WorldWideScience

Sample records for high radiation environment

  1. Radiation effects on materials in high-radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Mansur, L.K.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Parkin, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Radiation Effects on Materials in High-Radiation Environments was held in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) from August 13 to 15, 1990 under the auspices of the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. The workshop focused on ceramics, alloys, and intermetallics and covered research needs and capabilities, recent experimental data, theory, and computer simulations. It was concluded that there is clearly a continuing scientific and technological need for fundamental knowledge on the underlying causes of radiation-induced property changes in materials. Furthermore, the success of many current and emerging nuclear-related technologies critically depend on renewed support for basic radiation-effects research, irradiation facilities, and training of scientists. The highlights of the workshop are reviewed and specific recommendations are made regarding research needs. (orig.)

  2. The development of advanced robotics technology in high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jaiwan; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Jin Suk; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Byung Soo

    1997-07-01

    In the tele-operation technology using tele-presence in high radiation environment, stereo vision target tracking by centroid method, vergence control of stereo camera by moving vector method, stereo observing system by correlation method, horizontal moving axis stereo camera, and 3 dimensional information acquisition by stereo image is developed. Also, gesture image acquisition by computer vision and construction of virtual environment for remote work in nuclear power plant. In the development of intelligent control and monitoring technology for tele-robot in hazardous environment, the characteristics and principle of robot operation. And, robot end-effector tracking algorithm by centroid method and neural network method are developed for the observation and survey in hazardous environment. 3-dimensional information acquisition algorithm by structured light is developed. In the development of radiation hardened sensor technology, radiation-hardened camera module is designed and tested. And radiation characteristics of electric components is robot system is evaluated. Also 2-dimensional radiation monitoring system is developed. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation /removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation / removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous high radioactivity area to eliminate their exposure to radiation, enhance their task safety, and raise their working efficiency. (author). 75 refs., 21 tabs., 15 figs.

  3. The development of advanced robotics technology in high radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jaiwan; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Jin Suk; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Byung Soo.

    1997-07-01

    In the tele-operation technology using tele-presence in high radiation environment, stereo vision target tracking by centroid method, vergence control of stereo camera by moving vector method, stereo observing system by correlation method, horizontal moving axis stereo camera, and 3 dimensional information acquisition by stereo image is developed. Also, gesture image acquisition by computer vision and construction of virtual environment for remote work in nuclear power plant. In the development of intelligent control and monitoring technology for tele-robot in hazardous environment, the characteristics and principle of robot operation. And, robot end-effector tracking algorithm by centroid method and neural network method are developed for the observation and survey in hazardous environment. 3-dimensional information acquisition algorithm by structured light is developed. In the development of radiation hardened sensor technology, radiation-hardened camera module is designed and tested. And radiation characteristics of electric components is robot system is evaluated. Also 2-dimensional radiation monitoring system is developed. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation /removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation / removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous high radioactivity area to eliminate their exposure to radiation, enhance their task safety, and raise their working efficiency. (author). 75 refs., 21 tabs., 15 figs

  4. Superconducting magnets in high radiation environments: Design problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Lorant, S.J.; Tillmann, E.

    1989-11-01

    As part of the Stanford Linear Collider Project, three high-field superconducting solenoid magnets are used to rotate the spin direction of a polarized electron beam. The magnets are installed in a high-radiation environment, where they will receive a dose of approximately 10 3 rad per hour, or 10 8 rad over their lifetimes. This level of radiation and the location in which the magnets are installed, some 10 meters below ground in contiguous tunnels, required careful selection of materials for the construction of the solenoids and their ancillary cryogenic equipment, as well as the development of compatible component designs. This paper describes the materials used and the design of the equipment appropriate for the application. Included are summaries of the physical and mechanical properties of the materials and how they behave when irradiated. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. Linear devices in combined high-level radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vonno, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The design of precision analog integrated circuits for use in combined high-level radiation environments has traditionally been on a full-custom basis. The use of semicustom design methods has become prevalent in digital devices, with standard cell libraries and gate arrays readily available from multiple vendors. This paper addresses the application of semicustom design techniques to analog parts. In all cases the emphasis is on bipolar technology, since this provides an optimal combination of precision and radiation hardness. A mixed mode analog/digital (A/D) cell family for implementing semicustom designs is described, together with the fabrication process used. Specific processing and design methods are used to provide circuit hardness against neutron, total gamma dose, and transient gamma environments. Semicustom mixed analog/digital design is seen as an appropriate methodology for implementation of medium-performance mixed mode functions for radiation-hardened applications. This leads to trade-offs in process complexity and performance. Full custom design remains necessary for demanding applications such as high-speed A/D conversion and associated sample/hold functions. An A/D cell family optimized for hardness is described, together with the bipolar process used to implement it

  6. Application of laser cutting technology to high radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauley, K.A.; Mitchell, M.R.; Saget, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    A 2 kW Nd:YAG laser system manufactured by the Lumonics Corporation will be used to cut various metals during the fall of 1996 as part of a United States Department of Energy (DOE)-funded technology demonstration at the Hanford Site. The laser cutting demonstration will focus on an evaluation of two issues as the technology applies to the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of aging nuclear facilities. An assessment will be made as to the ability of laser end effectors to be operated using electromechanical remote manipulators and the ability of both end effector and fiber optics to withstand the damage created by a high radiation field. The laser cutting demonstration will be conducted in two phases. The first phase will be a non-radioactive test to ensure the ability of hot cell remote manipulators to use the laser end effector to successfully cut the types of materials and geometries found in the hot cell. The second phase will introduce the laser end effector and the associated fiber optic cable into the hot cell radiation environment. The testing in the hot cell will investigate the degradation of the optical portions of the end effector and transmission cable in the high radiation field. The objective of the demonstration is to assess the cutting efficiency and life limitations of a laser cutting system for radioactive D ampersand D operations. A successful demonstration will, therefore, allow the laser cutting technology to be integrated into the baseline planning for the D ampersand D of DOE facilities throughout the nation

  7. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  8. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10 16 particles per cm 2 , which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10 15 particles per cm 2 .

  9. Utilization of SRNL-developed radiation-resistant polymer in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibo, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-27

    The radiation-resistant polymer developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory is adaptable for multiple applications to enhance polymer endurance and effectiveness in radiation environments. SRNL offers to collaborate with TEPCO in evaluation, testing, and utilization of SRNL’s radiation-resistant polymer in the D&D of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Refinement of the scope and associated costs will be conducted in consultation with TECPO.

  10. Control of the radiation environment and the worker in high-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy behind the prediction, measurement, monitoring and limitation by access control of the radiation hazard in high-energy accelerator facilities is compared with that which could be employed for controlling similar hazards due to cosmic radiation in civil aircraft flights. Special mention is made of computer simulations of the radiation environment as a means of predicting necessary control measures, of the reliability and integration of radiation measuring devices into control procedures and of the relevance of different access control procedures. (author)

  11. Radiation studies on the microflora in a High-level radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahiera, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation sensitivities of microflora in the air environment of the irradiation room of the 60 CO industrial irradiation facility of NCRRT was studied. The isolated microflora was identified to be the Gram positive micrococci, and the gram positive bacilli: coagulans and laterosporous. The study of the dose-survival counts dependence of the colonies showed the existance of the combination of at least two groups of micro-organisms with different sensitivities to radiation. The value of the radiation resistant group was found to be 2.2 10kGy. A method is presented to estimate the amount of each group in the initial culture. A study of the dependence of radiation lethality on the dose rate of radiation on the aerobic dry microbes showed no significant effect in the dose-rate range from 330 down to 44 Gy.min

  12. Natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Mishra, U.C.; Pillai, K.C.; Sadasivan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The volume presented contains papers presented at the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment held at Bombay, India, during January 1981. The papers deal with such topics as : 1)high natural radiation background areas; 2)environmental natural radioactivity; 3)measurement techniques; 4)technologically enhanced radioactivity; 5)indoor radiation environment; 6)radon and daughters in ambient air, and 7)applications in Geosciences. Each of the 87 papers presented has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base

  13. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko, E-mail: thirono@uni-bonn.de [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Peric, Ivan [IPE, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pohl, David-Leon [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Rozanov, Alexandre [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Rymaszewski, Piotr [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wang, Anqing [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  14. Collection of radiation resistant characteristics reports for instruments and materials in high dose rate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Joichi

    2008-03-01

    This document presents the collected official reports of radiation irradiation study for the candidate materials to be used in high dose rate environment as J-PARC facility. The effect of radiation damage by loss-beam or secondary particle beam of the accelerators influences the performance and the reliability of various instruments. The knowledge on the radiation resistivity of the materials is important to estimate the life of the equipments, the maintenance interval and dose evaluation for the personnel at the maintenance period. The radiation damage consists with mechanical property, electrical property and gas-evolution property. (author)

  15. Beam test results of CMS RPCs at high eta region under high-radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Bahk, S Y; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Kang, D H; Kang, T I; Kim, T J; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Oh, J K; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward resistivity plate chambers (RPCs) at the high eta region must be operated in presence of a radiation-induced rate as high as 1 kHz/cm**2. It is still unknown if the RPCs coated with linseed oil can be operated under such a high- radiation environment over the lifetime of CMS. Non-oiled RPCs may be one of the options since phenolic or melamine-coated bakelite is chemically stabler than linseed oil. We have constructed oiled and non-oiled RPCs at the high eta region of CMS using phenolic bakelite and tested them in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. While both RPCs show the same characteristics in the efficiency and the strip multiplicity, the non-oiled RPC generates an intrinsic noise rate of 50 Hz/cm**2, compared to only 5 Hz/cm**2 for the oiled RPC, both at 10.0kV which is about 100 V above the 95% knee of the efficiency curve.

  16. Beam test results of CMS RPCs at high eta region under high-radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.; Ahn, S.H.; Bahk, S.Y.; Hong, B.; Hong, S.J.; Kang, D.H.; Kang, T.I.; Kim, T.J.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, Y.U.; Koo, D.G.; Lee, H.W.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.J.; Lim, J.K.; Moon, D.H.; Nam, S.K.; Oh, J.K.; Park, W.J.; Rhee, J.T.; Ryu, M.S.; Shim, H.H.; Sim, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) forward resistivity plate chambers (RPCs) at the high eta region must be operated in presence of a radiation-induced rate as high as 1kHz/cm2. It is still unknown if the RPCs coated with linseed oil can be operated under such a high-radiation environment over the lifetime of CMS. Non-oiled RPCs may be one of the options since phenolic or melamine-coated bakelite is chemically stabler than linseed oil. We have constructed oiled and non-oiled RPCs at the high eta region of CMS using phenolic bakelite and tested them in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. While both RPCs show the same characteristics in the efficiency and the strip multiplicity, the non-oiled RPC generates an intrinsic noise rate of 50Hz/cm2, compared to only 5Hz/cm2 for the oiled RPC, both at 10.0kV which is about 100V above the 95% knee of the efficiency curve

  17. Simulations of depleted CMOS sensors for high-radiation environments

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Caicedo, I.; Chen, Z.; Degerli, Y.; Godiot-Basolo, S.; Guilloux, F.; Hemperek, T.; Hirono, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Moustakas, K.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Rymaszewski, P.; Schwemling, P.; Wang, M.; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    After the Phase II upgrade for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the increased luminosity requests a new upgraded Inner Tracker (ITk) for the ATLAS experiment. As a possible option for the ATLAS ITk, a new pixel detector based on High Voltage/High Resistivity CMOS (HV/HR CMOS) technology is under study. Meanwhile, a new CMOS pixel sensor is also under development for the tracker of Circular Electron Position Collider (CEPC). In order to explore the sensor electric properties, such as the breakdown voltage and charge collection efficiency, 2D/3D Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations have been performed carefully for the above mentioned both of prototypes. In this paper, the guard-ring simulation for a HV/HR CMOS sensor developed for the ATLAS ITk and the charge collection efficiency simulation for a CMOS sensor explored for the CEPC tracker will be discussed in details. Some comparisons between the simulations and the latest measurements will also be addressed.

  18. Radiation environment at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear facilities located at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu State of India include at present nuclear power reactors, a fast breeder reactor, a nuclear research centre and a waste management facility. Active wastes generated at the site are collected, treated and safely disposed. High-level wastes are stored underground in RCC trenches and tile hole and low-level wastes in the from of liquid effluents are discharged into the sea. Off-gases are dispersed through stacks in the atmosphere. Environmental survey laboratory established at the site in 1974 carries out radiation surveillance of the environment, evaluates radiological impacts on environment and public, and assesses radiation exposure of the population. It is observed that even after five years of operation of the nuclear power station, radioactivity and radiation levels in the environment have virtually remained at the pre-operational levels. (M.G.B.). 14 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm 2 ).

  20. GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

    2010-01-01

    We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

  1. Radioactivation of silicon tracker modules in high-luminosity hadron collider radiation environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, I; Buttar, C; Cindro, V; Mandic, I

    2003-01-01

    One of the consequences of operating detector systems in harsh radiation environments will be radioactivation of the components. This will certainly be true in experiments such as ATLAS and CMS, which are currently being built to exploit the physics potential at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. If the levels of radioactivity and corresponding dose rates are significant, then there will be implications for any access or maintenance operations. This paper presents predictions for the radioactivation of ATLAS's Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) barrel system, based on both calculations and measurements. It is shown that both neutron capture and high-energy hadron reactions must be taken into account. The predictions also show that the SCT barrel-module should not pose any serious radiological problems after operation in high radiation environments.

  2. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  3. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  4. Space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  5. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  6. Star tracker and vision systems performance in a high radiation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels; Betto, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    A part of the payload of the second Ariane 5 prototype vehicle to be launched by Arianespace, was a small technology demonstration satellite. On October 30th, 1997, this test satellite, dubbed Teamsat, was launched into Geostationary Transfer Orbit and would as such pass the Van Allen radiation...... belts twice per orbit. One of the experiments onboard Teamsat was the so-called Autonomous Vision System (AVS). The AVS instrument is a fully autonomous star tracker with several advanced features for non-stellar object detection and tracking, real-time image compression and transmission. The objectives...... for the AVS in Teamsat were to test these functions, to validate their autonomous operation in space, and to assess the operational constraints of a high radiation environment on such processes. This paper describes the AVS experiment, and the radiation flux experienced onboard TEAMSAT. This overview...

  7. Short term ionizing radiation impact on charge-coupled devices in radiation environment of high-intensity heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, A.; Mustafin, E.; Ensinger, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first approach on studies of the results of short term ionizing radiation impact on charge-coupled device (CCD) chips in conditions typical for high-intensity ion accelerator areas. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices are a topical issue for high-intensity accelerator projects. In particular it concerns CCD cameras that are widely used for beam profile monitoring and surveillance in high radiation environment. 65 CCD cameras are going to be installed in the FAIR machines. It is necessary to have good understanding of radiation effects and their contribution to measured signal in CCD chips. A phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) in CCD chips is studied in the following experiment. By SEU in CCD chip we mean an event when an ionizing particle hits the CCD matrix cell and produces electron-hole pairs that are then collected and converted to a signal that is higher than certain level defined by author. Practically, it means that a certain cell will appear as a bright pixel on the resulting image from a chip. (authors)

  8. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

  9. Radiation environment in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  10. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 57 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978 at Houston, Texas. This symposium provided a common forum for scientists in several disciplines that deal with natural radiation because there is an increasing interest in the environment as it pertains to human health and the competition for scarce energy and material resources

  11. Radiation Environment of Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Clark, John H.; Sturner, Steven J.; Stubbs, Timothy; Wang, Yongli; Glenar, David A.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Joyce, Colin J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Farrell, William M.

    2017-10-01

    The innermost Martian moon Phobos is a potential way station for the human exploration of Mars and the solar system beyond the orbit of Mars. It has a similar radiation environment to that at 1 AU for hot plasma and more energetic particles from solar, heliospheric and galactic sources. In the past two decades there have been many spacecraft measurements at 1 AU, and occasionally in the Mars orbital region around the Sun, that can be used to define a reference model for the time-averaged and time-variable radiation environments at Mars and Phobos. Yearly to hourly variance comes from the eleven-year solar activity cycle and its impact on solar energetic, heliospheric, and solar-modulated galactic cosmic ray particles. We report progress on compilation of the reference model from U.S. and international spacecraft data sources of the NASA Space Physics Data Facility and the Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), and from tissue-equivalent dosage rate measurements by the CRaTER instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Observer spacecraft now in lunar orbit. Similar dosage rate data are also available from the Mars surface via the NASA Planetary Data System archive from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. The sub-Mars surface hemisphere of Phobos is slightly blocked from energetic particle irradiation by the body of Mars but there is a greater global variance of interplanetary radiation exposure as we have calculated from the known topography of this irregularly shaped moon. Phobos receives a relatively small flux of secondary radiation from galactic cosmic ray interactions with the Mars surface and atmosphere, and at plasma energies from pickup ions escaping out of the Mars atmosphere. The greater secondary radiation source is from cosmic ray interactions with the moon surface, which we have simulated with the GEANT radiation transport code for various cases of the surface regolith

  12. Short and long term ionizing radiation effects on charge-coupled devices in radiation environment of high-intensity heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, A; Mustafin, E; Ensinger, W

    2012-01-01

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices is a topical issue for high-intensity accelerator projects. In particular it concerns Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras, which are widely used for beam profile monitoring and surveillance in high radiation environment. One should have a clear idea of short and long term radiation effects on such devices. To study these effects, a CCD camera was placed in positions less than half meter away from beam loss point. Primary heavy ion beam of 0.95GeV/n Uranium was dumped into a thick aluminium target creating high fluences of secondary particles (e.g., gammas, neutrons, protons). Effects of these particles on CCD camera were scored with LabView based acquisition software. Monte Carlo calculations with FLUKA code were performed to obtain fluence distributions for different particles and make relevant comparisons. Long term total ionising dose effects are represented by dark current increase, which was scored throughout experiment. Instant radiation effects are represented by creation of charge in CCD cells by ionising particles. Relation of this charge to beam intensity was obtained for different camera positions and fluences within 5 orders of magnitude ranges. With high intensities this charge is so high that it may dramatically influence data obtained from CCD camera used in high radiation environment. The linearity of described above relation confirms linear response of CCD to ionizing radiation. It gives an opportunity to find a new application to CCD cameras as beam loss monitors (BLM).

  13. Radiation Hardened High Speed Integrated Circuits SERDES I/O for Extreme Operating Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned and robotic space missions require high-performance electronic control systems capable of operating for extended periods in harsh environments subject to...

  14. Radiation in living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, R.

    1991-01-01

    Aside from the atomic bomb attacks in 1945, the experience of radioactive contamination of human environment was the exposure of a tuna fishing boat to the radioactive fallout of a hydrogen bomb test explosion at Bikini atoll in March, 1954. Thereafter, radioactivity was frequently detected in fishes in central Pacific Ocean. Radioactivity was also detected in rain, which resulted in the contamination of agricultural products. Due to the great concern of general public for the radioactivity in food materials, the government initiated the national program of radioactivity surveillance. Since then, the fallout radioactivity due to nuclear test explosions was the main object surveillance in 1950s and 1960s, but the program was gradually expanded to include natural radiation, the artificial radioactivity due to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and other special programs. The history of the radioactive contamination of environment, natural radiation, medical exposure, the radioactive fallout due to nuclear tests, nuclear power generation and the Chernobyl accident are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Testing of bulk radiation damage of n-in-p silicon sensors for very high radiation environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hara, K.; Affolder, A.A.; Allport, P.P.; Bates, R.; Betancourt, C.; Böhm, Jan; Brown, H.; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G.; Mikeštíková, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 636, č. 1 (2011), "S83"-"S89" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : p-bulk silicon * microstrip * charge collection * radiation damage Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.090

  16. A New ATLAS ZDC for the High Radiation Environment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Michael William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Increases in luminosity at the LHC will lead to higher radiation exposure of detectors located along the beamline. This problem is especially acute for the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) in ATLAS, which are exposed to dosages on the order of 10 Grad/yr during p+p running. We have systematically studied the damage this radiation has caused in our current detector, while at the same time explored potential upgrade options. One particularly promising option would be based around recent, experimental results suggesting transmission loss saturation in ultra-pure, amorphous quartz rods at very high radiation exposure. If this effect can be harnessed, it may be possible to construct a highly radiation-tolerant quartz-tungsten sampling calorimeter. Our R&D aims to understand the physical defects created in quartz and methods by which these defects can be annealed or controlled. Spectrometric analysis of irradiated quartz rods will be presented and implications will be discussed for calorimetry design in extreme ...

  17. Radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    'Radiation in the environment' includes the natural background, the release and transport of radionuclides within the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and marine environments, understanding the pathways through which radionuclides gain access to humans, and the development of methods for measuring, assessing, and controlling the resulting exposures. Contributions of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to these subjects include early studies of the behaviour of radionuclides in the Columbia River and in the atmosphere and soil in the vicinity of the Hanford site, the development of methods for assessing the accompanying doses to members of the public, and the preparation of guides for the conduct of environmental surveillance activities as well as the clean-up of decommissioned facilities. An integral part of these activities has been the maintenance of close working relationships with the public, prime examples being the landmark Tri-Party Agreement and the designation of a portion of the Hanford site as the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. Through these efforts scientists at PNL have provided leadership in environmental activities at both the national and the international level. (author)

  18. Performance of a silicon microstrip detector in a high radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.; Brown, C.N.; Kapustinsky, J.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Peng, J.C.; Sailor, W.; Holzscheiter, K.; Sadler, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance of a silicon microstrip detector that has been studied in a high rate environment using electron, pion, and proton beams. The pulse height, time response, and leakage current have been studied as a function of particle fluence up to a total integrated flus of about 4 x 10 14 protons/cm 2

  19. The space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    There are three primary sources of space radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped belt radiation, and solar particle events (SPE). All are composed of ions, the nuclei of atoms. Their energies range from a few MeV u -1 to over a GeV u -1 . These ions can fragment when they interact with spacecraft materials and produce energetic neutrons and ions of lower atomic mass. Absorbed dose rates inside a typical spacecraft (like the Space Shuttle) in a low inclination (28.5 degrees) orbit range between 0.05 and 2 mGy d -1 depending on the altitude and flight inclination (angle of orbit with the equator). The quality factor of radiation in orbit depends on the relative contributions of trapped belt radiation and GCR, and the dose rate varies both with orbital altitude and inclination. The corresponding equivalent dose rate ranges between 0.1 and 4 mSv d -1 . In high inclination orbits, like that of the Mir Space Station and as is planned for the International Space Station, blood-forming organ (BFO) equivalent dose rates as high as 1.5 mSv d -1 . Thus, on a 1 y mission, a crew member could obtain a total dose of 0.55 Sv. Maximum equivalent dose rates measured in high altitude passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were 10 mSv h -1 . For an interplanetary space mission (e.g., to Mars) annual doses from GCR alone range between 150 mSv y -1 at solar maximum and 580 mSv y -1 at solar minimum. Large SPE, like the October 1989 series, are more apt to occur in the years around solar maximum. In free space, such an event could contribute another 300 mSv, assuming that a warning system and safe haven can be effectively used with operational procedures to minimize crew exposures. Thus, the total dose for a 3 y mission to Mars could exceed 2 Sv

  20. Particle Laden Turbulence in a Radiation Environment Using a Portable High Preformace Solver Based on the Legion Runtime System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hilario; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Soleil-X is a multi-physics solver being developed at Stanford University as a part of the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program II. Our goal is to conduct high fidelity simulations of particle laden turbulent flows in a radiation environment for solar energy receiver applications as well as to demonstrate our readiness to effectively utilize next generation Exascale machines. The novel aspect of Soleil-X is that it is built upon the Legion runtime system to enable easy portability to different parallel distributed heterogeneous architectures while also being written entirely in high-level/high-productivity languages (Ebb and Regent). An overview of the Soleil-X software architecture will be given. Results from coupled fluid flow, Lagrangian point particle tracking, and thermal radiation simulations will be presented. Performance diagnostic tools and metrics corresponding the the same cases will also be discussed. US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  1. Natural radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The speaker discusses natural radiation in the environment. He outlines the external sources of exposure (cosmic and terrestrial), as well as the internal sources (ingestion and inhalation). He states that a clear understanding of these sources and their impacts is necessary in order to properly evaluate both the environment and human radiation exposure

  2. TELEMETRY CIRCUITS IN A RADIATION ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, H. L.

    1963-05-15

    Radiation effects are a serious problem for designers of space vehicle electronic equipment. By simulating the environment and irradiating various components and circuits, more and more data become available for engineering application. However, it is not possible to simulate the pulsed radiation environment correctly, because it is not possible to obtain the high radiation intensities occurring in the actual environment. The following represents experimental data obtained at radiation intensities >10/sup 12/ rad/sec. This is an intensity 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater than previous experimental data. (auth)

  3. Radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    In this brochure a general survey is presented of the SAWORA (Dutch abbrevation for 'Radiation aspects of dwelling-hygiene and related radio-ecological problems') research-program and its results. In this program emphasis lay upon indoor radiation burden. Therewith a distinction has to be made between external and internal radiation burden of men. In this context the external burden is accounted for by gamma radiation while the internal burden depends predominantly upon the concentration of radon in the air and radioactive materials in the body. After a short explanation of the concept of radiation in ch. 2, attention is devoted to gamma radiation and radon concentration in the open air in ch. 3, furthermore the radionuclide concentrations of the Dutch soil are discussed. In ch. 4 the radio-ecological aspects of fly-ash powder and gypsum are treated and, in ch. 5, those of building materials. Ch. 6 deals with indoor gamma-radiation. In ch. 7 a survey is given of radon concentrations in Dutch dwellings and the observed differences in concentrations. The synthesis of the various factors which influence the indoor radiation burden, the way in which radon and radondaughters enter the lungs and their contribution to the origin of lung carcinomas are discussed in ch. 8, together with the computer model with which the radiation aspects of certain building-technical developments can be calculated. Ch. 9 finally summarizes the most important results of the SAWORA program. 34 refs.; figs

  4. Beam test of novel n-in-p strip sensors for high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Kishida, T.; Jinnouchi, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Unno, Y.; Terada, S.; Mitsui, S.; Tamii, A.; Aoi, T.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Kimura, N.; Takashima, R.; Takubo, Y.; Tojo, J.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Yorita, K.

    2013-12-01

    Highly radiation tolerant n-in-p strip sensors have been developed for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This paper reports the results of measurements with 392 MeV kinetic energy proton beam at RCNP in December 2011. The data was taken with a new DAQ system consisting of an universal read-out board ‘SEABAS’ and beam tracking telescopes whose spacial resolution is better than 5 μm. The aim of this beam test is to evaluate the new 1 cm×1 cm n-in-p miniature sensors before and after 1015 neq cm-2 irradiation. The median charge of un-irradiated sensor is 6.2 fC at full depletion voltage, while the median charge after 1015 neq cm-2 irradiation of the sensor is 4.2 fC. The novel Punch-Through-Protection (PTP) has been implemented in these sensors. The length of active region of the sensor around PTP is observed to be decreased by 12 μm in the irradiated sensors at 1015 neq cm-2.

  5. Low noise monolithic Si JFETs for operation in the 90-300K Range and in high radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Citterio, M.; Rescia, S.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1994-12-01

    Development of low noise preamplifters for large ionization chambers with liquid argon (LAr) and liquid krypton (LKr) used in high energy physics experiments for measurement of energy of charged particles and photons requires die choice of a technology able to withstand the environment: a temperature of 90 K -120 K; an ionizing radiation dose of 1-2 Mrad; a neutron fluence of 0.5 -1.10 14 n/cm 2 . Silicon JFETs by virtue of their reliable noise behavior and their intrinsic radiation hardness appear to be very suitable devices for applications both at room and cryogenic temperatures. We describe the noise properties of JFET devices and a monolithic preamplifier suitable for amplification of charge and current signals

  6. Managing NIF safety equipment in a high neutron and gamma radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datte, Philip; Eckart, Mark; Jackson, Mark; Khater, Hesham; Manuel, Stacie; Newton, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility that supports the Inertial Confinement Fusion program. During the ignition experimental campaign, the NIF is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield producing 14 MeV neutrons up to 20 MJ or 7.1 × 10(18) neutrons per shot and a maximum annual yield of 1,200 MJ. Several infrastructure support systems will be exposed to varying high yield shots over the facility's 30-y life span. In response to this potential exposure, analysis and testing of several facility safety systems have been conducted. A detailed MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) model has been developed for the NIF facility, and it includes most of the major structures inside the Target Bay. The model has been used in the simulation of expected neutron and gamma fluences throughout the Target Bay. Radiation susceptible components were identified and tested to fluences greater than 10(13) (n cm(-2)) for 14 MeV neutrons and γ-ray equivalent. The testing includes component irradiation using a 60Co gamma source and accelerator-based irradiation using 4- and 14- MeV neutron sources. The subsystem implementation in the facility is based on the fluence estimates after shielding and survivability guidelines derived from the dose maps and component tests results. This paper reports on the evaluation and implementation of mitigations for several infrastructure safety support systems, including video, oxygen monitoring, pressure monitors, water sensing systems, and access control interfaces found at the NIF.

  7. Radiation, people and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.

    2004-02-01

    Radiation is a fact of life. We live in a world in which radiation is naturally present everywhere. Light and heat from nuclear reactions in the Sun are essential to our existence. Radioactive materials occur naturally throughout the environment, and our bodies contain radioactive materials such as carbon-14, potassium-40 and polonium-210 quite naturally. All life on Earth has evolved in the presence of this radiation. Since the discovery of X rays and radioactivity more than 100 years ago, we have found ways of producing radiation and radioactive materials artificially. The first use of X rays was in medical diagnosis, within six months of their discovery in 1895. So a benefit from the use of radiation was established very early on, but equally some of the potential dangers of radiation became apparent in the doctors and surgeons who unwittingly overexposed themselves to X rays in the early 1900s. Since then, many different applications of radiation and radioactive materials have been developed. We can classify radiation according to the effects it produces on matter, into ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation includes cosmic rays, X rays and the radiation from radioactive materials. Non-ionizing radiation includes ultraviolet light, radiant heat, radio waves and microwaves. This book deals with ionizing radiation, a term, which for simplicity, is often shortened to just radiation. It has been prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom) as a broad overview of the subject of ionizing radiation, its effects and uses, as well as the measures in place to use it safely. As the United Nations agency for nuclear science and its peaceful applications, the IAEA offers a broad spectrum of expertise and programmes to foster the safe use of radiation internationally

  8. Behaviour of organic materials in radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tavlet, M

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects in polymers are reminded together with the ageing factors. Radiation-ageing results are mainly discussed about thermosetting insulators, structural composites and cable-insulating materials. Some hints are given about high-voltage insulations, cooling fluids, organic scintillators and light-guides. Some parameters to be taken into account for the estimate of the lifetime of components in radiation environment are also shown. (23 refs).

  9. Mitigated FPGA design of multi-gigabit transceivers for application in high radiation environments of High Energy Physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusati, M.; Camplani, A.; Cannon, M.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.

    2017-01-01

    SRAM-ba8ed Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) logic devices arc very attractive in applications where high data throughput is needed, such as the latest generation of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. FPGAs have been rarely used in such experiments because of their sensitivity to radiation. The present paper proposes a mitigation approach applied to commercial FPGA devices to meet the reliability requirements for the front-end electronics of the Liquid Argon (LAr) electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, located at CERN. Particular attention will be devoted to define a proper mitigation scheme of the multi-gigabit transceivers embedded in the FPGA, which is a critical part of the LAr data acquisition chain. A demonstrator board is being developed to validate the proposed methodology. :!\\litigation techniques such as Triple Modular Redundancy (T:t\\IR) and scrubbing will be used to increase the robustness of the design and to maximize the fault tolerance from Single-Event Upsets (SEUs).

  10. Acoustic Radiation from High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers in a Tunnel-Like Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of acoustic radiation from a turbulent boundary layer in a cylindrical domain will be conducted under the flow conditions corresponding to those at the nozzle exit of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) operated under noisy-flow conditions with a total pressure p(sub t) of 225 kPa and a total temperature of T(sub t) equal to 430 K. Simulations of acoustic radiation from a turbulent boundary layer over a flat surface are used as a reference configuration to illustrate the effects of the cylindrical enclosure. A detailed analysis of acoustic freestream disturbances in the cylindrical domain will be reported in the final paper along with a discussion pertaining to the significance of the flat-plate acoustic simulations and guidelines concerning the modeling of the effects of an axisymmetric tunnel wall on the noise field.

  11. Index of thermal stress for cows (ITSC) under high solar radiation in tropical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro C.; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new thermal stress index for dairy cows in inter-tropical regions, with special mention to the semi-arid ones. Holstein cows were measured for rectal temperature ( T R), respiratory rate ( F R) and rates of heat exchange by convection ( C), radiation ( R), skin surface evaporation ( E S) and respiratory evaporation ( E R) in the north eastern region of Brazil, after exposure to sun for several hours. Average environmental measurements during the observations were air temperature ( T A) 32.4 °C (24.4-38.9°), wind speed ( U) 1.8 m.s-1 (0.01-11.0), relative humidity 63.6 % (36.8-81.5) and short-wave solar radiation 701.3 W m-2 (116-1,295). The effective radiant heat load (ERHL) was 838.5 ± 4.9 W m-2. Values for the atmospheric transmittance ( τ) were also determined for tropical regions, in order to permit adequate estimates of the solar radiation. The average value was τ = 0.611 ± 0.004 for clear days with some small moving clouds, with a range of 0.32 to 0.91 in the day period from 1000 to 1300 hours. Observed τ values were higher (0.62-0.66) for locations near the seacoast and in those regions well-provided with green fields. Effects of month, location and time of the day were all statistically significant ( P cows exposed for 1 to 8 h to sun during the day; in 7 months (February, March, April, July, August, September and November), 4 days per month on the average. A principal component analysis summarised the T R, F R, C, R, E S and E R measurements into just one synthetic variable ( y 1); several indexes were then obtained by multiple regression of y 1 on the four environmental variables and its combinations, by using Origin 8.1 software (OriginLab Corp.). The chosen equation was the index of thermal stress for cows, ITSC = 77.1747 + 4.8327 T A - 34.8189 U + 1.111 U 2 + 118.6981 P V - 14.7956 P V 2 - 0.1059 ERHL with r 2 = 0.812. The correlations of ITSC with T R, F R, C, E S, R and E R were 0.275, 0.255, -0.493, -0.647, -0.818 and 0

  12. Radiation chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, F.

    1998-01-01

    The rather strong and many-sided pollution of the environment (atmosphere, water resources, soil) as a consequence of human activities is summarized. The solution of the arised problems by application of radiation chemistry methods and the utilization of modern environmentally ''clean'' and economical technologies, founded on electron beam processing, are mentioned. Some basic environmental problems and their solution are briefly discussed: i) Removal of CO 2 from flue gases and its radiation induced utilization. ii) Principals for degradation of aqueous pollutants by electron beam processing in the presence of ozone (synergistic effect). The radiation chemistry as a modern and manifold discipline with very broad applications can also essentially contribute in the conservation of the environment

  13. Radiation chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola

    1999-01-01

    The rather strong and many-sided pollution of the environment (atmosphere, water resources, soil) as a consequence of human activity is summarized. The solution of the arised problems by application of radiation chemistry methods and the utilization of modern environmentally 'clean' and economical technologies, founded on electron beam processing, are mentioned. Some basic environmental problems and their solution are briefly discussed. (i) Removal of CO 2 from flue gases and its radiation induced utilization. (ii) Principals for degradation of aqueous pollutants by electron beam processing in the presence of ozone (synergistic effect). The radiation chemistry as a modern and manifold discipline with very broad applications can also essentially contribute in the conservation of the environment

  14. Radiation environment of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The radiation environment of the earth consists of natural and artificial radiation. This paper explains the distribution and some exposure examples of natural radiation and the relation between life and natural radiation. The earth was born before about 46 hundreds of millions of years. In the present earth, there are some natural radiations with long half-life originated by the earth. They are 232 Th (141 hundreds of millions of years of half-life), 238 U (45 hundreds of millions of years of half-life) and 40 K (13 hundreds of millions of years of half-life). Natural radiation (α-, β-, and γ-ray) from natural radionuclides exists everywhere in the earth. Natural radio nuclides are heat source of the earth, which is about 0.035 μcal/g/y. γ-ray from them is called as ''the earth's crust γ-ray'', which is about 55 nGy/h average of the world and about 50 nGy/h in Japan. The distribution of γ-ray is depended on the kinds of soil and rock. 222 Rn and 230 Rn are rare gases and the concentration of them in a room is larger than outside. Natural radiations originated from the cosmos are proton, ionizing components, neutron component with muon and electron, 3 H, 14 C and 10 Be. Effect of cosmic rays on birth of life, change of temperature, amount of cloud and ultra resistant cell are stated. (S.Y.)

  15. Radiation environment in the tunnel of a high-energy proton accelerator at energies near 1 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Sun, R.K.S.; Swanson, W.P.

    1987-12-01

    Neutron energy spectra, fluence distributions and rates in the FNAL Tevatron tunnel are summarized. This work has application to radiation damage to electronics and research equipment at high energy accelerators, as well as to radiological protection. 7 refs., 4 figs

  16. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K., E-mail: kimihiko@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Altenheiner, S. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Blue, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bomben, M. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Butter, A. [LAL, University Paris-Sud (France); CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cervelli, A. [Universität Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Sidlerstrasse 55, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Crawley, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ducourthial, A. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Gisen, A. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Hagihara, M. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD). - Highlights: • The

  17. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L.; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Michael G.; Friedel, Reiner H.

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  18. Analysis of n-in-p type silicon detectors for high radiation environment with fast analogue and binary readout systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Printz, Martin

    2016-01-22

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is the most powerful particle accelerator ever built. The collision of high intensity proton beams at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV allows the exploration of the undiscovered territory at the TeV scale with great detail. The high energy physics frontier covers detailed Standard Model (SM) physics like the search for the SM Higgs boson which has been found in July 2012 but also physics beyond the SM like the Supersymmetry or studies of the quark-gluon plasma. The production rate of certain events is correlated to the instantaneous luminosity which is a measure for the number of detected events with in a certain time with respect to the interaction cross-section. In order to increase the statistics by collecting more data the integrated luminosity is maximized as far as possible. Simultaneously an increase of the particle energy and the luminosity reveals challenging experimental requirements for the trigger and detector systems present at the LHC. After a successful Run 1 of the machine between 2010 and 2013, the energy and the instantaneous luminosity of the machine are sequentially increased up to the last so called Phase II Upgrade planned for the years 2024 and 2025. The high luminosity LHC will provide particle beams with the final 14 TeV center of mass energy at an instantaneous luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} which is five to seven times the nominal design luminosity. In the course of the Upgrade, the experiments will face extraordinary radiation environments and particle densities and have to be upgraded as well in order to cope with the challenging demands. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN is a general purpose experiment with a diverse physics measurement program. It is built of several subdetectors. The most inner part consists of the pixel detector and the silicon strip tracker. The latter will be replaced completely during the Phase II Upgrade by a new layout whereas a different silicon

  19. Ramsar hot springs: how safe is to live in an environment with high level of natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ramsar in northern Iran is among the world's well-known areas with highest levels of natural radiation. Annual exposure levels in areas with elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar are up to 260 mGy y -1 and average exposure rates are about 10 mGy y -1 for a population of about 2000 residents. Due to the local geology, which includes high levels of radium in rocks, soils, and groundwater, Ramsar residents are also exposed to high levels of alpha activity in the form of ingested radium and radium decay progeny as well as very high radon levels (over 1000 MBq m -3 ) in their dwellings. In some cases, the inhabitants of these areas receive doses much higher than the current ICRP-60 dose limit of 20 mSv y -1 . As the biological effects of low doses of radiation are not fully understood, the current radiation protection recommendations are based on the predictions of an assumption on the linear, no-threshold (LNT) relationship between radiation dose and the carcinogenic effects. Considering LNT, areas having such levels of natural radiation must be evacuated or at least require immediate remedial actions. Inhabitants of the high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) of Ramsar ar largely unaware of natural radiation, radon, or its possible health effects, and the inhabitants have not encountered any harmful effects due to living in their paternal houses. In this regard, it is often difficult to ask the inhabitants of HLNRAs of Ramsar to carry out remedical actions. Despite the fact that considering LNT and ALARA, public health in HLNRAs like Ramsar is best served by relocating the inhabitants, the residents' health seems unaffected and relocation is upsetting to the residents. Based on the findings obtained by studies on the health effect of high levels of natural radiation in Ramsar, as well as other HLNRAs, no consistent detrimental effect has been detected so far. However, more research is needed to clarify if the regulatory authorities should set limiting

  20. Radiation Hardened High Speed Integrated Circuits Double Data Rate I/O for Extreme Operating Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned and robotic space missions require high-performance electronic control systems capable of operating for extended periods in harsh environments that are...

  1. Nuclear medicine and the environment: radiation interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelter, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of radiation interactions on the environment may be considered from the perspective of the purely physical phenomena occurring or from the effects the interactions produce in organized biological systems. The physical processes by which radiation interacts with the environment are quite well defined. Although these processes differ depending upon the nature (either electromagnetic or particulate) of the primary radiation, the ultimate result is the production in the medium of high-speed, secondary charged particles. Some of the energy of these particles is absorbed by the medium, while a portion may be lost as bremsstrahlung. The energy that is absorbed produces excitation and ionization, which can be disruptive to biological systems. The effects produced by ionizing radiations at the biochemical, cellular, and organ level are less well defined. Nevertheless, available data indicate that certain generalizations are possible. For example, given the ubiquitous nature of water in tissues, macromolecules, regardless of their structural types, tend to serve as acceptors of the energy and products of water radiolysis. However, a deeper insight into the consequences of irradiation requires an understanding of the interplay of such parameters as the type and energy of the radiation, and the dose and rate of its application. Furthermore, at the cellular level, the type and age of the irradiated cells, the concentration of oxygen in their environment, and their cell-cycle phase are all important factors in determining the consequences of irradiation. 72 references

  2. Radiation effects in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yazzie, A. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ (United States). Dept. of History; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leavitt, C.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  3. Radiation diagnostics in extremely harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dona, H.; Lee, P.H.Y.; Williams, A.H.; McGurn, J.L.; Veeser, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent Trailmaster experiments have required to use of rather delicate radiation diagnostics in hostile environments. We have developed instrumentation for use high-explosive magnetic flux compression generators and near the noisy environment of high energy capacitor banks. These include some rather unique ''fly-away'' designs for x-ray imaging and spectroscopy, and other optical techniques for plasma temperature and field measurements. We will show some representative data and will also discuss an on-going program for the determination of magnetic field via atomic spectral line splitting and/or broadening

  4. Radiation protection of the environment - new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P. P.

    2006-01-01

    Recent trends in the radiation protection of the environment focusing on basic changes of the protection philosophy from the egocentric to ecocentric approach are presented and discussed. The globalization of the economy is accompanied by global contamination of the environment that requires changes in the attitude of the protection of the total environment, i.e. protection of humans, fauna and flora, all ecosystems and the Earth in general, as well as the cosmic space. This complex approach is illustrated on the radiation protection of the environment that has always been in the forefront in developing protection philosophy, methodology and standards, which later has also been applied to the protection of the environment caused by non-radioactive contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. High radiation doses delivered to biota are illustrated on shellfish and fish collected in the Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons (affected by series of nuclear weapons tests), and on fish in Novaya Zemlya bays (affected by dumping of nuclear reactors and radioactive wastes). On the methodological site an example is discussed focusing on the in situ sea-bed radionuclide mapping and seawater monitoring using submersible gamma-ray spectrometers operating with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors which has proved to be important pre-requisite for estimation of the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the water column and on the sea floor, as well as for optimisation of sediment sampling for studying the radionuclide distribution with depth

  5. Proceeding of Radiation Safety and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Scientific Presentation of Radiation Safety and Environment was held on 20-21 august 1996 at Center of Research Atomic Energy Pasar Jum'at, Jakarta, Indonesia. Have presented 50 papers about Radiation Safety, dosimetry and standardization, environment protection and radiation effect

  6. Review Ionizing Radiation In The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Our environment is pervaded by ionizing radiation of natural origin including terrestrial radionuclides and extra-terrestrial sources but man's activities can increase radiation levels by acting on natural sources or by producing artificial radionuclides. The energy released by radionuclides can be measured. The amount of energy generated in our bodies from the radioactive decay of within- body radionuclides is called internal dose. External dose results from gamma rays emitted by terrestrial sources such as the ground, building materials and from extraterrestrial sources. The major contributors to human exposure are radon and its daughters in the air that we breathe. Ionizing radiation can penetrate into matter and thus, causing damage by interacting with the atoms and molecules of the medium. If the medium is living tissue, damage to cells can take place. Very large doses of radiation will result in serious tissue, damage that may lead to death of the organism. Lower doses may also be harmful and do not cause the immediate damage of high doses but instead act to increase the likelihood of developing cancer. So, exposure to ionizing radiation can have health consequences, which is why we are concerned about and, to a large extent, is why this review paper was written. Exposure to ionizing radiation should be kept as minimum as practically possible. People are advised to monitor the concentrations of radon in their houses. In addition, the levels of radionuclides in drinking water should also be monitored in accordance with the guidelines used in the USA

  7. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  8. Radiation pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benalashhar, Hanan Ali

    2006-01-01

    This paper interested in the topic of environmental pollution by radioactive materials due to several human activities. The meaning of human activities are nuclear tests and extraction of raw uranium, waste and reactor accidents, nuclear fuel and radon gas, and the peaceful uses of radiation. This paper points out the effects of environmental pollution by radiation and the means of reduction, and also illustrate the radiation pollution in the Arab region. (author)

  9. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  10. Evaluation of the Radiation Environment of the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00341385; Corti, Gloria

    The unprecedented radiation levels of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during high-energy proton-proton collisions will have an impact on the operation of its experiments’ detectors and electronics. LHCb, one of the 4 major LHC experiments, has started operation in 2009 and from 2011 onward it has been collecting data at and above its design luminosity. Detectors and associated detector electronics are prone to damage if the radiation levels exceed the expected values. It is essential to monitor the radiation environment of the experimental area and compare it with predictions obtained from simulation studies in order to assess the situation and take corrective action in case of need. Understanding the existing radiation environment will also provide important input to the planning of maintenance and for operation at upgrade luminosity. A set of radiation detectors has been installed in the LHCb experimental area to measure different aspects of its radiation environment. Passive dosimeters including Thermo-L...

  11. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  12. Development of n+-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A.; Kierstead, J.; Lynn, D.; Carter, J.R.; Hommels, L.B.A.; Robinson, D.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Tackmann, K.; Betancourt, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Wiik-Fucks, L.; Clark, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing a novel radiation-tolerant n + -in-p silicon microstrip sensor for very high radiation environments, aiming for application in the high luminosity large hadron collider. The sensors are fabricated in 6 in., p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. Radiation tolerance has been studied with ATLAS07 sensors and with independent structures. The ATLAS07 design was developed into new ATLAS12 designs. The ATLAS12A large-area sensor is made towards an axial strip sensor and the ATLAS12M towards a stereo strip sensor. New features to the ATLAS12 sensors are two dicing lines: standard edge space of 910 μm and slim edge space of 450 μm, a gated punch-through protection structure, and connection of orphan strips in a triangular corner of stereo strips. We report the design of the ATLAS12 layouts and initial measurements of the leakage current after dicing and the resistivity of the wafers

  13. Radiation and global environment. Consideration for the influence on ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Doi, Masahiro; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2003-09-01

    This book is based on presentations at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) symposium of the same title held by the NIRS Research Center for Radiation Safety in December, 2002, is edited with somehow enlightening intention as well, and is composed from 6 parts of; 1. Reasons for concern for influence on ecosystems, 2. Behavior of substances in ecosystems, 3. Changes of global environments and life, 4. Various environmental stresses and living/eco-systems, 5. New development of evaluation studies on radiation effects, and 6. For the radiation protection of environments. The 1st part involves 3 chapters concerning studies on effects on ecosystems and radiation protection of environments; 2nd part, 4 chapters concerning behavior of radioactive and/or stable cesium and iodine in forest and environmental microorganisms, and behavior and effects of acidic substances; 3rd part, 2 chapters concerning terrestrial history and evolution/adaptation of livings; 4th part, 5 chapters concerning radiation stress, active oxygen, radiodurance/radio-resistant microorganisms, ultraviolet, and environmental hormones; 5th part, 6 chapters concerning effects on cells of environmental toxic substance and radiation, environmental stress evaluation by DNA micro-array, effects on taxis, use of microcosm, simulation of computational model ecosystem, and aquatic ecosystems; 6th part, 5 chapters concerning environmental radioecology, safety measures in high-level radioactive waste disposal under the ground, radiation protection of environments from radiation biology aspect, effects of chemicals, and aspect and strategy for radiation effects on environments. (N.I.)

  14. Development of environment radiation database management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jong Gyu; Chung, Chang Hwa; Ryu, Chan Ho; Lee, Jin Yeong; Kim, Dong Hui; Lee, Hun Sun [Daeduk College, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In this development, we constructed a database for efficient data processing and operating of radiation-environment related data. Se developed the source documents retrieval system and the current status printing system that supports a radiation environment dta collection, pre-processing and analysis. And, we designed and implemented the user interfaces and DB access routines based on WWW service policies on KINS Intranet. It is expected that the developed system, which organizes the information related to environmental radiation data systematically can be utilize for the accurate interpretation, analysis and evaluation.

  15. Development of environment radiation database management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jong Gyu; Chung, Chang Hwa; Ryu, Chan Ho; Lee, Jin Yeong; Kim, Dong Hui; Lee, Hun Sun

    1999-03-01

    In this development, we constructed a database for efficient data processing and operating of radiation-environment related data. Se developed the source documents retrieval system and the current status printing system that supports a radiation environment dta collection, pre-processing and analysis. And, we designed and implemented the user interfaces and DB access routines based on WWW service policies on KINS Intranet. It is expected that the developed system, which organizes the information related to environmental radiation data systematically can be utilize for the accurate interpretation, analysis and evaluation

  16. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei; Pendleton, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment on the moon that contributes to the radiation hazard for astronauts consists of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and albedo particles from the lunar surface. We will present calculations of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent to various organs in this environment during quiet times and during large solar particle events. We will evaluate the contribution of solar particles other than protons and the contributions of the various forms of albedo. We will use the results to determine which particle fluxes must be known in order to estimate the radiation hazard.

  17. Radiation environment of fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Seiji; Seki, Yasushi

    1988-01-01

    Next step device (experimental reactor), which is planned to succeed the large plasma experimental devices such as JT-60, JET and TFTR, generates radiation (neutron + gamma ray) during its operation. Radiation (neutronic) properties of the material are basis for the study on neutron utilization (energy recovery and tritium breeding), material selection (irradiation damage and lifetime evaluation) and radiation safety (personnel exposure and radiation waste). It is necessary, therefore, to predict radiation behaviour in the reactor correctly for the engineering design of the reactor. This report describes the outline of the radiation environment of the reactor based on the information obtained by the neutronic and shielding design calculation of the fusion experimental reactor (FER). (author)

  18. Global environment and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1991-01-01

    The present status of investigation of acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse effect and their relations to radiation exposure are reported. Soil acidification increases transfer rates of radioactivities to plants which increases the population dose. There are two types of ozone depletion, conventional type and ozone hole type and the latter is much more serious than the former. In the greenhouse effect, although there are large uncertainties both in theoretical and observational sides, present predictions about the global warming will not be very far from reality. Environmental effects are wide-ranging and serious. Radon and thoron exhalation rates are affected by the global warming. The influence of the greenhouse effect on ozone depletion is to suppress depletion for conventional type and enhance depletion for ozone hole type. (author) 65 refs

  19. Tolerance of the High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology ASIC to potentially destructive radiation processes in Earth-orbit-equivalent environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D. F.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Wilson, M.; Benmoussa, A.; Campola, M.; Christe, S. D.; Gissot, S.; Jones, L.; Newport, J.; Prydderch, M.; Richards, S.; Seller, P.; Shih, A. Y.; Thomas, S.

    2018-02-01

    The High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology (HEXITEC) ASIC is designed on a 0.35 μm CMOS process to read out CdTe or CZT detectors and hence provide fine-pixellated spectroscopic imaging in the range 2-200 keV. In this paper, we examine the tolerance of HEXITEC to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event radiation effects. Bare ASICs are irradiated with X-rays up to a total ionising dose (TID) of 1 Mrad (SiO2) and bombarded with heavy ions with linear energy transfer (LET) up to 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. HEXITEC is shown to operate reliably below a TID of 150 krad, have immunity to fatal single event latchup (SEL) and have high tolerance to non-fatal SEL up to LETs of at least 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. The results are compared to predictions of TID and SELs for various Earth-orbits and aluminium shielding thicknesses. It is found that HEXITEC's radiation tolerance to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event effects is sufficient to reliably operate in these environments with moderate shielding.

  20. Designing equipment for use in gamma radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergriff, K.U.

    1990-05-01

    High levels of gamma radiation are known to cause degradation in a variety of materials and components. When designing systems to operate in a high radiation environment, special precautions and procedures should be followed. This report (1) outlines steps that should be followed in designing equipment and (2) explains the general effects of radiation on various engineering materials and components. Much information exists in the literature on radiation effects upon materials. However, very little information is available to give the designer a step-by-step process for designing systems that will be subject to high levels of gamma radiation, such as those found in a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In this report, many radiation effect references are relied upon to aid in the design of components and systems. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  1. The Radiation Environment of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Linsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exoplanets are born and evolve in the radiation and particle environment created by their host star. The host star’s optical and infrared radiation heats the exoplanet’s lower atmosphere and surface, while the ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet and X-radiation control the photochemistry and mass loss from the exoplanet’s upper atmosphere. Stellar radiation, especially at the shorter wavelengths, changes dramatically as a host star evolves leading to changes in the planet’s atmosphere and habitability. This paper reviews the present state of our knowledge concerning the time-dependent radiation emitted by stars with convective zones, that is stars with spectral types F, G, K, and M, which comprise nearly all of the host stars of detected exoplanets.

  2. Radiation sources, radiation environment and risk level at Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The overall information about ionizing radiation sources, which form radiation environment and risk at Dubna, is introduced. Systematization of the measurement results is performed on the basis of the effective dose and losses of life expectancy. The contribution of different sources to total harm of Dubna inhabitants has been revealed. JINR sources carry in ∼ 4% from the total effective dose of natural and medicine radiation sources; the harm from them is much less than the harm from cigarette smoking. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

  3. Ionizing radiation environment for the TOMS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriente, M.; Maloy, J. O.; Vampola, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) will fly on several different spacecraft, each having an orbit which is approximately polar and 800-980 km in altitude. A description is given of the computer-based tools used for characterizing the spacecraft interactions with the ionizing radiation environment in orbit and the susceptibility requirements for ionizing radiation compatibility. The peak flux from the model was used to derive the expected radiation-induced noise in the South Atlantic Anomaly for the new TOMS instruments intended to fly on Advanced Earth Observatory System and Earth Probe.

  4. Radiations in space and global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguti, Takasi

    1994-01-01

    It has been well known that the global environment of the earth is basically determined by the radiation equilibrium of the earth atmosphere system embedded in the solar radiation. However, the surface temperature of about 15 degC on average is much higher than that determined by the radiation equilibrium. This is due to the so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane and others. Also the global environment has evolved by interacting with the living things on the earth, for example, tree oxygen by photosynthesis, and a small amount of ozone protecting living things from the fetal damage due to solar ultraviolet radiation. The solar radiation of short wavelength, that is, ultraviolet to X-ray influences atmospheric constituents, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the atmosphere through chemical reaction. The solar energetic particles produced by solar flares precipitate in the polar regions, and the nitric oxides are produced by auroral X-ray. Auroral activities accelerate particles in the magnetosphere. All these radiations cause significant global changes. Human activities increase greenhouse gases rapidly and cause global warming, and atmospheric chloro-fluoro-carbon (CFC) makes the ozone hole. Now, human activities must be modified to match the natural cycle of materials. (K.I.)

  5. Electromagnetic and radiation environments: effects on pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, J.; Trochet, R.; Vicrey, J.; Sauvage, M.; Chauvenet, B.; Ostrovski, A.; Leroy, E.; Haug, R.; Dodinot, B.; Joffre, F.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, medical care development allows many people to share the benefits of implanted pacemakers (PM). PM can be perturbed and even fall in complete breakdowns in an electromagnetic and radiation environment. A stimuli-dependent patient can thus be seriously in danger. This article presents the effect of ionizing radiation from either a cobalt-60 source or from a linear accelerator (Saturne 43) on 12 pacemakers. It seems that technological progress make electronic circuits more sensitive to the cumulated dose of radiation. This survey shows that pacemakers have great difficulties to sustain ionizing radiation doses that are commonly delivered to patients during therapies. Usually perturbed functioning appears suddenly and means a strong shift of stimuli that might lead to heart failure

  6. Radiation and environment - impact studies awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface Ekechukwu; Mohd. Zohadie Bardaie

    2005-01-01

    Radiation, which is simply defined as energy, that travels in the form of waves or particles has both positive and negative effects on humans. This has necessitated a careful study on how to create awareness on the 'two-edge sword'. Since radiation cannot be removed from our environment we, however, reduce our risks by controlling our exposure to it through various ways. Understanding radiation and radioactivity will help us make informed decisions about our exposure. Many difference types of radiation have range of energy that form electromagnetic spectrum. Their sources include nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, and medicine. Others include, microwaves, radar, electrical power lines, cellular phones, and sunlight' and so on. However, the radiation used in nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and medicine has enough energy to break chemical bonds, and is referred to as 'ionizing radiation', which is dangerous to life. Because of this negative effect of radiation there is common fear and myths related to radiation, radioactivity, uranium mining and milling, and the nuclear industry. This radiation education and energy-environmental education attempt to dispel the common fears and myths relating to them in so far as there is perfect protection from harmful exposure and abuse. The design of an integrated unit of study radiation and environmental energy uses arts of language, life skills, skill designs, social studies and mathematical skills in creating understanding and abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry by the students without abuse or danger. The education unit is designed to assess materials for, factual information and appropriate language and identification of potential bias in environmental education materials and evaluate materials in perspective of cultural and ethnic upbringing. (author)

  7. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  8. Optimized Radiator Geometries for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The optimum radiator configuration in hot lunar thermal environments is one in which the radiator is parallel to the ground and has no view to the hot lunar surface. However, typical spacecraft configurations have limited real estate available for top-mounted radiators, resulting in a desire to use the spacecraft's vertically oriented sides. Vertically oriented, flat panel radiators will have a large view factor to the lunar surface, and thus will be subjected to significant incident lunar infrared heat. Consequently, radiator fluid temperatures will need to exceed approximately 325 K (assuming standard spacecraft radiator optical properties) in order to provide positive heat rejection at lunar noon. Such temperatures are too high for crewed spacecraft applications in which a heat pump is to be avoided. A recent study of vertically oriented radiator configurations subjected to lunar noon thermal environments led to the discovery of a novel radiator concept that yielded positive heat rejection at lower fluid temperatures. This radiator configuration, called the Intense Thermal Infrared Reflector (ITIR), has exhibited superior performance to all previously analyzed concepts in terms of heat rejection in the lunar noon thermal environment. A key benefit of ITIR is the absence of louvers or other moving parts and its simple geometry (no parabolic shapes). ITIR consists of a specularly reflective shielding surface and a diffuse radiating surface joined to form a horizontally oriented V-shape (shielding surface on top). The point of intersection of these surfaces is defined by two angles, those which define the tilt of each surface with respect to the local horizontal. The optimum set of these angles is determined on a case-by-case basis. The idea assumes minimal conductive heat transfer between shielding and radiating surfaces, and a practical design would likely stack sets of these surfaces on top of one another to reduce radiator thickness.

  9. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets Around Low-mass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Ardila, David; Barman, Travis; Beasley, Matthew; Bowman, Judd D.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jacobs, Daniel; Jewell, April; Llama, Joe; Meadows, Victoria; Nikzad, Shouleh; Scowen, Paul; Swain, Mark; Zellem, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Roughly seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M stars in the far-UV and near-UV, measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously over at least one complete stellar rotation (5 - 45 days). SPARCS will also advance UV detector technology by flying high quantum efficiency, UV-optimized detectors developed at JPL. These Delta-doped detectors have a long history of deployment demonstrating greater than five times the quantum efficiency of the detectors used by GALEX. SPARCS will pave the way for their application in missions like LUVOIR or HabEx, including interim UV-capable missions. SPARCS will also be capable of ‘target-of-opportunity’ UV observations for the rocky planets in M dwarf HZs soon to be discovered by NASA’s TESS mission, providing the needed UV context for the first habitable planets that JWST will characterize.Acknowledgements: Funding for SPARCS is provided by NASA’s Astrophysics Research and Analysis program, NNH16ZDA001N.

  10. Mechanical reliability assessment of optical fibres in Radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uffelen, M.

    2006-01-01

    After more than two decades of intensive research and even some pioneering applications in space, optical fibres are now finding their way in various radiation environments, including both fission and future fusion nuclear-power plants, and high-energy physics experiments. For example, next to distributed monitoring applications of large nuclear infrastructures, fibre-optics can also be used for data communications during maintenance operations in the reactor vessel of the future ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), or for plasma diagnostics applications during operation of the reactor. These maintenance and diagnostics tasks require the optical fibres to withstand extremely high doses of radiation, up to MGy dose levels and temperatures above 150 degrees Celsius. The reliability assessment of fibre-optic systems for their qualification in nuclear environments often requires to meet stringent radiation tolerance levels. The majority of (usually accelerated) radiation assessments have so far focused on optical properties, such as wavelength-dependent radiation induced attenuation and radio-luminescence. The relation of these radiation effects with the fabrication methods and other environmental parameters has been the subject of years of research. Only a few results are available on the long-term evolution of mechanical properties of irradiated optical fibres. As a first step towards understanding the long-term reliability of fibre-optic composite cables in hostile radiation environments, we therefore performed dynamic fatigue tests with different commercial-grade optical fibres, both multi-mode and single-mode types

  11. Fiber optics in high dose radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the behavior of state-of-the-art optical fiber waveguides in high dose (greater than or equal to 10 5 rad), steady state radiation fields is presented. The influence on radiation-induced transmission loss due to experimental parameters such as dose rate, total dose, irradiation history, temperature, wavelength, and light intensity, for future work in high dose environments are given

  12. Optical Fibers in Nuclear Reactor Radiation Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    1992-01-01

    A performance evaluation of fiber optics under radiation conditions similar to those encountered in nuclear power plants is reported. The evaluation was accomplished by the creation of an analytical model for atomic scale radiation damage in silica glass and by the execution of an extensive fiber performance measurement program. The analytic model calculates displacement and electronic damage rates for silica glass subjected to a specified nuclear reactor radiation environment. It accomplishes this by first generating the primary charged particle spectrum produced in silica irradiated in a nuclear reactor. The resultant spectra are then applied to the integral equations describing radiation damage in polyatomic solids. The experimental measurements were selected to span the range of fiber types, radiation environments, temperatures, and light powers expected to be used in nuclear power plants. The basic experimental protocol was to expose the optical fibers to either a nuclear reactor or a ^{60}Co radiation environment while simultaneously monitoring fiber light transmission. Experimental temperatures were either ~23 ^circC or ~100 ^circC and light powers were either -30 dBm or -60 dBm. Measurements were made at each of the three standard communications wavelengths (850 nm, 1300 nm, and 1550 nm). Several conclusions are made based on these performance measurements. First, even near the core of a nuclear reactor the vast majority of the dose to silica glass is due to gamma rays. Even with the much lower doses (factor of roughly 40) neutrons cause much more displacement damage than gamma rays (35 times the oxygen displacement rate and 500 times the silicon displacement rate). Even with neutrons having many times the displacement rate as compared with gamma rays, little if any difference is observed in the transmission losses for gamma only as compared to mixed neutron/gamma transmission losses. Therefore, atomic displacement is not a significant damage mechanism for

  13. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future

  14. Use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS (Commercially available Off The Shelf) microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. They review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMs increases from 1.4 x 10 8 rad(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7 x 10 9 rad(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design of process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10--15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMs from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMs from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of COTS and radiation-hardened (RH) technology

  15. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de [Institute for Experimental Nuclear Physics (IEKP), KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne [CERN, Meyrin (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb{sup -1} corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the

  16. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de; Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb -1 corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the CCE in

  17. A safe radiation environment. Environmental Objective 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A safe radiation environment is one of the 15 environmental quality objectives that form the basis for developing a ecologically sustainable society within one generation. These objectives have been adopted by the Swedish parliament, and in the present report, the five different targets for reaching Objective 13 are defined. They are: (by year 2010) 1. The emissions of radioactive substances should be low enough to protect human beings, and the ecological diversity. 2. A generally accepted method for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste should be available, that does not impose any risks for human beings and for the environment. 3. Hazards to the society, human beings or the environment from radiological accidents should be eradicated, or at least severely minimized. 4. Hazards from electromagnetic fields should be understood and, if necessary, actions planned for improving the e-m field environment. 5. The number of skin cancers in year 2020 from solar radiation should not exceed those in year 2000

  18. The research of nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Fang Fang

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces based on monolithic integrated circuit's nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device's software and hardware design. The system by G-M tube, high-pressured module, signal conditioning circuit, power source module, monolithic integrated circuit and wireless transmission module is composed. The device has low power consumption, high performance, high accuracy detection, easy maintenance, small size, simple operation, and other features, and has a broad application prospects. (authors)

  19. Implementation of the procedure of high radiation of the forum about radiological protection in the health care environment; Implantacion del procedimiento de alta radiologica del foro sobre proteccion radiologica en el medio sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Novais, J.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Maldonado Suarez, A.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present the results of the implementation in our hospital the procedure of high radiological in patients treated with 131 I described in the document presented by the Forum on Radiation Protection in the Health Environment formed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Spanish societies of Fisica Medica and Proteccion Radiologica. (Author)

  20. Ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation in educational environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Takao; Otsubo, Tomonobu; Ikke, Satoshi; Taguchi, Noriko; Takeda, Rie

    2005-01-01

    By chance, we measured gamma dose rates in our school, and around the JCO Tokai Plant during the criticality on September 30 in 1999, with our GM survey meter. At that time, we made sure to estimate the position of criticality reaction (source point), and the source intensity of criticality reaction, with our own data, measured along the public roads, route 6 and local road 62. The intensity of gamma dose rates along the road was analyzed as Lorentz functions. At the time, there were no environmental radiation data about the criticality accident, or all the data, especially radioactivity and dose rates around the JCO Tokai Plant, was closed to the public. Recently, we are interested in the intensity of non-ionizing radiation, especially extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field, and electric field, in our environment. We adopted the same method to analyze the source position and source intensity of an ELF magnetic field and electric behind a wall. (author)

  1. Materials Degradation in the Jovian Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloshevsky, Gennady; Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    The radiation environment of Jupiter represents a significant hazard for Europa Lander deorbit stage components, and presents a significant potential mission risk. The radiolytic degradation of ammonium perchlorate (AP) oxidizer in solid propellants may affect its properties and performance. The Monte Carlo code MONSOL was used for modeling of laboratory experiments on the electron irradiation of propellant samples. An approach for flattening dose profiles along the depth of irradiated samples is proposed. Depth-dose distributions produced by Jovian electrons in multi-layer slabs of materials are calculated. It is found that the absorbed dose in a particular slab is significantly affected by backscattered electrons and photons from neighboring slabs. The dose and radiolytic decomposition of AP crystals are investigated and radiation-induced chemical yields and weight percent of radical products are reported.

  2. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space

  3. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  4. Development of n.sup.+./sup.-in-p large-area silicon microstrip sensors for very high radiation environments – ATLAS12 design and initial results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Unno, Y.; Edwards, S.O.; Pyatt, S.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 765, Nov (2014), s. 80-90 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon strip * n + -in-p * P-type * Radiation-tolerant * HL- LHC * PTP Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.216, year: 2014

  5. Assessment of radiation awareness training in immersive virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisker, Vaughn E., III

    The prospect of new nuclear power plant orders in the near future and the graying of the current workforce create a need to train new personnel faster and better. Immersive virtual reality (VR) may offer a solution to the training challenge. VR technology presented in a CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) provides a high-fidelity, one-to-one scale environment where areas of the power plant can be recreated and virtual radiation environments can be simulated, making it possible to safely expose workers to virtual radiation in the context of the actual work environment. The use of virtual reality for training is supported by many educational theories; constructivism and discovery learning, in particular. Educational theory describes the importance of matching the training to the task. Plant access training and radiation worker training, common forms of training in the nuclear industry, rely on computer-based training methods in most cases, which effectively transfer declarative knowledge, but are poor at transferring skills. If an activity were to be added, the training would provide personnel with the opportunity to develop skills and apply their knowledge so they could be more effective when working in the radiation environment. An experiment was developed to test immersive virtual reality's suitability for training radiation awareness. Using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative measures, the subjects' performances before and after training were assessed. First, subjects completed a pre-test to measure their knowledge prior to completing any training. Next they completed unsupervised computer-based training, which consisted of a PowerPoint presentation and a PDF document. After completing a brief orientation activity in the virtual environment, one group of participants received supplemental radiation awareness training in a simulated radiation environment presented in the CAVE, while a second group, the control group, moved directly to the

  6. Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; NeegaardParker, Linda

    2005-01-01

    A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for defining charged particle environments over an energy range from 0.01 keV to 1 MeV for hydrogen ions, helium ions, and electrons. The SSRE model provides the free field charged particle environment required for characterizing energy deposition per unit mass, charge deposition, and dose rate dependent conductivity processes required to evaluate radiation dose and internal (bulk) charging processes in the solar sail membrane in interplanetary space. Solar wind and energetic particle measurements from instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft in a solar, near-polar orbit provide the particle data over a range of heliospheric latitudes used to derive the environment that can be used for radiation and charging environments for both high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar missions. This paper describes the techniques used to model comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra over the range of particle energies of significance to energy and charge deposition in thin (less than 25 micrometers) solar sail materials.

  7. Development of radiation processes for better environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.; Deshpande, R.S.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Bhardwaj, Y.K.; Dhanawade, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing population and industrialization, worldover, is placing escalating demands for the development of newer technologies that are environment friendly and minimize the pollution associated with the development. Radiation technology can be of benefit in reducing the pollution levels associated with many processes. The sulphur vulcanization method for natural rubber latex vulcanization results in the formation of considerable amounts of nitrosoamines, both in the product as well as in the factory environment. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has emerged as a commercially viable alternative to produce sulphur and nitrosoamine free rubber. A Co-60 γ-radiation based pilot plant has been functioning since April 1993 to produce vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) using acrylate monomers as sensitizer. The role of sensitizer, viz. n-butyl acrylate in the vulcanization process has been elucidated using the pulse radiolysis technique. Emission of toxic sulphur containing gases form an inevitable part of viscose-rayon process and this industry is in search of ways to reduce the associated pollution levels. The irradiation of cellulose results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). These effects can reduce the solvents required to dissolve the paper pulp. There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the electron beam (EB) accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for production of pulp having the desired DP by EB irradiation. The use of irradiated paper pulp can result in ∼40% reduction in the consumption of CS 2 in the process that can be beneficial in reducing the pollution associated with the process. PTFE waste can be recycled into a low molecular weight microfine powder by irradiation. An EB based process has been standardized to produce

  8. Adaptation of radiation shielding code to space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Koichi; Hara, Akihisa

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the trend to the development of space has heightened. To the development of space, many problems are related, and as one of them, there is the protection from cosmic ray. The cosmic ray is the radiation having ultrahigh energy, and there was not the radiation shielding design code that copes with cosmic ray so far. Therefore, the high energy radiation shielding design code for accelerators was improved so as to cope with the peculiarity that cosmic ray possesses. Moreover, the calculation of the radiation dose equivalent rate in the moon base to which the countermeasures against cosmic ray were taken was simulated by using the improved code. As the important countermeasures for the safety protection from radiation, the covering with regolith is carried out, and the effect of regolith was confirmed by using the improved code. Galactic cosmic ray, solar flare particles, radiation belt, the adaptation of the radiation shielding code HERMES to space environment, the improvement of the three-dimensional hadron cascade code HETCKFA-2 and the electromagnetic cascade code EGS 4-KFA, and the cosmic ray simulation are reported. (K.I.)

  9. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  10. High-let radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads

  11. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets around Lowmass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya

    Seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). JWST will characterize HZ M dwarf planets and attempt the first spectroscopic search for life beyond the Solar System. Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The UV flux emitted during the super-luminous premain sequence phase of M stars drives water loss and photochemical O2 buildup for terrestrial planets within the HZ. This phase can persist for up to a billion years for the lowest mass M stars. Afterwards, UV-driven photochemistry during the main sequence phase strongly affects a planet’s atmosphere, could limit the planet’s potential for habitability, and may confuse studies of habitability by creating false chemical biosignatures. Our proposed CubeSat observatory will be the first mission to provide the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. These measurements are crucial to interpreting observations of planetary atmospheres around low-mass stars. Mission: The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to monitoring 25 M stars in two UV bands: SPARCS far-UV (S- FUV: 153–171 nm) and SPARCS near-UV (S-NUV: 260– 300 nm). For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously between one and three complete stellar rotations (4–45 days) over a mission lifetime of 2 years. A UV characterization survey of M dwarfs, the most common of planet hosts, is a perfect experiment for a CubeSat: - UV astronomy cannot be done from the ground because of Earth’s atmospheric absorption

  12. The radiation environment in underground workplaces of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Theis, C; Kindl, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Active dose-monitoring of workplaces is crucial in order to operate a high-energy particle accelerator safely. As the mixed radiation fields that are expected in the environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are very different from standard use-cases like in nuclear power plants, it is of highest importance to characterize and calibrate radiation monitoring equipment appropriately for their use in high energy mixed radiation fields. Due to their sensitivity to different particle types over a larger energy range high-pressure ionization chambers have already been used at CERN and they are foreseen to be included within the radiation monitoring system of the LHC. In the framework of this thesis a new method was developed which allows for appropriate field-specific calibration of these detectors using Monte Carlo simulations. Therefore, the application of common 238Pu-Be source based calibration in mixed radiation fields was studied and compared to more accurate field specific calibration based on FLUKA Mon...

  13. The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

  14. A virtual environment for medical radiation collaborative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Pete; Trapp, Jamie V; Kastanis, Lazaros; Pack, Darren; Parker, Jacqui C

    2015-06-01

    A software-based environment was developed to provide practical training in medical radiation principles and safety. The Virtual Radiation Laboratory application allowed students to conduct virtual experiments using simulated diagnostic and radiotherapy X-ray generators. The experiments were designed to teach students about the inverse square law, half value layer and radiation protection measures and utilised genuine clinical and experimental data. Evaluation of the application was conducted in order to ascertain the impact of the software on students' understanding, satisfaction and collaborative learning skills and also to determine potential further improvements to the software and guidelines for its continued use. Feedback was gathered via an anonymous online survey consisting of a mixture of Likert-style questions and short answer open questions. Student feedback was highly positive with 80 % of students reporting increased understanding of radiation protection principles. Furthermore 72 % enjoyed using the software and 87 % of students felt that the project facilitated collaboration within small groups. The main themes arising in the qualitative feedback comments related to efficiency and effectiveness of teaching, safety of environment, collaboration and realism. Staff and students both report gains in efficiency and effectiveness associated with the virtual experiments. In addition students particularly value the visualisation of "invisible" physical principles and increased opportunity for experimentation and collaborative problem-based learning. Similar ventures will benefit from adopting an approach that allows for individual experimentation while visualizing challenging concepts.

  15. Radiation in the human environment: health effects, safety and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports selectively on three other aspects of radiation (used throughout to mean ionizing radiation) in the human environment: the human health effects of radiation, radiation safety policy and practices, and the acceptability of scientifically justified practices involving radiation exposures. Our argument is that the science of radiation biology, the judgemental techniques of radiation safety, and the social domain of radiation acceptability express different types of expertise that should complement - and not conflict with or substitute for - one another. Unfortunately, communication problems have arisen among these three communities and even between the various disciplines represented within a community. These problems have contributed greatly to the misperceptions many people have about radiation and which are frustrating a constructive dialogue on how radiation can be harnessed to benefit mankind. Our analysis seeks to assist those looking for a strategic perspective from which to reflect on their interaction with practices involving radiation exposures. (author)

  16. Coastal sea radiation environment and biodiversity protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Senming; Shang Zhaorong

    2009-01-01

    This paper characterizes the types, trend and the potential of radiation contamination in the sea against the development of nuclear power stations. Combined with the present status of radioactive contamination and marine biodiversity in China seas, it is pointed out that non-human radiation protection should be considered on the bases of marine biodiversity protection. Besides, the reference species for marine radiation protection and some viewpoints on the work of marine radiation protection in China are pro- posed. (authors)

  17. High Radiation Resistance IMM Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Due to high launch costs, weight reduction is a key driver for the development of new solar cell technologies suitable for space applications. This project is developing a unique triple-junction inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) technology that enables the manufacture of very lightweight, low-cost InGaAsP-based multijunction solar cells. This IMM technology consists of indium (In) and phosphorous (P) solar cell active materials, which are designed to improve the radiation-resistant properties of the triple-junction solar cell while maintaining high efficiency. The intrinsic radiation hardness of InP materials makes them of great interest for building solar cells suitable for deployment in harsh radiation environments, such as medium Earth orbit and missions to the outer planets. NASA Glenn's recently developed epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process also will be applied to this new structure, which will enable the fabrication of the IMM structure without the substrate.

  18. Background radiation dose of dumpsites in Ota and Environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usikalu, M. R.; Ola, O. O.; Achuka, J. A.; Babarimisa, I. O.; Ayara, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    In-situ measurement of background radiation dose from selected dumpsites in Ota and its environs was done using Radialert Nuclear Radiation Monitor (Digilert 200). Ten measurements were taken from each dumpsite. The measured background radiation range between 0.015 mRhr-1 for AOD and 0.028 mRhr-1 for SUS dumpsites. The calculated annual equivalent doses vary between 1.31 mSvyr-1 for AOD and 2.28 mSv/yr for SUS dumpsites. The air absorbed dose calculated ranged from 150 nGyhr-1 to 280 nGy/hr for AOD and SUS dumpsites respectively with an average value of 217 nGyhr-1 for all the locations. All the estimated parameters were higher than permissible limit set for background radiation for the general public. Conclusively, the associated challenge and radiation burden posed by the wastes on the studied locations and scavengers is high. Therefore, there is need by the regulatory authorities to look into the way and how waste can be properly managed so as to alleviate the effects on the populace leaving and working in the dumpsites vicinity.

  19. Radiation exposure of airline crew members to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, G. De; Ballard, T.; Lagorio, S.; Verdecchia, A.

    2000-01-01

    All risk assessment techniques for possible health effects from low dose rate radiation exposure should combine knowledge both of the radiation environment and of the biological response, whose effects (e.g. carcinogenesis) are usually evaluated through mathematical models and/or animal and cell experiments. Data on human exposure to low dose rate radiation exposure and its effects are not readily available, especially with regards to stochastic effects, related to carcinogenesis and therefore to cancer risks, for which the event probability increases with increasing radiation exposure. The largest source of such data might be airline flight personnel, if enrolled for studies on health effects induced by the cosmic-ray generated atmospheric ionizing radiation, whose total dose, increasing over the years, might cause delayed radiation-induced health effects, with the high-LET and highly ionizing neutron component typical of atmospheric radiation. In 1990 flight personnel has been given the status of 'occupationally exposed to radiation' by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP), with a received radiation dose that is at least twice larger than that of the general population. The studies performed until now were limited in scope and cohort size, and moreover no information whatsoever on radiation occupational exposure (e.g. dose, flight hours, route haul, etc.) was used in the analysis, so no correlation has been until now possible between atmospheric ionizing radiation and (possibly radiation-induced) observed health effects. Our study addresses the issues, by considering all Italian civilian airline flight personnel, both cockpit and cabin crew members, with about 10,000 people selected, whose records on work history and actual flights (route, aircraft type, date, etc. for each individual flight for each person where possible) are considered. Data on actual flight routes and profiles have been obtained for the whole time frame. The actual dose

  20. Radiation monitoring in the NPP environment, control of radioactivity in NPP-environment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Problems of radiation monitoring and control of the NPP-environment system (NPPES) are considered. Radiation control system at the NPP and in the environment provides for the control of the NPP, considered as the source of radioactive releases in the environment and for the environmental radiation climate control. It is shown, that the radiation control of the NPP-environment system must be based on the ecological normalization principles of the NPP environmental impacts. Ecological normalization should be individual for the NPP region of each ecosystem. The necessity to organize and conduct radiation ecological monitoring in the NPP regions is pointed out. Radiation ecological monitoring will provide for both environmental current radiation control and information for mathematical models, used in the NPPES radiation control

  1. Performance limit of daytime radiative cooling in warm humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Suichi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Daytime radiative cooling potentially offers efficient passive cooling, but the performance is naturally limited by the environment, such as the ambient temperature and humidity. Here, we investigate the performance limit of daytime radiative cooling under warm and humid conditions in Okayama, Japan. A cooling device, consisting of alternating layers of SiO2 and poly(methyl methacrylate on an Al mirror, is fabricated and characterized to demonstrate a high reflectance for sunlight and a selective thermal radiation in the mid-infrared region. In the temperature measurement under the sunlight irradiation, the device shows 3.4 °C cooler than a bare Al mirror, but 2.8 °C warmer than the ambient of 35 °C. The corresponding numerical analyses reveal that the atmospheric window in λ = 16 ∼ 25 μm is closed due to a high humidity, thereby limiting the net emission power of the device. Our study on the humidity influence on the cooling performance provides a general guide line of how one can achieve practical passive cooling in a warm humid environment.

  2. Stability of semiconductor memory characteristics in a radiation environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fetahović, I.; Vujisić, M.; Stanković, K.; Dolićanin, E.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation defects in electronic device can occur in a process of its fabrication or during use. Miniaturization trends in industry and increase in level of integration of electronic components have negative affect on component's behavior in a radiation environment. The aim of this paper is to analyze radiation effects in semiconductor memories and to establish how ionizing radiation influences characteristics and functionality of semiconductor memories. Both the experimental procedure and sim...

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on the waste package environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

    1991-05-01

    The radiolytic production of nitrogen oxides, nitrogen acids and ammonia are discussed in relation to the expected environment in a high-level waste repository that may be constructed at the Yucca Mountain site if it is found to be suitable. Both literature data and repository-relevant data are summarized for air-water vapor systems. The limiting cases of a dry air and a pure water vapor gas phase are also discussed. Design guidelines and recommendations, based solely on the potential consequence of radiation enhancement of corrosion, are given. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on the waste package environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The radiolytic production of nitrogen oxides, nitrogen acids and ammonia are discussed in relation to the expected environment in a high-level waste repository that may be constructed at the Yucca Mountain site if it is found to be suitable. Both literature data and repository-relevant data are summarized for air-water vapor systems. The limiting cases of a dry air and a pure water vapor gas phase are also discussed. Design guidelines and recommendations, based solely on the potential consequence of radiation enhancement of corrosion, are given. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Modification of GNPS environment radiation monitoring network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lili; Cao Chunsheng

    1999-01-01

    GNPS Environment Radiation Continuous Monitoring System (KRS), the only real time on-line system of site radiation monitoring, was put into service in 1993 prior to the first loading the the plant. It is revealed through several years of operation that this system has some deficiencies such as inadequate real time monitoring means, no figure and diagram display function on the central computer, high failures, frequent failure warning signals, thus making the availability of the system at a low level. In recent years, with the rapid development of computer network technology and increasingly strict requirements on the NPP environment protection raised by the government and public, KRS modification had become necessary and urgent. In 1996, GNPS carried out modification work on the measuring geometry condition of γ radiation monitoring sub-station and lightening protection. To enhance the functions of real time monitoring and data auto-processing, further modification of the system was made in 1998, including the update of the software and hardware of KRS central processor, set-up of system computer local network and database. In this way, the system availability and monitoring quality are greatly improved and effective monitoring and analysis means are provided for gaseous release during normal operation and under accident condition

  6. The radiation environment of proton accelerators and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    These lecture notes survey the physical processes that give rise to the stray-radiation environment of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, with emphasis on their importance for radiation protection. The origins of the prompt radiation field (which disappears when the accelerator is switched off) are described in some detail: proton-nucleus interactions, extranuclear cascades, muon generation and transport. The effects of induced radioactivity in the accelerator structure and surroundings, notably in iron, concrete, air, and water, are discussed and methods for monitoring hadrons in the radiation environment outside the accelerator are listed. Seventy-six references to the literature are included. (Author)

  7. Radiation environment of proton accelerators and storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, G R

    1976-03-08

    These lecture notes survey the physical processes that give rise to the stray-radiation environment of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, with emphasis on their importance for radiation protection. The origins of the prompt radiation field (which disappears when the accelerator is switched off) are described in some detail: proton-nucleus interactions, extranuclear cascades, muon generation and transport. The effects of induced radioactivity in the accelerator structure and surroundings, notably in iron, concrete, air, and water, are discussed, and methods for monitoring hadrons in the radiation environment outside the accelerator are listed. Seventy-six references to the literature are included.

  8. Electric motors for use in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, T.U.D.; Mahmood, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements of electric motors for a nuclear plant and the effect of nuclear radiations on different parts of the motors are discussed. Feasibility of using locally-fabricated motors is also considered. (author)

  9. Suppression of radiation excitation in focusing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Ruth, R.D.

    1996-12-01

    Radiation damping and quantum excitation in an electron damping ring and a straight focusing channel are reviewed. They are found to be the two limiting cases in the study of a general bending and focusing combined system. In the intermediate regime where the radiation formation length is comparable to the betatron wavelength, quantum excitation can be exponentially suppressed by focusing field. This new regime may have interesting applications in the generation of ultra-low emittance beams

  10. Behaviour of organic materials in radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlet, M.; Ilie, S.

    1999-01-01

    An extensive radiation damage test program has been carried out in CERN for decades and many results have yet been published. Over the years, EPR/EPDM-based rubbers and polyolefin-based compounds used for cable insulation have been tested. Polyolefin-based compounds usually present an important dose-rate effect. This is related to the presence of oxygen, it may be combined with a temperature effect. On the other hand, it appears from many results that the degradation of cable insulations does not depend on the radiation type. Tests of insulating and structural materials after irradiation at cryogenic temperature have shown that there is no significant influence of the irradiation temperature on the radiation degradation of thermo-sets and composites, while the degradation of plastic films is even less severe as they are protected against oxidation. Some experiments about the synergy between irradiation and mechanical stress have shown that rubbers and composites under stress are more sensitive to radiation and degrade faster. Very strong synergetic effects between radiation and other parameters are observed in organic optical materials such as scintillators and optical fibres. For fluorocarbon cooling fluids, a special care must be paid to alkanes and hydro-fluoro-alkanes, which are usually present as impurities, and of which the C-H bonds content opens the way to the reactive hydrofluoric acid evolution during the radiolytic process

  11. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  12. Emergency Medical Rescue in a Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briesmeister, L.; Ellington, Y.; Hollis, R.; Kunzman, J.; McNaughton, M.; Ramsey, G.; Somers, B.; Turner, A.; Finn, J.

    1999-01-01

    Previous experience with emergency medical rescues in the presence of radiation or contamination indicates that the training provided to emergency responders is not always appropriate. A new course developed at Los Alamos includes specific procedures for emergency response in a variety of radiological conditions

  13. Techniques for predicting environment electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Peiji

    1987-01-01

    The measurement theories, techniques, and calculation methods on public exposure level of electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station are described for the purpose of enviroment protection and research of EM compatibility. According to the results of the measurement and calculation, it is possible to predict the effects of electromagnetic radiation to environment at satellite ground station

  14. The case against protecting the environment from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the (rarely heard) argument in favour of retention of the present system of radiation protection of the environment. There has been a recent trend in the radioecological and radiation protection community towards greater regulation of the effects of ionising radiations on biota. In particular, the often quoted International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) hypothesis that: If humans are protected from the effects of ionising radiation, then flora and fauna are also adequately protected has been criticised as being too anthropocentric and not adequate for protection of the environment. In this paper I will challenge this view, arguing firstly that this statement is almost always quoted out of its proper context, and secondly that the ICRP hypothesis does adequately protect the environment from the effects of ionising radiations. In view of the relatively insignificant effect of regulated releases of ionising radiation on the environment, the economic cost of further regulation will not result in a significant environmental benefit. Whilst empirical research to test the ICRP hypothesis should continue, until there is clear evidence against it, this simple and cost-effective approach should be retained. This would benefit the environment by directing scarce resources to more urgent environmental problems. (author)

  15. Development of rubber material for high radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, Sadayoshi; Tabasaki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kadowaki, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Generally flexible polymeric materials exposed to radiation can't be used because they soften or harden remarkably in high radiation environment. Aromatic polymers such as PEEK, PI, and PES are also known as radiation-proof polymeric materials. Aromatic polymers are very hard, they can't be used for products like a packing where flexibility is required. We developed a new vulcanized rubber compound by the use of various additives and polymer blend. This developed rubber compound has a high radiation-proof performance by reaction balance of cross-linking and decomposition in this rubber. This rubber compound has a rubber elasticity even if exposed to radiation of MGy level, and its radiation proof is more than 5 times as high as conventional polymeric materials. This rubber compound is much more flexible than the aromatic polymers which are the used as conventional radiation-proof polymers. (author)

  16. Optical fibres in the radiation environment of CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermain, E.

    2017-11-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (in Geneva, Switzerland), is home to a complex scientific instrument: the 27-kilometre Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collides beams of high-energy particles at close to the speed of light. Optical fibres are widely used at CERN, both in surface areas (e.g. for inter-building IT networks) and in the accelerator complex underground (e.g. for cryogenics, vacuum, safety systems). Optical fibres in the accelerator are exposed to mixed radiation fields (mainly composed of protons, pions, neutrons and other hadrons, gamma rays and electrons), with dose rates depending on the particular installation zone, and with radiation levels often significantly higher than those encountered in space. In the LHC and its injector chain radiation levels range from relatively low annual doses of a few Gy up to hundreds of kGy. Optical fibres suffer from Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA, expressed in dB per unit length) that affect light transmission and which depends on the irradiation conditions (e.g. dose rate, total dose, temperature). In the CERN accelerator complex, the failure of an optical link can affect the proper functionality of control or monitoring systems and induce the interruption of the accelerator operation. The qualification of optical fibres for installation in critical radiation areas is therefore crucial. Thus, all optical fibre types installed in radiation areas at CERN are subject to laboratory irradiation tests, in order to evaluate their RIA at different total dose and dose rates. This allows the selection of the appropriate optical fibre type (conventional or radiation resistant) compliant with the requirements of each installation. Irradiation tests are performed in collaboration with Fraunhofer INT (irradiation facilities and expert team in Euskirchen, Germany). Conventional off-the-shelf optical fibres can be installed for optical links exposed to low radiation levels (i.e. annual dose typically below few

  17. Superior radiation-resistant nanoengineered austenitic 304L stainless steel for applications in extreme radiation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Zheng, S; Wei, C C; Wu, Y; Shao, L; Yang, Y; Hartwig, K T; Maloy, S A; Zinkle, S J; Allen, T R; Wang, H; Zhang, X

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear energy provides more than 10% of electrical power internationally, and the increasing engagement of nuclear energy is essential to meet the rapid worldwide increase in energy demand. A paramount challenge in the development of advanced nuclear reactors is the discovery of advanced structural materials that can endure extreme environments, such as severe neutron irradiation damage at high temperatures. It has been known for decades that high dose radiation can introduce significant void swelling accompanied by precipitation in austenitic stainless steel (SS). Here we report, however, that through nanoengineering, ultra-fine grained (UFG) 304 L SS with an average grain size of ~100 nm, can withstand Fe ion irradiation at 500 °C to 80 displacements-per-atom (dpa) with moderate grain coarsening. Compared to coarse grained (CG) counterparts, swelling resistance of UFG SS is improved by nearly an order of magnitude and swelling rate is reduced by a factor of 5. M(23)C(6) precipitates, abundant in irradiated CG SS, are largely absent in UFG SS. This study provides a nanoengineering approach to design and discover radiation tolerant metallic materials for applications in extreme radiation environments.

  18. High energy radiation from neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M.

    1985-04-01

    Topics covered include young rapidly spinning pulsars; static gaps in outer magnetospheres; dynamic gaps in pulsar outer magnetospheres; pulse structure of energetic radiation sustained by outer gap pair production; outer gap radiation, Crab pulsar; outer gap radiation, the Vela pulsar; radioemission; and high energy radiation during the accretion spin-up of older neutron stars. 26 refs., 10 figs

  19. Radiation Environments for Future Human Exploration Throughout the Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N.; Gorby, M.; Linker, J.; Riley, P.; Torok, T.; Downs, C.; Spence, H. E.; Desai, M. I.; Mikic, Z.; Joyce, C. J.; Kozarev, K. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    Acute space radiation hazards pose one of the most serious risks to future human and robotic exploration. The ability to predict when and where large events will occur is necessary in order to mitigate their hazards. The largest events are usually associated with complex sunspot groups (also known as active regions) that harbor strong, stressed magnetic fields. Highly energetic protons accelerated very low in the corona by the passage of coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven compressions or shocks and from flares travel near the speed of light, arriving at Earth minutes after the eruptive event. Whether these particles actually reach Earth, the Moon, Mars (or any other point) depends on their transport in the interplanetary magnetic field and their magnetic connection to the shock. Recent contemporaneous observations during the largest events in almost a decade show the unique longitudinal distributions of this ionizing radiation broadly distributed from sources near the Sun and yet highly isolated during the passage of CME shocks. Over the last decade, we have observed space weather events as the solar wind exhibits extremely low densities and magnetic field strengths, representing states that have never been observed during the space age. The highly abnormal solar activity during cycles 23 and 24 has caused the longest solar minimum in over 80 years and continues into the unusually small solar maximum of cycle 24. As a result of the remarkably weak solar activity, we have also observed the highest fluxes of galactic cosmic rays in the space age and relatively small particle radiation events. We have used observations from LRO/CRaTER to examine the implications of these highly unusual solar conditions for human space exploration throughout the inner solar system. While these conditions are not a show-stopper for long-duration missions (e.g., to the Moon, an asteroid, or Mars), galactic cosmic ray radiation remains a significant and worsening factor that limits

  20. Integration of optical fibers in radiative environments: Advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J.; Baggio, J.; Meunier, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in radiative environments. Optical fibers present numerous advantages for applications in harsh environments such as their electromagnetic immunity. This explains the increasing interest of the radiation effects community to evaluate their vulnerability for future facilities. However, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation. We illustrate the major mechanisms and parameters that govern the degradation mechanism, mainly the radiation-induced attenuation phenomena. We focus on the fiber transient radiation responses when exposed to the pulsed and mixed environment associated with the Megajoule class lasers devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement study. (authors)

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Wireless Communication Channels under Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Quan; Bari, Ataul; Deng, Changjian; Li, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    Deployment of wireless systems in nuclear power plants has attracted a lot of attention recently. However, before wireless systems can be installed in a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of radiation environment on electromagnetic wave which is the communication media for all radio wave based wireless systems. This is particular important if the wireless systems are expected to work in a harsh and radioactive environment following a severe accident. This paper presents some results of an experiment for evaluating the effect of radiation on electromagnetic wave. The experiments involve placing transmitter antenna and receiver antenna in a hot cell with variable strength of radiation to study the attenuation effects of the radioactive media. The results indicate that radiation does not effect on the electromagnetic wave propagation. This fact should be considered during the design and deployment wireless systems in a potentially radioactive environment

  2. An evaluation on environment radiation impact of pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yingwei; Pu Gongxu; Li Jian

    1991-01-01

    The dose regulation, assessment scope and assessment method adopted by the environment impact evaluation for the pulsed reactor are discussed. The compute model, the compute programme and the compute result of the dose adopted for the model pulsed reactor are introduced. The probable environment radiation impact under normal status and accident status are also appraised

  3. Research on environment monitoring of radiation emergency

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y; Otani, N

    2003-01-01

    In a case of a nuclear accident at nuclear facilities, strong radiation such as g-rays and neutrons might radiate at a burst in the initial stage. For the establishment of dose estimation system for such accidents, the experiments were done using the He sup + sup 2 beam accelerated by Tandem in the W-MAST. The following results were obtained. 1) Neutron measurements using a rem counter yielded that dose equivalent was about 9.4 mSv/h at a position 100 cm from the Be target when the beam current of 15 MeV He sup 2 sup + was 0.8 mu A. Neutron measurement by means of Au and In foil activation method and by use of TLD element revealed that dose equivalents were to be 16-27 mu Sv/h for thermal neutron, and 30-41 mu Sv/h for sub-fast neutron (20 keV). Therefore, it was concluded that neutron field was mainly composed by fast neutron. 2) Linearity of the rem-counter out put vs neutron flux was valid under the condition that the count rate of the rem-counter was less than 10 kcps. 3) Computer simulation using NRESP c...

  4. Research on environment monitoring of radiation emergency

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y

    2002-01-01

    In a case of a nuclear accident at nuclear facilities, radiation such as gamma-rays and neutrons might radiate at a burst in the initial stage. For the establishment of dose estimation system for such accidents, the experiments were carried out using the Tandem/Synchrotron accelerator. The following results were obtained: (1) Measurements of the gamma-ray emission using the NaI detector together with pile up rejection system revealed that the good signals without the pile up phenomena could be obtained in case of count rate less than 7 kc/s. On assumption that energy distribution function of the gamma-rays was proportional to be E exp(- E/T sub e sub f sub f), the effective temperature T sub e sub f sub f was estimated to be 0.8 - 0.9 MeV by use of non-linear least squares. (2) Doses of gamma-rays were measured using the TLD elements shielded by Pb sheets with various widths. The effective temperature T sub e sub f sub f estimated under the same experimental conditions described in (1) was 0.6-3 MeV. In an ac...

  5. Environment radiation protection - Synthesis and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the principal progresses in the area of risk evaluation to environment in relation with radionuclides during the last five years. It is based on a comparison between the methods that exist for chemical products and this one in progress for radioactive products. The enlightened point concerns the methodologies developed at European scale. The basic concepts of the environmental risk assessment are presented and also its principal components. The knowledge relative to the criteria of environmental protection is presented. The differences between the chemical products and the radioactive products are taken into account. Finally, this document shows the feasibility of methods of risk assessment to ecosystems associated to the presence or release of radioactive substances i environment. (N.C.)

  6. The Enceladus Ionizing Radiation Environment: Implications for Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, L. A.; Elphic, R. C.; Davila, A. F.; McKay, C.; Dartnell, L.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus' subsurface ocean is a possible abode for life, but it is inaccessible with current technology. However, icy particles and vapor are being expelled into space through surface fractures known as Tiger Stripes, forming a large plume centered in the South Polar Terrains. Direct chemical analyses by Cassini have revealed salts and organic compounds in a significant fraction of plume particles, which suggests that the subsurface ocean is the main source of materials in the plume (i.e. frozen ocean spray). While smaller icy particles in the plume reach escape velocity and feed Saturn's E-ring, larger particles fall back on the moon's surface, where they accumulate as icy mantling deposits at practically all latitudes. The organic content of these fall-out materials could be of great astrobiological relevance. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) that strike both Enceladus' surface and the lofted icy particles produce ionizing radiation in the form of high-energy electrons, protons, gamma rays, neutrons and muons. An additional source of ionizing radiation is the population of energetic charged particles in Saturn's magnetosphere. The effects of ionizing radiation in matter always involve the destruction of chemical bonds and the creation of free radicals. Both affect organic matter, and can damage or destroy biomarkers over time. Using ionizing radiation transport codes, we recreated the radiation environment on the surface of Enceladus, and evaluated its possible effects on organic matter (including biomarkers) in the icy mantling deposits. Here, we present full Monte-Carlo simulations of the nuclear reactions induced by the GCRs hitting Enceladus's surface using a code based on the GEANT-4 toolkit for the transport of particles. To model the GCR primary spectra for Z= 1-26 (protons to iron nuclei) we assumed the CREAME96 model under solar minimum, modified to take into account Enceladus' location. We considered bulk compositions of: i) pure water ice, ii) water ice

  7. On the Radiation Protection of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberhart, L. J.; Clausse, A.; D'Amato, E.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, substantial advances in what is know as legal protection of the environment, -as a different matter from human being protection- have been made. Some national legislations include serious penalties against environmental damage. It is becoming customary to consider a serious offence any excess in the prescribed limits of radioactive materials release to the environment. What these limits mean, however, is not completely clear nowadays. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) the standards of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk, although, occasionally, individual members of non human species might be harmed. However the use of limits of radioactive releases resulting from the direct application of ICRP recommend limits as legal references for the applicable offences in environmental protection is certainly a misconception. In this paper a conceptual framework for the calculation of legal limits for environmental radioprotection are presented. The approach is based on an ecosystem perspective, assessing the impact of radioactive releases on the ecosystem dynamics and equilibrium. The method is based on functional groups models -i.e. groups of species that are selected from a number of criteria such as play similar rules in the chain of nutrients or have the same radiosensitivity- providing the basis for prescribed limits of the radioactive material release to the environment. The methodology is applied to a system of three functional groups in equilibrium, with is affected by radioactive intrusion. Different impacts on the equilibrium can be identified, depending on the amount of radioactive material released to the environment. It is shown how the concept of equilibrium breakdown can be applied in order to assess the radiological impact. (Author) 8 refs

  8. NPS-SCAT CONOPS and Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    flexibility, as well as allows players in the space market who would otherwise not be able to enter due to budgetary limitations. Important to NPS is...commercial market . Although the time frame for completing NPS-SCAT has not been as short as possible due to the nature of the learning environment on its...Program ( STP ) seeks flight opportunities for approved experiments. The current NPS- SCAT launch date offers ample time to finish and test the

  9. The VFAT3-Comm-Port: a complete communication port for front-end ASICs intended for use within the high luminosity radiation environments of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, M.; Aspell, P.; Bonacini, S.; Ciaglia, D.; Kloukinas, K.; Lentdecker, G. De; Robertis, G. De; Kupiainen, M.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Leroux, P.; Tavernier, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the VFAT3 Comm-Port (V3CP), which offers a single port for all communication to and from a front-end ASIC within the HL-LHC environment. This includes synchronization to the LHC clock, slow control communication, the execution of fast control commands and the readout of data

  10. High-LET radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation are complex and are insufficiently understood. There is no model or formulation to describe the dose-response relationship over a range 0 to 100 rad. Evidence suggests that at doses below 20 rad the response is linear, at least for life shortening and some tumor systems. Thus, limiting values of RBEs for the induction of cancer in various tissues can be determined, but it will require sufficient data obtained at low single doses or with small fractions. The results obtained from experiments with heavy ions indicate an initial linear response with a plateauing of the curve at a tumor incidence level that is dependent on the type of tissue. The RBE values for the heavy ions using 60 Co gamma rays as the reference radiation increase with the estimated LET from 4 for 4 H to about 27 for 56 Fe, 40 Ar. The dose-responses and RBEs for 56 Fe and 40 Ar are similar to those for fission neutrons. These findings suggest the possibility that the effectiveness for tumor induction reaches a maximum. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Effect of radiation environment on radiation use efficiency and growth of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bange, M.P.; Hammer, G.L.; Rickert, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The level of incident radiation and the proportion of radiation that is diffuse affects radiation use efficiency (RUE) in crops. However, the degree of this effect, and its importance to growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) have not been established. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of radiation environment on RUE, growth, and yield of sunflower. A fully irrigated crop was sown on an alluvial-prairie soil (Fluventic Haplustoll) and was exposed to three distinct radiation environments. In two treatments, the level of incident radiation was reduced by 14 and 20% by suspending two different types of polyethylene plastic films well above the crop. In addition to the reductions in incident radiation, the proportion of radiation that was diffuse was increased by about 14% in these treatments. Lower incident radiation and increased proportion of diffuse radiation had no effect on total biomass, phenology, leaf area, and the canopy light extinction coefficient (k = 0.89). However, yield was reduced in shaded treatments due to smaller grain size and lower harvest index. Although crop RUE measured over the entire crop cycle (1.25 g/MJ) did not differ significantly among treatments, there was a trend where RUE compensated for less intercepted incident radiation. Theoretical derivations of the response of RUE to different levels of incident radiation supported this finding. Shaded sunflower crops have the ability to produce biomass similar to unshaded crops by increasing RUE, but have lower harvest indices

  12. Radiation effects of high and low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive proliferation of the uses and applications of atomic and nuclear energy resulted in possible repercussions on human health. The prominent features of the health hazards that may be incurred after exposure to high and low radiation doses are discussed. The physical and biological factors involved in the sequential development of radiation health effects and the different cellular responses to radiation injury are considered. The main criteria and features of radiation effects of high and low doses are comprehensively outlined

  13. Possible sources of radiation in indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djukanovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    More locations and building material will be needed to solve the housing needs, actually the future quantities will equal the total of all the previous building. And presently one quarter of the world population is already homeless. The development of human civilization in the new technological era goes on extremely quickly. In the search for new spaces, in the last decade of the 20th century, in town renovation planning the application of subterranean civil engineering is very popular. Below ground level, the new towns are built with many stories, with exclusively artificial light and artificial climate. There is not the slightest possibility of natural ventilation. These spaces have not been investigated as regards the contents of radon. Man is not adapted to spend most of the time in under artificial conditions. It is still to be discovered how it will affect humans and what is the degree of exposure to ionizing radiation in such conditions. It might be better to abandon underground construction before the adverse effects are proved. Previous mistakes in building must be overcome and new technologies applied as well as sustainable development in the future. (author)

  14. Research in radiation biology, in the environment, and in radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.; Myers, D.K.; Ophel, I.L.; Cowper, G.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Research in radiation biology at CRNL is concerned with: evaluation of the effects of low doses of radiation upon humans and other living organisms; the development of new methods for detecting the effects of radiation exposure in large populations; the continued development of improved methods by which radiation levels can be measured accurately and reliably; and evaluation of the effects of nuclear power use upon the environment. The present report summarizes our background knowledge of radiation hazards and describes current research activities in Biology and Health Physics Division at CRNL. (author)

  15. Memory behaviour in a radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucker, G.J.; Thurlow, L.

    1979-01-01

    Memory devices are often required for storage of data which must not be altered during a nuclear burst. If the properties of non-alterability and low power consumption during a standby mode of operation are combined, then the choice is narrowed down to static C-MOS bulk or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) memories. Previous investigations have indicated that the SOS devices will achieve the maximum non-scrambling dose rate. However, it is interesting to determine the limitations of bulk as well as SOS devices for those programs where circumvention and refreshing of the memory is allowed. This article will present the results of an investigation of the characteristics of these memory types in a transient environment. (author)

  16. Effects of solar electromagnetic radiation on the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The general intent of this essay is to discuss the effect of solar electromagnetic radiation on the terrestrial environment. Instead of giving a systematic approach considering all environment processes where solar emission is the primary energy source and all important materials which have been generated by solar driven processes, the author sketches an impression of the range of the effects of solar radiation on the environment by surveying a number of topics of particular current interest, in varying levels of detail. These include atmospheric chemistry, some aspects of the transfer of radiation within the atmosphere, global energy balance and climate feedbacks, especially those due to clouds, impacts of fossil fuel energy use, evolution of early life processes, photosynthesis and plant productivity as it relates to photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle. (Auth.)

  17. SEL monitoring of the earth's energetic particle radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Environment Laboratory (SEL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) maintains instruments on board the GOES series of geostationary satellites, and aboard the NOAA/TIROS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellites, which provide monitoring of the energetic particle radiation environment as well as monitoring the geostationary magnetic field and the solar x-ray flux. The data are used by the SEL Space Environment Services Center (SESC) to help provide real-time monitoring and forecasting of the state of the near earth environment and its disturbances, and to maintain a source of reliable information to research and operational activities of a variety of users

  18. Gerald: a general environment for radiation analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, Ch.; Oliveira, P.I.E. de; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Adams, M.L.; Galan, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper describes the status of the GERALD interactive workbench for the analysis of radiation transport problems. GERALD basically guides the user through the various steps that are necessary to solve a radiation transport problem, and is aimed at education, research and industry. The advantages of such workbench are many: quality assurance of problem setup, interaction of the user with problem solution, preservation of theory and legacy research codes, and rapid proto-typing and testing of new methods. The environment is of general applicability catering for analytical, deterministic and stochastic analysis of the radiation problem and is not tied to one specific solution method or code. However, GERALD is being developed as a portable, modular, open source framework which renders itself quite naturally to the coupling of existing computational tools through specifically developed plug-ins. By offering a common route for setting up, solving and analyzing radiation transport problems GERALD offers the possibility of methods intercomparison and validation. Such flexible radiation transport environment will also facilitate the coupling of radiation physics methods to other physical phenomena and their application to other areas of application such as medical physics and the environment. (authors)

  19. Book of abstracts of the international conference on high levels of natural radiation held in Ramsar, Islamic Republic of Iran, 3-7 Nov 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Borhan Azad, S.; Katouzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented in international conference on high levels of natural radiation was in the following subjects: A review of world natural radiation, environmental transfer pathway,technologically enhanced natural radiation environment,radon in the environment,radium determination in water,cytogenetic studies in high natural radiation areas,epidemiological studies in high natural radiation areas and radiation measurements methods

  20. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  1. Interactive intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, Thomas; Vanherpe, Liesbeth; Baudin, Mathieu; Theis, Chris; Braesch, Christian; Feral, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    A core issue during the planning of a maintenance intervention in a facility with ionizing radiation is the minimization of the integrated equivalent dose contracted by the maintenance workers during the intervention. In this work, we lay down the concepts for intervention planning in an irradiated environment and present a new software program for intervention planning, which provides interactive visualization of facilities and radiation levels, as well as tools for interactive trajectory planning. The software includes automatic calculation of the expected integrated equivalent radiation dose contracted during an intervention

  2. Interactive intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.fabry@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Vanherpe, Liesbeth [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Baudin, Mathieu [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); LCPI, ENSAM ParisTech, 151 Boulevard de l' Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Theis, Chris [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Braesch, Christian [SYMME, Université de Savoie, Polytech Annecy-Chambry, 5 chemin de Bellevue, 74944 Annecy le Vieux (France); Feral, Bruno [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-04-21

    A core issue during the planning of a maintenance intervention in a facility with ionizing radiation is the minimization of the integrated equivalent dose contracted by the maintenance workers during the intervention. In this work, we lay down the concepts for intervention planning in an irradiated environment and present a new software program for intervention planning, which provides interactive visualization of facilities and radiation levels, as well as tools for interactive trajectory planning. The software includes automatic calculation of the expected integrated equivalent radiation dose contracted during an intervention.

  3. Role of natural radiation environment in earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Natural ionizing radiations play an important role in a wide spectrum of earth sciences, including meteorology, geophysics, hydrology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry. The nature and distribution of ionizing radiation sources and natural radionuclides in the atmospheric environment are summarized. The present status of the use of natural radioactive tracers for atmospheric studies is discussed. The effect of ionization produced by natural radiation sources on atmospheric electricity, the relationship of electrical and meteorological variables, and the possible effects of man-made releases of 85 Kr are considered. Experimental evidence is presented for the production of condensation nuclei by the combined effects of radon and sulfur dioxide

  4. Interactive intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabry, Thomas; Baudin, Mathieu; Theis, Chris; Braesch, Christian; Feral, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    A core issue during the planning of a maintenance intervention in a facility with ionizing radiation is the minimization of the integrated equivalent dose contracted by the maintenance workers during the intervention. In this work, we lay down the concepts for intervention planning in an irradiated environment and present a new software program for intervention planning, which provides interactive visualization of facilities and radiation levels, as well as tools for interactive trajectory planning. The software includes automatic calculation of the expected integrated equivalent radiation dose contracted during an intervention.

  5. Radiation chemistry and the environment: the radiation degradation of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, K.; Laurence, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The chemistry of the degradation of organic pesticides, herbicides and fungicides in natural systems determines operationally important parameters such as withholding times before planting or consumption. Free radicals are being increasingly recognised as important in environmental chemistry and in aqueous systems the OH, H, and O 2 - radicals are believed to be relevant to the degradation of organic molecules. Sources of these radicals in natural aqueous systems have been suggested as photochemical or transition metal reactions involving dissolved organic species such as humic acids. We are undertaking a systematic study of the reactions of OH, H, and O 2 - radicals and halogen radical ions such as Cl 2 - , with important herbicides and fungicides in order to obtain rate constant data for modelling the possible reactions in field conditions and to establish whether the postulated reactions are capable of accounting for the disappearance of the materials in the environment. In addition to using gamma and pulse radiolysis to determine product yields, rate constants and the presence of reactive intermediates, we have begun to explore the stability and geometry of possible radial intermediates using Gaussian computations. At present six pesticides in current use in Australia are being studied. Our results for one of these, Inoxyl will be discussed. While electron transfer to or from the molecule is the initial reaction path for OH and H radicals, superoxide radical species are unreactive. (authors)

  6. Fifth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Swedjemark, G.A.; Baeverstam, U.; Lowder, W.M.; Miller, K.M.; Fisenne, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    The fifth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment organized a series of tutorial sessions. One of the five major fields concerned with the radon issue. The tutorials dealt with important issues of the radon problem and covered the following aspects: Cosmic and Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Measurement, Properties and Behaviour of Radon and Thoron and Their Decay Products in the Air, Radon and Radon Daughters Metrology: Basic Aspects Long Lived Radionuclides in the Environment, in Food and in Human Beings, Design and Analysis of Radon Surveys with Epidemiological Utility

  7. Do we need radiation protection for the living environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefner, A.; Voelkle, H.

    2003-01-01

    The protection of the living environment, i.e. non human species or non human organisms, is a condition for the long term human survival. This certainly is true also for radioactivity and ionizing radiation. The ICRP statement that fauna und flora are sufficiently protected if man is protected is valid in many cases but not in every one. The article gives some reflections on this subject from the point of view of practical radiation protection and some suggestions on how, if necessary, protection of the living environment could be put into practice. (orig.) [de

  8. Radiation metabolomics : a window to high throughput radiation biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    In the event of an intentional or accidental release of ionizing radiation in a densely populated area, timely assessment and triage of the general population for radiation exposure is critical. In particular, a significant number of victims may sustain radiation injury, which increases mortality and worsens the overall prognosis of victims from radiation trauma. Availability of a high-throughput noninvasive in vivo biodosimetry tool for assessing the radiation exposure is of particular importance for timely diagnosis of radiation injury. In this study, we describe the potential NMR techniques in evaluating the radiation injury. NMR is the most versatile technique that has been extensively used in the diverse fields of science since its discovery. NMR and biomedical sciences have been going hand in hand since its application in clinical imaging as MRI and metabolic profiling of biofluids was identified. We have established an NMR based metabonomic and in vivo spectroscopy approach to analyse and identify metabolic profile to measure metabolic fingerprint for radiation exposure. NMR spectroscopy experiments were conducted on urine and serum samples collected from mice irradiated with different doses of radiation. Additionally, in vivo NMR spectroscopy was also performed in different region of brains post irradiation in animal model. A number of metabolites associated with energy metabolism, gut flora metabolites, osmolytes, amino acids and membrane metabolism were identified in serum and urine metabolome. Our results illustrated a metabolic fingerprint for radiation exposure that elucidates perturbed physiological functions. Quantitative as well as multivariate analysis/assessment of these metabolites demonstrated dose and time dependent toxicological effect. In vivo spectroscopy from brain showed radiation induced changes in hippocampus region indicating whole body radiation had striking effect on brain metabolism as well. The results of the present work lay a

  9. About the training on radiation protection in health environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Armas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Paper education on Radiation Protection in health environments is essential to optimise the use of radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The continuous increment in the number of available radiation emitting equipment in health environments and the generalisation of procedures, which imply important radiation exposures to patients, are expected to increase the overall doses to patients. A consequence of this will be the increment of harmful effects, especially, radiation induced cancer. General concern towards this respect has produced a generalisation of the requirements considered to be needed in a proper Radiation Protection education. Norms have been created for this purpose at both national and European level. here, the European and Spanish norms are reviewed. the applications of these norms are, also reviewed. Furthermore, the objectives of various platforms and European projects, aimed at improving the formation of health personnel on Radiation Protection, are presented. A conclusion of the review is that there exist significant differences in the syllabuses proposed for various professionals at different levels. Moreover, all the legislation collected in the norms has not been implemented in common practice. (Author) 24 refs

  10. Radiation exposure of airline crew members to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G. E-mail: gianni.deangelis@iol.it; Caldora, M.; Santaquilani, M.; Scipione, R.; Verdecchia, A

    2001-06-01

    A study of radiation exposures in the ionizing radiation environment of the atmosphere is currently in progress for the Italian civil aviation flight personnel. After a description of the considered data sources/ the philosophy of the study is presented/ and an overview is given of the data processing with regard to flight routes/ the computational techniques for radiation dose evaluation along the flight paths and for the exposure matrix building/ along with an indication of the results that the study should provide.

  11. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-15

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety.

  12. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-01

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety

  13. Radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation is described utilizing a detector of such radiation and a mask having regions relatively transparent to such radiation and interspersed among regions relatively opaque to such radiation. A relative motion is imparted between the mask and the detector, the detector providing a time varying signal in response to the incident radiation and in response to the relative motion. The time varying signal provides, with the aid of a decoder, an image of a source of such radiation

  14. Radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation utilizing a detector of such radiation and a mask having regions relatively transparent to such radiation interspersed among regions relatively opaque to such radiation is described. A relative motion is imparted between the mask and the detector, the detector providing a time varying signal in response to the incident radiation and in response to the relative motion. The time varying signal provides, with the aid of a decoder, an image of a source of such radiation

  15. High technology for radiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Toshiyuki

    2005-03-01

    Fundamentals of radiations, radioactivity, and their applications in recent industrial, medical, agricultural and various research fields are reviewed. The book begins with historical description regarding to discovery of radiation at the end of 19th century and the exploration into the inside of an atom utilizing the radiation discovered, discovery of the neutron which finally leaded to nuclear energy liberation. Developments of radiation sources, including nuclear reactors, and charged-particle accelerators follow with simultaneous description on radiation measurement or detection technology. In medical fields, X-ray diagnosis, interventional radiology (IVR), nuclear medicine (PET and others), and radiation therapy are introduced. In pharmaceutical field, synthesis of labeled compounds and tracer techniques are explained. In industrial application, radiation-reinforced wires and heat-resistant cables whose economic effect can be estimated to amount to more than 10 12 yen, radiation mutation, food irradiation, and applied accelerators such as polymer modifications, decomposition of environmentally harmful substances, and ion-implantations important in semiconductor device fabrication. Finally, problems relating to general public such as radiation education and safety concept are also discussed. (S. Ohno)

  16. Application to the conservation of RF tags in the radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraura, Nobuyuki; Ito, Kunio; Takahashi, Naoki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    2011-01-01

    RF tags that are implemented RFID technology as tag has been used in various fields. Tags have been developed, such as resistance to chemicals and high temperature resistant RF tags are also used in specialized fields. The RF tag apply to the existing nuclear field, had been concerned about the effects of radiation to the RF tags. Now, since the RF tag with a goal to develop radiation-proof, we have examined, such as applying for maintenance of nuclear facilities under radiation environment. We report the results and RF tags to be radiation resistant. (author)

  17. Contribution to developing the environment radiation protection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A. [Institute of Atomic Power Engineering NRNU MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alexakhin, R.; Dubynina, M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The environment sustainable development and biota protection, including the environment radiation protection are issues of nowadays interest in the society. An activity is ongoing on the development of a system of radiation protection for non-human biota. Anthropocentric and eco-centric principles are widely discussed. ICRP Publications 103, 108, 114 and many other reports and articles refer to the topic of environmental protection, reference animals and plants set, corresponding transfer parameters, dose models and derived consideration reference levels. There is still an open field for discussion of methods and approaches to get well-established procedure to assess environmental risks of radiation impacts to different organisms, populations and ecosystems. A huge work has been done by the ICRP and other organizations and research groups to develop and systematize approaches for this difficult subject. This activity, however, is not everywhere well-known and perceived, and more efforts are needed to bring ideas of eco-centric strategy in the environment radiation protection not only to public but to specialists in many countries as well. One of the main points of interest is an assessment of critical doses and doses rates for flora and fauna species. Some aspects of a possible procedure to find their estimates are studied in this work, including criteria for datasets of good quality, models of dose dependence, sensitivity of different umbrella endpoints and methods of original massive datasets treatment. Estimates are done based on information gathered in a database on radiation-induced effects in plants. Data on biological effects in plants (umbrella endpoints of reproductive potential, survival, morbidity, morphological, biochemical, and genetic effects) in dependence on dose and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been collected from reviewed publications and maintained in MS Access format. The database now contains about 7000 datasets and 25000 records

  18. Standardization of ionizing radiation in industry and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    In this account a new standardization system is described. This system is intended for the protection of environment, people and employees against the harmful consequences of ionizing radiation. This new system is based upon the actual knowledge of the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and joins to the starting points and objectives of the environment- and industry-protectional policies and is explained for both policies separately. The starting points and objectives are presented of the actual environment- and industry-protectional policies and of the radiation-protection policy pursued up till now. The harmful effects of radiation, the importance of the of the most recent scientific developments and the results of the investigation performed in the framework of this account, are described. Conclusions about these harmful affects are given. The systematics of the standardization are described. Subsequently are considered the radiation sources, their classification, the risk limits for regular situations and for large accidents, the justification principle and the ALARA-principle, emission- and product requirements, objectives for environment quality, standards for combat of the consequences of accidents, the policy with regard to 'building and dwelling' and finally standards for protection of employees. The consequences of the systematics of standardization, which are described in this account, are indicated for environment- as well as industry-protectional policy. Per radiation-source category the corresponding risks are indicated and at which term which continuation activities are necessary. The consequences for the set of instruments and some international aspects are considered. Finally the activity list gives a survey of the continuation activities and the terms at which these have to be carried out. (H.W.). 4 figs.; 1 tab

  19. General impact of robotics and automation in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghdari, A.; Salehi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Robotics and automation systems in nuclear environments require special design considerations. This paper presents an overview of selected robotic systems already designed and developed for use in nuclear applications at some U.S. laboratories. It will further emphasize on tasks identification, operational constraints, special considerations in materials selection, and a general guideline for robotic systems design in radiation environments. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  1. Measurement and simulation of the radiation environment in the lower atmosphere for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioch, Christian Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Flying personnel is occupationally exposed to rather high radiation levels due to secondary cosmic radiation. Therefore, the radiation environment induced in the lower atmosphere by galactic and solar cosmic radiation was characterized by means of particle transport calculations using GEANT4. These calculations were validated with continuous measurements of the energy spectra of secondary neutrons with Bonner sphere spectrometers at the Zugspitze mountain and near the North Pole. The response of these instruments was determined with GEANT4 and for the first time experimentally verified at high neutron energies (244 and 387 MeV). Route doses for aircrews along typical long-haul flights were determined for galactic and solar cosmic radiation using most recent data on the magnetospheric field and primary cosmic radiation.

  2. Galileo Measurements of the Jovian Electron Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.; Clough, G. A.; McEntire, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    The Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) has been used to map Jupiter's trapped electron radiation in the jovian equatorial plane for the range 8 to 16 Jupiter radii (1 jovian radius = 71,400 km). The electron count rates from the instrument were averaged into 10-minute intervals over the energy range 0.2 MeV to 11 MeV to form an extensive database of observations of the jovian radiation belts between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and end of mission in 2003. These data were then used to provide differential flux estimates in the jovian equatorial plane as a function of radial distance (organized by magnetic L-shell position). These estimates provide the basis for an omni-directional, equatorial model of the jovian electron radiation environment. The comparison of these results with the original Divine model of jovian electron radiation and their implications for missions to Jupiter will be discussed. In particular, it was found that the electron dose predictions for a representative mission to Europa were about a factor of 2 lower than the Divine model estimates over the range of 100 to 1000 mils (2.54 to 25.4 mm) of aluminum shielding, but exceeded the Divine model by about 50% for thicker shielding for the assumed Europa orbiter trajectories. The findings are a significant step forward in understanding jovian electron radiation and represent a valuable tool for estimating the radiation environment to which jovian science and engineering hardware will be exposed.

  3. Wireless Communication Enhancement Methods for Mobile Robots in Radiation Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nattanmai Parasuraman, Ramviyas; Ferre, Manuel

    In hostile environments such as in scientific facilities where ionising radiation is a dominant hazard, reducing human interventions by increasing robotic operations are desirable. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has around 50 km of underground scientific facilities, where wireless mobile robots could help in the operation of the accelerator complex, e.g. in conducting remote inspections and radiation surveys in different areas. The main challenges to be considered here are not only that the robots should be able to go over long distances and operate for relatively long periods, but also the underground tunnel environment, the possible presence of electromagnetic fields, radiation effects, and the fact that the robots shall in no way interrupt the operation of the accelerators. Having a reliable and robust wireless communication system is essential for successful execution of such robotic missions and to avoid situations of manual recovery of the robots in the event that the robot runs ...

  4. Testing of surface properties pre-rad and post-rad of n-in-p silicon sensors for very high radiation environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindgren, S.; Affolder, A.A.; Allport, P.P.; Bates, R.; Betancourt, C.; Böhm, Jan; Brown, H.; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G.; Mikeštíková, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 636, č. 1 (2011), "S111"-"S117" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : p-bulk silicon * surface damage * charge collection * punch-through voltage Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.094

  5. Evaluation of the bulk and strip characteristics of large area n-in-p silicon sensors intended for a very high radiation environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Affolder, A.A.; Allport, P.P.; Bates, R.; Betancourt, C.; Brown, H.; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 636, č. 1 (2011), "S104"-"S110" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : silicon * micro-strip * ATLAS ID upgrade * SLHC * leakage current * depletion voltage * electrical characteristics * coupling capacitance Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.093

  6. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kassel, Florian; Dabrowski, Anne; de Boer, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field,...

  7. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  8. The biological effectiveness of heavy ion radiations in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    Although heavy ions are rarely encountered in the majority of terrestrial environments, the exposure of humans to this fascinating class of ionizing radiation is becoming more frequent. Long-duration spaceflight, new radiotherapeutic procedures and enhanced levels of radon, and other naturally-occurring alpha particle emitters, have all increased concern and stimulated interest recently within the radiological protection and radiobiological communities. Significant data concerning the long-term effects of low levels of heavy ions on mammalian systems are correspondingly scarce, leading to increased emphasis on modelling all aspects of the radiation-organism interaction. Contemporary radiation protection procedures reflect the need for a more fundamental understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the biological actions of such radiations. Major deficiencies exist in the current recommendations for assessment of relative effectiveness, the enhanced severity of the biological consequences instigated by heavy ions, over conventional sparsely ionizing radiations. In an attempt to remedy some of the inadequate concepts and assumptions presently employed and, simultaneously, to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms behind the notion of radiation quality, a series of algorithms have been developed and executed as computer code, to evaluate the biological effectiveness of heavy ion radiation ''tracks'' according to a number of criteria. These include consideration of the spatial characteristics of physical energy deposition in idealised cellular structures (finite particle range, radial extension of tracks via δ-ray emission) and the likelihood of induction and mis-repair of severe molecular lesions (double-strand breaks, multiply-damaged sites). (author)

  9. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors

  10. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance for participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers

  12. The radiation environment in Sweden; Straalmiljoen i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Paal; Carlsson, Monica; Falk, Rolf; Hubbard, Lynn; Leitz, Wolfram; Mjoenes, Lars; Moere, Hans; Nyblom, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louise; Yuen Lasson, Katarina; Aakerblom, Gustav; Oehlen, Elisabeth

    2007-01-15

    The report describes, and reports data from, the monitoring of the radiation environment which has been conducted in Sweden since the 1950s. Average doses to the general public as well as to special groups of the public are also reported. Environmental monitoring concerning radiation has to a great extent focused on deposition and occurrence of radioactive elements originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The average dose from {sup 137}Cs is very low, although it is somewhat higher in the group 'reindeer herders'. Surveys of naturally occurring radioactive elements in soil, drinking water and indoor air show that radiation from soil and building materials constitutes, besides medical use of radiation, the main part of the average total dose to the population. The dose from drinking water from drilled wells or from radon in indoor air may dominate the total dose in certain cases. Smoking increases the risk of radon considerably. UV-radiation has increased with 10 percent over the last 22 years at the location of the monitoring station. This is mainly explained by a decreased cloudiness. The exposure for UV is however more dependent on behaviour, and approximately 25 percent of the total exposure takes place abroad. Presently there are no time series concerning electromagnetic fields in the outdoor environment. However, measurements indicate levels well below the reference values.

  13. The radiation environment in Sweden; Straalmiljoen i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Paal; Carlsson, Monica; Falk, Rolf; Hubbard, Lynn; Leitz, Wolfram; Mjoenes, Lars; Moere, Hans; Nyblom, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louise; Yuen Lasson, Katarina; Aakerblom, Gustav; Oehlen, Elisabeth

    2007-01-15

    The report describes, and reports data from, the monitoring of the radiation environment which has been conducted in Sweden since the 1950s. Average doses to the general public as well as to special groups of the public are also reported. Environmental monitoring concerning radiation has to a great extent focused on deposition and occurrence of radioactive elements originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The average dose from {sup 137}Cs is very low, although it is somewhat higher in the group 'reindeer herders'. Surveys of naturally occurring radioactive elements in soil, drinking water and indoor air show that radiation from soil and building materials constitutes, besides medical use of radiation, the main part of the average total dose to the population. The dose from drinking water from drilled wells or from radon in indoor air may dominate the total dose in certain cases. Smoking increases the risk of radon considerably. UV-radiation has increased with 10 percent over the last 22 years at the location of the monitoring station. This is mainly explained by a decreased cloudiness. The exposure for UV is however more dependent on behaviour, and approximately 25 percent of the total exposure takes place abroad. Presently there are no time series concerning electromagnetic fields in the outdoor environment. However, measurements indicate levels well below the reference values.

  14. Modeling of the Martian environment for radiation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; Qualls, G.D.; Singleterry, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    A model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) has been developed. Solar modulated primary particles rescaled for conditions at Mars are transported through the Martian atmosphere down to the surface, with altitude and backscattering patterns taken into account. The altitude to compute the atmospheric thickness profile has been determined by using a model for the topography based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The Mars surface composition has been modeled based on averages over the measurements obtained from orbiting spacecraft and at various landing sites, taking into account the possible volatile inventory (e.g. CO 2 and H 2 O ices) along with its time variations throughout the Martian year. The Mars Radiation Environment Model has been made available worldwide through the Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools (SIREST) website, a project of NASA Langley Research Center. This site has been developed to provide the scientific and engineering communities with an interactive site containing a variety of environmental models, shield evaluation codes, and radiation response models to allow a thorough assessment of ionizing radiation risk for current and future space missions

  15. The Dynamics of the Atmospheric Radiation Environment at Aviation Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, Epaminondas G.

    2004-01-01

    Single Event Effects vulnerability of on-board computers that regulate the: navigational, flight control, communication, and life support systems has become an issue in advanced modern aircraft, especially those that may be equipped with new technology devices in terabit memory banks (low voltage, nanometer feature size, gigabit integration). To address this concern, radiation spectrometers need to fly continually on a multitude of carriers over long periods of time so as to accumulate sufficient information that will broaden our understanding of the very dynamic and complex nature of the atmospheric radiation environment regarding: composition, spectral distribution, intensity, temporal variation, and spatial variation.

  16. Silicon sensors for trackers at high-luminosity environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, Timo, E-mail: timo.peltola@helsinki.fi

    2015-10-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC accelerator at CERN, namely the high luminosity (HL) phase of the LHC (HL-LHC foreseen for 2023), will result in a more intense radiation environment than the present tracking system that was designed for. The required upgrade of the all-silicon central trackers at the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments will include higher granularity and radiation hard sensors. The radiation hardness of the new sensors must be roughly an order of magnitude higher than in the current LHC detectors. To address this, a massive R&D program is underway within the CERN RD50 Collaboration “Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders” to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance. Research topics include the improvement of the intrinsic radiation tolerance of the sensor material and novel detector designs with benefits like reduced trapping probability (thinned and 3D sensors), maximized sensitive area (active edge sensors) and enhanced charge carrier generation (sensors with intrinsic gain). A review of the recent results from both measurements and TCAD simulations of several detector technologies and silicon materials at radiation levels expected for HL-LHC will be presented. - Highlights: • An overview of the recent results from the RD50 collaboration. • Accuracy of TCAD simulations increased by including both bulk and surface damage. • Sensors with n-electrode readout and MCz material offer higher radiation hardness. • 3D detectors are a promising choice for the extremely high fluence environments. • Detectors with an enhanced charge carrier generation under systematic investigation.

  17. Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in the conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.

  18. High Efficency Lightweight Radiators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — XC Associates proposes to build on prior work to develop and characterize a very high efficiency, lightweight radiator constructed from high thermal conductivity...

  19. Radiation distribution sensor with optical fibers for high radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Eiji; Kimura, Atsushi; Hosono, Yoneichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    Radiation distribution sensors with their feasibilities have been described in earlier works. However, due to large radiation induced transmission losses in optical fibers, especially in the visible wavelength region, it has been difficult to apply these techniques to high radiation fields. In this study, we proposed a new concept of optical fiber based radiation distribution measurements with near infrared (IR) emission. Near IR scintillators were attached to the ends of optical fibers, where the fibers were bundled and connected to an N-MOS line sensor or a cooled CCD camera. From the measurements of each area density, the radiation levels at the positions of the scintillators can be known. The linearity between the gamma dose rate at each scintillator and the registered counts has been examined. For correcting the radiation induced loss effects, we applied the Optical Time Domain Reflectometry technique to measure the loss distribution and from the results, a possibility for correction of the loss effect has been demonstrated. The applicable dose rate range was evaluated to be from 0.1 to 10 3 Gy/h. This system can be a promising tool as a flexible dose rate distribution monitor in radiation facilities like nuclear plants and accelerator facilities. (author)

  20. Effects of radiation on coal mine environment -a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Varma, N.K.; Sahay, N.; Ahmad, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to mass-scale industrialization, world's environment is being polluted every day endangering the existence of living beings on the earth. This has attracted the attention of environmental engineers, medical practitioners, planners and researchers throughout the world. Attempts are being made to make air, water and atmosphere clean and to prevent likely hazards arising out of various industrial activities. In addition, the radiation from natural sources is all around us and has been here since time immemorial. Coal miners have small occupational radiation which arise from naturally occurring radioactive substance(s) underground. The predominant source of natural radiation present in coal mines is the radon gas. This paper describes the origin of radon and its radiological hazards. An attempt has been made to review the status of the problem likely to be caused by the different radioactive elements present in Indian coal, coal ash and allied coal-based industries. (author)

  1. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to practical environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of who or what has moral standing; second the appropriate level of protection; and third compatibility with other environmental stressors. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds for efforts to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. (author)

  2. Astrobiological Effects of Stellar Radiation in Circumstellar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Gurdemir, Levent; Guinan, Edward F.; Kurucz, Robert L.

    2006-10-01

    The centerpiece of all life on Earth is carbon-based biochemistry. Previous scientific research has suggested that biochemistry based on carbon may also play a decisive role in extraterrestrial life forms, i.e., alien life outside of Earth, if existent. In the following, we explore if carbon-based macromolecules (such as DNA) in the environments of stars other than the Sun are able to survive the effects of energetic stellar radiation, such as UV-C in the wavelength band between 200 and 290 nm. We focus on main-sequence stars akin to the Sun, but of hotter (F-type stars) and cooler (K- and M-type stars) surface temperature. Emphasis is placed on investigating the radiative environment in stellar habitable zones (HZs). Stellar habitable zones have an important relevance in astrobiology because they constitute circumstellar regions in which a planet of suitable size can have surface temperatures for water to exist in liquid form.

  3. Radiation in the living environment: sources, exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rashi

    2013-01-01

    We are living in a milieu of radiations and continuously exposed to radiations from natural sources from conception to death. We are exposed to radiation from Sun and outer space, radioactive materials present in the earth, house we live in, buildings and workplace, food we eat and air we breath. Each flake of snow, grain of soil, drop of rain, a flower, and even each man in the street is a source of this radiation. Even our own bodies contain naturally occurring radioactive elements. The general belief is that the radiations are harmful and everybody is scared of the same. The cancer is the most important concern on account of exposure to Ionizing Radiation which is initiated by the damage to DNA. The level of exposure depends on the environmental and working conditions and may vary from low to moderate to high and depending on the same the exposed humans can be classified as general public, non nuclear workers (NNW) and nuclear workers (NW). Though, the LNT theory which is considered to be the radiation paradigm considers all radiation at all levels to be harmful and the -severity of the deleterious effect increases with the increase in dose, however, the available literature, data and reports (epidemiological and experimental) speaks otherwise particularly at low levels. The purpose of this paper is to address the question, whether the radiation is harmful at all levels or it is simply media hype and the truth is different, and to promote harmony with nature and to improve our quality of life with the knowledge that cancer mortality rates decrease following exposure to LLIR. Various sources of radiation exposure and the subsequent consequences will be discussed. (author)

  4. Supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingyan

    2013-01-01

    Through literature and documents, the basis, content and implementation of the supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities were defined. Such supervision was extensive and complicated with various tasks and overlapping duties, and had large social impact. Therefore, it was recommend to make further research on this supervision should be done, clarify and specify responsibilities of the executor of the supervision so as to achieve institutionalization, standardization and routinization of the supervision. (author)

  5. Review of the Radiation Environment in the Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, I

    2000-01-01

    The radiation environment in the inner detector has been simulated using the particle transport program FLUKA with a recent description of the ATLAS experiment. Given in this note are particle fluences and doses at positions relevant to the PIXEL, SCT and TRT detectors. In addition, studies are reported on in which 1) information concerning the optimisation of the inner detector neutron-moderators is obtained and 2) the impact of including additional vacuum-equipment is assessed.

  6. Buckling analysis of a cylindrical shell, under neutron radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arani, A. Ghorbanpour; Ahmadi, M.; Ahmadi, A.; Rastgoo, A.; Sepyani, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The work investigates the buckling of a shell in the neutron radiation environment. ► Radiation induced porosity in elastic materials affects the material's properties. ► The data based technique was used to determine the volume fraction porosity. ► The theoretical formulations are presented based on the classical shell theory (CST). ► It was concluded that both T and neutron induced swelling have significant effects. - Abstract: This research investigates the buckling of a cylindrical shell in the neutron radiation environment, subjected to combined static and periodic axial forces. Radiation induced porosity in elastic materials affects the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the materials. In this study, the data based technique was used to determine the volume fraction porosity, P, of shell material. A least-squares fit of the Young's module data yielded the estimated Young's modulus. The shell assumed made of iron irradiated in the range of 2–15e−7 dPa/s at 345–650 °C and theoretical formulations are presented based on the classical shell theory (CST). The research deals with the problem theoretically; keeping in mind that one means of generating relevant design data is to investigate prototype structures. A parametric study is followed and the stability of shell is discussed. It is concluded that both temperature and neutron induced swelling have significant effects on the buckling load.

  7. Monitoring of contamination of atmospheric environment by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Hiroaki

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a worldwide problem regardless of developed industrial nations and developing countries. In particular, the pollution due to automobile exhaust gas, the carcinogenic particles in diesel exhaust and their relation to various respiratory diseases are the problems. Nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides in exhaust gas become the cause of acid rain. Radiation began to be utilized for the measurement of the concentration of floating particles and the amount of fallout dust, the forecast of the generation and diffusion of pollutants, the elucidation of the contribution of generation sources in wide areas and so on. In this report, the circumstances that radiation became to be utilized for monitoring atmospheric environment and the present status and the perspective of the radiation utilization in the field of the preservation of atmospheric environment are described. The progress of the method of measuring floating particles in Japan is explained. The automatic measurement of floating particles by β-ray absorption method and the application of β-ray absorption method to the measurement of the amount of fallout dust, generation source particles and the exposure to floating particles of individuals for health control are described. The utilization of radiation for real time monitoring, the investigation of the generation of blown-up dust, atmospheric diffusion experiment and the elucidation of the contribution of generation sources by PIXE radioactivation analysis are reported. (K.I.)

  8. SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT MONITORED BY KITSAT-1 AND KITSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Shin

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of space radiation experiments carried out on board the first two Korean technology demonstration microsatellites are presented in this paper. The first satellite, KITSAT-1, launched in August 1992, carries a radiation monitoring payload called cosmic ray experiment(CRE for characterizing the low-earth orbit(LEO radiation environment. The CRE consists of two sub-systems: the cosmic particle experiment (CPE and the total dose experiment(TDE. In addition, single event upset(SEUrates of the program memory and the RAM disk are also monitored. The second satellite, KITSAT-2, launched in September 1993, carries a newly developed 32-bit on-board computer(OBC, KASCOM(KAIST satellite computer in addition to OBC186. SEUs ocurred in the KASCOM, as well as in the program memory and RAM disk memory, have been monitored since the beginning of the satellite operation. These two satellites, which are very similar in structures but different in orbits, provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of the radiation environment characterized by the orbit.

  9. A Monte Carlo transport code study of the space radiation environment using FLUKA and ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, T; Carminati, F; Brun, R; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Empl, A; MacGibbon, J

    2001-01-01

    We report on the progress of a current study aimed at developing a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using advanced computer software techniques recently available at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland. By taking the next-generation computer software appearing at CERN and adapting it to known problems in the implementation of space exploration strategies, this research is identifying changes necessary to bring these two advanced technologies together. The radiation transport tool being developed is tailored to the problem of taking measured space radiation fluxes impinging on the geometry of any particular spacecraft or planetary habitat and simulating the evolution of that flux through an accurate model of the spacecraft material. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics. The output is a prediction of the detailed nature of the radiation environment experienced in space as well a...

  10. Predicted radiation environment of the Saturn baseline diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbleib, J.A.; Lee, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    Coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo radiation transport was used to predict the radiation environment of the Saturn accelerator for the baseline diode design. The x-ray output has been calculated, as well as energy deposition in CaF 2 thermoluminescent dosimetry and silicon. It is found that the design criteria for the radiation environment will be met and that approximately 10 kJ of x rays will be available for simulation experiments, if the diode provides a nominal beam of 2.0-MeV electrons for 20 ns with a peak current of 12.5 MA. The penalty in dose and x-ray output for operating below the nominal energy in order to obtain a softer spectrum is quantified. The penalty for using excessive electron equilibration in the standard packaging of the thermoluminescent dosimeters is shown to be negligible. An intrinsic lack of electron equilibration for silicon elements of components and subsystems is verified for Saturn environments, demonstrating the ambiguity of design criteria based on silicon deposition. Validation of an efficient next-event-estimator method for predicting energy deposition in equilibrated detectors/dosimetry is confirmed. Finally, direct-electron depositions in excess of 1 kJ/g are shown to be easily achievable. 34 refs., 30 figs

  11. Application of radiation and isotopes for a better environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA, working with governments and international bodies, is promoting the use of radiation technology and isotopes (nuclear techniques) in devising and implementing strategies for environmental sustainability. The number of nuclear techniques which can contribute to a better environment is very large. For practical purpose they can be schematically grouped into three categories, i.e. a) techniques for monitoring and assessing environmental pollution, b) techniques for reducing the environmental impact of increased productivity, c) techniques for the development of new resources in a more environmentally friendly manner. Examples in category a) are: the analysis of non-radioactive and radioactive pollutants, tracer techniques for pollutant transport studies, trace techniques for monitoring pesticide residues in food and the environment, climatic studies thorough isotopes in precipitation. Examples in category b) are: electron beam processing of combustion flue gases, the sterile insect technique for insect pest eradication and control, nitrogen fixation in crops and trees to optimise fertiliser use and combat desertification, tracer techniques for optimising fertiliser use, nuclear techniques for improving water management practices and reduce pollution of fresh water. Examples in category c) are : isotopes for studying the origin and flow of water, radiation mutation in plants for obtain crops with better agronomic characteristics including resistance to diseases. In this work examples and practical achievements of the most significant techniques and technologies for the improvement of the environment based on the use of radiation and isotopes are presented. (author)

  12. Hazards of ionizing radiations for human beings and environment with respect to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, nuclear fission is used to produce electricity. On the one hand, the low emission of CO_2 is often mentioned as an advantage of this technology. On the other hand, warnings about the dangers of nuclear fission are mentioned. Consequently, an overview about the dangers of ionizing radiation to human beings as well as animals and the environment is important. However, the focus will be on possible health effects for humans with regards to nuclear power plants. In nuclear power plants, both natural types of radiation and artificially produced radiation occur. During normal operation, it is possible that small quantities of this ionizing radiation are released to the environment. In case of nuclear disasters or faults during decommissioning and dismantling processes the consequences of thereby emitted quantities can be even more severe. Reference nuclides vary by reactor type, operating stage and respective incident. At the beginning, different types of radiation and their characteristics and effects on the affected organism are explained. Sensitive organs are emphasized in this context. The individual risk is determined by numerous factors and therefore cannot be predicted. Based on scientific studies and medical publications the hazards of ionizing radiation are compiled. Effects of high exposure of ionizing radiation are well-investigated. Scientists are still divided over the connection between several diseases and the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. For this reason, the positions of different international organizations are critically contrasted in this study.

  13. Advanced composite materials and processes for the manufacture of SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) superconducting magnets used at cryogenic temperatures in a high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondericker, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Presently, BNL work on superconducting magnets centers mainly on the development of 17 meter length dipoles for the Superconducting Super Collider Project, approved for construction at Waxahatchie, Texas and 9.7 meter dipoles and quadrupoles for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a BNL project to start construction next year. This paper will discuss the role of composites in the manufacture of magnets, their operational requirements in cryogenic and radiation environments, and the benefits derived from their use. 13 figs.

  14. Advanced composite materials and processes for the manufacture of SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] and RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider] superconducting magnets used at cryogenic temperatures in a high radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondericker, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Presently, BNL work on superconducting magnets centers mainly on the development of 17 meter length dipoles for the Superconducting Super Collider Project, approved for construction at Waxahatchie, Texas and 9.7 meter dipoles and quadrupoles for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a BNL project to start construction next year. This paper will discuss the role of composites in the manufacture of magnets, their operational requirements in cryogenic and radiation environments, and the benefits derived from their use. 13 figs

  15. Radiation Attenuation and Stability of ClearView Radiation Shielding TM-A Transparent Liquid High Radiation Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Jayeesh

    2018-04-01

    Radiation exposure is a limiting factor to work in sensitive environments seen in nuclear power and test reactors, medical isotope production facilities, spent fuel handling, etc. The established choice for high radiation shielding is lead (Pb), which is toxic, heavy, and abidance by RoHS. Concrete, leaded (Pb) bricks are used as construction materials in nuclear facilities, vaults, and hot cells for radioisotope production. Existing transparent shielding such as leaded glass provides minimal shielding attenuation in radiotherapy procedures, which in some cases is not sufficient. To make working in radioactive environments more practicable while resolving the lead (Pb) issue, a transparent, lightweight, liquid, and lead-free high radiation shield-ClearView Radiation Shielding-(Radium Incorporated, 463 Dinwiddie Ave, Waynesboro, VA). was developed. This paper presents the motivation for developing ClearView, characterization of certain aspects of its use and performance, and its specific attenuation testing. Gamma attenuation testing was done using a 1.11 × 10 Bq Co source and ANSI/HPS-N 13.11 standard. Transparency with increasing thickness, time stability of liquid state, measurements of physical properties, and performance in freezing temperatures are reported. This paper also presents a comparison of ClearView with existing radiation shields. Excerpts from LaSalle nuclear power plant are included, giving additional validation. Results demonstrated and strengthened the expected performance of ClearView as a radiation shield. Due to the proprietary nature of the work, some information is withheld.

  16. A high precision radiation-tolerant LVDT conditioning module

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, A; Losito, R; Peronnard, P; Secondo, R; Spiezia, G

    2014-01-01

    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors are widely used in particle accelerators and nuclear plants, thanks to their properties of contact-less sensing, radiation tolerance, infinite resolution, good linearity and cost efficiency. Many applications require high reading accuracy, even in environments with high radiation levels, where the conditioning electronics must be located several hundred meters away from the sensor. Sometimes even at long distances the conditioning module is still exposed to ionizing radiation. Standard off-the-shelf electronic conditioning modules offer limited performances in terms of reading accuracy and long term stability already with short cables. A radiation tolerant stand-alone LVDT conditioning module has been developed using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. The reading of the sensor output voltages is based on a sine-fit algorithm digitally implemented on an FPGA ensuring few micrometers reading accuracy even with low signal-to-noise ratios. ...

  17. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  18. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  19. Environments with elevated radiation levels from natural radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Some areas in the world have elevated levels of radioactive substances in the environment forming elevated radiation areas (ERAs) where public potential annual effective doses can exceed even the dose limit of radiation workers. Such radioactive substances are either terrestrial natural radioactivity added naturally in the soil or natural and/or man-made radioactivity from human activities added into the environment. If radioactivity is added naturally, elevated natural radiation areas (ENRAs) are formed. Based on the classification criteria introduced by the author, such regions are divided into static and dynamic areas. They are also classified in accordance with their level of potential effective dose to the public. Some main ENRAs are classified. Highlights are presented of the results of activity studies carried out in selected areas. The concepts discussed can also be applied to areas formed by human activities. The author suggests some guidelines for future studies, regulatory control and decision making, bearing in mind the need for harmonization of policies for regulatory control and remedial actions at sites to protect the public from environmental chronic exposures. (author)

  20. International news about radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2016-01-01

    The new European Basic Safety Standards in Radiation Protection (2013/59/Euratom) introduce 'environmental criteria' to protect human health in the long term. This innovation results from work in progress and from the recent positioning of international organizations and authorities in charge of radiation protection and its implementation, regarding the protection of wildlife against ionizing radiation. On the basis of the international state of the art, from the current regulatory context to existing approaches, the ERICA method has been identified as fully consistent with the ICRP approach and the most operational at the moment, due to its richness, flexibility and traceability. Most of the radiological risk assessments for wildlife published in the 5 last years used part or all of the ERICA approach, generally screening the radiological risk for wildlife from the first stage of the assessment, except for a few areas among those most impacted by radioactive contamination (Chernobyl area, uranium mining sites in Central Asia, etc.). This update of the knowledge in the field at the international level and the feedback on the analysis of regulatory files presented by nuclear operators led to 10 recommendations from the IRSN on the radiation protection of the environment and its implementation. (authors)

  1. Radiation monitoring in high energy research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Mitsuhiro

    1975-01-01

    In High Energy Physics Research Laboratory, construction of high energy proton accelerator is in progress. The accelerator is a cascaded machine comprising Cockcroft type (50 keV), linac (20 MeV), booster synchrotron (500 MeV), and synchrotron (8-12 GeV). Its proton beam intensity is 1x10 13 photons/pulse, and acceleration is carried out at the rate of every 2 minutes. The essential problems of radiation control in high energy accelerators are those of various radiations generated secondarily by proton beam and a number of induced radiations simultaneously originated with such secondary particles. In the Laboratory, controlled areas are divided into color-coded four regions, red, orange, yellow and green, based on each dose-rate. BF 3 counters covered with thick paraffin are used as neutron detectors, and side-window GM tubes, NaI (Tl) scintillators and ionization chambers as γ-detectors. In red region, however, ionization chambers are applied to induced radiation detection, and neutrons are not monitored. NIM standards are adopted for the circuits of all above monitors considering easy maintenance, economy and interchangeability. Notwithstanding the above described systems, these monitors are not sufficient to complete the measurement of whole radiations over wide energy region radiated from the accelerators. Hence separate radiation field measurement is required periodically. An example of the monitoring systems in National Accelerator Laboratory (U.S.) is referred at the last section. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  3. Sample Environment in Experiments using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B

    1984-01-01

    beam experiments with wavelength chosen at will from the continuous spectrum. Another type of insertion device, called undulator produces quasi-monochromatic radiation. The insertion devices enable the tailoring of the emitted S.R. to the requirements of the users and can be treated as the first......Modern electron (positron) storage rings are able to emit very intense X-ray radiation with a continuous spectrum extending to 0.1 A, from bending magnets and insertion devices (wavelength shifters and multipole wigglers). It can be used directly for white beam experiments and/or for monochromatic...... optical element of the beam line. This feature is especially important for experiments with samples in special environment because the latter imposes limitations both on scattering and absorption experiments. However, these limitations can be minimized in each case by finding the best match between...

  4. Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-01-01

    Below the doses of 100-200 mSv of radiation exposure, no acute health effect is observed, and the late health effects such as cancer are yet unclear. The problems making the risk evaluation of low dose radiation exposure difficult are the fact that the magnitude of expected health effects are small even if the risk is assumed to increase in proportion to radiation doses. As a result, studies need to be large particular when dealing with rare disease such as cancer. In addition, the expected health effects are so small that they can easily be masked by lifestyles and environmental factors including smoking. This paper will discuss cancer risk possibly associated with low-dose and low-dose rate radiation exposure, describing epidemiological studies on the residents in the high-background radiation areas. (author)

  5. Mars Surface Ionizing Radiation Environment: Need for Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Shinn, J. L.; Suggs, R.

    1999-01-01

    Protection against the hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation remains an unresolved issue in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise [1]. The major uncertainty is the lack of data on biological response to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures but even a full understanding of the physical interaction of GCR with shielding and body tissues is not yet available and has a potentially large impact on mission costs. "The general opinion is that the initial flights should be short-stay missions performed as fast as possible (so-called 'Sprint' missions) to minimize crew exposure to the zero-g and space radiation environment, to ease requirements on system reliability, and to enhance the probability of mission success." The short-stay missions tend to have long transit times and may not be the best option due to the relatively long exposure to zero-g and ionizing radiation. On the other hand the short-transit missions tend to have long stays on the surface requiring an adequate knowledge of the surface radiation environment to estimate risks and to design shield configurations. Our knowledge of the surface environment is theoretically based and suffers from an incomplete understanding of the physical interactions of GCR with the Martian atmosphere, Martian surface, and intervening shield materials. An important component of Mars surface robotic exploration is the opportunity to test our understanding of the Mars surface environment. The Mars surface environment is generated by the interaction of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPEs) with the Mars atmosphere and Mars surface materials. In these interactions, multiple charged ions are reduced in size and secondary particles are generated, including neutrons. Upon impact with the Martian surface, the character of the interactions changes as a result of the differing nuclear constituents of the surface materials. Among the surface environment are many neutrons diffusing from

  6. Radiation Hardened Electronics Destined For Severe Nuclear Reactor Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbert, Keith E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Clark, Lawrence T. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Post nuclear accident conditions represent a harsh environment for electronics. The full station blackout experience at Fukushima shows the necessity for emergency sensing capabilities in a radiation-enhanced environment. This NEET (Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies) research project developed radiation hardened by design (RHBD) electronics using commercially available technology that employs commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices and present generation circuit fabrication techniques to improve the total ionizing dose (TID) hardness of electronics. Such technology not only has applicability to severe accident conditions but also to facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle in which radiation tolerance is required. For example, with TID tolerance to megarads of dose, electronics could be deployed for long-term monitoring, inspection and decontamination missions. The present work has taken a two-pronged approach, specifically, development of both board and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) level RHBD techniques. The former path has focused on TID testing of representative microcontroller ICs with embedded flash (eFlash) memory, as well as standalone flash devices that utilize the same fabrication technologies. The standalone flash devices are less complicated, allowing better understanding of the TID response of the crucial circuits. Our TID experiments utilize biased components that are in-situ tested, and in full operation during irradiation. A potential pitfall in the qualification of memory circuits is the lack of rigorous testing of the possible memory states. For this reason, we employ test patterns that include all ones, all zeros, a checkerboard of zeros and ones, an inverse checkerboard, and random data. With experimental evidence of improved radiation response for unbiased versus biased conditions, a demonstration-level board using the COTS devices was constructed. Through a combination of redundancy and power gating, the demonstration

  7. Estimates of the radiation environment for a nuclear rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Manohara, H.M.; Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ambitious missions in deep space, such as manned expeditions to Mars, require nuclear propulsion if they are to be accomplished in a reasonable length of time. Current technology is adequate to support the use of nuclear fission as a source of energy for propulsion; however, problems associated with neutrons and gammas leaking from the rocket engine must be addressed. Before manned or unmanned space flights are attempted, an extensive ground test program on the rocket engine must be completed. This paper compares estimated radiation levels and nuclear heating rates in and around the rocket engine for both a ground test and space environments

  8. The radiation environment in the ATLAS inner detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, I

    2000-01-01

    The radiation environment in the inner detector has been simulated using the particle transport program FLUKA with a recent description of the ATLAS experiment. Given in this paper are particle fluences and doses at positions relevant to the three inner detector subsystems; the Pixel, SCT and TRT detectors. In addition, studies are reported on in which (1) information concerning the optimization of the inner detector neutron-moderators is obtained and (2) the impact of including additional vacuum-equipment material is assessed. (19 refs).

  9. Archaeal Viruses from High-Temperature Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Snyder, Jamie C; Young, Mark J

    2018-02-27

    Archaeal viruses are some of the most enigmatic viruses known, due to the small number that have been characterized to date. The number of known archaeal viruses lags behind known bacteriophages by over an order of magnitude. Despite this, the high levels of genetic and morphological diversity that archaeal viruses display has attracted researchers for over 45 years. Extreme natural environments, such as acidic hot springs, are almost exclusively populated by Archaea and their viruses, making these attractive environments for the discovery and characterization of new viruses. The archaeal viruses from these environments have provided insights into archaeal biology, gene function, and viral evolution. This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaeal virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations.

  10. Archaeal Viruses from High-Temperature Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Munson-McGee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeal viruses are some of the most enigmatic viruses known, due to the small number that have been characterized to date. The number of known archaeal viruses lags behind known bacteriophages by over an order of magnitude. Despite this, the high levels of genetic and morphological diversity that archaeal viruses display has attracted researchers for over 45 years. Extreme natural environments, such as acidic hot springs, are almost exclusively populated by Archaea and their viruses, making these attractive environments for the discovery and characterization of new viruses. The archaeal viruses from these environments have provided insights into archaeal biology, gene function, and viral evolution. This review focuses on advances from over four decades of archaeal virology, with a particular focus on archaeal viruses from high temperature environments, the existing challenges in understanding archaeal virus gene function, and approaches being taken to overcome these limitations.

  11. Radiation cured coatings for high performance products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkins, J.C.; Teesdale, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Development over the past ten years of radiation curable coating and lacquer systems and the means of curing them has led to new products in the packaging, flooring, furniture and other industries. Solventless lacquer systems formulated with acrylates and other resins enable high levels of durability, scuff resistance and gloss to be achieved. Ultra violet and electron beam radiation curing are used, the choice depending on the nature of the coating, the product and the scale of the operation. (author)

  12. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  13. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  14. Individual Dosimetry for High Energy Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of individuals on board aircraft increased interest in individual dosimetry in high energy radiation fields. These fields, both in the case of cosmic rays as primary radiation and at high energy particle accelerators are complex, with a large diversity of particle types, their energies, and linear energy transfer (LET). Several already existing individual dosemeters have been tested in such fields. For the component with high LET (mostly neutrons) etched track detectors were tested with and without fissile radiators, nuclear emulsions, bubble detectors for both types available and an albedo dosemeter. Individual dosimetry for the low LET component has been performed with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), photographic film dosemeters and two types of electronic individual dosemeters. It was found that individual dosimetry for the low LET component was satisfactory with the dosemeters tested. As far as the high LET component is concerned, there are problems with both the sensitivity and the energy response. (author)

  15. Biological effects of high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of high-energy radiation are reviewed, with emphasis on the effects of the hadronic component. Proton and helium ion effects are similar to those of the more conventional and sparsely ionizing x- and γ-radiation. Heavy-ions are known to be more biologically effective, but the long term hazard from accumulated damage has yet to be assessed. Some evidence of widely varying but dramatically increased effectiveness of very high-energy (approximately 70 GeV) hadron beams is reviewed. Finally, the importance of the neutron component in many situations around high-energy accelerators is pointed out

  16. Radiation exposure of man in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Pohl, E.

    1982-01-01

    Indoor exposure of man represents the major component of the dose from the natural radiation environment (NRE). The different sources of the NRE and their complex superposition are discussed. Due to the use of radiologically disadvantageous material in or near the building, radon-rich tap water, specific architectural styles and decreased ventilation rates NRE-levels indoors have been found to even exceed the upper limit for professional exposure. The inadequacy of the existing international regulatory framework and specific local problems resulted in the establishment of national exposure limits. In general, no remedial action is recommended at levels below 50 μR/h for external gamma radiation, 10 mWL for internal radon daughter exposure. Several technical countermeasures reducing indoor gamma dose rates and radon levels have been developed for existing buildings. However, the use of some of the techniques is limited due to low cost-effectiveness or lack of long-term stability. Different techniques in order to achieve low indoor exposures for new buildings and financial aspects associated the application of radiation protection concepts are discussed

  17. High intensity radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear imaging system is described for mapping a spatially distributed source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound in which the nuclear energy is spatially coded by a zone plate positioned between the source and a spatial detector, and a half tone screen is positioned between the source and the zone plate to increase the definition of the image

  18. Experimental Characterization of a Composite Morphing Radiator Prototype in a Relevant Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagne, Christopher L.; Chong, Jorge B.; Whitcomb, John D.; Hartl, Darren J.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    For future long duration space missions, crewed vehicles will require advanced thermal control systems to maintain a desired internal environment temperature in spite of a large range of internal and external heat loads. Current radiators are only able to achieve turndown ratios (i.e. the ratio between the radiator's maximum and minimum heat rejection rates) of approximately 3:1. Upcoming missions will require radiators capable of 12:1 turndown ratios. A radiator with the ability to alter shape could significantly increase turndown capacity. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer promising qualities for this endeavor, namely their temperature-dependent phase change and capacity for work. In 2015, the first ever morphing radiator prototype was constructed in which SMA actuators passively altered the radiator shape in response to a thermal load. This work describes a follow-on endeavor to demonstrate a similar concept using highly thermally conductive composite materials. Numerous versions of this new concept were tested in a thermal vacuum environment and successfully demonstrated morphing behavior and variable heat rejection, achieving a turndown ratio of 4.84:1. A summary of these thermal experiments and their results are provided herein.

  19. Radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, security. Global Chernobyl mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.; Bazyka, D.; Volovik, S.; Loganovsky, K.; Sushko, V.; Siedow, J.; Cohen, H.; Ginsburg, G.; Chao, N.; Chute, J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: Ionizing radiation is a primordial terrestrial and extraterrestrial background and archetypal environmental stress-factor for life origin, evolution, and existence. We all live in radiation world inevitably involving nuclear energy production, nuclear weapon, nuclear navy, radioactive waste, pertinent medical diagnostics and treatment, etc with connected certain probability of relevant accidents and terrorist attack, space and jet travels, high natural background radiation, etc - actual and potential sources of radiation exposures and effects. State-of- the art integral fundamental research on radiation effects on man health, environment, safety, and security (REMHESS) is nowadays paramount necessity and challenge. Methods and results: In given generalized conceptual framework unique 20 years Chernobyl multidimensional research and databases for radiation effects on man's all organism systems represent invaluable original basis and resources for mapping Chernobyl data and REMHESS challenge. Granted by DOE brand new Chernobyl Research and Service Project based on 'Sarcophagus-II' (Object 'Shelter') workers only one in radiation history baseline cohort, corresponding biorepository prospective dynamic data, integrated conceptual database system, and 'state of the art' 'omics' (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics) analysis is designed specifically for coherent addressing global REMHESS problems. In this connection 'Sarcophagus-II' is only one unique universal model. Conclusions: The fundamental goals of novel strategic Project and global Chernobyl mapping are to determine specific 'omics' signatures of radiation for man depending of exposure peculiarity to understand ultimate molecular mechanisms of radiation effects, gene environment interactions, etiology of organisms systems disorders and diseases, and to develop new biomarkers and countermeasures to protect man health in the framework of global REMHESS challenge

  20. Characteristics of radiation field in living environment, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    A series of environmental radiation survey was carried out on train lines within Tokyo metropolitan area to clarify the characteristics of radiation field in living environment. Eleven JR, 18 private and 10 subway lines were surveyed, which cover 97% of whole train lines in Tokyo district in terms of annual number of passengers. The characteristics of environmental radiation field on train lines were discussed. The mean absorbed dose rate in air due to γ-rays on the subway lines was higher than those on the JR and private lines. It is due to the difference in the radioactivity concentration and the distribution of surrounding materials as the γ-ray sources. On the other hand, the mean dose rate due to cosmic-rays on the subway lines was lower than those on the JR and private lines. It is due to the shielding effect of the upper materials such as soil or building materials of tunnels. The mean dose rates for the JR, private and subway lines were calculated using these obtained data. Though the ratio of mean dose rate of γ-rays to that of cosmic-rays for the subway lines was different from those for the JR and private lines, the sum of γ- and cosmic-ray dose rates for the JR, private and subway lines were comparable, 40∼50 nGy/h for any of them. These data will be useful for a precise and realistic evaluation of collective dose, considering the life style of the public and the variation characteristics of environmental radiation. (author)

  1. Lithium-drifted silicon for harsh radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J.; Buttar, C.; Brozel, M.; Keffous, A.; Cheriet, A.; Bourenane, K.; Bourenane, A.; Kezzoula, F.; Menari, H.

    2008-06-01

    A model describing the passivation by Li atoms of acceptors arising from radiation damage in Si detectors has been developed. Our studies indicate that it is possible to produce a protocol that will allow the in-situ recovery of lithium-drifted Si particle detectors under irradiation by high-energy particles. Our model for particle damage recovery is supported by preliminary results on the recovery of old, degraded detectors.

  2. Lithium-drifted silicon for harsh radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.grant@physics.gla.ac.uk; Buttar, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Brozel, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS81TS (United Kingdom); Keffous, A.; Cheriet, A.; Bourenane, K.; Bourenane, A.; Kezzoula, F.; Menari, H. [Unite de Developpment de la Technologie du Silicium, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399 Alger-Gare (Algeria)

    2008-06-11

    A model describing the passivation by Li atoms of acceptors arising from radiation damage in Si detectors has been developed. Our studies indicate that it is possible to produce a protocol that will allow the in-situ recovery of lithium-drifted Si particle detectors under irradiation by high-energy particles. Our model for particle damage recovery is supported by preliminary results on the recovery of old, degraded detectors.

  3. Use of micronucleus test in the assessment of radiation effects in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Edvaldo F. de; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Lima, Pedro A. de S.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana Maria M. de A.; Silva, Edvane B. da; Silva, Ronaldo C. da

    2011-01-01

    The study of the effects of radioactive substances on the environment is accomplished by radioecology. This science has played an important role in combating all forms of pollution. The uncontrolled use of physical and chemical agents has been a concern for environmental regulatory agencies, due to the serious damage to ecosystems. Aquatic organisms are exposed to a variety of pollutants harmful to aquatic systems. The mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata has been featured as a bioindicator to possess characteristics such as short reproductive cycle ease of maintenance in the laboratory and low maintenance cost. The micronucleus assay has been shown to be a great test to identify mutagenic effects caused by physical and chemical agents. In this study the frequency of micronuclei in haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to high doses of 60 Co gamma radiation contributing to a further standardization of this test as an indicator of the presence of radioactive contamination in aquatic environments. The young adult snails of Biomphalaria glabrata were divided into groups and subjected to a dose of 0 (control), 40 and 60 Gy of gamma radiation. The results showed that snails irradiated with 40 Gy showed a smaller number of haemocytes, whereas those exposed to 60 Gy had a greater quantity of these cells compared to control group. It can be concluded that the morphological analysis and the frequency of micronuclei in haemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation may be used in studies of the action of high doses of radiation in aquatic environments (author)

  4. Assessing the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the photosynthetic potential in Archean marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alonso, Dailé; Baetens, Jan M.; Cardenas, Rolando; de Baets, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the photosynthesis model presented by Avila et al. in 2013 is extended and more scenarios inhabited by ancient cyanobacteria are investigated to quantify the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on their photosynthetic potential in marine environments of the Archean eon. We consider ferrous ions as blockers of UV during the Early Archean, while the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a is used to quantify the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by photosynthetic organisms. UV could have induced photoinhibition at the water surface, thereby strongly affecting the species with low light use efficiency. A higher photosynthetic potential in early marine environments was shown than in the Late Archean as a consequence of the attenuation of UVC and UVB by iron ions, which probably played an important role in the protection of ancient free-floating bacteria from high-intensity UV radiation. Photosynthetic organisms in Archean coastal and ocean environments were probably abundant in the first 5 and 25 m of the water column, respectively. However, species with a relatively high efficiency in the use of light could have inhabited ocean waters up to a depth of 200 m and show a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum near 60 m depth. We show that the electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, both UV and visible light, could have determined the vertical distribution of Archean marine photosynthetic organisms.

  5. Compact high-power terahertz radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator on the return leg, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated and not stored, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding exceptionally high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes, limits the charge-per-bunch possible in such a device.

  6. High temperature reactor safety and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbois, J.; Charles, J.

    1975-01-01

    High-temperature reactors are endowed with favorable safety and environmental factors resulting from inherent design, main-component safety margins, and conventional safety systems. The combination of such characteristics, along with high yields, prove in addition, that such reactors are plagued with few problems, can be installed near users, and broaden the recourse to specific power, therefore fitting well within a natural environment [fr

  7. Structural analysis with high brilliance synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    The research subjects in diffraction and scattering of materials with high brilliance synchrotron radiation such as SPring-8 (Super Photon ring 8 GeV) are summarized. The SPring-8 project is going well and 10 public beamlines will be opened for all users in October, 1997. Three JAERI beamlines are also under construction for researches of heavy element science, physical and structural properties under extreme conditions such as high temperature and high pressure. (author)

  8. Proceeding of Radiation Safety and Environment; Prosiding Presentasi Ilmiah Keselamatan Radiasi dan Lingkungan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Scientific Presentation of Radiation Safety and Environment was held on 20-21 august 1996 at Center of Research Atomic Energy Pasar Jum'at, Jakarta, Indonesia. Have presented 50 papers about Radiation Safety, dosimetry and standardization, environment protection and radiation effect.

  9. Endophytic fungi of the Genus Penicillium isolated of Platypodium elegans from environments of high dose rate of ionizing radiation; Fungos endofiticos do genero Penicillium isolados de Platypodium elegans provenientes de locais de alta taxa de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Victor da

    1999-07-01

    The present work had as objective to isolate and to identify endophytic microorganisms and were exposed to stress situations, using for this ionizing radiations, these highly mutagen and in high doses, lethal to all the alive organisms. The endophytic microorganisms were obtained the starting from the species arboreal Platypodium elegans Vog., one of them developed in radioactive land in the area of Ipora/Go and other, developed in land Background in the city of Abadia de Goias/GO. The rates of dose of environmental radiation were shown sharply different, being in Ipora (Anomaly 2) with a value of approximately 140 {mu}R/h and in Abadia de Goias with approximately 20 {mu}R/H, both measured the area of root of the tree close to. Tests through PCR-RAPD were accomplished with the isolated ones, for verification of the similarity of its genetic characteristics and possible polymorphism among its DNA's . The isolated ones were studied with relationship to the effects of the gamma radiation, being used as source {sup 60} Co, with doses of 25 to 2131 Gy. These lineages had the same behavior practically with relationship to the resistance of the gamma radiation, declining strongly at levels of approximately 700 Gy. The isolated ones tested were identified at microscope for morphology, being of the Genus Penicillium, with the same genetic characteristics in agreement with PCR/RAPD, being just observed a polymorphism area in its DNA's. In spite of a lineage to have been isolated of a tree developed in radioactive land, any difference was observed among its resistance to the gamma radiation in comparison to the isolated lineage of tree developed in land radiometric background. (author)

  10. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  11. Terrain and Radiation Mapping in Post-Disaster Environments Using an Autonomous Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Kochersberger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent events have highlighted the need for unmanned remote sensing in dangerous areas, particularly where structures have collapsed or explosions have occurred, to limit hazards to first responders and increase their efficiency in planning response operations. In the case of the Fukushima nuclear reactor explosion, an unmanned helicopter capable of obtaining overhead images, gathering radiation measurements, and mapping both the structural and radiation content of the environment would have given the response team invaluable data early in the disaster, thereby allowing them to understand the extent of the damage and areas where dangers to personnel existed. With this motivation, the Unmanned Systems Lab at Virginia Tech has developed a remote sensing system for radiation detection and aerial imaging using a 90 kg autonomous helicopter and sensing payloads for the radiation detection and imaging operations. The radiation payload, which is the sensor of focus in this paper, consists of a scintillating type detector with associated software and novel search algorithms to rapidly and effectively map and locate sources of high radiation intensity. By incorporating this sensing technology into an unmanned aerial vehicle system, crucial situational awareness can be gathered about a post-disaster environment and response efforts can be expedited. This paper details the radiation mapping and localization capabilities of this system as well as the testing of the various search algorithms using simulated radiation data. The various components of the system have been flight tested over a several-year period and a new production flight platform has been built to enhance reliability and maintainability. The new system is based on the Aeroscout B1-100 helicopter platform, which has a one-hour flight endurance and uses a COFDM radio system that gives the helicopter an effective range of 7 km.

  12. Emulsion polymerization with high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy radiation, particularly that of cobalt-60 or caesium-137 gamma-rays, provides in principle an ideal initiator for emulsion polymerization. The high free radical yields from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase combined with the high kinetic chain lengths associated with emulsion polymerization lead to a highly effective utilization of the radiation. There are other important advantages compared with the use of chemical initiators such as potassium persulfate. These are outlined in the chapter, together with some attendant disadvantages. Radiation-induced initiation is temperature independent, and low temperature polymerizations can be conducted with ease. Monomers that mainly terminate their growing chains by chain transfer to monomer give higher molecular weights at lower temperatures. Industrially, vinyl acetate is an important example of such a monomer, and it has been studied using radiation initiation. Both laboratory and pilot plant studies have been carried out and reported. The results are summarized in this chapter. Styrene is the classical example of a material that under a number of conditions closely obeys the so-called ideal Smith-Ewart kinetics. It has been found that under similar conditions but substituting radiation for potassium persulfate as the initiator, ideal kinetics were closely followed. Most of the conventional and some non-standard vinyl and diene monomers have been studied to some extent with radiation-initiated polymerizations in emulsion. To conserve space however, this chapter presents and discusses the results obtained only with styrene and vinyl acetate, both in laboratory and pilot plant investigations. Other monomers and special situations are referenced either directly or to the other available reviews. (orig.)

  13. BNCT-RTPE: BNCT radiation treatment planning environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessol, D.E.; Wheeler, F.J.; Babcock, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Several improvements have been developed for the BNCT radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) during 1994. These improvements have been incorporated into Version 1.0 of BNCT-Rtpe which is currently installed at the INEL, BNL, Japanese Research Center (JRC), and Finland's Technical Research Center. Platforms supported by this software include Hewlett-Packard (HP), SUN, International Business Machines (IBM), and Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI). A draft version of the BNCT-Rtpe user manual is available. Version 1.1 of BNCT-Rtpe is scheduled for release in March 1995. It is anticipated that Version 2.x of BNCT-Rtpe, which includes the nonproprietary NURBS library and data structures, will be released in September 1995

  14. Application of γ field theory based calculation method to the monitoring of mine nuclear radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yanjun; Liu Qingcheng; Liu Hongzhang; Qin Guoxiu

    2009-01-01

    In order to find the feasibility of calculating mine radiation dose based on γ field theory, this paper calculates the γ radiation dose of a mine by means of γ field theory based calculation method. The results show that the calculated radiation dose is of small error and can be used to monitor mine environment of nuclear radiation. (authors)

  15. Radiation protection for humans and environment. 50 years competence in the professional association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Benno; Wilhelm, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The conference proceedings of the IRPA (International radiation protection association) annual meeting 2016 contain the contribution of invited referents, other contributions and poster contributions concerning radiation protection in nuclear facilities, radiation protection of the public and environment, radioactive waste management, uranium mining, environmental monitoring, natural radioactivity, and radiation protection laws and regulations.

  16. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  17. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  18. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: IUR's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Brown, J. E.; Iospje, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sufficient information currently exists to introduce an overall framework for the protection of the environment from ionising radiation, drawing upon the large amount of radiobiological and radioecological information that has been gathered over the preceding decades. Nevertheless, there is a requirement to address numerous knowledge gaps and to improve upon existing databases. After the first presentation of a framework for the protection of the environment in 1999/2000 by the IUR, there has been activity to collate information and develop methodologies. This has allowed numerous recommendations to be made concerning future system development.. Although the transfer of radionuclides is quite well known within some food-chains, there are very few data on the behaviour of radionuclides in non-temperate zones and on uptake to species that do not form part of the human food chain. There is a need to develop both transfer models (flux, dynamic, ecosystem, etc.) and genotoxicological bio monitoring techniques that are capable of allowing impact assessments at a variety of species, population and ecosystem levels and that could also deal with other environmental stressors. Knowledge of the doses and effects of background radiation is lacking, as are dose-effect relationships, including information on RBE for a variety of species, doses and dose rates. The importance of various components of an environmental impact assessment can be explored, through the application of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. An example of this type of analysis, for a marine system, demonstrated the importance of several radioecological parameters in the derivation of dose rates. However, although such examples provide insight, caution should be practiced in their interpretation. It is therefore suggested that further analyses are conducted in order to provide more robust priority lists for resource allocation. The recommendations made in this paper emphasize the need for further focussed

  19. Fibre optics compatibility with radiative environment inside PWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuze, G.; Jucker, P.; Serre, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre optic links operating with multiplexed sensors data are potentially attractive for nuclear power plant applications. It hence became essential to test for radiation vulnerability not only transmission support -fibres- but also fibre-end electro-optical components which could be exposed to hostile environment, perhaps in worse conditions than fibres. Present paper gives results of multimode silica-based fibre behaviour during long-term steady-state low dose-rate gamma ray exposure - one year under 0.1 to 0.2 Gy/h. Studies concerned radiation-induced loss (ΔL) measurement of eight different commercially available fibres and bit error-rate (BER) recording of four 1 100 m length data links operating with a 100 m part exposed to gamma-rays. Main result is the good behaviour of pure silica-core fibres, especially a step-index polymer-clad fibre transmitting 850 nm light but also a graded-index fluorine-clad fibre for 1 300 nm window. Mean ΔL values are respectively 3 dB/km and 4.5 dB/km at the exposure end. Complementary result is no influence of gamma-ray exposure upon data link initial 10 -9 BER. (authors). 9 figs., 7 tabs., 26 refs

  20. Coherent and radiative couplings through two-dimensional structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2018-03-01

    We study coherent and radiative interactions induced among two or more quantum units by coupling them to two-dimensional (2D) lattices acting as structured environments. This model can be representative of atoms trapped near photonic crystal slabs, trapped ions in Coulomb crystals, or to surface acoustic waves on piezoelectric materials, cold atoms on state-dependent optical lattices, or even circuit QED architectures, to name a few. We compare coherent and radiative contributions for the isotropic and directional regimes of emission into the lattice, for infinite and finite lattices, highlighting their differences and existing pitfalls, e.g., related to long-time or large-lattice limits. We relate the phenomenon of directionality of emission with linear-shaped isofrequency manifolds in the dispersion relation, showing a simple way to disrupt it. For finite lattices, we study further details such as the scaling of resonant number of lattice modes for the isotropic and directional regimes, and relate this behavior with known van Hove singularities in the infinite lattice limit. Furthermore, we export the understanding of emission dynamics with the decay of entanglement for two quantum, atomic or bosonic, units coupled to the 2D lattice. We analyze in some detail completely subradiant configurations of more than two atoms, which can occur in the finite lattice scenario, in contrast with the infinite lattice case. Finally, we demonstrate that induced coherent interactions for dark states are zero for the finite lattice.

  1. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  2. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  3. Evaluation of S-type fiberglass composites for use in high-level radioactive waste environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of S-type fiberglass materials were evaluated for use in a high-level radioactive waste environment. The S-type fiberglass composites tested were in the form of tubes and were exposed to a simulated high-level radioactive waste environment consisting of corrosive chemicals, high gamma radiation, and elevated temperatures. The physical properties of the exposed and unexposed tube samples were compared to determine the effects of the simulated environment on the S-type fiberglass composites

  4. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expanded applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Reference systems also include a number of chemical dose meters: ferrous sulphate, ferrous-cupric sulphate, and ceric sulphate acidic aqueous solutions. Requirements for stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: amino acids and saccharides analysed by ESR or lyoluminescence, thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes and plastics, ceric-cerous solutions analysed by potentiometry, and ethanol-chlorobenzene solutions analysed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dose meters are also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA programme of high-dose standardization and intercomparison for industrial radiation processing is described. (author)

  5. Ultra Secure High Reliability Wireless Radiation Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  6. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be

  7. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  8. Semiconductor high-energy radiation scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastalsky, A.; Luryi, S.; Spivak, B.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new scintillation-type detector in which high-energy radiation generates electron-hole pairs in a direct-gap semiconductor material that subsequently recombine producing infrared light to be registered by a photo-detector. The key issue is how to make the semiconductor essentially transparent to its own infrared light, so that photons generated deep inside the semiconductor could reach its surface without tangible attenuation. We discuss two ways to accomplish this, one based on doping the semiconductor with shallow impurities of one polarity type, preferably donors, the other by heterostructure bandgap engineering. The proposed semiconductor scintillator combines the best properties of currently existing radiation detectors and can be used for both simple radiation monitoring, like a Geiger counter, and for high-resolution spectrography of the high-energy radiation. An important advantage of the proposed detector is its fast response time, about 1 ns, essentially limited only by the recombination time of minority carriers. Notably, the fast response comes without any degradation in brightness. When the scintillator is implemented in a qualified semiconductor material (such as InP or GaAs), the photo-detector and associated circuits can be epitaxially integrated on the scintillator slab and the structure can be stacked-up to achieve virtually any desired absorption capability

  9. Characterization of Radiation Hardened Bipolar Linear Devices for High Total Dose Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Steven S.; Harris, Richard D.; Rax, Bernard G.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hardened linear devices are characterized for performance in combined total dose and displacement damage environments for a mission scenario with a high radiation level. Performance at low and high dose rate for both biased and unbiased conditions is compared and the impact to hardness assurance methodology is discussed.

  10. A high precision radiation-tolerant LVDT conditioning module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masi, A. [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Danzeca, S. [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); IES, F-34000 Montpellier (France); Losito, R.; Peronnard, P. [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Secondo, R., E-mail: raffaello.secondo@cern.ch [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Spiezia, G. [EN/STI Group, CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-05-01

    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors are widely used in particle accelerators and nuclear plants, thanks to their properties of contact-less sensing, radiation tolerance, infinite resolution, good linearity and cost efficiency. Many applications require high reading accuracy, even in environments with high radiation levels, where the conditioning electronics must be located several hundred meters away from the sensor. Sometimes even at long distances the conditioning module is still exposed to ionizing radiation. Standard off-the-shelf electronic conditioning modules offer limited performances in terms of reading accuracy and long term stability already with short cables. A radiation tolerant stand-alone LVDT conditioning module has been developed using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. The reading of the sensor output voltages is based on a sine-fit algorithm digitally implemented on an FPGA ensuring few micrometers reading accuracy even with low signal-to-noise ratios. The algorithm validation and board architecture are described. A full metrological characterization of the module is reported and radiation tests results are discussed.

  11. Fifth international symposium on the natural radiation environment (NRE - V). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most of the 219 contributions Are on radon (to a much lesser extent: thoron) and its daughter products in dwellings and in the environment; on corresponding measuring instruments and - methods; on measurements done; and on radiation doses to professional workers and to the public. The section heading give a fairly good account of the subject matters treated. Measurement Techniques and Metrology (Nrs 1-33); Exposure to Natural Radiation in Non-Domestic Environments (34-56); Natural Radionuclides and Transfer Pathways (57-107); Radioactivity and Radiation in the Human Environment (108-183); Health Effects of Natural Radiation (184-205); Industrially Modified Levels of Radiation Exposure (206-219). (Quittner)

  12. Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrik, D; Jakubek, J; Pospisil, S; Vacik, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high γ and e(-) radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 μm(2)) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin (10)B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10(-4).

  13. Estimating induced-activation of SCT barrel-modules in the ATLAS radiation environment.

    CERN Document Server

    Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Mandic, I; Moraes, A

    2002-01-01

    One of the consequences of operating detector systems in the harsh radiation environments of the ATLAS inner-detector will be radioactivation of the components. If the levels of radioactivity and corresponding dose rates are significant, then there will be implications for any access or maintenance operations. Given in this note are predictions for the radioactivation of SCT barrel-modules in the expected radiation environment of the inner-detector, based on both calculations and measurements. It is shown that both neutron-capture and high-energy hadron reactions must be taken into account. The predictions show that, from a radiological point of view, the SCT barrel-modules should not pose any serious problems.

  14. Implications for space radiation environment models from CREAM and CREDO measurements over half a solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Truscott, P.R.; Peerless, C.L.; Watson, C.J.; Evans, H.E.; Knight, P.; Cosby, M.; Underwood, C.; Cousins, T.; Noulty, R.; Maag, C.

    1999-01-01

    Flight data obtained between 1990 and 1997 from the Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors CREAM and CREDO carried on UoSAT-3, Space Shuttle, STRV-1a (Space Technology Research Vehicle) and APEX (Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiment Spacecraft) provide coverage over half a solar cycle. The modulation of cosmic rays and evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly are observed, the former comprising a factor of three increase at high latitudes and the latter a general increase accompanied by a north-westward drift. Comparison of particle fluxes and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra is made with improved environment and radiation transport calculations which account for shield distributions and secondary particles. While there is an encouraging convergence between predictions and observations, significant improvements are still required, particularly in the treatment of locally produced secondary particles. Solar-particle events during this time period have LET spectra significantly below the October 1989 event which has been proposed as a worst case model

  15. CONSTRAINING THE RADIATION AND PLASMA ENVIRONMENT OF THE KEPLER CIRCUMBINARY HABITABLE-ZONE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mason, Paul A. [New Mexico State University—DACC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A. [FACom—Instituto de Física—FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2016-02-20

    The discovery of many planets using the Kepler telescope includes 10 planets orbiting eight binary stars. Three binaries, Kepler-16, Kepler-47, and Kepler-453, have at least one planet in the circumbinary habitable zone (BHZ). We constrain the level of high-energy radiation and the plasma environment in the BHZ of these systems. With this aim, BHZ limits in these Kepler binaries are calculated as a function of time, and the habitability lifetimes are estimated for hypothetical terrestrial planets and/or moons within the BHZ. With the time-dependent BHZ limits established, a self-consistent model is developed describing the evolution of stellar activity and radiation properties as proxies for stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres. Modeling binary stellar rotation evolution, including the effect of tidal interaction between stars in binaries, is key to establishing the environment around these systems. We find that Kepler-16 and its binary analogs provide a plasma environment favorable for the survival of atmospheres of putative Mars-sized planets and exomoons. Tides have modified the rotation of the stars in Kepler-47, making its radiation environment less harsh in comparison to the solar system. This is a good example of the mechanism first proposed by Mason et al. Kepler-453 has an environment similar to that of the solar system with slightly better than Earth radiation conditions at the inner edge of the BHZ. These results can be reproduced and even reparameterized as stellar evolution and binary tidal models progress, using our online tool http://bhmcalc.net.

  16. CONSTRAINING THE RADIATION AND PLASMA ENVIRONMENT OF THE KEPLER CIRCUMBINARY HABITABLE-ZONE PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul A.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of many planets using the Kepler telescope includes 10 planets orbiting eight binary stars. Three binaries, Kepler-16, Kepler-47, and Kepler-453, have at least one planet in the circumbinary habitable zone (BHZ). We constrain the level of high-energy radiation and the plasma environment in the BHZ of these systems. With this aim, BHZ limits in these Kepler binaries are calculated as a function of time, and the habitability lifetimes are estimated for hypothetical terrestrial planets and/or moons within the BHZ. With the time-dependent BHZ limits established, a self-consistent model is developed describing the evolution of stellar activity and radiation properties as proxies for stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres. Modeling binary stellar rotation evolution, including the effect of tidal interaction between stars in binaries, is key to establishing the environment around these systems. We find that Kepler-16 and its binary analogs provide a plasma environment favorable for the survival of atmospheres of putative Mars-sized planets and exomoons. Tides have modified the rotation of the stars in Kepler-47, making its radiation environment less harsh in comparison to the solar system. This is a good example of the mechanism first proposed by Mason et al. Kepler-453 has an environment similar to that of the solar system with slightly better than Earth radiation conditions at the inner edge of the BHZ. These results can be reproduced and even reparameterized as stellar evolution and binary tidal models progress, using our online tool http://bhmcalc.net

  17. Chemical protection from high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohara, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Radioprotection by WR151327 from high LET fast neutrons was investigated and compared with that from low LET radiation. Radiation damage in bone marrow, intestine, skin and leg length were all protected by a pretreatment with 400 mg/kg WR151327. Most prominent protection was observed for bone marrow, which gave a Dose Modifying Factor (DMF) of 2.2 against γ rays. Identical protection was observed between early and late radiation damage. WR151327 protected fast neutrons less efficiently than γ rays; 40% for bone marrow and 80% for skin leg. Pathological findings indicated that hyperplastic change in both dermis and epidermis associated with late skin shrinkage. Laser doppler flow-metry showed a good relationship between reduction of blood flow and late skin shrinkage. Irradiation of skin by heavy particle Carbon-12 indicated that skin shrinkage was modified by unirradiated surrounding normal tissues, which proposed a significant role of 'Volume Effect' in radiation damage. Tumor tissues were less protected by WR151327 than normal tissues. Dependence of radioprotection by WR151327 on tissue oxygen concentration is a probable reason to explain the difference between normal and tumor tissues. (author)

  18. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  19. Highly heat removing radiation shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Norio; Hozumi, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    Organic materials, inorganic materials or metals having excellent radiation shielding performance are impregnated into expanded metal materials, such as Al, Cu or Mg, having high heat conductivity. Further, the porosity of the expanded metals and combination of the expanded metals and the materials to be impregnated are changed depending on the purpose. Further, a plurality of shielding materials are impregnated into the expanded metal of the same kind, to constitute shielding materials. In such shielding materials, impregnated materials provide shielding performance against radiation rays such as neutrons and gamma rays, the expanded metals provide heat removing performance respectively and they act as shielding materials having heat removing performance as a whole. Accordingly, problems of non-informity and discontinuity in the prior art can be dissolved be provide materials having flexibility in view of fabrication work. (T.M.)

  20. A study on the life extension of polymer materials under radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. J; Park, S. W.; Jung, K. S.; Cho, S. H.; Seo, H. S.

    2001-12-01

    The object of this project is to improve the stability and the economics by reducing the radiation-induced oxidation as a factor of degradation of polymer materials used under the radiation environment. In order to attain the objective of this study and to check the effect of diamond-like carbon(DLC) coating on the anti-oxidation reaction, polymer specimens such as ABS, Acryl, Polycarbonate, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, PVC coating DLC thin layer were exposed to high-level gamma radiation, and their irradiation effects were investigated. A plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method was adopted in fabricating a DLC thin film on the polymer specimens, which were irradiated with the non-DLC film deposited specimens under the gamma radiation emitted from Co-60 source from 1x10 5 to 1x10 8 rads exposure. According to the characterization of irradiated specimens from the elapsed time of minimum 4 hours to a maximum of 105 days after the irradiation, the DLC deposition on the polymer surface was revealed to contribute to the improvement on the resistance of the radiation-induced oxidation in this study

  1. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Molina, W.; Vedelago, J., E-mail: valente@famac.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  2. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F.; Molina, W.; Vedelago, J.

    2014-08-01

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  3. Present status of Radiation and Nuclear Education at High School in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko

    1999-01-01

    A special committee for 'Radiation and Nuclear Education' made an investigation into textbooks for social and science courses at high school in 1996. The committee concluded that descriptions of subjects related to energy, radiation and nuclear power in textbooks should be more substantial . In textbooks for social course, nuclear power was described from the point of view of resource, energy and environment. Some of the textbooks described that Chernobyl power plant's accident and nuclear weapons testing contaminated and destructed the earth environment. Descriptions about nuclear power were perceptional and one-sided . In textbooks for science course, subjects related to radiation, nucleus, nuclear reactor and nuclear power plant were described in detail to a certain extent . Descriptions about radiation hazard and radiation utilization were objective and balanced. In order that high school students can understand objectively nuclear power as a energy resource and conservation of the earth environment, the committee recommended the government course guidelines to be revised. (M. Suetake)

  4. Operation of commercially-based microcomputer technology in a space radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelverton, J. N.

    This paper focuses on detection and recovery techniques that should enable the reliable operation of commercially-based microprocessor technology in the harsh radiation environment of space and at high altitudes. This approach is especially significant in light of the current shift in emphasis (due to cost) from space hardened Class-S parts qualification to a more direct use of commercial parts. The method should offset some of the concern that the newer high density state-of-the-art RISC and CISC microprocessors can be used in future space applications. Also, commercial aviation, should benefit, since radiation induced transients are a new issue arising from the increased quantities of microcomputers used in aircraft avionics.

  5. Ten Thousand Years of Environment Assessment Using Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, K.; Ide-Ektessabi, A.; Koizumi, A.; Azechi, M.

    2003-08-01

    The environment surrounding human has changed through civilization and industrialization, and through these developments, problems including the pollution from heavy metals such as lead and mercury have arisen. In this study, we analyzed major and trace elements in modern and prehistoric teeth by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis using synchrotron radiation micro beam, in order to assess the changes of the environment through the civilization and the industrialization and their affects to the human. It is suggested that teeth accumulate elements in the mineral phase, hydroxiapatite, during their formation, and because there are no significant turnovers, teeth are concerned to be indicators of the environment of the donor. We first analyzed the elements on the surface of tooth from modern individual and tooth from human remains of Jomon period to assess the heavy metal concentration and effect of the diagenesis. The adhering ground elements on the prehistoric teeth showed high amount of Ti, Fe, Mn and other metallic elements.

  6. Inclusion of Radiation Environment Variability in Total Dose Hardness Assurance Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Phan, A.; McClure, S. S.; Ladbury, R. L.; Pellish, J. A.; Campola, M. J.; LaBel, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to parts categorization for total dose hardness assurance methods. It is shown that it can have a significant impact. A modified approach is developed that uses current environment models more consistently and replaces the radiation design margin concept with one of failure probability during a mission.

  7. ABOUT INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SCHEMES IMPACT RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS AND LOADS ON REINFORCED LAMELLAR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafail B. Garibov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the model of deformation of fiber-reinforced concrete rectangular plate under the influence of radiation environments. In the calculation of the plate was considered different schemes impact of the applied external loads and radiation environments.

  8. Bystander effects and biota: implications of radiation-induced bystander effects for protection of the environment from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.E.; Seymour, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Bystander effects are now known to be induced by both high and low LET in a variety of cells in culture. They have been proven to occur in vivo in mice following 0.5Gy total body irradiation and in blood from humans being treated for cancer by radiotherapy. Effects have also been detected in fish, crustacea and molluscs. The important questions now are not whether bystander effects occur but why and what implications they have, if any, for radiation protection. Different species and different genetic backgrounds within a species produce different types of bystander effect, different organs also produce different effects. This paper will review the data in this field and will discuss likely implications for protection of man and non-human biota. In particular it will look at the potential long-term outcomes for different organisational levels, from cell to ecosystem, of bystander mechanisms. In view of new concerns about the effects of low level radiation on non-human biota, emphasis will be placed on considering how bystander effects might operate at chronic low doses versus acute accidental low doses. Problems of radiation interaction with chemicals, whether chemicals can also induce 'bystander effects' , and how regulators might handle these situations which occur all the time in real environments, will be presented for discussion. Finally the paper will discuss likely implications of these mechanisms for evolutionary biology

  9. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadi, F; Sisworo, E L; Maha, M; Ismachin, M; Hilmy, N; Sumatra, M; Mugiono,; Wandowo,; Soebianto, Y S [Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  10. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.; Sisworo, E.L.; Maha, M.; Ismachin, M.; Hilmy, N.; Sumatra, M.; Mugiono; Wandowo; Soebianto, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  11. Effects of Polarization–Maintaining Fibre Degrading on Precision of Fibre Optic Gyroscopes in Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiao; De-Wen, Liu; Yang, Liu; Xiao-Su, Yi; Lin, Cong

    2008-01-01

    In the space environment, the precision of fibre optic gyroscopes (FOGs) degrades because of space radiation. Photonic components of FOGs are affected by radiation, especially the polarization-maintaining (PM) fibre coil. In relation to the space radiation environment characteristic, we have carried out a series of radiation experiments on a PM fibre coil with 60 Co radiation source at different dose rates. Based on the experimental results, the formula between the PM-fibre loss and radiation dose rate is built, and the relation between the precision of FOG and radiation dose is obtained accordingly. The results strongly show that the precision of our FOG degrades owing to the attenuation of the polarization-maintaining fibre, which provides theoretical foundation for the radiation-resistant design of the FOG

  12. Radiation collimator for use with high energy radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malak, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    A collimator is described for use with a beam of radiation, and in particular, for use in controlling the cross-sectional size and shape of the radiation beam and intercepting undesired off-focus radiation in an x-ray apparatus. The collimator is positioned adjacent to the source of radiation and embodies a plurality longitudinally extending leaves pivotally mounted on and between two supports, the leaves move about their pivots to close overlapping relation to define a hollow cone. The cone defines an aperture at its narrow end which can be adjusted in size and shape by rotation of the two supports which are adaptable to being moved one relative to the other, to cause an expansion or contraction of the hollow cone and correspondingly an increase or decrease of the cross-sectional size and/or shape of the radiation beam passing through the aperture

  13. Radiation, waves, fields. Causes and effects on environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.

    1990-01-01

    The book discusses static electricity, alternating electric fields, magnetostatic fields, alternating magnetic fields, electromagnetic radiation, optical and ionizing radiation and their hazards and health effects. Each chapter presents basic physical and biological concepts and describes the common radiation sources and their biological effects. Each chapter also contains hints for everyday behaviour as well as in-depth information an specific scientific approaches for assessing biological effects; the latter are addressed to all expert readers working in these fields. There is a special chapter on the problem of so-called 'terrestrial radiation'. (orig.) With 88 figs., 31 tabs [de

  14. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  15. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 μm (σ) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called ''radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 μm over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs

  16. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  17. A high resolution pneumatic stepping actuator for harsh reactor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippetts, Thomas B.; Evans, Paul S.; Riffle, George K.

    1993-01-01

    A reactivity control actuator for a high-power density nuclear propulsion reactor must be installed in close proximity to the reactor core. The energy input from radiation to the actuator structure could exceed hundreds of W/cc unless low-cross section, low-absorptivity materials are chosen. Also, for post-test handling and subsequent storage, materials should not be used that are activated into long half-life isotopes. Pneumatic actuators can be constructed from various reactor-compatible materials, but conventional pneumatic piston actuators generally lack the stiffness required for high resolution reactivity control unless electrical position sensors and compensated electronic control systems are used. To overcome these limitations, a pneumatic actuator is under development that positions an output shaft in response to a series of pneumatic pulses, comprising a pneumatic analog of an electrical stepping motor. The pneumatic pulses are generated remotely, beyond the strong radiation environment, and transmitted to the actuator through tubing. The mechanically simple actuator uses a nutating gear harmonic drive to convert motion of small pistons directly to high-resolution angular motion of the output shaft. The digital nature of this actuator is suitable for various reactor control algorithms but is especially compatible with the three bean salad algorithm discussed by Ball et al. (1991).

  18. Distributed optical fibre temperature measurements in a low dose rate radiation environment based on Rayleigh backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustov, A.; Gussarov, A.; Wuilpart, M.; Fotiadi, A. A.; Liokumovich, L. B.; Kotov, O. I.; Zolotovskiy, I. O.; Tomashuk, A. L.; Deschoutheete, T.; Mégret, P.

    2012-04-01

    On-line monitoring of environmental conditions in nuclear facilities is becoming a more and more important problem. Standard electronic sensors are not the ideal solution due to radiation sensitivity and difficulties in installation of multiple sensors. In contrast, radiation-hard optical fibres can sustain very high radiation doses and also naturally offer multi-point or distributed monitoring of external perturbations. Multiple local electro-mechanical sensors can be replaced by just one measuring fibre. At present, there are over four hundred operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world 1. Operating experience has shown that ineffective control of the ageing degradation of major NPP components can threaten plant safety and also plant life. Among those elements, cables are vital components of I&C systems in NPPs. To ensure their safe operation and predict remaining life, environmental monitoring is necessary. In particular, temperature and radiation dose are considered to be the two most important parameters. The aim of this paper is to assess experimentally the feasibility of optical fibre temperature measurements in a low doserate radiation environment, using a commercially available reflectometer based on Rayleigh backscattering. Four different fibres were installed in the Sub-Pile Room of the BR2 Material testing nuclear reactor in Mol, Belgium. This place is man-accessible during the reactor shut-down, allowing easy fibre installation. When the reactor operates, the dose-rates in the room are in a range 0.005-5 Gy/h with temperatures of 40-60 °C, depending on the location. Such a surrounding is not much different to some "hot" environments in NPPs, where I&C cables are located.

  19. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AT AVIATION ALTITUDES AND IN SPACE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sihver, L.; Ploc, Ondřej; Puchalska, M.; Ambrožová, Iva; Kubančák, Ján; Kyselová, Dagmar; Shurshakov, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 477-483 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cosmic radiation * radiation field * on-board spacecraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  20. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  1. The ionizing radiation environment of LDEF prerecovery predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, John W., Jr.; Derrickson, James H.; Parnell, T. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Harmon, A.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Heinrich, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was exposed to several sources of ionizing radiation while in orbit. The principal ones were trapped belt protons and electrons, galactic cosmic rays, and albedo particles (protons and neutrons) from the atmosphere. Large solar flares in 1989 may have caused a small contribution. Prior to the recovery of the spacecraft, a number of calculations and estimates were made to predict the radiation exposure of the spacecraft and experiments. These were made to assess whether measurable radiation effects might exist, and to plan the analysis of the large number of radiation measurements available on the LDEF. Calculations and estimates of total dose, particle fluences, linear energy transfer spectra, and induced radioactivity were made. The principal sources of radiation is described, and the preflight predictions are summarized.

  2. Physiological and genetics studies of highly radiation-resistant bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomenon of radiation resistance was studied using micrococci and Moraxella-Acinetobacter capable of surviving very high doses of gamma radiation which were isolated from foods. Physiological age, or growth phase, was found to be an important factor in making comparisons of radiation-resistance among different bacteria and their mutants. Radiation-resistant bacteria were highly resistant to the lethal effect of nitrosoguanidine used for mutagenesis. Studies of relative resistance of radiation-resistant bacteria, radiation-sensitive mutants, and nonradiation-resistant bacteria to killing by different chemical mutagens did not reveal a correlation between the traits of radiation resistance and mutagen resistance among different strains. Comparisons of plasmid profiles of radiation-resistant bacteria and selected radiation-sensitive mutants suggested the possibility that plasmids may carry genes involved in radiation resistance

  3. Experimental microdosimetry in high energy radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Bednar, J.; Vlcek, B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.-F.; Molokanov, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    To determine microdosimetric characteristics in the beams and fields of high energy panicles with the goal, also, to compare the classical method of experimental microdosimetry, a tissue equivalent low pressure proportional counter (TEPC) with the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrometer based on a chemically etched polyallyldiglycolcarbonate as a track etched detector (TED). To test the use of TED LET spectrometer in the conditions, where the use or TEPC is not possible (high energy charged particle beams at high dose rates). The results obtained with the TEPC NAUSICAA were used in this work to compare them with other data. This TEPC measures directly the linear energy in the interval between 0.15 and 1500 keV/μm in tissue, the low gas pressure (propan based TE mixture) permits to simulate a tissue element of about 3 μm. It can be used in the fields with instantaneous dose equivalent rates between 1 μSv/hour and 1 mSv/ hour. TED LET spectrometer developed to determine LET spectra between 10 and 700 keV/μm in tissue. Primarily, track-to-bulk etch rate ratios are determined through the track parameters measurements, the spectra of these ratios are convened to LET spectra using the calibration curve established by means of heavy charge panicles. The critical volume of thi spectrometer is supposed to be a few nm. There is no limit of use for the dose rate, the background tracks limit the lowest threshold to about 1 mSv, the overlapping of tracks (the highest one) to 100 mSv. Both experimental microdosimetry methods have been used in on board aircraft radiation fields, in on-Earth high energy radiation reference fields, and in the beams of protons with energies up to 300 MeV (Dubna, Moscow, Loma Linda). First, it should be emphasized, that in all high energy radiation fields studied, we concentrated our analysis on the region, where both methods overlap, i.e. between 10 and 1000 keV/μm in tissue. It should be also stressed, that the events observed in this region

  4. Radiation technologies and techniques friendly for environment and men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Walis, L.

    1995-01-01

    Development of radiation technologies and techniques in Poland has been shown. Especially thermoshrinkable olefins with shape memory, fast thermistors and radiation sterilization have been presented. Also the radiometric gages produced in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw for air monitoring have been described. A broad group of radiotracer techniques being used for environmental study have been presented as well. Radiation technologies with electron beam use for flue gas purification, sewage sludge hygienization and food processing have been shown and their development has been discussed

  5. Premar-2: a Monte Carlo code for radiative transport simulation in atmospheric environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupini, E.

    1999-01-01

    The peculiarities of the PREMAR-2 code, aimed at radiation transport Monte Carlo simulation in atmospheric environments in the infrared-ultraviolet frequency range, are described. With respect to the previously developed PREMAR code, besides plane multilayers, spherical multilayers and finite sequences of vertical layers, each one with its own atmospheric behaviour, are foreseen in the new code, together with the refraction phenomenon, so that long range, highly slanted paths can now be more faithfully taken into account. A zenithal angular dependence of the albedo coefficient has moreover been introduced. Lidar systems, with spatially independent source and telescope, are allowed again to be simulated, and, in this latest version of the code, sensitivity analyses to be performed. According to this last feasibility, consequences on radiation transport of small perturbations in physical components of the atmospheric environment may be analyze and the related effects on searched results estimated. The availability of a library of physical data (reaction coefficients, phase functions and refraction indexes) is required by the code, providing the essential features of the environment of interest needed of the Monte Carlo simulation. Variance reducing techniques have been enhanced in the Premar-2 code, by introducing, for instance, a local forced collision technique, especially apt to be used in Lidar system simulations. Encouraging comparisons between code and experimental results carried out at the Brasimone Centre of ENEA, have so far been obtained, even if further checks of the code are to be performed [it

  6. Reality of dielectric materials in special environment with radiation and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In this report, the results of investigation by the expert committee on the title problem in the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan from April, 1989 to March, 1992 are summarized. The objectives were to collect the data on the deterioration of dielectric and insulation materials in the special environment including radiation, to investigate the deterioration mechanism, and to grasp the state of development of the materials which can withstand special environment. The actual conditions of temperature, humidity and radiation in nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, spaceships, accelerator facilities and nuclear fusion experiment facilities are reported. As the new materials which can withstand special environment, the properties of aromatic engineering plastics such as polyimide, PEEK and others, no-halogen incombustible materials, thermoplastic polyurethane, ethylene propylene rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, ceramics, high temperature superconductors, fiber-reinforced composite materials, silica glass and quartz optical fibers are shown. The factors of material deterioration, the method of forecasting lifetime and the examples are explained. The new methods of measuring material properties such as ion microprobe, positron annihilation, scanning tunnel microscopes, optical detection magnetic resonance and so on are explained. (K.I.)

  7. A regional study of the radiation environment of Greenham Common, Newbury District and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This study was commissioned by Newbury District Council and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in response to public concern following disclosures about events at Greenham Common in the 1950s, and the suspicion that there may have been an accident involving a nuclear weapon leading to off-site contamination at the airbase. The Greenham Common airbase is at an advanced stage of decommissioning with parts of the site already re-developed for industrial and leisure purposes and material being removed for use in construction of the Newbury by-pass. The success of such developments is critically dependent on public confidence in the quality of the environment, both near the site, and more generally throughout the area. For this reason the study was commissioned with the aims of: I. defining the radiation environment of the whole district and parts of its surrounding areas. II. examining whether there is any evidence of radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the Greenham Common airbase. III. assessing the evidence that there may have been a release of nuclear material from the site. The work involved a collaboration between scientists from the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, who conducted gamma ray surveys to define the general radiation environment of the area, and Scientists from the University of Southampton who collected an extensive range of samples for high sensitivity radiochemical analyses. This report presents their findings and main conclusions, together with a discussion of the background to the study and its implications. (Author)

  8. Activation and radiation damage in the environment of hadron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    A component which suffers radiation damage usually also becomes radioactive, since the source of activation and radiation damage is the interaction of the material with particles from an accelerator or with reaction products. However, the underlying mechanisms of the two phenomena are different. These mechanisms are described here. Activation and radiation damage can have far-reaching consequences. Components such as targets, collimators, and beam dumps are the first candidates for failure as a result of radiation damage. This means that they have to be replaced or repaired. This takes time, during which personnel accumulate dose. If the dose to personnel at work would exceed permitted limits, remote handling becomes necessary. The remaining material has to be disposed of as radioactive waste, for which an elaborate procedure acceptable to the authorities is required. One of the requirements of the authorities is a complete nuclide inventory. The methods used for calculation of such inventories are presented,...

  9. Development of clean environment conservation technology by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myunjoo; Kim, Tak Hyun; Jung, In Ha

    2012-04-01

    This report is aim to develop the technology for environmental conservation by radiation. It is consisted of two research parts. One is development of wastewater disinfection technology by radiation and the other is development of livestock waste treatment technology by radiation. For the development of wastewater disinfection technology disinfect ion process, technology for treatment of toxic organic chemicals and assessment of ecological toxicity, technology for treatment of endocrine disrupting chemicals and assessment of genetic safety were developed. For the development of livestock waste treatment technology, process for simultaneous removal of nutrients, technology for disinfection and quality enhancement of livestock waste compost, technology for reduction of composting periods, monitoring of toxic organic compounds, pretreatment technology for organic toxic chemicals and enhancement of biological treatment efficiencies were developed. Based on basic research, advanced livestock wastewater treatment process using radiation was established

  10. Environment and health: 3. Ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gruijl, F.R.; Van der Leun, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation from the sun is responsible for a variety of familiar photochemical reactions, including photochemical smog, bleaching of paints and decay of plastics. Conjugated bonds in organic molecules such as proteins and DNA absorb the UV radiation, which can damage these molecules. By a fortunate evolutionary event, the oxygen produced by photosynthesis forms a filter in the outer reaches of our atmosphere that absorbs the most energetic and harmful UV radiation, with wavelengths below 240 nm (in the UVC band [wavelength 100-280 nm]). In the process, the oxygen molecules split up and recombine to form ozone (Fig. 1). This ratified ozone layer (spread out between 10 and 50 Ion in the stratosphere but only 3 mm thick were it compressed at ground level) in turn efficiently absorbs UV radiation of higher wavelengths (tip to about 310 nm). A part of the UV radiation in the UVB band (wavelength 280-315 nm) still reaches ground level and is absorbed in sufficient amounts to have deleterious effects on cells. The less energetic radiation in the UVA band (wavelength 315-400 nm, bordering the visible band [wavelength 400-800 nm]) is not absorbed by ozone and reaches ground level without much attenuation through a clear atmosphere (i.e., no clouds, no air pollution). Although not completely innocuous, the UVA radiation in sunlight is much less photochemically active and therefore generally less harmful than UVB radiation. Life on earth has adapted itself to the UV stress, particularly UVB stress, fbr example by forming protective UV-absorbing surface layers, by repairing cell damage or by replacing damaged cells entirely. Human skin shows all of these adaptive features. Our eyes are less well adapted, but dicy, are shielded by the brows and by squinting. (author)

  11. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Degradation of electrical insulation of polyethylene under thermal and radiation environment, (4). [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Murabayashi, Fumio; Sawa, Goro [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan); Yamaguchi, Shinji; Ieda, Masayuki

    1982-12-01

    Although the quality assurance guideline for the cables used for the safety and protection systems of nuclear power plants is given by IEEE Standards 323 and 383-1974, in addition, it is important to clarify the aging process under the complex environment of heat and radiation and the equivalence of the accelerated aging test of insulating materials. The authors performed the sequential (H.T-..gamma.. or ..gamma..-HT) and simultaneous (..gamma.., HT) application of respective aging factors of heat and radiation to non-additive low density polyethylene films by changing dose rate as the first stage, to clarify the dose rate dependence of the aging. They mainly investigated the dielectric properties, and forwarded investigation based on the change of carbonyl group by infrared spectrometry and residual free radicals by ESR analysis. In the samples irradiated with ..gamma..-ray only and those irradiated with ..gamma..-ray after thermal treatment for 7 hours at 90 deg C, the absorption coefficient ..cap alpha.. of carbonyl group increased with dose in the range from 3 Mrad to 60 Mrad, and both samples showed approximately the same ..cap alpha.. value. The ..cap alpha.. value of the samples thermally treated after irradiation was larger than that of the samples treated in the reverse order, and the difference between them increased with the increase of dose. The values of dielectric tangent delta at room temperature and 1 kHz for the samples (..gamma..) and (HT-..gamma..) increased with dose, and were almost the same, but those for the samples (..gamma..-HT) and (..gamma.., HT) were larger than the former two.

  13. Experimental checking results of mathematical modeling of the radiation environment sensor based on diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladchenkov, E V; Kolyubin, V A; Nedosekin, P G; Zaharchenko, K V; Ibragimov, R F; Kadilin, V V; Tyurin, E M

    2017-01-01

    Were conducted a series of experiments, the purpose of which had to verify the mathematical model of the radiation environment sensor. Theoretical values of the beta particles count rate from 90 Sr - 90 Y source registered by radiation environment sensor was compared with the experimental one. Theoretical (calculated) count rate of beta particles was found with using the developed mathematical model of the radiation environment sensor. Deviation of the calculated values of the beta particle count rate does not exceed 10% from the experimental. (paper)

  14. Radiation protection around high energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, L.

    1996-01-01

    Proton accelerators are intense radiation sources because of the particle beam itself, secondary radiation and structure activation. So radiation protection is required around these equipment during running time but even during downtime. This article presents some estimated values about structure and air activation and applies the Moyer model to get dose rate behind shielding. (A.C.)

  15. High Temperature Radiators for Electric Propulsion Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VASIMR propulsion system uses a high temperature Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) radiator to reject heat from the helicon section. The current baseline radiator uses...

  16. Ionizing radiation and radionuclides in the environment: sources, origin, geochemical processes and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangic, A.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation related to the radioactivity and radionuclides appears to be ones of most dangerous environmental risks to the human health. The paper considers appearance and importance of radionuclides, both natural (cosmogenic and Earth's) and anthropogenic, mode of their entering into and movement through the environment. Most risk to the population are radionuclides related to the geological-geochemical systems - in Serbia, high concentrations of radionuclides related to these sources were indicated at a number of localities. Movement of radionuclides through the environment is regulated by the geochemical processes i.e. the geochemical cycles of the elements. For the discovering of radionuclides in the nature, the assessment of the health risks to the population and the related protection are necessary multilayer geochemical studies. (author)

  17. Highly sensitive microcalorimeters for radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avaev, V.N.; Demchuk, B.N.; Ioffe, L.A.; Efimov, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calorimetry is used in research at various types of nuclear-physics installations to obtain information on the quantitative and qualitative composition of ionizing radiation in a reactor core and in the surrounding layers of the biological shield. In this paper, the authors examine the characteristics of highly sensitive microcalorimeters with modular semiconductor heat pickups designed for operation in reactor channels. The microcalorimeters have a thin-walled aluminum housing on whose inner surface modular heat pickups are placed radially as shown here. The results of measurements of the temperature dependence of the sensitivity of the microcalorimeters are shown. The results of measuring the sensitivity of a PMK-2 microcalorimeter assembly as a function of integrated neutron flux for three energy intervals and the adsorbed gamma energy are shown. In order to study specimens with different shapes and sizes, microcalorimeters with chambers in the form of cylinders and a parallelepiped were built and tested

  18. Adaptive response to high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Annamaria; Bogdandi, E. Noemi; Polonyi, Istvan; Sardy, M. Marta; Balashazy, Imre; Palfalvy, Jozsef

    2001-01-01

    The biological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation include gene mutation, chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation and cell death. These effects are attributed to the DNA damaging effects of the irradiation resulting in irreversible changes during DNA replication or during the processing of the DNA damage by enzymatic repair processes. These repair processes could initiate some adaptive mechanisms in the cell, which could lead to radioadaptive response (RAR). Adaptive responses have typically been detected by exposing cells to a low radiation dose (1-50 mGy) and then challenging the cells with a higher dose of radiation (2-4 Gy) and comparing the outcome to that seen with the challenge dose only. For adaptive response to be seen the challenge dose must be delivered within 24 hour of the inducing dose. Radio-adaptation is extensively studied for low LET radiation. Nevertheless, few data are available for high LET radiation at very low doses and dose rate. Our study was aimed to investigate the radioadaptive response to low-dose neutron irradiation by detection of the genotoxic damage i.e.: hprt-mutant colonies induced. Altered protein synthesis was also studied to identify stress proteins may responsible for radio-adaptation. New alpha particle irradiator system was also built up to study the biological effects of low dose alpha irradiation. The experiments were carried out on monolayers of human melanoma and CHO (Chines Hamster Ovary) cells irradiated by neutrons produced in the biological irradiation channel of the Research Reactor of Budapest Neutron Center. Cells were exposed to 0.5-50 mGy neutron doses with dose rates of 1.59-10 mGy/min. The challenge doses of 2-4 Gy gamma rays were administrated within 1-48 hours after priming treatment. The induced mutants at hprt locus were selected by adding 6-thioguanine and allow to grow for 10 days for expression of the phenotype. The protein synthesis was studied by PAGE, the molecular mass of specific

  19. Overview of the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment monitoring by Bulgarian build instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Flueckiger, Erwin; Kudela, Karel; Benton, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks for their health. Spacecraft and aircraft crews are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the vehicle structure and its contents. The aircraft crew monitoring is required by the following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP 1990), the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive (EC 1997) which, inter alia, included the exposure to cosmic radiation. This approach has been also adopted in other official documents (NCRP 2002). In this overview we present the results of ground based, mountain peaks, aircraft, balloon and rocket radiation environment monitoring by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer Liulin type developed first in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) for the purposes of the space radiation monitoring at MIR and International Space Station (ISS). These spectrometers-dosemeters are further developed, calibrated and used by scientific groups in different countries. Calibration procedures of them are performed at different accelerators including runs in the CERN high-energy reference field, simulating the radiation field at 10 km altitude in the atmosphere and with heavy ions in Chiba, Japan HIMAC accelerator were performed also. The long term aircraft data base were accumulated using specially developed battery operated instrument in 2001-2009 years onboard of A310-300 aircrafts of Czech Air Lines, during 24 about 2 months runs with more than 2000 flights and 13500 flight hours on routes over the Atlantic Ocean mainly. The obtained experimental data are compared with computational models like CARI and EPCARD. The

  20. Measurement of gamma radiation doses in nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochvar, I.A.; Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Sergeeva, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    Considered are the problems of measuring gamma radiation dose values and the dose distribution in the nuclear power plant area with the aim of estimating the extent of their effect on the population. Presented are the dosimeters applied, their distribution throughout the controlled area, time of measurement. The distribution of gamma radiation doses over the controlled area and the dose alteration with the increase of the distance from the release source are shown. The results of measurements are investigated. The conclusion is made that operating nuclear power plants do not cause any increase in the gamma radiation dose over the area. Recommendations for clarifying the techniques for using dose-meters and decreasing measurement errors are given [ru

  1. Some technologically enhanced exposures to natural radiation environment in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Mishra, U.C.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of results of gamma spectrometric measurements of natural radioactivity in a number of coal and flyash samples from thermal power plants and phosphatic fertilizer samples collected from various fertilizer plants in India are presented. These constitute the sources of technologically enhanced exposures to natural radiation. A brief description of sampling and measurement procedures is given. The radiation doses to the population from coal burning for electricity generation have been calculated using the method outlined in UNSCEAR report of 1979 with corrections for local population density. The external radiation dose to the farmers has been calculated on the basis of usage of phosphatic fertilizers for rice, wheat, millets and sugarcane crops for the normal agricultural practices

  2. Uranium mining and processing: their radiation impact into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapczuk, Peter; Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Based on Thorium and Uranium determination in soil and plants samples collected in the region of Aktau, Kazakhstan the distribution pattern of environmental pollution by these elements was correlated with the radiation dose. The main radiation source was the waste deposit of the equipment used by the uranium processing (dose higher than 5 μSv/h). The mining area and also the transportation way from mine to the uranium factory has also an radiation impact which is difficult to estimate. Based on the data found by plants and soil samples all the area under study has a higher pollution level by Thorium and Uranium than the control area (about 0.1μSv/h). Due to observed strong wind blowing in different directions it is possible that the particle of uranium ore has been transported for long distance and polluted the plants and upper soil layer. The further investigations should get more information about this supposition. (author)

  3. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    A conservative design approach was adopted by the International Space Station Program for specifying total ionizing radiation dose requirements for use in selecting and qualifying materials for construction of the International Space Station. The total ionizing dose design environment included in SSP 30512 Space Station Ionizing Radiation Design Environment is based on trapped proton and electron fluence derived from the solar maximum versions of the AE-8 and AP-8 models, respectively, specified for a circular orbit at 500 km altitude and 51.7 degree inclination. Since launch, the range of altitudes utilized for Space Station operations vary from a minimum of approximately 330 km to a maximum of approximately 405 km with a mean operational altitude less than 400 km. The design environment, therefore, overestimates the radiation environment because the particle flux in the South Atlantic Anomaly is the primary contributor to radiation dose in low Earth orbit and flux within the Anomaly is altitude dependent. In addition, a 2X multiplier is often applied to the design environment to cover effects from the contributions of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particle events, geomagnetic storms, and uncertainties in the trapped radiation models which are not explicitly included in the design environment. Application of this environment may give radiation dose overestimates on the order of 1OX to 30X for materials exposed to the space environment, suggesting that materials originally qualified for ten year exposures on orbit may be used for longer periods without replacement. In this paper we evaluate the "as flown" radiation environments derived from historical records of the ISS flight trajectory since launch and compare the results with the SSP 30512 design environment to document the magnitude of the radiation dose overestimate provided by the design environment. "As flown" environments are obtained from application of the AE-8/AP-8 trapped particle models along

  4. LHCb: Evaluation of the Radiation Environment of the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Karacson, M

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of all aspects of the radiation field of the LHCb experiment is needed to understand the impact of the unprecedented radiation levels to which its detector and electronics are exposed to. The methodology on how this is done is described. Analysis of the measurements of active and passive sensors of various types which are distributed in and around the detector will be carried out. Appropriate cross calibrations will be applied and comparisons between them will be performed. Critical comparisons with simulation results obtained with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are also an essential element of the study.

  5. Applications of isotopes and radiation in conservation of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the symposium was to review present knowledge of the applications of radiation, radioisotopes and nuclear methods of analysis in the monitoring and control of environmental pollution and in reducing emissions of environmentally toxic substances. The scientific programme covered a wide range of different applications of nuclear technology, such as flue gas purification, radiation processing of liquid and solid wastes, radiotracer studies and nuclear analytical techniques and their applications. The symposium was attended by 92 participants representing 31 IAEA Member States. Separate abstracts were prepared for 46 of the papers in this volume. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Natural radiation aspects of low-monazite environment (Preprint No. IT-17)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, M A.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). Environmental Survey Lab.

    1989-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the salient features of low-monazite environment of Kalpakkam and discuss their significance in the assessment of the overall radiation exposures of the general population. (author). 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  8. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  9. Proceedings. Protection of the natural environment. International symposium on ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Luening, M.

    1996-01-01

    The symposium was organised jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. The programme was organised around six major topics: Biological effects of ionising radiation; Ecological effects of ionising radiation; Behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the natural environment; Criteria for environmental protection; Assessment methodology; and Social and economic aspects. All 86 contributions (excluding the opening addresses) have been separately indexed

  10. The report on 'effects of radiation on the environment' from UNSCEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) concluded, in response to some expressions of concern, that it would be opportune to provide an independent examination of: the current situation regarding the radiation exposure of the natural environment; and the basis available for assessing the potential impact on the environment of incremental exposures from human activities. The final report is about to be published and this paper gives a brief summary of the important points and conclusions. (author)

  11. Isotopes and radiations in agriculture and environment research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, M.S.; Sachdev, P.; Deb, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    The use of isotope and radiation techniques in agriculture and environmental research has considerably helped in meeting the challenges of increasing crop and animal production. The present compilation presents the state of the art on the use of these techniques particularly in the context of current research and development programmes in this field. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Using a Commercial Ethernet PHY Device in a Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jeremy; Arani, Michael; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This work involved placing a commercial Ethernet PHY on its own power boundary, with limited current supply, and providing detection methods to determine when the device is not operating and when it needs either a reset or power-cycle. The device must be radiation-tested and free of destructive latchup errors. The commercial Ethernet PHY's own power boundary must be supplied by a current-limited power regulator that must have an enable (for power cycling), and its maximum power output must not exceed the PHY's input requirements, thus preventing damage to the device. A regulator with configurable output limits and short-circuit protection (such as the RHFL4913, rad hard positive voltage regulator family) is ideal. This will prevent a catastrophic failure due to radiation (such as a short between the commercial device's power and ground) from taking down the board's main power. Logic provided on the board will detect errors in the PHY. An FPGA (field-programmable gate array) with embedded Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) will work well. The error detection includes monitoring the PHY's interrupt line, and the status of the Ethernet's switched power. When the PHY is determined to be non-functional, the logic device resets the PHY, which will often clear radiation induced errors. If this doesn't work, the logic device power-cycles the FPGA by toggling the regulator's enable input. This should clear almost all radiation induced errors provided the device is not latched up.

  13. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  14. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

    2011-08-30

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  15. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  16. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Department of Radiation Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  17. Reactor Start-up and Control Methodologies: Consideration of the Space Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Holloway, James Paul

    2004-01-01

    The use of fission energy in space power and propulsion systems offers considerable advantages over chemical propulsion. Fission provides over six orders of magnitude higher energy density, which translates to higher vehicle specific impulse and lower specific mass. These characteristics enable the accomplishment of ambitious space exploration missions. The natural radiation environment in space provides an external source of protons and high energy, high Z particles that can result in the production of secondary neutrons through interactions in reactor structures. Initial investigation using MCNPX 2.5.b for proton transport through the SAFE-400 reactor indicates a secondary neutron net current of 1.4x107 n/s at the core-reflector interface, with an incoming current of 3.4x106 n/s due to neutrons produced in the Be reflector alone. This neutron population could provide a reliable startup source for a space reactor. Additionally, this source must be considered in developing a reliable control strategy during reactor startup, steady-state operation, and power transients. An autonomous control system is developed and analyzed for application during reactor startup, accounting for fluctuations in the radiation environment that result from changes in vehicle location (altitude, latitude, position in solar system) or due to temporal variations in the radiation field, as may occur in the case of solar flares. One proposed application of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle is in a tour of the Jovian system, where the time required for communication to Earth is significant. Hence, it is important that a reactor control system be designed with feedback mechanisms to automatically adjust to changes in reactor temperatures, power levels, etc., maintaining nominal operation without user intervention. This paper will evaluate the potential use of secondary neutrons produced by proton interactions in the reactor vessel as a startup source for a space reactor and will present a

  18. Radiation damage in a high Ni weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Kytka, M.; Kopriva, R.

    2015-01-01

    WWER-1000 RPV weld metals are characterized by a high content of nickel, mostly about 1.7 mass % with content of manganese around 0.8 mass % with a very low copper content - about 0.05 mass %. In such material some late blooming phase effect should be observed during irradiation. Such typical weld material was irradiated in the experimental reactor LVR-15 in N RI Rez at the irradiation temperature 290 C degrees and at five neutron fluences from 1.5 to 9.5 *10 23 m -2 (E>1 MeV). Charpy V-notch impact tests, static fracture toughness tests, tensile and hardness measurement were performed to obtain effect of neutron fluence on radiation hardening as well as embrittlement. Neutron fluence dependences of all these property changes have monotonic character but with a high neutron embrittlement exponent around 0.8. Scanning electron microscope of fracture surfaces showed no or very small portion of intercrystalline fracture. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on specimens from all neutron fluences. Only low density of black-dot damage has been observed. It is assumed that most of defect are dislocation loops. The late blooming phase which may be observed from results of mechanical properties are probably below the resolution of the used JEM-2010, i.e. 1.5 nm. (authors)

  19. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  20. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Al-Aidaroos

    Full Text Available High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation. The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM 18.4±5.8% h(-1, five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM 12±5.6 h(-1% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  1. Additional measurements of the radiation environment at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Foil activation dosimetry experiments were conducted in a ''rabbit'' system at the completed Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF). The ''raffit'' system contains four tubes spaced radially outward 0.12, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.38 meters off beam centerline. Foils were irradiated for 3 to 62 hours to measure the neutron flux and energy spectrum radially from beam centerline, along the beamline, and the effect of the Isotope Production (IP) target loadings on the neutron flux in the neutron irradiation locations. Irradiations showed a decrease in the radial flux by a factor of 6 in 0.15 meters of iron outside the IP targets. An enchancement was seen in the 24-keV energy region outside 0.15 meters. There was little difference in the shape of the spectra outside the IP targets and the beam stop with the exception of the high energy tail (energies above 20 MeV). The decrease in the high energy tail outside the beam stop is due to the degradation of the energy of the proton beam in the IP targets. Irradiations outside the beam stop with zero and eight IP targets gave the same spectral shape with the exception of the high energy tail. The magnitude of the integral flux decreased by a factor of 2 when eight IP targets were present. Irradiations with five ''rabbits'' stacked on top of each other showed no difference in the integral flux below, on and above beam centerline

  2. Framework for the Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P.; Brown, J.E.; Larsson, M

    2000-07-01

    A framework is proposed for the protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Key components include the assessment of the environmental transfer of radionuclides and uptake of radionuclides by organisms, the adaptation of existing dosimetric models to calculate absorbed doses and studies concerning dose-effects relationships for selected organisms. The proposed framework will also make use of 'reference' organisms, selection of which will be based on a number of criteria, e.g. radiosensitivity, ubiquity, and will involve the development of standardised biota exposure units which might integrate the Relative Biological Effect (RBE) of the radiation under consideration. In the second part of the study, initial efforts have been made to develop a computerised system in order to provide a simple example of how components of this framework may be formulated. An equilibrium absorbed dose constant model has been used for high LET (Linear Energy Transfer) radionuclides combined with the application of an absorbed fraction for {gamma}-emitting radionuclides. Generalised specific activity information for selected radionuclides from Norwegian marine environments have been used as model input data. For the radionuclides considered, total doses for marine organisms (lobster, mussels, seaweed) ranged between 1.35-2.5 mGy.y{sup -1}, mainly attributable to {sup 40}K and {sup 210}Po. Such levels are well below those where observable effects might be expected. (author)

  3. Markedly enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing of black carbon under polluted urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfei; Hu, Min; Guo, Song; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Levy Zamora, Misti; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Yuan; Glen, Crystal R; Collins, Donald R; Molina, Mario J; Zhang, Renyi

    2016-04-19

    Black carbon (BC) exerts profound impacts on air quality and climate because of its high absorption cross-section over a broad range of electromagnetic spectra, but the current results on absorption enhancement of BC particles during atmospheric aging remain conflicting. Here, we quantified the aging and variation in the optical properties of BC particles under ambient conditions in Beijing, China, and Houston, United States, using a novel environmental chamber approach. BC aging exhibits two distinct stages, i.e., initial transformation from a fractal to spherical morphology with little absorption variation and subsequent growth of fully compact particles with a large absorption enhancement. The timescales to achieve complete morphology modification and an absorption amplification factor of 2.4 for BC particles are estimated to be 2.3 h and 4.6 h, respectively, in Beijing, compared with 9 h and 18 h, respectively, in Houston. Our findings indicate that BC under polluted urban environments could play an essential role in pollution development and contribute importantly to large positive radiative forcing. The variation in direct radiative forcing is dependent on the rate and timescale of BC aging, with a clear distinction between urban cities in developed and developing countries, i.e., a higher climatic impact in more polluted environments. We suggest that mediation in BC emissions achieves a cobenefit in simultaneously controlling air pollution and protecting climate, especially for developing countries.

  4. Accuracy of Analog Fiber-Optic Links in Pulsed Radiation Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E K Miller; G S Macrum; I J McKenna

    2007-01-01

    Interferometric fiber-optic links used in pulsed-power experiments are evaluated for accuracy in the presence of radiation fields which alter fiber transmission. Amplitude-modulated format (e.g., Mach-Zehnder) and phase-modulated formats are compared. Historically, studies of radiation effects on optical fibers have focused on degradation and recovery of the fibers transmission properties; such work is either in the context of survivability of fibers in catastrophic conditions or suitability of fibers installed for command and control systems within an experimental facility [1], [2]. In this work, we consider links used to transmit realtime diagnostic data, and we analyze the error introduced by radiation effects during the drive pulse. The result is increased uncertainties in key parameters required to unfold the sinusoidal transfer function. Two types of modulation are considered: amplitude modulation typical of a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) modulator [3], and phase modulation, which offers more flexible demodulation options but relies on the spatiotemporal coherence of the light in the fiber. The M-Z link is shown schematically in Fig. 1, and the phase-modulated link is shown in Fig. 2. We present data from two experimental environments: one with intense, controlled radiation fields to simulate conditions expected at the next generation of pulsed-power facilities, and the second with radiation effects below the noise level of the recording system. In the first case, we intentionally expose three types of single-mode fiber (SMF) to ionizing radiation and study the response by simultaneously monitoring phase and amplitude of the transmitted light. The phase and amplitude effects are evidently dominated by different physical phenomena, as their recovery dynamics are markedly different; both effects, though, show similar short-term behavior during exposure, integrating the dose at the dose levels studied, from 1 to 300 kRad, over the exposure times of 50 ps and 30 ns. In the

  5. MARS15 Simulation of Radiation Environment at the ESS Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Eidelman, Yu. I. [Euclid Techlabs, Solon; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Tchelidze, L. [ESS, Lund; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive studies with the MARS15(2016) Monte-Carlo code are described on evaluation of prompt and residual radiation levels induced by nominal and accidental beam losses in the 5-MW, 2-GeV European Spallation Source (ESS) Linac. These are to provide a basis for radiation shielding design verification through the accelerator complex. The calculation model is based on the latest engineering design and includes a sophisticated algorithm for particle tracking in the machine RF cavities as well as a well-established model of the beam loss. Substantial efforts were put in solving the deep-penetration problem for the thick shielding around the tunnel with numerous complex penetrations. It allowed us to study in detail not only the prompt dose, but also component and air activation, radiation loads on the soil outside the tunnel, and skyshine studies for the complicated 3-D surface above the machine. Among the other things, the newest features in MARS15 (2016), such as a ROOT-based beamline builder and a TENDL-based event generator for nuclear interactions below 100 MeV, were very useful in this challenging application

  6. Pancreatitis in a high HIV prevalence environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In environments with low HIV infection rates, acute pancreatitis is ... The serum amylase level was used to confirm acute pancreatitis in 50 patients, with a ..... Mortier E, Gaba S, Mari I, Vinceneux P, Pouchot J. Acute pancreatitis during primary ...

  7. Electronic ceramics in high-temperature environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searcy, A.W.; Meschi, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Simple thermodynamic means are described for understanding and predicting the influence of temperature changes, in various environments, on electronic properties of ceramics. Thermal gradients, thermal cycling, and vacuum annealing are discussed, as well as the variations of ctivities and solubilities with temperature. 7 refs

  8. Atmospheric radiation environment analyses based-on CCD camera at various mountain altitudes and underground sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cavoli Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discriminate secondary atmospheric particles and identify muons by measuring the natural radiative environment in atmospheric and underground locations. A CCD camera has been used as a cosmic ray sensor. The Low Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel (LSBB, France gives the access to a unique low-noise scientific environment deep enough to ensure the screening from the neutron and proton radiative components. Analyses of the charge levels in pixels of the CCD camera induced by radiation events and cartographies of the charge events versus the hit pixel are proposed.

  9. The radiation performance standard. A presentation model for ionizing radiation in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaap, L.E.J.J.; Bosmans, G.; Van der Graaf, E.R.; Hendriks, Ch.F.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the so-called radiation performance standard (SPN, abbreviated in Dutch) the total radioactivity from building constructions which contributes to the indoor radiation dose can be calculated. The SPN is implemented with related boundary values and is part of the Building Decree ('Bouwbesluit') in the Netherlands. The model, presented in this book, forms the basis of a new Dutch radiation protection standard, to be published by the Dutch Institute for Standardization NEN (formerly NNI). 14 refs

  10. The Effect of Dose Rate on Composite Durability When Exposed to a Simulated Long-Term Lunar Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; O'Rourke, Mary Jane; Hill, Charles; Nutt, Steven; Atwell, William

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) requires a safe living and working environment for crew. Composite materials are one type of material being investigated by NASA as a multi-functional structural approach to habitats for long-term use in space or on planetary surfaces with limited magnetic fields and atmosphere. These materials provide high strength with the potential for decreased weight and increased radiation protection of crew and electronics when compared with conventional aluminum structures. However, these materials have not been evaluated in a harsh radiation environment, as would be experienced outside of LEO or on a planetary surface. Thus, NASA has been investigating the durability of select composite materials in a long-term radiation environment. Previously, NASA exposed composite samples to a simulated, accelerated 30-year radiation treatment and tensile stresses similar to those of a habitat pressure vessel. The results showed evidence of potential surface oxidation and enhanced cross-linking of the matrix. As a follow-on study, we performed the same accelerated exposure alongside an exposure with a decreased dose rate. The slower dose ]rate is comparable to a realistic scenario, although still accelerated. Strain measurements were collected during exposure and showed that with a fastdose rate, the strain decreased with time, but with a slow ]dose rate, the strain increased with time. After the radiation exposures, samples were characterized via tensile tests, flexure tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The results of these tests will be discussed.

  11. High contrast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Yuji; Takeda, Tohoru; Akatsuka, Takao; Maeda, Tomokazu; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Akira; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Kazama, Masahiro; Wu, Jin; Ando, Masami

    1995-02-01

    This article describes a new monochromatic x-ray CT system using synchrotron radiation with applications in biomedical diagnosis which is currently under development. The system is designed to provide clear images and to detect contrast materials at low concentration for the quantitative functional evaluation of organs in correspondence with their anatomical structures. In this system, with x-ray energy changing from 30 to 52 keV, images can be obtained to detect various contrast materials (iodine, barium, and gadolinium), and K-edge energy subtraction is applied. Herein, the features of the new system designed to enhance the advantages of SR are reported. With the introduction of a double-crystal monochromator, the high-order x-ray contamination is eliminated. The newly designed CCD detector with a wide dynamic range of 60 000:1 has a spatial resolution of 200 μm. The resulting image quality, which is expected to show improved contrast and spatial resolution, is currently under investigation.

  12. Radiation crosslinking of highly plasticized PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, E.; Cruz, L.; Jasso, C. F.; Burillo, G.; Dakin, V. I.

    1996-02-01

    To improve the physical properties of highly plasticized PVC, the polymer was crosslinked by gamma irradiation using a dose rate of 91 kGy/h. The effect of plasticizer type was studied by using three different plasticizers, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DOP), and di(2-ethylhexyl terephthalate) (DOTP), and varying irradiation doses. Gel content was determined by soxhlet extraction, tensile measurements were made on a universal testing machine and the mechano-dynamic measurements were made in a dynamic rheometer. It was found that a considerable bonding of plasticizer molecules to macromolelcules takes place along with crosslinking, so that the use of the solvent extraction method for measuring the degree of crosslinking can give erroneous information. Radiation-chemical crosslinking yield ( Gc) and molecular weight of interjunctions chains ( Mc), were calculated for different systems studied. Addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) as a crosslinking coagent and dioctyl tin oxide (DOTO) as a stabilizer was also studied. Plasticizers extraction resistance was increased by irradiation treatment.

  13. Radiation crosslinking of highly plasticized PVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendizabal, E.; Cruz, L.; Jasso, C.F.; Burillo, G.; Dakin, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    To improve the physical properties of highly plasticized PVC, the polymer was crosslinked by gamma irradiation using a dose rate of 91 kGy/h. The effect of plasticizer type was studied by using three different plasticizers, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DOP), and di(2-ethylhexyl terephthalate) (DOTP), and varying irradiation doses. Gel content was determined by soxhlet extraction, tensile measurements were made on a universal testing machine and the mechano-dynamic measurements were made in a dynamic rheometer. It was found that a considerable bonding of plasticizer molecules to macromolecules takes place along with crosslinking, so that the use of the solvent extraction method for measuring the degree of crosslinking can give erroneous information. Radiation-chemical crosslinking yield (G c ) and molecular weight of interjunctions chains (M c ), were calculated for different systems studied. Addition of ethylene glycol dimethyacrylate (EGDM) as a crosslinking coagent and dioctyl tin oxide (DOTO) as a stabilizer was also studied. Plasticizers extraction resistance was increased by irradiation treatment. (author)

  14. Radiation environment assessment, measurement and its impact on health and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Panwar, Brijandra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Present paper deals with Radiation Environment Assessment, Measurement and its Impact on Health, its meaning and in particular with sustainable development perspective. Health and Environment appears to be different subjects and concepts, but in reality they are interrelated and interdependent. One cannot exist without the other. For good health hygienic environment is a sine qua non. Article 3 of Universal Declaration of Human Right 1948 incorporates the right to life. It has been interpreted by the international court that the word life does not means simply to live but it means to live with dignity and in well and pollution and radiation free environment which is a gift of nature on this universe. There is no doubt about the nuclear revolution that has taken place and has made life of human beings worth living on this earth with comfort. It is growing development of the nation. But in the process the development that has been done at the cost of human life, public health and environment which will prove fatal in the long run. So there is a need for Sustainable Development of the human and environment of the world. Precisely and concisely, the sustainable development is a process that meets the needs of the present without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs. A hygienic and redaction free environment will ensure the better Health of the people. Environment and nuclear power plant can coexist. The harmonization of the two needs has led to the concept of Radiation Environment Assessment and sustainable development, so much so that it has become the most significant and focal point of environmental legislation relating to the same. Sustainable development, simply put, is a process in which development can be sustained over generations effects of radiation on humans and on the environment. Finally, this paper deals with the impact of radiation on environment and the need of sustainable development for achieving a better human. (author)

  15. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach

  16. Bullying among radiation therapists: effects on job performance and work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Megan; Johnson, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    To identify the effects of workplace bullying in the radiation therapy department on job performance and explore the environment and morale of individuals who work with a bully. A quantitative research study was designed to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying in the radiation therapy workplace. A total of 308 radiation therapists participated in the study for a return rate of 46%. Of those, 194 indicated that workplace bullying was present either in their current workplace or in a previous radiation therapy environment and that it negatively affected job performance and satisfaction. Findings of this study indicate a need for evaluation of the radiation therapy workplace, education on how to identify and prevent bullying behavior, and better communication among members of the radiation therapy environment. Participants indicated that working in a hostile environment led to forgetfulness, ineffective communication, and perceived discrepancies in promotion and treatment by management. Any bullying behavior contributes to an overall toxic work environment, which is unhealthy and unsafe for patients and therapists. Those who manage therapists should promote a culture of safety and embrace their staff's independence.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation environment for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallows, S., E-mail: sophie.mallows@cern.ch [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bergstrom, I.; Cooijmans, T.; Dabrowski, A.; Glöggler, L.; Guthoff, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kurochkin, I. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Vincke, H.; Tajeda, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-11

    Monte Carlo radiation transport codes are used by the CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) project to estimate the radiation levels due to proton–proton collisions and machine induced background. Results are used by the CMS collaboration for various applications: comparison with detector hit rates, pile-up studies, predictions of radiation damage based on various models (Dose, NIEL, DPA), shielding design, estimations of residual dose environment. Simulation parameters, and the maintenance of the input files are summarized, and key results are presented. Furthermore, an overview of additional programs developed by the BRIL project to meet the specific needs of CMS community is given.

  18. Development of model for assessment of radiation discharge to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhaorong; Wu Hao; Liu Hua

    2003-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) establish basic and detailed requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure, in which, particularly emphasize to 'make an assessment of the nature, magnitude and likelihood of the exposure attributed to the source'. It is clear that the assessment of the consequential radiation exposure arising from any releases of radioactive materials to the environment will have to rely on some form of model. This paper summary recent progress in radiation protection policy and radioecology research and primary concludes the basis requirements in assessment model development

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation environment for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068566; Bayshev, I.; Bergstrom, I.; Cooijmans, T.; Dabrowski, A.; Glöggler, L.; Guthoff, M.; Kurochkin, I.; Vincke, H.; Tajeda, S.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo radiation transport codes are used by the CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) project to estimate the radiation levels due to proton-proton collisions and machine induced background. Results are used by the CMS collaboration for various applications: comparison with detector hit rates, pile-up studies, predictions of radiation damage based on various models (Dose, NIEL, DPA), shielding design, estimations of residual dose environment. Simulation parameters, and the maintenance of the input files are summarised, and key results are presented. Furthermore, an overview of additional programs developed by the BRIL project to meet the specific needs of CMS community is given.

  20. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  1. Environmental radiation monitoring on the CERN sites and in the CERN environment during 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtyla, P; Wittekind, D

    1999-04-15

    As a consequence of changes in the administrative structure of TIS Division in 1996 and 1997, the Environmental Section was integrated into the TIS Technical Services and Environment Group that also looks after the non-radiation parameters in the CERN releases and environment. However, it remains the duty of the Radiation Protection Group (RP) to define the environmental programme for radiation and radioactivity, and of the leader of RP to report its results both inside and outside CERN. Part I of this Annual Report describes the results of measurements which are relevant for assessing the radiological impact of CERN's activities on the environment and the population living in the vicinity of the CERN sites. Measurements of radioactivity released into the atmosphere and into water, as well as measurements of stray radiation at or near the CERN site boundaries, are reported.

  2. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  3. Radiation and Internal Charging Environments for Thin Dielectrics in Interplanetary Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Altstatt, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft designs using solar sails for propulsion or thin membranes to shade instruments from the sun to achieve cryogenic operating temperatures are being considered for a number of missions in the next decades. A common feature of these designs are thin dielectric materials that will be exposed to the solar wind, solar energetic particle events, and the distant magnetotail plasma environments encountered by spacecraft in orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point. This paper will discuss the relevant radiation and internal charging environments developed to support spacecraft design for both total dose radiation effects as well as dose rate dependent phenomenon, such as internal charging in the solar wind and distant magnetotail environments. We will describe the development of radiation and internal charging environment models based on nearly a complete solar cycle of Ulysses solar wind plasma measurements over a complete range of heliocentric latitudes and the early years of the Geotail mission where distant magnetotail plasma environments were sampled beyond X(sub GSE) = -100 Re to nearly L2 (X(sub GSE) -236 Re). Example applications of the environment models are shown to demonstrate the radiation and internal charging environments of thin materials exposed to the interplanetary space plasma environments.

  4. Radiation chemistry of high polymers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, M.; Welch, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Work on calibrating the radiation intensity in our γ-ray source as a function of height and horizontal displacement was completed. For extended chain (high crystallinity) polyethylene (PE) before and after quenching from the melt irradiated at room temperature, the crosslinking yield increased twofold on lowering the crystallinity from 96 to 70%. The G-value for alkyl radical production was about 75% higher in the quenched extended chain sample as compared to the value before quenching. The G (alkyl) values were determined for irradiations at 77K. The rate of decay of the alkyl radicals in PE samples of single crystals having different stem lengths was studied at 80 and 85 0 . It was found that the mole fraction of the slowly decaying free radicals increased with the stem length. Hydrogen gas was found to catalyze both the slow and fast decays. Because hydrogen does not dissolve in the crystalline regions of the PE, the catalytic effect must occur at the amorphous boundary of the crystalline stems. With respect to the kinetics of the allyl radical, either it was found that the data could be explained in terms of two simultaneous but spatially separated second order reactions. As the temperature is raised to 135 0 , the two reactions merge into one. Hydrogen gas has no effect on the decay of the allyl radicals. In the case of the highly crystalline extended chain samples, the allyl decay in some cases follows the simple kinetic equation (1/c) - (1/c 0 ) = k√t, where k is called a time independent diffusion controlled reaction rate constant. The less the crystallinity of the sample the greater the k constant. A preliminary study of isotactic polypropylene (PP) was carried out and a definite hydrogen gas catalysis of the free radical decay in PP was seen. Similarly in crystalline 1-leucine the hydrogen catalytic effect could also be clearly demonstrated

  5. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  6. Radiation Safety Management Guidelines for PET-CT: Focus on Behavior and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Wook; Han, Eun Ok

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose is to specify behavior and environmental factors aimed at reducing the exposed dosage caused by PET-CT and to develop radiation safety management guidelines adequate for domestic circumstances. We have used a multistep-multimethod as the methodological approach to design and to carry out the research both in quality and quantity, including an analysis on previous studies, professional consultations and a survey. The survey includes responses from 139 practitioners in charged of 109 PET-CTs installed throughout Korea(reported by the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, 2010). The research use 156 questions using Cronbach's α (alpha) coefficients which were: 0.818 for 'the necessity of setting and installing the radiation protective environment'; 0.916 for 'the necessity of radiation protection', 'setting and installing the radiation protective environment'; and 0.885 for 'radiation protection'. The check list, derived from the radiation safety management guidelines focused on behavior and environment, was composed of 20 items for the radiation protective environment: including 5 items for the patient; 4 items for the guardian; 3 items for the radiologist; and 8 items applied to everyone involved; for a total of 26 items for the radiation protective behavior including: 12 items for the patient; 1 item for the guardian, 7 items for the radiologist; and 6 items applied to everyone involved. The specific check list is shown in (Table 5-6). Since our country has no safety management guidelines of its own to reduce the exposed dosage caused by PET-CTs, we believe the guidelines developed through this study means great deal to the field as it is not only appropriate for domestic circumstances, but also contains specific check lists for each target who may be exposed to radiation in regards to behavior and environment.

  7. Integration of the environment into the system of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, K.

    2018-01-01

    In 2005 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) embarked on an effort to ensure that the system for environmental radiological protection would be reconcilable with that for radiological protection of man, and with the approaches used for protection of the environment from other potential hazards

  8. MagRad: A code to optimize the operation of superconducting magnets in a radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeaw, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    A powerful computational tool, called MagRad, has been developed which optimizes magnet design for operation in radiation fields. Specifically, MagRad has been used for the analysis and design modification of the cable-in-conduit conductors of the TF magnet systems in fusion reactor designs. Since the TF magnets must operate in a radiation environment which damages the material components of the conductor and degrades their performance, the optimization of conductor design must account not only for start-up magnet performance, but also shut-down performance. The degradation in performance consists primarily of three effects: reduced stability margin of the conductor; a transition out of the well-cooled operating regime; and an increased maximum quench temperature attained in the conductor. Full analysis of the magnet performance over the lifetime of the reactor includes: radiation damage to the conductor, stability, protection, steady state heat removal, shielding effectiveness, optimal annealing schedules, and finally costing of the magnet and reactor. Free variables include primary and secondary conductor geometric and compositional parameters, as well as fusion reactor parameters. A means of dealing with the radiation damage to the conductor, namely high temperature superconductor anneals, is proposed, examined, and demonstrated to be both technically feasible and cost effective. Additionally, two relevant reactor designs (ITER CDA and ARIES-II/IV) have been analyzed. Upon addition of pure copper strands to the cable, the ITER CDA TF magnet design was found to be marginally acceptable, although much room for both performance improvement and cost reduction exists. A cost reduction of 10-15% of the capital cost of the reactor can be achieved by adopting a suitable superconductor annealing schedule. In both of these reactor analyses, the performance predictive capability of MagRad and its associated costing techniques have been demonstrated

  9. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  10. Upgrade of the compact neutron spectrometer for high flux environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipenko, M.; Bellucci, A.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; Gariano, G.; Gatti, F.; Girolami, M.; Minutoli, S.; Panza, F.; Pillon, M.; Ripani, M.; Trucchi, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper new version of the 6Li-based neutron spectrometer for high flux environments is described. The new spectrometer was built with commercial single crystal Chemical Vapour Deposition diamonds of electronic grade. These crystals feature better charge collection as well as higher radiation hardness. New metal contacts approaching ohmic conditions were deposited on the diamonds suppressing build-up of space charge observed in the previous prototypes. New passive preamplification of the signal at detector side was implemented to improve its resolution. This preamplification is based on the RF transformer not sensitive to high neutron flux. The compact mechanical design allowed to reduce detector size to a tube of 1 cm diameter and 13 cm long. The spectrometer was tested in the thermal column of TRIGA reactor and at the DD neutron generator. The test results indicate an energy resolution of 300 keV (FWHM), reduced to 72 keV (RMS) excluding energy loss, and coincidence timing resolution of 160 ps (FWHM). The measured data are in agreement with Geant4 simulations except for larger energy loss tail presumably related to imperfections of metal contacts and glue expansion.

  11. Study on development of differential transformer for use in high-temperature environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ara, Katsuyuki

    1983-11-01

    Today, in many fields of industrial science and technology, various efforts are being directed to the development of new technology aiming the technological inovation of the coming generation. Under these circumstances, new requirements are called for in instrumentation and measurement; one is the measurement at very severe environments such as high-temperature and high-pressure. Especially in the field of nuclear energy development, various kinds of measurements are needed under a high-temperature, high-pressure and high-radiation environments, and many sensors have been developed for such purposes. One of the most excellent heat-resisting sensors is the sensor based on and utilizing electromagnetic induction. Various electromagnetic sensors have been, therefore, developed and used in in-core environments of nuclear reactors. The author has been engaged in the development of differential transformers for use in in-core environments of Light Water Reactors: this paper compiles the results obtained through the development. (author)

  12. Hawking radiation of a high-dimensional rotating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Huaifan; Wu, Yueqin [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Datong (China)

    2010-01-15

    We extend the classical Damour-Ruffini method and discuss Hawking radiation spectrum of high-dimensional rotating black hole using Tortoise coordinate transformation defined by taking the reaction of the radiation to the spacetime into consideration. Under the condition that the energy and angular momentum are conservative, taking self-gravitation action into account, we derive Hawking radiation spectrums which satisfy unitary principle in quantum mechanics. It is shown that the process that the black hole radiates particles with energy {omega} is a continuous tunneling process. We provide a theoretical basis for further studying the physical mechanism of black-hole radiation. (orig.)

  13. Radiation Environment Model of Protons and Heavier Ions at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Luz Maria Martinez; Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo

    2015-01-01

    We performed an in depth study of the methods used to review the geometric factors (GF) and sensitivity to charge particles of the Energetic Particle Detector instrument on board the Galileo Spacecraft. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to understand the interactions of electrons and ions (i. e., protons and alphas) with the sensitive regions of the instrument. The DC0 and B0 channels were studied with the intention of using them to update the jovian proton radiation model. The results proved that the B0 is a clean proton chanel without any concerns for contamination by heavier ions and electrons. In contrast, DC0 was found to be contaminated by electrons. Furthermore, we also found out that the B2 channel is a clean alpha particle channel (in other words, no contamination by electrons and/or protons).

  14. Prediction of LDEF exposure to the ionizing radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, J. W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the LDEF mission's trapped proton and electron and galactic cosmic ray proton exposures have been made using the currently accepted models with improved resolution near mission end and better modeling of solar cycle effects. An extension of previous calculations, to provide a more definitive description of the LDEF exposure to ionizing radiation, is represented by trapped proton and electron flux as a function of mission time, presented considering altitude and solar activity variation during the mission and the change in galactic cosmic ray proton flux over the mission. Modifications of the AP8MAX and AP8MIN fluence led to a reduction of fluence by 20%. A modified interpolation model developed by Daly and Evans resulted in 30% higher dose and activation levels, which better agreed with measured values than results predicted using the Vette model.

  15. Measurement of radionuclides in the environment via Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author has developed an alternate approach to the measurement of some beta-emitting nuclides that utilizes the luminescence generated by the Cherenkov process. The luminescence, now known as Cherenkov radiation, was shown to be generated when a charged particle passes through a transparent medium at a speed that exceeds the phase velocity of light in the same medium. Cherenkov emission is different from most other luminescence processes in that it is a purely physical phenomenon. One consequence of this is that Cherenkov systems are free of chemical quenching effects. Conventional methods of analysis for environmental levels of beta-emitting radionuclides are often tedious, time-consuming, and expensive. The Cherenkov method is fast, requires very little operator attention, and is much less expensive to perform

  16. Secure environment for real-time tele-collaboration on virtual simulation of radiation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntasis, Efthymios; Maniatis, Theofanis A; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2003-01-01

    A secure framework is described for real-time tele-collaboration on Virtual Simulation procedure of Radiation Treatment Planning. An integrated approach is followed clustering the security issues faced by the system into organizational issues, security issues over the LAN and security issues over the LAN-to-LAN connection. The design and the implementation of the security services are performed according to the identified security requirements, along with the need for real time communication between the collaborating health care professionals. A detailed description of the implementation is given, presenting a solution, which can directly be tailored to other tele-collaboration services in the field of health care. The pilot study of the proposed security components proves the feasibility of the secure environment, and the consistency with the high performance demands of the application.

  17. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  18. Radiation damage in molybdenum and tungsten in high neutron fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljkovic, S; Milasin, N [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Department of Reactor Materials, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-04-15

    The effects of radiation on molybdenum and tungsten in high neutron fluxes are presented. The changes induced, particularly defects with a high migration activation energy, are analyzed. The correlation of these changes with the basic concepts of radiation damage in solids is considered. An attempt is made to relate the defects studied with the changes in macroscopic properties (author)

  19. Radiation damage in molybdenum and tungsten in high neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veljkovic, S.; Milasin, N.

    1964-01-01

    The effects of radiation on molybdenum and tungsten in high neutron fluxes are presented. The changes induced, particularly defects with a high migration activation energy, are analyzed. The correlation of these changes with the basic concepts of radiation damage in solids is considered. An attempt is made to relate the defects studied with the changes in macroscopic properties (author)

  20. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  1. High-tech solutions for the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Gabrielle Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Four solar-powered compactor dustbins have recently been installed at various locations around the Meyrin site. These compact systems fitted with photovoltaic panels compress waste; their increased capacity compared to a standard dustbin reduces the number of collections and the associated CO2 emissions.   Four strange "machines" have recently appeared on the CERN site. Made by the company Big Belly, these intelligent solar-powered mini-compactors fitted with the latest energy-saving technology are perfectly aligned with the Laboratory's policy of minimising the impact of its activities on the environment. With their ability to hold up to four times more waste than the average bin, they need to be emptied less frequently, significantly reducing the CO2 emissions associated with collection and transport. What's more, the integrated software monitors the fill level of each bin in real time and sends an e-mail or text when it needs emptying, thus optimising coll...

  2. Radiation therapists' and radiation oncology medical physicists' perceptions of work and the working environment in Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkett, G K B; McKay, J; Hegney, D G; Breen, Lauren J; Berg, M; Ebert, M A; Davis, M; Kearvell, R

    2017-09-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used. Twenty-eight RTs and 21 ROMPs participated. The overarching themes were delivering care, support in work, working conditions and lifestyle. The overarching themes were mostly consistent across both groups; however, the exemplars reflected the different roles and perspectives of RTs and ROMPs. Participants described the importance they placed on treating patients and improving their lives. Working conditions were sometimes difficult with participants reporting pressure at work, large workloads and longer hours and overtime. Insufficient staff numbers impacted on the effectiveness of staff, the working environment and intentions to stay. Staff satisfaction is likely to be improved if changes are made to the working environment. We make recommendations that may assist departments to support RTs and ROMPs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Australia's proactive approach to radiation protection of the environment: how integrated is it with radiation protection of humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, G A; Grzechnik, M; Tinker, R; Larsson, C M

    2018-01-01

    Australia's regulatory framework has evolved over the past decade from the assumption that protection of humans implies protection of the environment to the situation now where radiological impacts on non-human species (wildlife) are considered in their own right. In an Australian context, there was a recognised need for specific national guidance on protection of non-human species, for which the uranium mining industry provides the major backdrop. National guidance supported by publications of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (Radiation Protection Series) provides clear and consistent advice to operators and regulators on protection of non-human species, including advice on specific assessment methods and models, and how these might be applied in an Australian context. These approaches and the supporting assessment tools provide a mechanism for industry to assess and demonstrate compliance with the environmental protection objectives of relevant legislation, and to meet stakeholder expectations that radiological protection of the environment is taken into consideration in accordance with international best practice. Experiences from the past 5-10 years, and examples of where the approach to radiation protection of the environment has been well integrated or presented some challenges will be discussed. Future challenges in addressing protection of the environment in existing exposure situations will also be discussed.

  4. Ionising radiations - an ecological problem of indoor architectural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djukanovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Architectural buildings are assessed not only for their esthetic characteristics but human settlements are considered now, as ecosystems and homes and flats as habitats (bio tops). Because of that healthy environment and influences of nonpolluting factors are of a great importance. The use of appropriate building materials harmless to health, contrary to the use of those that emit radon with its ionising effects and consequent health hazards, is of a great importance, too. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of investigation of building materials before their use, as well as the importance of quality control of soil where the construction is planned. (author)

  5. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  6. A Shared Compliance Control for Application in High Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sung Ho; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Ki; Kim, Hark Rho

    2005-01-01

    Bilateral control systems present a technical alternative for intelligent robotic systems performing dexterous tasks in unstructured environments such as a nuclear facility, outer space and underwater. A shared compliance control scheme is proposed for application in high radiation fields in which the force sensor can not be installed because of a radiation effect. A position difference between the master system and the slave system is treated as an equivalent contact force and used for an input to the compliance controller. The compliance controller is implemented by a first order low pass filter and it modifies the position of the master to the reference position. Thus the compliance control task is shared by both the human operator's direct manual control and the autonomous compliance control of the slave system. Consequently, the position of a slave system tracks well the reference position and the compliance of the slave system is autonomously controlled in a contact condition. The simulation results show the excellence of the proposed scheme

  7. The selection and properties of epoxide resins used for the insulation of magnet systems in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.C.; Scott, J.M.; Goebel, K.; Schoenbacher, H.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory tests have been carried out on five types of epoxy resins - four based on bisphenol A, one on hydantoin-bisphenol A - applicable in the construction of large magnet coils. Two of the resin compositions have already been used in large quantities as insulating material for magnets at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN); the others were selected for comparison according to their good radiation resistance, good initial mechanical properties, and optimal properties for vacuum impregnation. Three types of tests are discussed in detail: creep, crack propagation (as a measure of toughness), and radiation resistance. The results show that the resin composition with hydantoin exhibits the best resistance to crack propagation but, on the other hand, the lowest resistance to ionizing radiation, and can therefore not be recommended for use in a radiation environment. Among the other materials based on biosphenol A, better toughness values were obtained with lower-cross-linked resin systems, whereas the radiation resistance is better for highly-cross-linked materials. It is concluded that a reasonable compromise combining good processing and operational properties with sufficiently high radiation resistance is obtained with a standard epoxy-resin-type bisphenol A with a specially formulated anhydride hardener and an amine-substituted phenol-type accelerator. (orig.)

  8. Evidence of highly oxidizing environment over the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered high levels of an air purifying chemical or oxidizing agent in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. This research, funded by the National Science Foundation, has implications for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is higher at the South Pole than that estimated from OH measurements recorded at the equator. The OH radical is vital to scrubbing pollution and naturally occurring chemicals from the air and prevents a buildup of toxic levels of chemicals. The near surface atmospheric zone is a highly oxidizing environment at the South Pole. There is evidence that oxidizing chemistry continues to occur in the buried snow. This active chemistry could modify chemical species before they are trapped in the ice in their final chemical forms. Therefore, glaciochemists who study climate change based on analysis of trace chemicals trapped in polar ice will have to be more careful in their interpretations of Antarctic ice cores. Any significant increase of nitric oxide levels in any snow-covered area should result in high OH levels. Scientists used the selected-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer technique to measure OH. To measure nitric oxide (NO), they used chemiluminescence with modifications to improve its sensitivity. Nitric oxide is also a radical and is a by-product of internal combustion engines. At the South Pole, it is formed when ultraviolet radiation interacts with nitrate ions. The source of NO is not clear, but it may originate from stratospheric denitrification and the long-range transport of nitric acid formed at low latitude during electrical storms. Scientists are also working to better understand the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under the cold conditions and high latitudes of Antarctica. This information will help glaciochemists to better interpret sulfate and methane sulfonate concentrations

  9. Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O'Neal, B.R.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h -1 (1 rad d -1 ). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h -1 to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h -1 will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted

  10. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [Uniiversity of Nevada, Las Vegas; Haber, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-02-01

    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation: D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.

  11. Organization and operation of the Sixth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment (NRE VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    An important source of human exposure to radiation is the natural world including cosmic rays, cosmogenic radionuclides, natural terrestrial radionuclides, and radon isotopes and its decay products. Considerable effort is being expended on a worldwide basis to characterize the exposure to the natural radiation environment and determine the important pathways for the exposure to result in the dose to tissue that leads to injury and disease. The problem of background exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity has been the subject of research since the initial discovery of the radioactivity of uranium and thorium. However, with the advent of artificial sources of radiation with both benefits and harm the nature and magnitude of the natural radiation environment and the effects on various populations are important in the development of overall public health strategies as ALARA principles are applied to the situation

  12. Radiation beamline testbeds for the simulation of planetary and spacecraft environments for human and robotic mission risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard

    The Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA, is establishing an integrated, multi-disciplinary research program on the scientific and engineering challenges faced by NASA and the inter-national space community caused by space radiation. CRESSE focuses on space radiation research directly applicable to astronaut health and safety during future long term, deep space missions, including Martian, lunar, and other planetary body missions beyond low earth orbit. The research approach will consist of experimental and theoretical radiation modeling studies utilizing particle accelerator facilities including: 1. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory; 2. Proton Synchrotron at Loma Linda University Med-ical Center; and 3. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically, CRESSE investigators are designing, developing, and building experimental test beds that simulate the lunar and Martian radiation environments for experiments focused on risk assessment for astronauts and instrumentation. The testbeds have been designated the Bioastronautics Experimental Research Testbeds for Environmental Radiation Nostrum Investigations and Education (BERT and ERNIE). The designs of BERT and ERNIE will allow for a high degree of flexibility and adaptability to modify experimental configurations to simulate planetary surface environments, planetary habitats, and spacecraft interiors. In the nominal configuration, BERT and ERIE will consist of a set of experimental zones that will simulate the planetary atmosphere (Solid CO2 in the case of the Martian surface.), the planetary surface, and sub-surface regions. These experimental zones can be used for dosimetry, shielding, biological, and electronic effects radiation studies in support of space exploration missions. BERT and ERNIE are designed to be compatible with the

  13. Development of radiation-resisting high molecular-weight materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsutomu

    1976-01-01

    The excellent radiation-resisting polyvinyl chloride developed at the opportunity of the research on the relationships between the protection of living body and the polymer-technological protection from radiation is reviewed. The report is divided into four main parts, namely 1) the change in the molecular arrangement of market-available, high molecular-weight materials by gamma-ray irradiation, 2) the protection of high molecular-weight materials from radiation, 3) the relationships between the biological radiation-protective substances and the change to radiation-resisting property of synthesized high molecular-weight substances, and 4) the development of the radiation-resisting high molecular-weight materials as metal-collecting agents. Attention is paid to the polyvinyl chloride having N-methyl-dithio-carbamate radical (PMD), synthesized by the author et. al., that has excellent radiation-resisting property. PMD has some possibility to form thiol- and amino-radicals necessary to protect living things from radiation. It is believed that the protection effects of N-methyl-dithio-carbamate radical are caused by the relatively stable S radical produced by the energy transfer. PMD film is suitable for the irradiation of foods, because it hardly changes the permeability of oxygen and carbon dioxide. PMD produces mercaptide or chelate. A new metal-collecting agent (PSDC) having reactivity with the metallic ions with radiation-resisting property was developed, which is derived from polyvinyl chloride and sodium N-methyl-N-carboxy-methyl-dithio-carbamate. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Radiation damage on high polymer epoxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, H M [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The effect of irradiation in a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor on the adhesive strength of epoxy resins was studied using the ASTM D897 standard testing procedure. Although the results were variable, indicating the doses were not well defined, nevertheless, there was evidence of strengthening associated with radiation-induced crosslinking. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Radioactive aerosols in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for continuous monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the environment in normal and emergency conditions. Monitoring involves continuous sampling and, where desirable, automatic start of sampling. The document applies particularly to the following assignments: (i) determination of the volume activity of radionuclides in the form of aerosols, either per time unit, along with its time changes, or in the integral form over a longer time period such as 24 h, and measurement of the volume sampled; (ii) triggering a warning alarm signal if the preset volume activity or time integral of the volume activity of aerosols has been exceeded. The document deals with radioactive aerosol monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of the air circuit. (P.A.)

  16. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  17. Anticoagulation and high dose liver radiation. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightdale, C.J.; Wasser, J.; Coleman, M.; Brower, M.; Tefft, M.; Pasmantier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of patients were observed for evidence of acute radiation hepatitis during high dose radiation to the liver. The first group of 18 patients with metastatic liver disease received an average of 4,050 rad to the whole liver. Half received anticoagulation with warfarin. One patient on anticoagulation developed evidence of acute radiation hepatitis while 2 patients did so without anticoagulation. Eleven patients with Hodgkin's disease received 4,000 rad to the left lobe of the liver during extended field radiation. Four of these 11 patients were anticoagulated to therapeutic range. Only one of the fully anticoagulated patients showed changes on liver scan consistent with radiation hepatitis whereas three did so without anticoagulation. No serious sequelae from anticoagulation occurred in either group. These preliminary data suggest that anticoagulation may be safely administered with high dose hepatic radiation and that further trials with anticoagulation are warranted

  18. Radiation Mapping in Post-Disaster Environments Using an Autonomous Helicopter

    OpenAIRE

    Towler, Jerry; Krawiec, Bryan; Kochersberger, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Recent events have highlighted the need for unmanned remote sensing in dangerous areas, particularly where structures have collapsed or explosions have occurred, to limit hazards to first responders and increase their efficiency in planning response operations. In the case of the Fukushima nuclear reactor explosion, an unmanned helicopter capable of obtaining overhead images, gathering radiation measurements, and mapping both the structural and radiation content of the environment would have ...

  19. Radiation doses at high altitudes and during space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    2001-01-01

    There are three main sources of radiation exposure during space flights and at high altitudes--galactic cosmic radiation, solar cosmic radiation and radiation of the earth's radiation belt. Their basic characteristics are presented in the first part of this paper.Man's exposure during space flights is discussed in the second part of the paper. Particular attention is devoted to the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the radiation exposure on near-earth orbits: both theoretical estimation as well as experimental data are presented. Some remarks on radiation protection rules on-board space vehicles are also given.The problems connected with the radiation protection of air crew and passengers of subsonic and supersonic air transport are discussed in the last part of the paper. General characteristics of on-board radiation fields and their variations with flight altitude, geomagnetic parameters of a flight and the solar activity are presented, both based on theoretical estimates and experimental studies. The questions concerning air crew and passenger radiation protection arising after the publication of ICRP 60 recommendation are also discussed. Activities of different institutions relevant to the topic are mentioned; strategies to manage and check this type of radiation exposure are presented and discussed. Examples of results based on the author's personal experience are given, analyzed and discussed. (author)

  20. Radiation Protection of Environment under the Light of the New Concept of Radiation Protection of Non-Human Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansruedi Voelkle

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the question of whether radiation protection should be extended to plants and animals. Until now the recommendations of ICRP have been focused exclusively on the protection of man from ionizing radiation. It was assumed that, if man is protected, the quality of the living environment is not impaired. In recent years adequate principles, recommendations and laws have become necessary in order to protect the environment from man made toxins. These recommendations aimed to conserve plants and animals, to maintain the diversity of species, the health and status of natural habitats and the natural resources of our planet, to warrant natural evolution and selection processes in order to transmit a healthy world to future generations. Reflections have been made as to whether particular protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation should be included. This article presents some considerations from the point of view of operational radiation protection and some comments to the work already done by ICRP committee 5. The final purpose is to invite the audience to make its own reflections and to communicate any criticisms, comments or suggestions to committee 5 of ICRP. (author)

  1. Radiation Protection of Environment under the Light of the New Concept of Radiation Protection of Non-Human Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansruedi Voelkle [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Environmental Radioactivity Section, c/o Physics Department, University of Fribourg Chemin du Musee 3, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the question of whether radiation protection should be extended to plants and animals. Until now the recommendations of ICRP have been focused exclusively on the protection of man from ionizing radiation. It was assumed that, if man is protected, the quality of the living environment is not impaired. In recent years adequate principles, recommendations and laws have become necessary in order to protect the environment from man made toxins. These recommendations aimed to conserve plants and animals, to maintain the diversity of species, the health and status of natural habitats and the natural resources of our planet, to warrant natural evolution and selection processes in order to transmit a healthy world to future generations. Reflections have been made as to whether particular protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation should be included. This article presents some considerations from the point of view of operational radiation protection and some comments to the work already done by ICRP committee 5. The final purpose is to invite the audience to make its own reflections and to communicate any criticisms, comments or suggestions to committee 5 of ICRP. (author)

  2. Interactive Visual Intervention Planning: Interactive Visualization for Intervention Planning in Particle Accelerator Environments with Ionizing Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabry, Thomas; Feral, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Intervention planning is crucial for maintenance operations in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation, during which the radiation dose contracted by maintenance workers should be reduced to a minimum. In this context, we discuss the visualization aspects of a new software tool, which integrates interactive exploration of a scene depicting an accelerator facility augmented with residual radiation level simulations, with the visualization of intervention data such as the followed trajectory and maintenance tasks. The visualization of each of these aspects has its effect on the final predicted contracted radiation dose. In this context, we explore the possible benefits of a user study, with the goal of enhancing the visual conditions in which the intervention planner using the software tool is minimizing the radiation dose.

  3. A study on the life extension of polymer materials under radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. J.; Park, S. W.; Cho, S. H.; Hong, S. S

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to improve the stability and the economic profit by reducing the radiation-induced degradation rate of polymer material used under the radiation environment. So far, the resistance to radiation-induced oxidation of a polymer has been improved by the stabilizers. They can play an important role in the anti-oxidants that interrupt the radical-mediated oxidation chain reaction. The stabilization effect could be larger than that achieved in an inert-atmosphere irradiation. Stabilization is a function of stabilizer concentration up to a certain threshold, but it is not further improved above this concentration. Beyond the threshold, the rate of radiation-induced oxidation goes up to the rate that is characteristic for the unstabilized polymer. To make up for this weakness, a technique depositing a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the polymer surface was developed for protecting the radiation-induced oxidation in the air.

  4. The Plan for Investigating the Radiation Environment around the KAERI Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-11-15

    The investigation of the radiation environment is carried out broadly for the environmental radiation measurement, analyses of the environmental radioactivity and radiological assessment for the public. Environmental radiation dose is measured by a continuous and a portable environmental radiation monitor (ERM) in the range of the radius of 30 km from the sites. And the accumulated radiation dose is measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). The environmental radioactivity on gross alpha and gross beta, Uranium, Tritium, Strontium, and gamma-radionuclides are analyzed routinely in the various samples such as air particulate, air iodine, air moisture, soil, sediment, pine needle, rainwater, surface water, underground water, fallout, farm products, and stock farm products. Effective dose assessment by monitoring results is performed to obtain the public confidence.

  5. A study on the life extension of polymer materials under radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. J.; Park, S. W.; Cho, S. H.; Hong, S. S.

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to improve the stability and the economic profit by reducing the radiation-induced degradation rate of polymer material used under the radiation environment. So far, the resistance to radiation-induced oxidation of a polymer has been improved by the stabilizers. They can play an important role in the anti-oxidants that interrupt the radical-mediated oxidation chain reaction. The stabilization effect could be larger than that achieved in an inert-atmosphere irradiation. Stabilization is a function of stabilizer concentration up to a certain threshold, but it is not further improved above this concentration. Beyond the threshold, the rate of radiation-induced oxidation goes up to the rate that is characteristic for the unstabilized polymer. To make up for this weakness, a technique depositing a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the polymer surface was developed for protecting the radiation-induced oxidation in the air

  6. Radiative transitions from Rydberg states of lithium atoms in a blackbody radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2012-05-01

    The radiative widths induced by blackbody radiation (BBR) were investigated for Rydberg states with principal quantum number up to n = 1000 in S-, P- and D-series of the neutral lithium atom at temperatures T = 100-3000 K. The rates of BBR-induced decays and excitations were compared with the rates of spontaneous decays. Simple analytical approximations are proposed for accurate estimations of the ratio of thermally induced decay (excitation) rates to spontaneous decay rates in wide ranges of states and temperatures.

  7. Radiation processing of agricultural products: status and potential contribution to a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, M.

    1979-01-01

    The current status of radiation processing of agricultural products is briefly reviewed with special regard to those processes which may contribute to a cleaner environment. Radurization of poultry feed and poultry meat is shown to be a major contributor to the reduction of a significant public health problem-salmonellosis. Radiation sterilized animal feeds can be produced by processing garbage - a major environmental pollutant. Radicidation and radappertization are effective processes in the treatment of sludges and waste water, to prevent pollution of seas or ground. Radiation processes can effectively replace fungicides and insecticides in the treatment of agricultural crops and thus reduce environmental pollution. (author)

  8. Calibration of high-dose radiation facilities (Handbook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.; Bhat, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    In India at present several high intensity radiation sources are used. There are 135 teletheraphy machines and 65 high intensity cobalt-60 sources in the form of gamma chambers (2.5 Ci) and PANBIT (50 Ci). Several food irradiation facilities and a medical sterilization plant ISOMED are also in operation. The application of these high intensity sources involve a wide variation of dose from 10 Gy to 100 kGy. Accurate and reproducible radiation dosimetry is essential in the use of these sources. This handbook is especially compiled for calibration of high-dose radiation facilities. The first few chapters discuss such topics as interaction of radiation with matter, radiation chemistry, radiation processing, commonly used high intensity radiation sources and their special features, radiation units and dosimetry principles. In the chapters which follow, chemical dosimeters are discussed in detail. This discussion covers Fricke dosimeter, FBX dosimeter, ceric sulphate dosimeter, free radical dosimetry, coloured indicators for irrdiation verification. A final chapter is devoted to practical hints to be followed in calibration work. (author)

  9. Corrosion behaviour of high temperature alloys in impure helium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Masami; Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.

    1986-01-01

    Corrosion tests with Ni-base high temperature alloys were carried out at 900 and 950 0 C in simulated high temperature reactor helium environments. It is shown that the carburization and decarburization behaviour is strongly affected by the Cr and Ti(Al) contents of the alloys. In carburizing environments, additions of Ti, alone or in combination with Al, significantly improve the carburization resistance. In oxidizing environment, the alloys with high Cr and Al(Ti) contents are the most resistant against decarburization. In this environment alloys with additions of Ti and Al show poor oxidation resistance. The experimental results obtained are compared with a recently developed theory describing corrosion of high temperature alloys in high temperature reactor helium environments. (orig.)

  10. The application of entropy weight TOPSIS method to optimal points in monitoring the Xinjiang radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Hu Youhua; Liu Qian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the entropy weight TOPSIS method to optimal layout points in monitoring the Xinjiang radiation environment has been indroduced. With the help of SAS software, It has been found that the method is more ideal and feasible. The method can provide a reference for us to monitor radiation environment in the same regions further. As the method could bring great convenience and greatly reduce the inspecting work, it is very simple, flexible and effective for a comprehensive evaluation. (authors)

  11. The natural radiation environment of marine organisms and aspects of the human food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhed, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    This article is based on a paper presented at the SRP meeting on the Natural Radiation Environment, March 1982. The concentrations of some of the natural radionuclides in various components of the marine environment are described and the contributions which these make to the radiation exposure of both marine organisms and man are discussed. It is indicated that radium-226 is a useful tracer of oceanic processes and a potential means of verifying the models being developed to predict the radiological consequences of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the deep ocean. (author)

  12. Radiation-Induced Damage and Recovery of Ultra-Nanocrystalline Diamond: Toward Applications in Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aiden A; Filevich, Jorge; Straw, Marcus; Randolph, Steven; Botman, Aurélien; Aharonovich, Igor; Toth, Milos

    2017-11-15

    Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) is increasingly being used in the fabrication of devices and coatings due to its excellent tribological properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Here, we study its response to irradiation with kiloelectronvolt electrons as a controlled model for extreme ionizing environments. Real time Raman spectroscopy reveals that the radiation-damage mechanism entails dehydrogenation of UNCD grain boundaries, and we show that the damage can be recovered by annealing at 883 K. Our results have significant practical implications for the implementation of UNCD in extreme environment applications, and indicate that the films can be used as radiation sensors.

  13. Estimating the solar radiation environment on the soil surface between rows using crop canopy architectural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuge, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Nakano, Y.; Kuroda, M.; Funakoshi, T.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is quantification of the solar radiation in the farmland located in the hilly and mountainous areas, considering the effect of the shelter adjacent to the field, such as the forest (This effect is called as the edge-effect in this study.). To evaluate the edge-effect on the solar radiation environment in the farmland, solar radiations are measured at the center and edge of the study site adjacent to the forest. The simulation model is composed, coupling with the fish-eye projection method and procedure for the separating direct and diffuse solar radiations. Using this model, the diurnal solar radiations are simulated at the center and edge of the study site. The simulation result showed good agreement with the observation. The spatial distribution of the solar radiation in an observational field is quantified by this method, considering the edge-effect. The simulation result indicated that the solar radiation environment on the field surface is affected by the shelter adjacent to the field and the field direction. (author)

  14. The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment around M Dwarf Exoplanet Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Stocke, John T.; Tian, Feng; Bushinsky, Rachel; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Mauas, Pablo; hide

    2013-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No "UV-quiet" M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Lyman-alpha emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Lyman-alpha line fluxes comprise approximately 37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; approximately greater than 10(exp3) times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Lyman-alpha and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Lyman-alpha. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Lyman-alpha)/F(Mg II) = 10(exp3). The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, is shown to be approximately 0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, greather than 10(exp3) times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%.500% on 10(exp2)-10(exp3) s timescales. This effect should be taken

  15. THE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AROUND M DWARF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Stocke, John T.; Bushinsky, Rachel [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tian, Feng [Center for Earth System Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Desert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela [Instituto de Astronomsica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Walkowicz, Lucianne M., E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No 'UV-quiet' M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Ly{alpha} emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Ly{alpha} line fluxes comprise {approx}37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; {approx}>10{sup 3} times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Ly{alpha} and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Ly{alpha}. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Ly{alpha})/F(Mg II) = 10 {+-} 3. The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, is shown to be {approx}0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, >10{sup 3} times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%-500% on 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s timescales. This effect should be taken into account in future UV

  16. The radiation monitoring of environment around place of treatment and storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovina, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Large success was attained in the field of radiation protection of research nuclear center, but it is necessary to carry out works in this way around place of treatment and storage of radioactive wastes too. Moreover, for protection of environment it is necessary to control radiation condition of system (radioactive wastes of nuclear center - environment). There is large amount of natural and man-made radionuclides in environment and it is important to solve problem to control individual radionuclides, polluting natural environment. Also, it is necessary to control concentrations of specific radionuclides, which are marks of definite radioactive source. The radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 131 I and natural radionuclides of uranium, thorium and their products of decay are basic radionuclides. The 57 Co, 35 S, 32 P are considered also basic radionuclides taking into consideration specialization of our Institute. The basic problems of control of environment are following: observation of radioactive pollution level of environment objects; estimation of radioactive pollution level with the purpose of warning of possible negative consequences; investigation of dynamics of radioactivity and prognosis of radioactive pollution of environment objects; influence on sources of radioactive pollution. There is large volume information, characterizing radiation condition of environment around research nuclear center and around place of treatment and storage of radioactive wastes. The bank of environment object analysis result date was build for investigation of information. The system of protection around location of treatment and storage of radioactive wastes and around nuclear center consists of control of radioactive wastes, superficial and underground water, soil, plants, atmospheric precipitation. There are analysis of total β- activity, α-activity and γ-spectrometry. This control includes estimation of throw down values

  17. Radiation interactions in high-pressure gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article is on basic radiation interaction processes in dense fluids and on interphase studies aiming at the interfacing of knowledge on radiation interaction processes in the gaseous and the liquid state of matter. It is specifically focused on the effect of the density and nature of the medium on electron production in irradiated fluids and on the state, energy, transport, and attachment of slow excess electrons in dense fluids especially dielectric liquids which possess excess-electron conduction bands (V 0 < 0 eV). Studies over the past two decades have shown that the interactions of low-energy electrons with molecules embedded in dense media depend not only on the molecules themselves and their internal state of excitation, but also on the electron state and energy in -- and the nature and density of -- the medium in which the interactions occur

  18. Radiation interactions in high-pressure gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophorou, L.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This article is on basic radiation interaction processes in dense fluids and on interphase studies aiming at the interfacing of knowledge on radiation interaction processes in the gaseous and the liquid state of matter. It is specifically focused on the effect of the density and nature of the medium on electron production in irradiated fluids and on the state, energy, transport, and attachment of slow excess electrons in dense fluids especially dielectric liquids which possess excess-electron conduction bands (V{sub 0} < 0 eV). Studies over the past two decades have shown that the interactions of low-energy electrons with molecules embedded in dense media depend not only on the molecules themselves and their internal state of excitation, but also on the electron state and energy in -- and the nature and density of -- the medium in which the interactions occur.

  19. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that t he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... . In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved

  20. A perspective on the ICRP approach to Radiation protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    The ICRP, in response to concerns by the environmental community, has begun the process of addressing radiation protection of non-human species. Concerns have been raised that the current framework for radiation protection fails to adequately protect the environment. Although most everyone agrees that some change to the ICRP radiation protection framework is called for, the extent of the revision is debatable. In May 2000, the ICRP set up a Task Group to provide advice on the development of a policy for the protection of the environment and to suggest a framework for environmental protection based on scientific, ethical, and philosophical principles. Based on Task Group input, ICRP intends to develop a framework for protection of the environment that can be integrated into an overall system of protection. This paper explores four major issues that serve to identify questions that ICRP should consider in its 2005 recommendations regarding radiation protection of the environment: (1) the role of ICRP, (2) defining the environment and criteria for protection, (3) the framework for environmental protection, and (4) risk management. (author)

  1. Track reconstruction in CMS high luminosity environment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067159

    2016-01-01

    The CMS tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built, covering 200 square meters and providing an average of 14 high-precision measurements per track. Tracking is essential for the reconstruction of objects like jets, muons, electrons and tau leptons starting from the raw data from the silicon pixel and strip detectors. Track reconstruction is widely used also at trigger level as it improves objects tagging and resolution.The CMS tracking code is organized in several levels, known as iterative steps, each optimized to reconstruct a class of particle trajectories, as the ones of particles originating from the primary vertex or displaced tracks from particles resulting from secondary vertices. Each iterative step consists of seeding, pattern recognition and fitting by a kalman filter, and a final filtering and cleaning. Each subsequent step works on hits not yet associated to a reconstructed particle trajectory.The CMS tracking code is continuously evolving to make the reconstruction computing load compat...

  2. Track reconstruction in CMS high luminosity environment

    CERN Document Server

    Goetzmann, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The CMS tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built, covering 200 square meters and providing an average of 14 high-precision measurements per track. Tracking is essential for the reconstruction of objects like jets, muons, electrons and tau leptons starting from the raw data from the silicon pixel and strip detectors. Track reconstruction is widely used also at trigger level as it improves objects tagging and resolution.The CMS tracking code is organized in several levels, known as iterative steps, each optimized to reconstruct a class of particle trajectories, as the ones of particles originating from the primary vertex or displaced tracks from particles resulting from secondary vertices. Each iterative step consists of seeding, pattern recognition and fitting by a kalman filter, and a final filtering and cleaning. Each subsequent step works on hits not yet associated to a reconstructed particle trajectory.The CMS tracking code is continuously evolving to make the reconstruction computing load compat...

  3. Intergenerational continuity in high conflict family environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, W. Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M.; Chassin, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined continuity in conflict across generations and explored potential mediators and moderators that could explain this continuity. We followed 246 targets from adolescence to adulthood and examined family conflict as reported by multiple reporters in targets' family of origin and current families. Results showed that conflict in the current family was strongly correlated with that of the family of origin in women but not in men. Continuity in family conflict across generations was mediated by patterns of elevated adolescent externalizing behavior in members of the second generation (G2). Additionally, analyses revealed an interaction between both G2 partners' externalizing behavior such that if one partner in the G2 family demonstrated high levels of externalizing behavior, elevated levels of family conflict resulted. Potential explanations and implications of these findings are considered. PMID:26018605

  4. Existing condition assessment of radiation environment quality in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiaang; Li Fusheng; Chen Yingmin; Zhu Jianguo; Lu Feng; Song Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the radiactivity levels of Jinan dwellings and the indoor environment quality. Methods: Using the self made Measurement Cups of Indoor Environmental Radioactivity Evaluation (MCIERE) (ZL 200620082698.7) to measure the gamma ray dose rate, 222 Rn activity concentration, 220 Rn activity concentration and EECTn. Results: The geometric mean of 222 Rn activity concentrations that showed a clear lognoxmal distribution tendency in 411 rooms of Jinan was 45 Bq ·m -3 , the range which was from 18 to 203 Bq·m -3 . The geometric mean of 220 Rn activity concentration that was also nearly lognormal distribution in 203 rooms of Jinan was 16 Bq·m -3 and the range of the activity coneentratons was from 1 to 167 Bq· m -3 . The geometric mean of EECT, that was nearly lognormal distribution in 204 rooms of Jinan was 1.082 Bq ·m -3 , the range was from 0.015 to 10.230 Bq·m -3 . The arithmetic mean of the gamma ray dose rate that was nearly Gaussian distribution in 412 rooms of Jinan was 0.106 μSv·h -1 , the concentration range from 0.041 to 0.167 μSv·h -1 . Conclusion: The internal irradiation annual effective dose caused by 222 Rn and its progeny, 220 Rn and its progeny and of Jinan inhabitant was 1.189 mSv, the external irradiation annual effective close caused by the gamma ray from the ground and buildings was 0.743 mSv. The mean total annual effective dose was 2.187 mSv and the highest annual effective dose level was above 5 mSv. (authors)

  5. Feasibility of optical sensing for robotics in highly radioactive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, S.; Decreton, M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of robotics for repair, refurbishing or dismantling of nuclear installations implies eventually severe radiation resistance requirements on embarked components and subsystems. This is particularly critical when optical sensing is considered. Optoelectronic components and optical fibers are indeed quite sensitive to radiation, and without special design are rapidly out-of-operation in such an environment. This paper reports the results of a series of γ irradiation experiments on such devices, and identify their behavior under radiation. Test results show that carefully selected optical fibers can keep their radiation induced attenuation lower than 0.3 dB/m even up to a total dose of 10 MGy. Temperature annealing can even lower this attenuation down to 0.1 dB/m. On the other hand, commercially available light emitting diodes and photodiodes present attenuations figures up to 15 dB, even after a gamma irradiation as low as 250 kGy. However, properly chosen bias procedures are shown to greatly enhance this figure. The paper concludes by showing the feasibility of optical sensing for proximity measurement and data transmission for nuclear robots used under severe radiation conditions

  6. The low earth orbit radiation environment and its evolution from measurements using the CREAM and CREDO experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J.; Truscott, P.R.; Farren, J.; Underwood, C.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained from Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors carried on Shuttle missions during 1991/92, as well as on the polar orbiting microsatellite UOSAT-3 since April 1990, show the long term trends in the cosmic-ray and trapped proton environments responsible for single event phenomena. Cosmic-ray fluxes have increased by a factor of two since June 1991, while the solar flare event of Much 1991 created an additional region of trapped radiation which intersects high inclination Shuttle and polar orbits and, although decaying, was still present in December 1992. Deployment at a variety of shielding depths on Shuttle enables the influence of shielding to be explored and shows the influence of secondaries

  7. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    ); 18 - Dosimetry in the environment of a ultra-high intensity laser (Jean-Marie Fauquant, Pascal Monot, CEA); 19 - Use of operational dosemeters in interventional radiology/cardiology: results of the Oramed European project (Isabelle Clairand, IRSN); 20 - Awareness-raising to nuclear materials protection and control among 'small owners' (David Ladsous, IRSN); 21 - Management of spent sealed sources (Bernard Sevestre, CEA); 22 - Preparation and implementation of a withdrawal plan for radioactive Overvoltage arresters (Robert Farejeaux, France Telecom); 23 - Radioactive sources transport Regulation (Gabriel Meyer, ASN); 24 - Status after 3 years of Camari examination (certificate of professional competence in the handling of industrial radiological devices) 2008-2011 (Jean-Pierre Vidal, IRSN) 25 - Approval of cases for the internal transport of calibration sources (Jean-Pierre Marcassoli, Areva); 26 - Use of measurement devices, except radiometers, for the technical and environmental radiation protection controls of sources and devices (Thierry Lahaye, DGT); 27 - Complexity of radiation protection controls of unaccessible sources (Philippe Tranchant, Technam Industrie); 28 - Isemir (Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research) - Report from the working group on industrial radiography (Gonzague Abela, EDF)

  8. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  9. Health effects in residents of high background radiation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Although the health effects of radiation doses in occupationally exposed persons had received attention, it was not until the 1950s, when the atmospheric atom bomb tests of the United States and the Soviet Union had raised the level of environmental radioactivity, that the long-term effects of low-level radiation dosage became a matter of popular concern throughout the world. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was created, and the World Health Organization (WHO) appointed an expert committee to provide advice concerning radiation and human health. In its first report, the WHO expert committee identified several areas of high natural radiation where studies of the exposed population might possibly provide information concerning the effects of chromic low-level radiation dosage

  10. Approach to reducing the effect of bone—coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIShi-Ying; GUPei-Long; 等

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations(6MWe) on environment was investigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways.It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder(BCC),soot and ash in the catchers.

  11. Approach to reducing the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations (6 MWe) on environment wasinvestigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways. It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder (BCC), soot and ash in the catchers.

  12. High energy radiation effects on the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuaki

    1977-01-01

    High-energy radiation injuries and their risks were recognized, information on low-energy radiation injuries was also arranged, and with these backgrounds, countermeasures against prevention of radiation injuries were considered. Redintegration of DNA and mutation by radiation were described, and relationship between radiation injuries and dose was considered. Interaction of high-energy radiation and substances in the living body and injuries by the interaction were also considered. Expression method of risk was considered, and a concept of protection dose was suggested. Protection dose is dose equivalent which is worthy of value at the point where the ratio to permissible dose distributed among each part of the body is at its maximum in the distribution of dose equivalent formed within the body when standard human body is placed at a certain radiation field for a certain time. Significance and countermeasures of health examination which is under an abligation to make radiation workers receive health check were thought, and problems were proposed on compensation when radiation injuries should appear actually. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. High excitation rovibrational molecular analysis in warm environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziwei; Stancil, Phillip C.; Cumbee, Renata; Ferland, Gary J.

    2017-06-01

    Inspired by advances in infrared observation (e.g., Spitzer, Herschel and ALMA), we investigate rovibrational emission CO and SiO in warm astrophysical environments. With recent innovation in collisional rate coefficients and rescaling methods, we are able to construct more comprehensive collisional data with high rovibrational states (vibration up to v=5 and rotation up to J=40) and multiple colliders (H2, H and He). These comprehensive data sets are used in spectral simulations with the radiative transfer codes RADEX and Cloudy. We obtained line ratio diagnostic plots and line spectra for both near- and far-infrared emission lines over a broad range of density and temperature for the case of a uniform medium. Considering the importance of both molecules in probing conditions and activities of UV-irradiated interstellar gas, we model rovibrational emission in photodissociation region (PDR) and AGB star envelopes (such as VY Canis Majoris, IK Tau and IRC +10216) with Cloudy. Rotational diagrams, energy distribution diagrams, and spectra are produced to examine relative state abundances, line emission intensity, and other properties. With these diverse models, we expect to have a better understanding of PDRs and expand our scope in the chemical architecture and evolution of AGB stars and other UV-irradiated regions. The soon to be launched James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide high resolution observations at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths, which opens a new window to study molecular vibrational emission calling for more detailed chemical modeling and comprehensive laboratory astrophysics data on more molecules. This work was partially supported by NASA grants NNX12AF42G and NNX15AI61G. We thank Benhui Yang, Kyle Walker, Robert Forrey, and N. Balakrishnan for collaborating on the collisional data adopted in the current work.

  14. Electromagnetic Radiation in the Plasma Environment Around the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the SAMPIE (The Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment) program, the Langmuir probe (LP) was employed to measure plasma characteristics during the flight STS-62. The whole set of data could be divided into two parts: (1) low frequency sweeps to determine voltage-current characteristics and to find electron temperature and number density; (2) high frequency turbulence (HFT dwells) data caused by electromagnetic noise around the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250-20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was minimized. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. According to purposes of SAMPIE, the samples of solar cells were placed in the cargo bay of the shuttle, and high negative bias voltages were applied to them to initiate arcing between these cells and surrounding plasma. The arcing onset was registered by special counters, and data were obtained that included the amplitudes of current, duration of each arc, and the number of arcs per one experiment. The LP data were analyzed for two different situations: with arcing and without arcing. Electrostatic noise spectra for both situations and theoretical explanation of the observed features are presented in this report.

  15. Study Progress of Physiological Responses in High Temperature Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K.; Zheng, G. Z.; Bu, W. T.; Wang, Y. J.; Lu, Y. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Certain workers are exposed to high temperatures for a long time. Heat stress will result in a series of physiological responses, and cause adverse effects on the health and safety of workers. This paper summarizes the physiological changes of cardiovascular system, core temperature, skin temperature, water-electrolyte metabolism, alimentary system, neuroendocrine system, reaction time and thermal fatigue in high temperature environments. It can provide a theoretical guidance for labor safety in high temperature environment.

  16. Health effects in residents of regions with high background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible health problems created by high natural levels of background radiation are hard to detect, partly because the health problems involved would exist to some degree irrespective of radiation exposure, partly because other factors affect the incidence of such problems, and partly because the differences between normal background radiation levels and radiation levels found in most high-radiation areas are not extreme. Nevertheless, the need to know about such health effects is evident, and so various studies conducted over the past 30 years have sought to determine whether those effects exist and what they are. Overall, however, the fragmentary and uncertain nature of many of these findings makes it hard to draw firm conclusions about the health risks involved or the desirability of countermeasures. So despite considerable efforts and some progress over the past three decades, the need for a clear quantitative assessment of the consequences is as great as ever

  17. Radiation protection of the environment: anthropocentric and eco-centric principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Fesenko, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    The second half of the 20. century was dominated in the field of radiation protection by the anthropocentric concept stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to this concept 'if radiation standards protect man then biota are also adequately protected from ionizing radiation'. At the end of the 20. beginning of the 21. centuries in the area of radiation protection of nature an eco-centric strategy is beginning to develop where emphasis has swung to the protection of biota in their environment. Inadequacy of ICRP's anthropocentric concept is reported. Issues are discussed such as ecological dosimetry, non-equi-dose irradiation of man and biota, criteria for estimating radiation induced changes in biota and man, as well as the need to harmonize permissible exposure doses to man and biota. An urgent need is stressed to develop a single (synthetic) concept of radiation protection which simultaneously ensures protection of human health and biota well-being in their environment. This concept is to be based on the recognition of the integrity of socio-natural ecosystems where man and biota are considered as a unity. (author)

  18. Cooperative effect of radiation and vapor environments on the deterioration of insulator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Yasuo; Okada, Sohei; Yagi, Toshiaki; Ito, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kenzo; Tamura, Naoyuki

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results and speculations are described on the cooperative effect of radiation and vapor environments for the deterioration of insulator cable cladding materials such as polyethylene chlorosulphonate, ethylene propylene rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, chloroprene and silicone rubber, by the separate, simultaneous or subsequent exposure of the above-mentioned two kinds of exposure factors. These experiment was carried out by considering main environmental factors in the LOCA (loss of coolant accident) conditions. Radiation experiment was made by employing 60 Co source of 9.7 kGy/h at a room-temperature air condition. Vapor environment exposure was conducted by the conditions of 120 to 160 deg C steam-saturated air conditions and others. With the experimental results described on the characteristics of the five kinds of the above-mentioned insulator materials in radiation and saturated vapor conditions, the following conclusions were obtained. Acceleration of deterioration by the cooperative action of radiation and saturated vapor was found for the examined materials except the cross-linked polyethylene. In the subsequent exposure of radiation and saturated vapor, deterioration behavior was dependent on insulator materials and component ratios of the insulator materials. For the cross-linked polyethylene, annealing effect by heat was found, and the effect was less significent in the simultaneous exposure. Restoration phenomenon was found in the cross-linked polyethylene even in the saturated vapor exposure stage of the subsequent exposure conditions of radiation exposure followed by saturated vapor. (Takagi, S.)

  19. The Martian surface radiation environment – a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL has been measuring the radiation environment on the surface of Mars since August 6th 2012. MSL-RAD is the first instrument to provide detailed information about charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates on the Martian surface, and one of the primary objectives of the RAD investigation is to help improve and validate current radiation transport models. Aims: Applying different numerical transport models with boundary conditions derived from the MSL-RAD environment the goal of this work was to both provide predictions for the particle spectra and the radiation exposure on the Martian surface complementing the RAD sensitive range and, at the same time, validate the results with the experimental data, where applicable. Such validated models can be used to predict dose rates for future manned missions as well as for performing shield optimization studies. Methods: Several particle transport models (GEANT4, PHITS, HZETRN/OLTARIS were used to predict the particle flux and the corresponding radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic radiation on Mars. From the calculated particle spectra the dose rates on the surface are estimated. Results: Calculations of particle spectra and dose rates induced by galactic cosmic radiation on the Martian surface are presented. Although good agreement is found in many cases for the different transport codes, GEANT4, PHITS, and HZETRN/OLTARIS, some models still show large, sometimes order of magnitude discrepancies in certain particle spectra. We have found that RAD data is helping to make better choices of input parameters and physical models. Elements of these validated models can be applied to more detailed studies on how the radiation environment is influenced by solar modulation, Martian atmosphere and soil, and changes due to the Martian seasonal pressure cycle. By extending the range of the calculated particle

  20. Radiation Impact to Environment of Non-nuclear Industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Wei-jie; CHENG; Wei-ya

    2015-01-01

    According to the gas,liquid effluent monitoring and survey results of non nuclear industry in Hunan,Hubei and Jiangxi provinces,the radiation effects of which on the surrounding environment were analysis and evaluation.Evaluation industrials includes three coal-fired power plants,two rare earth ores,two cement factories,one

  1. International symposium on radiation technology for conservation of the environment. Extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document includes extended synopses of 54 presentations given at the International Symposium on Radiation Technology for the conservation of the Environment held in Zakopane (near Cracow), Poland, 8-12 September 1997. Each presentation is separately indexed. Refs, figs, tabs.

  2. Radiation environment measurements and single event upset observations in sun-synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J.; Farren, J.; Stephen, J.; Underwood, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on analysis of data from the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiment (CREDO) carried in sun-synchronous polar orbit on UoSat-3 which shows the influence of cosmic rays, trapped protons and solar particles and allows comparison with device behavior

  3. Environmental radiation monitoring on the CERN sites and in the CERN environment during 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtyla, P; Wittekind, D

    1998-04-10

    As a consequence of changes in the administrative structure of TIS Division in 1996 and 1997, the Environmental Section was integrated into the TIS Technical Services and Environment Group that also looks after the non-radiation parameters in the CERN releases and environment. However, it remains the duty of the Radiation Protection Group to define the environmental programme for radiation and radioactivity, and to report its results both inside and outside CERN. In 1997, the environmental programme was slightly modified after discussions with the Sektion zur Ueberwachung der Radioaktivitaet (SUeR) in Fribourg. Gamma spectroscopy analyses of moss and water plants collected once per year in the rivers l'Allondon, Le Lion, Le Nant d'Avril and La Versoix were added. Moss and water plants were chosen as they are sensitive indicators of the presence of natural and man-made radioactivity in the environment. Part I of this Annual Report describes the results of measurements which are relevant for assessing the radiological impact of CERN's activities on the environment and the population living in the vicinity of the CERN sites. Measurements of radioactivity released into the atmosphere and into water, as well as measurements of stray radiation at or near the CERN site boundaries, are reported.

  4. International symposium on radiation technology for conservation of the environment. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This document includes extended synopses of 54 presentations given at the International Symposium on Radiation Technology for the conservation of the Environment held in Zakopane near Cracow), Poland, 8-12 September 1997. Each presentation is separately indexed. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. The retention characteristics of nonvolatile SNOS memory transistors in a radiation environment: Experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhorter, P.J.; Miller, S.L.; Dellin, T.A.; Axness, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data and a model to accurately and quantitatively predict the data are presented for retention of SNOS memory devices over a wide range of dose rates. A wide range of SNOS stack geometries are examined. The model is designed to aid in screening nonvolatile memories for use in a radiation environment

  6. A Method for Estimating the Probability of Floating Gate Prompt Charge Loss in a Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Since advancing technology has been producing smaller structures in electronic circuits, the floating gates in modern flash memories are becoming susceptible to prompt charge loss from ionizing radiation environments found in space. A method for estimating the risk of a charge-loss event is given.

  7. System-Level Model for OFDM WiMAX Transceiver in Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Alim, O.; Elboghdadly, N.; Ashour, M.M.; Elaskary, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    WiMAX (Worldwide Inter operability for Microwave Access), an evolving standard for point-to-multipoint wireless networking, works for the l ast mile c onnections for replacing optical fiber technology network but with no need for adding more infra structure within crowded areas. Optical fiber technology is seriously considered for communication and monitoring applications in space and around nuclear reactors. Space and nuclear environments are characterized, in particular, by the presence of ionizing radiation fields. Therefore the influence of radiation on such networks needs to be investigated. This paper has the objective of building a System level model for a WiMAX OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) based transceiver. Modeling irradiation noise as an external effect added to the Additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN). Then analyze, discuss the results based on qualitatively performance evaluation using BER calculations for radiation environment

  8. Studies on the gamma radiation environment in Sweden with special reference to 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, Sara

    2008-09-01

    measurements and the results agreed relatively well with the 137 Cs inventories in soil samples. A widespread deposition of radionuclides was caused by the Chernobyl accident and parts of Sweden were highly affected. Today, approximately 20 years since the latest deposition, 137 Cs can still be measured in the environment and contributes to additional doses to people. However, today people generally spend much time in their dwellings, and therefore, the radiation environment indoors is more important for the personal exposure. Dwelling and personal dose rate measurements in western Sweden (means: 0.099±0.035 μSv/h and 0.094±0.017 μSv/h, respectively) showed that concrete dwellings yield higher dose rates than those of wood. Measurements in a region with a high 137 Cs deposition (Hille in eastern Sweden) showed somewhat higher dose rates in wooden dwellings than in western Sweden (0.033 μSv/h and 0.025 μSv/h higher, respectively). The additional contribution from the Chernobyl 137 Cs fallout in Hille was estimated to be about 0.2 mSv/year

  9. Mouse fecal microbiome after exposure to high LET radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space travel is associated with continuous low-dose-rate exposure to high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. Pathophysiological manifestations after low-dose...

  10. Open cell conducting foams for high synchrotron radiation accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petracca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible use of open cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerators is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  11. High power radiation guiding systems for laser driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutolo, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the main problems encountered in the design of an optical system for transmitting high fluence radiation in a laser driven accelerator. Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of mirror and waveguide systems. (orig.)

  12. Effects of alpha and gamma radiation on glass reaction in an unsaturated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Young, J.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation may effect the long-term performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water. The present study examines (1) the effects of alpha or gamma irradiation in a water vapor environment, and (2) the influence of radiolytic products on glass reaction. Results indicate that nitric and organic acids form in an irradiated water vapor environment and are dissolved in thin films of condensed water. Glass samples exposed to these conditions react faster and have a different assemblage of secondary phases than glasses exposed to nonirradiated water vapor environments. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. The high pressure xenon lamp as a source of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerdt, J.A. ter.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an investigation into the radiation properties of a commercially available high pressure xenon lamp (type XBO 900 W) in the spectral range 0.3 to 3 μm. The purpose of the study was to find out whether such a lamp can serve as a (secondary) standard of radiation in spectroscopic and radiometric measurements. The main advantades of the xenon lamp over other secondary standards such as the tungsten strip lamp and the anode of a carbon arc lamp are the high temperature of its discharge and the resulting strong radiation over a broad spectral range. (Auth.)

  14. A Review: Some biological effects of high LET radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    There are qualitative and quantitative differences in the biological damage observed after exposure to high LET radiation as compared to that caused by low LET radiations. This review is concerned with these differences, which are ultimately reflected at the biochemical, cellular and even whole animal levels. In general, high LET radiations seem to produce biochemical damage which is more severe and possibly less repairable. Experimental data for those effects are presented in terms of biochemical RBE's with consideration of both early and late manifestations. An LET independent process by which significant biochemical damage may result from protons, neutrons and negative pion mesons is discussed.

  15. Overview of a radiation safety program in a district style medical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the eight components of a radiation safety program in a large health care facility spread out over several campuses in a large geographic area in Nova Scotia. The main focus is based on those areas that are regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and generally encompass nuclear medicine and radiation therapy operations. X-ray operations are regulated provincially, but the general operational principles of an effective radiation safety program can be applied in all these areas. The main components covered include the set up of an organizational structure that operates separately from individual departments, general items expected from reports to corporate management or regulators, and some examples of the front-line expectations for those in individual departments. The review is not all encompassing, but should give organizations some insight of the magnitude of a radiation safety program in a district style environment. (author)

  16. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  17. Radiobiological effectiveness of high LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, M; Koike, S; Suzuki, Y; Todoroki, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1977-03-01

    The effect of cyclotron-produced neutrons (30 MeV d ..-->.. Be) on an animal tumors was studied. The experimental tumors were 5th generation isotransplants of spontaneous mouse squamous cell carcinoma. C3Hf/He mouse were used throughout. Cell survival was examined by the TD/sub 50/ method after neutron or x-ray irradiation. Tumor regrowth was also analysed by measuring tumor size daily. Results indicated that RBE was higher at low dose level, tumor cells surviving a neutron dose were not capable of repairing potentially lethal damage, and the OER was less after neutrons than after x rays. Implications of these results in radiation oncology and therapy were discussed.

  18. An environment for high energy physics code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisinski, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    As the size and complexity of high energy experiments increase there will be a greater need for better software tools and new programming environments. If these are not commercially available, then we must build them ourselves. This paper describes a prototype programming environment featuring a new type of file system, a ''smart'' editor, and integrated file management tools. This environment was constructed under the IBM VM/SP operating system. It uses the system interpreter, the system editor and the NOMAD2 relational database management system to create a software ''shell'' for the programmer. Some extensions to this environment are explored. (orig.)

  19. Effects of ozone depletion and UV-B radiation on humans and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, K.R. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Centre for Toxicology

    2008-03-15

    This paper summarized current research related to the effects of ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation on human health and the environment. Effects included direct responses in human as well as effects on biogeochemistry and the environmental cycling of substances. UV radiation has many harmful effects on the skin, eyes, and immune systems of humans. Skin cancer is a leading cause of death among fair-skinned populations exposed to UV radiation. The role of UV radiation in cataract formation was discussed, as well as issues related to the suppression of immune responses. The link between sunlight exposure and vitamin D levels in human populations was examined. The effects of UV radiation on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were reviewed. Issues related to biogeochemistry and atmospheric processes were discussed. The review suggested that changes in the intensity of solar UV radiation due to ozone depletion will have important repercussions for all organisms on the planet. It was concluded that the combined effects of UV-B radiation and climate change will not be easy to predict. 201 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Nuclear explosives, ionizin.o. radiation and the effects on the biota of the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Vincent; Ward Whicker, F.

    1980-01-01

    After giving a general discussion of nuclear explosives, weapons testing and peaceful use of nuclear explosives under Plowshare project, ecological studies carried out at weapon test sites and Plowshare project sites in United States are reviewed. It is noted that though considerable data are available on the behaviour of radionuclides in natural environments on these sites, only a few observations of effects of ionizing radiations on the biota of the natural environments of these sites have been made. The major effects on the natural environments of these sites have been attributed to physical effects of nuclear detonations and site preparation. These effects are physical destruction of plants and animals and habitat modification such as soil disturbances. Recolonization of ground zeros and adjacent areas is observed to follow the successional pattern unique to the site. Observed effects of ionizing radiation on shrubs in the vicinity of cratering tests appear to be inconsequential when one considers the ecosystem as a whole. (M.G.B.)

  1. Response of high Tc superconducting Josephson junction to nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Honglin; Zhang Wanchang; Zhang Xiufeng

    1992-10-01

    The development of nuclear radiation detectors and research on high T c superconducting nuclear radiation detectors are introduced. The emphases are the principle of using thin-film and thick-film Josephson junctions (bridge junction) based on high T c YBCO superconductors to detect nuclear radiation, the fabrication of thin film and thick-film Josephson junction, and response of junction to low energy gamma-rays of 59.5 keV emitted from 241 Am and beta-rays of 546 keV. The results show that a detector for measuring nuclear radiation spectrum made of high T c superconducting thin-film or thick-film, especially, thick-film Josephson junction, certainly can be developed

  2. A low power high speed radiation hard serializer for High Energy Physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080243; Marchioro, Alessandro; Ottavi, Marco

    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on the development and the characterization of novel solutions for electronic systems for high-speed data transmission in extremely high radio-active environment (e.g. high energy physics application). The text proposes two alternative full-custom solutions for a fundamental enabling block for a lowpower serial data transmission system, the serializer. This block will find place in a future transceiver conceived for the future upgraded phase of the Large Hadron Collider, or LHC, at CERN. The first solution proposed, called “triple module redundancy”, is based on hardware redundancy, a well-known solution, to obtain protection against the temporary malfunctioning induced by radiation. In the second case a new architecture, called “code protected”, is proposed. This architecture takes advantage of the error correction code present in the data word to obtain radiation robustness on data and some parts of the control logic and to further reduce the power consumption. A test chip ...

  3. Interactive visual intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    radiation. Several industrial and scientific procedures give rise to facilities with ionizing radiation. Most technical and scientific facilities also need maintenance operations. In the spirit of ALARA, these interventions need to be optimized in terms of the exposure of the maintenance workers to ionizing radiation. This optimization cannot be automated since the feasibility of the intervention tasks requires human assessment. The intervention planning could however be facilitated by technical-scientific means, e.g. software tools. In the context sketched above, this thesis provides technical-scientific considerations and the development of technical-scientific methodologies and software tools for the implementation of radiation protection.In particular, this thesis addresses the need for an interactive visual intervention planning tool in the context of high energy particle accelerator facilities. (author)

  4. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  5. Biomarkers specific to densely-ionising (high LET) radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Okladnikova, N.; Hande, P.; Burak, L.; Geard, C.R.; Azizova, T.

    2001-01-01

    There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker could significantly increase the power of epidemiological studies of individuals exposed to densely-ionising radiations such as alpha particles (e.g. radon, plutonium workers, individuals exposed to depleted uranium) or neutrons (e.g. radiation workers, airline personnel). We discuss here a potentially powerful high LET biomarker (the H value) which is the ratio of induced inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-arm aberrations. Both theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that this ratio should differ by a factor of about three between high LET radiation and any other likely clastogen, and will yield more discrimination than the previously suggested F value (ratio of inter-chromosomal aberrations to intra-chromosomal inter-arm aberrations). Evidence of the long-term stability of such chromosomal biomarkers has also been generated. Because these stable intra-arm and inter-chromosomal aberrations are (1) frequent and (2) measurable at long times after exposure, this H value appears to be a practical biomarker of high LET exposure, and several in vitro studies have confirmed the approach for unstable aberrations. The approach is currently being tested in a population of Russian radiation workers exposed several decades ago to high- or low LET radiation. (author)

  6. The radiation environment on the surface of Mars - Summary of model calculations and comparison to RAD data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiä, Daniel; Hassler, Donald M; de Wet, Wouter; Ehresmann, Bent; Firan, Ana; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Guo, Jingnan; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Lee, Kerry; Ratliff, Hunter; Rios, Ryan R; Slaba, Tony C; Smith, Michael; Stoffle, Nicholas N; Townsend, Lawrence W; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Zeitlin, Cary

    2017-08-01

    The radiation environment at the Martian surface is, apart from occasional solar energetic particle events, dominated by galactic cosmic radiation, secondary particles produced in their interaction with the Martian atmosphere and albedo particles from the Martian regolith. The highly energetic primary cosmic radiation consists mainly of fully ionized nuclei creating a complex radiation field at the Martian surface. This complex field, its formation and its potential health risk posed to astronauts on future manned missions to Mars can only be fully understood using a combination of measurements and model calculations. In this work the outcome of a workshop held in June 2016 in Boulder, CO, USA is presented: experimental results from the Radiation Assessment Detector of the Mars Science Laboratory are compared to model results from GEANT4, HETC-HEDS, HZETRN, MCNP6, and PHITS. Charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates measured between 15 November 2015 and 15 January 2016 and model results calculated for this time period are investigated. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation characteristics of water droplets in a fire-inspired environment: A Monte Carlo ray tracing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bifen; Zhao, Xinyu

    2018-06-01

    The effects of radiation of water mists in a fire-inspired environment are numerically investigated for different complexities of radiative media in a three-dimensional cubic enclosure. A Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) method is employed to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The anisotropic scattering behaviors of water mists are modeled by a combination of the Mie theory and the Henyey-Greestein relation. A tabulation method considering the size and wavelength dependencies is established for water droplets, to reduce the computational cost associated with the evaluation of the nongray spectral properties of water mists. Validation and verification of the coupled MCRT solver are performed using a one-dimensional slab with gray gas in comparison with the analytical solutions. Parametric studies are then performed using a three-dimensional cubic box to examine radiation of two monodispersed and one polydispersed water mist systems. The tabulation method can reduce the computational cost by a factor of one hundred. Results obtained without any scattering model better conform with results obtained from the anisotropic model than the isotropic scattering model, when a highly directional emissive source is applied. For isotropic emissive sources, isotropic and anisotropic scattering models predict comparable results. The addition of different volume fractions of soot shows that soot may have a negative impact on the effectiveness of water mists in absorbing radiation when its volume fraction exceeds certain threshold.

  8. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B

    2005-01-01

    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets.

  9. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the earth and jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source - The Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (≥100 keV) and proton ≥1 MeV) populations - The dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/ AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4. largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are ∼0.1 krad(Si) d -1 at the geosynchronous orbit and ∼30 krad(Si) d -1 at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield - a factor of ∼300 between the two planets. (authors)

  10. Radiation technology for conservation of the environment. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    In September 1997 the IAEA held an International Symposium in Zakopane, Poland, on the applications of radiation technology in conservation of environment. The symposium attended 110 participants representing 38 Member States. The objective was to review the status of current developments and applications of radiation processing in the control of environment pollution and to discuss future developments. The scientific programme covered a wide range of different applications of radiation technology, such as purification of exhaust gases, decontamination of wastewater from industrial and municipal sources, sewage sludge treatment, disinfection and detoxication of solid waste, recycling and the treatment of plastic and solid waste. The document contains full presentations. The symposium (56 papers) was held in 10 sessions as follows: Purification of Exhaust Gases (8 papers); Radiation Chemistry and the Environment (5 papers); Purification and Decontamination of Water (10 papers); Sewage Sludge Treatment (6 papers); Biomedical Applications (5 papers); Recycling and Treatment of Plastic and Solid Wastes (4 papers); Facilities (4 papers); Quality Assurance, Quality Control (4 papers); Transfer of Technology through Technical Co-Operation (5 papers); Curing, Cross-Linking and Grafting (5 papers). A separate abstract and indexing were provided for each paper

  11. Radiation technology for conservation of the environment. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    In September 1997 the IAEA held an International Symposium in Zakopane, Poland, on the applications of radiation technology in conservation of environment. The symposium attended 110 participants representing 38 Member States. The objective was to review the status of current developments and applications of radiation processing in the control of environment pollution and to discuss future developments. The scientific programme covered a wide range of different applications of radiation technology, such as purification of exhaust gases, decontamination of wastewater from industrial and municipal sources, sewage sludge treatment, disinfection and detoxication of solid waste, recycling and the treatment of plastic and solid waste. The document contains full presentations. The symposium (56 papers) was held in 10 sessions as follows: Purification of Exhaust Gases (8 papers); Radiation Chemistry and the Environment (5 papers); Purification and Decontamination of Water (10 papers); Sewage Sludge Treatment (6 papers); Biomedical Applications (5 papers); Recycling and Treatment of Plastic and Solid Wastes (4 papers); Facilities (4 papers); Quality Assurance, Quality Control (4 papers); Transfer of Technology through Technical Co-Operation (5 papers); Curing, Cross-Linking and Grafting (5 papers). A separate abstract and indexing were provided for each paper Refs, figs, tabs

  12. International conference on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    An International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), will be held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 6-10 October 2003. This Conference will be hosted by the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). This publication contains contributed papers submitted on issues within the scope of the conference, which were accepted following a review by the Conference Programme Committee. The primary objective of this Conference is to foster information exchange, with the aim of promoting the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to ionizing radiation. This Conference is one in a series of meetings organized by, or held in co-operation with, the IAEA on this subject. It will include a review of recent developments in this area, and consideration of their implications for future work at national and international levels. The topics on which contributed papers were requested are as follows: Existing environmental protection approaches; Development of an international assessment framework; The scientific basis for environmental radiation assessment; Development of management approaches.

  13. Distributed Optical Fiber Radiation and Temperature Sensing at High Energy Accelerators and Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090137; Brugger, Markus

    The aim of this Thesis is to investigate the feasibility of a distributed optical fiber radiation sensing system to be used at high energy physics accelerators and experiments where complex mixed-field environments are present. In particular, after having characterized the response of a selection of radiation sensitive optical fibers to ionizing radiation coming from a 60Co source, the results of distributed optical fiber radiation measurements in a mixed-field environment are presented along with the method to actually estimate the dose variation. This study demonstrates that distributed optical fiber dosimetry in the above mentioned mixed-field radiation environment is feasible, allowing to detect dose variations of about 10-15 Gy with a 1 m spatial resolution. The proof of principle has fully succeeded and we can now tackle the challenge of an industrial installation taking into account that some optimizations need to be done both on the control unit of the system as well as on the choice of the sensing f...

  14. Radiation safety aspects of high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiah, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are widely used for various applications in industry, medicine and research. These accelerators are capable of accelerating both ions and electrons over a wide range of energy and subsequently are made to impinge on the target materials. Apart from generating intended reactions in the target, these projectiles can also generate highly penetrating radiations such as gamma rays and neutrons. Over exposure to these radiations will cause deleterious effects on the living beings. Various steps taken to protect workers and general public from these harmful radiations is called radiation safety. The primary objective in establishing permissible values for occupational workers is to keep the radiation worker well below a level at which adverse effects are likely to be observed during one's life time. Another objective is to minimize the incidence of genetic effects for the population as a whole. Today's presentation on radiation safety of accelerators will touch up on the following sub-topics: Types of particle accelerators and their applications; AERB directives on dose limits; Radiation Source term of accelerators; Shielding Design-Use of Transmission curves and Tenth Value layers; Challenges for accelerator health physicists

  15. Radiation-induced apoptosis in different pH environments in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung-Sik; Park, Heon J.; Lyons, John C.; Griffin, Robert J.; Auger, Elizabeth A.; Song, Chang W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of environmental pH on the radiation-induced apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro was investigated. Methods and Materials: Mammary adenocarcinoma cells of A/J mice (SCK cells) were irradiated with γ-rays using a 137 Cs irradiator and incubated in media of different pHs. After incubation at 37 deg. C for 24-120 h the extent of apoptosis was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, flow cytometry, and release of 3 H from 3 H-thymidine labeled cells. The clonogenicity of the cells irradiated in different pH medium was determined, and the progression of cells through the cell cycle after irradiation in different pHs was also determined with flow cytometry. Results: Irradiation with 2-12 Gy of γ-rays induced apoptosis in SCK cells in pH 7.5 medium within 48 h as judged from the results of four different assays mentioned. Radiation-induced apoptosis declined as the medium pH was lowered from 7.5 to 6.4. Specifically, the radiation-induced degradation of DNA including the early DNA breaks, as determined with the TUNEL method, progressively declined as the medium pH was lowered so that little DNA fragmentation occurred 48 h after irradiation with 12 Gy in pH 6.6 medium. When the cells were irradiated and incubated for 48 h in pH 6.6 medium and the medium was replaced with pH 7.5 medium, DNA fragmentation promptly occurred. DNA fragmentation also occurred even in pH 6.6 medium when the cells were irradiated and maintained in pH 7.5 medium for 8 h or longer post-irradiation before incubation in pH 6.6 medium. The radiation-induced G 2 arrest in pH 6.6 medium lasted markedly longer than that in pH 7.5 medium. Conclusion: Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCK cells in vitro is reversibly suppressed in an acidic environment. Taking the results of four different assays together, it was concluded that early step(s) in the apoptotic pathway, probably the DNA break or upstream of DNA break, is

  16. High LET radiation and mechanism of DNA damage repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2004-01-01

    Clarifying the mechanism of repair from radiation damage gives most important information on radiation effects on cells. Approximately 10% of biological experiments groups in Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) cooperative research group has performed the subject. They gave a lot of new findings on the mechanism, and solved some open questions. The reason to show the peak of relative biological effectiveness RBE at around 100-200 keV/μm causes miss-repair of DNA damage. Sub-lethal damage generated by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can be repaired fully. Potentially lethal damages by high-LET radiation also repaired, but the efficiency decreased with the LET, and so on. (author)

  17. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that {sup t}he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... {sup .} In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved.

  18. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, D.S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Dumka, U.C., E-mail: dumka@aries.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (India); Kaskaoutis, D.G. [School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Tehsil Dadri (India); Pipal, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M. [India Meteorology Department, Lodhi Road, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India)

    2015-07-15

    Particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM{sub 2.5} samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM{sub 2.5} (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM{sub 2.5} (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m{sup −3} (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m{sup −3}) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m{sup −3}) than daytime (103.8 μg m{sup −3}) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO{sub 3}{sup −}and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day{sup −1}) due to agricultural burning effects

  19. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, D.S.; Dumka, U.C.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Pipal, A.S.; Srivastava, A.K.; Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M.; Tiwari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM 2.5 samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM 2.5 (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM 2.5 (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m −3 (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m −3 ) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m −3 ) than daytime (103.8 μg m −3 ) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO 3 − and SO 4 2− , which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R 2 = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day −1 ) due to agricultural burning effects during the 2012 post-monsoon season. - Highlights: • Very high PM 2.5 (> 200 µg m −3 ) levels

  20. Review of high bandwidth fiber optics radiation sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of fiber optics or guided optical systems for radiation sensors. It is limited a passive systems wherein electrical is not required at the sensor location. However, electrically powered light sources, receivers and/or recorders may still be required for detection and data storage in sensor system operation. This paper emphasizes sensor technologies that permit high bandwidth measurements of transient radiation levels, and will also discuss several low bandwidth applications. 60 refs

  1. Adventitious X-radiation from high voltage equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The monograph is concerned with hazards of unwanted x-rays from sources such as television receivers, high voltage equipment, radar transmitters, switchgear and electron beam apparatus for welding, evaporation, analysis and microscopy. Chapters are included on units, production of x radiation, biological effects, protection standards, radiation monitoring, shielding and control of access, medical and dosimetric supervision and types of equipment. A bibliography of 92 references and other cited literature is included. (U.K.)

  2. Identification of high-energetic particles by transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struczinski, W.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis gives a comprehensive survey on the application of the transition radiation for the particle identification. After a short historical review on the prediction and the detection of the transition radiation its theoretical foundations are more precisely explained. They form the foundations for the construction of an optimal transition radiation detector the principal construction of which is described. The next chapter shows some experiments by which the main predictions of the transition-radiation theory are confirmed. Then the construction and operation of two transition-radiation detectors are described which were applied at the ISR respectively SPS in the CERN in Geneva in complex experiments. The detector applied at the ISR served for the e ± identification. With two lithium radiators which were followed by xenon-filled proportional chambers an e/π separation of ≅ 10 -2 could be reached. The transition-radiation detector applied in the SPS was integrated into the European Hybrid Spectrometer. It served for the identification of high-energetic pions (> or approx. 90 GeV) against kaons and protons. With twenty units of carbon-fiber radiators which were followed by xenon-filled proportional chambers a π/K, p separation of better than 1:20 for momenta above 100 GeV could be reached. The cluster-counting method is then presented. Finally, a survey on the contemporary status in the development of transition-radiation detectors for the e/π separation is given. It is shown that by an about half a meter long detector the radiators of which consist of carbon fibers an e/π separation in the order of magnitude of ≅ 10 -2 can be reached. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. SRAM-Based Passive Dosimeter for High-Energy Accelerator Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Makowski, D R; Napieralski, A; Swiercz, B P

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a novel NVRAM-based neutron dose monitor (REM counter). The principle of this device is based on the radiation effect initiating the Single Event Upset SEU in high density microelectronic memories. Several batches of Non-Volatile memories from different manufactures were examined in various radiation environments, i.e. 241Am-Be (alpha,n) and Linear accelerators produced radiation fields. A suitable moderator was used to enhance the detector sensitivity. Further experiments were carried out in Linear Accelerators: Linac II, TTF2 and Beam Loss Environment of various Experimental Facilities at DESY Research Centre in Hamburg. A separate batch of SRAM was irradiated with 60Co-gamma rays up to a dose of about 60 Gy. No Single Event Upset (SEU) was registered. This validates, that gamma radiation has a negligible effect to trigger SEU in the SRAM. The proposed detector could be ideal for a neutron dose measurement produced by a high-energy electron linac, including synchrotron and Free Electron L...

  4. Use of synchrotron radiation for electron identification at high luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, S.

    1983-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used successfully to identify electrons of 10 to 30 GeV traversing a field length of 30 kG-m. Since comparable field lengths are a feature of many proposed collider detectors, and since this is an electron energy range of interest at √s approx. = 1 TeV, we consider whether such a device could be useful in the L = 10 33 environment

  5. Modern state of the application of ionizing radiation for protection of environment. 1. Ionizing radiation sources. Purification of natural and drinking water (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, AK.

    2000-01-01

    Review of modern state of the application of ionizing radiations for protection of environment and natural and drinking water purification is presented. Building of installations with electron accelerators with summarized power of beam ∼0.6 MW signifies that application of ionizing radiation for ecological needs increase. It is pointed out that extensible application of electron accelerators is explained by their safety and efficiency as compared with gamma-sources. New information about ionizing radiation sources, radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and drinking water, mechanisms of processes taking place during treatment by ionizing radiations are generalized [ru

  6. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Indicating the Attitudes of High School Students to Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…

  8. Protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The acceptability of practices which involve the release of radionuclides into the environment, and of situations where residual radionuclides from accidents or improperly controlled practices exist in the environment, are generally assessed on the basis of implied radiation doses to humans. This approach is consistent with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which include the statement that 'the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk'. The general applicability of this statement has been explored in previous IAEA and other publications. These concluded that the statement is generally valid but that reliance upon human based radiological protection criteria may not be adequate for all possible space or time scales. In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is being challenged in some IAEA Member States and proposals are being made for strategies which provide for explicit protection of the environment. The present publication represents a first step towards establishing an internationally accepted philosophy and associated methodology for protecting the environment against ionizing radiations. The report reviews the various related issues and examines possible approaches to establishing criteria. It is intended for use in stimulating discussion on the subject in Member States. For its part, the IAEA intends to continue a programme of work in this area with the long term objective of providing specific recommendations on primary protection criteria and methods for

  9. Teamwork in high-risk environments analogous to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.

  10. Effects of solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity and thermoregulatory responses in a hot environment. Eight male volunteers performed four cycle exercise trials at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50 % relative humidity. Volunteers were tested under four solar radiation conditions: 800, 500, 250 and 0 W/m(2). Exercise time to exhaustion was less on the 800 W/m(2) trial (23 ± 4 min) than on all the other trials (500 W/m(2) 30 ± 7 min; P 0.05). Mean skin temperature was higher on the 800 W/m(2) trial than the 250 and 0 W/m(2) trials (P solar radiation increases.

  11. Combined environment aging effects: radiation-thermal degradation of polyvinylchloride and polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented for a case of polymer aging in which powerful synergisms are found between radiation and temperature. This effect was observed with formulations of polyvinylchloride and polyethylene and occurred in simultaneous and sequential radiation-thermal experiments. Dose rate dependencies, which appear to be mechanistically related to the synergism, were also found. The evidence indicates that these aging effects are mediated by a thermally induced breakdown of peroxides initially formed by the radiation. Similar effects could be important to material degradation in a variety of other types of combined-stress environment. A new technique, which uses PH 3 treatment of intact polymer specimens to test for the importance of peroxides in the pathway that leads to changes in macroscopic tensile properties, is described

  12. Potentials of ionizing radiation in reducing hazards to man and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullie, W C; Van Laerhoven, M J.A.M.; Kroes, R

    1991-07-01

    The main goal of the title study was to compare a relevant number of conventional processes and technologies for a range of uses with the application of ionizing radiation technology. Special emphasis is given to the hazardous effects of contemporary processes and chemicals on man and environment and to the potential role of the radiation processing technology, gamma irradiation in particular, in reducing these hazards. Based on their quantities and on (eco)toxicological criteria, four fields of application were identified a priori as potentially of interest for radiation processing. These fields of application are food preservation, sterilization and sanitization of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, waste water and drinking water disinfection, and disinfection of sewage sludge and infectious hospital waste. Other fields of application as mentioned above are discussed in a more general matter. 12 figs., 31 tabs., 4 apps., refs.

  13. Radiation environment of the LHCb Calorimeters in 2010-2013 (under review)

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    A set of passive and active radiation detectors has been installed around and in between the LHCb calorimeter subsystems to measure different aspects of the radiation environment. Cross calibrations between various types of measurements are performed and correlated with the evolving run conditions. Measurements are compared to FLUKA simulation estimates and an evaluation of the reliability of the simulation in different running scenarios is provided. The simulation is based on a detailed geometry of the LHCb experiment and reflects the conditions of Run1 with 7 and 8 TeV CM proton-proton collision energies. A carefully characterised simulation of radiation levels in the LHCb experiment is essential in providing input for technical choices in view of the planned upgrade of the experiment for operation at higher luminosity.

  14. Composite Materials under Extreme Radiation and Temperature Environments of the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.

    2011-01-01

    In the nuclear energy renaissance, driven by fission reactor concepts utilizing very high temperatures and fast neutron spectra, materials with enhanced performance that exceeds are expected to play a central role. With the operating temperatures of the Generation III reactors bringing the classical reactor materials close to their performance limits there is an urgent need to develop and qualify new alloys and composites. Efforts have been focused on the intricate relations and the high demands placed on materials at the anticipated extreme states within the next generation fusion and fission reactors which combine high radiation fluxes, elevated temperatures and aggressive environments. While nuclear reactors have been in operation for several decades, the structural materials associated with the next generation options need to endure much higher temperatures (1200 C), higher neutron doses (tens of displacements per atom, dpa), and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience on materials accumulated to-date. The most important consideration is the performance and reliability of structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core functions. While there exists a great body of nuclear materials research and operating experience/performance from fission reactors where epithermal and thermal neutrons interact with materials and alter their physio-mechanical properties, a process that is well understood by now, there are no operating or even experimental facilities that will facilitate the extreme conditions of flux and temperature anticipated and thus provide insights into the behaviour of these well understood materials. Materials, however, still need to be developed and their interaction and damage potential or lifetime to be quantified for the next generation nuclear energy. Based on material development advances, composites, and in particular ceramic composites, seem to inherently possess properties suitable for key functions within the

  15. Evaluation of normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halnan, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical results presented have been analysed to evaluate normal tissue responses to high-LET radiations. Damage to brain, spinal cord, gut, skin, connective tissue and bone has occurred. A high RBE is probable for brain and possible for spinal cord and gut but other reasons for damage are also discussed. A net gain seems likely. Random controlled trials are advocated. (author)

  16. Dispersive effects in radiation transport and radiation hydrodynamics in matter at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, B.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    In a recent research program (reported in AWRE 0 20/82) I have investigated the generalisation of the equations of radiation hydrodynamics when electromagnetic radiation is assumed to obey a linear-response dispersion relation of the form nω=kc where the refractive index n depends on the frequency ω and/or wave number k. From the application of the Boltzmann-Liouville transport theory to photons in the short-wavelength (geometrical optics) limit, I derive the energy and momentum equations which, when combined with a classical (Euler-Lagrange-Navier-Stokes) treatment of a fluid material medium in LTE, yield a complete dynamical theory of linear interactions (+ stimulated processes) between incoherent (thermal) radiation and dense, locally isotropic matter. The theory includes an account of pondero-motive forces and electro (magneto) striction. Moreover, it is apparently capable of being generalised to non-linear interactions in which the refractive index depends on the local specific intensity of the radiation field, and, to some extent, to the treatment of high-frequency coherent radiation. The generalisation of various approximated forms of radiation-transport theory (esp. diffusion) has been considered in detail. Some problems remain however. One such is the treatment of anomalous dispersion. Current research work is concentrating on the interesting atomic physics aspects of electromagnetic (esp. radiative) properties of a dispersive material medium

  17. Cancer and non-cancer risk at low doses of radiation: biological basis of radiation-environment interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and non-cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined due to ambiguity at low doses caused by limitations in statistical power and information available on interplay with environment. To deal with these problems, a novel non-parametric statistics was developed based on artificial neural networks theorem and applied to cancer and non-cancer risk in A-bomb survivors. The analysis revealed several unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal radiation dose alone. They include (1) threshold that varies with organ, gender and age, including cardiovascular diseases, (2) prevalence of infectious diseases, and (3) suppression of pathogenesis of HTLV1. The threshold is unique as it is manifested as negative excess relative risk, a reduction of spontaneous rate at low doses. The response is consistent with currently emerging laboratory data on DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice and its sustainability as epigenetic memory in accordance with histone code theory. In response to DSB, of radiation or DNA replication arrest origin, distinct and competitively operating repair pathways are instigated. Activation by low doses of restitution-directed canonical non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) suppresses both error-prone alternative end-joining (Alt-NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). The latter two present major pathways to mutagenesis at stalled replication folk associated with endogenous and exogenous genotoxin such as tobacco smoke metabolites and AID-associated somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in Ig gene. Suppression of these error-prone pathways by low doses of low LET radiation is consistent with the reduction of cancer occurrence by environmental genotoxin, immunodiversity and stable integration of retrovirus DNA, providing a significant modulator of dose linearity at low doses. Whole picture may bring about a new landscape of cancer and non-cancer molecular epidemiology which

  18. Mutational influences of low-dose and high let ionizing radiation in drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huang; Fanjun, Kong; Sun, Yeqing

    For cosmic environment consists of a varying kinds of radiation particles including high Z and energy ions which was charactered with low-dose and high RBE, it is important to determine the possible biofuctions of high LET radiation on human beings. To analyse the possible effectes of mutational influences of low-dose and high-LET ionizing radiation, wild fruit flies drosophila melanogaster were irradiated by 12C6+ ions in two LET levels (63.3 and 30 keV/µum) with different low doses from 2mGy to 2000mGy (2, 20, 200, 2000mGy) in HIRFL (Heavy ion radiation facility laboratory, lanzhou, China).In the same LET value group, the average polymorphic frequency was elevated along with adding doses of irradation, the frequency in 2000 mGy dose samples was significantly higher than other samples (p<0.01).These results suggest that genomic DNA sequence could be effected by low-dose and high-LET ionizing radiation, the irradiation dose is an important element in genomic mutation frequency origination.

  19. The use of gamma ray data to define the natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The natural radiation environment is the major source of radiation exposure to man and consists of both internal and external sources. The most significant internal sources are the radioactive elements 40 K and 222 Rn which are taken into the body. The external sources are cosmic rays and naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of the 40 K, 238 U, and 232 Th decay series, some or all of which can be found in the ground, in construction materials, and in the air. This report has been prepared to provide a guide for the use of existing gamma ray survey data to define the natural radiation environment, but will only be concerned with the gamma ray exposure resulting from radiation originating in geological materials. The type of data needed to produce maps are available as a result of airborne, carborne, and ground gamma ray surveys in many parts of the world. Although most of these data were acquired for uranium and other mineral exploration and geological mapping purposes, they can be used to provide background radioactivity information. Standardized survey data can be compiled to produce regional maps of gamma ray air dose rates as well as single radioelement maps. Compilation procedures may use either manual or computer techniques. Although this work will primarily be done as national compilations, it will open the possibility of the compilation of radioelement geochemical maps on a regional and global scale. 48 refs, figs and tabs

  20. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Alía, Rubén García; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Brugger, Markus; Cerutti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh), running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee) as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.