter operation.

  12. Study of CT-based positron range correction in high resolution 3D PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal-Gonzalez, J., E-mail: jacobo@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Herraiz, J.L. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Vicente, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Herranz, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Dpto. de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Positron range limits the spatial resolution of PET images and has a different effect for different isotopes and positron propagation materials. Therefore it is important to consider it during image reconstruction, in order to obtain optimal image quality. Positron range distributions for most common isotopes used in PET in different materials were computed using the Monte Carlo simulations with PeneloPET. The range profiles were introduced into the 3D OSEM image reconstruction software FIRST and employed to blur the image either in the forward projection or in the forward and backward projection. The blurring introduced takes into account the different materials in which the positron propagates. Information on these materials may be obtained, for instance, from a segmentation of a CT image. The results of introducing positron blurring in both forward and backward projection operations was compared to using it only during forward projection. Further, the effect of different shapes of positron range profile in the quality of the reconstructed images with positron range correction was studied. For high positron energy isotopes, the reconstructed images show significant improvement in spatial resolution when positron range is taken into account during reconstruction, compared to reconstructions without positron range modeling.

  13. Dynamic Range Enhancement of High-Speed Electrical Signal Data via Non-Linear Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Matthew C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for high-speed compression of dynamic electrical signal waveforms to extend the measuring capabilities of conventional measuring devices such as oscilloscopes and high-speed data acquisition systems are discussed. Transfer function components and algorithmic transfer functions can be used to accurately measure signals that are within the frequency bandwidth but beyond the voltage range and voltage resolution capabilities of the measuring device.

  14. Aircraft micro-doppler feature extraction from high range resolution profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berndt, RJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of high range resolution measurements and the micro-Doppler effect produced by rotating or vibrating parts of a target has been well documented. This paper presents a technique for extracting features related to helicopter rotors...

  15. A Fast Component-Tree Algorithm for High Dynamic-Range Images and Second Generation Connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H. F.

    2011-01-01

    Component trees are important data structures for computation of connected attribute filters. Though some of the available algorithms are suitable for high-dynamic range, and in particular floating point data, none are suitable for computation of component trees for so-called second-generation, and

  16. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands, dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes, gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely

  17. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  18. Hybrid infrared scene projector (HIRSP): a high dynamic range infrared scene projector, part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark; Cosby, David; Ballard, Gary

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a continuation of the merging of two dynamic infrared scene projector technologies to provide a unique and innovative solution for the simulation of high dynamic temperature ranges for testing infrared imaging sensors. This paper will present some of the challenges and performance issues encountered in implementing this unique projector system into a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation facility. The projection system combines the technologies of a Honeywell BRITE II extended voltage range emissive resistor array device and an optically scanned laser diode array projector (LDAP). The high apparent temperature simulations are produced from the luminescent infrared radiation emitted by the high power laser diodes. The hybrid infrared projector system is being integrated into an existing HWIL simulation facility and is used to provide real-world high radiance imagery to an imaging infrared unit under test. The performance and operation of the projector is presented demonstrating the merit and success of the hybrid approach. The high dynamic range capability simulates a 250 Kelvin apparent background temperature to 850 Kelvin maximum apparent temperature signatures. This is a large increase in radiance projection over current infrared scene projection capabilities.

  19. A low-power high dynamic range front-end ASIC for imaging calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bagliesi, M G; Marrocchesi, P S; Meucci, M; Millucci, V; Morsani, F; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Scribano, A; Turini, N; Valle, G D

    2002-01-01

    High granularity calorimeters with shower imaging capabilities require dedicated front-end electronics. The ICON 4CH and VA4 PMT chip-set is suitable for very high dynamic range systems with strict noise requirements. The ICON 4CH is a 4 channel input, 12 channel output ASIC designed for use in a multi-anode photomultiplier system with very large dynamic range and low-noise requirements. Each of the four input signals to the ASIC is split equally into three branches by a current conveyor. Each of the three branches is scaled differently: 1:1, 1:8 and 1:80. The signal is read out by a 12 channel low noise/low power high dynamic range charge sensitive preamplifier-shaper circuit (VA4-PMT chip), with simultaneous sample- and-hold, multiplexed analog read-out, calibration facilities. Tests performed in our lab with a PMT are reported in terms of linearity, dynamic range and cross-talk of the system. (5 refs).

  20. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  1. Beta-thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Origa Raffaella; Galanello Renzo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor...

  2. High-density native-range species affects the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata more strongly than species from its invasive range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Liao, Zhiyong

    2017-11-22

    Invasive plant species often form dense mono-dominant stands in areas they have invaded, while having only sparse distribution in their native ranges, and the reasons behind this phenomenon are a key point of research in invasive species biology. Differences in species composition between native and invasive ranges may contribute to the difference in distribution status. In this study, we found that the high-density condition had a more negative effect on C. odorata than the low-density condition when co-grown with neighbor plants from its native range in Mexico, while this pattern was not in evidence when it was grown with neighbors from its invasive range in China. Different competitive ability and coevolutionary history with C. odorata between native-range neighbors and invasive-range neighbors may lead to the inconsistent patterns.

  3. High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V; Cole, G D; Robertson, M; Uddin, A; Cable, A

    2012-07-05

    Microelectromechanical-systems-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) capable of a 150 nm continuous tuning range near 1310 nm are demonstrated. These devices employ a thin optically pumped active region structure with large free-spectral range, which promotes wide and continuous tuning. To achieve VCSEL emission at 1310 nm, a wide-gain-bandwidth indium phosphide-based multiple quantum well active region is combined with a wide-bandwidth fully oxidised GaAs-based mirror through wafer bonding, with tuning enabled by a suspended dielectric top mirror. These devices are capable of being scanned over the entire tuning range at frequencies up to 500 kHz, making them ideal for applications such as swept source optical coherence tomography and high-speed transient spectroscopy.

  4. Dissipative Effects on Inertial-Range Statistics at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Bewley, Gregory P.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2017-09-01

    Using the unique capabilities of the Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Göttingen, we report experimental measurements in classical grid turbulence that uncover oscillations of the velocity structure functions in the inertial range. This was made possible by measuring extremely long time series of up to 1 010 samples of the turbulent fluctuating velocity, which corresponds to O (107) integral length scales. The measurements were conducted in a well-controlled environment at a wide range of high Reynolds numbers from Rλ=110 up to Rλ=1600 , using both traditional hot-wire probes as well as the nanoscale thermal anemometry probe developed at Princeton University. An implication of the observed oscillations is that dissipation influences the inertial-range statistics of turbulent flows at scales significantly larger than predicted by current models and theories.

  5. Transport modeling of the DIII-D high {{\\beta}_{p}} scenario and extrapolations to ITER steady-state operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.; Leuer, J. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Lao, L. L.; Park, J. M.; Ding, S. Y.; Gong, X.; Qian, J.

    2017-11-01

    Transport modeling of a proposed ITER steady-state scenario based on DIII-D high poloidal-beta ({βp} ) discharges finds that ITB formation can occur with either sufficient rotation or a negative central shear q-profile. The high {βp} scenario is characterized by a large bootstrap current fraction (80%) which reduces the demands on the external current drive, and a large radius internal transport barrier which is associated with excellent normalized confinement. Modeling predictions of the electron transport in the high {βp} scenario improve as {{q}95} approaches levels similar to typical existing models of ITER steady-state and the ion transport is turbulence dominated. Typical temperature and density profiles from the non-inductive high {βp} scenario on DIII-D are scaled according to 0D modeling predictions of the requirements for achieving a Q=5 steady-state fusion gain in ITER with ‘day one’ heating and current drive capabilities. Then, TGLF turbulence modeling is carried out under systematic variations of the toroidal rotation and the core q-profile. A high bootstrap fraction, high {βp} scenario is found to be near an ITB formation threshold, and either strong negative central magnetic shear or rotation in a high bootstrap fraction are found to successfully provide the turbulence suppression required to achieve Q=5 .

  6. Irregular GIS Curve Fitting based High Speed Railway Earthquake Influence Range Calculation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhaobing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, to guarantee that the train can take measures to reduce the damage caused by the earthquake, it propose an irregular GI S curve fitting based high-speed railway earthquake influence range calculation model. Firstly, this model eliminates the abnormal points, calculates feature points and finds demarcation points of the high- speed railway GI S curve to get the processed point collection in Mercator coordinate. Secondly, though usin g the processed point collection, this model applies least square polynomial segmentation fitting method to implement complex high-speed GI S curve fitting. Thirdly, calculate the earthquake influence rang on high-seed railway line, according to the scope of the earthquake equation and the high-speed railway GI S curve fitt ed equation. Finally, the paper selects the Beijing So uth to Dezhou East high-speed railway section which is part of Beijing-Shanghai line as a case study, which proves that the model can calculate the earthquake influence scope on the railway line offering decision support for train operation to ensure safety.

  7. An impedance bridge measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range up to 1 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee Kim, Dan; Kew Lee, Hyung; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a 2-terminal-pair impedance bridge, measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range up to 1 MHz. The bridge was configured with two voltage sources and a phase control unit which enabled the bridge balance by synchronizing the voltage sources with an enhanced phase resolution. Without employing the transformers such as inductive voltage divider, injection and detection transformers, etc, the bridge system is quite simple to set up, and the balance procedure is quick and easy. Using this dual-source coaxial bridge, the 1:1 and 10:1 capacitance ratios were measured with 1 pF-1 nF capacitors in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The measurement values obtained by the dual-source bridge were then compared with reference values measured using a commercial precision capacitance bridge of AH2700A, the Z-matrix method developed by ourselves, and the 4-terminal-pair coaxial bridge by the Czech Metrological Institute. All the measurements agreed within the reference uncertainty range of an order of 10-6-10-5, proving the bridge ability as a trustworthy tool for measuring the capacitance ratio in the high frequency range.

  8. High dynamic range magnetometry with a single nuclear spin in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldherr, Gerald; Beck, Johannes; Neumann, Philipp; Nitsche, Matthias; Wrachtrup, Joerg [3. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Said, Ressa S. [Institut fuer Quanten-Informationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Twamley, Jason [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Jelezko, Fedor [Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Universitaet Ulm, 89073 Ulm (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Sensors based on the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond are being developed to measure weak magnetic and electric fields at nanoscale. However, such sensors rely on measurements of a shift in the Lamor frequency of the defect, so an accumulation of quantum phase causes the measurement signal to exhibit a periodic modulation. This means that the measurement time is either restricted to half of one oscillation period, which limits accuracy, or that the magnetic field range must be known in advance. Moreover, the precision increases only slowly, as T{sup -0.5}, with the measurement time T. We implement a quantum phase estimation algorithm on a single nuclear spin in diamond to combine both high sensitivity and high dynamic range. By achieving a scaling of the precision with time to T{sup -0.85}, we improve the sensitivity by a factor of 7.4, for an accessible field range of 16 mT, or alternatively, we improve the dynamic range by a factor of 130 for a sensitivity of 2.5 {mu}T/Hz{sup 0.5}. These methods are applicable to a variety of field detection schemes, and do not require entanglement.

  9. A high dynamic range linear RF power detector with a preceding LNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingbo, Dai; Kefeng, Han; Na, Yan; Xi, Tan

    2012-01-01

    A design of high dynamic range linear radio frequency power detector (PD), aimed for transmitter carrier leakage suppression is presented in this paper. Based on the logarithmic amplifier principle, this detector utilizes the successive detection method to achieve a high dynamic range in the radio frequency band. In order to increase sensitivity, a low noise amplifier (LNA) is placed in the front of this detector. DC coupling is adopted in this architecture to reduce parasitics and save area, but this will unavoidably cause DC offsets in the circuit which are detrimental to the dynamic range. So a DC offset cancelling (DCOC) technique is proposed to solve the problem. Finally, this detector was fabricated in the SMIC 0.13 μm CMOS process. The measured results show that it achieves a wide dynamic range of 50 dB/40 dB with log errors in ±1 dB at 900 MHz/2 GHz, while draws 16 mA from a 1.5 V power supply. The active chip area is 0.27 × 0.67 mm2.

  10. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, Ana M.; Maruyama, Pietro K.; Sandel, Brody; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Schleuning, Matthias; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Alarcón, Ruben; Araujo, Andréa C.; Araújo, Francielle P.; Mendes de Azevedo, Severino; Baquero, Andrea C.; Cotton, Peter A.; Ingversen, Tanja Toftemark; Kohler, Glauco; Lara, Carlos; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria; Machado, Adriana O.; Machado, Caio Graco; Maglianesi, María Alejandra; Moura, Alan Cerqueira; Nogués-Bravo, David; Oliveira, Genilda M.; Oliveira, Paulo E.; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodrigues, Licléia da Cruz; Rosero-Lasprilla, Liliana; Rui, Ana Maria; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Wang, Zhiheng; Watts, Stella; Fjeldså, Jon; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rahbek, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird–plant mutualistic networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird species. This relationship remained strong even when accounting for climate, furthermore, the effect of SRS on specialization was far stronger than the effect of specialization on SRS, suggesting that climate largely influences specialization through species' range-size dynamics. Irrespective of the exact mechanism involved, our results indicate that communities consisting of higher proportions of SRS may be vulnerable to disturbance not only because of their small geographical ranges, but also because of their high degree of specialization. PMID:26842573

  11. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Jesper; Martín González, Ana M; Maruyama, Pietro K; Sandel, Brody; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Schleuning, Matthias; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Alarcón, Ruben; Araujo, Andréa C; Araújo, Francielle P; Mendes de Azevedo, Severino; Baquero, Andrea C; Cotton, Peter A; Ingversen, Tanja Toftemark; Kohler, Glauco; Lara, Carlos; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria; Machado, Adriana O; Machado, Caio Graco; Maglianesi, María Alejandra; Moura, Alan Cerqueira; Nogués-Bravo, David; Oliveira, Genilda M; Oliveira, Paulo E; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodrigues, Licléia da Cruz; Rosero-Lasprilla, Liliana; Rui, Ana Maria; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Wang, Zhiheng; Watts, Stella; Fjeldså, Jon; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rahbek, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-02-10

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird-plant mutualistic networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird species. This relationship remained strong even when accounting for climate, furthermore, the effect of SRS on specialization was far stronger than the effect of specialization on SRS, suggesting that climate largely influences specialization through species' range-size dynamics. Irrespective of the exact mechanism involved, our results indicate that communities consisting of higher proportions of SRS may be vulnerable to disturbance not only because of their small geographical ranges, but also because of their high degree of specialization. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Thermal Conductivity of High Performance Concrete in Wide Temperature and Moisture Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of two types of high performance concrete was measured in the temperature range from 100 °C to 800 °C and in the moisture range from dry material to saturation water content. A transient measuring method based on analysis of the measured temperature fields was chosen for the high temperature measurements, and a commercial hot wire device was employed in room temperature measurements of the effect of moisture on thermal conductivity. The measured results reveal that both temperature and moisture exhibit significant effects on the values of thermal conductivity, and these effects are quite comparable from the point of view of the magnitude of the observed variations.

  13. A highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range

    KAUST Repository

    Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed

    2017-10-24

    This paper proposes a highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range that is designed to operate at the medical band 433 MHz and simulated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Compared to the conventional fully cross-coupled rectifier, the proposed design offers 3.2× the dynamic range. It is also highly sensitive and requires −18 dBm of input power to produce a 1 V-output voltage when operating with a 100 kΩ load. Furthermore, the proposed design offers an open circuit sensitivity of −23.4 dBm and a peak power conversion efficiency of 67%.

  14. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonne, J; Martín González, AM; Maruyama, PK; Sandel, B.; Vizentin-Bugoni, J; Schleuning, M.; Abrahamczyk, S.; Alarcón, R.; Araujo, AC; Araújo, FP; Mendes de Azevedo, S; Baquero, AC; Cotton, PA; Ingversen, TT; Kohler, G.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization,...

  15. Stability of high-dose insulin in normal saline bags for treatment of calcium channel blocker and beta blocker overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, Dayne; Vadlapatla, Rajesh; Hart, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    High-dose insulin has become a first-line therapy for treating severe calcium channel blocker and beta blocker toxicity. Insulin infusions used to treat other conditions (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis) may be used, but this may lead to pulmonary compromise due to fluid volume overload. An obvious solution would be to use a more concentrated insulin infusion; however, data describing the stability of insulin in polyvinyl chloride bags at concentrations >1 unit/mL are not readily available. To determine the stability of insulin at 16 units/mL in 0.9% saline solution. Eight-hundred units of regular insulin (8 mL from a stock vial containing 100 units/mL) were added to 42 mL of 0.9% saline solution in a polyvinyl chloride bag to make a final concentration of 16 units/mL. Two bags were stored at 4 °C (refrigerated) and two at 25 °C (room temperature). Samples were withdrawn and tested for insulin concentration periodically over 14 days. Concentrated regular insulin in a polyvinyl chloride bag remained within 90% of equilibrium concentration at all time points, indicating the 16 units/mL concentration was sufficiently stable both refrigerated and at room temperature for 14 days. Administration of high-dose insulin can cause fluid volume overload when using traditional insulin formulations. The 16 units/mL concentration allows for the treatment of a patient with severe calcium channel blocker or beta blocker toxicity for a reasonable period of time without administering excessive fluid. Insulin at a concentration of 16 units/mL is stable for 14 days, the maximum timeframe currently allowed under US Pharmacopeia rules for compounding of sterile preparations. This stability data will allow institutions to issue beyond-use dating for intravenous fluids containing concentrated insulin and used for treating beta blocker and calcium channel blocker toxicity.

  16. The high dynamic range pixel array detector (HDR-PAD): Concept and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Experiments at storage ring light sources as well as at next-generation light sources increasingly require detectors capable of high dynamic range operation, combining low-noise detection of single photons with large pixel well depth. XFEL sources in particular provide pulse intensities sufficiently high that a purely photon-counting approach is impractical. The High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector (HDR-PAD) project aims to provide a dynamic range extending from single-photon sensitivity to 10{sup 6} photons/pixel in a single XFEL pulse while maintaining the ability to tolerate a sustained flux of 10{sup 11} ph/s/pixel at a storage ring source. Achieving these goals involves the development of fast pixel front-end electronics as well as, in the XFEL case, leveraging the delayed charge collection due to plasma effects in the sensor. A first prototype of essential electronic components of the HDR-PAD readout ASIC, exploring different options for the pixel front-end, has been fabricated. Here, the HDR-PAD concept and preliminary design will be described.

  17. A compact 3D omnidirectional range sensor of high resolution for robust reconstruction of environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, Roberto; Renò, Vito; Nitti, Massimiliano; D'Orazio, Tiziana; Stella, Ettore

    2015-01-22

    In this paper, an accurate range sensor for the three-dimensional reconstruction of environments is designed and developed. Following the principles of laser profilometry, the device exploits a set of optical transmitters able to project a laser line on the environment. A high-resolution and high-frame-rate camera assisted by a telecentric lens collects the laser light reflected by a parabolic mirror, whose shape is designed ad hoc to achieve a maximum measurement error of 10 mm when the target is placed 3 m away from the laser source. Measurements are derived by means of an analytical model, whose parameters are estimated during a preliminary calibration phase. Geometrical parameters, analytical modeling and image processing steps are validated through several experiments, which indicate the capability of the proposed device to recover the shape of a target with high accuracy. Experimental measurements show Gaussian statistics, having standard deviation of 1.74 mm within the measurable range. Results prove that the presented range sensor is a good candidate for environmental inspections and measurements.

  18. Wide-Range Temperature Sensors with High-Level Pulse Train Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of temperature sensors have been developed for wide-range temperature applications. The two sensors measure temperature in the range of -190 to +200 C and utilize a thin-film platinum RTD (resistance temperature detector) as the temperature-sensing element. Other parts used in the fabrication of these sensors include NPO (negative-positive- zero) type ceramic capacitors for timing, thermally-stable film or wirewound resistors, and high-temperature circuit boards and solder. The first type of temperature sensor is a relaxation oscillator circuit using an SOI (silicon-on-insulator) operational amplifier as a comparator. The output is a pulse train with a period that is roughly proportional to the temperature being measured. The voltage level of the pulse train is high-level, for example 10 V. The high-level output makes the sensor less sensitive to noise or electromagnetic interference. The output can be read by a frequency or period meter and then converted into a temperature reading. The second type of temperature sensor is made up of various types of multivibrator circuits using an SOI type 555 timer and the passive components mentioned above. Three configurations have been developed that were based on the technique of charging and discharging a capacitor through a resistive element to create a train of pulses governed by the capacitor-resistor time constant. Both types of sensors, which operated successfully over the wide temperature range, have potential use in extreme temperature environments including jet engines and space exploration missions.

  19. A Compact 3D Omnidirectional Range Sensor of High Resolution for Robust Reconstruction of Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an accurate range sensor for the three-dimensional reconstruction of environments is designed and developed. Following the principles of laser profilometry, the device exploits a set of optical transmitters able to project a laser line on the environment. A high-resolution and high-frame-rate camera assisted by a telecentric lens collects the laser light reflected by a parabolic mirror, whose shape is designed ad hoc to achieve a maximum measurement error of 10 mm when the target is placed 3 m away from the laser source. Measurements are derived by means of an analytical model, whose parameters are estimated during a preliminary calibration phase. Geometrical parameters, analytical modeling and image processing steps are validated through several experiments, which indicate the capability of the proposed device to recover the shape of a target with high accuracy. Experimental measurements show Gaussian statistics, having standard deviation of 1.74 mm within the measurable range. Results prove that the presented range sensor is a good candidate for environmental inspections and measurements.

  20. High-resolution and wide range displacement measurement based on planar grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Guan, Jian; Wen, Feng; Tan, Jiubin

    2017-12-01

    High/ultra-precision motion measurements for precision translation stages are highly desired in modern manufacturing systems and instruments. In this work, we introduce a wide range three-axis grating encoder with nanometric resolution, which can measure the x-, y- and z-axial translational motions of a stage simultaneously. The grating encoder is composed of a reflective-type planar scale grating with a period of 8 μm and an optical reading head. A planar reference grating, which is the same as the planar scale grating except the length and width, is employed in the optical reading head. The x- and y- directional ±1st order diffractive beams of the planar scale grating interfere with the corresponding diffractive beams of the planar reference grating, forming the measurement signals. The x- and y- directional ±1st order diffractive beams of the two planar gratings propagate against their original incident path, working as the autocollimatic diffractive beams. Therefore, the z-axial measurement range of the proposed grating encoder is greatly enhanced. The x- and y- axial measurement ranges depend on the size of the planar scale grating. To make the grating encoder more compact, a double grating beam-splitting (DGBS) unit and two diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are introduced. The experimental results indicate that the z-axial displacement resolution is as high as 4 nm with an electronic data division card of 80 segments developed by our lab.

  1. Development of wide-range constitutive equations for calculations of high-rate deformation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For development of models of strength and compressibility of metals in wide range of pressures (up to several megabar and strain rates ~ 1÷108 s−1, the method of dynamic tests is used. Since direct measurement of strength is impossible under complicated intensive high-rate loading, a formal model is created at first, and then it is updated basing on comparison with many experiments, which are sensitive to shear strength. Elastic-plastic, viscous-elastic-plastic and relaxation integral models became nowadays most commonly used. The basic unsolved problems in simulation of high-rate deformation of metals are mentioned in the paper.

  2. A study on radiation safety measures for the use of high-energy beta-ray sources in medical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Woo; Yang, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyeon Jo [Cheju National Univ., Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The scope of this study consists of : an investigation of the current application status of medical radioisotopes, Sr-90, Ho-166, Re-188, which emit beta-rays of energy greater than 1.5 Mev, analyses of the environments under which the above isotopes are used, estimation of personal radiation doses by using the MCNP-4C computer code for the situations in which high radiation doses might be probable, review of the USA's regulations related to safe use of the radioisotopes, investigation of past over-expose cases reported in the internet, analysis of the current domestic regulations, suggestion of safety measures necessary for the use of the radioisotopes.

  3. Medium-beta superconducting cavity tests at Los Alamos National Laboratory for high-current, proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, W.B.; Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.D.; Krawcyzk, F.; Shapiro, A.; Bibeau, R.; Gentzlinger, B.; Montoya, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Safa, H. [C.E. Saclay DSM/DAPNIA/SEA (France)

    1998-08-01

    Single-cell superconducting cavities are currently being evaluated for use in high-current proton accelerator applications being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The designs that have been evaluated so far include 0.48 and 0.64 beta cavities. The parameters that have been checked are: peak surface electric field, magnetic quench field, multipacting levels, cavity Q, and propensity for Q disease. In limited tests to date, peak surface fields of 43 MV/m, and quench fields up to 103 mT have been achieved. Q{sub 0} values have been typically 1 {times} 10{sup 10} at 2 K, with a reduction of about 30% after being held at 150 K for two hours. While some conditioning barriers were eliminated, no obvious multipactor zones were found.

  4. Chiral separation of beta-blockers after derivatization with (-)-menthyl chloroformate by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Choi, P W; Hong, S P; Kim, H J

    1999-12-01

    Optimum conditions of chiral derivatization reaction of beta-blockers acebutolol, arotinolol, beta-xolol, bisoprolol, celiprolol, metoprolol and pindolol) with (-)-menthyl chloroformate were investigated for the resolution by HPLC. With more than 30 times molar excess of (-)-menthyl chloroformate chiral derivatization reactions were completed within one hour at room temperature except arotinolol and celiprolol. Diastereomeric derivatives of beta-blockers were well resolved on the ODS column using acetonitrile-methanol-water as a mobile phase.

  5. High-gain Seeded FEL Amplifier Tunable in the Terahertz Range

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, C; Pellegrini, C; Ralph, J E; Reiche, S; Rosenzweig, J B; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya

    2005-01-01

    The lack of a high-power, relatively low-cost and compact terahertz (THz) source in the range 0.3-3x10(12) Hz is the major obstacle in progressing on biomedical and material studies at these wavelengths. A high-gain, single pass seeded FEL technique allows to obtain high power THz pulses of a high spectral brightness. We describe an ongoing project at the Neptune laboratory where a ~ 1kW seed pulse generated by difference frequency mixing of CO2 laser lines in a GaAs nonlinear crystal is injected into a waveguide FEL amplifier. The FEL is driven by a 5 ps (r.m.s) long electron pulse with a peak current up to 100A provided by a regular S-band photoinjector. According to 3-D, time dependent simulations, up to ~ 10 MW THz power can be generated using a 2 meter long planar undulator. By mixing different pairs of CO2 laser lines and matching resonant energy of the electron beam, tunability in the 100-400 mm range is expected. A tunable Fabri-Perot interferometer will be used to select a high-power 5ps THz pulse. T...

  6. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate, the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate, the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/- mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer. METHODS: Muc2(-/- mice received AIN-93G reference diet, HAPF diet or HBPF diet for 5 weeks after weaning. Clinical symptoms, intestinal morphology and inflammation in the distal colon were analyzed. RESULTS: Both HBPF diet and AIN-93G diet limited the extent of intestinal erosions and morphological damage in Muc2(-/- mice compared with HAPF diet. In addition, the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg cell response as demonstrated by the up-regulation of Foxp3, Tgfb1 and Ebi3 gene expression levels was enhanced by HBPF diet compared with AIN-93G and HAPF diets. HBPF diet also increased the gene expression of Pparg and enzymatic antioxidants (Sod1, Sod3 and Gpx1, genes all reported to be involved in promoting an immunosuppressive Treg cell response and to protect against colitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that HBPF diet limits the intestinal mucosal damage and controls the inflammatory response in Muc2(-/- mice by inducing an immunosuppressive Treg cell response.

  7. Long range ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nathan D.

    There is an ever-increasing demand for radio frequency identification (RFID) tags that are passive, long range, and mountable on multiple surfaces. Currently, RFID technology is utilized in numerous applications such as supply chain management, access control, and public transportation. With the combination of sensory systems in recent years, the applications of RFID technology have been extended beyond tracking and identifying. This extension includes applications such as environmental monitoring and healthcare applications. The available sensory systems usually operate in the medium or high frequency bands and have a low read range. However, the range limitations of these systems are being overcome by the development of RFID sensors focused on utilizing tags in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band. Generally, RFID tags have to be mounted to the object that is being identified. Often the objects requiring identification are metallic. The inherent properties of metallic objects have substantial effects on nearby electromagnetic radiation; therefore, the operation of the tag antenna is affected when mounted on a metallic surface. This outlines one of the most challenging problems for RFID systems today: the optimization of tag antenna performance in a complex environment. In this research, a novel UHF RFID tag antenna, which has a low profile, long range, and is mountable on metallic surfaces, is designed analytically and simulated using a 3-D electromagnetic simulator, ANSYS HFSS. A microstrip patch antenna is selected as the antenna structure, as patch antennas are low profile and suitable for mounting on metallic surfaces. Matching and theoretical models of the microstrip patch antenna are investigated. Once matching and theory of a microstrip patch antenna is thoroughly understood, a unique design technique using electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures is explored. This research shows that the utilization of an EBG structure in the patch antenna design yields

  8. High Dynamic Range adaptive ΔΣ-based Focal Plane Array architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Shun

    2012-10-16

    In this paper, an Adaptive Delta-Sigma based architecture for High Dynamic Range (HDR) Focal Plane Arrays is presented. The noise shaping effect of the Delta-Sigma modulation in the low end, and the distortion noise induced in the high end of Photo-diode current were analyzed in detail. The proposed architecture can extend the DR for about 20N log2 dB at the high end of Photo-diode current with an N bit Up-Down counter. At the low end, it can compensate for the larger readout noise by employing Extended Counting. The Adaptive Delta-Sigma architecture employing a 4-bit Up-Down counter achieved about 160dB in the DR, with a Peak SNR (PSNR) of 80dB at the high end. Compared to the other HDR architectures, the Adaptive Delta-Sigma based architecture provides the widest DR with the best SNR performance in the extended range.

  9. Effect of high aluminum consumption on mechanics and composition of furculae of free-ranging coots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C.A.; Ellers, O.

    1999-01-01

    High levels of ingested Al can affect mechanical properties of bones. Because of the spring action of the furcula during the wingbeat, small changes in the mechanical properties of this bone may have measurable impacts on long-distance flight. We examined the furculae and ingesta of free- ranging American coots (Fulica americana) in San Francisco Bay (California, USA), where they consume a diet high in Al. We measured the spring stiffness and phase angle (??) of the furculae and the concentrations of Al, Ca, F. Mg, and P in both the furculae and ingesta. The ingesta had mean Al concentrations (2,384 ??g/g, dry weight) and Al:P molar ratios (6.4:1) predicted to affect bone integrity but the bone concentrations of Al were near the normal range and the furcula stiffness did not change with Al concentration. The tan ?? of the furculae changed with Al concentration but the relationship was weak. The chemical speciation of the ingested Al may have affected its physiologic role and the high mean levels of ingested calcium (71,283 ??g/g, dry weight) very likely neutralized the activity of the Al. Controlled feeding studies have shown that F strengthens avian bones. The bones in our study had molar concentrations of F more than two orders of magnitude greater than Al (170:1) but F appears to have insignificant influence on bone mechanics. The coots in San Francisco Bay apparently are not suffering furcula impairment despite a diet high in Al.

  10. High Dynamic Range X-Ray Detector Pixel Architectures Utilizing Charge Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel T.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Becker, Julian; Chamberlain, Darol; Purohit, Prafull; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2017-04-01

    Several charge integrating CMOS pixel front ends utilizing charge removal techniques have been fabricated to extend dynamic range for X-ray diffraction applications at synchrotron sourcesand X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The pixels described herein build on the mixed mode pixel array detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging. These new pixels boast several orders of magnitude improvement in maximum flux over the MM-PAD, which is capable of measuring a sustained flux in excess of 108 X-rays/pixel/s while maintaining sensitivity to smaller signals, down to single X-rays. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the frontend amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is, thereby, shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to that achieved by counting pixel array detectors, but the integrators presented here are designed to tolerate a sustained flux > 1011 X-rays/pixel/s. Pixel front-end linearity was evaluated by direct current injection and results are presented. A small-scale readout ASIC utilizing these pixel architectures has been fabricated and the use of these architectures to increase single X-ray pulse dynamic range at XFELs is discussed briefly.

  11. Reflecting and Polarizing Properties of Conductive Fabrics in Ultra-High Frequency Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kiprijanovič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The system based on ultra-wide band (UWB signals was employed for qualitative estimation of attenuating, reflecting and polarizing properties of conductive fabrics, capable to prevent local static charge accumulation. Pulsed excitation of triangle monopole antenna of 6.5 cm height by rectangular electric pulses induced radiation of UWB signals with spectral density of power having maximum in ultra-high frequency (UHF range. The same antenna was used for the radiated signal receiving. Filters and amplifiers of different passband were employed to divide UHF range into subranges of 0.3-0.55 GHz, 0.55-1 GHz, 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz bands. The free space method, when conductive fabric samples of 50x50 cm2 were placed between transmitting and receiving antennas, was used to imitate a practical application. Received wideband signals corresponding to the defined range were detected by unbiased detectors. The fabrics made of two types of warps, containing different threads with conductive yarns, were investigated. It was estimated attenuation and reflective properties of the fabrics when electric field is collinear or perpendicular to thread direction. In the UHF range it was revealed good reflecting properties of the fabrics containing metallic component in the threads. The system has advantages but not without a certain shortcoming. Adapting it for specific tasks should lead to more effective usage, including yet unused properties of the UWB signals.

  12. Source analysis of beta-synchronisation and cortico-muscular coherence after movement termination based on high resolution electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Tamás, Gertrúd; Hellriegel, Helge; Deuschl, Günther; Raethjen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS) and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) during movement termination relate to each other and have similar role in sensorimotor integration. We calculated the parameters and estimated the sources of these phenomena.We measured 64-channel EEG simultaneously with surface EMG of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle in 11 healthy volunteers. In Task1, subjects kept a medium-strength contraction continuously; in Task2, superimposed on this movement, they performed repetitive self-paced short contractions. In Task3 short contractions were executed alone. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG and CMC was performed with respect to the offset of brisk movements and averaged in each subject. Sources of PMBS and CMC were also calculated.High beta power in Task1, PMBS in Task2-3, and CMC in Task1-2 could be observed in the same individual frequency bands. While beta synchronization in Task1 and PMBS in Task2-3 appeared bilateral with contralateral predominance, CMC in Task1-2 was strictly a unilateral phenomenon; their main sources did not differ contralateral to the movement in the primary sensorimotor cortex in 7 of 11 subjects in Task1, and in 6 of 9 subjects in Task2. In Task2, CMC and PMBS had the same latency but their amplitudes did not correlate with each other. In Task2, weaker PMBS source was found bilaterally within the secondary sensory cortex, while the second source of CMC was detected in the premotor cortex, contralateral to the movement. In Task3, weaker sources of PMBS could be estimated in bilateral supplementary motor cortex and in the thalamus. PMBS and CMC appear simultaneously at the end of a phasic movement possibly suggesting similar antikinetic effects, but they may be separate processes with different active functions. Whereas PMBS seems to reset the supraspinal sensorimotor network, cortico-muscular coherence may represent the recalibration of cortico-motoneuronal and spinal systems.

  13. Source analysis of beta-synchronisation and cortico-muscular coherence after movement termination based on high resolution electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuraman Muthuraman

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC during movement termination relate to each other and have similar role in sensorimotor integration. We calculated the parameters and estimated the sources of these phenomena.We measured 64-channel EEG simultaneously with surface EMG of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle in 11 healthy volunteers. In Task1, subjects kept a medium-strength contraction continuously; in Task2, superimposed on this movement, they performed repetitive self-paced short contractions. In Task3 short contractions were executed alone. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG and CMC was performed with respect to the offset of brisk movements and averaged in each subject. Sources of PMBS and CMC were also calculated.High beta power in Task1, PMBS in Task2-3, and CMC in Task1-2 could be observed in the same individual frequency bands. While beta synchronization in Task1 and PMBS in Task2-3 appeared bilateral with contralateral predominance, CMC in Task1-2 was strictly a unilateral phenomenon; their main sources did not differ contralateral to the movement in the primary sensorimotor cortex in 7 of 11 subjects in Task1, and in 6 of 9 subjects in Task2. In Task2, CMC and PMBS had the same latency but their amplitudes did not correlate with each other. In Task2, weaker PMBS source was found bilaterally within the secondary sensory cortex, while the second source of CMC was detected in the premotor cortex, contralateral to the movement. In Task3, weaker sources of PMBS could be estimated in bilateral supplementary motor cortex and in the thalamus. PMBS and CMC appear simultaneously at the end of a phasic movement possibly suggesting similar antikinetic effects, but they may be separate processes with different active functions. Whereas PMBS seems to reset the supraspinal sensorimotor network, cortico-muscular coherence may represent the recalibration of cortico-motoneuronal and

  14. Forward and backward tone mapping of high dynamic range images based on subband architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzidi, Ines; Ouled Zaid, Azza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel High Dynamic Range (HDR) tone mapping (TM) system based on sub-band architecture. Standard wavelet filters of Daubechies, Symlets, Coiflets and Biorthogonal were used to estimate the proposed system performance in terms of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) image quality and reconstructed HDR image fidelity. During TM stage, the HDR image is firstly decomposed in sub-bands using symmetrical analysis-synthesis filter bank. The transform coefficients are then rescaled using a predefined gain map. The inverse Tone Mapping (iTM) stage is straightforward. Indeed, the LDR image passes through the same sub-band architecture. But, instead of reducing the dynamic range, the LDR content is boosted to an HDR representation. Moreover, in our TM sheme, we included an optimization module to select the gain map components that minimize the reconstruction error, and consequently resulting in high fidelity HDR content. Comparisons with recent state-of-the-art methods have shown that our method provides better results in terms of visual quality and HDR reconstruction fidelity using objective and subjective evaluations.

  15. On high time-range resolution observations of PMSE: Statistical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Svenja; Chau, Jorge L.; Schult, Carsten

    2016-06-01

    We present observations of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) with an unprecedented temporal sampling of 2 ms and range resolution down to 75 m. On these time and spatial scales, PMSE exhibit features, like correlation in time and range, that have not been described before. To characterize our high resolution observations, we provide a 4-D statistical model, based on random processes. In this way we can distinguish between geophysical and instrumental effects on our measurements. In our simulations, PMSE is statistically characterized in frequency, angular space, and inverse altitude. With this model, we are able to reproduce our observations on a statistical basis and estimate the intrinsic spectral width of PMSE. For chosen data sets, such values range between 0.5 Hz and 4 Hz (1.4 ms-1 to 11.2 ms-1). Furthermore, we show that apparent oscillations in time and an apparent high speed motion of the mean scattering center are just representations of the random nature of PMSE measurements on short time scales.

  16. Prolonged exposure of human beta-cells to high glucose increases their release of proinsulin during acute stimulation with glucose or arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, K; Ling, Z; Van Schravendijk, C; Pipeleers, D

    1999-04-01

    The disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes has been attributed to either a primary beta-cell defect or a secondary dysregulation of beta cells under sustained hyperglycemia. This study examines the effect of a 10- to 13-day exposure to 20 mmol/L glucose on subsequent proinsulin and insulin release by human islets isolated from nondiabetic donors. Compared to control preparations kept at 6 mmol/L glucose, the high glucose cultured beta-cells released more proinsulin and less insulin during perifusion at 5, 10, or 20 mmol/L glucose. The lower amounts of secreted insulin resulted from a marked reduction in cellular insulin content (5-fold lower than in controls). The higher amount of secreted proinsulin is attributed to the sustained state of cellular activation that is known to occur after prolonged exposure to high glucose levels. This activated state of the beta-cell population is also held responsible for its higher secretory responsiveness to 5 mmol/L arginine at a submaximal (5 mmol/L) glucose concentration (8-fold higher proinsulin levels than in the control population). It results, together with the reduction in cellular insulin content, in 7- to 10-fold higher proinsulin over insulin ratios in the medium; at 5 mmol/L glucose, this extracellular ratio is similar to that in the cells. These data add direct support to the view that a disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia can result from a sustained activation of human beta-cells after prolonged exposure to elevated glucose levels.

  17. Conception of broadband stigmatic high-resolution spectrometers for the soft X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, E A; Shatokhin, A N; Ragozin, E N [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    We formulate an approach to the development of stigmatic high-resolution spectral instruments for the soft X-ray range (λ ≤ 300 Å), which is based on the combined operation of normalincidence multilayer mirrors (including broadband aperiodic ones) and grazing-incidence reflection gratings with nonequidistant grooves (so-called VLS gratings). A concave multilayer mirror serves to produce a slightly astigmatic image of the radiation source (for instance, an entrance slit), and the diffraction grating produces a set of its dispersed stigmatic spectral images. The width of the operating spectral region is determined by the aperiodic structure of the multilayer mirror and may range up to an octave in wavelength. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. A High-Gain Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Increased Read Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Zuffanelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining a reasonable tag size and radiation pattern. The antenna is matched to the RFID chip by means of a very simple matching network based on a shunt inductance. A tag prototype, based on the Alien Higgs-3 chip, is designed and fabricated. The overall dimensions are 400 mm × 14.6 mm, but the tag width for most of its length is delimited by the wire diameter (0.8 mm. The measured read range exhibits a maximum value of 17.5 m at the 902–928 MHz frequency band. This represents an important improvement over state-of-the-art passive UHF-RFID tags.

  19. A high sensitive 66 dB linear dynamic range receiver for 3-D laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Hao; Zhu, Zhangming

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a CMOS receiver chip realized in 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology and intended for high precision 3-D laser radar. The chip includes an adjustable gain transimpedance pre-amplifier, a post-amplifier and two timing comparators. An additional feedback is employed in the regulated cascode transimpedance amplifier to decrease the input impedance, and a variable gain transimpedance amplifier controlled by digital switches and analog multiplexer is utilized to realize four gain modes, extending the input dynamic range. The measurement shows that the highest transimpedance of the channel is 50 k {{Ω }}, the uncompensated walk error is 1.44 ns in a wide linear dynamic range of 66 dB (1:2000), and the input referred noise current is 2.3 pA/\\sqrt{{Hz}} (rms), resulting in a very low detectable input current of 1 μA with SNR = 5.

  20. Extension of high poloidal beta scenario in DIII-D to lower q95 for steady state fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X.; Qian, J.; Ding, S.; Ren, Q.; Guo, W.; Pan, C.; Li, G.; Xia, T.; Garofalo, A.; Lao, L.; Hyatt, A.; Ferron, J.; Collins, C.; Lin, D.; McKee, G.; Rhode, T.; McClenaghan, J.; Holcomb, C.; Cui, L.; Heidbrink, W.; Zhu, Y.; Diiid Team; East Team

    2017-10-01

    DIII-D/EAST joint experiments have improved the high poloidal beta scenario with sustained large-radius internal transport barrier (ITB) extended to high plasma current Ip 1MA with q95 6.0. Slight off-axis NBCD is applied to obtain broader current density profile, ITBs can now be sustained below the previously observed βp threshold with excellent confinement (H98y2 1.8). The scenario also exhibits a local negative shear appearing with q increased at rho 0.4, which helps ITB formation and sustainment. This confirms TGLF prediction that negative magnetic shear can help recover ITB and achieve high confinement with reduced q95. Detailed analysis shows that the Shafranov shift and q profile is critical in the ITB formation at high βp regime. Supported in part by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China 2015GB102000, 2015GB110005, and US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  1. The P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) linker domain encodes high-affinity binding sequences to alpha- and beta-tubulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Elias

    2007-06-26

    P-Glycoprotein (or ABCB1) has been shown to cause multidrug resistance in tumor cell lines selected with lipophilic anticancer drugs. ABCB1 encodes a duplicated molecule with two hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains linked by a highly charged region of approximately 90 amino acids, the "linker domain" with as yet unknown function(s). In this report, we demonstrate a role for this domain in binding to other cellular proteins. Using overlapping hexapeptides that encode the entire amino acid sequence of the linker domain of human ABCB1, we show a direct and specific binding between sequences in the linker domain and several intracellular proteins. Three different polypeptide sequences [617EKGIYFKLVTM627 (LDS617-627), 657SRSSLIRKRSTRRSVRGSQA676 (LDS657-676), and 693PVSFWRIMKLNLT705 (LDS693-705)] in the linker domain interacted tightly with several proteins with apparent molecular masses of approximately 80, 57, and 30 kDa. Interestingly, only the 57 kDa protein (or P57) interacted with all three different sequences of the linker domain. Purification and partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing of P57 showed that it encodes the N-terminal amino acids of alpha- and beta-tubulins. The identity of the P57 interacting protein as tubulins was further confirmed by Western blotting using monoclonal antibodies to alpha- and beta-tubulin. Taken together, the results of this study provide the first evidence for ABCB1 protein interaction mediated by sequences in the linker domain. These findings are likely to provide further insight into the functions of ABCB1 in normal and drug resistant tumor cells.

  2. SpectraCAM SPM: a camera system with high dynamic range for scientific and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S.; Baiko, D.; Lungu, G.; Pilon, M.; VanGorden, S.

    2005-08-01

    A scientific camera system having high dynamic range designed and manufactured by Thermo Electron for scientific and medical applications is presented. The newly developed CID820 image sensor with preamplifier-per-pixel technology is employed in this camera system. The 4 Mega-pixel imaging sensor has a raw dynamic range of 82dB. Each high-transparent pixel is based on a preamplifier-per-pixel architecture and contains two photogates for non-destructive readout of the photon-generated charge (NDRO). Readout is achieved via parallel row processing with on-chip correlated double sampling (CDS). The imager is capable of true random pixel access with a maximum operating speed of 4MHz. The camera controller consists of a custom camera signal processor (CSP) with an integrated 16-bit A/D converter and a PowerPC-based CPU running a Linux embedded operating system. The imager is cooled to -40C via three-stage cooler to minimize dark current. The camera housing is sealed and is designed to maintain the CID820 imager in the evacuated chamber for at least 5 years. Thermo Electron has also developed custom software and firmware to drive the SpectraCAM SPM camera. Included in this firmware package is the new Extreme DRTM algorithm that is designed to extend the effective dynamic range of the camera by several orders of magnitude up to 32-bit dynamic range. The RACID Exposure graphical user interface image analysis software runs on a standard PC that is connected to the camera via Gigabit Ethernet.

  3. High and distinct range-edge genetic diversity despite local bottlenecks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Assis

    Full Text Available The genetic consequences of living on the edge of distributional ranges have been the subject of a largely unresolved debate. Populations occurring along persistent low latitude ranges (rear-edge are expected to retain high and unique genetic diversity. In contrast, currently less favourable environmental conditions limiting population size at such range-edges may have caused genetic erosion that prevails over past historical effects, with potential consequences on reducing future adaptive capacity. The present study provides an empirical test of whether population declines towards a peripheral range might be reflected on decreasing diversity and increasing population isolation and differentiation. We compare population genetic differentiation and diversity with trends in abundance along a latitudinal gradient towards the peripheral distribution range of Saccorhiza polyschides, a large brown seaweed that is the main structural species of kelp forests in SW Europe. Signatures of recent bottleneck events were also evaluated to determine whether the recently recorded distributional shifts had a negative influence on effective population size. Our findings show decreasing population density and increasing spatial fragmentation and local extinctions towards the southern edge. Genetic data revealed two well supported groups with a central contact zone. As predicted, higher differentiation and signs of bottlenecks were found at the southern edge region. However, a decrease in genetic diversity associated with this pattern was not verified. Surprisingly, genetic diversity increased towards the edge despite bottlenecks and much lower densities, suggesting that extinctions and recolonizations have not strongly reduced diversity or that diversity might have been even higher there in the past, a process of shifting genetic baselines.

  4. High-Resolution Structure of a Self-Assembly-Competent Form of a Hydrophobic Peptide Captured in a Soluble [beta]-Sheet Scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makabe, Koki; Biancalana, Matthew; Yan, Shude; Tereshko, Valentina; Gawlak, Grzegorz; Miller-Auer, Hélène; Meredith, Stephen C.; Koide, Shohei (UC)

    2010-02-08

    {beta}-Rich self-assembly is a major structural class of polypeptides, but still little is known about its atomic structures and biophysical properties. Major impediments for structural and biophysical studies of peptide self-assemblies include their insolubility and heterogeneous composition. We have developed a model system, termed peptide self-assembly mimic (PSAM), based on the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. PSAM allows for the capture of a defined number of self-assembly-like peptide repeats within a water-soluble protein, making structural and energetic studies possible. In this work, we extend our PSAM approach to a highly hydrophobic peptide sequence. We show that a penta-Ile peptide (Ile{sub 5}), which is insoluble and forms {beta}-rich self-assemblies in aqueous solution, can be captured within the PSAM scaffold in a form capable of self-assembly. The 1.1-{angstrom} crystal structure revealed that the Ile{sub 5} stretch forms a highly regular {beta}-strand within this flat {beta}-sheet. Self-assembly models built with multiple copies of the crystal structure of the Ile5 peptide segment showed no steric conflict, indicating that this conformation represents an assembly-competent form. The PSAM retained high conformational stability, suggesting that the flat {beta}-strand of the Ile{sub 5} stretch primed for self-assembly is a low-energy conformation of the Ile{sub 5} stretch and rationalizing its high propensity for self-assembly. The ability of the PSAM to 'solubilize' an otherwise insoluble peptide stretch suggests the potential of the PSAM approach to the characterization of self-assembling peptides.

  5. Morphology and possible origins of near-range oblique HF backscatter at high and midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Pavlo, V.; Iserhienrhien, Blessing; St.-Maurice, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency radars (HF, ˜10-20 MHz) forming the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) regularly observe returns from very close ranges of ≤300-400 km (near-range echoes, NREs). These echoes are conventionally attributed to backscatter from meteor trails, but other sources of NRE have been invoked, including polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE), and non-field-aligned E region irregularities leading to high-aspect ionospheric returns. In order to relate NRE to a particular mechanism, it is essential to establish beforehand their spatiotemporal trends with respect to season, local time, and latitude. Systematic information of this kind is generally lacking from the literature, so we attempt to fill the gap by performing a statistical analysis of such echoes observed by five radars covering midlatitudes to polar latitudes over all seasons and local times. We detected two major echo populations which were observed at each radar site: (i) a nightside-early morning returns representing the well-known meteor backscatter and (ii) a midsummer population centered near the local noon. At high latitudes the summer daytime echoes are usually interpreted as PMSE, but the observed population extends to much lower latitudes and is centered well above the conventional PMSE height range. We hypothesize that this population could be related to neutral turbulence in the lower E region. In addition, there was a pronounced evening population restricted to the auroral region which we provisionally attribute to irregularities generated by the precipitating energetic particles and strong electric fields.

  6. Characterization of short-pulse oscillators by means of a high-dynamic-range autocorrelation measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A; Rudd, J V; Cheng, H; Mourou, G; Kopf, D; Jung, I D; Weingarten, K J; Keller, U

    1995-09-15

    A high-dynamic-range autocorrelation technique was used to characterize the temporal pulse shape of ultrashort laser pulses produced from four separate oscillators. These lasers included two Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillators as well as a Nd:glass and a Ti:sapphire oscillator, each passively mode locked by an antiresonant Fabry-Perot semiconductor saturable absorber. It was shown that the Nd:glass oscillator supported a pulse that was temporally clean over 8 orders of magnitude.

  7. Evaluation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Luminance Mapping Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inanici, Mehlika; Galvin, Jim

    2004-12-30

    The potential, limitations, and applicability of the High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique is evaluated as a luminance mapping tool. Multiple exposure photographs of static scenes are taken with a Nikon 5400 digital camera to capture the wide luminance variation within the scenes. The camera response function is computationally derived using the Photosphere software, and is used to fuse the multiple photographs into HDR images. The vignetting effect and point spread function of the camera and lens system is determined. Laboratory and field studies have shown that the pixel values in the HDR photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  8. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Jesper; Martín González, Ana M.; Maruyama, Pietro K.

    2016-01-01

    with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird-plant mutualistic...... networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird...

  9. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-04-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications.

  10. A new high dynamic range ROIC with smart light intensity control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Melik; Ceylan, Omer; Shafique, Atia; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Galioglu, Arman; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2017-05-01

    This journal presents a new high dynamic range ROIC with smart pixel which consists of two pre-amplifiers that are controlled by a circuit inside the pixel. Each pixel automatically decides which pre-amplifier is used according to the incoming illumination level. Instead of using single pre-amplifier, two input pre-amplifiers, which are optimized for different signal levels, are placed inside each pixel. The smart circuit mechanism, which decides the best input circuit according to the incoming light level, is also designed for each pixel. In short, an individual pixel has the ability to select the best input amplifier circuit that performs the best/highest SNR for the incoming signal level. A 32 × 32 ROIC prototype chip is designed to demonstrate the concept in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. The prototype is optimized for NIR and SWIR bands. Instead of a detector, process variation optimized current sources are placed inside the ROIC. The chip achieves minimum 8.6 e- input referred noise and 98.9 dB dynamic range. It has the highest dynamic range in the literature in terms of analog ROICs for SWIR band. It is operating in room temperature and power consumption is 2.8 μ W per pixel.

  11. Stereo Vision-Based High Dynamic Range Imaging Using Differently-Exposed Image Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Jae; Ji, Seo-Won; Kang, Seok-Jae; Jung, Seung-Won; Ko, Sung-Jea

    2017-06-22

    In this paper, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging method based on the stereo vision system is presented. The proposed method uses differently exposed low dynamic range (LDR) images captured from a stereo camera. The stereo LDR images are first converted to initial stereo HDR images using the inverse camera response function estimated from the LDR images. However, due to the limited dynamic range of the stereo LDR camera, the radiance values in under/over-exposed regions of the initial main-view (MV) HDR image can be lost. To restore these radiance values, the proposed stereo matching and hole-filling algorithms are applied to the stereo HDR images. Specifically, the auxiliary-view (AV) HDR image is warped by using the estimated disparity between initial the stereo HDR images and then effective hole-filling is applied to the warped AV HDR image. To reconstruct the final MV HDR, the warped and hole-filled AV HDR image is fused with the initial MV HDR image using the weight map. The experimental results demonstrate objectively and subjectively that the proposed stereo HDR imaging method provides better performance compared to the conventional method.

  12. Stereo Vision-Based High Dynamic Range Imaging Using Differently-Exposed Image Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jae Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high dynamic range (HDR imaging method based on the stereo vision system is presented. The proposed method uses differently exposed low dynamic range (LDR images captured from a stereo camera. The stereo LDR images are first converted to initial stereo HDR images using the inverse camera response function estimated from the LDR images. However, due to the limited dynamic range of the stereo LDR camera, the radiance values in under/over-exposed regions of the initial main-view (MV HDR image can be lost. To restore these radiance values, the proposed stereo matching and hole-filling algorithms are applied to the stereo HDR images. Specifically, the auxiliary-view (AV HDR image is warped by using the estimated disparity between initial the stereo HDR images and then effective hole-filling is applied to the warped AV HDR image. To reconstruct the final MV HDR, the warped and hole-filled AV HDR image is fused with the initial MV HDR image using the weight map. The experimental results demonstrate objectively and subjectively that the proposed stereo HDR imaging method provides better performance compared to the conventional method.

  13. On metrics for objective and subjective evaluation of high dynamic range video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoo, Koohyar; Gu, Zhouye; Baylon, David; Luthra, Ajay

    2015-09-01

    In high dynamic range (HDR) video, it is possible to represent a wider range of intensities and contrasts compared to the current standard dynamic range (SDR) video. HDR video can simultaneously preserve details in very bright and very dark areas of a scene whereas these details become lost or washed out in SDR video. Because the perceived quality due to this increased fidelity may not fit the same model of perceived quality in the SDR video, it is not clear whether the objective metrics that have been widely used and studied for SDR visual experience are reasonably accurate for HDR cases, in terms of correlation with subjective measurement for HDR video quality. This paper investigates several objective metrics and their correlation to subjective quality for a variety of HDR video content. Results are given for the case of HDR content compressed at different bit rates. In addition to rating the relevance of each objective metric in terms of its correlation to the subjective measurements, comparisons are also presented to show how closely different objective metrics can predict the results obtained by subjective quality assessment in terms of coding efficiency provided by different coding processes.

  14. Studying biological membranes with extended range high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievergelt, Adrian P; Erickson, Blake W; Hosseini, Nahid; Adams, Jonathan D; Fantner, Georg E

    2015-07-14

    High-speed atomic force microscopy has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of biomolecular systems at the nanoscale. Expanding its application to larger biological specimens such as membranes or cells has, however, proven difficult, often requiring fundamental changes in the AFM instrument. Here we show a way to utilize conventional AFM instrumentation with minor alterations to perform high-speed AFM imaging with a large scan range. Using a two-actuator design with adapted control systems, a 130 × 130 × 5 μm scanner with nearly 100 kHz open-loop small-signal Z-bandwidth is implemented. This allows for high-speed imaging of biologically relevant samples as well as high-speed measurements of nanomechanical surface properties. We demonstrate the system performance by real-time imaging of the effect of charged polymer nanoparticles on the integrity of lipid membranes at high imaging speeds and peak force tapping measurements at 32 kHz peak force rate.

  15. GT SD and high multipole nuclear matrix elements for double beta decays and astro neutrino nuclear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) for GT (Gamow Teller), spin dipole (SD) and higher multipole transitions are associated with double beta decays and astro neutrino nuclear interactions. They are reduced with respect to quasi-particle (QP) NMEs by a factor k ≈ 0.2-0.3. The reduction coefficient k is discussed in terms of the nucleonic spin isospin correlations and the non-nucleonic nuclear medium effects. The latter may be incorporated by the effective (quenching) factor gAe f f/gAf r e e . The SD NMEs derived from the (3He,t) charge exchange reactions (CERs) are consistent with the empirical NMEs M(S D) based on the quasi-particle model with the empirical effective SD coupling constant k. The SD NMEs derived from CERs are reduced uniformly in the wide momentum range of q ≈20-100 MeV/c. Impacts of the universal reduction(quenching) on NMEs for neutrino-less DBDs and low and medium energy astro neutrinos are discussed.

  16. Highly Specific and Wide Range NO2 Sensor with Color Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, Cristian; Fernández, Luis; Monereo, Oriol; Pons-Balagué, Alba; Xuriguera, Elena; Casals, Olga; Waag, Andreas; Prades, Joan Daniel

    2017-10-25

    We present a simple and inexpensive method to implement a Griess-Saltzman-type reaction that combines the advantages of the liquid phase method (high specificity and fast response time) with the benefits of a solid implementation (easy to handle). We demonstrate that the measurements can be carried out using conventional RGB sensors; circumventing all the limitations around the measurement of the samples with spectrometers. We also present a method to optimize the measurement protocol and target a specific range of NO2 concentrations. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the concentration of NO2 from 50 ppb to 300 ppm with high specificity and without modifying the Griess-Saltzman reagent.

  17. Experimental investigation of hypersonic buzz on a high cross-range shuttle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, R. L.; Obremski, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the nature of an unsteady hypersonic flow phenomenon, often referred to as hypersonic buzz, on a 1:100 scale model representative of a high cross-range shuttle configuration. The tests, conducted in helium at a nominal Mach number of 17.5, were specifically directed at obtaining a better understanding of the character of the hypersonic flow field in the vicinity of a deflected control surface. Power spectral densities and root mean squared values of surface pressure fluctuations are presented along with observations made from high speed motion pictures, schlieren and oil flow photographs. Flap deflections of 0, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 60 deg were tested at various angles of attack from 0 deg to 37 deg. It is quite clear from these tests that, under certain conditions, extremely unstable hypersonic flow patterns are formed.

  18. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  19. An Analog Gamma Correction Scheme for High Dynamic Range CMOS Logarithmic Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Pan, Xiaofang; Zhao, Xiaojin; Wu, Huisi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel analog gamma correction scheme with a logarithmic image sensor dedicated to minimize the quantization noise of the high dynamic applications is presented. The proposed implementation exploits a non-linear voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to perform the gamma correction during the analog-to-digital conversion. As a result, the quantization noise does not increase while the same high dynamic range of logarithmic image sensor is preserved. Moreover, by combining the gamma correction with the analog-to-digital conversion, the silicon area and overall power consumption can be greatly reduced. The proposed gamma correction scheme is validated by the reported simulation results and the experimental results measured for our designed test structure, which is fabricated with 0.35 μm standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. PMID:25517692

  20. A wide range and highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor using polyacrylamide hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we report the fabrication and characterization of no-core fiber sensor (NCFS) using smart hydrogel coating for pH measurement. The no-core fiber (NCF) is stubbed between two single-mode fibers with SMA connector before immobilizing of smart hydrogel. The wavelength interrogation technique is used to calculate the sensitivity of the proposed sensor. The result shows a high sensitivity of 1.94 nm/pH for a wide range of pH values varied from 3 to 10 with a good linear response. In addition to high sensitivity, the fabricated sensor provides a fast response time with a good stability, repeatability and reproducibility.

  1. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  2. Wide-Range Highly-Efficient Wireless Power Receivers for Implantable Biomedical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    the dynamic range of conventional rectifiers. Unlike the continuously self-biased rectifier proposed in the second part, this adaptive rectifier extends the dynamic range while maintaining both the high PCE peak and the sensitivity advantage of the conventional cross-coupled scheme, and can operates in the GHz range.

  3. High density, multi-range analog output Versa Module Europa board for control system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kundan; Das, Ajit Lal

    2014-01-01

    A new VMEDAC64, 12-bit 64 channel digital-to-analog converter, a Versa Module Europa (VME) module, features 64 analog voltage outputs with user selectable multiple ranges, has been developed for control system applications at Inter University Accelerator Centre. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is the module's core, i.e., it implements the DAC control logic and complexity of VMEbus slave interface logic. The VMEbus slave interface and DAC control logic are completely designed and implemented on a single FPGA chip to achieve high density of 64 channels in a single width VME module and will reduce the module count in the control system applications, and hence will reduce the power consumption and cost of overall system. One of our early design goals was to develop the VME interface such that it can be easily integrated with the peripheral devices and satisfy the timing specifications of VME standard. The modular design of this module reduces the amount of time required to develop other custom modules for control system. The VME slave interface is written as a single component inside FPGA which will be used as a basic building block for any VMEbus interface project. The module offers multiple output voltage ranges depending upon the requirement. The output voltage range can be reduced or expanded by writing range selection bits in the control register. The module has programmable refresh rate and by default hold capacitors in the sample and hold circuit for each channel are charged periodically every 7.040 ms (i.e., update frequency 284 Hz). Each channel has software controlled output switch which disconnects analog output from the field. The modularity in the firmware design on FPGA makes the debugging very easy. On-board DC/DC converters are incorporated for isolated power supply for the analog section of the board.

  4. Context-dependent JPEG backward-compatible high-dynamic range image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-10-01

    High-dynamic range (HDR) imaging is expected, together with ultrahigh definition and high-frame rate video, to become a technology that may change photo, TV, and film industries. Many cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering both HDR images and video are already available in the market. The popularity and full-public adoption of HDR content is, however, hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of low-dynamic range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate the wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR with commonly used legacy technologies for storage, rendering, and compression of video and images are necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms are developed for generating viewable LDR content from HDR, there is no consensus of which algorithm to use and under which conditions. We, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrate the dependency of the perceptual quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on the context: environmental factors, display parameters, and image content itself. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to deal with HDR images also. An architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG is proposed. A simple implementation of lossy compression demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed architecture compared with the state-of-the-art HDR image compression.

  5. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  6. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070952; Valishev, Aleksander; Shatilov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    In the baseline scenario of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the geometric loss of luminosity in the two high luminosity experiments due to collisions with a large crossing angle is recovered by tilting the bunches in the interaction region with the use of crab cavities. A possible backup scenario would rely on a reduced crossing angle together with flat optics (with different horizontal and vertical β∗ values) for the preservation of luminosity performance. However, the reduction of crossing angle coupled with the flat optics significantly enhances the strength of long-range beam-beam interactions. This paper discusses the possibility to mitigate the long-range beam-beam effects by current bearing wire compensators (or e-lens). We develop a new HL-LHC parameter list and analyze it in terms of integrated luminosity performance as compared to the baseline. Further, we evaluate the operational scenarios using numerical simulations of single-particle dynamics with beam-beam effects.

  7. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  8. A microtiter plate-based beta-lactam binding assay for inhibitors of high-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Miglena; Bobba, Sudheer; Gutheil, William G

    2010-01-01

    High-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (HMM PBPs) are essential for bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and are the lethal targets of beta-lactam antibiotics. When purified, HMM PBPs give undetectable or weak enzyme activity. This has impeded efforts to develop assays for HMM PBPs and to develop new inhibitors for HMM PBPs as HMM PBP targeted antibacterial agents. However, even when purified, HMM PBPs retain their ability to bind beta-lactams. Here we describe a fluorescently detected microtiter plate-based assay for inhibitor binding to HMM PBPs based on competition with biotin-ampicillin conjugate (BIO-AMP) binding.

  9. Plant and algal interference in bacterial beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucuronidase assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, C M; Apte, S C; Peterson, S M; Stauber, J L

    1994-01-01

    Several commonly occurring freshwater and marine plants and algae were screened for beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-glucuronidase activities by using a 60-min enzyme assay based on the hydrolysis by these enzymes of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl- beta-glucuronide, respectively. All freshwater plant extracts tested showed beta-D-galactosidase activity several at relatively high levels, and a number also showed beta-D-glucuronidase activity. A number of the ma...

  10. Studying biological membranes with extended range high-speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Erickson, Blake W.; Hosseini, Nahid; Adams, Jonathan D.; Fantner, Georg E.

    2015-01-01

    High—speed atomic force microscopy has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of biomolecular systems at the nanoscale. Expanding its application to larger biological specimens such as membranes or cells has, however, proven difficult, often requiring fundamental changes in the AFM instrument. Here we show a way to utilize conventional AFM instrumentation with minor alterations to perform high-speed AFM imaging with a large scan range. Using a two—actuator design with adapted control systems, a 130 × 130 × 5 μm scanner with nearly 100 kHz open—loop small-signal Z—bandwidth is implemented. This allows for high-speed imaging of biologically relevant samples as well as high-speed measurements of nanomechanical surface properties. We demonstrate the system performance by real-time imaging of the effect of charged polymer nanoparticles on the integrity of lipid membranes at high imaging speeds and peak force tapping measurements at 32 kHz peak force rate. PMID:26169348

  11. Studying biological membranes with extended range high-speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Erickson, Blake W.; Hosseini, Nahid; Adams, Jonathan D.; Fantner, Georg E.

    2015-07-01

    High—speed atomic force microscopy has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of biomolecular systems at the nanoscale. Expanding its application to larger biological specimens such as membranes or cells has, however, proven difficult, often requiring fundamental changes in the AFM instrument. Here we show a way to utilize conventional AFM instrumentation with minor alterations to perform high-speed AFM imaging with a large scan range. Using a two—actuator design with adapted control systems, a 130 × 130 × 5 μm scanner with nearly 100 kHz open—loop small-signal Z—bandwidth is implemented. This allows for high-speed imaging of biologically relevant samples as well as high-speed measurements of nanomechanical surface properties. We demonstrate the system performance by real-time imaging of the effect of charged polymer nanoparticles on the integrity of lipid membranes at high imaging speeds and peak force tapping measurements at 32 kHz peak force rate.

  12. Conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid to beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid by Galactomyces reessii.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I. Y.; Nissen, S L; Rosazza, J P

    1997-01-01

    beta-Hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) has been shown to increase strength and lean mass gains in humans undergoing resistance-exercise training. HMB is currently marketed as a calcium salt of HMB, and thus, environmentally sound and inexpensive methods of manufacture are being sought. This study investigates the microbial conversion of beta-methylbutyric acid (MBA) to HMB by cultures of Galactomyces reessii. Optimal concentrations of MBA were in the range of 5 to 20 g/liter for HMB produ...

  13. Free-boundary high-beta tokamaks. II. Mathematical intermezzo: Hilbert transforms and conformal mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    1982-11-01

    Mathematical techniques are described that facilitate the reduction of the stability problem of a toroidal free-boundary high-β tokamak equilibrium with skin currents to one that is basically one-dimensional. This includes the conformal mapping of the simply connected plasma region onto a circular disk and the conformal mapping of the doubly connected vacuum region onto an annulus by means of the Theodorsen and Garrick nonlinear integral equations. Henrici's method of constructing the discretized Hilbert transforms for periodic functions on the boundaries of these domains provides both the basis for constructing the mappings and the tool for the study of the perturbations. The methods are applied to problems of two-dimensional potential flow with a discontinuity of which the stability of sharp-boundary high-β tokamaks is just a special case.

  14. The neutron long counter NERO for studies of beta-delayed neutron emission in the r-process

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, J; Lorusso, G; Santi, P; Couture, A; Daly, J; Del Santo, M; Elliot, T; Goerres, J; Herlitzius, C; Kratz, K -L; Lamm, L O; Lee, H Y; Montes, F; Ouellette, M; Pellegrini, E; Reeder, P; Schatz, H; Schertz, F; Schnorrenberger, L; Smith, K; Stech, E; Strandberg, E; Ugalde, C; Wiescher, M; Woehr, A; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.02.262

    2010-01-01

    The neutron long counter NERO was built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University, for measuring beta-delayed neutron-emission probabilities. The detector was designed to work in conjunction with a beta-decay implantation station, so that beta decays and beta-delayed neutrons emitted from implanted nuclei can be measured simultaneously. The high efficiency of about 40%, for the range of energies of interest, along with the small background, are crucial for measuring beta-delayed neutron emission branchings for neutron-rich r-process nuclei produced as low intensity fragmentation beams in in-flight separator facilities.

  15. EUV sources for EUV lithography in alpha-, beta-, and high volume chip manufacturing: an update on GDPP and LPP technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, U.; Kleinschmidt, J.; Gabel, K.; Hergenhan, G.; Ziener, C.; Schriever, G.; Ahmad, I.; Bolshukhin, D.; Brudermann, J.; de Bruijn, R.; Chin, T. D.; Geier, A.; Gotze, S.; Keller, A.; Korobotchko, V.; Mader, B.; Ringling, J.; Brauner, T.

    2005-05-01

    In the paper we report about the progress made at XTREME technologies in the development of EUV sources based on gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP) technologies and laser produced plasma (LPP) technologies. First prototype xenon GDPP sources of the type XTS 13-35 based on the Z-pinch principle with 35 W power in 2π sr have been integrated into micro-exposure tools from Exitech, UK. Specifications of the EUV sources and experience of integration as well as data about component and optics lifetime are presented. In the source development program for Beta exposure tools and high volume manufacturing exposure tools both tin and xenon have been investigated as fuel for the EUV sources. Development progress in porous metal cooling technology as well as pulsed power circuit design has led to GDPP sources with xenon fuel continuous operating with an output power of 200 W in 2π sr at 4500 Hz repetition rate. With tin fuel an output power of 400 W in 2π sr was obtained leaving all other conditions unaltered with respect to the xenon based source. The performance of the xenon fueled sources is sufficiently good to fulfill all requirements up to the beta tool level. For both the xenon and the tin GDPP sources detailed data about source performance are reported, including component lifetime and optics lifetime. The status of the integration of the sources with grazing incidence collector optics is discussed. Theoretical estimations of collection efficiencies are compared with experimental data to determine the loss mechanisms in the beam path. Specifically contamination issues related to tin as target material as well as debris mitigation in tin sources is addressed. As driver lasers for the LPP source research diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers have been used to generate EUV emitting plasma. As target material xenon has been employed. Conversion efficiencies have been measured and currently the maximum conversion efficiency amounts to 1 %. The laser driver power of 1.2 kW is

  16. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, S. K. L., E-mail: sjue@lanl.gov; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  17. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  18. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Su, Pu; Gao, Zhixian; Zhu, Maoxiang; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Xiujie; Fang, Yanjun; Chao, Fuhuan

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R(2) was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25x10(5) ng L(-1), 50-7.81x10(5) ng L(-1) and 1x10(3-)7.29x10(5) ng L(-1), respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L(-1), respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  19. A luminescent Lanthanide-free MOF nanohybrid for highly sensitive ratiometric temperature sensing in physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Zhang, Denan; Zeng, Jin; Gan, Ning; Cuan, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Luminescent MOF materials with tunable emissions and energy/charge transfer processes have been extensively explored as ratiometric temperature sensors. However, most of the ratiometric MOF thermometers reported thus far are based on the MOFs containing photoactive lanthanides, which are potentially facing cost issue and serious supply shortage. Here, we present a ratiometric luminescent thermometer based on a dual-emitting lanthanide-free MOF hybrid, which is developed by encapsulation of a fluorescent dye into a robust nanocrystalline zirconium-based MOF through a one-pot synthesis approach. The structure and morphology of the hybrid product was characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pore confinement effect well isolates the guest dye molecules and therefore suppresses the nonradiative energy transfer process between dye molecules. The incorporated dye emission is mainly sensitized by the organic linkers within MOF through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The ratiometric luminescence of the MOF hybrid shows a significant response to temperature due to the thermal-related back energy transfer process from dye molecules and organic linkers, thus can be exploited for self-calibrated temperature sensing. The maximum thermometric sensitivity is 1.19% °C -1 in the physiological temperature range, which is among the highest for the ratiomtric MOF thermometers that operating in 25-45°C. The temperature resolution is better than 0.1°C over the entire operative range (20-60°C). By integrating the advantages of excellent stability, nanoscale nature, and high sensitivity and precision in the physiological temperature range, this dye@MOF hybrid might have potential application in biomedical diagnosis. What' more, this work has expanded the possibility of non-lanthanide luminescent MOF materials for the development of ratiometric temperature sensors. Copyright © 2018

  20. A Novel Highly Thermostable Multifunctional Beta-Glycosidase from Crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerov, Vadim M; Rakitin, Andrey L; Mardanov, Andrey V; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2015-01-01

    We expressed a putative β-galactosidase Asac_1390 from hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant enzyme. Asac_1390 is composed of 490 amino acid residues and showed high sequence similarity to family 1 glycoside hydrolases from various thermophilic Crenarchaeota. The maximum activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 93°C. The half-life of the enzyme at 90°C was about 7 hours. Asac_1390 displayed high tolerance to glucose and exhibits hydrolytic activity towards cellobiose and various aryl glucosides. The hydrolytic activity with p-nitrophenyl (pNP) substrates followed the order pNP-β-D-galactopyranoside (328 U mg(-1)), pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside (246 U mg(-1)), pNP-β-D-xylopyranoside (72 U mg(-1)), and pNP-β-D-mannopyranoside (28 U mg(-1)). Thus the enzyme was actually a multifunctional β-glycosidase. Therefore, the utilization of Asac_1390 may contribute to facilitating the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and help enhance bioconversion processes.

  1. A Novel Highly Thermostable Multifunctional Beta-Glycosidase from Crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim M. Gumerov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We expressed a putative β-galactosidase Asac_1390 from hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant enzyme. Asac_1390 is composed of 490 amino acid residues and showed high sequence similarity to family 1 glycoside hydrolases from various thermophilic Crenarchaeota. The maximum activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 93°C. The half-life of the enzyme at 90°C was about 7 hours. Asac_1390 displayed high tolerance to glucose and exhibits hydrolytic activity towards cellobiose and various aryl glucosides. The hydrolytic activity with p-nitrophenyl (pNP substrates followed the order pNP-β-D-galactopyranoside (328 U mg−1, pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside (246 U mg−1, pNP-β-D-xylopyranoside (72 U mg−1, and pNP-β-D-mannopyranoside (28 U mg−1. Thus the enzyme was actually a multifunctional β-glycosidase. Therefore, the utilization of Asac_1390 may contribute to facilitating the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and help enhance bioconversion processes.

  2. Ultra-rare mutation in long-range enhancer predisposes to thyroid carcinoma with high penetrance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling He

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC. This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.

  3. Ultra-rare mutation in long-range enhancer predisposes to thyroid carcinoma with high penetrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huiling; Li, Wei; Wu, Dayong; Nagy, Rebecca; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Akagi, Keiko; Jendrzejewski, Jaroslaw; Jiao, Hong; Hoag, Kevin; Wen, Bernard; Srinivas, Mukund; Waidyaratne, Gavisha; Wang, Rui; Wojcicka, Anna; Lattimer, Ilene R; Stachlewska, Elzbieta; Czetwertynska, Malgorzata; Dlugosinska, Joanna; Gierlikowski, Wojciech; Ploski, Rafal; Krawczyk, Marek; Jazdzewski, Krystian; Kere, Juha; Symer, David E; Jin, Victor; Wang, Qianben; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C) in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC). This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA) is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.

  4. High-throughput screening of filamentous fungi using nanoliter-range droplet-based microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneyton, Thomas; Wijaya, I. Putu Mahendra; Postros, Prexilia; Najah, Majdi; Leblond, Pascal; Couvent, Angélique; Mayot, Estelle; Griffiths, Andrew D.; Drevelle, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous fungi are an extremely important source of industrial enzymes because of their capacity to secrete large quantities of proteins. Currently, functional screening of fungi is associated with low throughput and high costs, which severely limits the discovery of novel enzymatic activities and better production strains. Here, we describe a nanoliter-range droplet-based microfluidic system specially adapted for the high-throughput sceening (HTS) of large filamentous fungi libraries for secreted enzyme activities. The platform allowed (i) compartmentalization of single spores in ~10 nl droplets, (ii) germination and mycelium growth and (iii) high-throughput sorting of fungi based on enzymatic activity. A 104 clone UV-mutated library of Aspergillus niger was screened based on α-amylase activity in just 90 minutes. Active clones were enriched 196-fold after a single round of microfluidic HTS. The platform is a powerful tool for the development of new production strains with low cost, space and time footprint and should bring enormous benefit for improving the viability of biotechnological processes.

  5. Sub-Airy disk angular resolution with high dynamic range in the near-infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richichi A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lunar occultations (LO are a simple and effective high angular resolution method, with minimum requirements in instrumentation and telescope time. They rely on the analysis of the diffraction fringes created by the lunar limb. The diffraction phenomen occurs in space, and as a result LO are highly insensitive to most of the degrading effects that limit the performance of traditional single telescope and long-baseline interferometric techniques used for direct detection of faint, close companions to bright stars. We present very recent results obtained with the technique of lunar occultations in the near-IR, showing the detection of companions with very high dynamic range as close as few milliarcseconds to the primary star. We discuss the potential improvements that could be made, to increase further the current performance. Of course, LO are fixed-time events applicable only to sources which happen to lie on the Moon’s apparent orbit. However, with the continuously increasing numbers of potential exoplanets and brown dwarfs beign discovered, the frequency of such events is not negligible. I will list some of the most favorable potential LO in the near future, to be observed from major observatories.

  6. Orbital parameters, masses and distance to beta Centauri determined with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer and high-resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.; Mendez, A.; Seneta, E.B.; Tango, W.J.; Booth, A.J.; O'Byrne, J.W.; Thorvaldson, E.D.; Ausseloos, M.; Aerts, C.C.; Uytterhoeven, K.

    2005-01-01

    The bright southern binary star beta Centauri (HR5267) has been observed with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) and spectroscopically with the European Southern Observatory Coude Auxiliary Telescope and Swiss Euler telescope at La Silla. The interferometric observations have

  7. A low-noise wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with low and high temperatures resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Koichi; Adachi, Satoru; Tejada, Jose; Oshikubo, Hiromichi; Akahane, Nana; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2008-02-01

    A temperature-resistant 1/3 inch SVGA (800×600 pixels) 5.6 μm pixel pitch wide-dynamic-range (WDR) CMOS image sensor has been developed using a lateral-over-flow-integration-capacitor (LOFIC) in a pixel. The sensor chips are fabricated through 0.18 μm 2P3M process with totally optimized front-end-of-line (FEOL) & back-end-of-line (BEOL) for a lower dark current. By implementing a low electrical field potential design for photodiodes, reducing damages, recovering crystal defects and terminating interface states in the FEOL+BEOL, the dark current is improved to 12 e - /pixel-sec at 60 deg.C with 50% reduction from the previous very-low-dark-current (VLDC) FEOL and its contribution to the temporal noise is improved. Furthermore, design optimizations of the readout circuits, especially a signal-and noise-hold circuit and a programmable-gain-amplifier (PGA) are also implemented. The measured temporal noise is 2.4 e -rms at 60 fps (:36 MHz operation). The dynamic-range (DR) is extended to 100 dB with 237 ke - full well capacity. In order to secure the temperature-resistance, the sensor chip also receives both an inorganic cap onto micro lens and a metal hermetic seal package assembly. Image samples at low & high temperatures show significant improvement in image qualities.

  8. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  9. High Dynamic Range RF Front End with Noise Cancellation and Linearization for WiMAX Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with verification of the high dynamic range for a heterodyne radio frequency (RF front end. A 2.6 GHz RF front end is designed and implemented in a hybrid microwave integrated circuit (HMIC for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX receivers. The heterodyne RF front end consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA with noise cancellation, an RF bandpass filter (BPF, a downconverter with linearization, and an intermediate frequency (IF BPF. A noise canceling technique used in the low-noise amplifier eliminates a thermal noise and then reduces the noise figure (NF of the RF front end by 0.9 dB. Use of a downconverter with diode linearizer also compensates for gain compression, which increases the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3 of the RF front end by 4.3 dB. The proposed method substantially increases the spurious-free dynamic range (DRf of the RF front end by 3.5 dB.

  10. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  11. High-precision gravimetric survey in support of lunar laser ranging at Haleakala, Maui, 1976 - 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, B. E.; Laurila, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The planning, observations and adjustment of high-precision gravity survey networks established on the islands of Maui and Oahu as part of the geodetic-geophysical program in support of lunar laser ranging at Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are described. The gravity survey networks include 43 independently measured gravity differences along the gravity calibration line from Kahului Airport to the summit of Mt. Haleakala, together with some key points close to tidal gauges on Maui, and 40 gravity differences within metropolitan Honolulu. The results of the 1976-1978 survey are compared with surveys made in 1961 and in 1964-1965. All final gravity values are given in the system of the international gravity standardization net 1971 (IGSN 71); values are obtained by subtracting 14.57 mgal from the Potsdam value at the gravity base station at the Hickam Air Force Base, Honolulu.

  12. Pseudomonad Swarming Motility Is Restricted to a Narrow Range of High Matric Water Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2012-01-01

    significances. Our results indicate that swarming motility is restricted to a narrow range of high matric water potentials in the three pseudomonads tested (Pseudomonas sp. DSS73, Pseudomonas syringae B728a, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14). The threshold below which no swarming was observed was about –0.45 k......Using a novel experimental system that allows control of the matric potential of an agar slab, we explored the hydration conditions under which swarming motility is possible. If there is recognition that this physical parameter is a key determinant of swarming, it is usually neither controlled nor......Pa for the first and about –0.1 kPa for the latter two. Above the threshold, the expansion rate of DSS73 swarms increased exponentially with the matric potential. Mutants deficient in surfactant production were totally or partially unable to expand rapidly on the surface of the agar slab. Our results thus suggest...

  13. New segmentation-based tone mapping algorithm for high dynamic range image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weiwei; Guo, Huinan; Zhou, Zuofeng; Huang, Huimin; Cao, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    The traditional tone mapping algorithm for the display of high dynamic range (HDR) image has the drawback of losing the impression of brightness, contrast and color information. To overcome this phenomenon, we propose a new tone mapping algorithm based on dividing the image into different exposure regions in this paper. Firstly, the over-exposure region is determined using the Local Binary Pattern information of HDR image. Then, based on the peak and average gray of the histogram, the under-exposure and normal-exposure region of HDR image are selected separately. Finally, the different exposure regions are mapped by differentiated tone mapping methods to get the final result. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm achieve the better performance both in visual quality and objective contrast criterion than other algorithms.

  14. Design Optimization for High Manufacturability of Optical Fiber Endcap for Range Detection LADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinsuk; Shin, Jung-Hwan; La, Jongpil; Koh, Hae-Seog; Lee, Changjae; Kim, Sug-Whan

    2014-07-01

    High power fiber laser module of the transmitting channel for the designed LADAR (LAser raDAR) system has an angled endcap to avoid the direct reflection fed back to the source laser unit. However, the reference endcap design shows low manufacturability caused by the technical challenge in splicing and fabrication. We explored four alternative design solutions exhibiting similar performances. The end cap design compatibility was achieved with the transmittance and beam shape analysis using a non-sequential ray tracing program, ASAP. Specially, the analysis was focused at the zoom lens position and the endcap position. Among the four designs, the best solution shows the transmittance of about 89% of the Reference Design with 0.14° LOS (Line of Sight) shift. We believe that 11% in absorption by the mechanical components and can be further improved with the minor mechanical change and that the LOS shift is within the accommodation range of the wedge compensators in the transmitting channel.

  15. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2016-01-01

    in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...... in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß......-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of -0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 % and 7.2 % of community...

  16. Effect of inner conductor misalignment of high-$\\beta$ quarter-wave resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A

    2013-01-01

    Niobium sputtering the HIE-ISOLDE quarter-wave resonator at high temperatures has called for a reconsideration of the mechanical tolerances for the fabrication of the cavity. A study was launched to understand the effect of inner conductor misalignments on the beam to determine the manufacturing tolerances; in previous error studies only misalignments of the ideal cavity were considered. Systematic rf simulations of the imperfect cavity were carried out using CST Microwave Studio and kick factors calculated for each mode of misalignment. It was found, as expected, that the misalignments of the internal conductor give the same order of magnitude kick as misalignments of the entire ideal cavity. To avoid any significant perturbation to the beam, the inner conductor should be aligned to within the same tolerance as the cavity itself, i.e to within 0:3 mm [1]. The rather conservative tolerance originally set for sputtering at low temperatures can be relaxed by a factor around 10.

  17. Steady-state thermal studies on the HIE-ISOLDE high-$\\beta$ superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Alberty, L

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project aims to construct a superconducting linac based on 101.28 MHz niobium sputtered Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs). For this, several prototypes of superconducting cavities are currently being developed at CERN using OFE copper as substrate material for Niobium film coating. Two main concepts are currently under development: one consists of rolled, machined, deepdrawed and welded parts; the other is based on machined parts which are put together using electron beam welding. This study presents the results of simulations carried out in order to assess the thermal performance of different designs. The interest for such analysis was raised up before launching the manufacture of the first industrial series, since both rolled and bulk approaches seemed possible.

  18. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  19. MHD limits and plasma response in high-beta hybrid operations in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igochine, V.; Piovesan, P.; Classen, I. G. J.; Dunne, M.; Gude, A.; Lauber, P.; Liu, Y.; Maraschek, M.; Marrelli, L.; McDermott, R.; Reich, M.; Ryan, D.; Schneller, M.; Strumberger, E.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Zohm, H.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    The improved H-mode scenario (or high β hybrid operations) is one of the main candidates for high-fusion performance tokamak operation that offers a potential steady-state scenario. In this case, the normalized pressure {{β }N} must be maximized and pressure-driven instabilities will limit the plasma performance. These instabilities could have either resistive ((m  =  2, n  =  1) and (3,2) neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs)) or ideal character (n  =  1 ideal kink mode). In ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), the first limit for maximum achievable {{β }N} is set by the NTMs. The application of pre-emptive electron cyclotron current drive at the q  =  2 and q  =  1.5 resonant surfaces reduces this problem, so that higher values of {{β }N} can be reached. AUG experiments have shown that, in spite of the fact that hybrids are mainly limited by NTMs, the proximity to the no-wall limit leads to amplification of the external fields that strongly influence the plasma profiles. For example, rotation braking is observed throughout the plasma and peaks in the core. In this situation, even small external fields are amplified and their effect becomes visible. To quantify these effects, the plasma response to the magnetic fields produced by B-coils is measured as {{β }N} approaches the no-wall limit. These experiments and corresponding modeling allow the identification of the main limiting factors, which depend on the stabilizing influence of the conducting components facing the plasma surface, the existence of external actuators, and the kinetic interaction between the plasma and the marginally stable ideal modes. Analysis of the plasma reaction to external perturbations allowed us to identify optimal correction currents for compensating the intrinsic error field in the device. Such correction, together with the analysis of kinetic effects, will help to increase {{β }N} further in future experiments.

  20. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  1. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  2. Global change effects on Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae) at its high-elevation range margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concilio, Amy L; Loik, Michael E; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Global change is likely to affect invasive species distribution, especially at range margins. In the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, USA, the invasive annual grass, Bromus tectorum, is patchily distributed and its impacts have been minimal compared with other areas of the Intermountain West. We used a series of in situ field manipulations to determine how B. tectorum might respond to changing climatic conditions and increased nitrogen deposition at the high-elevation edge of its invaded range. Over 3 years, we used snow fences to simulate changes in snowpack, irrigation to simulate increased frequency and magnitude of springtime precipitation, and added nitrogen (N) at three levels (0, 5, and 10 g m(-2) ) to natural patches of B. tectorum growing under the two dominant shrubs, Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata, and in intershrub spaces (INTR). We found that B. tectorum seedling density in April was lower following deeper snowpack possibly due to delayed emergence, yet there was no change in spikelet production or biomass accumulation at the time of harvest. Additional spring rain events increased B. tectorum biomass and spikelet production in INTR plots only. Plants were primarily limited by water in 2009, but colimited by N and water in 2011, possibly due to differences in antecedent moisture conditions at the time of treatments. The threshold at which N had an effect varied with magnitude of water additions. Frequency of rain events was more influential than magnitude in driving B. tectorum growth and fecundity responses. Our results suggest that predicted shifts from snow to rain could facilitate expansion of B. tectorum at high elevation depending on timing of rain events and level of N deposition. We found evidence for P-limitation at this site and an increase in P-availability with N additions, suggesting that stoichiometric relationships may also influence B. tectorum spread. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Beta-methyl substitution of cyclohexylalanine in Dmt-Tic-Cha-Phe peptides results in highly potent delta opioid antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Ioja, Eniko; Tömböly, Csaba; Ballet, Steven; Tourwé, Dirk; Péter, Antal; Martinek, Tamás; Chung, Nga N; Schiller, Peter W; Benyhe, Sándor; Borsodi, Anna

    2007-01-25

    The opioid peptide TIPP (H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH, Tic:1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was substituted with Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) and a new unnatural amino acid, beta-MeCha (beta-methyl-cyclohexylalanine). This double substitution led to a new series of opioid peptides displaying subnanomolar delta antagonist activity and mu agonist or antagonist properties depending on the configuration of the beta-MeCha residue. The most promising analog, H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3S)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH was a very selective delta antagonist both in the mouse vas deferens (MVD) assay (Ke = 0.241 +/- 0.05 nM) and in radioligand binding assay (K i delta = 0.48 +/- 0.05 nM, K i mu/K i delta = 2800). The epimeric peptide H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3R)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH and the corresponding peptide amide turned out to be mixed partial mu agonist/delta antagonists in the guinea pig ileum and MVD assays. Our results constitute further examples of the influence of Dmt and beta-methyl substitution as well as C-terminal amidation on the potency, selectivity, and signal transduction properties of TIPP related peptides. Some of these compounds represent valuable pharmacological tools for opioid research.

  4. Cathepsin inhibition-induced lysosomal dysfunction enhances pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis in high glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjeong Jung

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway that plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. We previously showed that the inhibition of autophagy causes pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy is a protective mechanism for the survival of pancreatic β-cells. The current study demonstrates that treatment with inhibitors and knockdown of the lysosomal cysteine proteases such as cathepsins B and L impair autophagy, enhancing the caspase-dependent apoptosis of INS-1 cells and islets upon exposure to high concentration of glucose. Interestingly, treatment with cathepsin B and L inhibitors prevented the proteolytic processing of cathepsins B, D and L, as evidenced by gradual accumulation of the respective pro-forms. Of note, inhibition of aspartic cathepsins had no effect on autophagy and cell viability, suggesting the selective role of cathepsins B and L in the regulation of β-cell autophagy and apoptosis. Lysosomal localization of accumulated pro-cathepsins in the presence of cathepsin B and L inhibitors was verified via immunocytochemistry and lysosomal fractionation. Lysotracker staining indicated that cathepsin B and L inhibitors led to the formation of severely enlarged lysosomes in a time-dependent manner. The abnormal accumulation of pro-cathepsins following treatment with inhibitors of cathepsins B and L suppressed normal lysosomal degradation and the processing of lysosomal enzymes, leading to lysosomal dysfunction. Collectively, our findings suggest that cathepsin defects following the inhibition of cathepsin B and L result in lysosomal dysfunction and consequent cell death in pancreatic β-cells.

  5. The Copper Substrate Developments for the HIE-ISOLDE High-Beta Quarter Wave Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Alberty, L; Aviles, I; Calatroni, S; Capatina, O; Foffano, G; Kadi, Y; Moyret, P; Schirm, K-M; Tardy, T; Venturini Delsolaro, W; D'Elia, A

    2013-01-01

    A new Linac using superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonators (QWRs) is under construction at CERN in the framework of the HIE-ISOLDE project. The QWRs are made by niobium sputtered on a bulk copper substrate. The working frequency at 4.5 K is 101.28 MHz and they will provide 6 MV/m accelerating gradient on the beam axis with a total maximum power dissipation of 10 W. The properties of the cavity substrate have a direct impact on the final cavity performance. The copper substrate has to ensure an optimum surface for the niobium sputtered layer. It has also to fulfil the required geometrical tolerances, the mechanical stability during operation and the thermal performance to optimally extract the RF dissipated power on cavity walls. The paper presents the mechanical design of the high β cavities. The procurement process of the copper raw material is detailed, including specifications and tests. The manufacturing sequence of the complete cavity is then explained and the structural and thermo-mechanical behaviour...

  6. Clearance of beta-amyloid is facilitated by apolipoprotein E and circulating high-density lipoproteins in bioengineered human vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Emily B; Yuen, Brian; Gilmour, Megan; Kang, Kevin; Bahrabadi, Arvin; Stukas, Sophie; Zhao, Wenchen; Kulic, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid plaques, consisting of deposited beta-amyloid (Aβ), are a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Cerebral vessels play a major role in AD, as Aβ is cleared from the brain by pathways involving the cerebrovasculature, most AD patients have cerebrovascular amyloid (cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cardiovascular risk factors increase dementia risk. Here we present a notable advance in vascular tissue engineering by generating the first functional 3-dimensioinal model of CAA in bioengineered human vessels. We show that lipoproteins including brain (apoE) and circulating (high-density lipoprotein, HDL) synergize to facilitate Aβ transport across bioengineered human cerebral vessels. These lipoproteins facilitate Aβ42 transport more efficiently than Aβ40, consistent with Aβ40 being the primary species that accumulates in CAA. Moreover, apoE4 is less effective than apoE2 in promoting Aβ transport, also consistent with the well-established role of apoE4 in Aβ deposition in AD. PMID:28994390

  7. Human Beta Defensin 2 Selectively Inhibits HIV-1 in Highly Permissive CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Mark K; Sun, Lingling; Christensen-Quick, Aaron; Lu, Wuyuan; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo

    2017-05-16

    Chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)⁺CD4⁺ T cells are preferentially infected and depleted during HIV disease progression, but are preserved in non-progressors. CCR6 is expressed on a heterogeneous population of memory CD4⁺ T cells that are critical to mucosal immunity. Preferential infection of these cells is associated, in part, with high surface expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and α4β7. In addition, CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T cells harbor elevated levels of integrated viral DNA and high levels of proliferation markers. We have previously shown that the CCR6 ligands MIP-3α and human beta defensins inhibit HIV replication. The inhibition required CCR6 and the induction of APOBEC3G. Here, we further characterize the induction of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme (APOBEC3G) by human beta defensin 2. Human beta defensin 2 rapidly induces transcriptional induction of APOBEC3G that involves extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation and the transcription factors NFATc2, NFATc1, and IRF4. We demonstrate that human beta defensin 2 selectively protects primary CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T cells infected with HIV-1. The selective protection of CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T cell subsets may be critical in maintaining mucosal immune function and preventing disease progression.

  8. Progress with Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation Studies for High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Adriana; et al.

    2017-05-01

    Long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interactions can be a source of emittance growth and beam losses in the LHC during physics and will become even more relevant with the smaller '* and higher bunch intensities foreseen for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade (HL-LHC), in particular if operated without crab cavities. Both beam losses and emittance growth could be mitigated by compensat-ing the non-linear LRBB kick with a correctly placed current carrying wire. Such a compensation scheme is currently being studied in the LHC through a demonstration test using current-bearing wires embedded into col-limator jaws, installed either side of the high luminosity interaction regions. For HL-LHC two options are considered, a current-bearing wire as for the demonstrator, or electron lenses, as the ideal distance between the particle beam and compensating current may be too small to allow the use of solid materials. This paper reports on the ongoing activities for both options, covering the progress of the wire-in-jaw collimators, the foreseen LRBB experiments at the LHC, and first considerations for the design of the electron lenses to ultimately replace material wires for HL-LHC.

  9. Experimental investigation of piercing of high-strength steels within a critical range of slant angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, S.; Liewald, M.

    2017-09-01

    Deep drawn parts often do have complex designs and, therefore, must be trimmed or punched subsequently in a second stage. Due to the complex part geometry, most punching areas do reveal critical slant angle (angle between part surface and ram movement direction) different to perpendicular direction. Piercing within a critical range of slant angle may lead to severe damage of the cutting tool. Consequently, expensive cam units are required to transform the ram moving direction in order to perform the piercing process perpendicularly to the local part surface. For modern sheet metals, however, the described critical angle of attack has not been investigated adequately until now. Therefore, cam units are used in cases in which regular piercing with high slant angle wouldn’t be possible. Purpose of this study is to investigate influencing factors and their effect on punch damage during piercing of high strength steels with slant angles. Therefore, a modular shearing tool was designed, which allows to simply switch die parts to vary cutting clearance and cutting angle. The target size of the study is to measure the lateral deviation of the punch which is monitored by an eddy current sensor. The sensor is located in the downholder and measures the lateral punch deviation in-line during manufacturing. The deviation is mainly influenced by slant angle of workpiece surface. In relation to slang angle and sheet thickness the clearance has a small influence on the measured punch deflection.

  10. HAMP – the microwave package on the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft (HALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An advanced package of microwave remote sensing instrumentation has been developed for the operation on the new German High Altitude LOng range research aircraft (HALO. The HALO Microwave Package, HAMP, consists of two nadir-looking instruments: a cloud radar at 36 GHz and a suite of passive microwave radiometers with 26 frequencies in different bands between 22.24 and 183.31 ± 12.5 GHz. We present a description of HAMP's instrumentation together with an illustration of its potential. To demonstrate this potential, synthetic measurements for the implemented passive microwave frequencies and the cloud radar based on cloud-resolving and radiative transfer model calculations were performed. These illustrate the advantage of HAMP's chosen frequency coverage, which allows for improved detection of hydrometeors both via the emission and scattering of radiation. Regression algorithms compare HAMP retrieval with standard satellite instruments from polar orbiters and show its advantages particularly for the lower atmosphere with a root-mean-square error reduced by 5 and 15% for temperature and humidity, respectively. HAMP's main advantage is the high spatial resolution of about 1 km, which is illustrated by first measurements from test flights. Together these qualities make it an exciting tool for gaining a better understanding of cloud processes, testing retrieval algorithms, defining future satellite instrument specifications, and validating platforms after they have been placed in orbit.

  11. Milano group development of bolometric detectors: a 6.8Kg TeO{sub 2} bolometer array for {beta}{beta} decay and high energy resolution {mu}-bolometers for nuclear and X-ray physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Monfardini, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Vanzini, M.; Zanotti, L

    1999-07-26

    In this paper we want to discuss the results obtained on bolometer detectors in the last year by the Milano Group. At first we will show the results on double decay of {sup 130}Te obtained running an array of twenty cryogenic detectors for about 1450h (0.31Kg/y of {sup 130}Te under test). The set-up is made with crystals of TeO{sub 2} of 340 grams each. It was run in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory at a depth of about 3500 m.w.e. By recording the pulses of each detector, in anticoincidence with the others, a 90% c.l. lower limit of 0.87x10{sup 23} years has been obtained on neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay of {sup 130}Te. Then we will show the exceptional energy resolution of two bolometers composed of tin absorbers and NTD Ge thermistors. They have been fabricated in preparation of experiments in nuclear and subnuclear physics. Both detectors fully resolve the two K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} and K{sub {alpha}}{sub 2} lines of {sup 55}Mn. The deconvolved FWHM resolution in this energy region ranges from 4.5 to 5.7 eV, according to different intrinsic measured value of those lines.

  12. Range-Specific High-Resolution Mesoscale Model Setup: Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale weather conditions can have an adverse effect on space launch, landing, and ground processing at the Eastern Range (ER) in Florida and Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. During summer, land-sea interactions across Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) lead to sea breeze front formation, which can spawn deep convection that can hinder operations and endanger personnel and resources. Many other weak locally driven low-level boundaries and their interactions with the sea breeze front and each other can also initiate deep convection in the KSC/CCAFS area. Some of these other boundaries include the Indian River breeze front, Banana River breeze front, outflows from previous convection, horizontal convective rolls, convergence lines from other inland bodies of water such as Lake Okeechobee, the trailing convergence line from convergence of sea breeze fronts due to the shape of Cape Canaveral, frictional convergence lines from the islands in the Bahamas, convergence lines from soil moisture differences, convergence lines from cloud shading, and others. All these subtle weak boundary interactions often make forecasting of operationally important weather very difficult at KSC/CCAFS during the convective season (May-Oct). These convective processes often build quickly, last a short time (60 minutes or less), and occur over small distances, all of which also poses a significant challenge to the local forecasters who are responsible for issuing weather advisories, watches, and warnings. Surface winds during the transition seasons of spring and fall pose the most difficulties for the forecasters at WFF. They also encounter problems forecasting convective activity and temperature during those seasons. Therefore, accurate mesoscale model forecasts are needed to aid in their decision making. Both the ER and WFF would benefit greatly from high-resolution mesoscale model output to better forecast a variety of unique weather

  13. Detection and quantification of bovine, ovine and caprine milk percentages in protected denomination of origin cheeses by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of beta-lactoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Caçote, Helena

    2003-10-10

    A method for detecting and quantifying bovine, ovine and caprine milk mixtures in milk and cheeses by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of beta-lactoglobulins is described. Gradient elution was carried out with a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min and a temperature of 45 degrees C, using a mixture of two solvents: solvent A (0.1% TFA in water) and solvent B (0.09% TFA in 80% aqueous acetonitrile, v/v). The effluent was monitored at 215 nm. Under the conditions used different chromatographic patterns were obtained for bovine, ovine and caprine whey proteins. Each milk type presented different retention times for beta-lactoglobulin peaks. Binary mixtures of bovine and ovine or bovine and caprine raw milks containing 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 75 and 95% (v/v) of bovine milk, as well as ovine and caprine milk mixtures containing 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 75 and 95% (v/v) of ovine milk were used for cheese making. Cheeses were prepared and ripened, according to traditional methods. Milk mixtures, fresh and ripened cheeses were analyzed. A linear relationship was established between log 10 of beta-lactoglobulin peaks ratio (calculated as peak area values ratio) and log 10 of the relative percentage of bovine or ovine milk. The ratio between beta-lactoglobulin peaks was not affected by the degree of ripening. Thus, enabling the quantification of milk type percentage, with a detection limit of 2%. This technique allowed quantification of milk species within the concentration range of 5-95%. The method was successfully applied for authenticity evaluation and quantitative determination of ovine and caprine milk percentages of commercial protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses.

  14. A Small Range Six-Axis Accelerometer Designed with High Sensitivity DCB Elastic Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a small range six-axis accelerometer (the measurement range of the sensor is ±g with high sensitivity DCB (Double Cantilever Beam elastic element. This sensor is developed based on a parallel mechanism because of the reliability. The accuracy of sensors is affected by its sensitivity characteristics. To improve the sensitivity, a DCB structure is applied as the elastic element. Through dynamic analysis, the dynamic model of the accelerometer is established using the Lagrange equation, and the mass matrix and stiffness matrix are obtained by a partial derivative calculation and a conservative congruence transformation, respectively. By simplifying the structure of the accelerometer, a model of the free vibration is achieved, and the parameters of the sensor are designed based on the model. Through stiffness analysis of the DCB structure, the deflection curve of the beam is calculated. Compared with the result obtained using a finite element analysis simulation in ANSYS Workbench, the coincidence rate of the maximum deflection is 89.0% along the x-axis, 88.3% along the y-axis and 87.5% along the z-axis. Through strain analysis of the DCB elastic element, the sensitivity of the beam is obtained. According to the experimental result, the accuracy of the theoretical analysis is found to be 90.4% along the x-axis, 74.9% along the y-axis and 78.9% along the z-axis. The measurement errors of linear accelerations ax, ay and az in the experiments are 2.6%, 0.6% and 1.31%, respectively. The experiments prove that accelerometer with DCB elastic element performs great sensitive and precision characteristics.

  15. Acceleration Data Reveal Highly Individually Structured Energetic Landscapes in Free-Ranging Fishers (Pekania pennanti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Anne K; LaPoint, Scott; Wikelski, Martin; Safi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Investigating animal energy expenditure across space and time may provide more detailed insight into how animals interact with their environment. This insight should improve our understanding of how changes in the environment affect animal energy budgets and is particularly relevant for animals living near or within human altered environments where habitat change can occur rapidly. We modeled fisher (Pekania pennanti) energy expenditure within their home ranges and investigated the potential environmental and spatial drivers of the predicted spatial patterns. As a proxy for energy expenditure we used overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) that we quantified from tri-axial accelerometer data during the active phases of 12 individuals. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to investigate the spatial distribution of ODBA by associating the acceleration data to the animals' GPS-recorded locations. We related the spatial patterns of ODBA to the utilization distributions and habitat suitability estimates across individuals. The ODBA of fishers appears highly structured in space and was related to individual utilization distribution and habitat suitability estimates. However, we were not able to predict ODBA using the environmental data we selected. Our results suggest an unexpected complexity in the space use of animals that was only captured partially by re-location data-based concepts of home range and habitat suitability. We suggest future studies recognize the limits of ODBA that arise from the fact that acceleration is often collected at much finer spatio-temporal scales than the environmental data and that ODBA lacks a behavioral correspondence. Overcoming these limits would improve the interpretation of energy expenditure in relation to the environment.

  16. Utility of ionosphere and troposphere models for extending the range of high-accuracy GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, David William

    This dissertation studied the use of NOAA real-time ionosphere and troposphere products in extending the range of long-baseline, high-accuracy DGPS for real-time positioning. The question being addressed by this work is; can existing real-time ionosphere and troposphere models reduce the observation uncertainties to the level where they can be used to reliably resolve integer ambiguities, in real-time, over long baselines (>30km). In-house GPS processing software (USM_OTF) was developed to ingest the models and compute epoch-to-epoch, float and fixed ambiguity position solutions. Single baseline processing, ranging from 20 to 740 kin, over several days in four separate sessions (July 2004, January 2005, August 2005 and July 2006) incorporating four regions of the U.S.A. (Michigan, California, Central and the South East), were evaluated. The first session looked at the NOAA real-time troposphere model and the second session looked at the NOAA real-time ionosphere model. The third and fourth sessions looked at the use of both the NOAA real-time ionosphere and troposphere models. Results showed that the NOAA troposphere model reduced the height bias uncertainty by up to 30 cm, under high activity conditions. They also showed that the troposphere model increased the uncertainty standard deviation under these high activity conditions. The results from the first tests of the real-time NOAA ionosphere model showed that, due to satellite coverage issues, it produced worse results than other real-time models. The NOAA model suffered from lack of satellite coverage corrections, especially in areas near the limits of the model, and at the beginning and end of a satellite's flight path. A reduction in satellite numbers lead to weaker geometry and less reliable position solutions. These tests showed that it was better to provide less accurate ionosphere estimates than to leave the satellites out of the solution. These problems were addressed by NOAA prior to the final tests

  17. A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Lanterman Range, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Antonia; Läufer, Andreas; Crispini, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni; Lisker, Frank

    2017-04-01

    During the GANOVEX XI (German North Victoria Land Expedition) in 2015-16, a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out over the Lanterman Range in northern Victoria Land (NVL). The helicopter-based survey aimed to resolve the fine structure over the so-called Lanterman Suture Zone, which represents one of the main key areas regarding geodynamic evolution of NVL during the Early Palaeozoic Ross Orogeny. This was achieved by reducing the flight line spacing to 1-2 km with 10 km tie lines and flying in a terrain-following mode. The survey was completed by ground truth magnetic susceptibility readings by using a Kappameter KM-7. The Ross-aged basement of NVL is subdivided into three tectonometamorphic so-called "terranes", comprising from W to E the Wilson-, the Bowers- and the Robertson Bay Terrane. They are generally interpreted to have formed by accretion processes at the Palaeo-Pacific active continental margin of East Gondwana in the Cambrian and Ordovician. The survey over the Lanterman Range covered parts of the two western terranes, namely the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which are separated by the Lanterman Fault Zone. This polyphase tectonic discontinuity is characterized by a belt of mafic and ultramafic rocks comprising metabasites with eclogite-facies relicts. Preliminary results show two distinct and nearly parallel magnetic lineaments in the survey area that will be further interpreted by combined magnetic susceptibility measurements and geological field data. One magnetic lineament correlates well with the known boundary between the Wilson and Bowers terranes, which comprises also a metaconglomerate belt with mafic to ultramafic clasts. The second, further easterly magnetic lineament is so far not supported by outcrops of associated highly magnetic rocks in the field. Similar parallel structures have been observed further to the southeast and seem to be offset by a major sinistral strike-slip fault zone of possibly post-Jurassic age. One

  18. Comparison of changes in the secondary structure of unheated, heated, and high-pressure-treated beta-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin proteins using fourier transform raman spectroscopy and self-deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarize, Sekai; Herman, Henryk; Adams, Alf; Howell, Nazlin

    2004-10-20

    Changes in protein secondary structure and conformation of ovalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin (15% protein w/w) were investigated by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and self-deconvolution. The amounts of alpha-helix, beta-sheets, random coil, and beta-turns in native beta-lactoglobulin were 15, 54, 6, and 25%, respectively, and those for ovalbumin (41, 34, 13, and 12%) compared well with published values obtained by X-ray crystallography. The proteins were heated at 90 degrees C for 30 min and high-pressure-treated at 600 MPa for 20 min. Heating increased beta-sheet structures in both proteins at the expense of alpha-helix; for beta-lactoglobulin beta-sheet structures increased from 54 to 70% and for ovalbumin, from 34 to 54%. Random coil increased from 6% in the native protein to 30% in high-pressure-treated beta-lactoglobulin. However, for ovalbumin, the contribution from beta-turns doubled in high-pressure-treated samples, with little change in random coil. Further examination of the deconvoluted amide I band in heated samples revealed several component bands. Bands at 1626 and 1682 cm(-1) for ovalbumin and at 1625 and 1680 cm(-1) for beta-lactoglobulin were observed and are associated with aggregated, intermolecular beta-sheet (beta-aggregation), indicative of heat denaturation. The band seen at 1632-1640 cm(-1) corresponded to intramolecular beta-sheet structures, whereas the band at 1625 cm(-1) is associated with exposed beta-sheets (for example, beta-strands with strong hydrogen bonding that are not part of the core of beta-sheets). In high-pressure-treated samples bands were also observed at 1628 and 1680 cm(-1) for ovalbumin and at 1626 and 1684 cm(-1) for beta-lactoglobulin, suggesting involvement of beta-sheet structures in protein aggregation. Raman bands were observed at 1665-1670 cm(-1) for ovalbumin and at 1663-1675 cm(-1) for beta-lactoglobulin due to random coil structures. The bands at 1650-1660 cm(-1) due to alpha-helices were observed in both

  19. Haplotyping and copy number estimation of the highly polymorphic human beta-defensin locus on 8p23 by 454 amplicon sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenstiel Philip

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beta-defensin gene cluster (DEFB at chromosome 8p23.1 is one of the most copy number (CN variable regions of the human genome. Whereas individual DEFB CNs have been suggested as independent genetic risk factors for several diseases (e.g. psoriasis and Crohn's disease, the role of multisite sequence variations (MSV is less well understood and to date has only been reported for prostate cancer. Simultaneous assessment of MSVs and CNs can be achieved by PCR, cloning and Sanger sequencing, however, these methods are labour and cost intensive as well as prone to methodological bias introduced by bacterial cloning. Here, we demonstrate that amplicon sequencing of pooled individual PCR products by the 454 technology allows in-depth determination of MSV haplotypes and estimation of DEFB CNs in parallel. Results Six PCR products spread over ~87 kb of DEFB and harbouring 24 known MSVs were amplified from 11 DNA samples, pooled and sequenced on a Roche 454 GS FLX sequencer. From ~142,000 reads, ~120,000 haplotype calls (HC were inferred that identified 22 haplotypes ranging from 2 to 7 per amplicon. In addition to the 24 known MSVs, two additional sequence variations were detected. Minimal CNs were estimated from the ratio of HCs and compared to absolute CNs determined by alternative methods. Concordance in CNs was found for 7 samples, the CNs differed by one in 2 samples and the estimated minimal CN was half of the absolute in one sample. For 7 samples and 2 amplicons, the 454 haplotyping results were compared to those by cloning/Sanger sequencing. Intrinsic problems related to chimera formation during PCR and differences between haplotyping by 454 and cloning/Sanger sequencing are discussed. Conclusion Deep amplicon sequencing using the 454 technology yield thousands of HCs per amplicon for an affordable price and may represent an effective method for parallel haplotyping and CN estimation in small to medium-sized cohorts. The

  20. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P

    1998-01-01

    -rII). We have, in other studies, shown that the presence of TGF beta-rII was mandatory for transmitting the growth inhibitory effect of TGF beta. The results showed a statistically significant difference in Dq, i.e. the shoulder width of the survival curve, between cell lines expressing TGF beta......-rII and cell lines which did not express the receptor (P = 0.01). Cell lines expressing TGF beta-rII had a high Dq-value. TGF beta-rII expression did not correlate with any other radiobiological parameters. We suggest that an intact growth inhibitory pathway mediated by the TGF beta-rII may have a significant...

  1. Lupus anticoagulant, high levels of anticardiolipin, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies are associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzo, M E; Pombo, G; Forastiero, R R; Cerrato, G S; Colorio, C C; Carreras, L O

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), and that of anti-beta2- glycoprotein I (anti-beta2-GPI) and prothrombin antibodies in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Fifty-four consecutive patients with PH were studied: 23 with primary, 20 secondary, and 11 chronic thromboembolic PH. LAC was diagnosed by screening and confirmatory coagulation tests, while aCL, anti-beta2-GPI, and prothrombin antibodies were measured by ELISA. Prevalence of aPL was higher in patients with chronic thromboembolic PH compared to the other 2 groups. The prevalence in chronic thromboembolic PH vs primary and secondary PH was: LAC 63.6 vs 13.0 and 10.0%, p aCL-IgG 54.5 vs 17.4 and 15.0%, p aCL-IgG (odds ratio, OR 24.6, confidence interval, CI 3.0-282, p = 0.0004) and IgM (OR 35.0, CI 2.9-1692, p = 0.0007) and remained significant for anti-beta2-GPI-IgG (OR = undefined, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis showed that only LAC and aCL-IgG at moderate or high levels were independent variables associated with chronic thromboembolic PH. The presence of LAC, moderate or high levels of aCL-IgG, or anti-beta2-GPI-IgG was strongly associated with that of chronic thromboembolic PH. These data are in agreement with the close relationship observed among these 3 variables and thromboembolism in patients with aPL.

  2. Cloud cover detection combining high dynamic range sky images and ceilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, R.; Cazorla, A.; Toledano, C.; Olmo, F. J.; Cachorro, V. E.; de Frutos, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for cloud detection based on high dynamic range images from a sky camera and ceilometer measurements. The algorithm is also able to detect the obstruction of the sun. This algorithm, called CPC (Camera Plus Ceilometer), is based on the assumption that under cloud-free conditions the sky field must show symmetry. The symmetry criteria are applied depending on ceilometer measurements of the cloud base height. CPC algorithm is applied in two Spanish locations (Granada and Valladolid). The performance of CPC retrieving the sun conditions (obstructed or unobstructed) is analyzed in detail using as reference pyranometer measurements at Granada. CPC retrievals are in agreement with those derived from the reference pyranometer in 85% of the cases (it seems that this agreement does not depend on aerosol size or optical depth). The agreement percentage goes down to only 48% when another algorithm, based on Red-Blue Ratio (RBR), is applied to the sky camera images. The retrieved cloud cover at Granada and Valladolid is compared with that registered by trained meteorological observers. CPC cloud cover is in agreement with the reference showing a slight overestimation and a mean absolute error around 1 okta. A major advantage of the CPC algorithm with respect to the RBR method is that the determined cloud cover is independent of aerosol properties. The RBR algorithm overestimates cloud cover for coarse aerosols and high loads. Cloud cover obtained only from ceilometer shows similar results than CPC algorithm; but the horizontal distribution cannot be obtained. In addition, it has been observed that under quick and strong changes on cloud cover ceilometers retrieve a cloud cover fitting worse with the real cloud cover.

  3. Constitutive high expression of chromosomal beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused by a new insertion sequence (IS1669) located in ampD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Hentzer, Morten

    2002-01-01

    resistant, constitutive beta-lactamase-producing variant contained no mutations in ampD, but a point mutation was observed in ampR, resulting in an Asp-135-->Asn change. An identical mutation of AmpR in Enterobacter cloacae has been reported to cause a 450-fold higher AmpC expression. However, in many...... of the isolates expressing high levels of chromosomal beta-lactamase, no changes were found in either ampD, ampR, or in the promoter region of ampD, ampR, or ampC. Our results suggest that multiple pathways may exist leading to increased antimicrobial resistance due to chromosomal beta-lactamase.......The expression of chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is negatively regulated by the activity of an amidase, AmpD. In the present study we examined resistant clinical P. aeruginosa strains and several resistant variants isolated from in vivo and in vitro biofilms for mutations...

  4. Depth maps and high-dynamic range image generation from alternating exposure multiview images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yong Seok; Lee, Kyoung Mu; Lee, Sang Uk

    2017-07-01

    For stereo matching, it is hard to find accurate correspondence for saturated regions, such as too dark or too bright regions, because there is rarely reliable information to match. In this situation, conventional high-dynamic range (HDR) imaging techniques combining multiple exposures for each viewpoint can be adopted to generate well-exposed stereo images. This approach is, however, time-consuming and needs much memory to store multiple exposures for each viewpoint. We propose an efficient method to generate HDR multiview images as well as corresponding accurate depth maps. First, we take a single exposure for each viewpoint with alternating exposure setting, such as short and long exposure, as functions of viewpoint changes. Then, we compute an initial depth map for each view only using neighboring images that have the same exposure. To reduce the error of the initial depth maps for the saturated regions, we adopt the fusion move algorithm fusing neighboring depth maps that have different error regions. Finally, using the enhanced depth maps, we generate artifact-free and sharp HDR images using the joint bilateral filtering and a detail-transfer technique. Experimental results show that our method produces both consistent HDR images and accurate depth maps for various indoor and outdoor multiview images.

  5. High dynamic range bio-molecular ion microscopy with the Timepix detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Julia H; MacAleese, Luke; Visser, Jan; Vrakking, Marc J J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2011-10-15

    Highly parallel, active pixel detectors enable novel detection capabilities for large biomolecules in time-of-flight (TOF) based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). In this work, a 512 × 512 pixel, bare Timepix assembly combined with chevron microchannel plates (MCP) captures time-resolved images of several m/z species in a single measurement. Mass-resolved ion images from Timepix measurements of peptide and protein standards demonstrate the capability to return both mass-spectral and localization information of biologically relevant analytes from matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) on a commercial ion microscope. The use of a MCP-Timepix assembly delivers an increased dynamic range of several orders of magnitude. The Timepix returns defined mass spectra already at subsaturation MCP gains, which prolongs the MCP lifetime and allows the gain to be optimized for image quality. The Timepix peak resolution is only limited by the resolution of the in-pixel measurement clock. Oligomers of the protein ubiquitin were measured up to 78 kDa. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Lightness perception in high dynamic range images: local and remote luminance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Radonjic, Ana; Gilchrist, Alan L; Brainard, David H

    2012-02-08

    We measured the perceived lightness of target patches embedded in high dynamic range checkerboards. We independently varied the luminance of checks immediately surrounding the test and those remote from it. The data establish context transfer functions (CTFs) that characterize perceptual matches across checkerboard contexts. Several features of the CTFs are broadly consistent with previous research: Matched luminance decreases when overall context luminance decreases; matched luminance increases when overall context luminance increases; manipulating context locations near the target has a greater effect than manipulating locations far from the target patch. The measured CTFs are not well described, however, by changes with context in multiplicative gain alone or by changes in both multiplicative and subtractive adaptation parameters. We were able to fit the data with a three-parameter model of adaptation. This allowed us to characterize the CTFs by specifying the luminances that appeared white, black, and gray (white point, black point, and gray point, respectively). The white and black points depended additively on the local and remote contrasts, but accounting for the gray point required an interaction term. Analysis of this effect suggests that the target patch itself must be included in a description of the visual context.

  7. Hardware-based smart camera for recovering high dynamic range video from multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Ginhac, Dominique

    2014-10-01

    In many applications such as video surveillance or defect detection, the perception of information related to a scene is limited in areas with strong contrasts. The high dynamic range (HDR) capture technique can deal with these limitations. The proposed method has the advantage of automatically selecting multiple exposure times to make outputs more visible than fixed exposure ones. A real-time hardware implementation of the HDR technique that shows more details both in dark and bright areas of a scene is an important line of research. For this purpose, we built a dedicated smart camera that performs both capturing and HDR video processing from three exposures. What is new in our work is shown through the following points: HDR video capture through multiple exposure control, HDR memory management, HDR frame generation, and representation under a hardware context. Our camera achieves a real-time HDR video output at 60 fps at 1.3 megapixels and demonstrates the efficiency of our technique through an experimental result. Applications of this HDR smart camera include the movie industry, the mass-consumer market, military, automotive industry, and surveillance.

  8. Realization of High Dynamic Range Imaging in the GLORIA Network and Its Effect on Astronomical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vítek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science project GLORIA (GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array is a first free- and open-access network of robotic telescopes in the world. It provides a web-based environment where users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes and/or by analyzing data that other users have acquired with GLORIA or from other free-access databases. Network of 17 telescopes allows users to control selected telescopes in real time or schedule any more demanding observation. This paper deals with new opportunity that GLORIA project provides to teachers and students of various levels of education. At the moment, there are prepared educational materials related to events like Sun eclipse (measuring local atmosphere changes, Aurora Borealis (calculation of Northern Lights height, or transit of Venus (measurement of the Earth-Sun distance. Student should be able to learn principles of CCD imaging, spectral analysis, basic calibration like dark frames subtraction, or advanced methods of noise suppression. Every user of the network can design his own experiment. We propose advanced experiment aimed at obtaining astronomical image data with high dynamic range. We also introduce methods of objective image quality evaluation in order to discover how HDR methods are affecting astronomical measurements.

  9. Robust tracking of respiratory rate in high-dynamic range scenes using mobile thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjun; Julier, Simon J.; Marquardt, Nicolai; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The ability to monitor the respiratory rate, one of the vital signs, is extremely important for the medical treatment, healthcare and fitness sectors. In many situations, mobile methods, which allow users to undertake everyday activities, are required. However, current monitoring systems can be obtrusive, requiring users to wear respiration belts or nasal probes. Alternatively, contactless digital image sensor based remote-photoplethysmography (PPG) can be used. However, remote PPG requires an ambient source of light, and does not work properly in dark places or under varying lighting conditions. Recent advances in thermographic systems have shrunk their size, weight and cost, to the point where it is possible to create smart-phone based respiration rate monitoring devices that are not affected by lighting conditions. However, mobile thermal imaging is challenged in scenes with high thermal dynamic ranges (e.g. due to the different environmental temperature distributions indoors and outdoors). This challenge is further amplified by general problems such as motion artifacts and low spatial resolution, leading to unreliable breathing signals. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust approach for respiration tracking which compensates for the negative effects of variations in the ambient temperature and motion artifacts and can accurately extract breathing rates in highly dynamic thermal scenes. The approach is based on tracking the nostril of the user and using local temperature variations to infer inhalation and exhalation cycles. It has three main contributions. The first is a novel Optimal Quantization technique which adaptively constructs a color mapping of absolute temperature to improve segmentation, classification and tracking. The second is the Thermal Gradient Flow method that computes thermal gradient magnitude maps to enhance the accuracy of the nostril region tracking. Finally, we introduce the Thermal Voxel method to increase the reliability of the

  10. Robust tracking of respiratory rate in high-dynamic range scenes using mobile thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngjun; Julier, Simon J; Marquardt, Nicolai; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2017-10-01

    The ability to monitor the respiratory rate, one of the vital signs, is extremely important for the medical treatment, healthcare and fitness sectors. In many situations, mobile methods, which allow users to undertake everyday activities, are required. However, current monitoring systems can be obtrusive, requiring users to wear respiration belts or nasal probes. Alternatively, contactless digital image sensor based remote-photoplethysmography (PPG) can be used. However, remote PPG requires an ambient source of light, and does not work properly in dark places or under varying lighting conditions. Recent advances in thermographic systems have shrunk their size, weight and cost, to the point where it is possible to create smart-phone based respiration rate monitoring devices that are not affected by lighting conditions. However, mobile thermal imaging is challenged in scenes with high thermal dynamic ranges (e.g. due to the different environmental temperature distributions indoors and outdoors). This challenge is further amplified by general problems such as motion artifacts and low spatial resolution, leading to unreliable breathing signals. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust approach for respiration tracking which compensates for the negative effects of variations in the ambient temperature and motion artifacts and can accurately extract breathing rates in highly dynamic thermal scenes. The approach is based on tracking the nostril of the user and using local temperature variations to infer inhalation and exhalation cycles. It has three main contributions. The first is a novel Optimal Quantization technique which adaptively constructs a color mapping of absolute temperature to improve segmentation, classification and tracking. The second is the Thermal Gradient Flow method that computes thermal gradient magnitude maps to enhance the accuracy of the nostril region tracking. Finally, we introduce the Thermal Voxel method to increase the reliability of the

  11. Shock initiation of nano-Al/Teflon: High dynamic range pyrometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-launched flyer plates (25 μm thick Cu) were used to impact-initiate reactive materials consisting of 40 nm Al particles embedded in TeflonAF polymer (Al/Teflon) on sapphire substrates at a stoichiometric concentration (2.3:1 Teflon:Al), as well as one-half and one-fourth that concentration. A high dynamic range emission spectrometer was used to time and spectrally resolve the emitted light and to determine graybody temperature histories with nanosecond time resolution. At 0.5 km s-1, first light emission was observed from Teflon, but at 0.6 km s-1, the emission from Al/Teflon became much more intense, so we assigned the impact threshold for Al/Teflon reactions to be 0.6 (±0.1) km s-1. The flyer plates produced a 7 ns duration steady shock drive. Emission from shocked Al/Teflon above threshold consisted of two bursts. At the higher impact velocities, the first burst started 15 ns after impact, peaked at 25 ns, and persisted for 75 ns. The second burst started at a few hundred nanoseconds and lasted until 2 μs. The 15 ns start time was exactly the time the flyer plate velocity dropped to zero after impact with sapphire. The first burst was associated with shock-triggered reactions and the second, occurring at ambient pressure, was associated with combustion of leftover material that did not react during shock. The emission spectrum was found to be a good fit to a graybody at all times, allowing temperature histories to be extracted. At 25 ns, the temperature at 0.7 km s-1 and the one-fourth Al load was 3800 K. Those temperatures increased significantly with impact velocity, up to 4600 K, but did not increase as much with Al load. A steady combustion process at 2800 (±100) K was observed in the microsecond range. The minimal dependence on Al loading indicates that these peak temperatures arise primarily from Al nanoparticles reacting almost independently, since the presence of nearby heat sources had little influence on the peak temperatures.

  12. High-Resolution Mesoscale Model Setup for the Eastern Range and Wallops Flight Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale weather conditions can have an adverse effect on space launch, landing, ground processing, and weather advisories, watches, and warnings at the Eastern Range (ER) in Florida and Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) in Virginia. During summer, land-sea interactions across Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) lead to sea breeze front formation, which can spawn deep convection that can hinder operations and endanger personnel and resources. Many other weak locally-driven low-level boundaries and their interactions with the sea breeze front and each other can also initiate deep convection in the KSC/CCAFS area. These convective processes often last 60 minutes or less and pose a significant challenge to the local forecasters. Surface winds during the transition seasons (spring and fall) pose the most difficulties for the forecasters at WFF. They also encounter problems forecasting convective activity and temperature during those seasons. Therefore, accurate mesoscale model forecasts are needed to better forecast a variety of unique weather phenomena. Global and national scale models cannot properly resolve important local-scale weather features at each location due to their horizontal resolutions being much too coarse. Therefore, a properly tuned local data assimilation (DA) and forecast model at a high resolution is needed to provide improved capability. To accomplish this, a number of sensitivity tests were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to determine the best DA/model configuration for operational use at each of the space launch ranges to best predict winds, precipitation, and temperature. A set of Perl scripts to run the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI)/WRF in real-time were provided by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT). The GSI can analyze many types of observational data including satellite, radar, and conventional data. The GSI/WRF scripts

  13. Cornification in reptilian epidermis occurs through the deposition of keratin-associated beta-proteins (beta-keratins) onto a scaffold of intermediate filament keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2013-02-01

    The isolation of genes for alpha-keratins and keratin-associated beta-proteins (formerly beta-keratins) has allowed the production of epitope-specific antibodies for localizing these proteins during the process of cornification epidermis of reptilian sauropsids. The antibodies are directed toward proteins in the alpha-keratin range (40-70 kDa) or beta-protein range (10-30 kDa) of most reptilian sauropsids. The ultrastructural immunogold study shows the localization of acidic alpha-proteins in suprabasal and precorneous epidermal layers in lizard, snake, tuatara, crocodile, and turtle while keratin-associated beta-proteins are localized in precorneous and corneous layers. This late activation of the synthesis of keratin-associated beta-proteins is typical for keratin-associated and corneous proteins in mammalian epidermis (involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin) or hair (tyrosine-rich or sulfur-rich proteins). In turtles and crocodilians epidermis, keratin-associated beta-proteins are synthesized in upper spinosus and precorneous layers and accumulate in the corneous layer. The complex stratification of lepidosaurian epidermis derives from the deposition of specific glycine-rich versus cysteine-glycine-rich keratin-associated beta-proteins in cells sequentially produced from the basal layer and not from the alternation of beta- with alpha-keratins. The process gives rise to Oberhäutchen, beta-, mesos-, and alpha-layers during the shedding cycle of lizards and snakes. Differently from fish, amphibian, and mammalian keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) of the epidermis, the keratin-associated beta-proteins of sauropsids are capable to form filaments of 3-4 nm which give rise to an X-ray beta-pattern as a consequence of the presence of a beta-pleated central region of high homology, which seems to be absent in KAPs of the other vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pharmacologic differences between beta blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A J

    1984-10-01

    All of the beta blockers act by antagonizing the actions of the endogenous adrenergic agonists epinephrine and norepinephrine at the beta-adrenergic receptors. However, a number of pharmacologic differences exist between the various agents. Some drugs, such as atenolol and metoprolol, are relatively selective for the beta-1-adrenergic receptors, requiring higher concentrations to block beta-2-adrenergic receptors than are required to block beta-1 receptors. It should be noted, however, that these selective beta blockers all block beta-2 receptors when their concentrations are high enough. When patients with asthma must receive a beta blocker, low doses of a selective drug should be used. Recent studies, however, have suggested that the use of a nonselective beta blocker may be desirable to antagonize some beta-2-mediated metabolic effects, such as hypokalemia, induced by epinephrine. Pindolol is the only beta-receptor antagonist available in the United States with intrinsic sympathomimetic, or partial agonist, activity. Such drugs, because of their partial agonist activity, cause some sympathetic stimulation under conditions of low endogenous sympathetic tone, such as while subjects are at rest in the supine position. Under conditions of higher sympathetic tone, pindolol blocks the effects of the endogenous agonists, producing the characteristic effects of a beta blocker. Membrane-stabilizing activity was first recognized with propranolol, and the value of this property has been a source of controversy ever since, but recent studies suggest that propranolol may induce electrophysiologic effects by mechanisms other than beta blockade. Pharmacokinetic differences between the drugs are also of importance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Digital beta counting and pulse-shape analysis for high-precision nuclear beta decay half-life measurements: Tested on Alm26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Hardy, J. C.; Bencomo, M.; Horvat, V.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.

    2013-11-01

    A digital β-counting method has been developed for high-precision nuclear β-decay half-life experiments that use a gas proportional counter. An 8-bit, 1-GS/s sampling-rate digitizer was used to record the waveforms from the detector and a software filter was designed, tested and applied successfully to discriminate genuine β-decay events from spurious signals by pulse-shape analysis. The method of using a high-speed digitizer for precision β counting is described in detail. We have extensively tested the digitizer and the off-line filter by analyzing saved waveforms from the decay of Alm26 acquired at rates up to 10,000 per second. The half-life we obtain for Alm26 is 6345.30±0.90 ms, which agrees well with previous published measurements and is as precise as the best of them. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying a high-speed digitizer and off-line digital signal processing techniques for high-precision nuclear β-decay half-life measurements.

  16. Beta vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat treated Beetroot have the highest value for ABTS scavenging ability. ... powdered sample was stored in a clean dry plastic container at room ..... Nutritional value and economic feasibility of red beetroot. (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel) from different production systems. African Journal of. Agricultural ...

  17. Thrombolysis using multi-frequency high intensity focused ultrasound at MHz range: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Dingjie; Guo, Sijia; Lin, Weili; Jiang, Xiaoning; Jing, Yun

    2015-09-21

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) based thrombolysis has emerged as a promising drug-free treatment approach for ischemic stroke. The large amount of acoustic power required by this approach, however, poses a critical challenge to the future clinical translation. In this study, multi-frequency acoustic waves at MHz range (near 1.5 MHz) were introduced as HIFU excitations to reduce the required power for treatment as well as the treatment time. In vitro bovine blood clots weighing around 150 mg were treated by single-frequency and multi-frequency HIFU. The pulse length was 2 ms for all experiments except the ones where the duty cycle was changed. It was found that dual-frequency thrombolysis efficiency was statistically better than single-frequency under the same acoustic power and excitation condition. When varying the acoustic power but fixing the duty cycle at 5%, it was found that dual-frequency ultrasound can save almost 30% power in order to achieve the same thrombolysis efficiency. In the experiment where the duty cycle was increased from 0.5% to 10%, it was shown that dual-frequency ultrasound can achieve the same thrombolysis efficiency with only half of the duty cycle of single-frequency. Dual-frequency ultrasound could also accelerate the thrombolysis by a factor of 2-4 as demonstrated in this study. No significant differences were found between dual-frequencies with different frequency differences (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 MHz) and between dual-frequency and triple-frequency. The measured cavitation doses of dual-frequency and triple-frequency excitations were at about the same level but both were significantly higher than that of single-frequency.

  18. Laboratory Column Evaluation of High Explosives Attenuation in Grenade Range Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jongho; Borden, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    High explosives (HEs) deposited on military ranges can leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater. We examined the transport and fate of HEs in laboratory columns containing soils from two hand grenade bays (Bays C and T) and the impact of organic amendments on biodegradation. Soil characteristics were similar; however, Bay C had somewhat higher clay and organic C. Experimental treatments included addition of crude glycerin and lignosulfonate, and parallel control columns. Experimental results showed extensive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) degradation with minimal leaching, consistent with prior batch microcosm results. Amendment addition enhanced TNT degradation in both Bays C and T compared with controls. Although hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive, or RDX) did not biodegrade in prior aerobic batch microcosms, 64 to 77% of RDX biodegraded in untreated soil columns with O present in the mobile soil gas. The RDX biodegradation was likely associated with short-term anoxic conditions or anoxic micro-niches. In nearly saturated Bay C columns, RDX removal increased to >92%. Amendment addition to unsaturated Bay T columns increased RDX removal to >86%. In one column, the soil remained anoxic (O < 5% by volume) for about a year after amendment addition, significantly reducing RDX leaching. Nitroso degradation products were produced equivalent to 9 to 39% of the RDX degraded, with most retained in the soil (9-37%) and 0 to 3% in the effluent. These results demonstrate that RDX biodegradation can occur in soils with measurable O, and that amendment addition can reduce RDX leaching by stimulating anaerobic biodegradation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Moderate Exercise Restores Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function and Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Obese Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Mello Gomes; Laize Peron Tófolo; Wilson Rinaldi; Dionizia Xavier Scomparin; Sabrina Grassiolli; Luiz Felipe Barella; Júlio Cezar de Oliveira; Renato Chaves Souto Branco; Aryane Rodrigues Agostinho; Tatiane Aparecida da Silva Ribeiro; Clarice Gravena; Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Metabolic syndrome has been identified as one of the most significant threats to human health in the 21st century. Exercise training has been shown to counteract obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate exercise training on pancreatic beta-cell function and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Weaning rats were divided into four groups: rats fed a standard chow or HFD (sedenta...

  20. Structure and Function of Lineage-Specific Sequence Insertions in the Bacterial RNA Polymerase beta' Subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlenov,M.; Masuda, Y.; Murakami, K.; Nikiforov, V.; Darst, S.; Mustaev, A.

    2005-01-01

    The large {beta} and {beta}{prime} subunits of the bacterial core RNA polymerase (RNAP) are highly conserved throughout evolution. Nevertheless, large sequence insertions in {beta} and {beta}' characterize specific evolutionary lineages of bacteria. The Thermus aquaticus RNAP {beta}{prime} subunit contains a 283 residue insert between conserved regions A and B that is found in only four bacterial species. The Escherichia coli RNAP {beta}{prime} subunit contains a 188 residue insert in the middle of conserved region G that is found in a wide range of bacterial species. Here, we present structural studies of these two {beta}{prime} insertions. We show that the inserts comprise repeats of a previously characterized fold, the sandwich-barrel hybrid motif (as predicted from previous sequence analysis) and that the inserts serve significant roles in facilitating protein/protein and/or protein/nucleic acid interactions.

  1. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani

    2008-01-01

    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  2. One-pot synthesis of powder-form {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} monolayer nanosheets with high electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minmin; Ren, Wanzhong; Zhao, Yunan; Liu, Yan; Cui, Hongtao, E-mail: htcui@ytu.edu.cn [Yantai University, Shandong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Light Hydrocarbon Comprehensive Utilization, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} monolayer nanosheets, which had been thought to be unachievable, were successfully prepared for the first time by a one-pot strategy using epoxide as precipitation agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The characterization results indicate that the formation of monolayer morphology depends on the mediation of SDS molecules. The XRD patterns demonstrate the loose and defective packing of Ni(OH){sub 2} layers in the SDS intercalated samples. The disappearing of vibration band of free hydroxyl groups in the FTIR spectra suggests the interlayer separation resulted by SDS. The TEM and AFM images further confirm the formation of monolayer nanosheets. It is proposed that the in situ modification of the secondary growth unit of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} by SDS allows its two-dimensional anisotropic growth through steric hindrance of SDS molecules. In addition, this effect allows isolation of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} from solvent with keeping of monolayer nanosheet state in dry powder. The electrochemical measurement results indicate that {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} monolayer nanosheets own much higher urea electrolysis performance than their corresponding multilayer structure.

  3. Dysplasia in fundic gland polyps is associated with nuclear beta-catenin expression and relatively high cell turnover rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalving, M.; Koornstra, J.J.; Boersma-van Ek, W.; de Jong, S.; Karrenbeld, A.; Hollema, H.; de Vries, E.G.E.; Kleibeuker, J.H.

    Background: Fundic gland polyps (FGPs) occur in both syndromic and sporadic form. Syndromic FGPs arise through mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, whereas sporadic FGPs are caused by beta-catenin gene mutations. Dysplasia in sporadic FGPs, found less often than in syndromic FGPs,

  4. HIGHLY EFFICIENT SINGLE-LONGITUDINAL-MODE BETA-BAB2O4 OPTICAL PARAMETRIC OSCILLATOR WITH A NEW CAVITY DESIGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonengering, J.M.; Gloster, L.A.W.; Veer, van der W.E.; McKinnie, I.T.; King, T.A.; Hogervorst, W.

    1995-01-01

    A new coupled-cavity design for single-longitudinal-mode operation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is presented. The OPO is based on a beta-BaB2O4 crystal and is pumped by the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. With this design, we achieved single-longitudinal-mode operation of the OPO with

  5. beta-Arrestin 1 and 2 stabilize the angiotensin II type I receptor in distinct high-affinity conformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanni, S J; Hansen, J T; Bonde, M M

    2010-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor belongs to family A of 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptors. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system and is commonly used as a drug target in cardiovascular diseases. Interaction of 7TM receptors with G proteins or beta-arrestins often i...

  6. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1998-04-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta-rII). We have, in other studies, shown that the presence of TGF beta-rII was mandatory for transmitting the growth inhibitory effect of TGF beta. The results showed a statistically significant difference in Dq, i.e. the shoulder width of the survival curve, between cell lines expressing TGF beta-rII and cell lines which did not express the receptor (P = 0.01). Cell lines expressing TGF beta-rII had a high Dq-value. TGF beta-rII expression did not correlate with any other radiobiological parameters. We suggest that an intact growth inhibitory pathway mediated by the TGF beta-rII may have a significant role for the repair of radiation induced DNA damage in SCLC.

  7. The wide-range ejector flowmeter: calibrated gas evacuation comprising both high and low gas flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaben, J; Brinkløv, M M; Jørgensen, S

    1984-11-01

    The wide-range ejector flowmeter is an active scavenging system applying calibrated gas removal directly to the anaesthetic circuit. The evacuation rate can be adjusted on the flowmeter under visual control using the calibration scale ranging from 200 ml X min-1 to 151 X min-1. The accuracy of the calibration was tested on three ejector flowmeters at 12 different presettings. The percentage deviation from presetting varied from + 18 to - 19.4 per cent. The ejector flowmeter enables the provision of consistent and accurately calibrated extraction of waste gases and is applicable within a wide range of fresh gas flows.

  8. Determination of zearalenone and its metabolites alpha- and beta-zearalenol in beer samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, P; Berner, D; Jodlbauer, J; Lindner, W

    2000-02-11

    A fast, robust and sensitive LC-MS-MS method for the determination of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL) in beer samples is described. Sample preparation was performed by direct RP-18 solid-phase extraction of undiluted beer samples followed by selective determination of analytes by LC-MS-MS applying an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface. Using the negative ion mode limits of determination of 0.03-0.06 microg l(-1) beer and limits of quantification of 0.07-0.15 microg l(-1) beer were achieved, which was distinctly more sensitive than in the positive ion mode. Twenty-three beer samples from different countries, produced from different grains and under different brewing conditions, were investigated by this method, but only in one sample could beta-ZOL and ZON be detected. Independently of the type of beer, relative standard deviations between 2.1% and 3.3%, a linear working range of 0.15 microg l(-1) to 500 microg l(-1) beer and recovery rates around 100% could be achieved when zearalanone (ZAN) was used as internal standard.

  9. GIOTTO ION MASS SPECTROMETER HIGH ENERGY RANGE DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A wide range of ion species and velocity distributions are expected to be found as the Giotto spacecraft traverses the coma of Halley's Comet. The outer coma is...

  10. High-Counting Rate Photon Detectors for Long-Range Space Optical Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long range, RF space communications do not meet anymore the bandwidth requirements or power constraints of future NASA missions. Optical communications offer the...

  11. Thermodynamics of beta-sheet formation in polyglutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalis, Andreas; Lyle, Nicholas; Pappu, Rohit V

    2009-07-08

    The role of beta-sheets in the early stages of protein aggregation, specifically amyloid formation, remains unclear. Interpretations of kinetic data have led to a specific model for the role of beta-sheets in polyglutamine aggregation. According to this model, monomeric polyglutamine, which is intrinsically disordered, goes through a rare conversion into an ordered, metastable, beta-sheeted state that nucleates aggregation. It has also been proposed that the probability of forming the critical nucleus, a specific beta-sheet conformation for the monomer, increases with increasing chain length. Here, we test this model using molecular simulations. We quantified free energy profiles in terms of beta-content for monomeric polyglutamine as a function of chain length. In accord with estimates from experimental data, the free energy penalties for forming beta-rich states are in the 10-20 kcal/mol range. However, the length dependence of these free energy penalties does not mirror interpretations of kinetic data. In addition, although homodimerization of disordered molecules is spontaneous, the imposition of conformational restraints on polyglutamine molecules does not enhance the spontaneity of intermolecular associations. Our data lead to the proposal that beta-sheet formation is an attribute of peptide-rich phases such as high molecular weight aggregates rather than monomers or oligomers.

  12. Testing and validation of high density resequencing microarray for broad range biothreat agents detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz A Leski

    Full Text Available Rapid and effective detection and identification of emerging microbiological threats and potential biowarfare agents is very challenging when using traditional culture-based methods. Contemporary molecular techniques, relying upon reverse transcription and/or polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR/PCR provide a rapid and effective alternative, however, such assays are generally designed and optimized to detect only a limited number of targets, and seldom are capable of differentiation among variants of detected targets. To meet these challenges, we have designed a broad-range resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM for detection of tropical and emerging infectious agents (TEI including biothreat agents: RPM-TEI v 1.0 (RPM-TEI. The scope of the RPM-TEI assay enables detection and differential identification of 84 types of pathogens and 13 toxin genes, including most of the class A, B and C select agents as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, GA. Due to the high risks associated with handling these particular target pathogens, the sensitivity validation of the RPM-TEI has been performed using an innovative approach, in which synthetic DNA fragments are used as templates for testing the assay's limit of detection (LOD. Assay specificity and sensitivity was subsequently confirmed by testing with full-length genomic nucleic acids of selected agents. The LOD for a majority of the agents detected by RPM-TEI was determined to be at least 10(4 copies per test. Our results also show that the RPM-TEI assay not only detects and identifies agents, but is also able to differentiate near neighbors of the same agent types, such as closely related strains of filoviruses of the Ebola Zaire group, or the Machupo and Lassa arenaviruses. Furthermore, each RPM-TEI assay results in specimen-specific agent gene sequence information that can be used to assess pathogenicity, mutations, and virulence markers, results that are not generally

  13. beta* leveling with telescopic ATS squeeze (MD 2410)

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Jorg; Hostettler, Michi; Pojer, Mirko; Ponce, Laurette; Tydecks, Tobias; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Luminosity leveling by beta* is the baseline operational scenario of HL-LHC, and this leveling technique may be used in 2018 or during run~3 depending on the beam parameters and beta* range. During this MD beta*leveling was commissioned successfully for the first time with the telescopic squeeze over the beta* range of 40 cm to 30 cm. A novel beta* leveling controls technique based on a modification of the LSA trim was also tested during the MD.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of carminic acid, alpha- and beta-bixin, and alpha- and beta-norbixin, and the determination of carminic acid in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F E; Lawrence, J F

    1996-05-03

    During a study of natural food colours, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for use with cochineal and annato. An isocratic mobile phase, consisting of methanol and 6% aqueous acetic acid, resolved bixin and norbixin, while a gradient system was used to separate carminic acid and the annato compounds. The carminic acid contents of cochineal extract, carmine and carmine hydrosoluble were determined using an isocratic mobile phase (40:60, v/v). The detection limit for carminic acid in the various products was approximately 100 ng/g. Carminic acid was determined quantitatively in fruit beverages, yogurt and candies. It was demonstrated that, because of decomposition, carminic acid was not suitable for use in candies when manufacturing temperatures above 100 degrees C were required. Most membrane filters are not suitable for use with cochineal solutions, but a cellulose membrane filter did not adsorb carminic acid and was used successfully to remove impurities from water-based cochineal products and food extracts containing carminic acid.

  15. Effects of post-harvest treatments on high-elevation forests in the North Cascade Range, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella Elman; David L. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of post-harvest treatments on regeneration and forest composition 13-27 years following harvest in high-elevation forests of the North Cascade Range, Washington. Eighteen sites encompassing three common post-harvest treatments were examined at elevations ranging from 830 m to 1460 m. Treatments included: (1) sites broadcast burned and planted...

  16. High-q microring resonator with narrow free spectral range for pulse repetition rate multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ji, Hua; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz.......We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz....

  17. High dynamic range isotope ratio measurements using an analog electron multiplier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, P.; Lorinčík, Jan; Franzreb, K.; Herwig, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2013), s. 549-552 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 894 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Isotope ratios * electron multiplier * dynamic range Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2013

  18. Preference limits of the visual dynamic range for ultra high quality and aesthetic conveyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Scott; Kunkel, Timo; Sun, Xing; Farrell, Suzanne; Crum, Poppy

    2013-03-01

    A subjective study was conducted to investigate the preferred maximum and minimum display luminances in order to determine the dynamic ranges for future displays. Two studies address the diffuse reflective regions, and a third study tested preferences of highlight regions. Preferences, as opposed to detection thresholds, were studied to provide results more directly relevant to the viewing of entertainment or art. Test images were specifically designed to test these limits without the perceptual conflicts that usually occur in these types of studies. For the diffuse range, we found a display with a dynamic range having luminances between 0.1 and 650 cd/m2 matches the average preferences. However, to satisfy 90% of the population, a dynamic range from 0.005 and ~3,000 cd/m2 is needed. Since a display should be able to produce values brighter than the diffuse white maximum, as in specular highlights and emissive sources, the highlight study concludes that even the average preferred maximum luminance for highlight reproduction is ~4,000 cd/m2.

  19. High precision corrections to the neutron beta decay rate and electron asymmetry and current determination of V{sub ud}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Luna, J L [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino GarcIa Barragan 1508, CP 44840, Guadalajara Jal. (Mexico); GarcIa, A [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2006-03-01

    The goal of the present analysis is to find, in the free neutron beta decay, the expressions for the decay rate and the electron asymmetry that contain all the theoretical effects at the 10{sup -4} level. This accuracy is better than the current experimental precision that modern experiments allow. For this aim it is necessary to study the strong interaction effects, the radiative corrections and the recoil of the proton. A conceptual problem that we discuss in detail is the Fermi function additivity. The model dependence in the radiative corrections yields important effects which must be incorporated. We show that this is the only source of uncertainty that is out of control still at the mentioned order. As an application, we compare the values of the CKM matrix element |V{sub ud} | from this decay with the values both from the superallowed Fermi transition beta decays and the unitarity of the CKM matrix. We discuss the relevance of the observed discrepancies.

  20. Characterization of a beta-glucosidase produced by a high-specific growth-rate mutant of Cellulomonas flavigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Islas, Gaspar A; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2007-04-01

    The mutant strain PN-120 of Cellulomonas flavigena produces a ss-glucosidase that is 10-fold more active than the corresponding enzyme isolated from the parental strain. These enzymes were partially purified through Q Sepharose and Bio-Gel filtration. A single protein band was detected on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis/zymogram using 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucoside. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, the enzyme displayed three protein bands, suggesting that in C. flavigena the enzyme is oligomeric with a molecular mass of 210 kDa. On purification, the specific activity of ss-glucosidase isolated from PN-120 was increased 16-fold and showed three times more affinity for cellobiose than the enzyme of the parental strain; nevertheless, the optimum pH and temperature were similar for both enzymes. The kinetic parameters suggested that the increase in the activity of the enzyme, from the mutant strain, was caused by a mutation that affects the catalytic site of the enzyme. The partial amino-acid sequence of the isolated enzyme confirmed that it is a beta-glucosidase because of its homology with other beta-glucosidases produced by cellulolytic bacteria and fungi.

  1. Peculiarities of magnetization of second generation high-temperature superconducting tapes in a wide temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnev, I; Komarova, A; Bobin, P, E-mail: iarudnev@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPHI' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    We present the results of study of magnetization and critical current of coated conductors with magnetic and nonmagnetic substrates. The measurements of magnetization curves were done in a wide temperature range from 4,2 to 100 K and magnetic field up to 14 T. To determine the dependence of transport critical current on the magnetic field we measured a set of current-voltage characteristics in the range of magnetic field from 0 to 8 T at T = 77 K with perpendicular to the tape field orientation. It was obtained that the substrates magnetism dramatically changes the form of magnetization curves but not influence the value of critical current. Comparison of field dependence of critical current, obtained by contact and contactless method at T = 77 K shows that for both samples is observed coincidence of the curves at low fields and a strong divergence at H> 1 Tesla.

  2. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective Brassard type hetero-Diels-Alder approach to 5-methyl-containing alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lili; Fan, Qian; Qin, Bo; Feng, Xiaoming

    2006-05-26

    Two efficient new chiral copper (II) Schiff base complexes were developed for the highly enantio- and diastereoselective HDA reaction of Brassard type diene 1b with aldehydes, to afford the corresponding 5-methyl-containing alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactone derivatives in moderate yields, high enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) and excellent diastereoselectivities (up to 99:1 anti/syn). On the basis of the absolute configuration of 4a-4j disclosed by X-ray diffraction and CD analysis, a possible transition-state model for the enantio- and diastereoselective catalytic reaction has been proposed.

  3. High Genetic Diversity and Structured Populations of the Oriental Fruit Moth in Its Range of Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yan; Peng, Xiong; Liu, Gaoming; Pan, Hongyan; Dorn, Silvia; Chen, Maohua

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia) molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected through...

  4. Range shifts and global warming: ecological responses of Empetrum nigrum. to experimental warming at its northern (high Arctic) and southern (Atlantic) geographical range margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, B.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Greve Alsos, I.; Bronken Eidesen, P.; van Breda, J.; de Korte, M.; van Rijckevorsel, J.; Rozema, J.

    2012-01-01

    Global change is expected to lead to range shifts of plant species. The ecological mechanisms underpinning these shifts are currently not well understood. Here, we compared ecological responses possibly underlying southern range contraction and northern range expansion of Empetrum nigrum, a key

  5. Highly efficient tandem polymer solar cells with a photovoltaic response in the visible light range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Maojie; Zhao, Kang; Ye, Long; Chen, Yu; Yang, Bei; Hou, Jianhui

    2015-02-18

    Highly efficient polymer solar cells with a tandem structure are fabricated by using two excellent photovoltaic polymers and a highly transparent intermediate recombination layer. Power conversion -efficiencies over 10% can be realized with a photovoltaic response within 800 nm. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Multi-actuation and PI control: a simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I; Youcef-Toumi, K

    2014-11-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thigh-calf contact: Does it affect the loading of the knee in the high-flexion range?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, J.; Barink, M.; De Waal Malefijt, M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Recently, high-flexion knee implants have been developed to provide for a large range of motion (ROM>120°) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Since knee forces typically increase with larger flexion angles, it is commonly assumed that high-flexion knee implants are subjected to larger loads than

  8. Fabry-Perot Based Ranging Interferometer Receiver for High Spectral Resolution Lidar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) is pleased to present the following Phase II proposal for a Fabry-Perot Based Interferometer Receiver for the High Spectral...

  9. High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase II proposal is development of a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings...

  10. High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal is to develop a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings technology. The...

  11. Active Source Management to Maintain High Efficiency in Resonant Conversion over Wide  Load Range

    OpenAIRE

    Danilovic, Milisav

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency and large amplitude current is a driving requirement for applications such as induction heating, wireless power transfer, power amplifier for magnetic resonant imaging, electronic ballasts, and ozone generators. Voltage-fed resonant inverters are normally employed, however, current-fed (CF) resonant inverters are a competitive alternative when the quality factor of the load is significantly high. The input current of a CF resonant inverter is considerably smaller than the outpu...

  12. New measurements of high-momentum nucleons and short-range structures in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, N; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M H S; Chudakov, E; Clasie, B; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Daniel, A; Day, D B; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Fassi, L El; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Garrow, K; Gaskell, D; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, M; Lindgren, R; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Seely, J; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W F; Wasko, C; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Zheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We present new, high-Q^2 measurements of inclusive electron scattering from high-momentum nucleons in nuclei. This yields an improved extraction of the strength of two-nucleon correlations for several nuclei, including light nuclei where clustering effects can, for the first time, be examined. The data extend to the kinematic regime where three-nucleon correlations are expected to dominate and we observe significantly greater strength in this region than previous measurements.

  13. High-dynamic range compressive spectral imaging by grayscale coded aperture adaptive filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Eduardo Diaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging system (CASSI is an imaging architecture which senses the three dimensional informa-tion of a scene with two dimensional (2D focal plane array (FPA coded projection measurements. A reconstruction algorithm takes advantage of the compressive measurements sparsity to recover the underlying 3D data cube. Traditionally, CASSI uses block-un-block coded apertures (BCA to spatially modulate the light. In CASSI the quality of the reconstructed images depends on the design of these coded apertures and the FPA dynamic range. This work presents a new CASSI architecture based on grayscaled coded apertu-res (GCA which reduce the FPA saturation and increase the dynamic range of the reconstructed images. The set of GCA is calculated in a real-time adaptive manner exploiting the information from the FPA compressive measurements. Extensive simulations show the attained improvement in the quality of the reconstructed images when GCA are employed.  In addition, a comparison between traditional coded apertures and GCA is realized with respect to noise tolerance.

  14. Icing events trigger range displacement in a high-arctic ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stien, Audun; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle; Severinsen, Torbjørn; Kohler, Jack; Langvatn, Rolf

    2010-03-01

    Despite numerous studies of how climate change may affect life history of mammals, few have documented the direct impact of climate on behavior. The Arctic is currently warming, and rain-on-snow and thaw-freeze events leading to ice formation on the ground may increase both in frequency and spatial extent. This is in turn expected to be critical for the winter survival of arctic herbivores. Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus plathyrynchus) have small home ranges and may therefore be vulnerable to local "locked pasture" events (ice layers limit access to plant forage) due to ground-ice formation. When pastures are "locked," Svalbard reindeer are faced with the decision of staying and live off a diminishing fat store, or trying to escape beyond the unknown spatial borders of the ice. We demonstrate that Svalbard reindeer do the latter, as icing events cause an immediate increase in range displacement between 5-day observations. Population-level responses of previous icing events may therefore not accurately predict future responses if the spatial extent of icing increases. The impact of single events may be more severe if it exceeds the maximum movement distances, so that the spatial displacement strategy reported here no longer buffers climate effects.

  15. High affinity interaction of integrin alpha4beta1 (VLA-4) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) enhances migration of human melanoma cells across activated endothelial cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemke, Martin; Weschenfelder, Tatjana; Konstandin, Mathias H; Samstag, Yvonne

    2007-08-01

    The capacity of tumor cells to form metastatic foci correlates with their ability to interact with and migrate through endothelial cell layers. This process involves multiple adhesive interactions between tumor cells and the endothelium. Only little is known about the molecular nature of these interactions during extravasation of tumor cells. In human melanoma cells, the integrin alphavbeta3 is involved in transendothelial migration and its expression correlates with metastasis. However, many human melanoma cells do not express beta3 integrins. Therefore, it remained unclear how these cells undergo transendothelial migration. In this study we show that human melanoma cells with different metastatic potency, which do not express beta2 or beta3 integrins, express the VCAM-1 receptor alpha4beta1. VCAM-1 is up-regulated on activated endothelial cells and is known to promote transendothelial migration of leukocytes. Interestingly, despite comparable cell surface levels of alpha4beta1, only the highly metastatic melanoma cell lines MV3 and BLM, but not the low metastatic cell lines IF6 and 530, bind VCAM-1 with high affinity without further stimulation, and are therefore able to adhere to and migrate on isolated VCAM-1. Moreover, we demonstrate that function-blocking antibodies against the integrin alpha4beta1, as well as siRNA-mediated knock-down of the alpha4 subunit in these highly metastatic human melanoma cells reduce their transendothelial migration. These data imply that only high affinity interactions between the integrin alpha4beta1 on melanoma cells and VCAM-1 on activated endothelial cells may enhance the metastatic capacity of human beta2/beta3-negative melanoma cells.

  16. High Efficiency Binding Aptamers for a Wide Range of Bacterial Sepsis Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Ana Cláudia; Stets, Maria Isabel; Lopes, Ana Luisa Kalb; Schluga, Pedro Henrique Caires; Marton, Soledad; Mendes, Ieda Ferreira; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Cardoso, Josiane

    2017-04-28

    Sepsis is a major health problem worldwide, with an extremely high rate of morbidity and mortality, partly due to delayed diagnosis during early disease. Currently, sepsis diagnosis requires bacterial culturing of blood samples over several days, whereas PCR-based molecular diagnosis methods are faster but lack sensitivity. The use of biosensors containing nucleic acid aptamers that bind targets with high affinity and specificity could accelerate sepsis diagnosis. Previously, we used the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technique to develop the aptamers Antibac1 and Antibac2, targeting the ubiquitous bacterial peptidoglycan. Here, we show that these aptamers bind to four gram-positive and seven gram-negative bacterial sepsis agents with high binding efficiency. Thus, these aptamers could be used in combination as biological recognition elements in the development of biosensors that are an alternative to rapid bacteria detection, since they could provide culture and amplification-free tests for rapid clinical sepsis diagnosis.

  17. High performance small molecule photodetector with broad spectral response range from 200 to 900 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang-hong; Li, Wen-lian; Chu, Bei; Su, Zi-sheng; Zhang, Feng; Lee, C. S.

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate a photodetector (PD) with broad spectral response by taking the advantages of more flexible device design in using small molecule materials. The optimized device shows an external quantum efficiency of over 20% from 200 to 900 nm. The high performance is achieved by jointing two donor (D)/acceptor (A) hetero-junctions [m-MTDATA(D)/TiOPc(A) and TiOPc(D)/F16CuPc: PTCDI-C8(A)] such that photoresponses over the deep-ultraviolet (UV) and visible-near infrared regions can be independently optimized. By choosing D- and A-materials with matched energy level alignment, high carrier mobility, and balanced carrier transporting properties, the present PD shows a fast response of 56 ns. The high speed and deep-UV sensitivity might lead to potential military applications such as missile tracking in addition to optical communications, chemical/biological sensing etc.

  18. Characteristics of LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence at ultra-high dose range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilski, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ), Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: pawel.bilski@ifj.edu.pl; Obryk, B.; Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ), Krakow (Poland); Mandowska, E.; Mandowski, A. [Institute of Physcis, Jan Dlugosz University (AJD), Czestochowa (Poland); Kim, J.L. [Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Dejoan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The behaviour of LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) detectors at ultra-high doses up to 500 kGy has been investigated. Some very significant changes of the glow-curve shape have been revealed. The most important finding is the appearance of a new peak at exposures above 50 kGy, the position of which shifts toward higher temperatures with increasing dose (from 405 to 470 deg. C at 500 kGy), in contradiction to standard TL models. The E and s trapping parameters also increase with increasing dose. This new peak appears to have potential application for ultra-high-dose measurements. The TL emission spectrum also changes at such high doses with the appearance of several new bands of wavelengths up to 800 nm.

  19. High-Maneuverability Airframe: Initial Investigation of Configuration’s Aft End for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    High-Maneuverability Airframe: Initial Investigation of Configuration’s Aft End for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability by Sidra ...for Increased Stability, Range, and Maneuverability Sidra I. Silton and Frank Fresconi Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Maneuverability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sidra I. Silton and Frank Fresconi 5d. PROJECT

  20. Trans-projected-range gettering of copper in high-energy ion-implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, Y. M.; Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Mücklich, A.; Panknin, D.; Yankov, R. A.; Skorupa, W.

    2000-12-01

    Strong gettering of Cu atoms beyond the projected ion range RP has been found in single-crystal Si implanted with P+ and As+ ions at MeV energies. We call this phenomenon the "trans-RP effect." The formation of a separate Cu gettering band below RP, as detected by secondary ion mass spectrometry, indicates the presence of a significant amount of defects therein. These defects have not been detected by transmission electron microscopy and we suggest that they are small interstitial clusters. The amount of Cu atoms gettered beyond RP is, particularly for the P implants, much greater than that in the gettering layer at RP, indicating that the gettering ability of the point defects beyond RP is higher than that of the extended defects at RP. A mechanism responsible for their formation and clustering in the trans-RP region is proposed, and an explanation is given of the differences in the results for the P and As implants.

  1. Monoglyceride-based organogelator for broad-range oil uptake with high capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Niu, Jian; Wang, Zhenggong; Jin, Jian

    2015-02-10

    Oil/water separation has been a worldwide subject because of increasing release of oil-containing wastewater as well as several marine oil spills. The phase-selective organogelators (PSOGs) are thought to offer a potential and effective implement for addressing this issue. An ideal PSOG for oil adsorption must fulfill some requirements involving effective gelation, easy synthesis, low cost, and recyclable for reuse. However, beyond those, the ability of gelation for a broad-range oil phase without selectivity is also important. However, most of the reported PSOGs have limitation in this respect thus far. In this paper, a new class of saturated 1-monoglyceride-derived organogelators can efficiently uptake almost all of the common fuel oils from water and gelate organic solvents with extremely low minimum gelation concentration (MGC). In addition, the oils in the gel and gelator molecules can be recovered quantitatively through simple vacuum distillation.

  2. Frequency Comb Driven Raman Transitions in the THz Range: High Precision Isotope Shift Measurements in Ca+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    to picoseconds in the previous experiments. For the broad spectrum, the additional effect of group delay dispersion (GDD) has to be taken into account, since the Raman process relies on the coherent interaction of all frequency components of the spectrum, with GDD influencing the relative phase which leads......This thesis presents for the first time the experimental implementation of coherent Raman oscillations with a femtosecond frequency comb for transition frequencies in the THz range. The technique has been successfully demonstrated before to drive Raman transitions between hyperfine structure states...... to destructive interference. Therefore, GDD is compensated using a prism compressor and it is shown quantitatively that the measured GDD matches the theoretically predicted effect on the total Raman Rabi frequency. For the measurements and compensation of GDD, the techniques of interferometric autocorrelation...

  3. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. K.; Julai, N.; Jusoh, M.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Anuar, M. S.; Talib, M. F.; Zamhari, Nurdiani; Sahari, S. k.; Tamrin, K. F.; Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Zaidel, D. N. A.; Mohtadzar, N. A. A.; Sharip, M. R. M.; Samat, Y. S.

    2017-11-01

    Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm) to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a) beam wander, (b) beam spreading and (c) scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit `1' and bit `0' and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr) and bit error rate (ber) where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  4. High range free space optic transmission using new dual diffuser modulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A.K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Free space optical communication fsoc is vulnerable with fluctuating atmospheric. This paper focus analyzes the finding of new technique dual diffuser modulation (ddm to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect. The performance of fsoc under the presence of atmospheric turbulence will cause the laser beam keens to (a beam wander, (b beam spreading and (c scintillation. The most deteriorate the fsoc is scintillation where it affected the wavefront cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. Ddm approach enhances the detecting bit ‘1’ and bit ‘0’ and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on signal-to-noise (snr and bit error rate (ber where the numerical result shows that the ddm technique able to improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  5. Phase transformations in the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy after quenching from the high temperature triclinic beta phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Jimenez, A., E-mail: asandovalj@correo.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dpto. de Aceleradores, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Mexico, C.P. 52750, ESIME, Unidad Culhuacan, Dpto. Ing. Mecanica, IPN (Mexico); Negrete, J. [Instituto de Metalurgia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, SLP 78210 (Mexico); Torres-Villasenor, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-360, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Ribbons of the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy obtained by melt-spinning, were heat treated at 350 deg. C during 30 min in a free atmosphere furnace, and then quenched in liquid nitrogen. The temperature correspond to {beta} phase zone, which has a triclinic crystalline structure [1, 2]. Some evidence, obtained by X-ray diffraction, show that the structures present in the just quenched material are both close-packed hexagonal ({eta}-phase) and rhombohedral (R-phase). X-ray diffractograms taken in the same ribbons after annealed 500 h at room temperature, show that the R phase its transform to {alpha} and {eta} phases.

  6. Hardening of Steel with High-Speed Deformation in Wide Temperature Range,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-28

    are higher than after shcck wave deformation [2]. It saculd also be noted that the cbserved effects way have the same cider as in the hardening...quenchirg] cf steel and a somewhat hi~ar cider than in static defcrmaticn bith high degrees of reducticc. Finally we must mention the tact that the scurce

  7. Long-range correlations in high multiplicity pp and pA collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... collision stage in high energy nuclear interactions. Here we present a compilation of the most impor- tant experimental results and briefly discuss successes and challenges for a selection of theoretical approaches. Keywords. Quantum chromodynamics; quark-gluon plasma; correlations. PACS No. 12.38.

  8. Voice Range Profiles of Middle School and High School Choral Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are significant, and this challenge is compounded for choral directors who depend on the voice for communicating information or demonstrating music concepts. The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency and intensity of middle and high school choral directors' voices and to compare choral directors' voices with…

  9. Development of a High-Resolution Melting Approach for Scanning Beta Globin Gene Point Mutations in the Greek and Other Mediterranean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassanidis, Christos; Boutou, Effrossyni; Voskaridou, Ersi; Balassopoulou, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. The disease’s high incidence, which is observed in the broader Mediterranean area has led to the establishment of molecular diagnostics’ assays to prevent affected births. Therefore, the development of a reliable, cost-effective and rapid scanning method for β globin gene point mutations, easily adapted to a routine laboratory, is absolutely essential. Here, we describe, for the first time, the development of a High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) approach, suitable for scanning the particularly heterogeneous beta globin gene mutations present in the Greek population, and thus adaptable to the Mediterranean and other areas where these mutations have been identified. Within this context, β globin gene regions containing mutations frequently identified in the Greek population were divided in ten overlapping amplicons. Our reactions’ setup allowed for the simultaneous amplification of multiple primer sets and partial multiplexing, thereby resulting in significant reduction of the experimental time. DNA samples from β-thalassaemia patients/carriers with defined genotypes were tested. Distinct genotypes displayed distinguishable melting curves, enabling accurate detection of mutations. The described HRMA can be adapted to a high-throughput level. It represents a rapid, simple, cost-effective, reliable, highly feasible and sensitive method for β-thalassaemia gene scanning. PMID:27351925

  10. A high-pressure vessel for X-ray diffraction experiments for liquids in a wide temperature range

    CERN Document Server

    Hosokawa, S

    2001-01-01

    An internally heated high-pressure vessel was developed for angle-dispersive X-ray scattering experiments on liquids at high-temperatures and high-pressures. It consists of a closed-end Al cylinder and a steel flange. Continuous windows made of Be cover a scattering angle range up to 55 deg. In combination with a single-crystal sapphire cell and a small heating system inside the vessel, we were able to carry out diffraction measurements for liquids in a wide temperature range up to 2000 K at high pressures up to 150 bars. Some of our recent X-ray scattering experiments using synchrotron radiation, such as inelastic scattering, high-energy elastic scattering, and anomalous scattering, are also reported.

  11. Fabrication Technologies of the High Gradient Accelerator Structures at 100MV/M Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juwen; /SLAC; Lewandowski, James; /SLAC; Van Pelt, John; /SLAC; Yoneda, Charles; /SLAC; Gudkov, Boris; /CERN; Riddone, Germana; /CERN; Higo, Toshiyasu; /KEK, Tsukuba; Takatomi, Toshikazu; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2012-07-03

    A CERN-SLAC-KEK collaboration on high gradient X-band structure research has been established in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the CLIC baseline design for the main linac stably operating at more than 100 MV/m loaded accelerating gradient. Several prototype CLIC structures were successfully fabricated and high power tested. They operated at 105 MV/m with a breakdown rate that meets the CLIC linear collider specifications of < 5 x 10{sup -7}/pulse/m. This paper summarizes the fabrication technologies including the mechanical design, precision machining, chemical cleaning, diffusion bonding as well as vacuum baking and all related assembly technologies. Also, the tolerances control, tuning and RF characterization will be discussed.

  12. Long Range Logistics Planning for VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit) Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    essentially all other major air- frames, trading electronics for fuel and hard weapons. The tangible benefits notwithstanding, however, perhaps the most...would have taken place--probably not soon enough to keep a competitive edge on foreig competition from Japan or the Soviet Union. C. CURRENT EMPHASIS...terized by high throughput rates in relation to size, power comsumption , etc. They also require low failure rate at the board and assembly level

  13. High-Accuracy Ion Range Measurements using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Klimpki, Grischa

    2012-01-01

    Novel fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) are based on single aluminum oxide crystals doped with carbon and magnesium and laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The detector crystals contain high concentrations of colour centres, consisting of two oxygen vacancies charge compensated by two magnesium ions. These colour centres exhibit radiochromic transformations under ionising radiation. Laser-induced fluorescence can then be stimulated with a red laser without photoionisation of the ...

  14. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytnikov, V. E., E-mail: vsytnikov@gmail.com; Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A. [JSC NTTs FSC EES (Russian Federation); Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V. [JSC Irkutskkabel (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  15. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnikov, V. E.; Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A.; Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  16. Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid Beta and Tau Concentrations Are Not Modulated by 16 Weeks of Moderate- to High-Intensity Physical Exercise in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Portelius, Erik; Siersma, Volkert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical exercise may have some effect on cognition in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the underlying biochemical effects are unclear. Animal studies have shown that amyloid beta (Aβ), one of the pathological hallmarks of AD, can be altered with high levels of physical...... of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: The Effect of Physical Exercise (ADEX) study we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid samples for Aβ species, total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) species. We also assessed the patients...

  17. High sensitivity high-resolution full range relaxometry using a fast mechanical sample shuttling device and a cryo-probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Ching-Yu [Université Paris-Saclay, NIMBE, CEA, CNRS (France); Chu, Minglee [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics (China); Chang, Chi-Fon [Academia Sinica, Genomics Research Center (China); Yu, Tsunai; Huang, Tai-huang, E-mail: bmthh@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Institute of Biomedical Science (China); Sakellariou, Dimitris, E-mail: dimitrios.sakellariou@cea.fr [Université Paris-Saclay, NIMBE, CEA, CNRS (France)

    2016-11-15

    Field-dependent NMR studies of bio-molecular systems using a sample shuttling hardware operating on a high-field NMR apparatus have provided valuable structural and dynamic information. We have recently published a design of a compact sample transportation device, called “field-cycler”, which was installed in a commercial spectrometer and which provided highly precise positioning and stability during high speed shuttling. In this communication, we demonstrate the first use of a sample shuttling device on a commercial high field standard bore NMR spectrometer, equipped with a commercial triple resonance cryogenically cooled NMR probe. The performance and robustness of the hardware operating in 1D and 2D field cycling experiments, as well as the impact of the sample shuttling time on the signal intensity are discussed.

  18. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-02-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80-200 keV electron beams.

  19. Improving the effectiveness of detailed processing by dynamic control of processing with high sports range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Shapoval

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the processing of parts with a diameter of up to 20 mm is analyzed, namely: vibration resistance of the cutting process at pinching due to cutting speed control in the processing, forecasting and selection of rotational frequencies, which ensure the stability of the processing system, controlling the dynamics of the process of displacement of the additional mass. The method of investigation of vibration processes during the sharpening is developed. As a result of the processing of experimental data, it was found that when an oscillatory motion is applied to the spindle rotation, the overall level of oscillation decreases, which is reflected on the quality of the treated surface. The choice of a previously known spindle rotation frequency range at which the lowest value of the oscillation amplitude of the instrument is observed in the radial direction to the detail part, allows you to increase the processing efficiency while maintaining the drawing requirements for roughness by increasing the spindle rotational speed. The combination of the node of the own forms of oscillation and the cutting zone, by dynamically controlling the fluctuations of the lathe armature due to the increase of the inertia characteristics of the machine and the reduction of the oscillation amplitude of the tool, can improve the accuracy of machining and roughness of the processed surface of the component at higher spindle speeds.

  20. High oestradiol concentration after ovarian stimulation is associated with lower maternal serum beta-HCG concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suying; Kuang, Yanping; Wu, Yu; Feng, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Li; Sun, Yijuan; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between maternal serum oestradiol and progesterone levels after fresh embryo transfer or frozen embryo transfer (FET), and serum beta-HCG levels in early pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was examined. Included for analysis were 5643 conceived singletons: 2610 after FET and 3033 after fresh embryo transfer. Outcome measures included maternal serum oestradiol, progesterone, beta-HCG levels during the peri-implantation period, birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Results at 4, 5 and 6 weeks' gestation were as follows: serum oestradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in women who underwent fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (all P HCG levels were significantly lower than in women who underwent FET (P HCG levels were negatively correlated with serum oestradiol; and birth weight was negatively correlated with serum oestradiol. Incidence of SGA in fresh embryo transfer was increased significantly compared with FET (P HCG in early pregnancy, lower birth weight and higher incidence of SGA. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and control of multi-actuated atomic force microscope for large-range and high-speed imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Careaga Houck, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); AlGhamdi, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Dammam, Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Youcef-Toumi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents the design and control of a high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy (AFM). A multi-actuation scheme is proposed where several nano-positioners cooperate to achieve the range and speed requirements. A simple data-based control design methodology is presented to effectively operate the AFM scanner components. The proposed controllers compensate for the coupled dynamics and divide the positioning responsibilities between the scanner components. As a result, the multi-actuated scanner behavior is equivalent to that of a single X–Y–Z positioner with large range and high speed. The scanner of the designed AFM is composed of five nano-positioners, features 6 μm out-of-plane and 120 μm lateral ranges and is capable of high-speed operation. The presented AFM has a modular design with laser spot size of 3.5 μm suitable for small cantilever, an optical view of the sample and probe, a conveniently large waterproof sample stage and a 20 MHz data throughput for high resolution image acquisition at high imaging speeds. This AFM is used to visualize etching of calcite in a solution of sulfuric acid. Layer-by-layer dissolution and pit formation along the crystalline lines in a low pH environment is observed in real time. - Highlights: • High-speed AFM imaging is extended to large lateral and vertical scan ranges. • A general multi-actuation approach to atomic force microscopy is presented. • A high-speed AFM is designed and implemented based on the proposed method. • Multi-actuator control is designed auxiliary to a PID unit to maintain flexibility. • Influence of calcite crystal structure on dissolution is visualized in video form.

  2. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in the high normal range is associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jujić, Amra; Nilsson, Peter M; Persson, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Context We have previously shown that high levels of atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) are associated with decreased risk of future diabetes development; however, the mechanism behind this relationship is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we prospectively analyzed whether baseline...... plasma levels of mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) are associated with insulin resistance and post challenge incretin secretion after long-term follow-up. Design/Setting/Patients MR-proANP was measured in 2243 non-diabetic individuals at baseline examination of Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular cohort....... At re-examination 16.5 years later, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, glucose and glucagon were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Linear regression analyses showed that each 1 SD increment of baseline MR-proANP levels...

  3. Gold nanoparticles for high-throughput genotyping of long-range haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Pan, Dun; Fan, Chunhai; Chen, Jianhua; Huang, Ke; Wang, Dongfang; Zhang, Honglu; Li, You; Feng, Guoyin; Liang, Peiji; He, Lin; Shi, Yongyong

    2011-10-01

    Completion of the Human Genome Project and the HapMap Project has led to increasing demands for mapping complex traits in humans to understand the aetiology of diseases. Identifying variations in the DNA sequence, which affect how we develop disease and respond to pathogens and drugs, is important for this purpose, but it is difficult to identify these variations in large sample sets. Here we show that through a combination of capillary sequencing and polymerase chain reaction assisted by gold nanoparticles, it is possible to identify several DNA variations that are associated with age-related macular degeneration and psoriasis on significant regions of human genomic DNA. Our method is accurate and promising for large-scale and high-throughput genetic analysis of susceptibility towards disease and drug resistance.

  4. Spherical gearing with intermediate ball elements: parameter ranges with a high contact ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M. V.; Gorbenko, T. I.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents analytical research of the geometry and kinematical parameters of spherical gearing with ball intermediate elements. The main attention is paid to the influence of the offset coefficient on the tooth geometry generation, the contact ratio and the motion transmission angle. Intermediate ball element racetracks on the gear are trochoidal curves on a spherical surface. Two areas for the offset coefficient values providing a high value of the contact ratio - basic trochoid (without offset) and prolate trochoid with abutting racetracks of adjacent ball elements ― were revealed. Analysis of the investigated parameters showed that for power transmission, it is preferable to use spherical gearing without an offset, and for kinematic transmission, it is possible to use profiles with a large offset. The present study allows making a rational choice of geometrical parameters depending on the transmission predestination.

  5. Study of Acquisition Electronics with a High Dynamic Range for a Beam Loss Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Venturini, G; Dehning, B; Effinger, E

    2010-01-01

    The particles accelerated in CERN accelerator chain reach high energies, topped by the particle energy at collision in the LHC, 7 GeV. During the operation, an amount of particles is inevitably lost from the beam. Depending on the extent of the losses, physical damage to machine components may be caused and the shower of secondary emission particles deposits energy in the surrounding equipment constituting the accelerator. The hadronic cascade also activates their materials, representing a hazard to the workers at CERN. In the LHC, the superconducting magnets that constitute the synchrotron lattice are kept at an operating temperature of 1:9K through a cryogenic facility employing superliquid helium, the increase in their temperature potentially initiates a quench. In the SPS, the damage due to a lost beam is also visible. The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system has been developed to reliably protect the machines composing CERN’s accelerator chain and additionally provide information about the beam status: th...

  6. Magneto-dielectric properties of doped ferrite based nanosized ceramics over very high frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, indium doped nano sized nickel zinc cobalt based ferrite ceramics with composition Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2InxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.2 and 0.4 were synthesized by a co-precipitation technique. Powdered sample has been pre-sintered at 800 °C, pressed into toroids and finally sintered at 1000 °C. The single phase formation of the presintered powder has been confirmed by X ray diffraction (XRD. The average particle size of the presintered powder has been estimated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM and found to be about ~60 nm for x = 0.2 and ~80 nm at x = 0.4. The electromagnetic characterization has been made using vector network analyzer. High value of permeability (17.3 and 15.2 for x = 0.2 and 0.4 respectively with low magnetic loss tangent of 10−1 order were obtained. Permittivity of 8.2 and 10, and dielectric loss tangent of the order of 10−2 were also achieved. With the measured electromagnetic parameters, miniaturization factor of 12.32 and normalized characteristic impedance close to unity (1.23 were obtained up to 100 MHz frequency. These fascinating parameters definitely propose Ni0.5Zn0.3Co0.2In0.4Fe1.6O4 ceramics as a substrate material for miniaturized antenna in very high frequency band. Possible reasons and mechanisms of electromagnetic properties for different concentrations of indium are discussed in the paper.

  7. Subtype selectivity of [alpha]+[beta]- site ligands of GABAA receptors: identification of the first highly specific positive modulators at [alpha]6[beta]2/3[gamma]2 receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varagic, Zdravko; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Huang, Shengming; Rallapalli, Sundari; Sarto-Jackson, Isabella; Cook, James; Sieghart, Werner; Ernst, Margot

    2013-01-01

    .... Key Results Pyrazoloquinolinones and pyrazolopyridinones represent the first prototypes of drugs exerting benzodiazepine-like modulatory effects via the [alpha]+[beta]- interface of GABA.sub.A receptors...

  8. Semi-preparative separation of {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin by high performance liquid chromatographic; Separacao semipreparativa de {alpha} e {beta}-amirina por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marluce Oliveira; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Pinto, Angelo C., E-mail: hamerski_1@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The resin obtained from species of the genus Protium (Burseraceae) is formed mostly of pentacyclic triterpenes: {alpha}-amyrin and {beta}-amyrin. The separation and purification of these triterpenes were optimized in three steps. (author)

  9. A fully integrated CMOS VCXO-IC with low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanjun, Yang; Yun, Zeng

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity CMOS voltage controlled crystal oscillator IC (VCXO-IC) with LVCMOS and LVPECL output. A differential coupled frequency doubling Colpitts oscillator is adopted to obtain low noise 2× frequency output. Wide tuning range and high linearity are simultaneously achieved by using MOS varactor arrays. The measurement results show that the designed VCXO-IC achieves -134 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 kHz offset frequency and ± 135 ppm output frequency tuning range within 3% linearity by using 40 MHz fundamental AT-cut crystal. The VCXO-IC is fabricated in the chartered 0.35 μm standard CMOS process and occupies a total silicon area of 2.4 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61350007).

  10. Diversity and phylogeography of begomovirus-associated beta satellites of okra in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataravanappa V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. Results The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein, were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB. This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect βC1 gene. βC1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity

  11. Diversity and phylogeography of Begomovirus-associated beta satellites of Okra in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataravanappa, V; Reddy, C N Lakshminarayana; Swaranalatha, P; Jalali, Salil; Briddon, Rob W; Reddy, M Krishna

    2011-12-21

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus; family Malvaceae) is grown in temperate as well as subtropical regions of the world, both for human consumption as a vegetable and for industrial uses. Okra yields are affected by the diseases caused by phyopathogenic viruses. India is the largest producer of okra and in this region a major biotic constraint to production are viruses of the genus Begomovirus. Begomoviruses affecting okra across the Old World are associated with specific, symptom modulating satellites (beta satellites). We describe a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of beta satellites associated with okra in India. The full-length sequences of 36 beta satellites, isolated from okra exhibiting typical begomovirus symptoms (leaf curl and yellow vein), were determined. The sequences segregated in to four groups. Two groups correspond to the beta satellites Okra leaf curl beta satellite (OLCuB) and Bhendi yellow vein beta satellite (BYVB) that have previously been identified in okra from the sub-continent. One sequence was distinct from all other, previously isolated beta satellites and represents a new species for which we propose the name Bhendi yellow vein India beta satellite (BYVIB). This new beta satellite was nevertheless closely related to BYVB and OLCuB. Most surprising was the identification of Croton yellow vein mosaic beta satellite (CroYVMB) in okra; a beta satellite not previously identified in a malvaceous plant species. The okra beta satellites were shown to have distinct geographic host ranges with BYVB occurring across India whereas OLCuB was only identified in northwestern India. Okra infections with CroYVMB were only identified across the northern and eastern central regions of India. A more detailed analysis of the sequences showed that OLCuB, BYVB and BYVIB share highest identity with respect βC1 gene. βC1 is the only gene encoded by beta satellites, the product of which is the major pathogenicity determinant of begomovirus-beta satellite

  12. Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) use a high-frequency short-range biosonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladegaard, Michael; Jensen, Frants Havmand; de Freitas, Mafalda; Ferreira da Silva, Vera Maria; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2015-10-01

    Toothed whales produce echolocation clicks with source parameters related to body size; however, it may be equally important to consider the influence of habitat, as suggested by studies on echolocating bats. A few toothed whale species have fully adapted to river systems, where sonar operation is likely to result in higher clutter and reverberation levels than those experienced by most toothed whales at sea because of the shallow water and dense vegetation. To test the hypothesis that habitat shapes the evolution of toothed whale biosonar parameters by promoting simpler auditory scenes to interpret in acoustically complex habitats, echolocation clicks of wild Amazon river dolphins were recorded using a vertical seven-hydrophone array. We identified 404 on-axis biosonar clicks having a mean SLpp of 190.3 ± 6.1 dB re. 1 µPa, mean SLEFD of 132.1 ± 6.0 dB re. 1 µPa(2)s, mean Fc of 101.2 ± 10.5 kHz, mean BWRMS of 29.3 ± 4.3 kHz and mean ICI of 35.1 ± 17.9 ms. Piston fit modelling resulted in an estimated half-power beamwidth of 10.2 deg (95% CI: 9.6-10.5 deg) and directivity index of 25.2 dB (95% CI: 24.9-25.7 dB). These results support the hypothesis that river-dwelling toothed whales operate their biosonars at lower amplitude and higher sampling rates than similar-sized marine species without sacrificing high directivity, in order to provide high update rates in acoustically complex habitats and simplify auditory scenes through reduced clutter and reverberation levels. We conclude that habitat, along with body size, is an important evolutionary driver of source parameters in toothed whale biosonars. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. High Prevalence of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-ranging Mink on a Remote Danish Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    , and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32...

  14. High-sensitivity and large-dynamic-range refractive index sensors employing weak composite Fabry-Perot cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengcheng; Shu, Xuewen; Cao, Haoran; Sugden, Kate

    2017-08-15

    Most sensors face a common trade-off between high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. We demonstrate here an all-fiber refractometer based on a dual-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) that possesses the advantage of both high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. Since the two composite cavities have a large cavity length difference, one can observe both fine and coarse fringes, which correspond to the long cavity and the short cavity, respectively. The short-cavity FPI and the use of an intensity demodulation method mean that the individual fine fringe dips correspond to a series of quasi-continuous highly sensitive zones for refractive index measurement. By calculating the parameters of the composite FPI, we find that the range of the ultra-sensitive zones can be considerably adjusted to suit the end requirements. The experimental trends are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The co-existence of high sensitivity and a large dynamic range in a composite FPI is of great significance to practical RI measurements.

  15. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates...

  16. Intermediate frequency band digitized high dynamic range radiometer system for plasma diagnostics and real-time Tokamak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W. A.; van Beveren, V.; Thoen, D. J.; Nuij, Pjwm; M.R. de Baar,; Donne, A. J. H.; Westerhof, E.; Goede, A. P. H.; Krijger, B.; van den Berg, M. A.; Kantor, M.; M. F. Graswinckel,; Hennen, B.A.; Schüller, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    An intermediate frequency (IF) band digitizing radiometer system in the 100-200 GHz frequency range has been developed for Tokamak diagnostics and control, and other fields of research which require a high flexibility in frequency resolution combined with a large bandwidth and the retrieval of the

  17. Intermediate frequency band digitized high dynamic range radiometer system for plasma diagnostics and real-time Tokamak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, WA.; Van Beveren, V.; Thoen, D.J.; Nuij, P.J.W.M.; De Baar, M.R.; Donné, A.J.H.; Westerhof, E.; Goede, A.P.H.; Krijger, B.; Van den Berg, M.A.; Kantor, M.; Graswinckel, M.F.; Hennen, B.A.; Schüller, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    An intermediate frequency (IF) band digitizing radiometer system in the 100–200 GHz frequency range has been developed for Tokamak diagnostics and control, and other fields of research which require a high flexibility in frequency resolution combined with a large bandwidth and the retrieval of the

  18. Photonics-based real-time ultra-high-range-resolution radar with broadband signal generation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Pan, Shilong

    2017-10-23

    Real-time and high-resolution target detection is highly desirable in modern radar applications. Electronic techniques have encountered grave difficulties in the development of such radars, which strictly rely on a large instantaneous bandwidth. In this article, a photonics-based real-time high-range-resolution radar is proposed with optical generation and processing of broadband linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. A broadband LFM signal is generated in the transmitter by photonic frequency quadrupling, and the received echo is de-chirped to a low frequency signal by photonic frequency mixing. The system can operate at a high frequency and a large bandwidth while enabling real-time processing by low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing. A conceptual radar is established. Real-time processing of an 8-GHz LFM signal is achieved with a sampling rate of 500 MSa/s. Accurate distance measurement is implemented with a maximum error of 4 mm within a range of ~3.5 meters. Detection of two targets is demonstrated with a range-resolution as high as 1.875 cm. We believe the proposed radar architecture is a reliable solution to overcome the limitations of current radar on operation bandwidth and processing speed, and it is hopefully to be used in future radars for real-time and high-resolution target detection and imaging.

  19. [Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Effect of Sertraline on Current-Source Distribution of the High Beta Frequency Band: Analysis of Electroencephalography under Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy, Right-Handed Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hyun, Jae Seog; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cerebral changes in high beta frequency oscillations (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline and by audiovisual erotic stimuli in healthy adult males. Scalp electroencephalographies (EEGs) were conducted twice in 11 healthy, right-handed males, once before sertraline intake and again 4 hours thereafter. The EEGs included four sessions recorded sequentially while the subjects were resting, watching a music video, resting, and watching an erotic video for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively. We performed frequency-domain analysis using the EEGs with a distributed model of current-source analysis. The statistical nonparametric maps were obtained from the sessions of watching erotic and music videos (p<0.05). The erotic stimuli decreased the current-source density of the high beta frequency band in the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in the baseline EEGs taken before sertraline intake (p<0.05). The erotic stimuli did not induce any changes in current-source distribution of the brain 4 hours after sertraline intake. It is speculated that erotic stimuli may decrease the function of the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in healthy adult males. This change may debase the inhibitory control of the brain against erotic stimuli. Sertraline may reduce the decrement in inhibitory control.

  1. An efficient and general route to gem-difluoromethylenated alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactones: high enantioselective synthesis of gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zheng-Wei; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Wang, Bing-Lin; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2006-09-15

    An efficient and general strategy to gem-difluoromethylenated alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactones in high yields from various aldehydes (including aliphatic, aromatic, alpha,beta-unsaturated, and sterically hindered aldehydes) has been developed. This methodology was successfully applied for the preparation of two enantiomers of gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins (S)-1 and (R)-1. gem-Difluoropropargylation of cinnamaldehyde followed by the resolution of resulting homopropargylic alcohols mediated by lipase from Pseudomonas (AK) gave alcohols (R)-6 and (S)-6. Selective hydrogenation of the triple bond of (S)-6 and (R)-6 to double bond with Lindlar catalyst in the presence of quinoline afforded the expected product (S)-8 and (R)-8, respectively. Deprotection of (S)-8 and (R)-8 followed by oxidation of the resulting 1,5-diols with catalytic 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and excess bis-acetoxyiodobenzene (BAIB) provided the target molecules gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins (S)-1 and (R)-1 in high yields, respectively.

  2. Influence of high range of mass transfer coefficient and convection heat transfer on direct contact membrane distillation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-11-03

    In order to improve water production of membrane distillation (MD), the development of high performance membrane having better mass transfer and enhancement of convection heat transfer in MD module have been continuously investigated. This paper presents the relationship between the heat and mass transfer resistance across the membrane and the performance improvement. Various ranges of mass transfer coefficient (MTC) from normal (0.3×10−6 to 2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: currently available membranes) to high (>2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: membranes under development) were simulated using an experimentally validated model at different ranges of convection heat transfer by varying the inlet flow rates and spacer enhancement factor. The effect of mass transfer and convection heat transfer on the MD performance parameters including temperature polarization coefficient (TPC), mean permeate flux, and specific energy consumption were investigated in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Results showed that improving the MTC at the low ranges is more important than that at the high ranges where the heat transfer resistance becomes dominant and hence the convection heat transfer coefficient must be increased. Therefore, an effort on designing MD modules using feed and permeate spacers and controlling the membrane surface roughness to increase the convection heat transfer and TPC in the channel aiming to enhance the flux is required because the currently developed mass transfer has almost reached the critical point.

  3. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao

    2017-04-15

    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×103, 6.624×103 and 2.244×103 (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Aumento en la prevalencia de estreptococos beta hemolíticos en hisopados faríngeos en Buenos Aires High prevalence of beta hemolytic streptococci isolated from throat swabs in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Villar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El estreptococo beta hemolítico grupo A (EBHGA es el agente bacteriano más frecuentemente aislado en casos de faringoamigdalitis. Otros estreptococos beta hemolíticos no A también pueden producir esta enfermedad. Ante el elevado número de aislamientos obtenidos en el año 2004 decidimos realizar un estudio con el objeto de evaluar la prevalencia de estos microorganismos durante un período de 5 años. Se incluyeron todos los cultivos de hisopados faríngeos que se realizaron con idéntica metodología. Se consideró niños a los comprendidos entre 6 meses y 18 años de edad, y adultos a los mayores de 18 años. Los aislamientos fueron identificados según la metodología habitual. La determinación de grupo se realizó mediante la aglutinación con partículas de látex. La recuperación de EBHGA fue significativamente mayor en niños en relación a los adultos. En el año 2004 se obtuvo una recuperación significativamente mayor de EBHGA, EBHGC y EBHGG en niños y de EBHGA y EBHGG en adultos respecto de los años anteriores. El aislamiento de EBHGG fue mayor en adultos. El 18.9% y el 5.8% de los estreptococos beta hemolíticos aislados en niños y adultos respectivamente no pertenecieron al grupo A. El incremento en la prevalencia de estreptococos beta hemolíticos refuerza la buena práctica de realizar cultivos en adultos y niños así como la correcta búsqueda en el laboratorio de bacteriología de los estreptococos beta hemolíticos no pertenecientes al grupo A.Beta hemolytic streptococci, particulary group A, are the most frequently isolated pathogens in cases of pharyngoamigdalitis. Other beta hemolytic streptococci also produce this pathology. An increase of positive cultures for group A streptococci was detected during 2004 in relation to previous years. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rates of beta hemolytic streptococci groups A, C and G during a period of 5 years. Pharyngeal exudates were obtained from

  5. Investigaton of the beta strength function at high energy: gamma-ray spectroscopy of the decay of 5. 3-s /sup 84/As to /sup 84/Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E.A; Lien, O.G. III; Meyer, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The beta strength function up to approximately 8.6 MeV for the system /sup 84/As(..beta../sup -/)/sup 84/Se was investigated. It was found that it is not possible to satisfactorily describe S/sub ..beta../ by a statistical model. From the /sup 84/As decay scheme an experimental beta strength function was deduced. Additional information on the beta transition intensity is obtained from the gross coincidence spectra of individual gamma rays. In total these data suggest that the experimental beta strength function above 6.8 MeV is significantly lower than that calculated using a statistical model. Features in the gross coincidence spectra also suggest that a significant bump appears in the experimental beta strength function at approximately 6.5 MeV.

  6. Experimental Study of High-Range-Resolution Medical Acoustic Imaging for Multiple Target Detection by Frequency Domain Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Taki, Hirofumi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Sato, Toru

    2009-07-01

    We employed frequency domain interferometry (FDI) for use as a medical acoustic imager to detect multiple targets with high range resolution. The phase of each frequency component of an echo varies with the frequency, and target intervals can be estimated from the phase variance. This processing technique is generally used in radar imaging. When the interference within a range gate is coherent, the cross correlation between the desired signal and the coherent interference signal is nonzero. The Capon method works under the guiding principle that output power minimization cancels the desired signal with a coherent interference signal. Therefore, we utilize frequency averaging to suppress the correlation of the coherent interference. The results of computational simulations using a pseudoecho signal show that the Capon method with adaptive frequency averaging (AFA) provides a higher range resolution than a conventional method. These techniques were experimentally investigated and we confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of processing by FDI.

  7. The range and intensity of backscattered electrons for use in the creation of high fidelity electron beam lithography patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A; Holt, Martin V; Ocola, Leonidas E

    2013-08-02

    We present a set of universal curves that predict the range and intensity of backscattered electrons which can be used in conjunction with electron beam lithography to create high fidelity nanoscale patterns. The experimental method combines direct write dose, backscattered dose, and a self-reinforcing pattern geometry to measure the dose provided by backscattered electrons to a nanoscale volume on the substrate surface at various distances from the electron source. Electron beam lithography is used to precisely control the number and position of incident electrons on the surface of the material. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure the height of the negative electron beam lithography resist. Our data shows that the range and the intensity of backscattered electrons can be predicted using the density and the atomic number of any solid material, respectively. The data agrees with two independent Monte Carlo simulations without any fitting parameters. These measurements are the most accurate electron range measurements to date.

  8. The range and intensity of backscattered electrons for use in the creation of high fidelity electron beam lithography patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A.; Holt, Martin V.; Ocola, Leonidas E.

    2013-08-01

    We present a set of universal curves that predict the range and intensity of backscattered electrons which can be used in conjunction with electron beam lithography to create high fidelity nanoscale patterns. The experimental method combines direct write dose, backscattered dose, and a self-reinforcing pattern geometry to measure the dose provided by backscattered electrons to a nanoscale volume on the substrate surface at various distances from the electron source. Electron beam lithography is used to precisely control the number and position of incident electrons on the surface of the material. Atomic force microscopy is used to measure the height of the negative electron beam lithography resist. Our data shows that the range and the intensity of backscattered electrons can be predicted using the density and the atomic number of any solid material, respectively. The data agrees with two independent Monte Carlo simulations without any fitting parameters. These measurements are the most accurate electron range measurements to date.

  9. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in

  10. Association of beta-blocker treatment with mortality following myocardial infarction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction: a propensity matched-cohort analysis from the High-Risk Myocardial Infarction Database Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Stefano; Girerd, Nicolas; Rossignol, Patrick; Ferreira, João Pedro; Maggioni, Aldo; Pitt, Bertram; Tritto, Isabella; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Dickstein, Kenneth; Zannad, Faiez

    2017-02-01

    To determine the influence of baseline beta-blocker use on long-term prognosis of myocardial infarction (MI) survivors complicated with heart failure (HF) or with left ventricular dysfunction and with history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Among the 28 771 patients from the High-Risk MI Database Initiative we identified 1573 patients with a baseline history of COPD. We evaluated the association between beta-blocker use at baseline (822 with beta-blocker and 751 without) on the rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. On univariable Cox analysis, beta-blocker use was found to be associated with lower rates of both all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.75, P beta-blocker usage (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.60-0.90, P = 0.002 for all-cause mortality; HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97, P = 0.025 for cardiovascular mortality). Adjusting for propensity scores (PS) constructed from the 24 aforementioned baseline characteristics provided similar results. In a cohort of 561 pairs of patients taking or not taking beta-blocker matched on PS using a 1:1 nearest-neighbour matching method, patients treated with beta-blocker experienced fewer all-cause deaths (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.89, P = 0.003) and cardiovascular deaths (HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97, P = 0.032). In the specific setting of a well-treated cohort of high-risk MI survivors, beta-blockers were associated with better outcomes in patients with COPD. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Optical timing receiver for the NASA Spaceborne Ranging System. Part II: high precision event-timing digitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, Branko; Turko, Bojan

    1978-08-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA Spaceborne Laser Ranging System are essentially determined by the timeresolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device; (e.g., photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector), a timing discriminator, a high-precision event-timing digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the resolution of the event-timing digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to the time-resolution capabilities, and to develop a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-resolution event-timing digitizer to be used in the high-resolution spaceborne laser ranging system receiver. This part of the report describes the development of a high precision event-timing digitizer. The event-timing digitizer is basically a combination of a very accurate high resolution real time digital clock and an interval timer. The timing digitizer is a high resolution multiple stop clock, counting the time up to 131 days in 19.5 ps increments.

  12. Effect of volume fraction of alpha and transformed beta on the high cycle fatigue properties of bimodal Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Shital; Powar, Amit; Patil, Sandip; Supare, Ashish; Farane, Bhagwan; Singh, Rajkumar, Dr.

    2017-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of volume fraction of alpha and transformed beta phase on the high-cycle fatigue (HCF) properties of the bimodal titanium Ti6Al4V alloy. The effect of such morphology on mechanical properties was studied using tensile and rotating bending fatigue test as per ASTM standards. Microstructures and fractography of the specimens were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively.Ti6Al4V alloy samples were heat treated to have three distinctive volume fractions of alpha and transformed beta phase. With an increase in quench delay from 30,50 and 70 sec during quenching after solutionizing temperature of 967°C, the volume fraction of alpha was found to be increased from 20% to 67%. Tests on tensile and rotating bending fatigue showed that the specimen with 20% volume fraction of alpha phase exhibited the highest tensile and fatigue strength, however the properties gets deteriorate with increase in volume fraction of alpha.

  13. Iodine 125-phenylpentadecanoic acid and its beta-methyl substitute metabolism in cultured mouse embryonal myocytes; Iodine-labelled fatty acids as tracers of myocardial high energy phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Mitsuji; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Sakata, Nobuhiro; Katsushika, Shuuichi; Nakamura, Haruo (National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)); Ishida, Hideyuki; Aosaki, Noboru

    1993-02-01

    Iodine-labelled fatty acids have been proposed as new tracers of cardiac metabolisms. However, it is not clear how these tracers would reflect the intracellular metabolism. Therefore, we measured the uptake and release of iodine 125-labelled phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA), its [beta]-methyl substitute (BMIPP) and [sup 201]Tl in cultured myocytes of mouse embryos, and compared these values to intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content after metabolic inhibitions of oxidative phosphorylation by sodium cyanide (CN), glycolysis by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) or fatty acid [beta]-oxidation by lactate. The uptake and release of BMIPP was not changed by any inhibitors suggesting BMIPP would not be metabolized in the myocytes. The uptake of IPPA was significantly reduced by 2DG and 60-80% of IPPA was metabolized to hydrophilic catabolites. The correlation of BMIPP and IPPA uptake to intracellular ATP content were high (r=0.89, p<0.05; r=0.86, p<0.1), but there was poor correlation of [sup 201]Tl to ATP values (r=0.53, n.s.). These results suggested that iodine-labelled fatty acids could be used as better tracers of myocardial metabolism than [sup 201]Tl. (author).

  14. Moderate exercise restores pancreatic beta-cell function and autonomic nervous system activity in obese rats induced by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Rinaldi, Wilson; Scomparin, Dionizia Xavier; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Barella, Luiz Felipe; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Agostinho, Aryane Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida da Silva; Gravena, Clarice; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been identified as one of the most significant threats to human health in the 21(st) century. Exercise training has been shown to counteract obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate exercise training on pancreatic beta-cell function and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Weaning rats were divided into four groups: rats fed a standard chow or HFD (sedentary, Control-SED and HFD-SED; or exercised, Control-EXE and HFD-EXE, respectively). Exercised rats ran (from 21- to 91-days-old) for 60 minutes (3 times/week) over a 10-week period. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Pancreatic islets were isolated to study glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). Parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve electrical signals were measured, and liver samples were processed and histologically analyzed. Exercise prevented obesity, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis as well as improved total cholesterol, ALT, and AST levels. Islets from HFD rats showed insulin hypersecretion which was ameliorated by exercise. Exercise decreased vagal nerve activity in the HFD-EXE group and increased the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in both exercised groups. Exercise prevents obesity and liver steatosis and restores pancreatic beta-cell function and ANS activity in HFD-obese rats. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Hybrid simulation of fast ion dynamics in the presence of off-axis fishbone-like modes in high-beta JT-60U plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwage, Andreas; Aiba, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Go; Shinohara, Koji; Todo, Yasushi; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2013-10-01

    The MHD-PIC hybrid code MEGA is used to simulate high-beta JT-60U plasmas in regimes near marginal MHD ballooning stability and driven by neutral beams. The goal of this research is to study the transport of fast ions caused by experimentally observed fishbone-like modes that peak off-axis (near the q = 2 surface) and have frequencies well below the accumulation points of the beta-induced gap of the shear Alfvén continuum. The approach chosen is as follows. Before examining the physics via parameter scans and case studies, the relevance of the simulation model is verified by checking whether the code can reproduce a plasma response with properties similar to those seen in the experiments. For this purpose, the simulation scenario is set up as realistically as currently possible: with realistic plasma shape and bulk pressure, and a fast ion distribution that is consistent with particle sources and collisions. The methods used and first results are reported and discussed. This work is partly supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  16. Moderate Exercise Restores Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function and Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Obese Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mello Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Metabolic syndrome has been identified as one of the most significant threats to human health in the 21st century. Exercise training has been shown to counteract obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate exercise training on pancreatic beta-cell function and autonomic nervous system (ANS activity in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods: Weaning rats were divided into four groups: rats fed a standard chow or HFD (sedentary, Control-SED and HFD-SED; or exercised, Control-EXE and HFD-EXE, respectively. Exercised rats ran (from 21- to 91-days-old for 60 minutes (3 times/week over a 10-week period. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Pancreatic islets were isolated to study glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS. Parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve electrical signals were measured, and liver samples were processed and histologically analyzed. Results: Exercise prevented obesity, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis as well as improved total cholesterol, ALT, and AST levels. Islets from HFD rats showed insulin hypersecretion which was ameliorated by exercise. Exercise decreased vagal nerve activity in the HFD-EXE group and increased the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in both exercised groups. Conclusion: Exercise prevents obesity and liver steatosis and restores pancreatic beta-cell function and ANS activity in HFD-obese rats.

  17. High dynamic range adaptive real-time smart camera: an overview of the HDR-ARTiST project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Ginhac, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Standard cameras capture only a fraction of the information that is visible to the human visual system. This is specifically true for natural scenes including areas of low and high illumination due to transitions between sunlit and shaded areas. When capturing such a scene, many cameras are unable to store the full Dynamic Range (DR) resulting in low quality video where details are concealed in shadows or washed out by sunlight. The imaging technique that can overcome this problem is called HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging. This paper describes a complete smart camera built around a standard off-the-shelf LDR (Low Dynamic Range) sensor and a Virtex-6 FPGA board. This smart camera called HDR-ARtiSt (High Dynamic Range Adaptive Real-time Smart camera) is able to produce a real-time HDR live video color stream by recording and combining multiple acquisitions of the same scene while varying the exposure time. This technique appears as one of the most appropriate and cheapest solution to enhance the dynamic range of real-life environments. HDR-ARtiSt embeds real-time multiple captures, HDR processing, data display and transfer of a HDR color video for a full sensor resolution (1280 1024 pixels) at 60 frames per second. The main contributions of this work are: (1) Multiple Exposure Control (MEC) dedicated to the smart image capture with alternating three exposure times that are dynamically evaluated from frame to frame, (2) Multi-streaming Memory Management Unit (MMMU) dedicated to the memory read/write operations of the three parallel video streams, corresponding to the different exposure times, (3) HRD creating by combining the video streams using a specific hardware version of the Devebecs technique, and (4) Global Tone Mapping (GTM) of the HDR scene for display on a standard LCD monitor.

  18. Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, M; Fieberg, S; Waasem, N; Kühnemann, F; Buse, K; Breunig, I

    2015-08-24

    We employ three highly sensitive spectrometers: a photoacoustic spectrometer, a photothermal common-path interferometer and a whispering-gallery-resonator-based absorption spectrometer, for a comparative study of measuring the absorption coefficient of nominally transparent undoped, congruently grown lithium niobate for ordinarily and extraordinarily polarized light in the wavelength range from 390 to 3800 nm. The absorption coefficient ranges from below 10(-4) cm(-1) up to 2 cm(-1). Furthermore, we measure the absorption at the Urbach tail as well as the multiphonon edge of the material by a standard grating spectrometer and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, providing for the first time an absorption spectrum of the whole transparency window of lithium niobate. The absorption coefficients obtained by the three highly sensitive and independent methods show good agreement.

  19. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis...

  20. Food Abundance Is the Main Determinant of High-Altitude Range Use in Snub-Nosed Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril C. Grueter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude dwelling primates have to optimize navigating a space that contains both a vertical and horizontal component. Black-and-white or Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti are extreme by primate standards in inhabiting relatively cold subalpine temperate forests at very high altitudes where large seasonal variation in climate and food availability is expected to profoundly modulate their ranging strategies so as to ensure a positive energy balance. A “semi-nomadic” group of R. bieti was followed for 20 months in the montane Samage Forest, Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, PRC, which consisted of evergreen conifers, oaks, and deciduous broadleaf trees. The aim of this study was to disentangle the effects of climate and phenology on patterns of altitudinal range use. Altitude used by the group ranged from a maximum of 3550 m in July 2007 to a minimum of 3060 m in April 2006. The proportional use of lichen, the monkeys’ staple fallback food, in the diet explained more variation in monthly use of altitudes than climatic factors and availability of flush and fruit. The abundance of lichens at high altitudes, the lack of alternative foods in winter, and the need to satisfy the monkey's basal energetic requirements explain the effect of lichenivory on use of altitudes.

  1. A Dual Active Bridge Converter with an Extended High-Efficiency Range by DC Blocking Capacitor Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Shen, Yanfeng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2017-01-01

    A Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter can achieve a wide high-efficiency range when its input and output voltages are equal, assuming a 1:1 turns ratio for its isolation transformer. If its input or output voltage is doubled, efficiency of the DAB will drop significantly, because of the introduction...... of hard switching and high circulating power. Thus, a new modulation scheme has been proposed, whose main idea is to introduce a voltage offset across the dc blocking capacitor connected in series with the transformer. Operational principle of the proposed modulation has been introduced, before analyzing...

  2. [Study on the enhanced spectrum quantitative analysis of SDBS induced by beta-cyclodextrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-Po; Yin, Xian-Qing; Zheng, Yan-Cheng; Chen, Wu; Fu, Jia-Xin; Ren, Zhao-Hua

    2013-08-01

    A novel enhanced ultraviolet absorption spectrometry method was developed for the quantitative analysis of SDBS induced by beta-cyclodextrin(beta-CD) with strong interferences. The ultraviolet absorption spectra of SDBS indicated that the presence of beta-CD could result in the enhancement of absorption intensities of SDBS. A good linearity was obtained between the UV-absorption intensity of the system and the concentration of SDBS. The results indicated that the determination precision and the determination ranges of SDBS could be greatly improved by beta-CD. The effect of several common interfering substances (SDS, OP-10, HPAM) on the determination of SDBS could be significantly reduced in beta-CD aqueous solution. Therefore, the maximum errors of the determined SDBS were less than 2.0% under multifactor interferences, and the precision of the method was also as high as 10(-2) - 10(-3) mg x L(-1). The stable inclusion of beta-CD and SDBS could be automatically formed in water with molar ratio of 1 : 1. The stability constant of the inclusion, K(a), was 87 and the standard Gibbs function of molar reaction, delta(gamma)G(m)(see symbol) (298 K), was -11.064 kJ x mol(-1). FTIR analysis exhibited that SDBS could be induced by beta-CD since the phenyl group in SDBS molecule could exist stably in the cavity of beta-CD and form the inclusion.

  3. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: DCM, FSM, dead time and width controllers for a high frequency high efficiency buck DC-DC converter over a wide load range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changming, Pi; Wei, Yan; Ke, Zhang; Wenhong, Li

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a width controller, a dead time controller, a discontinuous current mode (DCM) controller and a frequency skipping modulation (FSM) controller for a high frequency high efficiency buck DC-DC converter. To improve the efficiency over a wide load range, especially at high switching frequency, the dead time controller and width controller are applied to enhance the high load efficiency, while the DCM controller and FSM controller are proposed to increase the light load efficiency. The proposed DC-DC converter controllers have been designed and fabricated in the Chartered 0.35 μm CMOS process, and the measured results show that the efficiency of the buck DC-DC converter is above 80% over a wide load current range from 8 to 570 mA, and the peak efficiency is 86% at 10 MHz switching frequency.

  4. DCM, FSM, dead time and width controllers for a high frequency high efficiency buck DC-DC converter over a wide load range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi Changming; Yan Wei; Zhang Ke; Li Wenhong, E-mail: wenhongli@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and Systems, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents a width controller, a dead time controller, a discontinuous current mode (DCM) controller and a frequency skipping modulation (FSM) controller for a high frequency high efficiency buck DC-DC converter. To improve the efficiency over a wide load range, especially at high switching frequency, the dead time controller and width controller are applied to enhance the high load efficiency, while the DCM controller and FSM controller are proposed to increase the light load efficiency. The proposed DC-DC converter controllers have been designed and fabricated in the Chartered 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process, and the measured results show that the efficiency of the buck DC-DC converter is above 80% over a wide load current range from 8 to 570 mA, and the peak efficiency is 86% at 10 MHz switching frequency. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Forward-Looking Betas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Vainberg, Gregory

    -looking. This paper introduces a radically different approach to estimating market betas. Using the tools in Bakshi and Madan (2000) and Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003) we employ the information embedded in the prices of individual stock options and index options to compute our forward-looking market beta......-looking betas contain information relevant for forecasting future betas that is not contained in historical betas....

  6. High prevalence of extensively drug-resistant and metallo beta-lactamase-producing clinical Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspi, Hossein; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Amin, Mohsen; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2016-09-01

    Acinetobacter species particularly Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) have been widely reported as broad-spectrum antibiotic resistant pathogens. Expression of various types of metallo beta-lactamases (MBL), classified as Ambler class B, has been associated with carbapenem resistance. Here, we attempted to assess the frequency of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and MBL-producing A. baumannii among clinical isolates. 86 clinical A. baumannii strains were collected from 2014 to 2015 and their susceptibility to meropenem (10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), azteronem (30 μg), pipracillin (100 μg) tazobactam (110 μg), tobramycin (10 μg), fosfomycin (200 μg), rifampicin (5 μg), colistin (10 μg), tigecycline (15 μg), sulbactam/ampicillin (10 μg + 10 μg) and polymixin B (300 U) was evaluated using disk diffusion method. The MBL-producing isolates were screened using combined disc diffusion method. Furthermore, the presence of blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM, blaSIM and blaNDM was detected by PCR. 34.9% of isolates were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 81 (94.2%) and 62 (71.2%) isolates were multidrug resistance (MDR) and XDR, respectively. 44 (51.2%) and 65 (75.6%) isolates were MBL-producing strains with resistance to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. 2 (2.3%), 13 (15.1%), 2 (2.3%), 4 (4.7%) and 2 (2.3%) isolates carried blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM and blaSIM genes, respectively. Our data showed that the rate of XDR and MBL A. baumannii is on the rise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A High-Voltage class-D power amplifier with switching frequency regulation for improved high-efficiency output power range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, H.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Nauta, Bram

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the power dissipation analysis and the design of an efficiency-improved high-voltage class-D power amplifier. The amplifier adaptively regulates its switching frequency for optimal power efficiency across the full output power range. This is based on detecting the switching

  8. Quantifying the Contribution of Thermally Driven Recirculation to a High-Ozone Event Along the Colorado Front Range Using Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John T.; McGee, Thomas J.; Langford, Andrew O.; Alvarez, Raul J., II; Senff, Christoph; Reddy, Patrick J.; Thompson, Anne M.; Twigg, Laurence W.; Sumnicht, Grant K.; Lee, Pius; hide

    2016-01-01

    A high-ozone (O3) pollution episode was observed on 22 July 2014 during the concurrent Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) and Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) campaigns in northern Colorado. Surface O3 monitors at three regulatory sites exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) daily maximum 8h average (MDA8) of 75ppbv. To further characterize the polluted air mass and assess transport throughout the event, measurements are presented from O3 and wind profilers, O3-sondes, aircraft, and surface-monitoring sites. Observations indicate that thermally driven upslope flow was established throughout the Colorado Front Range during the pollution episode. As the thermally driven flow persisted throughout the day, O3 concentrations increased and affected high-elevation Rocky Mountain sites. These observations, coupled with modeling analyses, demonstrate a westerly return flow of polluted air aloft, indicating that the mountain-plains solenoid circulation was established and impacted surface conditions within the Front Range.

  9. A Dynamic Range Enhanced Readout Technique with a Two-Step TDC for High Speed Linear CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic range (DR enhanced readout technique with a two-step time-to-digital converter (TDC for high speed linear CMOS image sensors. A multi-capacitor and self-regulated capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA structure is employed to extend the dynamic range. The gain of the CTIA is auto adjusted by switching different capacitors to the integration node asynchronously according to the output voltage. A column-parallel ADC based on a two-step TDC is utilized to improve the conversion rate. The conversion is divided into coarse phase and fine phase. An error calibration scheme is also proposed to correct quantization errors caused by propagation delay skew within −Tclk~+Tclk. A linear CMOS image sensor pixel array is designed in the 0.13 μm CMOS process to verify this DR-enhanced high speed readout technique. The post simulation results indicate that the dynamic range of readout circuit is 99.02 dB and the ADC achieves 60.22 dB SNDR and 9.71 bit ENOB at a conversion rate of 2 MS/s after calibration, with 14.04 dB and 2.4 bit improvement, compared with SNDR and ENOB of that without calibration.

  10. A per-pixel Log2ADC for high dynamic range, 1000FPS digital focal plane arrays (DFPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petilli, Eugene

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsix has developed a Digital Focal Plane Array (DFPA) architecture based on a novel piecewise linear Log2 ADC (LADC) with "lossless" analog compression which enables ultra-high dynamic range ROICs that use less power than other extended dynamic range technologies. The LADC provides dynamic range of 126dB with a constant 75dB SNR over the entire frame. The companding 13bit mantissa, 3bit radix per pixel LADCs compress the 21bit signals into efficient 16 bit data words. The Read Out IC (ROIC) is compatible with most IR and LWIR detectors including two-color SLS (photodiode) and uBolometers. The DFPA architecture leverages two (staggered frame prime and redundant) MIPI CSI-3 interfaces to achieve full HD DFPA at 1000 frames/sec; an equivalent uncompressed data rate of 100Gb/sec. The LADC uses direct injection into a moderate sized integrating capacitor and several comparators create a stream of multi-bit data values. These values are accumulated in an SRAM based log2ALU and the radix of the ALU is combined with the data to generate a feedback current to the integrating capacitor, closing the delta loop. The integration time and a single pole low pass IIR filter are configurable using control signals to the log2ALU. The feedback current is at least partially generated using PWM for high linearity.

  11. Application potential of thermoelectric power generation in the high-temperature range; Anwendungspotential der thermoelektrischen Stromerzeugung im Hochtemperaturbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, K.; Eisenhut, Ch.; Bitschi, A.

    2009-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the potential offered by thermo-electrical electricity generation. New, efficient materials, especially in the high temperature range above 150 {sup o}C, are discussed. Various relevant scenarios of thermoelectric power generation systems have been evaluated and compared with conventional energy conversion technologies. It is noted that with today's materials the utilisation of thermoelectric generators for high temperature applications is not competitive. The advances of material science promise the availability of significantly improved materials in medium term. It is noted that thermoelectric power generation has the potential to convert low-temperature and high-temperature thermal energy into electrical power in an efficient and competitive way

  12. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in human developing teeth: immunolocalization according to the odontogenesis phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassá Benedete, Ana Paula; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras; Lima, Dirce Mary Correia; Kamibeppu, Leonardo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional growth factor that has several biological effects in vivo, including control of cell growth and differentiation, cell migration, lineage determination, motility, adhesion, apoptosis, and synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, and TGF-beta plays an important role in regulating tissue repair and regeneration. Our study analyzed the participation of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in the different stages of morphogenesis and differentiation of human developing dental organ using immunohistochemistry. The maxillae and mandibles of 10 human embryos ranging from 8 to 23 weeks of gestation were employed, according to the approval of the ethical committee. Our study revealed that the TGF-beta subunits-beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3-were present in the various stages of tooth development, but the expression varied according to the differentiation stage, tissue, and TGF-beta subunit. Our results indicated that TGF-beta 1 is closely related to differentiation of enamel organ and initiation of matrix secretion, TGF-beta 2 to cellular differentiation, and TGF-beta 3 to mineral maturation matrix.

  13. High-energy ion-implantation-induced gettering of copper in silicon beyond the projected ion range: The trans-projected-range effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, Y. M.; Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Mücklich, A.; Panknin, D.; Yankov, R. A.; Skorupa, W.

    2000-11-01

    Five different species, namely B, Si, P, Ge, and As, were implanted at MeV energies into (100)-oriented n-type Czohralski Si, in order to form deep gettering layers during the subsequent annealing. Then the samples were contaminated with Cu by implanting the impurity on the backface and performing additional annealing. The resulting Cu depth distributions were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Strong gettering of Cu atoms beyond the projected ion range RP and formation of a well-defined separate Cu gettering band therein is found for P and As implants. We call this phenomenon the "trans-RP effect." It arises from the presence of a significant amount of defects in the regions much deeper than RP. Their gettering ability is higher than that of the extended defects around RP, as the amount of Cu atoms gettered beyond RP is, especially for the P implants, much greater than that in the implanted gettering layer at RP. These deep defects have not been detected by transmission electron microscopy, and we suggest that they are small interstitial clusters. A mechanism responsible for the migration of self-interstitials from RP into the trans-RP region and their clustering therein is proposed. An explanation is given of the possible reasons for the differences in the results for the P+ and As+ implants.

  14. The human [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit [beta]3 and [alpha]5 gene cluster in chromosome 15q11-q13 is rich in highly polymorphic (CA)[sub n] repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatt, K.; Lalande, M. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA (United States)); Sinnett, D. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA[sub A]) receptor [beta]33 (GABRB3) and [alpha]5 (GABRA5) subunit genes have been localized to the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome region of chromosome 15q11-q13. GABRB3, which encompasses 250 kb, is located 100 kb proximal of GABRA5, with the two genes arranged in head-to-head transcriptional orientation. In screening 135 kb of cloned DNA within a 260-kb interval extending from within GABRB3 to the 5[prime] end of GABRA5, 10 new (CA), repeats have been identified. Five of these have been analyzed in detail and found to be highly polymorphic, with the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranging from 0.7 to 0.85 and with heterozygosities of 67 to 94%. In the clones from GABRB3/GABRA5 region, therefore, the frequency of (CA)[sub n] with PICs [ge] 0.7 is 1 per 27 kb. Previous estimates of the density of (CA)[sub n] with PICs [ge] 0.7 in the human genome have been approximately 10-fold lower. The GABRB3/GABRA5 region appears, therefore, to be enriched for highly informative (CA)[sub n]. This set of closely spaced, short tandem repeat polymorphisms will be useful in the molecular analyses of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and in high-resolution studies of genetic recombination within this region. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. High female mortality resulting in herd collapse in free-ranging domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    Full Text Available Reindeer herding in Sweden is a form of pastoralism practised by the indigenous Sámi population. The economy is mainly based on meat production. Herd size is generally regulated by harvest in order not to overuse grazing ranges and keep a productive herd. Nonetheless, herd growth and room for harvest is currently small in many areas. Negative herd growth and low harvest rate were observed in one of two herds in a reindeer herding community in Central Sweden. The herds (A and B used the same ranges from April until the autumn gathering in October-December, but were separated on different ranges over winter. Analyses of capture-recapture for 723 adult female reindeer over five years (2007-2012 revealed high annual losses (7.1% and 18.4%, for herd A and B respectively. A continuing decline in the total reindeer number in herd B demonstrated an inability to maintain the herd size in spite of a very small harvest. An estimated breakpoint for when herd size cannot be kept stable confirmed that the observed female mortality rate in herd B represented a state of herd collapse. Lower calving success in herd B compared to A indicated differences in winter foraging conditions. However, we found only minor differences in animal body condition between the herds in autumn. We found no evidence that a lower autumn body mass generally increased the risk for a female of dying from one autumn to the next. We conclude that the prime driver of the on-going collapse of herd B is not high animal density or poor body condition. Accidents or disease seem unlikely as major causes of mortality. Predation, primarily by lynx and wolverine, appears to be the most plausible reason for the high female mortality and state of collapse in the studied reindeer herding community.

  16. Herman Feshbach Prize in Theoretical Nuclear Physics Xiangdong Ji, University of Maryland PandaX-III: high-pressure gas TPC for Xe136 neutrinoless double beta decay at CJPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangdong; PandaX-III Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PandaX-III in China's Jinping Underground Lab is a new neutrinoless double beta decay experiment using Xe136 high-pressure gas TPC. The first phase of the experiment uses a 4 m3 gas detector with symmetric Micromegas charge readout planes. The gas TPC allows full reconstruction of the event topology, capable of distinguishing the two electron events from gamma background with high confidence level. The energy resolution can reach about 3% FWHM at the beta decay Q-value. The detector construction and the experimental lab is currently under active development. In this talk, the current status and future plan are reported.

  17. Angstrom-range optical path-length measurement with a high-speed scanning heterodyne optical interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Arain, Muzammil A

    2003-05-01

    A highly accurate method of optical path-length measurement is introduced by use of a scanning heterodyne optical interferometer with no moving parts. The instrument has demonstrated the potential to measure optical path length at angstrom resolution over continuous thickness in the micrometer range. This optical path length can be used to calculate the thickness of any material if the refractive index is known or to measure the refractive index of the material if the thickness is known. The instrument uses a single acousto-optic device in an in-line ultra-stable reflective geometry to implement rapid scanning in the microsecond domain for thickness measurements of the test medium.

  18. HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR CORONAL TRANSIENTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES WITH A SPECTRO-CORRELATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, K.; Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Rajalingam, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore-560034 (India); Abhilash, H. N., E-mail: khariharan@iiap.res.in [Poornaprajna College, Udupi-576101 (India)

    2016-02-15

    A new antenna system with a digital spectro-correlator that provides high temporal, spectral, and amplitude resolutions has been commissioned at the Gauribidanur Observatory near Bangalore in India. Presently, it is used for observations of the solar coronal transients in the scarcely explored frequency range ≈30–15 MHz. The details of the antenna system, the associated receiver setup, and the initial observational results are reported. Some of the observed transients exhibited quasi-periodicity in their time profiles at discrete frequencies. Estimates of the associated magnetic field strength (B) indicate that B ≈ 0.06–1 G at a typical frequency such as 19.5 MHz.

  19. Effect of skin dielectric properties on the read range of epidermal ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeka, Dumtoochukwu O; Batchelor, John C; Ziai, Ali Mohamad

    2017-04-01

    This Letter presents an investigation of the effect of human tissue conductivity and permittivity on the performance of epidermal transfer tattoo ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. The measurements were carried out on 20 individuals and the variations in the measured dielectric properties correlate well with variations in the measured tag read range on the individuals and to a lesser extent with their body mass index values. Simulation results also showed the effects of permittivity and conductivity on the designed resonance frequency of the RFID tag.

  20. A high sensitivity and wide dynamic range fiber-optic sensor for low-concentration VOC gas detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2014-12-05

    In this paper, we propose a volatile organic compound (VOC) gas sensing system with high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range that is based on the principle of the heterodyne frequency modulation method. According to this method, the time period of the sensing signal shift when Nile Red containing a VOC-sensitive membrane of a fiber-optic sensing element comes into contact with a VOC. This sensing membrane produces strong, fast and reversible signals when exposed to VOC gases. The response and recovery times of the proposed sensing system were less than 35 s, and good reproducibility and accuracy were obtained.

  1. A High Sensitivity and Wide Dynamic Range Fiber-Optic Sensor for Low-Concentration VOC Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a volatile organic compound (VOC gas sensing system with high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range that is based on the principle of the heterodyne frequency modulation method. According to this method, the time period of the sensing signal shift when Nile Red containing a VOC-sensitive membrane of a fiber-optic sensing element comes into contact with a VOC. This sensing membrane produces strong, fast and reversible signals when exposed to VOC gases. The response and recovery times of the proposed sensing system were less than 35 s, and good reproducibility and accuracy were obtained.

  2. A Two-mode Buck Converter toward High Efficiency for the Entire Load Range for Low Power Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    In order to extend the battery life of smart cameras, it is essential to increase the efficiency of power converters, especially at light load. This thesis research investigated a power converter to supply power for the microprocessor of a smart camera. The input voltage of the converter is 5 V, and the output voltage is 1.2 V with the load ranging from 10 mA (12 mW) to 1200 mA (1440 mW). The conventional buck converter is typically optimized for high efficiency at maximum load at the cost of...

  3. Effect of skin dielectric properties on the read range of epidermal ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, John C.; Ziai, Ali Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This Letter presents an investigation of the effect of human tissue conductivity and permittivity on the performance of epidermal transfer tattoo ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. The measurements were carried out on 20 individuals and the variations in the measured dielectric properties correlate well with variations in the measured tag read range on the individuals and to a lesser extent with their body mass index values. Simulation results also showed the effects of permittivity and conductivity on the designed resonance frequency of the RFID tag. PMID:28461902

  4. Multiplexed chromosome conformation capture sequencing for rapid genome-scale high-resolution detection of long-range chromatin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadhouders, Ralph; Kolovos, Petros; Brouwer, Rutger; Zuin, Jessica; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kockx, Christel; Palstra, Robert-Jan; Wendt, Kerstin S; Grosveld, Frank; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Soler, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology is a powerful and increasingly popular tool for analyzing the spatial organization of genomes. Several 3C variants have been developed (e.g., 4C, 5C, ChIA-PET, Hi-C), allowing large-scale mapping of long-range genomic interactions. Here we describe multiplexed 3C sequencing (3C-seq), a 4C variant coupled to next-generation sequencing, allowing genome-scale detection of long-range interactions with candidate regions. Compared with several other available techniques, 3C-seq offers a superior resolution (typically single restriction fragment resolution; approximately 1-8 kb on average) and can be applied in a semi-high-throughput fashion. It allows the assessment of long-range interactions of up to 192 genes or regions of interest in parallel by multiplexing library sequencing. This renders multiplexed 3C-seq an inexpensive, quick (total hands-on time of 2 weeks) and efficient method that is ideal for the in-depth analysis of complex genetic loci. The preparation of multiplexed 3C-seq libraries can be performed by any investigator with basic skills in molecular biology techniques. Data analysis requires basic expertise in bioinformatics and in Linux and Python environments. The protocol describes all materials, critical steps and bioinformatics tools required for successful application of 3C-seq technology.

  5. Non-cooperative target recognition by means of singular value decomposition applied to radar high resolution range profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio

    2014-12-29

    Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising.

  6. Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising.

  7. Links between N deposition and nitrate export from a high-elevation watershed in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.; Baron, Jill S.; Wetherbee, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term patterns of stream nitrate export and atmospheric N deposition were evaluated over three decades in Loch Vale, a high-elevation watershed in the Colorado Front Range. Stream nitrate concentrations increased in the early 1990s, peaked in the mid-2000s, and have since declined by over 40%, coincident with trends in nitrogen oxide emissions over the past decade. Similarities in the timing and magnitude of N deposition provide evidence that stream chemistry is responding to changes in atmospheric deposition. The response to deposition was complicated by a drought in the early 2000s that enhanced N export for several years. Other possible explanations, including forest disturbance, snow depth, or permafrost melting, could not explain patterns in N export. Our results show that stream chemistry responds rapidly to changes in N deposition in high-elevation watersheds, similar to the response observed to changes in sulfur deposition.

  8. High-dynamic-range microscope imaging based on exposure bracketing in full-field optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Montgomery, Paul C; Serio, Bruno; Twardowski, Patrice; Uhring, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    By applying the proposed high-dynamic-range (HDR) technique based on exposure bracketing, we demonstrate a meaningful reduction in the spatial noise in image frames acquired with a CCD camera so as to improve the fringe contrast in full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). This new signal processing method thus allows improved probing within transparent or semitransparent samples. The proposed method is demonstrated on 3 μm thick transparent polymer films of Mylar, which, due to their transparency, produce low contrast fringe patterns in white-light interference microscopy. High-resolution tomographic analysis is performed using the technique. After performing appropriate signal processing, resulting XZ sections are observed. Submicrometer-sized defects can be lost in the noise that is present in the CCD images. With the proposed method, we show that by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio of the images, submicrometer-sized defect structures can thus be detected.

  9. Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN(1-x)As(x) alloys in the whole composition range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. M.; Novikov, S. V.; Broesler, R.; Demchenko, I. N.; Denlinger, J. D.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Luckert, F.; Martin, R. W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Foxon, C. T.

    2009-08-29

    Alloying is a commonly accepted method to tailor properties of semiconductor materials for specific applications. Only a limited number of semiconductor alloys can be easily synthesized in the full composition range. Such alloys are, in general, formed of component elements that are well matched in terms of ionicity, atom size, and electronegativity. In contrast there is a broad class of potential semiconductor alloys formed of component materials with distinctly different properties. In most instances these mismatched alloys are immiscible under standard growth conditions. Here we report on the properties of GaN1-xAsx, a highly mismatched, immiscible alloy system that was successfully synthesized in the whole composition range using a nonequilibrium low temperature molecular beam epitaxy technique. The alloys are amorphous in the composition range of 0.17range from ~;;3.4 eV in GaN to ~;;0.8 eV at x~;;0.85. The reduction in the band gap can be attributed primarily to the downward movement of the conduction band for alloys with x>0.2, and to the upward movement of the valence band for alloys with x<0.2. The unique features of the band structure offer an opportunity of using GaN1-xAsx alloys for various types of solar power conversion devices.

  10. The response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, T. J.; Bradley, J.; Dwivedi, A.; Casem, D.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress. Laboratory data from the literature, and new test data provided here, are used in the evaluation. The new data include uniaxial stress compression tests (at various strain rates and temperatures) and uniaxial stress tension tests (at low strain rates and ambient temperatures). The compression tests include experiments at ˙ɛ = 13,000 s-1, significantly extending the range of known strain rate data. The observed behavior of PMMA includes the following: it is brittle in compression at high rates, and brittle in tension at all rates; strength is dependent on the pressure, strain, strain rate, temperature, and the intermediate principal stress; the shear modulus increases as the pressure increases; and it is highly compressible. Also presented are novel, high velocity impact tests (using high-speed imaging) that provide insight into the initiation and evolution of damage. Lastly, computational constitutive models for pressure, strength, and failure are presented that provide responses that are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The models are used to compute several ballistic impact events for which experimental data are available.

  11. High-sensitivity operation of single-beam optically pumped magnetometer in a kHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I.; Kim, Y. J.; Shah, V.; Boshier, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPM) can be used in various applications, from magnetoencephalography to magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). OPMs provide high sensitivity and have the significant advantage of non-cryogenic operation. To date, many magnetometers have been demonstrated with sensitivity close to 1 fT, but most devices are not commercialized. Most recently, QuSpin developed a model of OPM that is low cost, high sensitivity, and convenient for users, which operates in a single-beam configuration. Here we developed a theory of single-beam (or parallel two-beam) magnetometers and showed that it is possible to achieve good sensitivity beyond their usual frequency range by tuning the magnetic field. Experimentally we have tested and optimized a QuSpin OPM for operation in the frequency range from DC to 1.7 kHz, and found that the performance was only slightly inferior despite the expected decrease due to deviation from the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime.

  12. Molecular phylogeny reveals high diversity, geographic structure and limited ranges in neotenic net-winged beetles platerodrilus (coleoptera: lycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Michal; Palata, Vaclav; Bray, Timothy C; Bocak, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    The neotenic Platerodrilus net-winged beetles have strongly modified development where females do not pupate and retain larval morphology when sexually mature. As a result, dispersal propensity of females is extremely low and the lineage can be used for reconstruction of ancient dispersal and vicariance patterns and identification of centres of diversity. We identified three deep lineages in Platerodrilus occurring predominantly in (1) Borneo and the Philippines, (2) continental Asia, and (3) Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and Java. We document limited ranges of all species of Platerodrilus and complete species level turnover between the Sunda Islands and even between individual mountain regions in Sumatra. Few dispersal events were recovered among the major geographical regions despite long evolutionary history of occurrence; all of them were dated at the early phase of Platerodrilus diversification up to the end of Miocene and no exchange of island faunas was identified during the Pliocene and Pleistocene despite the frequently exposed Sunda Shelf as sea levels fluctuated with each glacial cycle. We observed high diversity in the regions with persisting humid tropical forests during cool periods. The origins of multiple species were inferred in Sumatra soon after the island emerged and the mountain range uplifted 15 million years ago with the speciation rate lower since then. We suppose that the extremely low dispersal propensity makes Platerodrilus a valuable indicator of uninterrupted persistence of rainforests over a long time span. Additionally, if the diversity of these neotenic lineages is to be protected, a high dense system of protected areas would be necessary.

  13. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  14. An OTA-C filter for ECG acquisition systems with highly linear range and less passband attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihai, Duan; Chuang, Lan; Weilin, Xu; Baolin, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A fifth order operational transconductance amplifier-C (OTA-C) Butterworth type low-pass filter with highly linear range and less passband attenuation is presented for wearable bio-telemetry monitoring applications in a UWB wireless body area network. The source degeneration structure applied in typical small transconductance circuit is improved to provide a highly linear range for the OTA-C filter. Moreover, to reduce the passband attenuation of the filter, a cascode structure is employed as the output stage of the OTA. The OTA-based circuit is operated in weak inversion due to strict power limitation in the biomedical chip. The filter is fabricated in a SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured results for the filter have shown a passband gain of -6.2 dB, while the -3-dB frequency is around 276 Hz. For the 0.8 VPP sinusoidal input at 100 Hz, a total harmonic distortion (THD) of -56.8 dB is obtained. An electrocardiogram signal with noise interference is fed into this chip to validate the function of the designed filter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61161003, 61264001, 61166004) and the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (No. 2013GXNSFAA019333).

  15. Design and characterization of the ePix10k: a high dynamic range integrating pixel ASIC for LCLS detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Markovic, B.; Herbst, R.; Nishimura, K.; Reese, B.; Herrmann, S.; Hart, P.; Blaj, G.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.; Hasi, J.; Carini, G.; Kenney, C.; Haller, G.

    2015-05-01

    ePix10k is a variant of a novel class of integrating pixel ASICs architectures optimized for the processing of signals in second generation LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-Ray cameras. The ASIC is optimized for high dynamic range application requiring high spatial resolution and fast frame rates. ePix ASICs are based on a common platform composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog to digital converters per column. The ePix10k variant has 100um×100um pixels arranged in a 176×192 matrix, a resolution of 140e- r.m.s. and a signal range of 3.5pC (10k photons at 8keV). In its final version it will be able to sustain a frame rate of 2kHz. A first prototype has been fabricated and characterized. Performance in terms of noise, linearity, uniformity, cross-talk, together with preliminary measurements with bump bonded sensors are reported here.

  16. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Design and implementation of a high precision and wide range adjustable LED drive controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoding, Dai; Feng, Yu; Xuan, Wang; Weimin, Li

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a novel high precision and wide range adjustable LED constant-current drive controller design. Compared with the traditional technique, the conventional mirror resistance is substituted by a MOSFET with fixed drain voltage, and a negative feedback amplifier is used to keep all mirror device voltages equal, so that the output current is precise and not affected by the load supply voltage. In addition, the electric property of the mirror MOSFET is optimized by a current subsection mirror (CSM) mechanism, thus ensuring a wide range of output current with high accuracy. A three-channel LED driver chip based on this project is designed and fabricated in the TSMC 0.6 μm BCD process with a die area of 1.1 × 0.7 mm2. Experimental results show that the proposed LED drive controller works well, and, as expected, the output current can be maintained from 5 to 60 mA. A relative current accuracy error of less than 1% and a maximal relative current matching error of 1.5% are successfully achieved.

  17. Low-Noise Free-Running High-Rate Photon-Counting for Space Communication and Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael A.; Yang, Guan; Sun, Xiaoli; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We present performance data for low-noise free-running high-rate photon counting method for space optical communication and ranging. NASA GSFC is testing the performance of two types of novel photon-counting detectors 1) a 2x8 mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) avalanche array made by DRS Inc., and a 2) a commercial 2880-element silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) array. We successfully measured real-time communication performance using both the 2 detected-photon threshold and logic AND-gate coincidence methods. Use of these methods allows mitigation of dark count, after-pulsing and background noise effects without using other method of Time Gating The HgCdTe APD array routinely demonstrated very high photon detection efficiencies (50) at near infrared wavelength. The commercial silicon APD array exhibited a fast output with rise times of 300 ps and pulse widths of 600 ps. On-chip individually filtered signals from the entire array were multiplexed onto a single fast output. NASA GSFC has tested both detectors for their potential application for space communications and ranging. We developed and compare their performances using both the 2 detected photon threshold and coincidence methods.

  18. Highly Sensitive and Wide-Dynamic-Range Multichannel Optical-Fiber pH Sensor Based on PWM Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-11-09

    In this study, we propose a highly sensitive multichannel pH sensor that is based on an optical-fiber pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. According to the optical-fiber PWM method, the received sensing signal's pulse width changes when the optical-fiber pH sensing-element of the array comes into contact with pH buffer solutions. The proposed optical-fiber PWM pH-sensing system offers a linear sensing response over a wide range of pH values from 2 to 12, with a high pH-sensing ability. The sensitivity of the proposed pH sensor is 0.46 µs/pH, and the correlation coefficient R² is approximately 0.997. Additional advantages of the proposed optical-fiber PWM pH sensor include a short/fast response-time of about 8 s, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 0.019, easy fabrication, low cost, small size, reusability of the optical-fiber sensing-element, and the capability of remote sensing. Finally, the performance of the proposed PWM pH sensor was compared with that of potentiometric, optical-fiber modal interferometer, and optical-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer pH sensors with respect to dynamic range width, linearity as well as response and recovery times. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing abilities than the above-mentioned pH sensors.

  19. Nanotopographic characterization of spotted micro arrays on polyvinyl alcohol films by high-resolution long-range nanoprofiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Aniket R; Gross, G Alexander; Hausotte, Tino; Jäger, Gerd; Dorozhovets, Nataliya; Köhler, J Michael

    2009-01-01

    The nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine was applied for the nanotopographic characterization of polymer micro spot arrays of fluorimetric chemochips. Chemochips are arrays of fluorescence dyes in a hydrogel matrix with different response behaviors of chemical components determination of chemical and physico-chemical properties of analytes by a pattern recognition approach. For the characterization and quality control of the spots, a nanometer resolution is needed over a scan range of several millimeters. This challenge could be met by use of a scanning probe sensor in connection with a laser interferometer controlled high-precision positioning and measuring device. This way, topographic scans with the resolution of atomic force microscope could be achieved over these demandingly large ranges. The technique was used in order to determine the quality of thin film micro spots made from fluorescence dye solutions on preformed polymer films and also tested for characterization of monomolecular films in the form of micro spots. The nanotopographic measurements reflect the strong influence of solvent/matrix interaction, wetting, swelling and material transport during the application of picoliter droplets in the spotting process. The measurement clarifies the reason for the formation of roughness in the nanometer range by nano-crystal formation in the upper part of polymer film and the rim formation of micro spots during solvent evaporation. The studies show the effect of application of different numbers of droplets in a dispensing series for spot formation and prove the high importance of polymer/solvent interaction for the quality of formed micro spots as well as for spot arrays of monomolecular films. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. beta-globin transcript found in induced murine erythroleukemia cells is homologous to the beta h0 and beta h1 genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, B. A.; Padgett, R W; Hardies, S C; Hutchison, C A; Edgell, M H

    1982-01-01

    RNA transcripts complementary to at least one of the four beta-globin homologous genes (beta h) are found in high concentration in the murine erythroleukemic (MEL) cell line GM979 after butyric acid induction. Hybridization data indicate that the gene expressed is Hbb-beta h0 or Hbb-beta h1, or both. The level of beta h0/1 transcripts in the MEL cell is similar to the level of adult transcripts. The Hbb-beta h0/1 transcript is about 800 nucleotides in length. In addition, there is a larger be...