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Sample records for high quality synthetic

  1. Assembly of Designed Oligonucleotides: a useful tool in synthetic biology for creating high-quality combinatorial DNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Reetz, Manfred T

    2014-01-01

    The method dubbed Assembly of Designed Oligonucleotides (ADO) is a powerful tool in synthetic biology to create combinatorial DNA libraries for gene, protein, metabolic, and genome engineering. In directed evolution of proteins, ADO benefits from using reduced amino acid alphabets for saturation mutagenesis and/or DNA shuffling, but all 20 canonical amino acids can be also used as building blocks. ADO is performed in a two-step reaction. The first involves a primer-free, polymerase cycling assembly or overlap extension PCR step using carefully designed overlapping oligonucleotides. The second step is a PCR amplification using the outer primers, resulting in a high-quality and bias-free double-stranded DNA library that can be assembled with other gene fragments and/or cloned into a suitable plasmid subsequently. The protocol can be performed in a few hours. In theory, neither the length of the DNA library nor the number of DNA changes has any limits. Furthermore, with the costs of synthetic DNA dropping every year, after an initial investment is made in the oligonucleotides, these can be exchanged for alternative ones with different sequences at any point in the process, fully exploiting the potential of creating highly diverse combinatorial libraries. In the example chosen here, we show the construction of a high-quality combinatorial ADO library targeting sixteen different codons simultaneously with nonredundant degenerate codons encoding various reduced alphabets of four amino acids along the heme region of the monooxygenase P450-BM3.

  2. Optimization of Synthetic Aperture Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2016-01-01

    resolution (CTR). The results of the study showed that SA imaging with only 32 emissions and maximum sweep angle of 22 degrees yields a very good image quality compared with using 256 emissions and the full aperture size. Therefore the number of emissions and the maximum sweep angle in the SA can......Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameters...... effecting the image quality of SA is of great importance, and this paper proposes an advanced procedure for optimizing the parameters essential for acquiring an optimal image quality, while generating high resolution SA images. Optimization of the image quality is mainly performed based on measures...

  3. Synthetic and natural antioxidants: food quality protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, A.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of food lipid components, known as oxidative rancidity is one of the major deteriorative and quality-affecting reactions. Oxidative rancidity is initiated by oxygen free-radicals or by the reaction of molecular oxygen with pre-formed organic free-radicals from polyunsaturated fatty acids composing fats and oils. Oxidation may be prevented or delayed by antioxidants, these substances being organic molecules of either synthetic or natural origin which can scavenge the oxygen free-radicals involved in fatty acid oxidation. Synthetic antioxidants are the most popular and widely used antioxidants, however concerns about it safe to both human and animal health is encouraging research on substances from natural origin showing antioxidant properties. Few natural antioxidants have been proved to be effective when compared to synthetic products in the same experimental conditions. This work summarizes the main characteristics of the most important synthetic antioxidants, also discuss the principal characteristics of four natural antioxidants, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of using natural products compared to synthetic ones, and sight the future for natural products with antioxidant activity.

    La oxidación de los componentes lípidos de un alimento, conocida como rancidez oxidativa, es una de las reacciones que deteriora y afecta en forma más importante la calidad de un producto. La rancidez oxidativa es iniciada por radicales libres del oxígeno o por el ataque del oxígeno molecular a radicales libres pre-formados en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados que forman las grasas y aceites. La oxidación puede ser prevenida o retrasada por los antioxidantes, sustancias orgánicas de origen sintético o natural que actúan como atrapadores de los radicales libres del oxígeno involucrados en la oxidación de los ácidos grasos. Los antioxidantes sintéticos son los más populares y ampliamente utilizados, sin embargo existe

  4. High frame rate synthetic aperture duplex imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Conventional color flow images are limited in velocity range and can either show the high velocities in systole or be optimized for the lower diastolic velocities. The full dynamics of the flow is, thus, hard to visualize. The dynamic range can be significantly increased by employing synthetic ap...

  5. The separation of natural from synthetic gem-quality diamonds on the basis of crystal growth criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, E. (GIA Research, Gemological Inst. of America, Santa Monica, CA (United States)); Shigley, J.E. (GIA Research, Gemological Inst. of America, Santa Monica, CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The commercial availability of gem-quality synthetic diamond products, and the renewed research interest in large crystals produced by high-pressure diamond synthesis, have made it necessry for the tem diamond trade to find simple ways to identify faceted synthetic diamonds. Using magnification, and various more sophisticated spectroscopic and ultraviolet or cathodoluminescence techniques, a number of gemological properties that are characteristic of synthetic diamonds have been found. These distinctive properties result from difference in growth processes between natural and synthetic diamonds. In particular, the presence of cubic growth sectors and absence of nitrogen aggregation in synthetic diamonds provide for some of their most characteristic features. (orig.)

  6. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  7. The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on performance, egg quality and blood constituents of laying hens grown under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 216 laying hens was kept at high ambient temperature (32±4°C, 60% relative humidity from week 24 to 32 of age. Birds were divided in 8 treatments with 9 replicates of 3 hens each. The groups were fed the same basal diet and submitted to these dietary treatments: control, un-supplemented; green tea (GT, fed GT at 1 g/kg diet; brown marine algae (BMA, fed BMA at 1 g/kg diet; vitamin E (vit. E, fed vit. E at 300 mg/kg diet; GT+BMA, fed GT and BMA at 1 g/kg of each; GT+vit. E, fed GT and vit. E at 1 g and 300 mg/kg, respectively; BMA+vit. E, fed BMA and vit. E at 1 g and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Feeding BMA at 0.1% increased laying rate by 1.2% and improved feed conversion ratio by 5.2% compared to the control. Vitamin E significantly increased shell thickness by 6.6% and Haugh unit by 4.6% compared to the control. In addition, BMA+vit. E or GT+vit. E increased yolk colour by 9.1 and 10.7%, and Haugh unit of stored eggs by 10.9 and 11.1%. Cholesterol of fresh eggs and plasma were significantly decreased by 16.0 and 9.4% due to supplementation with BMA, and by 19.2 and 8.1% with vit. E addition. Plasma phosphorus increased by 19.1% after vit. E+BMA supplementation. In conclusion, use of BMA or vit. E or GT in laying hens diets which grow under heat stress is recommended as it improves production performance and egg quality.

  8. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  9. CUSTOMER PERCEIVED QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF SYNTHETIC FIBER USING FUZZY QFD: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Kabir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the ready-made garment (RMG industry has been one of the most notable success stories of the Bangladesh economy over two decades. To meet the growing demand of synthetic yarns, Bangladesh has to import it from foreign countries which cost a substantial amount of foreign currency for the country. It is a pressing need for local manufacturers to come forward, produce quality synthetic yarn and fulfill the demand of the local market. The purpose of this paper is to present a Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (FQFD model to indentify customer requirements and also demonstrate how these requirements can be used to prioritize the design requirements for manufacturing of synthetic yarns. In this system, Fuzzy set theory is integrated into house of quality (HOQ to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional QFD and to capture the inherent impreciseness and vagueness of customer requirements and facilitate to prioritize QFD information. Improving high priority design requirements will ultimately increase customer satisfaction and as a result customer perceived quality will soar.

  10. Advanced high performance vertical hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, vertical, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a vertical piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the present invention will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators.

  11. Creativity, synthetic intelligence and high ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sainz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the construct of creativity and its relationship with high ability, presenting different definitions, assessment tools and strategies to encourage their development in the school context. The paper is structured into five sections: firstly, we define the concept of creativity. Secondly, we present the most relevant instruments used in the analysis of high ability students’ creativity. Thirdly, we look into several studies on creativity and high abilitiy, highlighting the main limitations of the research carried out. Fourthly, we present principles and strategies in order to foster creativity in the school context. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the relationship between creativity and high ability.

  12. Producing quality synthetic crude oil from Canadian oil sands bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, S. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2008-07-01

    This study discussed the bitumen upgrading process and bitumen properties. Recent research on bitumen upgrading was reviewed, and methods of processing bitumens in conventional oil refineries were discussed. The study determined that bitumens contain large amounts of sulfur, aromatics, carbon residues, asphaltenes, and nitrogen, the majority of which is located in the last 15 per cent of the bitumen, or end cut. New upgrading processes used by Syncrude included an extraction and froth treatment plant, a diluent recovery unit (DRU) and vacuum distillation unit (VDU). Liquid products from the hydrotreaters were blended as synthetic crude oil (SCO) and shipped to refineries. The study also reviewed hydrotreating methods for gas oils; hydrocracking technologies; olefins and diolefins hydrogenation of coker naphtha; and aromatics hydrogenation. Tools to monitor the performance of commercial hydrotreaters were discussed, and the kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation were reviewed. Details of molecular structure analyses were presented. It was concluded that hydrotreating is an effective means of producing good quality SCO. 53 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Nanotechnology for Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901

  14. Advanced high performance horizontal piezoelectric hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, horizontal, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a horizontal piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The present invention is capable of installation in the wing surface as well as embedding in the wetted surfaces of a supersonic inlet. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the SJA-H will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  15. Synthetic lubricants and high-performance functional fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    1999-01-01

    Offers state-of-the-art information on all the major synthetic fluids, describing established products as well as highly promising experimental fluids with commercial potential. This second edition contains chapters on polyinternalolefins, polymer esters, refrigeration lubes, polyphenyl ethers, highly refined mineral oils, automotive gear oils and industrial gear oils. The book also assesses automotive, industrial, aerospace, environmental, and commercial trends in Europe, Asia, South America, and the US.

  16. 01-ERD-111 - The Development of Synthetic High Affinity Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J; Balhorn, R; Cosman, M; Lightstone, F; Zeller, L

    2004-02-05

    The aim of this project was to develop Synthetic High-Affinity Ligands (SHALs), which bind with high affinity and specificity to proteins of interest for national security and cancer therapy applications. The aim of producing synthetic ligands for sensory devices as an alternative to antibody-based detection assays and therapeutic agents is to overcome the drawbacks associated with antibody-based in next-generation sensors and systems. The focus area of the project was the chemical synthesis of the SHALs. The project concentrated on two different protein targets. (a) The C fragment of tetanus and botulinum toxin, potential biowarfare agents. A SHAL for tetanus or botulinum toxin would be incorporated into a sensory device for the toxins. (b) HLA-DR10, a protein found in high abundance on the surface of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. A SHAL specific to a tumor marker, labeled with a radionuclide, would enable the targeted delivery of radiation therapy to metastatic disease. The technical approach used to develop a SHAL for each protein target will be described in more detail below. However, in general, the development of a SHAL requires a combination of computational modeling techniques, modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and synthetic chemistry.

  17. Quality of synthetic hexaploid wheat containing null alleles at Glu-A1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quality tests showed that most quality parameters in two T. turgidum ssp. dicoccon parents were very low due to the lack of HMW-GSs. However, incorporation of HMW-GS from Ae. tauschii in six synthetic hexaploid wheat lines significantly increased most quality related parameters. The potential values of these wheat lines ...

  18. INTRIGOSS: A new Library of High Resolution Synthetic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Mariagrazia; Morossi, Carlo; Di Marcancantonio, Paolo; Chavez, Miguel; GES-Builders

    2018-01-01

    INTRIGOSS (INaf Trieste Grid Of Synthetic Spectra) is a new High Resolution (HiRes) synthetic spectral library designed for studying F, G, and K stars. The library is based on atmosphere models computed with specified individual element abundances via ATLAS12 code. Normalized SPectra (NSP) and surface Flux SPectra (FSP), in the 4800-5400 Å wavelength range, were computed by means of the SPECTRUM code. The synthetic spectra are computed with an atomic and bi-atomic molecular line list including "bona fide" Predicted Lines (PLs) built by tuning loggf to reproduce very high SNR Solar spectrum and the UVES-U580 spectra of five cool giants extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). The astrophysical gf-values were then assessed by using more than 2000 stars with homogenous and accurate atmosphere parameters and detailed chemical composition from GES. The validity and greater accuracy of INTRIGOSS NSPs and FSPs with respect to other available spectral libraries is discussed. INTRIGOSS will be available on the web and will be a valuable tool for both stellar atmospheric parameters and stellar population studies.

  19. [Synthetic cannabinoids--the new "legal high" drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitz, Ronny; Arieli, Mickey; Marom, Eli

    2011-12-01

    Recently, a new Law, named the "derivative law" (first addition, schedule drug change--2010), was accepted in the Israeli parliament. It will mean that dangerous substances that are closely related structurally to a drug that is listed in the dangerous drugs ordinance will automatically enter the dangerous drugs ordinance. The dangerous drugs that were sold in kiosks were related to 4 major groups: Amphetamines, methamphetamines, cathinone and methcathinone. Over 90% of the substances known as "legal highs" or "hagigat" belong to these groups. Before the law was accepted, merchandisers and clandestine Laboratories took advantage of a state in which every small molecular change in a controlled substance of amphetamines, methamphetamines, cathinone and methcathinone required a long legal process in order to include the new substance in the controlled substance law. During this process, we believe that public health was endangered. The chemists and merchandisers found a new solution to "legally" bypass the "derivative law", by marketing a new group of substances named "synthetic cannabinoids". The synthetic cannabinoids do not resemble the chemical structure of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC] which appears in marijuana or hashish, but affects the body in the same manner and according to the literature, are five times more potent. The synthetic cannabinoids are sold in Israel under different nicknames such as: "Mabsuton", "Mr. Nice Guy", "Spice", "Sabbaba" and "Lemon Grass". The substance can be used in different ways such as smoking, inhaling or swallowing. The use of synthetic cannabinoids causes side effects that include: euphoria, dizziness, headache, thirst, paranoia, insomnia, fatigue and disturbed vision. Cases of hospital admission in Israel due to the use of these substances have been reported. The symptoms included psychiatric disturbances. In an urgent meeting of the multi-ministry committee on psychotropic substances held in December 2010 in the Israel Anti

  20. Synthetic Indicators of Quality of Life in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarriba, Noelia; Pena, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    For more than three decades now, sociologists, politicians and economists have used a wide range of statistical and econometric techniques to analyse and measure the quality of life of individuals with the aim of obtaining useful instruments for social, political and economic decision making. The aim of this paper is to analyse the advantages and…

  1. Quality of synthetic speech perceptual dimensions, influencing factors, and instrumental assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterleitner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    This book reviews research towards perceptual quality dimensions of synthetic speech, compares these findings with the state of the art, and derives a set of five universal perceptual quality dimensions for TTS signals. They are: (i) naturalness of voice, (ii) prosodic quality, (iii) fluency and intelligibility, (iv) absence of disturbances, and (v) calmness. Moreover, a test protocol for the efficient indentification of those dimensions in a listening test is introduced. Furthermore, several factors influencing these dimensions are examined. In addition, different techniques for the instrumental quality assessment of TTS signals are introduced, reviewed and tested. Finally, the requirements for the integration of an instrumental quality measure into a concatenative TTS system are examined.

  2. DNA meets synthetic polymers—highly versatile hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemdaroglu, Fikri E.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The combination of synthetic polymers and DNA has provided biologists, chemists and materials scientists with a fascinating new hybrid material. The challenges in preparing these molecular chimeras were overcome by different synthetic strategies that rely on coupling the nucleic acid moiety and the

  3. Air quality, health, and climate implications of China's synthetic natural gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yue; Wagner, Fabian; Scovronick, Noah; Peng, Wei; Yang, Junnan; Zhu, Tong; Smith, Kirk R; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2017-05-09

    Facing severe air pollution and growing dependence on natural gas imports, the Chinese government plans to increase coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) production. Although displacement of coal with SNG benefits air quality, it increases CO2 emissions. Due to variations in air pollutant and CO2 emission factors and energy efficiencies across sectors, coal replacement with SNG results in varying degrees of air quality benefits and climate penalties. We estimate air quality, human health, and climate impacts of SNG substitution strategies in 2020. Using all production of SNG in the residential sector results in an annual decrease of ∼32,000 (20,000 to 41,000) outdoor-air-pollution-associated premature deaths, with ranges determined by the low and high estimates of the health risks. If changes in indoor/household air pollution were also included, the decrease would be far larger. SNG deployment in the residential sector results in nearly 10 and 60 times greater reduction in premature mortality than if it is deployed in the industrial or power sectors, respectively. Due to inefficiencies in current household coal use, utilization of SNG in the residential sector results in only 20 to 30% of the carbon penalty compared with using it in the industrial or power sectors. Even if carbon capture and storage is used in SNG production with today's technology, SNG emits 22 to 40% more CO2 than the same amount of conventional gas. Among the SNG deployment strategies we evaluate, allocating currently planned SNG to households provides the largest air quality and health benefits with the smallest carbon penalties.

  4. Air quality, health, and climate implications of China's synthetic natural gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yue; Wagner, Fabian; Scovronick, Noah; Peng, Wei; Yang, Junnan; Zhu, Tong; Smith, Kirk R.; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    2017-05-01

    Facing severe air pollution and growing dependence on natural gas imports, the Chinese government plans to increase coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) production. Although displacement of coal with SNG benefits air quality, it increases CO2 emissions. Due to variations in air pollutant and CO2 emission factors and energy efficiencies across sectors, coal replacement with SNG results in varying degrees of air quality benefits and climate penalties. We estimate air quality, human health, and climate impacts of SNG substitution strategies in 2020. Using all production of SNG in the residential sector results in an annual decrease of ˜32,000 (20,000 to 41,000) outdoor-air-pollution-associated premature deaths, with ranges determined by the low and high estimates of the health risks. If changes in indoor/household air pollution were also included, the decrease would be far larger. SNG deployment in the residential sector results in nearly 10 and 60 times greater reduction in premature mortality than if it is deployed in the industrial or power sectors, respectively. Due to inefficiencies in current household coal use, utilization of SNG in the residential sector results in only 20 to 30% of the carbon penalty compared with using it in the industrial or power sectors. Even if carbon capture and storage is used in SNG production with today’s technology, SNG emits 22 to 40% more CO2 than the same amount of conventional gas. Among the SNG deployment strategies we evaluate, allocating currently planned SNG to households provides the largest air quality and health benefits with the smallest carbon penalties.

  5. Texture Based Quality Analysis of Simulated Synthetic Ultrasound Images Using Local Binary Patterns †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modeling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. An important aspect of simulated synthetic ultrasound images is the requirement for extensive quality assessment for ensuring that they have the texture characteristics and gray-tone features of real images. This paper presents texture feature analysis of synthetic ultrasound images using local binary patterns (LBP and demonstrates the usefulness of a set of LBP features for image quality assessment. Experimental results presented in the paper clearly show how these features could provide an accurate quality metric that correlates very well with subjective evaluations performed by clinical experts.

  6. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  7. Rational synthetic combination genetic devices boosting high temperature ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth and production of yeast in the industrial fermentation are seriously restrained by heat stress and exacerbated by heat induced oxidative stress. In this study, a novel synthetic biology approach was developed to globally boost the viability and production ability of S. cerevisiae at high temperature through rationally designing and combing heat shock protein (HSP and superoxide dismutase (SOD genetic devices to ultimately synergistically alleviate both heat stress and oxidative stress. HSP and SOD from extremophiles were constructed to be different genetic devices and they were preliminary screened by heat resistant experiments and anti-oxidative experiments, respectively. Then in order to customize and further improve thermotolerance of S. cerevisiae, the HSP genetic device and SOD genetic device were rationally combined. The results show the simply assemble of the same function genetic devices to solve heat stress or oxidative stress could not enhance the thermotolerance considerably. Only S. cerevisiae with the combination genetic device (FBA1p-sod-MB4-FBA1p-shsp-HB8 solving both stress showed 250% better thermotolerance than the control and displayed further 55% enhanced cell density compared with the strains with single FBA1p-sod-MB4 or FBA1p-shsp-HB8 at 42 °C. Then the most excellent combination genetic device was introduced into lab S. cerevisiae and industrial S. cerevisiae for ethanol fermentation. The ethanol yields of the two strains were increased by 20.6% and 26.3% compared with the control under high temperature, respectively. These results indicate synergistically defensing both heat stress and oxidative stress is absolutely necessary to enhance the thermotolerance and production of S. cerevisiae.

  8. Quality of life of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using LARS synthetic graft and autogenous ST/GR graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Płocki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL causes disorders in the functional capabilities of the limb, both in daily life and during attempts to return to full physical activity, and in a later period it contributes to the development of degenerative disease. Aim of the research : Determination of the level of quality of life in patients after ACL reconstruction using the LARS synthetic ligament or autogenous ST/GR graft 4 years after surgery. Material and methods : Into the study were qualified 96 patients who had undergone reconstruction due to injury to the anterior cruciate ligament. The patients were divided into two groups according to the type of material used for reconstruction. The study group included 44 (45.8% patients who were operated on using the LARS synthetic ligament. The control group comprised 52 (54.2% patients who were implanted with an autogenous graft from semitendinous or gracilis muscle. The study was conducted using the SF36v2 questionnaire for the assessment of quality of life. Results: The patients expressed the most negative evaluations of quality of life in the domain of General Health (GH (x– = 62.5 scores and Mental Health (MH (x– = 70.4 scores, whereas most positive evaluations concerned the domain related with role limitations – caused both by physical health (Role Pysical – RP and emotional problems (Role Emotional – RE (x– > 95 scores. No statistically significant differences in the level of the quality of life were observed in the two selected groups; however, the evaluation of the quality of life in the area of social functioning and psychological health were slightly higher in the group of patients who had undergone surgery using the LARS method. Conclusions : The quality of life of patients within the period of 4 years after ACL reconstruction procedure using the LARS method and autogenous graft was on a similar, high level.

  9. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  10. Quality Characteristics of Tteokgalbi with Black Rice Bran and Organic Acid to Substitute Synthetic Caramel Colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Hong, Seung-Hee; Ku, Su-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Choi, Hee-Don; Park, Jong-Dae; Park, Kwoan-Sik; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality characteristics of Tteokgalbi with 1% (w/w) black rice bran only (T1), or with black rice bran and one of the following four types of organic acid: ascorbic acid (T2), citric acid (T3), tartaric acid (T4), or maleic acid (T5) as a substitute for caramel colorant. Tteokgalbi with only black rice bran showed the highest (p0.05). All the treated samples with any one of the four organic acids showed lower pH than controls (p0.05). The results reported in this study show that Tteokgalbi with black rice bran and any one of the four organic acids listed above not only improved quality characteristics in cooking loss, WHC, lipid oxidation but also could successfully replace the synthetic caramel colorant. Overall, the most satisfactory results were obtained by adding black rice bran and ascorbic acid.

  11. Synthetic Pulse Dilation - PMT Model for high bandwidth gamma measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert-Kleinrath, H.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Meaney, K. D.; Lopez, F. E.; Khater, H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, T.; Milnes, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Cherenkov mechanism used in Gas Cherenkov Detectors (GCD) is exceptionally fast. However, the temporal resolution of GCDs, such as the Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH), is limited by the current state-of-the-art photomultiplier tube (PMT) to 100 ps. The new pulse dilation - PMT (PD-PMT) for NIF allows for a temporal resolution comparable to that of the gas cell, or of 10ps. Enhanced resolution will contribute to the quest for ignition in a crucial way through precision measurement of reaction history and areal density (ρ R) history, leading to better constrained models. Features such as onset of alpha heating, shock reverberations and burn truncation due to dynamically evolving failure modes will become visible for the first time. PD-PMT will be deployed on GCD-3 at NIF in 2018. Our synthetic PD-PMT model evaluates the capabilities of these future measurements, as well as minimum yield requirements for measurements performed in a well at 3.9 m from target chamber center (TCC), and within a diagnostic inserter at 0.2m from TCC.

  12. High molecular weight DNA assembly in vivo for synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2017-05-01

    DNA assembly is the key technology of the emerging interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology. While the assembly of smaller DNA fragments is usually performed in vitro, high molecular weight DNA molecules are assembled in vivo via homologous recombination in the host cell. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the main hosts used for DNA assembly in vivo. Progress in DNA assembly over the last few years has paved the way for the construction of whole genomes. This review provides an update on recent synthetic biology advances with particular emphasis on high molecular weight DNA assembly in vivo in E. coli, B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae. Special attention is paid to the assembly of whole genomes, such as those of the first synthetic cell, synthetic yeast and minimal genomes.

  13. A high filtration system with synthetic permeable media for wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K Y; Maeng, S K; Kim, K; Kweon, J H; Ahn, K H

    2006-01-01

    A novel filtration process with synthetic permeable media was investigated for secondary effluent reclamation. Polyurethane was chosen as the filter medium among three tested media. Compressibility and up-flow velocity were changed to determine the optimum operation for the system. An equation was introduced to express the relationship between the removal efficiency and up-flow velocity. In a pilot study, the synthetic medium filtration with compression showed very stable effluent quality without clogging trouble, though the system operated with three times higher filtration rate and much longer backwashing interval than conventional systems.

  14. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  15. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    , current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI...

  16. High-throughput evaluation of synthetic metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesmith, Justin R; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2016-03-01

    A central challenge in the field of metabolic engineering is the efficient identification of a metabolic pathway genotype that maximizes specific productivity over a robust range of process conditions. Here we review current methods for optimizing specific productivity of metabolic pathways in living cells. New tools for library generation, computational analysis of pathway sequence-flux space, and high-throughput screening and selection techniques are discussed.

  17. Synthetic Strategies for High Dielectric Constant Silicone Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt

    -linker for silicone polymer networks. The silicone compatible cross-linker allowed for copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) and thereby the attachment of functional groups to the network crosslinking point. The functional groups were very well-distributed in the silicone elastomer matrix, and various...... extender’ that allowed for chemical modifications such as Cu- AAC. This route was promising for one-pot elastomer preparation and as a high dielectric constant additive to commercial silicone systems. The second approach used the borane-catalysed Piers-Rubinsztajn reaction to form spatially well...

  18. Tadpole begging reveals high quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M B; Strickler, S A; Stynoski, J L

    2017-05-01

    Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources nonrandomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e. begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses - Signal of Need, Signal of Quality and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly. We assessed the information content of intense tadpole begging with an experimental manipulation of tadpole condition (need/quality) and food deprivation (hunger). This experiment revealed patterns consistent with the Signal of Quality hypothesis and directly counter to predictions of Signal of Need and Signal of Hunger. Begging effort and performance were higher in more developed and higher condition tadpoles and declined with food deprivation. Free-living mothers were unlikely to feed tadpoles of a nonbegging species experimentally cross-fostered with their own, and allocated larger meals to more developed tadpoles and those that vibrated at higher speed. Mother O. pumilio favour their high-quality young, and because their concurrent offspring are reared in separate nurseries, must do so by making active allocation decisions. Our results suggest that these maternal choices are based at least in part on offspring signals, indicating that offspring solicitation can evolve to signal high quality. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Early development in synthetic aperture lidar sensing and processing for on-demand high resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Alain; Turbide, Simon; Terroux, Marc; Marchese, Linda; Harnisch, Bernd

    2017-11-01

    The quest for real-time high resolution is of prime importance for surveillance applications specially in disaster management and rescue mission. Synthetic aperture radar provides meter-range resolution images in all weather conditions. Often installed on satellites the revisit time can be too long to support real-time operations on the ground. Synthetic aperture lidar can be lightweight and offers centimeter-range resolution. Onboard airplane or unmanned air vehicle this technology would allow for timelier reconnaissance. INO has developed a synthetic aperture radar table prototype and further used a real-time optronic processor to fulfill image generation on-demand. The early positive results using both technologies are presented in this paper.

  20. Library Design-Facilitated High-Throughput Sequencing of Synthetic Peptide Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Gates, Zachary P; Zhang, Chi; Quartararo, Anthony J; Halloran, Kathryn H; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2017-11-13

    A methodology to achieve high-throughput de novo sequencing of synthetic peptide mixtures is reported. The approach leverages shotgun nanoliquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of library mixtures (up to 2000 peptides) as well as automated data analysis protocols to filter away incorrect assignments, noise, and synthetic side-products. For increasing the confidence in the sequencing results, mass spectrometry-friendly library designs were developed that enabled unambiguous decoding of up to 600 peptide sequences per hour while maintaining greater than 85% sequence identification rates in most cases. The reliability of the reported decoding strategy was additionally confirmed by matching fragmentation spectra for select authentic peptides identified from library sequencing samples. The methods reported here are directly applicable to screening techniques that yield mixtures of active compounds, including particle sorting of one-bead one-compound libraries and affinity enrichment of synthetic library mixtures performed in solution.

  1. The compositional variation of synthetic sodic amphiboles at high and ultra-high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropper, P.; Manning, C. E.; Essene, E. J.; Kao, L.-S.

    Sodic amphiboles in high pressure and ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks are complex solid solutions in the system Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NMASH) whose compositions vary with pressure and temperature. We conducted piston-cylinder experiments at 20-30kbar and 700-800°C to investigate the stability and compositional variations of sodic amphiboles, based on the reaction glaucophane=2jadeite+talc, by using the starting assemblage of natural glaucophane, talc and quartz, with synthetic jadeite. A close approach to equilibrium was achieved by performing compositional reversals, by evaluating compositional changes with time, and by suppressing the formation of Na-phyllosilicates. STEM observations show that the abundance of wide-chain structures in the synthetic amphiboles is low. An important feature of sodic amphibole in the NMASH system is that the assemblage jadeite-talc+/-quartz does not fix its composition at glaucophane. This is because other amphibole species such as cummingtonite (Cm), nyböite (Nyb), Al-Na-cummingtonite (Al-Na-Cm) and sodium anthophyllite (Na-Anth) are also buffered via the model reactions: 3cummingtonite+4quartz+4H2O=7talc, nyböite+3quartz=3jadeite+talc, 3Al-Na-cummingtonite + 11quartz + 2H2O=6jadeite + 5talc, and 3 sodium anthophyllite+13quartz+4H2O=3 jadeite + 7talc. We observed that at all pressures and temperatures investigated, the compositions of newly grown amphiboles deviate significantly from stoichiometric glaucophane due to varying substitutions of AlIV for Si, Mg on the M(4) site, and Na on the A-site. The deviation can be described chiefly by two compositional vectors: [NaAAlIV][□ASi] (edenite) toward nyböite, and [Na(M4)AlVI][Mg(M4)MgVI] toward cummingtonite. The extent of nyböite and cummingtonite substitution increases with temperature and decreases with pressure in the experiments. Similar compositional variations occur in sodic amphiboles from UHP rocks. The experimentally calibrated compositional changes

  2. High Throughput Assay for Bacterial Adhesion on Acellular Dermal Matrices and Synthetic Surgical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyame, Theodore T.; Lemon, Katherine P.; Kolter, Roberto; Liao, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been increasing use of various synthetic and biologically derived materials in surgery. Biologic surgical materials are used in many plastic surgery procedures, ranging from breast reconstruction to hernia repairs. In particular, acellular dermal matrix (ADM) material has gained popularity in these applications. There is a paucity of data on how ADM compares to other surgical materials as a substrate for bacterial adhesion, the first step in formation biofilm, which occurs in prosthetic wound infections. We have designed a high throughput assay to evaluate Staphylococcus aureus adherence on various synthetic and biologically derived materials. Methods Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (strains SC-1 and UAMS-1) were cultured with different materials and bacterial adherence was measured using a resazurin cell vitality reporter microtiter assay. Four materials that are commonly utilized in reconstructive procedures were evaluated: prolene mesh, vicryl mesh, and two different ADM preparations (AlloDerm®, FlexHD®). We were able to develop a high throughput and reliable assay for quantifying bacterial adhesion on synthetic and biologically derived materials. Results The resazurin vitality assay can be reliably used to quantify bacterial adherence to acellular dermal matrix material, as well as synthetic material. S. aureus strains SC-1 and UAMS-1 both adhered better to ADM materials (AlloDerm® vs. FlexHD®) than to the synthetic material prolene. S. aureus also adhered better to vicryl than to prolene. Strain UAMS-1 adhered better to vicryl and ADM materials than did strain SC-1. Conclusion Our results suggest that S. aureus adheres more readily to ADM material than to synthetic material. We have developed an assay to rapidly test bacterial formation on surgical materials, using two S. aureus bacterial strains. This provides a standard method to evaluate existing and new materials with regard to bacterial adherence and potential

  3. High-throughput assay for bacterial adhesion on acellular dermal matrices and synthetic surgical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyame, Theodore T; Lemon, Katherine P; Kolter, Roberto; Liao, Eric C

    2011-11-01

    There has been increasing use of synthetic and acellular dermal matrix materials in surgery, ranging from breast reconstruction to hernia repairs. There is a paucity of data on how acellular dermal matrix compares with other surgical materials as a substrate for bacterial adhesion, the first step in formation biofilm, which occurs in prosthetic wound infections. The authors have designed a high-throughput assay to evaluate Staphylococcus aureus adherence on various synthetic and biologically derived materials. Clinical isolates of S. aureus (strains SC-1 and UAMS-1) were cultured with different materials, and bacterial adherence was measured using a resazurin cell vitality assay. Four materials that are commonly used in surgery were evaluated: Prolene mesh, Vicryl mesh, and two different acellular dermal matrix preparations (AlloDerm and FlexHD). The authors were able to develop a high-throughput and reliable assay for quantifying bacterial adhesion on synthetic and biologically derived materials. The resazurin vitality assay can be reliably used to quantify bacterial adherence to acellular dermal matrix material and synthetic material. S. aureus strains SC-1 and UAMS-1 both adhered better to acellular dermal matrix materials (AlloDerm versus FlexHD) than to the synthetic material Prolene. S. aureus also adhered better to Vicryl than to Prolene. Strain UAMS-1 adhered better to Vicryl and acellular dermal matrix materials than did strain SC-1. The results show that S. aureus adheres more readily to acellular dermal matrix material than to synthetic material. The resazurin assay provides a standard method for evaluating surgical materials with regard to bacterial adherence and potential propensity for biofilm development.

  4. Creation of a synthetic indicator of quality of care as a clinical management standard in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coma, Ermengol; Ferran, Manel; Méndez, Leonardo; Iglesias, Begoña; Fina, Francesc; Medina, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    The development of electronic medical records has allowed the creation of new quality indicators in healthcare. Among them, synthetic indicators facilitate global interpretation of results and comparisons between professionals. A healthcare quality standard (EQA, the Catalan acronym for Estàndard de Qualitat Assistencial) was constructed to serve as a synthetic indicator to measure the quality of care provided by primary care professionals in Catalonia (Spain). The project phases were to establish the reference population; select health problems to be included; define, select and deliberate about subindicators; and construct and publish the EQA. Construction of the EQA involved 107 healthcare professionals, and 91 health problems were included. In addition, 133 experts were consulted, who proposed a total of 339 indicators. After systematic paired comparison, 61 indicators were selected to create the synthetic indicator. The EQA is now calculated on a monthly basis for more than 8000 healthcare professionals using an automated process that extracts data from electronic medical records; results are published on a follow-up website. Along with the use of the online EQA results tool, there has been an ongoing improvement in most of the quality of care indicators. Creation of the EQA has proven to be useful for the measurement of the quality of care of primary care services. Also an improvement trend over 5 years is shown across most of the measured indicators. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-51) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High-quality Indonesian condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    A Japanese technical team visiting the condom plant at Banjaran, Indonesia, as part of the Japanese Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund project which funded the plant, found locally produced condoms of superior quality. The marketing expert on the team predicted that family planning services provided by private practitioners and paid for by clients will account for over 50% of family planning acceptors in Indonesia by 2000. Now only 10% receive private services. Condoms are in use by 3.9% of acceptors nationwide, although as many as 15% use condoms in the capitol city. Indonesians need to be informed of the high quality of domestic condoms; marketing them for a fee will encourage this view. It is expected that in Indonesia, 2 social movements will encourage family planning, the "Posyandu" an integrated family planning and health scheme established in villages by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board, and "Arisan," a traditional system for mutual help by which villagers pool food and money to provide medicines.

  7. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J. [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H.; Morita, Y.; Ohshima, T.

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  8. High throughput discovery of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies from phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Chien; Chiu, Yi-Kai; Yu, Chung-Ming; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Tung, Chao-Ping; Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Huang, Yi-Jen; Lin, Chia-Lung; Chen, Hong-Sen; Wang, Andrew H-J; Yang, An-Suei

    2017-10-31

    Pandemic and epidemic outbreaks of influenza A virus (IAV) infection pose severe challenges to human society. Passive immunotherapy with recombinant neutralizing antibodies can potentially mitigate the threats of IAV infection. With a high throughput neutralizing antibody discovery platform, we produced artificial anti-hemagglutinin (HA) IAV-neutralizing IgGs from phage-displayed synthetic scFv libraries without necessitating prior memory of antibody-antigen interactions or relying on affinity maturation essential for in vivo immune systems to generate highly specific neutralizing antibodies. At least two thirds of the epitope groups of the artificial anti-HA antibodies resemble those of natural protective anti-HA antibodies, providing alternatives to neutralizing antibodies from natural antibody repertoires. With continuing advancement in designing and constructing synthetic scFv libraries, this technological platform is useful in mitigating not only the threats of IAV pandemics but also those from other newly emerging viral infections.

  9. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids:increasing risk for psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Robin M.; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol....

  10. High-content analysis screening for cell cycle regulators using arrayed synthetic crRNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strezoska, Žaklina; Perkett, Matthew R; Chou, Eldon T; Maksimova, Elena; Anderson, Emily M; McClelland, Shawn; Kelley, Melissa L; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Smith, Anja van Brabant

    2017-06-10

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been utilized for large-scale, loss-of-function screens mainly using lentiviral pooled formats and cell-survival phenotypic assays. Screening in an arrayed format expands the types of phenotypic readouts that can be used to now include high-content, morphology-based assays, and with the recent availability of synthetic crRNA libraries, new studies are emerging. Here, we use a cell cycle reporter cell line to perform an arrayed, synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA screen targeting 169 genes (>600 crRNAs) and used high content analysis (HCA) to identify genes that regulate the cell cycle. Seven parameters were used to classify cells into cell cycle categories and multiple parameters were combined using a new analysis technique to identify hits. Comprehensive hit follow-up experiments included target gene expression analysis, confirmation of DNA insertions/deletions, and validation with orthogonal reagents. Our results show that most hits had three or more independent crRNAs per gene that demonstrated a phenotype with consistent individual parameters, indicating that our screen produced high-confidence hits with low off-target effects and allowed us to identify hits with more subtle phenotypes. The results of our screen demonstrate the power of using arrayed, synthetic crRNAs for functional phenotypic screening using multiparameter HCA assays. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the RADARSAT-2 satellite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived high resolution wind products are calculated from high resolution SAR images of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the...

  12. Bacterial Microcolonies in Gel Beads for High-Throughput Screening of Libraries in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José M; Barbier, Içvara; Schaerli, Yolanda

    2017-11-17

    Synthetic biologists increasingly rely on directed evolution to optimize engineered biological systems. Applying an appropriate screening or selection method for identifying the potentially rare library members with the desired properties is a crucial step for success in these experiments. Special challenges include substantial cell-to-cell variability and the requirement to check multiple states (e.g., being ON or OFF depending on the input). Here, we present a high-throughput screening method that addresses these challenges. First, we encapsulate single bacteria into microfluidic agarose gel beads. After incubation, they harbor monoclonal bacterial microcolonies (e.g., expressing a synthetic construct) and can be sorted according their fluorescence by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). We determine enrichment rates and demonstrate that we can measure the average fluorescent signals of microcolonies containing phenotypically heterogeneous cells, obviating the problem of cell-to-cell variability. Finally, we apply this method to sort a pBAD promoter library at ON and OFF states.

  13. Simulation of High Quality Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kortbek, Jacob; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates if the influence on image quality using physical transducers can be simulated with an sufficient accuracy to reveal system performance. The influence is investigated in a comparative study between Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation (SASB) and Dynamic Receive Focus...... is modeled by incorporating measured element pulse echo responses into the simulation software. Validation is performed through measurements on a water phantom with three metal wires, each with a diameter of 0.07 mm. Results show that when comparing measurement and simulation, the lateral beam profile using...

  14. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  15. Fast High-Quality Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Wyvill, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the noise functions available in a graphics programmer's toolbox are either slow to compute or they involve grid-line artifacts making them of lower quality. In this paper we present a real-time noise computation with no grid-line artifacts or other regularity problems. In other wor...

  16. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the Sentinel-1 satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of high resolution sea surface winds data produced from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites. This...

  17. The triazine-based porous organic polymer: Novel synthetic strategy for high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kuen [Dept. of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A new type of microporous polymer has been successively synthesized via a simple polycondensation reaction with the 2,4-diaminotriazine moiety and dianhydride monomer. Diaminotriazine moieties in M1 especially can provide effective branching sites, resulting in high surface areas up to 1150 m{sup 2} /g. In addition, the specific pore structure of the polyimide POP in its solid state can be modified by the surface activation method. Therefore, it can be expected that the resulting material will be a promising candidate for gas storage, and with this synthetic strategy, various type of derivatives will also be optimized.

  18. Building parity between brand and generic peptide products: Regulatory and scientific considerations for quality of synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Larisa C; Chen, Fu; Lee, Sau L; Raw, Andre; Yu, Lawrence X

    2017-02-25

    Peptides are a fast growing segment in the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, the industry and regulatory agencies are increasing their focus on the regulatory path and quality considerations for peptide development and manufacturing. Although most peptides are synthetic, manufactured by solid phase synthesis, nevertheless they are complex molecules with challenging quality and regulatory aspects. This paper provides a structured overview of relevant quality issues for chemically synthesized peptides used as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in drug products. It addresses the unique characteristics of peptides pertaining to structural and physicochemical characterization, manufacturing and in process controls, impurities and aggregates arising from manufacturing and storage, along with their potential impact on safety (including immunogenicity) and efficacy of the peptide drug products. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. © 2016 World Psychiatric Association.

  20. Effects of local high-frequency perturbation on a turbulent boundary layer by synthetic jet injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin

    2015-08-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control.

  1. A high-resolution synthetic bed elevation grid of the Antarctic continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Felicity S.; Roberts, Jason L.; Galton-Fenzi, Ben K.; Young, Duncan; Blankenship, Donald; Siegert, Martin J.

    2017-05-01

    Digital elevation models of Antarctic bed topography are smoothed and interpolated onto low-resolution ( > 1 km) grids as current observed topography data are generally sparsely and unevenly sampled. This issue has potential implications for numerical simulations of ice-sheet dynamics, especially in regions prone to instability where detailed knowledge of the topography, including fine-scale roughness, is required. Here, we present a high-resolution (100 m) synthetic bed elevation terrain for Antarctica, encompassing the continent, continental shelf, and seas south of 60° S. Although not identically matching observations, the synthetic bed surface - denoted as HRES - preserves topographic roughness characteristics of airborne and ground-based ice-penetrating radar data measured by the ICECAP (Investigating the Cryospheric Evolution of the Central Antarctic Plate) consortium or used to create the Bedmap1 compilation. Broad-scale ( > 5 km resolution) features of the Antarctic landscape are incorporated using a low-pass filter of the Bedmap2 bed elevation data. HRES has applicability in high-resolution ice-sheet modelling studies, including investigations of the interaction between topography, ice-sheet dynamics, and hydrology, where processes are highly sensitive to bed elevations and fine-scale roughness. The data are available for download from the Australian Antarctic Data Centre (doi:10.4225/15/57464ADE22F50).

  2. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    Agriculture faces several challenges of future provision of nutrients such as limited P reserves and increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers and recycling of nutrients from organic waste can be an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of the agricultural systems. Organically...... and S, is often low; and (3) the unbalanced composition of nutrients rarely matches crop demands. Therefore the objective of this project was to investigate the potential for (1) recycling nutrients from agro-industrial wastes and (2) compost biotransformation into high-quality organic fertilizers......, including three succeeding compost experiments, conducted in Denmark (Paper II). The composting studies investigated three management interventions to enhance the compost fertilizer quality and accelerate compost turnover: (1) the addition of nutrient rich material, (2) the compost turning frequency and (3...

  3. The use of a very high temperature nuclear reactor in the manufacture of synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    The three parts of a program directed toward creating a cost-effective nuclear hydrogen production system are described. The discussion covers the development of a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) as a nuclear heat and power source capable of producing the high temperature needed for hydrogen production and other processes; the development of a hydrogen generation process based on water decomposition, which can utilize the outputs of the VHTR and be integrated with many different ultimate hydrogen consuming processes; and the evaluation of the process applications of the nuclear hydrogen systems to assess the merits and potential payoffs. It is shown that the use of VHTR for the manufacture of synthetic fuels appears to have a very high probability of making a positive contribution to meeting the nation's energy needs in the future.

  4. Phase Reactions Between Refractory and High-Acidic Synthetic CaO-Ferronickel Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagadin, Christoph; Luidold, Stefan; Wagner, Christoph; Spanring, Alfred; Kremmer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between high melting synthetic ferronickel slags with acidic character and MgO as refractory were investigated. In order to facilitate the complex composition of real ferronickel slag, a synthetic slag of SiO2-MgO-Fe2O3-CaO was used. The practical corrosion tests of the MgO refractory were performed in a hot-stage microscope at temperatures of 1650°C under a CO/CO2 atmosphere for process-oriented conditions. The formed phases between slag and magnesia substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscope analysis. The results show that, by penetrating the slag into the refractory, the melt dissolves the magnesia and forms Mg- and Ca silicates. Furthermore, a diffusion of Fe from the slag into the magnesia grains can be observed and a transformation to magnesiowustite occurs. Thermodynamic phase calculations using FactSage software confirmed the generation of these minerals. The combination of practical testing and thermodynamic calculations should ultimately provide a path for improving the refractory lifetime and performance.

  5. SYNTHETIC ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCT QUALITY DIFFERENTIATED AND NON-DIFFERENTIATED ON QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Product quality has been and will remain one of the most important indicators of increasing economic and financial performance of a company. Quality is that which ensures the greatest part of the competitiveness of a product or service, this being the result of some important aspects such as: products and services of quality to meet consumers requirements, low costs without affecting the quality level, the performance of contractual obligations, customer satisfaction and last but not least obtaining profit. Research and results concerning this issue will result in the prerequisites in the process for quality assurance that can develop both internally and externally. The purpose of this article lies in the approach and illustration of the aspects of products differentiated and non-differentiated in quality classes. In launching this research I will try to highlight some aspects that most efficiently the indicators mentioned above, indicators that read to what extent a certain product meets the characteristics specified to its destination.

  6. Building high-resolution synthetic lethal networks: a 'Google map' of the cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, James M; Templeton, Shaina D; Baharani, Akanksha; Freywald, Andrew; Vizeacoumar, Franco J

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly used therapies for cancer involve delivering high doses of radiation or toxic chemicals to the patient that also cause substantial damage to normal tissue. To overcome this, researchers have recently resorted to a basic biological concept called 'synthetic lethality' (SL) that takes advantage of interactions between gene pairs. The identification of SL interactions is of considerable therapeutic interest because if a particular gene is SL with a tumor-causing mutation, then the targeting that gene carries therapeutic advantages. Mapping these interactions in the context of human cancer cells could hold the key to effective, targeted cancer treatments. In this review, we cover the recent advances that aim to identify these SL interactions using unbiased genetic screens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Receptor mediated uptake of paclitaxel from a synthetic high density lipoprotein nanocarrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooberry, Linda K; Nair, Maya; Paranjape, Sulabha; McConathy, Walter J; Lacko, Andras G

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the mechanism(s) whereby paclitaxel (PTX), is taken up by cancer cells, once encapsulated into synthetic/reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL). The uptake of PTX was found to be facilitated by the scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) when drug-loaded rHDL particles were incubated with cells that express the SRB1 receptor. Studies with double-labeled, PTX containing rHDL nanoparticles showed that prostate cancer (PC-3) cells incorporated PTX primarily via a selective (SR-B1 type) uptake mechanism. In the presence of a 10-fold excess of plasma HDL, PTX uptake decreased to 30% of the control. These findings suggest that the incorporation of lipophilic drugs by cancer cells from rHDL nanoparticles is facilitated by a receptor mediated (SR-B1) mechanism.

  8. Evaluation of synthetic/reconstituted high-density lipoproteins as delivery vehicles for paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConathy, Walter J; Nair, Maya P; Paranjape, Sulabha; Mooberry, Linda; Lacko, Andras G

    2008-02-01

    Reconstituted (synthetic) high-density lipoprotein particles carrying paclitaxel (rHDL/PTX) were prepared with substantially higher PTX content than reported earlier. The rHDL/PTX complexes seemed to be primarily spherical nanoparticles when examined via electron microscopy, with a constant composition, molecular weight and exceptional stability even after ultracentrifugation and storage for up to 6 months. The rHDL/PTX nanoparticles had superior cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines (MCF7, DU145, OV1063 and OVCAR-3), the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) having been found to be 5-20 times lower than that of the free drug. Studies with mice showed that the rHDL/PTX nanoparticles were substantially better tolerated than the corresponding dosages of either Taxol or Abraxane.

  9. High-frequency Born synthetic seismograms based on coupled normal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred F.

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency and full waveform synthetic seismograms on a 3-D laterally heterogeneous earth model are simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The set of coupled integral equations that describe the 3-D response are simplified into a set of uncoupled integral equations by using the Born approximation to calculate scattered wavefields and the pure-path approximation to modulate the phase of incident and scattered wavefields. This depends upon a decomposition of the aspherical structure into smooth and rough components. The uncoupled integral equations are discretized and solved in the frequency domain, and time domain results are obtained by inverse Fourier transform. Examples show the utility of the normal mode approach to synthesize the seismic wavefields resulting from interaction with a combination of rough and smooth structural heterogeneities. This approach is applied to an ∼4 Hz shallow crustal wave propagation around the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD).

  10. Design & Development of a High Mass Flow Piston Synthetic Jet Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Hamad Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of having a device that is capable of working in a systematic process allowing control of the boundary layer by means of operated on high-frequency, small-scale, and low energy actuators has caught the interest of the aerodynamicist community. With an eye on the available data and potential flow control advantages, our research team set out to manufacture a compact SJA (Synthetic Jet Actuator of its own, which would be capable of being installed inside an airfoil. It consists of components such as a single piston cylinder, with variable exit geometry along with the control system that has an electrical actuator which can be regulated in order for it to be capable of producing various operating frequencies. This paper consists of a study into the design of a single piston device SJA and will present all significant data both theoretical and computational regarding its design and performance.

  11. Feasibility analysis of high resolution tissue image registration using 3-D synthetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Yachna; Moffitt, Richard A; Stokes, Todd H; Chaudry, Qaiser; Wang, May D

    2011-01-01

    Registration of high-resolution tissue images is a critical step in the 3D analysis of protein expression. Because the distance between images (~4-5μm thickness of a tissue section) is nearly the size of the objects of interest (~10-20μm cancer cell nucleus), a given object is often not present in both of two adjacent images. Without consistent correspondence of objects between images, registration becomes a difficult task. This work assesses the feasibility of current registration techniques for such images. We generated high resolution synthetic 3-D image data sets emulating the constraints in real data. We applied multiple registration methods to the synthetic image data sets and assessed the registration performance of three techniques (i.e., mutual information (MI), kernel density estimate (KDE) method [1], and principal component analysis (PCA)) at various slice thicknesses (with increments of 1μm) in order to quantify the limitations of each method. Our analysis shows that PCA, when combined with the KDE method based on nuclei centers, aligns images corresponding to 5μm thick sections with acceptable accuracy. We also note that registration error increases rapidly with increasing distance between images, and that the choice of feature points which are conserved between slices improves performance. We used simulation to help select appropriate features and methods for image registration by estimating best-case-scenario errors for given data constraints in histological images. The results of this study suggest that much of the difficulty of stained tissue registration can be reduced to the problem of accurately identifying feature points, such as the center of nuclei.

  12. Feasibility analysis of high resolution tissue image registration using 3-D synthetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachna Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Registration of high-resolution tissue images is a critical step in the 3D analysis of protein expression. Because the distance between images (~4-5μm thickness of a tissue section is nearly the size of the objects of interest (~10-20μm cancer cell nucleus, a given object is often not present in both of two adjacent images. Without consistent correspondence of objects between images, registration becomes a difficult task. This work assesses the feasibility of current registration techniques for such images. Methods: We generated high resolution synthetic 3-D image data sets emulating the constraints in real data. We applied multiple registration methods to the synthetic image data sets and assessed the registration performance of three techniques (i.e., mutual information (MI, kernel density estimate (KDE method [1], and principal component analysis (PCA at various slice thicknesses (with increments of 1μm in order to quantify the limitations of each method. Results: Our analysis shows that PCA, when combined with the KDE method based on nuclei centers, aligns images corresponding to 5μm thick sections with acceptable accuracy. We also note that registration error increases rapidly with increasing distance between images, and that the choice of feature points which are conserved between slices improves performance. Conclusions: We used simulation to help select appropriate features and methods for image registration by estimating best-case-scenario errors for given data constraints in histological images. The results of this study suggest that much of the difficulty of stained tissue registration can be reduced to the problem of accurately identifying feature points, such as the center of nuclei.

  13. High Tap Density Li4Ti5O12 Microspheres: Synthetic Conditions and Advanced Electrochemical Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2017-03-17

    Preparation of uniform spherical Li4Ti5O12 with high tap density is significant to achieve a high volumetric energy density in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, Li4Ti5O12 micro-spheres with variable tap-density and tunable size distribution were synthesized by a newly designed industrial spray drying approach. The slurry concentration, sintering time and sintering conditions after spray, the effect of Li/Ti molar ratio on the lithium ion (Li+) storage capability were investigated. A narrow particle size distribution around 10 μm and high tap-density close to 1.4 g cm-3 of the Li4Ti5O12 spheres can be obtained under the optimized conditions. The Li4Ti5O12 spheres can deliver much higher capacity of 168 mAh g-1 at 1 C-rate and show high capacity retention of 97.7% over 400 cycles. The synthetic conditions are confirmed to be critical for improving the electron conductivity and Li+ diffusivity by adjusting the crystal and spatial structures. As-prepared high performance Li4Ti5O12 is an ideal electrode for Li-ion batteries or capacitors; meanwhile the presented approach is also applicable for preparing other kind of spherical materials.

  14. High-level semi-synthetic production of the potent antimalarial artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddon, C J; Westfall, P J; Pitera, D J; Benjamin, K; Fisher, K; McPhee, D; Leavell, M D; Tai, A; Main, A; Eng, D; Polichuk, D R; Teoh, K H; Reed, D W; Treynor, T; Lenihan, J; Fleck, M; Bajad, S; Dang, G; Dengrove, D; Diola, D; Dorin, G; Ellens, K W; Fickes, S; Galazzo, J; Gaucher, S P; Geistlinger, T; Henry, R; Hepp, M; Horning, T; Iqbal, T; Jiang, H; Kizer, L; Lieu, B; Melis, D; Moss, N; Regentin, R; Secrest, S; Tsuruta, H; Vazquez, R; Westblade, L F; Xu, L; Yu, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, L; Lievense, J; Covello, P S; Keasling, J D; Reiling, K K; Renninger, N S; Newman, J D

    2013-04-25

    In 2010 there were more than 200 million cases of malaria, and at least 655,000 deaths. The World Health Organization has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene endoperoxide with potent antimalarial properties, produced by the plant Artemisia annua. However, the supply of plant-derived artemisinin is unstable, resulting in shortages and price fluctuations, complicating production planning by ACT manufacturers. A stable source of affordable artemisinin is required. Here we use synthetic biology to develop strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) for high-yielding biological production of artemisinic acid, a precursor of artemisinin. Previous attempts to produce commercially relevant concentrations of artemisinic acid were unsuccessful, allowing production of only 1.6 grams per litre of artemisinic acid. Here we demonstrate the complete biosynthetic pathway, including the discovery of a plant dehydrogenase and a second cytochrome that provide an efficient biosynthetic route to artemisinic acid, with fermentation titres of 25 grams per litre of artemisinic acid. Furthermore, we have developed a practical, efficient and scalable chemical process for the conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin using a chemical source of singlet oxygen, thus avoiding the need for specialized photochemical equipment. The strains and processes described here form the basis of a viable industrial process for the production of semi-synthetic artemisinin to stabilize the supply of artemisinin for derivatization into active pharmaceutical ingredients (for example, artesunate) for incorporation into ACTs. Because all intellectual property rights have been provided free of charge, this technology has the potential to increase provision of first-line antimalarial treatments to the developing world at a reduced average annual price.

  15. Bayesian Methods for Estimation of Environmental Quality from Synthetic Fuel Byproducts Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James W.

    One of the concerns of development of new energy technology is that of the environmental impact from testing procedures and production of synfuels. In an effort to monitor the possible degradation of groundwater around such developmental areas, the waters are subjected to chemical testing. Unfortunately, these waters have a complicated structure and chemical analysis is often difficult. As a result, the water quality data base created from this sampling and testing program has resisted most kinds of standard analyses. The data were collected with the intention of making determinations regarding the overall quality of waters from a certain area and with the hope of finding a minimal set of 'indicator' variables that signal significant changes in the water quality over time. The thesis work has been divided up into two tasks. The first objective was to carefully examine the data to determine its structure and to perform a classical statistical analysis with the best methods available. The method of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) was chosen as the primary tool in this work. The conclusions drawn from this phase were that the normality assumptions usually made during standard statistical work could not be realistically applied to this data set. The data were distributed in a patently non-Gaussian fashion and there were numerous strong outliers to contend with. The second task has been to apply non-parametric and Bayesian methods of probability theory and Bayesian decision theory to the problem in order to construct a 'quality function'. This quality function is the measure, in a general sense, of the overall quality of a given water sample. The quality function is defined as a hypersurface in an n-dimensional parameter space which forms the criterion for a Bayesian decision rule discriminating between 'good' or 'bad' water quality or between baseline, during-retort, and post-retort water qualities. In order to reduce the dimensionality of the space to a

  16. A grid enabled Monte Carlo hyperspectral synthetic image remote sensing model (GRID-MCHSIM) for coastal water quality algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Gen-Tao; Dove, Martin; Ballard, Stuart; Bostater, Charles; Frame, Ian

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that parallel computing for hyperspectral remote sensing image generation is feasible. However, due to the limitation of computing ability within single cluster, one can only generate three bands and a 1000*1000 pixels image in a reasonable time. In this paper, we discuss the capability of using Grid computing where the so-called eScience or cyberinfrastructure is utilized to integrate distributed computing resources to act as a single virtual computer with huge computational abilities and storage spaces. The technique demonstrated in this paper demonstrates the feasibility of a Grid-Enabled Monte Carlo Hyperspectral Synthetic Image Remote Sensing Model (GRID-MCHSIM) for coastal water quality algorithm.

  17. Validating high-resolution California coastal flood modeling with Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) is a numerical modeling scheme used to predict coastal flooding due to sea level rise and storms influenced by climate change, currently in use in central California and in development for Southern California (Pt. Conception to the Mexican border). Using a framework of circulation, wave, analytical, and Bayesian models at different geographic scales, high-resolution results are translated as relevant hazards projections at the local scale that include flooding, wave heights, coastal erosion, shoreline change, and cliff failures. Ready access to accurate, high-resolution coastal flooding data is critical for further validation and refinement of CoSMoS and improved coastal hazard projections. High-resolution Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) provides an exceptional data source as appropriately-timed flights during extreme tides or storms provide a geographically-extensive method for determining areas of inundation and flooding extent along expanses of complex and varying coastline. Landward flood extents are numerically identified via edge-detection in imagery from single flights, and can also be ascertained via change detection using additional flights and imagery collected during average wave/tide conditions. The extracted flooding positions are compared against CoSMoS results for similar tide, water level, and storm-intensity conditions, allowing for robust testing and validation of CoSMoS and providing essential feedback for supporting regional and local model improvement.

  18. Second Order Low-Pass and High-Pass Filter Designs Using Method of Synthetic Immitance Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Brandstetter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly describes the basics of frequency filter design method using synthetic immittance elements with current conveyors. An introduction of the paper explains the advantages and also disadvantages of using this method. Other chapters briefly introduce a design process of simple second order low-pass and high-pass filter. A theory of current conveyors is discussed too, because they are the basic building blocs of proposed synthetic element and also active frequency filters. Finally, the particular solutions of low-pass and high-pass filters are given and verified by OrCAD PSpice simulations.

  19. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan SERİN, Alper AYTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Total Quality Management (TQM has been even more common and most recently its use in high education has been discussed. Likewise the enterprises producing various products, universities have also inputs, processes, and outputs. Due to conditions of competition, universities have to improve the qualities of these inputs, processes, and outputs, according to satisfaction, demands, and expectations of internal and external customers. If the TQM has been implemented in the universities with a manner that aims for customer satisfaction (students, lecturers, public and private establishments, and families, supports constant development, ensures participatory approach, and encourages working in groups, it will provide universities with effectiveness, efficiency, dynamics, and economics. In this study, common problems of universities, definitions of quality and TQM in high education, customer concept at universities, and factors affecting the quality of education have been explained. Besides, in order TQM approach to be successfully implemented in the universities, various suggestions have been presented.

  20. High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C6H10O5 (l)+7 H2O (l)→12 H2 (g)+6 CO2 (g). The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. Conclusions Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30°C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H2/glucose) of anaerobic fermentations. Significance The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30°C and atmospheric pressure), high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($∼2/kg H2), and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H2-based mass%), provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy. PMID:17520015

  1. Trophic mode conversion and nitrogen deprivation of microalgae for high ammonium removal from synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Zhou, Wenguang; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng; Ruan, Roger

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a well-controlled three-stage process was proposed for high ammonium removal from synthetic wastewater using selected promising microalgal strain UMN266. Three trophic modes (photoautotrophy, heterotrophy, and mixotrophy), two N sufficiency conditions (N sufficient and N deprived), two inoculum modes (photoautotrophic and heterotrophic), and different NH4(+)-N concentrations were compared to investigate the effect of trophic mode conversion and N deprivation on high NH4(+)-N removal by UMN266. Results showed that photoautotrophic inoculum with trophic mode conversion from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy and N deprivation in Stage 2 turned was the optimum plan for NH4(+)-N removal, and average removal rates were 12.4 and 19.1mg/L/d with initial NH4(+)-N of 80 and 160mg/L in Stage 3. Mechanism investigations based on algal biomass carbon (C) and N content, cellular composition, and starch content confirmed the above optimum plan and potential of UMN266 as bioethanol feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-yield hydrogen production from starch and water by a synthetic enzymatic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-H Percival Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C(6H(10O(5 (l+7 H(2O (l-->12 H(2 (g+6 CO(2 (g. The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. CONCLUSIONS: Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30 degrees C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H(2/glucose of anaerobic fermentations. SIGNIFICANCE: The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30 degrees C and atmospheric pressure, high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($ approximately 2/kg H(2, and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H(2-based mass%, provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy.

  3. SELECTION RESPONSE FOR INCREASED GRAIN YIELD IN TWO HIGH OIL MAIZE SYNTHETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made J. Mejaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selection for increased oil level in maize showed the increase was associated with decrease in starch concentration, kernel weight, and grain yield. The study was conducted with the objectives: (1 to evaluate response to six cycles for increased grain yield in the high oil maize Alexho Elite (AE: 60-90 g kg-1 oil concentration and Ultra High Oil (UHO: 100-140 g kg-1 oil concentration using inbred tester B73; (2 to measure responses to selection for increased grain yield with changes in yield components; and (3 to determine a suitable tester. Previously the two synthetics had been selected for oil concentration. After six cycles, the six genotypes i.e. AE C0, AE C3, AE C6, UHO C0, UHO C3, and UHO C6 were testcrossed to B73, LH185, and LH202 inbreds (40 g kg-1 oil concentration to a total of 18 testcrosses. Two field experiments were used to evaluate selection in AE and UHO testcrosses. The study showed selection using inbred tester B73 in AE and UHO was effective in increasing grain yield of AE testcrosses without changing (i.e. decreasing oil and protein concentrations. AE testcrosses produced higher grain yield and greater selection response for grain yield than UHO testcrosses. LH185 was best for grain yield in AE and UHO testcrosses. Increase in grain yield in most of the testcrosses was associated with increases in starch concentration, kernel weight, kernel number, and grain weight.

  4. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Bechsgaard, Thor

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view...... (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter...... vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow anglein the ROI was 86.22◦ ± 6.66◦ with a true flow angle of 90◦. A relative velocity bias of −39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found...

  5. High-quality binary interactome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreze, Matija; Monachello, Dario; Lurin, Claire; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Physical interactions mediated by proteins are critical for most cellular functions and altogether form a complex macromolecular "interactome" network. Systematic mapping of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-metabolite interactions at the scale of the whole proteome can advance understanding of interactome networks with applications ranging from single protein functional characterization to discoveries on local and global systems properties. Since the early efforts at mapping protein-protein interactome networks a decade ago, the field has progressed rapidly giving rise to a growing number of interactome maps produced using high-throughput implementations of either binary protein-protein interaction assays or co-complex protein association methods. Although high-throughput methods are often thought to necessarily produce lower quality information than low-throughput experiments, we have recently demonstrated that proteome-scale interactome datasets can be produced with equal or superior quality than that observed in literature-curated datasets derived from large numbers of small-scale experiments. In addition to performing all experimental steps thoroughly and including all necessary controls and quality standards, careful verification of all interacting pairs and validation tests using independent, orthogonal assays are crucial to ensure the release of interactome maps of the highest possible quality. This chapter describes a high-quality, high-throughput binary protein-protein interactome mapping pipeline that includes these features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic Circulating Cell-free DNA as Quality Control Materials for Somatic Mutation Detection in Liquid Biopsy for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Peng, Rongxue; Li, Ziyang; Gao, Peng; Jia, Shiyu; Yang, Xin; Ding, Jiansheng; Han, Yanxi; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2017-09-01

    Detection of somatic genomic alterations in tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the plasma is challenging owing to the low concentrations of cfDNA, variable detection methods, and complex workflows. Moreover, no proper quality control materials are available currently. We developed a set of synthetic cfDNA quality control materials (SCQCMs) containing spike-in cfDNA on the basis of micrococcal nuclease digestion carrying somatic mutations as simulated cfDNA and matched genomic DNA as genetic background to emulate paired tumor-normal samples in real clinical tests. Site-directed mutagenesis DNA that contained 1500-2000 bases with single-nucleotide variants or indels and genomic DNA from CRISPR/Cas9 edited cells with EML4-ALK rearrangements was fragmented, quantified, and added into micrococcal nuclease-digested DNA derived from HEK293T cells. To prove their suitability, the SCQCMs were compared with patient-derived plasma samples and validated in a collaborative study that encompassed 11 laboratories. The results of SCQCM analysis by next-generation sequencing showed strong agreement with those of patient-derived plasma samples, including the size profile of cfDNA and the quality control metrics of the sequencing data. More than 95% of laboratories correctly detected the SCQCMs with EGFR T790M, L858R, KRAS G12D, and a deletion in exon 19, as well as with EML4-ALK variant 2. The SCQCMs were successfully applied in a broad range of settings, methodologies, and informatics techniques. We conclude that SCQCMs can be used as optimal quality controls in test performance assessments for circulating tumor DNA somatic mutation detection. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Stephanie; O'Brien, Stacey; Szewczak, Angelica; Tremeau-Cayel, Lauriane; Rowe, Walter F; McCord, Bruce; Lurie, Ira S

    2017-09-01

    A comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones has been conducted. Nine different mixtures of bath salts were analyzed in this study. The three different chromatographic techniques were examined using a general set of controlled synthetic cathinones as well as a variety of other synthetic cathinones that exist as positional isomers. Overall 35 different synthetic cathinones were analyzed. A variety of column types and chromatographic modes were examined for developing each separation. For the ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography separations, analyses were performed using a series of Torus and Trefoil columns with either ammonium formate or ammonium hydroxide as additives, and methanol, ethanol or isopropanol organic solvents as modifiers. Ultra high performance liquid chromatographic separations were performed in both reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic modes using SPP C18 and SPP HILIC columns. Gas chromatography separations were performed using an Elite-5MS capillary column. The orthogonality of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was examined using principal component analysis. For the best overall separation of synthetic cathinones, the use of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography in combination with gas chromatography is recommended. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. ICUD-0420 Testing high resolution synthetic rainfall time series representing current and future climates on CSO and other indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Davidsen, S.; Löwe, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Combined sewer systems have a long technical lifetime, thus climate change must be taken into consideration when designing new CSO structures, basins, and pipe system enhancements. At the same time, the performance is highly dependent on antecedent conditions in the sewer system and is therefore...... best modelled using LTS. In the present study, we calculate indicators related to CSO statistics using synthetic time series created with different methodologies for both present and future climatic conditions. The methodology for synthetic rainfall generation influences the obtained results along...

  9. Approaches in breeding for high quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić Miloje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most African and South American countries. The main problem in human nutrition in developing countries, and in livestock feed in developed countries, is insufficient production and poor quality of cereal proteins. In the case of maize, due to the very low content of essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan in grain endosperm, biological value is very low, which is main limiting factor of common maize in human nutrition and feeding of monogastric animals. Quality protein maize (QPM can help in solving of this problem. Maize production also faces serious constraints caused by agro-ecological conditions and poor socio-economic situation. To alleviate the effect of the constraints, selected genotypes with more desirable traits and appropriate field-plot techniques to create multiple-stress conditions, were used. It was found that, in downy mildew nursery distance up to 35 m from spreader plot is providing sufficient down load of spores for plant infection, provided that the testing breeding materials are planted towards to down-stream direction of the dominant wind. Using these breeding approaches large number of early, white and flint synthetics, composites and inbred lines were created with resistance or tolerance to downy mildew (DMR, maize streak virus (SR and drought (DT. Created genotypes exhibited very good kernel modification and yield potential under low and normal inputs. In the case of synthetics and composites, besides tolerance to multiple stress factors, they were competing in yield with local QPM and normal maize checks. In the case of created inbred lines high combining ability was exhibited both in non-conventional and conventional maize hybrids. Trial data revealed that in the most cases the best entries were over-yielding the best checks.

  10. Riding Quality Model for Asphalt Pavement Monitoring Using Phase Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Yoshikazu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There are difficulties associated with near-real time or frequent pavement monitoring, because it is time consuming and costly. This study aimed to develop a binary logit model for the evaluation of highway riding quality, which could be used to monitor pavement conditions. The model was applied to investigate the influence of backscattering values of Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR. Training data obtained during 3–7 May 2007 was used in the development process, together with actual international roughness index (IRI values collected along a highway in Ayutthaya province, Thailand. The analysis showed that an increase in the backscattering value in the HH or the VV polarization indicated the poor condition of the pavement surface and, of the two, the HH polarization is more suitable for developing riding quality evaluation. The model developed was applied to analyze highway number 3467, to demonstrate its capability. It was found that the assessment accuracy of the prediction of the highway level of service was 97.00%. This is a preliminary study of the proposed technique and more intensive investigation must be carried out using ALOS/PALSAR images in various seasons.

  11. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  12. Comparison of synthetic high density lipoprotein (HDL) contrast agents for MR imaging of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormode, David P; Chandrasekar, Rohith; Delshad, Amanda; Briley-Saebo, Karen C; Calcagno, Claudia; Barazza, Alessandra; Mulder, Willem J M; Fisher, Edward A; Fayad, Zahi A

    2009-05-20

    Determining arterial macrophage expression is an important goal in the molecular imaging of atherosclerosis. Here, we compare the efficacy of two synthetic, high density lipoprotein (HDL) based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of macrophage burden. Each form of HDL was labeled with gadolinium and rhodamine to allow MRI and fluorescence microscopy. Either the 37 or 18 amino acid peptide replaced the apolipoprotein A-I in these agents, which were termed 37pA-Gd or 18A-Gd. The diameters of 37pA-Gd and 18A-Gd are 7.6 and 8.0 nm, respectively, while the longitudinal relaxivities are 9.8 and 10.0 (mM s)(-1). 37pA has better lipid binding properties. In vitro tests with J774A.1 macrophages proved the particles possessed the functionality of HDL by eliciting cholesterol efflux and were taken up in a receptor-like fashion by the cells. Both agents produced enhancements in atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E knockout mice of approximately 90% (n = 7 per agent) and are macrophage specific as evidenced by confocal microscopy on aortic sections. The half-lives of 37pA-Gd and 18A-Gd are 2.6 and 2.1 h, respectively. Despite the more favorable lipid interactions of 37pA, both agents gave similar, excellent contrast for the detection of atherosclerotic macrophages using MRI.

  13. High Accuracy Ground-based near-Earth-asteroid Astrometry using Synthetic Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Saini, Navtej; Sandhu, Jagmit; Werne, Thomas; Choi, Philip; Ely, Todd A.; Jacobs, Chirstopher S.; Lazio, Joseph; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Owen, William M.; Preston, Robert; Turyshev, Slava; Michell, Adam; Nazli, Kutay; Cui, Isaac; Monchama, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Accurate astrometry is crucial for determining the orbits of near-Earth-asteroids (NEAs). Further, the future of deep space high data rate communications is likely to be optical communications, such as the Deep Space Optical Communications package that is part of the baseline payload for the planned Psyche Discovery mission to the Psyche asteroid. We have recently upgraded our instrument on the Pomona College 1 m telescope, at JPL's Table Mountain Facility, for conducting synthetic tracking by taking many short exposure images. These images can be then combined in post-processing to track both asteroid and reference stars to yield accurate astrometry. Utilizing the precision of the current and future Gaia data releases, the JPL-Pomona College effort is now demonstrating precision astrometry on NEAs, which is likely to be of considerable value for cataloging NEAs. Further, treating NEAs as proxies of future spacecraft that carry optical communication lasers, our results serve as a measure of the astrometric accuracy that could be achieved for future plane-of-sky optical navigation.

  14. Computer-Assisted Design and Synthetic Applications of Chiral Enol Borinates: Novel, Highly Enantioselective Aldol Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennari Cesare

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently described the development of a quantitative transition state model for the prediction of stereoselectivity in the boron-mediated aldol reaction. This model provides qualitative insights into the factors contributing to the stereochemical outcome of a variety of reactions of synthetic importance. The force field model was used to assist the design and preparation of new chiral boron ligands derived from menthone. The chiral boron enolates were employed in various stereoselective processes, including the addition to chiral aldehydes and the reagent-controlled total synthesis of (3S,4S-statine. The chiral enolates derived from alpha-halo and alpha-oxysubstituted thioacetates were added to aldehydes and imines. Addition to imines leads to the enantioselective synthesis of chiral aziridines, a formal total synthesis of (+-thiamphenicol, and a new highly efficient synthesis of the paclitaxel (taxol® C-13 side-chain and taxol semisynthesis from baccatin III. The stereochemical outcome of the addition to imines was rationalised with the aid of computational studies. Enantioselective addition reactions of the chiral boron enolate derived from thioacetate have successfully been applied to solid phase bound aldehydes to give aldol products in comparable yields and enantioselectivities to the usual solution conditions.

  15. Electrochemical sulfide removal from synthetic and real domestic wastewater at high current densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg; Rabaey, Korneel

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide generation is the key cause of sewer pipe corrosion, one of the major issues in water infrastructure. Current abatement strategies typically involve addition of various types of chemicals to the wastewater, which incurs large operational costs. The transport, storage and application of these chemicals also constitute occupational and safety hazards. In this study, we investigated high rate electrochemical oxidation of sulfide at Ir/Ta mixed metal oxide (MMO) coated titanium electrodes as a means to remove sulfide from wastewater. Both synthetic and real wastewaters were used in the experiments. Electrochemical sulfide oxidation by means of indirect oxidation with in-situ produced oxygen appeared to be the main reaction mechanism at Ir/Ta MMO coated titanium electrodes. The maximum obtained sulfide removal rate was 11.8 ± 1.7 g S m(-2) projected anode surface h(-1) using domestic wastewater at sulfide concentrations of ≥ 30 mg L(-1) or higher. The final products of the oxidation were sulfate, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. Chloride and acetate concentrations did not entail differences in sulfide removal, nor were the latter two components affected by the electrochemical oxidation. Hence, the use of electrodes to generate oxygen in sewer systems may constitute a promising method for reagent-free removal of sulfide from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Simultaneous determination of 10 synthetic colorants in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haishan; Qian, Xiaoyan; Lü, Chunhu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xiaomei; Mo, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 synthetic colorants in cosmetics. The cosmetics were extracted by the ultrasonic technique with tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol sequentially. Then the extracts were centrifuged for purification and separated on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 4.60, adjusted with acetic acid). A diode array detector was used to determine the colorants with the wavelengths ranging from 417 nm to 640 nm. The linear relationships of the 10 colorants between the peak areas and the mass concentrations were obtained in the range of 0.5-20.0 mg/L (r > 0.999). The limits of quantitation ranged from 10 to 20 mg/kg. The average recoveries at three concentration levels ranged from 92.9% to 108.8% with the relative standard deviations in the range of 0.5% to 6.1% (n = 6). The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the 10 colorants in the oil cosmetics, cream cosmetics and powder cosmetics.

  17. Delirium and High Creatine Kinase and Myoglobin Levels Related to Synthetic Cannabinoid Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bulent Yazici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs are included in a group of drugs called new psychoactive substances. Effects of SCs on the central nervous system are similar to other cannabinoids, but 2–100 times more potent than marijuana. Thus, addiction and withdrawal symptoms are more severe than natural cannabinoids. Withdrawal symptoms of SCs were reported in the literature previously. But there is no report about SC withdrawal delirium and its treatment. Several studies reported that agonists of CB1 receptors play a role in GABA and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is similar to the effects of alcohol on GABA and glutamatergic receptors. Previous studies on alcohol delirium cases suggested that elevated creatine kinase (CK can be a marker of progress. This study reports delirium and high serum CK levels related to SC withdrawal and offers a treatment with benzodiazepine for them. We described two cases treated in our inpatient clinic about SC withdrawal with increase of serum CK level and other laboratory parameters. One of them demonstrated delirium symptoms and the other did not with early rapid treatment.

  18. A High-Throughput Process for the Solid-Phase Purification of Synthetic DNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Beaucage, Serge L

    2017-06-19

    An efficient process for the purification of synthetic phosphorothioate and native DNA sequences is presented. The process is based on the use of an aminopropylated silica gel support functionalized with aminooxyalkyl functions to enable capture of DNA sequences through an oximation reaction with the keto function of a linker conjugated to the 5'-terminus of DNA sequences. Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites carrying this linker, as a 5'-hydroxyl protecting group, have been synthesized for incorporation into DNA sequences during the last coupling step of a standard solid-phase synthesis protocol executed on a controlled pore glass (CPG) support. Solid-phase capture of the nucleobase- and phosphate-deprotected DNA sequences released from the CPG support is demonstrated to proceed near quantitatively. Shorter than full-length DNA sequences are first washed away from the capture support; the solid-phase purified DNA sequences are then released from this support upon reaction with tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride in dry dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and precipitated in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The purity of solid-phase-purified DNA sequences exceeds 98%. The simulated high-throughput and scalability features of the solid-phase purification process are demonstrated without sacrificing purity of the DNA sequences. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Highly efficient CO2 sorbents: development of synthetic, calcium-rich dolomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filitz, Rainer; Kierzkowska, Agnieszka M; Broda, Marcin; Müller, Christoph R

    2012-01-03

    The reaction of CaO with CO(2) is a promising approach for separating CO(2) from hot flue gases. The main issue associated with the use of naturally occurring CaCO(3), that is, limestone, is the rapid decay of its CO(2) capture capacity over repeated cycles of carbonation and calcination. Interestingly, dolomite, a naturally occurring equimolar mixture of CaCO(3) and MgCO(3), possesses a CO(2) uptake that remains almost constant with cycle number. However, owing to the large quantity of MgCO(3) in dolomite, the total CO(2) uptake is comparatively small. Here, we report the development of a synthetic Ca-rich dolomite using a coprecipitation technique, which shows both a very high and a stable CO(2) uptake over repeated cycles of calcination and carbonation. To obtain such an excellent CO(2) uptake characteristic it was found to be crucial to mix the Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on a molecular level, that is, within the crystalline lattice. For sorbents which were composed of mixtures of microscopic crystals of CaCO(3) and MgCO(3), a decay behavior similar to natural limestone was observed. After 15 cycles, the CO(2) uptake of the best sorbent was 0.51 g CO(2)/g sorbent exceeding the CO(2) uptake of limestone by almost 100%.

  20. Effect of oxidation on base liquids of oil and synthetic-based drilling fluids at high pressure and high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbazi, K.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G.; Ursenbach, M.G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Diesels and distillates are used as a base liquid for most oil-based drilling fluids in conventional drilling and as the liquid phase in gasified liquids in some underbalanced drilling operations. They are also used as friction reducing agents to free stuck pipes. It is important to understand the true downhole rheological properties because they affect equivalent circulating density, hole cleaning, barite sag, surge/swab pressures during tripping, pump pressure and bit hydraulics. Also, gelation and high viscosity are major concerns, particularly at high temperatures. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxidation on some base liquids for oil-based and synthetic-based drilling fluids at high pressures and high temperatures. Gas and liquid phases were characterized and the solid phase was measured along with viscosity measurements at temperatures and pressures ranging from 20 to 152 degrees C at atmospheric pressures to 103.4 MPa. The viscosity of the liquid samples after aging was compared with that of corresponding fresh samples. The results indicate that the degree of oxidation plays an important role in increasing the sample viscosity. The increase in viscosity depends on temperature, and is more significant at low temperatures. Agitation of samples during aging with air resulted in increased amounts of solid precipitation while lowering the viscosity of the liquid phase. This study demonstrated that oxidation has an important influence on rheological properties of the oil, because it affects the mobility of the oil and therefore the recovery factor. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 22 figs.

  1. Assuring quality in high-consequence engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Marcey L.; Kolb, Rachel R.

    2014-03-01

    In high-consequence engineering organizations, such as Sandia, quality assurance may be heavily dependent on staff competency. Competency-dependent quality assurance models are at risk when the environment changes, as it has with increasing attrition rates, budget and schedule cuts, and competing program priorities. Risks in Sandia's competency-dependent culture can be mitigated through changes to hiring, training, and customer engagement approaches to manage people, partners, and products. Sandia's technical quality engineering organization has been able to mitigate corporate-level risks by driving changes that benefit all departments, and in doing so has assured Sandia's commitment to excellence in high-consequence engineering and national service.

  2. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Bechsgaard, Thor; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow angle in the ROI was 86.22° +/- 6.66° with a true flow angle of 90°. A relative velocity bias of -39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found. In-vivo acquisitions show complex flow patterns in the heart. In the aortic valve view, blood is seen exiting the left ventricle cavity through the aortic valve into the aorta during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. In the left ventricle view, blood flow is seen entering the left ventricle cavity through the mitral valve and splitting in two ways when approximating the left ventricle wall. The work presents 2-D velocity estimates on the heart from a non-invasive transthoracic scan. The ability of the method detecting flow regardless of the beam angle could potentially reveal a more complete view of the flow patterns presented on the heart.

  3. Reproducibility of High-Throughput Plate-Reader Experiments in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Michael; Ho, Jonathan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2017-02-17

    Plate-reader assays are commonly conducted to quantify the performance of synthetic biological systems. However, on the basis of a survey of 100 publications, we find that most publications do not report critical experimental settings of plate reader assays, suggesting widespread issues in their reproducibility. Specifically, critical plate reader settings, including shaking time and covering method, either vary between laboratories or are not reported by the publications. Here, we demonstrate that the settings of plate reader assays have a significant impact on bacterial growth, recombinant gene expression, and biofilm formation. Furthermore, we show that the plate reader settings affect the apparent activity, sensitivity, and chemical kinetics of synthetic constructs, as well as alter the apparent effectiveness of antibiotics. Our results suggest the critical need for consistent reporting of plate reader protocols to ensure the reproducibility of the protocols. In addition, our work provides data for the setup of plate reader protocols in synthetic biology experiments.

  4. Highly accurate P-SV complete synthetic seismograms using modified DSM operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu; Geller, Robert J.; Cummins, Phil R.

    In previous papers [Cummins et al., 1994ab] (hereafter referred to as DSMI and DSMII respectively), we presented accurate methods for computing complete synthetic seismograms for SH and P-SV respectively in a spherical earth model. The SH calculations used computationally efficient modified matrix operators, but the P-SV synthetics were computationally intensive. Geller and Takeuchi [1995] (hereafter referred to as GT95) presented a general theory for deriving modified operators and gave the explicit form of the modified operators for the P-SV case in cylindrical or cartesian coordinates. In this paper we extend GT95's results to derive modified operators for the P-SV case in spherical coordinates. The use of the modified operators reduces the CPU time by a factor of about 5 without a loss of accuracy. 10 CPU min on a SPARC-20 workstation with one CPU are required to compute a profile of synthetic seismograms from DC to 20 sec period.

  5. Investigation of Synthetic Jets Efficiency to Control Cavity Flotation with Subsonic External Flow by High-Resolution RANS / ILES Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lyubimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavities often found in airplanes: a niche for the landing gear, various weapons, etc. Reducing fluctuations of pressure and temperature in the cavity is a relevant practical problem. The article presents simulation results of external subsonic flow around the cavity (M = 0.85, T = 300K. . Calculations were performed using the high-resolution RANS/ILES (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes - RANS, Implicit Large Eddy Simulation - ILES method. To control flow the authors propose to use synthetic jets. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from a slot induced by the movement of a diaphragm (generator of synthetic jets inside a cavity. They are compact and efficient and do not require a special working body and the ways for its supply. Instead of calculating the flow in the synthetic jet generator was used the modified boundary condition on the wall where the output slots was positioned. Under consideration there were two variants of slots for synthetic jets output: in front of the cavity and inside the cavity on the front wall. The frequency and amplitude values of the synthetic jet specified a mode of each jet. For a jet inside the cavity two modes have been reviewed, namely: 100 Hz and 50m/s, 200Hz and 50m/s. For jet in front of the cavity three modes have been reviewed, specifically: 20Hz and 20m/s, 100Hz and 50m/s, 200Hz and 50m/s. Analysis of calculation results showed that for all modes under examination, the synthetic jets reduced fluctuation of static pressure and temperature on the bottom and back walls of the cavity. The mode with parameters 200Hz, 50 m/s and synthetic jet located in front of the cavity was the most efficient. Furthermore, we compared the results of calculations for two-and three-dimensional cavities, which have the same length and depth. Research has shown that the simplified quasi-two-dimensional calculations cannot be used to evaluate the pressure and temperature fluctuations. This is due to

  6. Simulation of high quality ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    In this paper the influence using an idealized transducer model (ITM) and a realistic transducer model (RTM) is investigated in a comparative study between Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation (SASB) and Dynamic Receive Focus (DRF)....

  7. High-resolution nondestructive testing of multilayer dielectric materials using wideband microwave synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hee; James, Robin; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-04-01

    Fiber Reinforced Polymer or Plastic (FRP) composites have been rapidly increasing in the aerospace, automotive and marine industry, and civil engineering, because these composites show superior characteristics such as outstanding strength and stiffness, low weight, as well as anti-corrosion and easy production. Generally, the advancement of materials calls for correspondingly advanced methods and technologies for inspection and failure detection during production or maintenance, especially in the area of nondestructive testing (NDT). Among numerous inspection techniques, microwave sensing methods can be effectively used for NDT of FRP composites. FRP composite materials can be produced using various structures and materials, and various defects or flaws occur due to environmental conditions encountered during operation. However, reliable, low-cost, and easy-to-operate NDT methods have not been developed and tested. FRP composites are usually produced as multilayered structures consisting of fiber plate, matrix and core. Therefore, typical defects appearing in FRP composites are disbondings, delaminations, object inclusions, and certain kinds of barely visible impact damages. In this paper, we propose a microwave NDT method, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging algorithms, for stand-off imaging of internal delaminations. When a microwave signal is incident on a multilayer dielectric material, the reflected signal provides a good response to interfaces and transverse cracks. An electromagnetic wave model is introduced to delineate interface widths or defect depths from the reflected waves. For the purpose of numerical analysis and simulation, multilayered composite samples with various artificial defects are assumed, and their SAR images are obtained and analyzed using a variety of high-resolution wideband waveforms.

  8. A synthetic data set of high-spectral-resolution infrared spectra for the Arctic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Rowe, Penny M.; Neshyba, Steven P.; Walden, Von P.

    2016-05-01

    Cloud microphysical and macrophysical properties are critical for understanding the role of clouds in climate. These properties are commonly retrieved from ground-based and satellite-based infrared remote sensing instruments. However, retrieval uncertainties are difficult to quantify without a standard for comparison. This is particularly true over the polar regions, where surface-based data for a cloud climatology are sparse, yet clouds represent a major source of uncertainty in weather and climate models. We describe a synthetic high-spectral-resolution infrared data set that is designed to facilitate validation and development of cloud retrieval algorithms for surface- and satellite-based remote sensing instruments. Since the data set is calculated using pre-defined cloudy atmospheres, the properties of the cloud and atmospheric state are known a priori. The atmospheric state used for the simulations is drawn from radiosonde measurements made at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site at Barrow, Alaska (71.325° N, 156.615° W), a location that is generally representative of the western Arctic. The cloud properties for each simulation are selected from statistical distributions derived from past field measurements. Upwelling (at 60 km) and downwelling (at the surface) infrared spectra are simulated for 260 cloudy cases from 50 to 3000 cm-1 (3.3 to 200 µm) at monochromatic (line-by-line) resolution at a spacing of ˜ 0.01 cm-1 using the Line-by-line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) and the discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer code (DISORT). These spectra are freely available for interested researchers from the NSF Arctic Data Center data repository (doi:10.5065/D61J97TT).

  9. High-Throughput Synthetic Chemistry Enabled by Organic Solvent Disintegrating Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Lei; Xing, Yanjun; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-17

    Synthetic chemistry remains a time- and labor-intensive process of inherent hazardous nature. Our organic solvent disintegrating tablet (O-Tab) technology has shown potential to make industrial/synthetic chemistry more efficient. As is the case with pharmaceutical tablets, our reagent-containing O-Tabs are mechanically strong, but disintegrate rapidly when in contact with reaction media (organic solvents). For O-Tabs containing sensitive chemicals, they can be further coated to insulate them from air and moisture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  11. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy fixation with short plate without any graft, synthetic material or spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Faik; Sever, Cem; Kacıra, Burkay K; Demirayak, Mehmet; Acar, Mehmet Ali; Toker, Serdar

    2014-12-01

    Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is an effective surgical procedure for patients who have medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee with varus deformity of the limb. The abnormal load on the medial compartment of the knee is directed to the lateral compartment with this procedure. A gap occurs on the proximal tibia while providing adequate correction. Filling this gap with bone grafts or synthetic materials has gained wide acceptance for preventing bone union problems or osteotomy site collapse. The aim of this study is to report our results of MOWHTOs performed without any bone graft or any other synthetic materials. We evaluated 41 MOWHTOs that have been performed between 2009 and 2012 with no use of any grafts or synthetic materials and spacer. Age of the patients ranged from 43 to 67. Thirty-five of the patients were females and three of them were males. The follow-up time was 6 months. Seven knees had opening at the osteotomy site 12.5 mm (range 7.5-14 mm, mean 11.07 mm). All osteotomies united without loss of correction. The mean bone union time was 12.8 weeks. We did not have any major complication regarding the technique. The results of our study have shown that we can achieve satisfactory and good results by performing MOWHTO procedure without using any bone grafts or synthetic materials and spacer.

  12. Medial Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy Fixation with Short Plate without any Graft, Synthetic Material or Spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Faik; Sever, Cem; Kacıra, Burkay Kutluhan; Demirayak, Mehmet; Acar, Mehmet Ali; Toker, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is an effective surgical procedure for patients who have medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee with varus deformity of the limb. The abnormal load on the medial compartment of the knee relocates to the lateral compartment with this procedure. A gap occurs on the proximal tibia during the correction of varus deformity. Filling this gap with bone grafts or synthetic materials has gained wide acceptance for preventing nonunion or osteotomy site collapse. The aim of this study is to report our results of MOWHTOs performed without any bone graft or any other synthetic materials. Methods: We evaluated 41 MOWHTOs performed between 2009 and 2012 with no use of bone grafts, synthetic materials or spacers. Age of the patients ranged from 43 to 67. Thirty five of the patients were female and 3 of them were male. The follow-up time was 6 months. Results: There were no any non-unions or loss of correction. The mean bone union time was 12,8 weeks. No major complications were seen. Conclusion: The results of our study has shown that achieve satisfactory results can be obtained in MOWHTO without using any bone graft, synthetic materials or spacer.

  13. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  14. Impact of element pitch on synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasegawa, H.; Korte, C.L. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Synthetic aperture imaging was introduced in medical ultrasound to obtain high-quality images. In synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging, spherical transmit waves illuminate a target region from different positions, resulting in low-resolution images for each transmission. By coherent

  15. Thermal Properties and Phonon Spectral Characterization of Synthetic Boron Phosphide for High Thermal Conductivity Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Wu, Huan; Hu, Yongjie

    2017-12-13

    Heat dissipation is an increasingly critical technological challenge in modern electronics and photonics as devices continue to shrink to the nanoscale. To address this challenge, high thermal conductivity materials that can efficiently dissipate heat from hot spots and improve device performance are urgently needed. Boron phosphide is a unique high thermal conductivity and refractory material with exceptional chemical inertness, hardness, and high thermal stability, which holds high promises for many practical applications. So far, however, challenges with boron phosphide synthesis and characterization have hampered the understanding of its fundamental properties and potential applications. Here, we describe a systematic thermal transport study based on a synergistic synthesis-experimental-modeling approach: we have chemically synthesized high-quality boron phosphide single crystals and measured their thermal conductivity as a record-high 460 W/mK at room temperature. Through nanoscale ballistic transport, we have, for the first time, mapped the phonon spectra of boron phosphide and experimentally measured its phonon mean free-path spectra with consideration of both natural and isotope-pure abundances. We have also measured the temperature- and size-dependent thermal conductivity and performed corresponding calculations by solving the three-dimensional and spectral-dependent phonon Boltzmann transport equation using the variance-reduced Monte Carlo method. The experimental results are in good agreement with that predicted by multiscale simulations and density functional theory, which together quantify the heat conduction through the phonon mode dependent scattering process. Our finding underscores the promise of boron phosphide as a high thermal conductivity material for a wide range of applications, including thermal management and energy regulation, and provides a detailed, microscopic-level understanding of the phonon spectra and thermal transport mechanisms of

  16. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...

  17. Research and application of a hybrid model based on dynamic fuzzy synthetic evaluation for establishing air quality forecasting and early warning system: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunzhen; Du, Pei; Wang, Jianzhou

    2017-04-01

    As the atmospheric environment pollution has been becoming more and more serious in China, it is highly desirable to develop a scientific and effective early warning system that plays a great significant role in analyzing and monitoring air quality. However, establishing a robust early warning system for warning the public in advance and ameliorating air quality is not only an extremely challenging task but also a public concerned problem for human health. Most previous studies are focused on improving the prediction accuracy, which usually ignore the significance of uncertainty information and comprehensive evaluation concerning air pollutants. Therefore, in this paper a novel robust early warning system was successfully developed, which consists of three modules: evaluation module, forecasting module and characteristics estimating module. In this system, a new dynamic fuzzy synthetic evaluation is proposed and applied to determine air quality levels and primary pollutants, which can be regarded as the research objectives; Moreover, to further mine and analyze the characteristics of air pollutants, four different distribution functions and interval forecasting method are also employed that can not only provide predictive range, confidence level and the other uncertain information of the pollutants future values, but also assist decision-makers in reducing and controlling the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Case studies utilizing hourly PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 data collected from Tianjin and Shanghai in China are applied as illustrative examples to estimate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system. Experimental results obviously indicated that the developed novel early warning system is much suitable for analyzing and monitoring air pollution, which can also add a novel viable option for decision-makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  19. Computer-Assisted Design and Synthetic Applications of Chiral Enol Borinates: Novel, Highly Enantioselective Aldol Reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Gennari Cesare; Ceccarelli Simona; Piarulli Umberto; Aboutayab Karim

    1998-01-01

    We have recently described the development of a quantitative transition state model for the prediction of stereoselectivity in the boron-mediated aldol reaction. This model provides qualitative insights into the factors contributing to the stereochemical outcome of a variety of reactions of synthetic importance. The force field model was used to assist the design and preparation of new chiral boron ligands derived from menthone. The chiral boron enolates were employed in various stereoselecti...

  20. Focusing of airborne synthetic aperture radar data from highly nonlinear flight tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, O.; Magnard, C; RÜEGG, M.; Meier, E.

    2009-01-01

    Standard focusing of data from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) assumes a straight recording track of the sensor platform. Small nonlinearities of airborne platform tracks are corrected for during a motion-compensation step while maintaining the assumption of a linear flight path. This paper describes the processing of SAR data acquired from nonlinear tracks, typical of sensors mounted on small aircraft or drones flying at low altitude. Such aircraft do not fly along straight tracks, but the tr...

  1. Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholence, F.; Norell, M.

    2005-02-01

    Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

  2. A guide to highly effective quality programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    To dramatically improve quality while decreasing costs, hospitals should: ensure all executives are vocal and visible supporters of quality improvement; focus the board of directors on quality as a strategic priority; strategically target quality resources to improve care for the majority of patients; use the finance system as the foundation for automated quality reporting; form a strong alliance between the CFO and chief quality officer, with each playing a leadership role in the quality program; rely on a well-executed quality program to improve efficiency and decrease the cost of care.

  3. In-Vivo Synthetic Aperture and Plane Wave High Frame Rate Cardiac Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jonas; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of synthetic aperture imaging using spherical and plane waves with low number of emission events is presented. For both wave types, a 90 degree sector is insonified using 15 emission events giving a frame rate of 200 frames per second. Field II simulations of point targets show simil.......43 for spherical and 0.70 for plane waves. All measures are well within FDA limits for cardiac imaging. In-vivo images of the heart of a healthy 28-year old volunteer are shown....

  4. High resolution three-dimensional robotic synthetic tracked aperture ultrasound imaging: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Fang, Ting Yun; Finocchi, Rodolfo; Boctor, Emad M.

    2017-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging is becoming a standard mode for medical ultrasound diagnoses. Conventional 3D ultrasound imaging is mostly scanned either by using a two dimensional matrix array or by motorizing a one dimensional array in the elevation direction. However, the former system is not widely assessable due to its cost, and the latter one has limited resolution and field-of-view in the elevation axis. Here, we propose a 3D ultrasound imaging system based on the synthetic tracked aperture approach, in which a robotic arm is used to provide accurate tracking and motion. While the ultrasound probe is moved by a robotic arm, each probe position is tracked and can be used to reconstruct a wider field-of-view as there are no physical barriers that restrict the elevational scanning. At the same time, synthetic aperture beamforming provides a better resolution in the elevation axis. To synthesize the elevational information, the single focal point is regarded as the virtual element, and forward and backward delay-andsum are applied to the radio-frequency (RF) data collected through the volume. The concept is experimentally validated using a general ultrasound phantom, and the elevational resolution improvement of 2.54 and 2.13 times was measured at the target depths of 20 mm and 110 mm, respectively.

  5. Lethal high: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) triggered by toxic effect of synthetic cannabinoid black mamba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Kiran; Boon, Ian S; Packer, Gregory; Jacob, Saiju

    2017-04-22

    A previously well 25-year-old man presented with agitation, double incontinence and left-sided incoordination. His symptoms started after smoking a synthetic cannabinoid (black mamba) 5 days earlier. Over 48 hours, he developed aphasia, generalised hypertonia, hyper-reflexia and dense left hemiparesis. This progressed to profuse diaphoresis, fever, tachycardia, hypertension and a possible seizure necessitating admission to the intensive care unit. CT head and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were unremarkable. MRI brain demonstrated asymmetric multifocal hyperintense lesions in white and grey matter, which raised suspicions of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). An electroencephalogram showed widespread brain wave slowing, indicating diffuse cerebral dysfunction. Cerebral angiogram was normal. Toxicology analysis of the substance confirmed a potent synthetic cannabinoid NM2201, technically legal at the time. The patient made a slow but significant recovery after a course of intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins and oral steroids, and was later transferred to a rehabilitation bed. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  7. Detecting selection signatures between Duroc and Duroc synthetic pig populations using high-density SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Z; Hong, J-K; Jung, J-H; Kim, D-W; Kim, Y-M; Kim, E-S; Shin, S S; Jung, Y C; Kim, K-S

    2017-08-01

    The development of high throughput genotyping techniques has facilitated the identification of selection signatures of pigs. The detection of genomic selection signals in a population subjected to differential selection pressures may provide insights into the genes associated with economically and biologically important traits. To identify genomic regions under selection, we genotyped 488 Duroc (D) pigs and 155 D × Korean native pigs (DKNPs) using the Porcine SNP70K BeadChip. By applying the FST and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH-Rsb) methods, we detected genes under directional selection associated with growth/stature (DOCK7, PLCB4, HS2ST1, FBP2 and TG), carcass and meat quality (TG, COL14A1, FBXO5, NR3C1, SNX7, ARHGAP26 and DPYD), number of teats (LOC100153159 and LRRC1), pigmentation (MME) and ear morphology (SOX5), which are all mostly near or at fixation. These results could be a basis for investigating the underlying mutations associated with observed phenotypic variation. Validation using genome-wide association analysis would also facilitate the inclusion of some of these markers in genetic evaluation programs. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  9. High Quality Data for Grid Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Draxl, Caroline; Sengupta, Manajit; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-01-22

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. The existing electric grid infrastructure in the US in particular poses significant limitations on wind power expansion. In this presentation we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets are presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. The need for high-resolution weather data pushes modeling towards finer scales and closer synchronization. We also present how we anticipate such datasets developing in the future, their benefits, and the challenges with using and disseminating such large amounts of data.

  10. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...... methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every...

  11. Transparency and Refutability: Why and How Demonstrated using a Synthetic, Highly Nonlinear Groundwater Transport Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Hanson, R. T.; Kauffman, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    A synthetic test case illustrates the importance of a transparency (revealed importance) and refutability (tested hypotheses) in model development. The test case represents transport of an environmental tracer (cfc) and contaminant (pce) in a heterogeneous groundwater system. A locally refined grid is used to represent selected features and the dynamics of pumping. Observations include hydraulic heads for which simulated values are obtained with MODFLOW, and four types of observations for which simulated values are produced with particle tracking using the new program MODPATH-OBS. These include (1) proximity observations that measure whether particles arrive at expected locations, (2) time-of-travel observations that measure whether particles arrive when they are expected, (3) concentration observations of cfc and pce where the simulated values are obtained by assigning each particle a concentration that is allowed to decay during transport, and (4) source water type observations that measure the dominance of sources of water that reach a given destination. There are eight transmissivity and porosity parameters. One model run requires 20 minutes; computationally frugal model analysis methods that required 10s to 100s of model runs enabled rapid access to the insights obtained. Three sets of parameter values are considered: (a) starting parameter values for which the sum-of-squared weighted residuals (SOSWR) exceeds 11,000, (b) estimated parameter values for which SOSWR equals 326, and (c) true parameter values that are known for this synthetic problem and for which SOSWR equals 457. SOSWR is not zero for the true parameter values because most of the locally refined model grid used in these simulations is coarser than the globally refined model grid used to generate the observations in this synthetic problem. SOSWR is smaller for the estimated parameter values than the true values because of fitting typical of model calibration, regardless of how calibrated results

  12. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiuqin; Zhang Feng; Sun Yanyan; Yong Wei [Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Jia 3, Gaobeidian North Road, Beijing 100025 (China); Chu Xiaogang [Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Jia 3, Gaobeidian North Road, Beijing 100025 (China)], E-mail: lixq_sypu@yahoo.com; Fang Yanyan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry [Agilent Technologies, Inc., 2850 Centerville Road, Wilmington, Delaware (United States)

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M + H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M - H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0 mg.kg{sup -1} concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0 mg.kg{sup -1}-100 mg.kg{sup -1} are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation <7.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.0005 to 0.05 mg.kg{sup -1}, which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  13. Preconcentration of synthetic phenolic antioxidants by using magnetic zeolites derived with carboxylatocalix[4]arenes combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaoyan; Li, Zheng; Lv, Xueju; Hu, Bin; Jia, Qiong

    2015-09-07

    Here, we synthesized a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material combining carboxylatocalix[4]arenes and magnetic zeolites by covalent bonding. The complex was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal gravity analysis, and by using an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and a vibrating sample magnetometer. The resulting magnetic composite was employed as a solid phase adsorbent to separate and preconcentrate synthetic phenolic antioxidants. Various interactions between the targets and the adsorbent contributed to the adsorption efficiency including hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen-bond interaction, and π-π complexation. The superparamagnetic participation in the process of synthesizing zeolites made the separation process of adsorbent from solutions convenient by an external magnetic field. Taking advantage of this property, this adsorbent could be recycled more than 30 times. The concentrations of the preconcentrated SPAs were determined directly by high-performance liquid chromatography. Various experimental parameters were optimized, according to which the method was evaluated. Finally, the prepared magnetic zeolite@carboxylatocalix[4]arene was successfully applied to identify synthetic phenolic antioxidants from juice and infant milk powder samples with high enrichment factors in the range of 41.9-92.5. The magnetic materials allowed rapid and simple preconcentration, implying their potential in the field of adsorption.

  14. Effects of Aramid, a high strength synthetic fiber, on respiratory cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J P; Mossman, B T; Driscoll, K E; Schins, R F; Borm, P J

    1994-01-01

    Industry continues to develop synthetic fibers for new technologies and as replacements for asbestos, a toxic and carcinogenic fiber. To determine whether the in vitro effects of the aromatic polyamide fiber, Aramid (Kevlar, Twaron), resembled those induced by asbestos, fibers were surveyed for (1) cytotoxicity as measured by total cell protein, and (2) proliferative capacity as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, colony forming efficiency (CFE), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in two target cells of mineral dust-induced lung damage, hamster tracheal epithelial (HTE) cells and rat lung (RL90) fibroblasts. Results of cytotoxicity tests indicated that Aramid was as toxic to HTE and RL90 cells as were crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos when expressed on both an equal mass and equal fiber number basis. In HTE cells, Aramid caused a statistically significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation and CFE and produced a dose-dependent induction of ODC enzyme activity. Proliferative effects by asbestos or Aramid were not observed in RL90 fibroblasts. Thus, when tested over a respirable size range, Aramid exhibited many of the same effects on epithelial cells in vitro as did asbestos, including increased radiolabeled nucleotide incorporation into DNA and induction of ODC enzyme activity.

  15. Synthetic cannabinoids: the multi-organ failure and metabolic derangements associated with getting high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolkar Sherpa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids (SC, though not detected with routine urine toxicology screening, can cause severe metabolic derangements and widespread deleterious effects in multiple organ systems. The diversity of effects is related to the wide distribution of cannabinoid receptors in multiple organ systems. Both cannabinoid-receptor-mediated and non-receptor-mediated effects can result in severe cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic manifestations. We report the case of a 45-year-old African American male with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage, reversible cardiomyopathy, acute rhabdomyolysis, and severe metabolic derangement associated with the use of K2, an SC. Though each of these complications has been independently associated with SCs, the combination of these effects in a single patient has not been heretofore reported. This case demonstrates the range and severity of complications associated with the recreational use of SCs. Though now banned in the United States, use of systemic cannabinoids is still prevalent, especially among adolescents. Clinicians should be aware of their continued use and the potential for harm. To prevent delay in diagnosis, tests to screen for these substances should be made more readily available.

  16. Investigation of the dielectric recovery in synthetic air in a high voltage circuit breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, M [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Naidis, G [Institute for High Temperatures RAS, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Steffens, A [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Nordborg, H [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, CH-5405 Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Claessens, M [ABB Switzerland Ltd., High Voltage Technologies, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-06-07

    The dielectric recovery of an axially blown arc in an experimental set-up based on a conventional HV circuit breaker was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. As a quenching gas, synthetic air was used. The investigated time range was from 10 {mu}s to 10 ms after current zero (CZ). A fast rise in the dielectric strength during the first 100 {mu}s, followed by a plateau and further rise later was observed. The dependences on the breaking current and pressure were determined. The measured dielectric recovery during the first 100 {mu}s after CZ could be reproduced with good accuracy by computational fluid dynamics simulations. From that it could be deduced that the temperature decay in the axis does not depend sensitively on the pressure. The dielectric recovery during the first 100 {mu}s scales therefore mainly with the filling pressure. The plateau in the breakdown characteristic is due to a hot vapour layer from the still evaporating PTFE nozzle surface.

  17. A Comparison of Natural (D-?-tocopherol) and Synthetic (DL-?-tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, K.; Niu, Y.; Zheng, X. C.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, M.; Huang, X. X.; Zhang, L. L.; Zhou, Y. M.; Wang, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group), and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-t...

  18. Integrated studies of a regional ozone pollution synthetically affected by subtropical high and typhoon system in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe high ozone (O3 episodes usually have close relations to synoptic systems. A regional continuous O3 pollution episode was detected over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China during 7–12 August 2013, in which the O3 concentrations in more than half of the cities exceeded the national air quality standard. The maximum hourly concentration of O3 reached 167.1 ppb. By means of the observational analysis and the numerical simulation, the characteristics and the essential impact factors of the typical regional O3 pollution are comprehensively investigated. The observational analysis shows that the atmospheric subsidence dominated by the western Pacific subtropical high plays a crucial role in the formation of high-level O3. The favorable weather conditions, such as extremely high temperature, low relative humidity and weak wind speed, caused by the abnormally strong subtropical high are responsible for the trapping and the chemical production of O3 in the boundary layer. In addition, when the YRD cities are at the front of Typhoon Utor, the periphery circulation of typhoon system can enhance the downward airflows and cause worse air quality. However, when the typhoon system weakens the subtropical high, the prevailing southeasterly surface wind leads to the mitigation of the O3 pollution. The integrated process rate (IPR analysis incorporated in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ model is applied to further illustrate the combined influence of subtropical high and typhoon system in this O3 episode. The results show that the vertical diffusion (VDIF and the gas-phase chemistry (CHEM are two major contributors to O3 formation. During the episode, the contributions of VDIF and CHEM to O3 maintain the high values over the YRD region. On 10–12 August, the cities close to the sea are apparently affected by the typhoon system, with the contribution of VDIF increasing to 28.45 ppb h−1 in Shanghai and 19.76 ppb h−1 in

  19. Modeling synthetic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Nolwenn; Gentleman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic lethality defines a genetic interaction where the combination of mutations in two or more genes leads to cell death. The implications of synthetic lethal screens have been discussed in the context of drug development as synthetic lethal pairs could be used to selectively kill cancer cells, but leave normal cells relatively unharmed. A challenge is to assess genome-wide experimental data and integrate the results to better understand the underlying biological processes. We propose statistical and computational tools that can be used to find relationships between synthetic lethality and cellular organizational units. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified multi-protein complexes and pairs of multi-protein complexes that share an unusually high number of synthetic genetic interactions. As previously predicted, we found that synthetic lethality can arise from subunits of an essential multi-protein complex or between pairs of multi-protein complexes. Finally, using multi-protein complexes allowed us to take into account the pleiotropic nature of the gene products. Modeling synthetic lethality using current estimates of the yeast interactome is an efficient approach to disentangle some of the complex molecular interactions that drive a cell. Our model in conjunction with applied statistical methods and computational methods provides new tools to better characterize synthetic genetic interactions.

  20. Fabrication and mechanical testing of glass chips for high-pressure synthetic or analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, R.E.; Hermes, D.C.; Kakuta, M.; Benito-Lopez, F.; Verboom, Willem; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; van den Berg, Albert; Reinhoudt, David

    The pressure strength of microfluidics glass chips for high-pressure chemistry has been examined. Internal pressures up to 320 bar have been measured, although variations are substantial. Long annealing steps at high temperatures did not show any improvement, but smoothening the powder blasted

  1. The use of synthetic blended fibers to reduce cracking risk in high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transportation departments have observed varying degrees of cracking in their concrete structures. Cracking of high performance reinforced concrete structures, in particular bridge decks, is of paramount concern to Pacific Northwest Departments of Tr...

  2. A little adjustment of synthetic strategy led to a new highly repeated heteropolyblue: Structure, characterizations and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wu-Hua; Zhang, Zhu-Sen; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qiu, Ze-Hai; Yuan, Qiu-Lan; Huang, Tian-Fu; Lin, Xue-Yu; Hu, Zhi-Biao

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis is known as the most efficient method to prepare novel structural polyoxometalate (POM)-based materials, but controlled synthesis of a structure-directing POM is always challenging task. The experimental repeatability is usually one of the key topics. To explore a reliable hydrothermal synthesis approach for new POMs will be a meaningful work. Our previous work, which we have hydrothermally synthesized the first Cr-complexes-capped Keggin-type POM, [Hdma]3[H2phen]{[Cr(phen)]2[MoV8MoVI4O36(PO4)]}·nH2O (n ≈ 2) (Chen et al., polyhedron, 2015, 85, 117), afford us some commendable synthetic experiences, arouse us some introspections as well for its tricky preparation conditions and low experimental repeatability. Based on the aforementioned work, a new high-repetition-rate and more steady heteropolyblue, [H3O]0.5(Hdma)2.5(dma)0.25{[Cr(phen)]2[MoV6MoVI6O8(PO4)]}·2H2O (1) (dma = dimethylamine (C2H7N), phen = 1,10-phenanthroline (C12H8N2)), has been successfully obtained by virtue of reasonably adjusting synthetic strategy. The adjustment of synthetic strategy includes controlling ratio of reactants and aging time, reasonably using redoxes and stepwise self-assembly plans. Compound 1 is the second POM with Keggin-type polyanion capped by Cr-complexes. Experiments demonstrate that compound 1 has good catalytic activity in the both degradation reactions of rhodamine B (RHB) and methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet (UV)-light and oxidant H2O2 conditions. Detailed structural characterizations include single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analyses, elemental analyses, cerate oxidimetry, powder XRD, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) solid diffuse reflection spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The electrochemical property (cyclic voltammetry (CV)) of compound 1 has also been studied.

  3. Study of a three-stage fluidized bed process treating acrylic synthetic-fiber manufacturing wastewater containing high-strength nitrogenous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S S; Chen, Y N; Wu, K L; Chuang, H P; Chen, S D

    2004-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is one of the major synthetic fibers commonly used in the mass production of clothing. The chemical synthesis of PAN is carried out by polymerization of the acrylonitrile (AN) monomers with co-monomers such as vinyl acetate, methyl acrylate and cyclohexyl acrylate. Using water quality analysis of the PAN wastewater, high concentration of organic nitrogen was found and the TKN/COD ratios achieved were 0.15-0.26, indicating the complicated biodegradation characteristics for the PAN wastewater. In order to enhance biodegradation of nitrogenous compounds in PAN wastewater, a combined three-stage process of thermophilic anaerobic/anoxic denitrification/aerobic nitrification fluidized bed reactors was employed. The results indicated that the concentration of effluent in the three-stage process of OD and organic nitrogen was 175 mg/L and 13 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, molecular biotechnology was applied to study the microbial population in the thermophilic anaerobic fluidized bed reactor. From the results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, the diversity of PAN-degrading bacteria would change in different volumetric loading. Furthermore, the bacteria communities in the thermophilic anaerobic fluidized bed reactor were also studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Alpha and delta-Proteobacteria were dominant in the bacteria population, and some high G+C content bacteria and Clostridium could be characterized in this system.

  4. Photonics-based broadband radar for high-resolution and real-time inverse synthetic aperture imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Wang, Ziqian; Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Sun, Jun; Pan, Shilong

    2017-07-10

    A photonics-based radar with generation and de-chirp processing of broadband linear frequency modulated continuous-wave (LFMCW) signal in optical domain is proposed for high-resolution and real-time inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. In the proposed system, a broadband LFMCW signal is generated by a photonic frequency quadrupler based on a single integrated electro-optical modulator, and the echoes reflected from the targets are de-chirped to a low frequency signal by a microwave photonic frequency mixer. The proposed radar can operate at a high frequency with a large bandwidth, and thus achieve an ultra-high range resolution for ISAR imaging. Thanks to the wideband photonic de-chirp technique, the radar receiver could apply low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and mature digital signal processing, which makes real-time ISAR imaging possible. A K-band photonics-based radar with an instantaneous bandwidth of 8 GHz (18-26 GHz) is established and its performance for ISAR imaging is experimentally investigated. Results show that a recorded two-dimensional imaging resolution of ~2 cm × ~2 cm is achieved with a sampling rate of 100 MSa/s in the receiver. Besides, fast ISAR imaging with 100 frames per second is verified. The proposed radar is an effective solution to overcome the limitations on operation bandwidth and processing speed of current radar imaging technologies, which may enable applications where high-resolution and real-time radar imaging is required.

  5. Theoretical Studies of Possible Synthetic Routes for the High Energy Density Material Td N4: Excited Electronic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    Vertical electronic excitation energies for single states have been computed for the high energy density material (HEDM) Td N4 in order to assess possible synthetic routes that originate from excited electronic states of N2 molecules. Several ab initio theoretical approaches have been used, including complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), state averaged CASSCF (SA-CASSCF), singles configuration interaction (CIS), CIS with second-order and third-order correlation corrections [CIS(D)) and CIS(3)], and linear response singles and doubles coupled-cluster (LRCCSD), which is the highest level of theory employed. Standard double zeta polarized (DZP) and triple zeta double polarized (TZ2P) one-particle basis sets were used. The CASSCF calculations are found to overestimate the excitation energies, while the SA-CASSCF approach rectifies this error to some extent, but not completely. The accuracy of the CIS calculations varied depending on the particular state, while the CIS(D), CIS(3), and LRCCSD results are in generally good agreement. Based on the LRCCSD calculations, the lowest six excited singlet states are 9.35(l(sup)T1), 10.01(l(sup)T2), 10.04(1(sup)A2), 10.07(1(sup)E), 10.12(2(sup)T1), and 10.42(2(sup)T2) eV above the ground state, respectively. Comparison of these excited state energies with the energies of possible excited states of N2+N2 fragments, leads us to propose that the most likely synthetic route for Td N4 involving this mechanism arises from combination of two bound quintet states of N2.

  6. Performance Analysis of a High Resolution Airborne FM-CW Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Hoogeboom, P.

    2003-01-01

    Compact FM-CW technology combined with high resolution SAR techniques should pave the way for a small and cost effective imaging radar. A research project has been inìtiated to investigate the feasibility of FM-CW SAR. Within the framework of the project an operational airborne FM-CW SAR

  7. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  8. Clinical experience with and analytical confirmation of "bath salts" and "legal highs" (synthetic cathinones) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Henry A; Ryan, Mark L; Weston, Robert G; Jansen, Joanne

    2011-07-01

    Recently, there has been a worldwide rise in the popularity and abuse of synthetic cathinones. In 2009 and 2010, a significant rise in the abuse of a new group of synthetic cathinones was reported in Western Europe. In 2010, the rapid emergence of a new drug of abuse, referred to as bath salts or "legal high," occurred in the USA. The growing number of cases along with the alarming severity of the effects caused by the abuse of these substances prompted significant concern from both healthcare providers and legal authorities. We report the experience of the first 8 months of two regional poison centers after the emergence of a new group of substances of abuse. This was a retrospective case series of patients reported to two poison centers with exposures to bath salts. Additionally, 15 "product samples" were obtained and analyzed for drug content using GC/MS. There were 236 patients of which 184 (78%) were male. Age range was 16-64 years (mean 29 years, SD 9.4). All cases were intentional abuse. There were 37 separate "brand" names identified. Clinical effects were primarily neurological and cardiovascular and included: agitation (n = 194), combative behavior (n = 134), tachycardia (n = 132), hallucinations (n = 94), paranoia (n = 86), confusion (n = 83), chest pain (n = 40), myoclonus (n = 45), hypertension (n = 41), mydriasis (n = 31), CPK elevations (n = 22), hypokalemia (n = 10), and blurred vision (n = 7). Severe medical outcomes included death (n = 1), major (n = 8), and moderate (n = 130). Therapies included benzodiazepines (n = 125), antipsychotics (n = 47), and propofol (n = 10). Primary dispositions of patients were: 116 (49%) treated and released from ED, 50 (21%) admitted to critical care, 29 (12%) admitted to psych, and 28 (12%) lost to follow up. Nineteen patients had blood and/or urine analyzed using GC/MS. MDPV was detected in 13 of 17 live patients (range 24-241 ng/mL, mean 58 ng/mL). The four samples with no drug detected, reported last use of bath

  9. Achieving High-Quality Multicultural Geriatric Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    As the ethnic diversity of the U.S. population increases, there is a growing awareness of healthcare disparities and the need to address them. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethnogeriatrics Committee developed outlines healthcare disparities in the United States and the minimum quality indicators that healthcare organizations and healthcare providers should adopt to ensure that all older adults receive care that is culturally appropriate and takes into account level of health literacy. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Production of high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of producing high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts was evaluated in various ways. With this, a contribution has been made to a more efficient usage of natural resources while yielding a high-quality product. Crude oil extracted from herring byproducts

  11. Looking for High Quality Accreditation in Higher Education in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gama, Jesús Alfonso; Vega Vega, Anselmo

    2017-01-01

    We look for the High Quality Accreditation of tertiary education in two ways: one, involving large amount of information, including issues such as self-assessment, high quality, statistics, indicators, surveys, and field work (process engineering), during several periods of time; and the second, in relation to the information contained there about…

  12. High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm W; Despland, Laure M; Lake, Neal J; Yee, Lachlan H; Anstoetz, Manuela; Arif, Elisabeth; Parr, Jeffery F; Doumit, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash re-utilisation has been advocated as a silica-rich feed for zeolites, pozzolans in cements and concretes, and geopolymers. However, many papers report variable success with the incorporation of such materials in these products as the ash can be inconsistent in nature. Therefore, understanding what variables affect the ash quality in real mills and understanding the processes to characterise ashes is critical in predicting successful ash waste utilisation. This paper investigated sugarcane bagasse ash from three sugar mills (Northern NSW, Australia) where two are used for the co-generation of electricity. Data shows that the burn temperatures of the bagasse in the high-efficiency co-generation boilers are much higher than those reported at the temperature measuring points. Silica polymorph transitions indicate the high burn temperatures of ≈1550 °C, produces ash dominated α -quartz rather than expected α-cristobilite and amorphous silica; although α-cristobilite, and amorphous silica are present. Furthermore, burn temperatures must be ≤1700 °C, because of the absence of lechatelierite where silica fusing and globulisation dominates. Consequently, silica-mineralogy changes deactivate the bagasse ash by reducing silica solubility, thus making bagasse ash utilisation in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, or a pozzolanic material in mortars and concretes more difficult. For the ashes investigated, use as a filler material in cements and concrete has the greatest potential. Reported mill boiler temperatures discrepancies and the physical characteristics of the ash, highlight the importance of accurate temperature monitoring at the combustion seat if bagasse ash quality is to be prioritised to ensure a usable final ash product.

  13. High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm W. Clark

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse ash re-utilisation has been advocated as a silica-rich feed for zeolites, pozzolans in cements and concretes, and geopolymers. However, many papers report variable success with the incorporation of such materials in these products as the ash can be inconsistent in nature. Therefore, understanding what variables affect the ash quality in real mills and understanding the processes to characterise ashes is critical in predicting successful ash waste utilisation. This paper investigated sugarcane bagasse ash from three sugar mills (Northern NSW, Australia where two are used for the co-generation of electricity. Data shows that the burn temperatures of the bagasse in the high-efficiency co-generation boilers are much higher than those reported at the temperature measuring points. Silica polymorph transitions indicate the high burn temperatures of ≈1550 °C, produces ash dominated α −quartz rather than expected α-cristobilite and amorphous silica; although α-cristobilite, and amorphous silica are present. Furthermore, burn temperatures must be ≤1700 °C, because of the absence of lechatelierite where silica fusing and globulisation dominates. Consequently, silica-mineralogy changes deactivate the bagasse ash by reducing silica solubility, thus making bagasse ash utilisation in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, or a pozzolanic material in mortars and concretes more difficult. For the ashes investigated, use as a filler material in cements and concrete has the greatest potential. Reported mill boiler temperatures discrepancies and the physical characteristics of the ash, highlight the importance of accurate temperature monitoring at the combustion seat if bagasse ash quality is to be prioritised to ensure a usable final ash product.

  14. Determinação de corantes artificiais por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE em pó para gelatina Determination of synthetic dyes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPCL in jelly powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre Prado

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in 76 samples of regular jelly and diet jelly powders, of several flavors produced by seven different manufacturers. Three sample of each product, from different batches, were analyzed. The same qualitative composition was observed for products of the same flavor from different manufacturers, but the quantitative composition varied markedly from one manufacturer to the other. There were no or few significant differences between batches from a given manufacturer, demonstrating good quality control in the use of these additives by the food industry. None of the samples exceeded the limit stipulated by Brazilian legislation.

  15. Synthetic Biomaterials to Rival Nature's Complexity-a Path Forward with Combinatorics, High-Throughput Discovery, and High-Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Douglas; Lee, Junmin; Kilian, Kristopher A

    2017-10-01

    Cells in tissue receive a host of soluble and insoluble signals in a context-dependent fashion, where integration of these cues through a complex network of signal transduction cascades will define a particular outcome. Biomaterials scientists and engineers are tasked with designing materials that can at least partially recreate this complex signaling milieu towards new materials for biomedical applications. In this progress report, recent advances in high throughput techniques and high content imaging approaches that are facilitating the discovery of efficacious biomaterials are described. From microarrays of synthetic polymers, peptides and full-length proteins, to designer cell culture systems that present multiple biophysical and biochemical cues in tandem, it is discussed how the integration of combinatorics with high content imaging and analysis is essential to extracting biologically meaningful information from large scale cellular screens to inform the design of next generation biomaterials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthetic Conditions for High-Accuracy Size Control of PbS Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianbing; Crisp, Ryan W.; Gao, Jianbo; Kroupa, Daniel M.; Beard, Matthew C.; Luther, Joseph M.

    2015-05-21

    Decreasing the variability in quantum dot (QD) syntheses is desirable for better uniformity of samples for use in QD-based studies and applications. Here we report a highly reproducible linear relationship between the concentration of ligand (in this case oleic acid, OA) and the lowest energy exciton peak position (nm) of the resulting PbS QDs for various hot-injection temperatures. Thus, for a given injection temperature, the size of the PbS QD product is purely controlled by the amount of OA. We used this relationship to study PbS QD solar cells that are fabricated from the same size of PbS QDs but synthesized using four different injection temperatures: 95, 120, 150, and 185 °C. We find that the power conversion efficiency does not depend on injection temperature but that the Voc is higher for QDs synthesized at lower temperatures while the Jsc is improved in higher temperature QDs.

  17. Combining HJ CCD, GF-1 WFV and MODIS Data to Generate Daily High Spatial Resolution Synthetic Data for Environmental Process Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingquan; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-08-20

    The limitations of satellite data acquisition mean that there is a lack of satellite data with high spatial and temporal resolutions for environmental process monitoring. In this study, we address this problem by applying the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM) and the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA) to combine Huanjing satellite charge coupled device (HJ CCD), Gaofen satellite no. 1 wide field of view camera (GF-1 WFV) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to generate daily high spatial resolution synthetic data for land surface process monitoring. Actual HJ CCD and GF-1 WFV data were used to evaluate the precision of the synthetic images using the correlation analysis method. Our method was tested and validated for two study areas in Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that both the ESTARFM and STDFA can be applied to combine HJ CCD and MODIS reflectance data, and GF-1 WFV and MODIS reflectance data, to generate synthetic HJ CCD data and synthetic GF-1 WFV data that closely match actual data with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.8989 and 0.8643, respectively. Synthetic red- and near infrared (NIR)-band data generated by ESTARFM are more suitable for the calculation of Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) than the data generated by STDFA.

  18. SMART-DS: Synthetic Models for Advanced, Realistic Testing: Distribution Systems and Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Palmintier, Bryan

    2016-03-03

    This presentation provides an overview of full-scale, high-quality, synthetic distribution system data set(s) for testing distribution automation algorithms, distributed control approaches, ADMS capabilities, and other emerging distribution technologies.

  19. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  1. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  2. Generation of High Quality Laser Accelerated Ion Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.; Nishihara, K.; Tajima, T.; Pegoraro, F.; Khoroshkov, V. S.; Mima, K.; Daido, H.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Nagai, K.; Sakabe, S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to achieve a high quality, i. e. monoergetic, intense ion beam, we propose the use of a double layer target. The first layer, at the target front, consists of high-Z atoms, while the second (rear) layer is a thin coating of low-Z atoms. The high quality proton beams from the double layer target, irradiated by an ultra-intense laser pulse, are demonstrated with three dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations.

  3. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  4. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic RNA Polymerase III Promoters Facilitate High-Efficiency CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Cory M; Hussain, Murtaza Shabbir; Blenner, Mark; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-04-15

    The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a valuable microbial host for chemical production because it has a high capacity to synthesize, modify, and store intracellular lipids; however, rapid strain development has been hampered by the limited availability of genome engineering tools. We address this limitation by adapting the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes for markerless gene disruption and integration in Y. lipolytica. Single gene disruption efficiencies of 92% and higher were achieved when single guide RNAs (sgRNA) were transcribed with synthetic hybrid promoters that combine native RNA polymerase III (Pol III) promoters with tRNA. The Pol III-tRNA hybrid promoters exploit endogenous tRNA processing to produce mature sgRNA for Cas9 targeting. The highest efficiencies were achieved with a SCR1'-tRNA(Gly) promoter and Y. lipolytica codon-optimized Cas9 expressed from a UAS1B8-TEF promoter. Cotransformation of the Cas9 and sgRNA expressing plasmid with a homologous recombination donor plasmid resulted in markerless homologous recombination efficiency of over 64%. Homologous recombination was observed in 100% of transformants when nonhomologous end joining was disrupted. The end result of these studies was the development of pCRISPRyl, a modular tool for markerless gene disruption and integration in Y. lipolytica.

  6. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case

  7. APPLICATION OF HIGH VOLTAGE DIVIDERS FOR POWER QUALITY INDICES MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Anokhin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Determination of power quality indices in high-voltage power grids allows to find the reasons for the deterioration of the power quality. The relevant national and International Standards for power quality contain relevant norms of quality indices and requirements for their accuracy measurement. Problem. The most complicated part in the process of measuring the power quality indices at high voltage is the selection of the corresponding high-voltage scale voltage converters. Therefore, comparing the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 to high voltage scale voltage converters is an important task. Goal. Analysis of the International Standard IEC 61000-4-30 requirements feasibility for measuring the indices of power quality in high-voltage electrical networks using different types of high-voltage scale voltage converters. Methodology. Comparison of the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 Standard to high-voltage scale voltage converters, when measuring power quality indices, with the characteristics of high voltage electromagnetic transformers used in Ukraine, and with promising developments of high-voltage converters of other types. Results. It is shown in the study that in order to fulfill some of the requirements for class A of IEC 61000-4-30, the characteristics of electromagnetic voltage transformers should be determined in the substation conditions using mobile calibration high-voltage laboratories. To meet all the requirements for Class A IEC 61000-4-30, it is recommended to use broadband high-voltage dividers of resistive-capacitive type. Originality. In study it is shown firstly that all the requirements of the IEC 61000-4-30 Standard for high-voltage scale voltage converters can be performed on the basis of the use of broadband resistive-capacitive damped voltage dividers. Practical value. Expositions of specific types of resistive-capacitive high-voltage dividers are presented, their parameters are confirmed by the results of state

  8. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis ... produces crystals of superior quality, circumventing many of the problems associated with, for example, flux growth from the melt. .... In these materials, it is possible to control the electric polarization by the ...

  9. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  10. Highly efficient removal of arsenic metal ions with high superficial area hollow magnetite nanoparticles synthetized by AACVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monárrez-Cordero, B.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Leyva-Porras, C.; Pizá-Ruiz, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31109 (Mexico)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Fast and high arsenic removal efficiency, almost 100% in one minute. ► Successful synthesis of high purity magnetite hollow nanoparticles is reported. ► They were synthesized by one step aerosol assisted CVD technique. ► Detailed microstructural characterization by electron microscopy was performed. -- Abstract: New nanotechnology alternatives and methodologies have been developed in order to overcome the limitations of conventional techniques for metal ions removal from water. Currently, the removal of heavy metals requires multiple steps which include the separation and post-treatment of the generated sludge. Usually, this sludge is composed of dangerous environmental pollutants mixed with the material used for removing the metal ion. Thus, the removal of these metals becomes a challenging task. Herein we report the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles with high specific area by the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition method. Deposition temperature were fixed at 450 °C and a mixture of Ar–air were used as a carrier gas, a flow of 1.0 and 0.015 L min{sup −1} were used for Ar and air, respectively. The precursor solution was a dilution of Fe (II) chloride in methanol, with different concentration 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mol dm{sup −3}. The crystalline structure of the nanoparticles was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Morphology and microstructure were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were evaluated with a vibrating sample magnetometer and specific area was measured by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. To determine the removal efficiency of arsenic ion from water, several tests were carried out at six exposition times 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. Results showed high removal efficiency, more than 99%, in less than 1 min.

  11. Rewiring protein synthesis: From natural to synthetic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R; Ling, Jiqiang

    2017-11-01

    The protein synthesis machinery uses 22 natural amino acids as building blocks that faithfully decode the genetic information. Such fidelity is controlled at multiple steps and can be compromised in nature and in the laboratory to rewire protein synthesis with natural and synthetic amino acids. This review summarizes the major quality control mechanisms during protein synthesis, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors, and the ribosome. We will discuss evolution and engineering of such components that allow incorporation of natural and synthetic amino acids at positions that deviate from the standard genetic code. The protein synthesis machinery is highly selective, yet not fixed, for the correct amino acids that match the mRNA codons. Ambiguous translation of a codon with multiple amino acids or complete reassignment of a codon with a synthetic amino acid diversifies the proteome. Expanding the genetic code with synthetic amino acids through rewiring protein synthesis has broad applications in synthetic biology and chemical biology. Biochemical, structural, and genetic studies of the translational quality control mechanisms are not only crucial to understand the physiological role of translational fidelity and evolution of the genetic code, but also enable us to better design biological parts to expand the proteomes of synthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  13. Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Online presentation and webinar by Stracke, C. M. (2017, 18 December) on "Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER" for the Belt and Road Open Education Learning Week by the Beijing Normal University, China.

  14. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-01-01

    Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the...

  15. Alternative motif toward high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods via subtle sulfur element doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Xinyi; Sui, Yongming; Xiao, Guanjun; Wei, Yingjin; Zou, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine-manganese solutions at room temperature. The existence of manganese polysulfide clusters with polymeric sulfur structures makes the system more reactive, inducing fast wurtzite-phase nucleation. This can overcome the natural kinetic barrier of wurtzite MnSe and lead to subsequent growth of targeted NCs. On the other hand, no sulfur doping would produce MnSe NCs in a thermodynamically favorable rock-salt phase. As expected, different doping contents and sulfur sources also resulted in the formation of high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods. This success establishes that a facile strategy can be anticipated to synthesize high-quality metal chalcogenide NCs with a metastable phase, especially wurtzite nanorods, for potential applications from spintronics to solar cells.The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine

  16. Synthetic 1,2,3-triazole-linked glycoconjugates bind with high affinity to human galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Marcelo Fiori; Souto, Dênio Emanuel Pires; Bortot, Leandro Oliveira; Pereira, João Francisco; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Cummings, Richard D; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Carvalho, Ivone; Campo, Vanessa Leiria

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of the 1,2,3-triazole amino acid-derived-3-O-galactosides 1-6 and the 1,2,3-triazole di-lactose-derived glycoconjugate 7 as potential galectin-3 inhibitors. The target compounds were synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction ('click chemistry') between the azido-derived amino acids N3-ThrOBn, N3-PheOBn, N3-N-Boc-TrpOBn, N3-N-Boc-LysOBn, N3-O-tBu-AspOBn and N3-l-TyrOH, and the corresponding alkyne-based sugar 3-O-propynyl-GalOMe, as well as by click chemistry reaction between the azido-lactose and 2-propynyl lactose. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays showed that all synthetic glycoconjugates 1-7 bound to galectin-3 with high affinity, but the highest binders were the amino acids-derived glycoconjugates 2 (KD 7.96μM) and 4 (KD 4.56μM), and the divalent lactoside 7 (KD1 0.15μM/KD2 19μM). Molecular modeling results were in agreement with SPR assays, since more stable interactions with galectin-3 were identified for glycoconjugates 2, 4 and 7. Regarding compounds 2 and 4, they established specific cation-π (Arg144) and ionic (Asp148) interactions, whereas glycoconjugate 7 was capable to bridge two independent galectin-3 CRDs, creating a non-covalent cross-link between two monomers and, thus, reaching a submicromolar affinity towards galectin-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CLASSIFIER FUSION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR CLASSIFICATION IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alipour Fard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study concerned with fusion of synthetic aperture radar and optical satellite imagery. Due to the difference in the underlying sensor technology, data from synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical sensors refer to different properties of the observed scene and it is believed that when they are fused together, they complement each other to improve the performance of a particular application. In this paper, two category of features are generate and six classifier fusion operators implemented and evaluated. Implementation results show significant improvement in the classification accuracy.

  18. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  19. High quality image oriented telemedicine with multimedia technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H; Minato, K; Takahasi, T

    1999-07-01

    Researchers at Osaka and Kyoto University hospital performed three experiments, beginning in 1995, which looked at high quality-oriented telemedicine. This paper describes the system design for the three projects. Experiment 1 applied high-definition TV images and B-ISDN for distance learning and medical information exchange. Experiment 2 developed a super high-definition medical image filing system and the images were transmitted via B-ISDN for teleconferences and experiment 3 utilized digital, high-definition, TV images and communication satellites for teleconferences. Multimedia and communication technologies were considered to be fundamental components of telemedicine. The three projects were evaluated initially for quality of images, operability and utility. The experimental design and its implementation showed that it was possible to provide high quality image-oriented telemedicine in the health care environment. Obstacles to establishing practical telemedicine are also discussed.

  20. Multi-line split DNA synthesis: a novel combinatorial method to make high quality peptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Shingo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a method to make a various high quality random peptide libraries for evolutionary protein engineering based on a combinatorial DNA synthesis. Results A split synthesis in codon units was performed with mixtures of bases optimally designed by using a Genetic Algorithm program. It required only standard DNA synthetic reagents and standard DNA synthesizers in three lines. This multi-line split DNA synthesis (MLSDS is simply realized by adding a mix-and-split process to normal DNA synthesis protocol. Superiority of MLSDS method over other methods was shown. We demonstrated the synthesis of oligonucleotide libraries with 1016 diversity, and the construction of a library with random sequence coding 120 amino acids containing few stop codons. Conclusions Owing to the flexibility of the MLSDS method, it will be able to design various "rational" libraries by using bioinformatics databases.

  1. Anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar on high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Boon Kee; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ky, Huynh; Boo, Sook Yee; Chua, Joelle Yi Heng; Tan, Sheau Wei; Ho, Wan Yong; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-07-27

    Recently, food-based bioactive ingredients, such as vinegar, have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the global obesity epidemic. Although acetic acid has been identified as the main component in vinegar that contributes to its anti-obesity effect, reports have shown that vinegar produced from different starting materials possess different degrees of bioactivity. This study was performed to compare the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet. In this work, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 33 weeks. At the start of week 24, obese mice were orally fed synthetic acetic acid vinegar or Nipa vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg BW) until the end of week 33. Mice fed a standard pellet diet served as a control. Although both synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar effectively reduced food intake and body weight, a high dose of Nipa vinegar more effectively reduced lipid deposition, improved the serum lipid profile, increased adipokine expression and suppressed inflammation in the obese mice. Thus, a high dose of Nipa vinegar may potentially alleviate obesity by altering the lipid metabolism, inflammation and gut microbe composition in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

  2. Network Support for Social 3-D Immersive Tele-Presence with Highly Realistic Natural and Synthetic Avatar Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe next generation in 3D tele-presence is based on modular systems that combine live captured object based 3D video and synthetically authored 3D graphics content. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a network solution for multi-party real-time communication

  3. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes.

  4. A Procedure for High Resolution Satellite Imagery Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Crespi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF. This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites.

  5. Detection of the recently emerged synthetic cannabinoid 5F-MDMB-PICA in 'legal high' products and human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogler, Lukas; Franz, Florian; Rentsch, Daniel; Angerer, Verena; Weinfurtner, Georg; Longworth, Mitchell; Banister, Samuel D; Kassiou, Michael; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker

    2017-03-31

    Indole or indazole-based synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) bearing substituents derived from valine or tert-leucine are frequently abused new psychoactive substances (NPS). The emergence of 5F-MDMB-PICA (methyl N-{[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]carbonyl}-3-methylvalinate) on the German drug market is a further example of a substance synthesized in the context of scientific research being misused by clandestine laboratories by adding it to 'legal high' products. In this work, we present the detection of 5F-MDMB-PICA in several legal high products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. To detect characteristic metabolites suitable for a proof of 5F-MDMB-PICA consumption by urine analysis, pooled human liver microsome (pHLM) assays were performed and evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) techniques to generate reference spectra of the in vitro phase I metabolites. The in vivo phase I metabolism was investigated by the analysis of more than 20 authentic human urine specimens and compared to the data received from the pHLM assay. Biotransformation of the 5-fluoropentyl side chain and hydrolysis of the terminal methyl ester bond are main phase I biotransformation steps. Two of the identified main metabolites formed by methyl ester hydrolysis or mono-hydroxylation at the indole ring system were evaluated as suitable urinary biomarkers and discussed regarding the interpretation of analytical findings. Exemplary analysis of one urine sample for 5F-MDMB-PICA phase II metabolites showed that two of the main phase I metabolites are subject to extensive glucuronidation prior to renal excretion. Therefore, conjugate cleavage is reasonable for enhancing sensitivity. Commercially available immunochemical pre-tests for urine proved to be unsuitable for the detection of 5F-MDMB-PICA consumption. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  6. Key factors for a high-quality VR experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Doré, Renaud; Mollet, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    For many years, Virtual Reality has been presented as a promising technology that could deliver a truly new experience to users. The media and entertainment industry is now investigating the possibility to offer a video-based VR 360 experience. Nevertheless, there is a substantial risk that VR 360 could have the same fate as 3DTV if it cannot offer more than just being the next fad. The present paper aims at presenting the various quality factors required for a high-quality VR experience. More specifically, this paper will focus on the main three VR quality pillars: visual, audio and immersion.

  7. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  8. The High Flying Leadership Qualities: What Matters the Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    which is an important leadership quality … If it’s important to the supervisor to develop skills and education in both them- selves and employees, it...IATIO N THE HIGH FLYING Leadership Qualities: What Matters the Most? Col Robert L. Tremaine, USAF (Ret.) Like many U.S. companies, the Department...every DoD organization invests in leadership development the same way. The ones that do think more deeply about their future have thoughtful and

  9. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  10. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  11. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of low protein diet and low protein diet supplemented with synthetic essential amino acids on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Kazuki; Ishida, Aiko; Ashihara, Akane; Katsumata, Masaya

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effects of a low crude protein (CP) diet and a low CP diet supplemented with synthetic essential amino acids (EAA) on the meat quality of broiler chickens. Twenty-one-day-old chickens were assigned to one of three diets: control, low CP (LCP), or low CP supplemented with EAA (ELCP). The chickens received these diets for 10 days. The shear force value (SFV) and free glutamate content of the Pectoralis major muscle were measured as indicators of the meat toughness and taste. The collagen and crude fat content of the muscle and the cross-sectional area of myofibers were measured to evaluate the effects of the LCP and ELCP diets on meat toughness. The SFV of the ELCP group was 47% lower than that of the control group (Pcontent were not affected by the dietary treatment. The cross-sectional area was lower in the LCP and ELCP groups (Pcontent of muscle was not affected by the dietary treatment. Thus, a low CP diet supplemented with EAA is an effective means of producing tender meat. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Next Generation High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, we have witnessed an explosion of video initiatives in the industry worldwide. Several advancements in video technology are currently improving the way we interact and collaborate. These advancements are forcing tendencies and overall experiences: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To cope with this technology progresses, CERN IT Department has taken the leading role to establish strategies and directions to improve the user experience in remote dispersed meetings and remote collaboration at large in the worldwide LHC communities. Due to the high rate of dispersion in the LHC user communities, these are critically dependent of videoconferencing technology, with a need of robustness and high quality for the best possible user experience. We will present an analysis of the factors that influenced the technical and strategic choices to improve the reliability, efficiency and overall quality of the LHC remote sessions. In particular, ...

  14. Two open access, high-quality datasets from anesthetic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumin, David; Newton-Wade, Vanessa; Harrison, Michael J; Merry, Alan F

    2013-01-01

    To provide a set of high-quality time-series physiologic and event data from anesthetic cases formatted in an easy-to-use structure. With ethics committee approval, data from surgical operations under general anesthesia were collected, including physiologic data, drug administrations, events, and clinicians' comments. These data were de-identified, formatted in a combined CSV/XML structure and made publicly available. Two separate datasets were collected containing physiologic time-series data and time-stamped events for 34 patients. For 20 patients, the data included 400 physiologic signals collected over 20 h, 274 events, and 597 drug administrations. For 14 patients, the data included 23 physiologic signals collected over 69 h, with 286 time stamped comments. Data reuse potentially saves significant time and financial costs. However, there are few high-quality repositories for accessible physiologic data and clinical interventions from surgical cases. De-identifying records assists with overcoming problems of privacy and storing the data in a format which is easily manipulated with computing resources facilitates access by the wider research community. It is hoped that additional high-quality data will be added. Future work includes developing tools to explore and visualize the data more efficiently, and establishing quality control measures. An approach to collecting and storing high-quality datasets from surgical operations under anesthesia such that they can be easily accessed by others for use in research has been demonstrated.

  15. The Synthetic Cannabinoids Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Benyamina, Amine; Blecha, Lisa; Cottencin, Olivier; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    « Spice » is generally used to describe the diverse types of herbal blends that encompass synthetic cannabinoids on the market. The emergence of smokable herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids, which mimic the effects of cannabis, appears to become increasingly popular, in the new psychoactive substances landscape. In 2014, the existence of 134 different types of synthetic cannabinoids were reported by the European Union Early Warning System. These drugs are mainly sold online as an alternative to controlled and regulated psychoactive substances. They appear to have a life cycle of about 1-2 years before being replaced by a next wave of products. Legislation controlling these designer drugs has been introduced in many countries with the objective to limit the spread of existing drugs and control potential new analogs. The majority of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists at the CB1 receptor and do not contain tobacco or cannabis. They are becoming increasingly popular in adolescents, students and clubbers as an abused substance. Relatively high incidence of adverse effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids use has been documented in the literature. Numerous fatalities linked with their use and abuse have been reported. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. To reach this objective, a literature search was performed on two representative databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar), the Erowid Center website (a US non-profit educational organization that provides information about psychoactive plants and chemicals), and various governmental websites. The terms used for the database search were: "synthetic cannabinoids", "spice", "new psychoactive substances", and/or "substance use disorder", and/or "adverse effects", and/or "fatalities". The search was limited to years 2005 to 2016 due to emerging scientific literature at

  16. Assessment of environmental injustice in Korea using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Giehae; Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of the universal right to a healthy environment, the right is being violated in some populations. The objective of the current study is to verify environmental discrimination associated with socioeconomic status in Korea, using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status. The concentrations of NO₂(nitrogen dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), SO₂(sulfur dioxide), PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter income, education, number of household members, occupation, and National Basic Livelihood status) and area level (neighborhood index). The neighborhood index was calculated in the finest administrative unit (municipality) by performing standardization and integration of municipality-level data of the following: number of families receiving National Basic Livelihood, proportion of people engaged in an elementary occupation, population density, and number of service industries. Each study participant was assigned a neighborhood index value of the municipality in which they reside. Six regression models were generated to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and overall air pollution. All models were adjusted with sex, age, and smoking status. Stratification was conducted by residency (urban/rural). Moran's I was calculated to identify spatial clusters, and adjusted regression analysis was conducted to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results showed that people with higher neighborhood index, people living with smaller number of family members, and people with no education lived in municipalities with better overall air quality. The association differed by residency in some cases, and consideration of spatial autocorrelation altered the association. This study gives strength to the idea that environmental discrimination exists in some socioeconomic groups in Korea, and that residency and spatial autocorrelation must be considered in order to fully understand environmental disparities

  17. Production of high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Aidos, I.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of producing high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts was evaluated in various ways. With this, a contribution has been made to a more efficient usage of natural resources while yielding a high-quality product. Crude oil extracted from herring byproducts is relatively rich in essentialw-3 PUFAs such as EPA and DHA, and is relatively stable during storage. The main conclusions of this study were: herring byprodu...

  18. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the method of interviewing by questionnaires was applied. The sample survey was conducted among undergraduate students, teachers and staff of the Teacher Training Faculty in Uzice.

  19. High-pressure optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies on synthetic cobalt aluminum silicate garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Taran, Michail; Nestola, Fabrizio; Ohashi, Haruo

    2007-01-01

    The pressure-induced behavior of spin-allowed dd-bands of VIIICo2+ in the absorption spectra of synthetic Co3Al2Si3O12 garnet was studied from 10-4 to 13 GPa. The plots of the peak energy vs. pressure for the three sharpest well resolved bands at ca. 5160, 17 680, and 18 740 cm-1 display small bu...

  20. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  1. Quantitation of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Plant Materials Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection (Validated Method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolino, Laura A

    2015-09-01

    Plant based products laced with synthetic cannabinoids have become popular substances of abuse over the last decade. Quantitative analysis for synthetic cannabinoid content in the laced materials is necessary for health hazard assessments addressing overall exposure and toxicity when the products are smoked. A validated, broadly applicable HPLC-UV method for the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in plant materials is presented, using acetonitrile extraction and separation on a commercial phenylhexyl stationary phase. UV detection provides excellent sensitivity with limits of quantitation (LOQs) less than 10 μg/g for many cannabinoids. The method was validated for several structural classes (dibenzopyrans, cyclohexylphenols, naphthoylindoles, benzoylindoles, phenylacetylindoles, tetramethylcyclopropylindoles) based on spike recovery experiments in multiple plant materials over a wide cannabinoid contents range (0.1-81 mg/g). Average recovery across 32 cannabinoids was 94% for marshmallow leaf, 95% for damiana leaf, and 92% for mullein leaf. The method was applied to a series of case-related products with determined amounts ranging from 0.2 to >100 mg/g. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Synthetic wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitcher, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Wisdom is a special kind of virtue. It is not to be identified with any outstanding cognitive ability-like having a prodigious memory or knowing a lot. Rather it consists in seeing what is most important and most valuable, either within a particular domain or in life as a whole. In the life of a wise person, that insight should be accompanied by traits of character, enabling the person to pursue what is seen as valuable. Viewing wisdom as a capacity for synthetic understanding, I argue for the need for philosophy, even at a time when all of us have much to learn from the sciences. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  5. Low density solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of synthetic antioxidants in beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Hasan; Köktürk, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient method was established for the determination of synthetic antioxidants in beverages by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Butylated hydroxy toluene, butylated hydroxy anisole, and tert-butylhydroquinone were the antioxidants evaluated. Experimental parameters including extraction solvent, dispersive solvent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration, and extraction time were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the extraction recoveries ranged from 53 to 96%. Good linearity was observed by the square of correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9975 to 0.9997. The relative standard deviations ranged from 1.0 to 5.2% for all of the analytes. Limits of detection ranged from 0.85 to 2.73 ng mL(-1). The method was successfully applied for determination of synthetic antioxidants in undiluted beverage samples with satisfactory recoveries.

  6. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  7. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  8. Coming soon to your clinic: high-quality ART.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Empel, IW van; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of 'patient-friendly' medically assisted reproduction includes a robust set of clinical practice principles, to improve the quality of subfertility care. This concept is an important move away from the sole focus on effectiveness and high pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction

  9. The High-Quality School: Thoughtful vs. Technocratic Leadership. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Clark

    Four ideas or theses about schooling and leadership together form a coherent approach to teaching and learning in the high-quality school. They form the basis, if not for large-scale reform, at least for individual consideration and adoption. The first thesis is that humans are creatures of perspective or viewpoint. The second thesis is that the…

  10. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... architectural quality. Development must maintain a uniformly high standard of architecture, representative of the best contemporary design and planning concepts. Great care and sensitivity must be shown in the... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE...

  11. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malawi has high rates of maternal mortality despite concerted efforts to increase the rate of births at health facilities. In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve the quality of health services. Similar initiatives have proven ...

  12. Supplementation of quality protein to high producing Jersey cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evelen

    The milk yield potential of 500 kg cows grazing ryegrass pasture, with no supplementation, is 16 to. 17 litres a day (Dugmore, 1995). The aim of the study was to determine whether grazing cows that are receiving maize supplementation, with minerals included, would respond to the addition of a high quality protein source,.

  13. The Nature of Spontaneity in High Quality Mathematics Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gaye

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneity has been linked to high quality learning experiences in mathematics (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1992; Williams, 2002).This paper shows how spontaneity can be identified by attending to the nature of social elements in the process of abstracting (Dreyfus, Hershkowitz, & Schwarz, 2001). This process is elaborated…

  14. Highly qualified does not equal high quality: A study of urban stakeholders' perceptions of quality in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel Joseph

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions that urban stakeholders hold about what characteristics should distinguish a high school science teacher whom they would consider to demonstrate high quality in science teaching. A maximum variation sample of six science teachers, three school administrators, six parents and six students from a large urban public school district were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, a list of observable characteristics which urban stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching was generated. Observational techniques were utilized to determine the extent to which six urban high school science teachers, who meet the NCLB Act criteria for being "highly qualified", actually possessed the characteristics which these stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set. The findings suggest that urban stakeholders perceive that a high school science teacher who demonstrates high quality in science teaching should be knowledgeable about their subject matter, their student population, and should be resourceful; should possess an academic background in science and professional experience in science teaching; should exhibit professionalism, a passion for science and teaching, and a dedication to teaching and student learning; should be skillful in planning and preparing science lessons and in organizing the classroom, in presenting the subject matter to students, in conducting a variety of hands-on activities, and in managing a classroom; and should assess whether students complete class goals and objectives, and provide feedback about grades for students promptly. The findings further reveal that some of the urban high school science teachers who were deemed to be "highly qualified", as defined by the NCLB Act, engaged in practices that threatened quality in science

  15. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  16. Synthetic Biology: Applications in the Food Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ashish; Kumar, Ashwani; Aparna, S V; Mallappa, Rashmi H; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2016-08-17

    Synthetic biology also termed as "genomic alchemy" represents a powerful area of science that is based on the convergence of biological sciences with systems engineering. It has been fittingly described as "moving from reading the genetic code to writing it" as it focuses on building, modeling, designing and fabricating novel biological systems using customized gene components that result in artificially created genetic circuitry. The scientifically compelling idea of the technological manipulation of life has been advocated since long time. Realization of this idea has gained momentum with development of high speed automation and the falling cost of gene sequencing and synthesis following the completion of the human genome project. Synthetic biology will certainly be instrumental in shaping the development of varying areas ranging from biomedicine, biopharmaceuticals, chemical production, food and dairy quality monitoring, packaging, and storage of food and dairy products, bioremediation and bioenergy production, etc. However, potential dangers of using synthetic life forms have to be acknowledged and adoption of policies by the scientific community to ensure safe practice while making important advancements in the ever expanding field of synthetic biology is to be fully supported and implemented.

  17. Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-11-01

    A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

  18. Integration study of high quality teaching resources in universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglu Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development level and quality of education depend on the merits and efficiency in the use of teaching resources, especially in the case of obvious contradiction between the demand and supply of teaching resources. So to integrate teaching resources, improve the efficiency in the use of high quality teaching resources, and take the road of content development to enhance the competitiveness of education has become very important and urgent.Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of analysis on the teaching resources of universities and the problems they faced, this paper introduced the basic concepts of cloud storage, and built the integration architecture of high quality teaching resources in universities based on the cloud storage.Findings and Originality/value: The HDFS-based cloud storage proposed in this paper is a dynamically adjustable and Internet-based storage solution, and the users can access storage targets using the network through a common and easy-to-use protocol and application programming interfaces. This new technology is useful for end users benefits. With the continuous development and improvement of cloud storage, it will necessarily result in more and more applications in the institutions of higher learning and education network.Originality/value: This paper introduced the cloud storage into the integration of high quality teaching resources in universities first and as a new form of service, it can be a good solution.

  19. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... take the first train in their direction. The article examines four different approaches to examine operation quality for high-frequent operation that are based on the experiences of the passengers. These approaches are the service frequency of the operation, travel time extension, a combination...... operation simulation software. Combining the passenger delay model with simulation software gives the possibility to forecast future infrastructure and operation scenarios which make it possible to improve the planning....

  20. High quality early childhood education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Varona Alabern

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States education system, K-12 produced impressive results for most of the 20th century. We trace its origins back to the end of the 19th century, when the America’s social and economical needs and its circumstances were very different from the ones today. Nowadays, American society is far more complex and demands highly qualified citizens, a requirement which inevitably starts with high quality early childhood education, as we will illustrate below. Therefore, experts are currently requesting all public administrations and private sector to take further steps to ensure high quality preschool education for everyone in order to improve Americans’ skills and the United States’ economy, as well as to overcome the existing inequalities.

  1. From "herbal highs" to the "heroin of cannabis": Exploring the evolving discourse on synthetic cannabinoid use in a Norwegian Internet drug forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgrei, Ola Røed

    2016-03-01

    In the early 2000s, online vendors began selling an array of so-called "legal highs"--apparently organic produce made from exotic herbs. Simultaneously, members of online drug discussion forums began to debate the alleged effects of the new drugs, creating an enormous base of user-derived information based on personal experiences. This study combines the historical data spanning a seven-year period derived from a Norwegian drug discussion forum about synthetic cannabinoids and interviews with 14 male forum members who all had experience with the drug. By combining the two sources, this study reveals not only the evolving discourse on synthetic cannabinoid use but also how forum members related to the online information that they gathered and co-produced. Analysis of the evolving online discourse revealed three distinct phases. The first was an enthusiastic phase, with users embracing the new drugs. The second was a phase characterized by growing ambivalence and scepticism towards use of the drugs. The third was one in which members of the community rejected the new drugs based on negative reviews from users. The analysis displays the communal process whereby members co-operate in the exchange of an extensive body of knowledge accumulated about synthetic cannabinoids, and the way in which this evolving discourse influences members of the forum in their views and representations of the drugs. Paradoxically, the online discussions of synthetic cannabinoids, which had great significance for their proliferation when they were initially introduced to the market, now seem to be a deterrent. The role of online drug communities in the development of new drug trends should receive renewed attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Conducting high quality writing intervention research: Twelve recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Graham

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Writing intervention research can enhance our knowledge about writing, its development, and how to teach it effectively. Despite the importance of such research, many of the writing intervention studies conducted previously were of poor quality, as documented by Graham and colleagues in a series of meta-analyses (Graham, McKeown, Kiuhara, & Harris, 2012; Graham & Perin, 2007; Rogers & Graham, 2008. In this article, we offer 12 recommendations for conducting high quality intervention research, recommendations that draw on those meta-analyses as well as previous work on improving the quality of intervention research (Pressley & Harris, 1994a, 1994b and our experiences as writing intervention researchers and editors of journals that publish intervention research (including the Journal of Writing Research . The recommendations address issues and actions involved in designing, conducting, and reporting such research.

  3. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB....... The first part of the scientific contribution investigates an implementation of pulse inversion for THI on the experimental ultrasound system SARUS. The technique is initially implemented for linear array transducers and then expanded for convex array transducers. The technique is evaluated based on spatial...

  4. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  5. Synthetic high-resolution near-IR spectra of the Sun for planetary data reductions made from ATMOS/Spacelab-3 and Atlas-3 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Haingja; Kim, Sang J.; Hwang, Sungwon; Jung, Aeran; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Jinny; Jang, Minhwan

    2007-12-01

    We have constructed synthetic solar spectra for the 2302-4800 cm -1 (2.08-4.34 μm) range, a spectral range where planetary objects mainly emit reflected sunlight, using ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy)/Spacelab-3 and Atlas-3 spectra, of which resolution is 0.01 cm -1. We adopted Voigt line profiles for the modeling of line shapes based on an atlas of line identifications compiled by Geller [Geller, M., 1992. Key to Identification of Solar Features. A High-Resolution Atlas of the Infrared Spectrum of the Sun and the Earth Atmosphere from Space. NASA Reference Publ. 1224, vol. III. NASA, Washington, DC, pp. 1-22], who derived solar line positions and intensities from contaminated high-resolution solar spectra obtained by ATMOS/Spacelab-3. Because the ATMOS spectra in these wavelength ranges are compromised by absorption lines of molecules existing in Earth's high-altitude atmosphere and in the compartment of the spacecraft, the direct use of these high-resolution solar spectra has been inconvenient for the data reductions of planetary spectra. We compared the synthetic solar spectra with the ATMOS spectra, and obtained satisfactory fits for the majority of the solar lines with the exception of abnormal lines, which do not fit with Voigt line profiles. From the model fits, we were able to determine Voigt line parameters for the majority of solar lines; and we made a list of the abnormal lines. We also constructed telluric-line-free solar spectra by manually eliminating telluric lines from the ATMOS spectra and filling the gaps with adjacent continua. These synthetic solar spectra will be useful to eliminate solar continua from spectra of planetary objects to extract their own intrinsic spectral features.

  6. Family Perspectives on High-Quality Pediatric Subspecialty Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kristin N; Ashcraft, Laura Ellen; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mehrotra, Ateev; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Although children are frequently referred to subspecialist physicians, many inadequacies in referral processes have been identified from physician and system perspectives. Little is known, however, about how to comprehensively measure or improve the quality of the referral systems from a family-centered perspective. To foster family-centered improvements to pediatric subspecialty referrals, we sought to develop a framework for high-quality, patient-centered referrals from the perspectives of patients and their families. We used stakeholder-informed qualitative analysis of parent, caregiver, and patient interviews to identify outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals as perceived by patients and their family members. We interviewed 21 informants. Informants identified 5 desired outcomes of subspecialty referrals: improved functional status or symptoms; improved long-term outcomes; improved knowledge of their disease; informed expectations; and reduced anxiety about the child's health status. Processes that informants identified as supporting these outcomes centered around 6 key steps in subspecialty referrals, including the referral decision, previsit information transfer, appointment scheduling, subspecialist visit, postvisit information transfer, and ongoing care integration and communication. Health care delivery structures identified by informants as supporting these processes included physical infrastructure, human resources, and information technology systems. We identified family-centered outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals. These domains can be used not only to improve measurement of the quality of existing referral systems but also to inform future interventions to improve patient-centered outcomes for children in need of specialty care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. METABOLIC MODELLING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CELL FACTORIES BY SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jouhten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  8. Metabolic modelling in the development of cell factories by synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tuulia Jouhten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  9. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Shikha; Agarwal, Ritika

    2014-02-01

    The goal of Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis in a particular language is to convert arbitrary input text to intelligible and natural sounding speech. However, for a particular language like Hindi, which is a highly confusing language (due to very close spellings), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality speech synthesis with the involvement of Spellchecker which generates spell suggestions for misspelled words automatically. Involvement of spellchecker would increase the efficiency of speech synthesis by providing spell suggestions for incorrect input text. Furthermore, we have provided the comparative study for evaluating the resultant effect on to phonetic text by adding spellchecker on to input text.

  10. Wellbeing Understanding in High Quality Healthcare Informatics and Telepractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The proper use of healthcare informatics technology and multidimensional conceptual clarity are fundamental to create and boost outstanding clinical and telepractice results. Avoiding even terminology ambiguities is mandatory for high quality of care service. For instance, well-being or wellbeing is a different way to write the same concept only, or there is a good deal of ambiguity around the meanings of these terms the way they are written. In personal health, healthcare and healthcare informatics, this kind of ambiguity and lack of conceptual clarity has been called out repeatedly over the past 50 years. It is time to get the right, terse scenario. We present a brief review to develop and achieve ultimate wellbeing understanding for practical high quality healthcare informatics and telepractice application. This article presents an innovative point of view on deeper wellbeing understanding towards its increased clinical effective application.

  11. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  12. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic time series from Landsat and the MODIS BRDF/NBAR/albedo product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingson; Kim, JiHyun; Erb, Angela M.; Gao, Feng; Roman, Miguel O.; Yang, Yun; Petroy, Shelley; Taylor, Jeffrey; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Papuga, Shirley A.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal vegetation phenology can significantly alter surface albedo which in turn affects the global energy balance and the albedo warming/cooling feedbacks that impact climate change. To monitor and quantify the surface dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes, high temporal and spatial resolution synthetic time series of albedo and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were generated from the 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational Collection V006 daily BRDF/NBAR/albedo products and 30 m Landsat 5 albedo and near-nadir reflectance data through the use of the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The traditional Landsat Albedo (Shuai et al., 2011) makes use of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo products (MCD43) by assigning appropriate BRDFs from coincident MODIS products to each Landsat image to generate a 30 m Landsat albedo product for that acquisition date. The available cloud free Landsat 5 albedos (due to clouds, generated every 16 days at best) were used in conjunction with the daily MODIS albedos to determine the appropriate 30 m albedos for the intervening daily time steps in this study. These enhanced daily 30 m spatial resolution synthetic time series were then used to track albedo and vegetation phenology dynamics over three Ameriflux tower sites (Harvard Forest in 2007, Santa Rita in 2011 and Walker Branch in 2005). These Ameriflux sites were chosen as they are all quite nearby new towers coming on line for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and thus represent locations which will be served by spatially paired albedo measures in the near future. The availability of data from the NEON towers will greatly expand the sources of tower albedometer data available for evaluation of satellite products. At these three Ameriflux tower sites the synthetic time series of broadband shortwave albedos were evaluated using the tower albedo measurements with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) less than 0

  13. Monitoring land surface albedo and vegetation dynamics using high spatial and temporal resolution synthetic time series from Landsat and the MODIS BRDF/NBAR/albedo product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Kim, JiHyun; Erb, Angela M.; Gao, Feng; Román, Miguel O.; Yang, Yun; Petroy, Shelley; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Papuga, Shirley A.

    2017-07-01

    Seasonal vegetation phenology can significantly alter surface albedo which in turn affects the global energy balance and the albedo warming/cooling feedbacks that impact climate change. To monitor and quantify the surface dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes, high temporal and spatial resolution synthetic time series of albedo and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were generated from the 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational Collection V006 daily BRDF/NBAR/albedo products and 30 m Landsat 5 albedo and near-nadir reflectance data through the use of the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The traditional Landsat Albedo (Shuai et al., 2011) makes use of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo products (MCD43) by assigning appropriate BRDFs from coincident MODIS products to each Landsat image to generate a 30 m Landsat albedo product for that acquisition date. The available cloud free Landsat 5 albedos (due to clouds, generated every 16 days at best) were used in conjunction with the daily MODIS albedos to determine the appropriate 30 m albedos for the intervening daily time steps in this study. These enhanced daily 30 m spatial resolution synthetic time series were then used to track albedo and vegetation phenology dynamics over three Ameriflux tower sites (Harvard Forest in 2007, Santa Rita in 2011 and Walker Branch in 2005). These Ameriflux sites were chosen as they are all quite nearby new towers coming on line for the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), and thus represent locations which will be served by spatially paired albedo measures in the near future. The availability of data from the NEON towers will greatly expand the sources of tower albedometer data available for evaluation of satellite products. At these three Ameriflux tower sites the synthetic time series of broadband shortwave albedos were evaluated using the tower albedo measurements with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) less than 0.013 and a

  14. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  15. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhanguo; Chen, Junping

    2012-07-28

    Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome), and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  16. CD 116: A vigorous wheat cultivar with high industrial quality

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Assis Franco; Volmir Sergio Marchioro; Tatiane Dalla Nora; Ivan Schuster; Edson Feliciano de Oliveira; Elisa Serra Negra Vieira; Fábio Júnior Alcantara de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Cultivar CD 116 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC) and issuitable for cultivation in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Goiás, andDistrito Federal. CD 116 is tolerant to the major diseases, particularly blast, has a high industrial grain quality and meanyield of 3908 kg ha-1, exceeding the control cultivars by 6%.

  17. A Highly Sensitive Assay Using Synthetic Blood Containing Test Microbes for Evaluation of the Penetration Resistance of Protective Clothing Material under Applied Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimasaki, Noriko; Hara, Masayuki; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Shinohara, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    To prevent nosocomial infections caused by even either Ebola virus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), healthcare workers must wear the appropriate protective clothing which can inhibit contact transmission of these pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of protective clothing for penetration resistance against infectious agents. In Japan, some standard methods were established to evaluate the penetration resistance of protective clothing fabric materials under applied pressure. However, these methods only roughly classified the penetration resistance of fabrics, and the detection sensitivity of the methods and the penetration amount with respect to the relationship between blood and the pathogen have not been studied in detail. Moreover, no standard method using bacteria for evaluation is known. Here, to evaluate penetration resistance of protective clothing materials under applied pressure, the detection sensitivity and the leak amount were investigated by using synthetic blood containing bacteriophage phi-X174 or S. aureus. And the volume of leaked synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration were simultaneously quantified. Our results showed that the penetration detection sensitivity achieved using a test microbial culture was higher than that achieved using synthetic blood at invisible leak level pressures. This finding suggested that there is a potential risk of pathogen penetration even when visual leak of contaminated blood through the protective clothing was not observed. Moreover, at visible leak level pressures, it was found that the amount of test microbe penetration varied at least ten-fold among protective clothing materials classified into the same class of penetration resistance. Analysis of the penetration amount revealed a significant correlation between the volume of penetrated synthetic blood and the amount of test microbe penetration, indicating that the leaked volume of synthetic

  18. Establishing a synthetic pathway for high-level production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via β-alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    . With the objective of developing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an efficient cell factory for highlevel production of 3HP, we identified the ß-alanine biosynthetic route as the most economically attractive according to the metabolic modeling. We engineered and optimized a synthetic pathway for de novo biosynthesis of ß......-alanine and its subsequent conversion into 3HP using a novel ß-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase discovered in Bacillus cereus. The final strain produced 3HP at a titer of 13.7±0.3 g・L-1 with a 0.14±0.0 C-mol・C-mol-1 yield on glucose in 80 hours in controlled fed-batch fermentation in mineral medium at pH 5...

  19. AJIPHASE®: A Highly Efficient Synthetic Method for One-Pot Peptide Elongation in the Solution Phase by an Fmoc Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Inomata, Tatsuji; Fukui, Tatsuya

    2017-06-26

    We previously reported an efficient peptide synthesis method, AJIPHASE®, that comprises repeated reactions and isolations by precipitation. This method utilizes an anchor molecule with long-chain alkyl groups as a protecting group for the C-terminus. To further improve this method, we developed a one-pot synthesis of a peptide sequence wherein the synthetic intermediates were isolated by solvent extraction instead of precipitation. A branched-chain anchor molecule was used in the new process, significantly enhancing the solubility of long peptides and the operational efficiency compared with the previous method, which employed precipitation for isolation and a straight-chain aliphatic group. Another prerequisite for this solvent-extraction-based strategy was the use of thiomalic acid and DBU for Fmoc deprotection, which facilitates the removal of byproducts, such as the fulvene adduct. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical trial and in-vitro study comparing the efficacy of treating bony lesions with allografts versus synthetic or highly-processed xenogeneic bone grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Bernstein, Anke; Wolf, Laura

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our study aim was to compare allogeneic cancellous bone (ACB) and synthetic or highly-processed xenogeneic bone substitutes (SBS) in the treatment of skeletal defects in orthopedic surgery. METHODS: 232 patients treated for bony lesions with ACB (n = 116) or SBS (n = 116) within a 10....... Histological examination revealed similar bone structures, whereas cell remnants were apparent only in the allografts. Both materials were biocompatible in-vitro, and seeded with human osteoblasts. The cells remained vital over the 3-week culture period and produced microscopically typical bone matrix. We...

  2. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  3. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  4. High quality factor resonance at room temperature with nanostrings under high tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbridge, Scott S.; Parpia, Jeevak M.; Reichenbach, Robert B.; Bellan, Leon M.; Craighead, H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Quality factors as high as 207 000 are demonstrated at room temperature for radio-frequency silicon nitride string resonators with cross sectional dimensions on the scale of 100 nm, made with a nonlithographic technique. A product of quality factor and surface to volume ratio greater than 6000 nm-1 is presented, the highest yet reported. Doubly clamped nanostring resonators are fabricated in high tensile-stress silicon nitride using a nonlithographic electrospinning process. We fabricate devices with an electron beam process, and demonstrate frequency and quality factor results identical to those obtained with the nonlithographic technique. We also compare high tensile-stress doubly clamped beams with doubly clamped and cantilever resonators made of a lower stress material, as well as cantilever beams made of the high stress material. In all cases, the doubly clamped high stress beams have the highest quality factors. We therefore attribute the high quality factors to high tensile stress. Potential dominant loss mechanisms are discussed, including surface and clamping losses, and thermoelastic dissipation. Some practical advantages offered by these nanostrings for mass sensing are discussed.

  5. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  6. Spicing things up: synthetic cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-08-01

    Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. The availability, acute subjective effects-including self-reports posted on Erowid-laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available.

  7. Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028

  8. Construction of High-Quality Camel Immune Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Ema; Poignavent, Vianney; Vincke, Cécile; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Muyldermans, Serge; Monsion, Baptiste

    2018-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies libraries of heavy-chain only immunoglobulins from camelids or shark are enriched for high-affinity antigen-specific binders by a short in vivo immunization. Thus, potent binders are readily retrieved from relatively small-sized libraries of 10(7)-10(8) individual transformants, mostly after phage display and panning on a purified target. However, the remaining drawback of this strategy arises from the need to generate a dedicated library, for nearly every envisaged target. Therefore, all the procedures that shorten and facilitate the construction of an immune library of best possible quality are definitely a step forward. In this chapter, we provide the protocol to generate a high-quality immune VHH library using the Golden Gate Cloning strategy employing an adapted phage display vector where a lethal ccdB gene has to be substituted by the VHH gene. With this procedure, the construction of the library can be shortened to less than a week starting from bleeding the animal. Our libraries exceed 10(8) individual transformants and close to 100% of the clones harbor a phage display vector having an insert with the length of a VHH gene. These libraries are also more economic to make than previous standard approaches using classical restriction enzymes and ligations. The quality of the Nanobodies that are retrieved from immune libraries obtained by Golden Gate Cloning is identical to those from immune libraries made according to the classical procedure.

  9. Efficient high-quality volume rendering of SPH data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraedrich, Roland; Auer, Stefan; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    High quality volume rendering of SPH data requires a complex order-dependent resampling of particle quantities along the view rays. In this paper we present an efficient approach to perform this task using a novel view-space discretization of the simulation domain. Our method draws upon recent work on GPU-based particle voxelization for the efficient resampling of particles into uniform grids. We propose a new technique that leverages a perspective grid to adaptively discretize the view-volume, giving rise to a continuous level-of-detail sampling structure and reducing memory requirements compared to a uniform grid. In combination with a level-of-detail representation of the particle set, the perspective grid allows effectively reducing the amount of primitives to be processed at run-time. We demonstrate the quality and performance of our method for the rendering of fluid and gas dynamics SPH simulations consisting of many millions of particles.

  10. Site-specific quantification of bone quality using highly nonlinear solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinkyu; Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Borkowski, Sean L; Silvestro, Claudio; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a well recognized problem affecting millions of individuals worldwide. The ability to diagnose problems in an effective, efficient, and affordable manner and identify individuals at risk is essential. Site-specific assessment of bone mechanical properties is necessary, not only in the process of fracture risk assessment, but may also be desirable for other applications, such as making intraoperative decisions during spine and joint replacement surgeries. The present study evaluates the use of a one-dimensional granular crystal sensor to measure the elastic properties of bone at selected locations via direct mechanical contact. The granular crystal is composed of a tightly packed chain of particles that interact according to the Hertzian contact law. Such chains represent one of the simplest systems to generate and propagate highly nonlinear acoustic signals in the form of compact solitary waves. First, we investigated the sensitivity of the sensor to known variations in bone density using a synthetic cancellous bone substitute, representing clinical bone quality ranging from healthy to osteoporotic. Once the relationship between the signal response and known bone properties was established, the sensor was used to assess the bone quality of ten human cadaveric specimens. The efficacy and accuracy of the sensor was then investigated by comparing the sensor measurements with the bone mineral density (BMD) obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that the proposed technique is capable of detecting differences in bone quality. The ability to measure site-specific properties without exposure to radiation has the potential to be further developed for clinical applications.

  11. Soil Moisture Estimation in South-Eastern New Mexico Using High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Azad Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture monitoring and characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of this hydrologic parameter at scales from small catchments to large river basins continues to receive much attention, reflecting its critical role in subsurface-land surface-atmospheric interactions and its importance to drought analysis, irrigation planning, crop yield forecasting, flood protection, and forest fire prevention. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data acquired at different spatial resolutions have been successfully used to estimate soil moisture in different semi-arid areas of the world for many years. This research investigated the potential of linear multiple regressions and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN based models that incorporate different geophysical variables with Radarsat 1 SAR fine imagery and concurrently measured soil moisture measurements to estimate surface soil moisture in Nash Draw, NM. An artificial neural network based model with vegetation density, soil type, and elevation data as input in addition to radar backscatter values was found suitable to estimate surface soil moisture in this area with reasonable accuracy. This model was applied to a time series of SAR data acquired in 2006 to produce soil moisture data covering a normal wet season in the study site.

  12. Enzyme engineering: A synthetic biology approach for more effective library generation and automated high-throughput screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Quaglia

    Full Text Available The Golden Gate strategy entails the use of type IIS restriction enzymes, which cut outside of their recognition sequence. It enables unrestricted design of unique DNA fragments that can be readily and seamlessly recombined. Successfully employed in other synthetic biology applications, we demonstrate its advantageous use to engineer a biocatalyst. Hot-spots for mutations were individuated in three distinct regions of Candida antarctica lipase A (Cal-A, the biocatalyst chosen as a target to demonstrate the versatility of this recombination method. The three corresponding gene segments were subjected to the most appropriate method of mutagenesis (targeted or random. Their straightforward reassembly allowed combining products of different mutagenesis methods in a single round for rapid production of a series of diverse libraries, thus facilitating directed evolution. Screening to improve discrimination of short-chain versus long-chain fatty acid substrates was aided by development of a general, automated method for visual discrimination of the hydrolysis of varied substrates by whole cells.

  13. Assessment of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography as a separation technique for the analysis of seized drugs: Applicability to synthetic cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, Stephanie; Rowe, Walter F; McCord, Bruce; Lurie, Ira S

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of modern methods for ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) has great potential for impacting the analysis of seized drugs. In the separation of synthetic cannabinoids the technique has the potential to produce superior resolution of positional isomers and diastereomers. To demonstrate this potential we have examined the capability of UHPSFC for the analysis of two different groups of synthetic cannabinoids. The first group was a mixture of 22 controlled synthetic cannabinoids, and the second group included JWH018 and nine of its non-controlled positional isomers The clear superiority of UHPSFC over other separation techniques was demonstrated, in that it was capable of near baseline separation of all 10 positional isomers using a chiral column. In total we examined four achiral columns, including Acquity UPC(2) Torus 2-PIC, Acquity UPC(2) Torus Diol, Acquity UPC(2) Torus DEA and Acquity UPC(2) Torus 1-AA (1.7μm 3.0×100mm), and three chiral columns, including Acquity UPC(2) Trefoil AMY1, Acquity UPC(2) Trefoil CEL1 and Acquity UPC(2) Trefoil CEL2 (2.5μm 3.0×150mm), using mobile phase compositions that combined carbon dioxide with methanol, acetonitrile, ethanol or isopropanol modifier gradients. Detection was performed using simultaneous PDA UV detection and quadrupole mass spectrometry. The orthogonality of UHPSFC, GC and UHPLC for the analysis of these compounds was demonstrated using principal component analysis. Overall we feel that this new technique should prove useful in the analysis and detection of seized drug samples, and will be a useful addition to the compendium of methods for drug analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High Quality Test Pattern Generation and Boolean Satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Eggersglüß, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an overview of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) and introduces novel techniques to complement classical ATPG, based on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT).  A fast and highly fault efficient SAT-based ATPG framework is presented which is also able to generate high-quality delay tests such as robust path delay tests, as well as tests with long propagation paths to detect small delay defects. The aim of the techniques and methodologies presented in this book is to improve SAT-based ATPG, in order to make it applicable in industrial practice. Readers will learn to improve the performance and robustness of the overall test generation process, so that the ATPG algorithm reliably will generate test patterns for most targeted faults in acceptable run time to meet the high fault coverage demands of industry. The techniques and improvements presented in this book provide the following advantages: Provides a comprehensive introduction to test generation and Boolean Satisfiability (SAT); Describes a...

  15. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  16. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  18. Sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women (gestational diabetes and hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Fatemeh; Sehhatiei Shafaei, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is one of the most basic human requirements. This research aims at determining the status of sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran, in 2015. This research was a sectional study done on 364 qualified women in 28-36 weeks of pregnancy suffering from mild preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The sampling was done as convenience. Personal-social-midwifery questionnaire, Pittsburg sleep quality, and quality of life in pregnancy (QOL-ORAV) were used for gathering data. Multivariate linear regression model was used for determining the relationship between sleep quality and its subsets with quality of life and controlling confounders. In the current study, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 96.4%. Mean (SD) of the total score of sleep quality was 10.1 (4.1) and the total score of quality of life was 61.7 (17.3). According to Pearson's correlation test, there was statistically significant relationship between quality of life and sleep quality and all its subsets except sleep duration and use of sleep medication (p quality of life. The findings of current research show that sleep quality is low among high-risk pregnant women and quality of life is medium. So, it is necessary that required training is given by health cares for improving sleep quality and quality of life to mothers.

  19. Performing High-Quality Science on CubeSats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Zurbuchen, Thomas; von Steiger, Rudolf; Bartalev, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    January 2016 the International Space Science Institute in Berne, Switzerland,hosted a two-day Forum to focus on the rapid evolution of CubeSats as an enabling technology platform, with special emphasis on their promise to perform high-quality science.The Forum was initiated in coordination...... in this area of research. Our discussions focused on four themes characteristic of CubeSats and their evolution: 1) identification of appropriate science in avariety of research disciplines, 2) technology development, 3) international vs. national approaches, and 4) educational benefits. These discussions...

  20. Stress and sleep quality in high school brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Gema; Reimão, Rubens

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of stress on sleep quality in a group of adolescents. Two high schools in Alfenas, southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were chosen to participate in the study. The sample consisted of both genders (n=160) with 65.63% females. The age range of participants was 15 to18 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was applied for collection of data to quantify sleep quality. The Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms that objectively identifies symptoms of stress was applied. It was observed that 23.53% of stressed students and 45.33% of unstressed ones sleep well; 76.47% of stressed pupils and 54.67% of those unstressed do not sleep well. With regard to school performance, a mean of 0.65 was found for stressed students and 0.60 for those without stress, Mann-Whitney (p=0.0596). Stress contributed to raising the percentage of poor sleepers, as ell as increasing ean school performance.

  1. CCD Astrophotography High-Quality Imaging from the Suburbs

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This is a reference book for amateur astronomers who have become interested in CCD imaging. Those glorious astronomical images found in astronomy magazines might seem out of reach to newcomers to CCD imaging, but this is not the case. Great pictures are attainable with modest equipment. Adam Stuart’s many beautiful images, reproduced in this book, attest to the quality of – initially – a beginner’s efforts. Chilled-chip astronomical CCD-cameras and software are also wonderful tools for cutting through seemingly impenetrable light-pollution. CCD Astrophotography from the Suburbs describes one man’s successful approach to the problem of getting high-quality astronomical images under some of the most light-polluted conditions. Here is a complete and thoroughly tested program that will help every CCD-beginner to work towards digital imaging of the highest quality. It is equally useful to astronomers who have perfect observing conditions, as to those who have to observe from light-polluted city skies.

  2. Highly luminescent core-shell InP/ZnX (X = S, Se) quantum dots prepared via a phosphine synthetic route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvinova, Natalia; Vinokurov, Alexander; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Lebedev, Oleg I; Dorofeev, Sergey

    2017-01-24

    Here we report a simple method for the creation of highly luminescent core-shell InP/ZnX (X = S, Se) quantum dots (QDs) on the basis of a phosphine synthetic route. In this method a Zn precursor was added to the reaction mixture at the beginning of the synthesis to form an In(Zn)P alloy structure, which promoted the formation of a ZnX shell. Core-shell InP/ZnX QDs exhibit highly intensive emission with a quantum yield over 50%. The proposed method is primarily important for practical applications. Advantages of this method compared to the widely used SILAR technique are discussed. We further demonstrate that the SILAR approach consisting of consequent addition of Zn and chalcogen precursors to pre-prepared non-doped InP colloidal nanoparticles is not quite suitable for shell growth without the addition of special activator agents or the use of very reactive precursors.

  3. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulations: Combining Long-Period Deterministic Synthetics with High-Frequency Multiple S-to-S Backscattering

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2010-09-20

    We present a new approach for computing broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetic seismograms by combining high-frequency (HF) scattering with low-frequency (LF) deterministic seismograms, considering finite-fault earthquake rupture models embedded in 3D earth structure. Site-specific HF-scattering Green\\'s functions for a heterogeneous medium with uniformly distributed random isotropic scatterers are convolved with a source-time function that characterizes the temporal evolution of the rupture process. These scatterograms are then reconciled with the LF-deterministic waveforms using a frequency-domain optimization to match both amplitude and phase spectra around the target intersection frequency. The scattering parameters of the medium, scattering attenuation ηs, intrinsic attenuation ηi, and site-kappa, as well as frequency-dependent attenuation, determine waveform and spectral character of the HF-synthetics and thus affect the hybrid broadband seismograms. Applying our methodology to the 1994 Northridge earthquake and validating against near-field recordings at 24 sites, we find that our technique provides realistic broadband waveforms and consistently reproduces LF ground-motion intensities for two independent source descriptions. The least biased results, compared to recorded strong-motion data, are obtained after applying a frequency-dependent site-amplification factor to the broadband simulations. This innovative hybrid ground-motion simulation approach, applicable to any arbitrarily complex earthquake source model, is well suited for seismic hazard analysis and ground-motion estimation.

  4. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanmu; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than 10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high Q-factor of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows th...

  5. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: apedicelli@rm.unicatt.it; Rollo, Massimo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mrollo@rm.unicatt.it; Piano, Mariangela [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mariangela.piano@gmail.com; Re, Thomas J. [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: tomjre@gmail.com; Cipriani, Maria C. [Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: alexped@yahoo.com; Colosimo, Cesare [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: lbonomo@rm.unicatt.it

    2009-02-15

    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  6. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  7. Human metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 bind with high affinity and act as potent agonists at cannabinoid type-2 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Brents, Lisa K.; Franks, Lirit N. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Moran, Jeffery H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Arkansas Department of Public Health, Public Health Laboratory, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Prather, Paul L., E-mail: pratherpaull@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    K2 or Spice is an emerging drug of abuse that contains synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-018 and JWH-073. Recent reports indicate that monohydroxylated metabolites of JWH-018 and JWH-073 retain high affinity and activity at cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB{sub 1}Rs), potentially contributing to the enhanced toxicity of K2 compared to marijuana. Since the parent compounds also bind to cannabinoid type-2 receptors (CB{sub 2}Rs), this study investigated the affinity and intrinsic activity of JWH-018, JWH-073 and several monohydroxylated metabolites at human CB{sub 2}Rs (hCB{sub 2}Rs). The affinity of cannabinoids for hCB{sub 2}Rs was determined by competition binding studies employing CHO-hCB{sub 2} membranes. Intrinsic activity of compounds was assessed by G-protein activation and adenylyl cyclase (AC)-inhibition in CHO-hCB{sub 2} cells. JWH-073, JWH-018 and several of their human metabolites exhibit nanomolar affinity and act as potent agonists at hCB{sub 2}Rs. Furthermore, a major omega hydroxyl metabolite of JWH-073 (JWH-073-M5) binds to CB{sub 2}Rs with 10-fold less affinity than the parent molecule, but unexpectedly, is equipotent in regulating AC-activity when compared to the parent molecule. Finally, when compared to CP-55,940 and Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), JWH-018, JWH-018-M5 and JWH-073-M5 require significantly less CB{sub 2}R occupancy to produce similar levels of AC-inhibition, indicating that these compounds may more efficiently couple CB{sub 2}Rs to AC than the well characterized cannabinoid agonists examined. These results indicate that JWH-018, JWH-073 and several major human metabolites of these compounds exhibit high affinity and demonstrate distinctive signaling properties at CB{sub 2}Rs. Therefore, future studies examining pharmacological and toxicological properties of synthetic cannabinoids present in K2 products should consider potential actions of these drugs at both CB{sub 1} and CB{sub 2}Rs. - Highlights: • JWH-018

  8. High quality yarns from high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highest quality yarns from upland cotton are typically produced by using combing in the textile mill. Combing is a resource-intensive process in which short fibers are removed from cotton before spinning. The improvement in fiber length and length uniformity of upland cotton when high speed ro...

  9. Collection and processing data for high quality CCD images.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-03-01

    Coherent Change Detection (CCD) with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is a technique whereby very subtle temporal changes can be discerned in a target scene. However, optimal performance requires carefully matching data collection geometries and adjusting the processing to compensate for imprecision in the collection geometries. Tolerances in the precision of the data collection are discussed, and anecdotal advice is presented for optimum CCD performance. Processing considerations are also discussed.

  10. Determination of saffron quality by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle García-Rodríguez, M; Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Tarantilis, Petros A; López-Córcoles, Horacio; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2014-08-13

    The aim of this work was to propose a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for determining the three main compounds responsible for determining the quality of saffron (crocetin esters, picrocrocin, and safranal) by preparing an aqueous extract according to the ISO 3632 standard to solve the difficulty that this standard has for aroma and taste determination by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Toward this aim, laboratory-isolated picrocrocin, a safranal standard with a purity of ≥ 88%, trans-crocetin di(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-4-GG) and trans-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-3-Gg) standards, both with a purity of ≥ 99%, and 50 different saffron spice samples from Italy, Iran, Greece, and Spain were used in the intralaboratory validation of the HPLC method. The analytical method proposed was adequate in terms of linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy for determining the three foremost parameters that define the quality of saffron using only a saffron solution prepared according to the ISO 3632 standard.

  11. Improving eggshell quality at high temperatures with dietary sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnave, D; Muheereza, S K

    1997-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted that confirmed the hypothesis that a dietary bicarbonate supplement will improve eggshell quality in hens at high temperatures as long as feed is consumed during the period of eggshell formation. End-of-lay hens were maintained on continuous light at temperatures of 30 and 35 C. Individual egg weights and shell quality measures for each hen were calculated as a proportion of the initial values determined during an acclimatization period at 25 C. Improvements in shell breaking strength in both experiments were observed as a result of supplementing control diets with 1% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). This response to NaHCO3 was not a reflection of a reduced rate of lay or egg mass output, as these were similar or inferior on the control diets. Similar feed intakes on the control and NaHCO3 diets indicated that the response was not related to differences in calcium intakes. Supplements of zinc methionine and ascorbic acid proved to be inferior to NaHCO3. Improvements in egg weight were associated with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of natural and synthetic desulphoglucosinolates and their chemical validation by UV, NMR and chemical ionisation-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddle, G; Bennett, R N; Botting, N P; Davidson, N E; Robertson, A A; Wallsgrove, R M

    2001-01-01

    Methods are described for the optimised extraction, desulphation and HPLC separation of desulphoglucosinolates. These methods provide rapid separation, identification and quantitative measurements of glucosinolates extracted from Brassica napus L and related crops, of unusual glucosinolates found in crucifer weed species, and also of synthetic alkylglucosinolates. The desulphoglucosinolates used in these studies were either chemically synthesised (at least one example from each major structural class), or purified from various plant sources. Validation of the identities of the desulphoglucosinolates was by comparison of retention times with standards, and by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR and chemical ionisation MS analysis. A list of useful species, and the specific tissues, from which high concentrations of standards can be extracted is included.

  13. Effect of micellized natural (D-α-tocopherol) vs. synthetic (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate) vitamin E supplementation given to turkeys on oxidative status and breast meat quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, A I; Segura, J; Olivares, A; Cerisuelo, A; Piñeiro, C; López-Bote, C J

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation source (micellized natural vs. the synthetic form) and dosage (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg) on α-tocopherol concentration in plasma and muscle, antioxidant capacity, and breast meat quality in turkeys. Three hundred female turkeys were randomly selected at an average live weight 63.2 g±0.5 and distributed into 7 groups. One group (control) was fed a standard diet without vitamin E supplementation and the other 6 were given mixed diets supplemented with the natural (d-α-tocopherol) or synthetic (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) form of vitamin E in 3 dosages (40, 80, or 120 mg/kg). Following 11 wk feeding, results showed that performance parameters were not modified either by source or dosage of vitamin E supplementation to the turkeys. Plasma and muscle α-tocopherol at d 9 of refrigerated storage were higher when turkeys were supplemented with the natural form at higher doses. Losses in the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat between the beginning and the end of the 9 d refrigerated storage were greater in the groups supplemented with the synthetic form of vitamin E compared to those receiving the natural supplementation. The relationship between plasma α-tocopherol and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity followed a different trend depending on the vitamin E source. Intramuscular fat was not significantly affected by the vitamin E source supplementation; however the slope of the linear regression equation was lower for the natural form than for the synthetic form. Turkeys given the natural form had higher C18:1n-9 but lower C15:1, C17:1, C20:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in breast muscle. Meat samples from turkeys supplemented with natural vitamin E had higher deoxymyoglobin at d 3, 6, and 9 and lower metmyoglobin at d 9 of refrigerated storage than those receiving the synthetic form. Dietary supplementation with medium doses (80 mg/kg) micellized d-α-tocopherol is an interesting feeding strategy for

  14. Chemical synthesis using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, James M; Goler, Jonathan A; Keasling, Jay D

    2009-08-01

    An immense array of naturally occurring biological systems have evolved that convert simple substrates into the products that cells need for growth and persistence. Through the careful application of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, this biotransformation potential can be harnessed to produce chemicals that address unmet clinical and industrial needs. Developing the capacity to utilize biology to perform chemistry is a matter of increasing control over both the function of synthetic biological systems and the engineering of those systems. Recent efforts have improved general techniques and yielded successes in the use of synthetic biology for the production of drugs, bulk chemicals, and fuels in microbial platform hosts. Synthetic promoter systems and novel RNA-based, or riboregulator, mechanisms give more control over gene expression. Improved methods for isolating, engineering, and evolving enzymes give more control over substrate and product specificity and better catalysis inside the cell. New computational tools and methods for high-throughput system assembly and analysis may lead to more rapid forward engineering. We highlight research that reduces reliance upon natural biological components and point to future work that may enable more rational design and assembly of synthetic biological systems for synthetic chemistry.

  15. Generating realistic synthetic meteoroid orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Denis; Brown, Peter G.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    Context. Generating a synthetic dataset of meteoroid orbits is a crucial step in analysing the probabilities of random grouping of meteoroid orbits in automated meteor shower surveys. Recent works have shown the importance of choosing a low similarity threshold value of meteoroid orbits, some pointing out that the recent meteor shower surveys produced false positives due to similarity thresholds which were too high. On the other hand, the methods of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation introduce additional biases into the data, thus making the final decision on an appropriate threshold value uncertain. Aims. As a part of the ongoing effort to determine the nature of meteor showers and improve automated methods, it was decided to tackle the problem of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation, the main goal being to reproduce the underlying structure and the statistics of the observed data in the synthetic orbits. Methods. A new method of generating synthetic meteoroid orbits using the Kernel Density Estimation method is presented. Several types of approaches are recommended, depending on whether one strives to preserve the data structure, the data statistics or to have a compromise between the two. Results. The improvements over the existing methods of synthetic orbit generation are demonstrated. The comparison between the previous and newly developed methods are given, as well as the visualization tools one can use to estimate the influence of different input parameters on the final data.

  16. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.

    1987-02-19

    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  17. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    . Glucosinolates can be transformed enzymatic by the enzyme myrosinase (EC. 3.2.1.147), or non-enzymatic by heat treatment or under the acidic and reducing conditions in the stomach of monogastrics. The type of transformation product depends on the parent glucosinolate and of the chemical conditions, and in some...... for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...... cake was included, while losses up to 88% were observed when cold-pressed rapeseed caked was used. N-balance trials with rats clearly demonstrated effects on the biologic value caused by high glucosinolate concentrations, active myrosinase and long temperature treatments. The second study (manuscript...

  18. Towards organizational development for sustainable high-quality medical teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Rik; de Caluwé, Léon I A; Stuyt, Paul M J; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke

    2013-02-01

    Literature shows that faculty development programmes are not organizationally embedded in academic hospitals. This leaves medical teaching a low and informal status. The purpose of this article is to explore how organizational literature can strengthen our understanding of embedding faculty development in organizational development, and to provide a useful example of organizational development with regards to medical teaching and faculty development. Constructing a framework for organizational development from the literature, based on expert brainstorming. This framework is applied to a case study. A framework for organizational development is described. Applied in a context of medical teaching, these organizational insights show the process (and progress) of embedding faculty development in organizational development. Organizational development is a necessary condition for assuring sustainable faculty development for high-quality medical teaching. Organizational policies can only work in an organization that is developing. Recommendations for further development and future research are discussed.

  19. Power quality in high-tech campus: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Redel, M.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain). Departamento de Electrotecnia y Electronica

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from a power-quality audit conducted at a high-tech campus over the last year. Voltage and current were measured at various R and D buildings; it was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags and surges. The paper examines the causes and effects of power disturbances that affect computer or any other microprocessor-based equipment and analyses the auto-protection capabilities of modern power supplies. The convenience of 'enhanced power supply' or 'low-cost customer-side' protection solutions is also discussed. Finally, it addresses the role of the standards on the protection of electronic equipment and the implications for the final customer. (author)

  20. High-quality stable electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration in high density plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality, stable electron beams are produced from self-injected laser wakefield acceleration using the interaction of moderate 3 TW, 45 fs duration Ti:sapphire laser pulses with high density (>5×10^{19}   cm^{−3} helium gas jet plasma. The electron beam has virtually background-free quasimonoenergetic distribution with energy 35.6_{−2.5}^{+3.9}  MeV, charge 3.8_{−1.2}^{+2.8}  pC, divergence and pointing variation ∼10  mrad. The stable and high quality of the electron beam opens an easy way for applications of the laser wakefield accelerator in the future, particularly due to the widespread availability of sub-10 TW class lasers with a number of laser plasma laboratories around the world.

  1. Synthetic LNA/DNA nano-scaffolds for highly efficient diagnostics of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, Irina Kira

    2014-01-01

    of the monoclonal human autoantibody is achieved. It makes the novel "clickable" LNA/DNA complexes a very promising tool in molecular diagnostics of both nucleic acids and autoantibodies against DNA. The latter are produced under several autoimmune conditions including antiphospholipide syndrome and systemic lupus......Herein novel fluorescent oligonucleotides for homogeneous (all-in-solution) detection of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies (autoantibodies) are described. The probes are prepared by highly efficient copper-catalyzed click chemistry between novel alkyne-modified locked nucleic acid (LNA......) strands and a series of fluorescent azides. The multiply labeled fluorescent LNA/DNA probes prepared herein generally display high binding affinity to complementary DNA/RNA, high quantum yields and, hence, high fluorescence brightness values. With the novel fluorescent probes, specific sensing...

  2. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and determination of 34 water-soluble synthetic dyes in foodstuff by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Qing He; Ma, Kang; Li, Hong Mei; Guo, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    An accurate method combining high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) and ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IT-TOF/MS) was developed for simultaneous identification and quantification of 34 water-soluble synthetic dyes in foodstuff. Fragmentation patterns of synthetic dyes were proposed based on IT-TOF/MS. The molecular ion [M+H](+) was not observed in the conventional single-stage mass spectra for most of synthetic dyes. The single-stage mass spectra of synthetic dyes all afforded the diagnostic ions [(M-nNa+nH)+H](+) or [(M-nNa+nH)-H](-) in the positive or negative mode. Doubly charged ions were the characteristic ions of azo dyes. An HPLC-DAD method was developed to analyze 34 synthetic dyes in foodstuffs. The limits of detection (LOD) for the dyes were 0.01-0.05 μg/mL. The recoveries were between 76.1% and 105.0% with a RSD ranging from 1.4% to 6.4%. This method was successfully applied to analyzing the 34 water-soluble synthetic dyes in 21 commercial foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Purifying Synthetic High-Strength Wastewater by Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris Under Various Light Emitting Diode Wavelengths and Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Ge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The high-strength wastewater is now well known as a threat to the natural water since it is highly possible to arouse water eutrophication or algal blooms. The effects of various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities on the microalgae biological wastewater treatment system was studied in this research. The various nutrient removals and economic efficiencies represented similar variation trends, and these variations under both high C and N loading treatments were similar too. The order for microalgae C. vulgaris reproduction in terms of dry weight and nutrient removal efficiency both were red > white > yellow > blue, under high carbon and nitrogen loading treatments, indicating that the red light was the optimum light wavelength. Furthermore, considering the optimal light intensity in terms of nutrient removal efficiency was 2500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s, while in terms of economic efficiency was 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s. Therefore, the optimum light intensity was found to be 2000 μmol/m2•s. In addition, the optimal experimental illumination time was determined as 120 h. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biological wastewater treatment system utilized in this research was able to purify the high-strength carbon and nitrogen wastewater effectively under optimum light wavelength and intensity.

  5. Purifying synthetic high-strength wastewater by microalgae chlorella vulgaris under various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The high-strength wastewater is now well known as a threat to the natural water since it is highly possible to arouse water eutrophication or algal blooms. The effects of various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities on the microalgae biological wastewater treatment system was studied in this research. The various nutrient removals and economic efficiencies represented similar variation trends, and these variations under both high C and N loading treatments were similar too. The order for microalgae C. vulgaris reproduction in terms of dry weight and nutrient removal efficiency both were red > white > yellow > blue, under high carbon and nitrogen loading treatments, indicating that the red light was the optimum light wavelength. Furthermore, considering the optimal light intensity in terms of nutrient removal efficiency was 2500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s, while in terms of economic efficiency was 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s. Therefore, the optimum light intensity was found to be 2000 μmol/m2•s. In addition, the optimal experimental illumination time was determined as 120 h. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biological wastewater treatment system utilized in this research was able to purify the high-strength carbon and nitrogen wastewater effectively under optimum light wavelength and intensity. PMID:24499586

  6. Chromatographic performance of synthetic polycrystalline diamond as a stationary phase in normal phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristyy, Anton; Paull, Brett; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2015-04-24

    The chromatographic properties of high pressure high temperature synthesised diamond (HPHT) are investigated in normal phase mode of high performance liquid chromatography. Purified nonporous irregular shape particles of average particles size 1.2 μm and specific surface area 5.1 m(2) g(-1) were used for packing 100×4.6 mm ID or 50×4.6 mm ID stainless steel columns. The retention behaviour of several classes of compounds including alkyl benzenes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alkylphenylketones, phenols, aromatic acids and bases were studied using n-hexane-2-propanol mixtures as mobile phase. The results are compared with those observed for microdispersed sintered detonation nanodiamond (MSDN) and porous graphitic carbon (PGC). HPHT diamond revealed distinctive separation selectivity, which is orthogonal to that observed for porous graphitic carbon; while selectivities of HPHT diamond and microdispersed sintered detonation nanodiamonds are similar. Owing to non-porous particle nature, columns packed with high pressure high temperature diamond exhibited excellent mass transfer and produce separations with maximum column efficiency of 128,200 theoretical plates per meter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of hybrid vertical up- and downflow subsurface flow constructed wetlands in treating synthetic high-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Jun; Cheng, Pu; Pei, Xi; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Cheng; Wang, Shou-Bing

    2013-07-01

    The performance and temporal variation of hybrid vertical-subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in response to two-stage combinations of vertical upflow (VUF) and vertical downflow (VDF) were analyzed in this research. The results of high carbon (C) treatment and high nitrogen (N) treatment were similar. The Lythrum salicaria treatment showed higher removal efficiency than CWs planted with Acorus calamus. Under high C- and N-loading treatments, the optimum two-stage combination was VDF-VUF VFCWs planted with A. calamus. Furthermore, the highest nutrient removal efficiencies were achieved in late summer (July and August) and early autumn (September). The chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were significantly affected (P wetland plant.

  8. A practical algorithm for the retrieval of floe size distribution of Arctic sea ice from high-resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byongjun Hwang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an algorithm for summer sea ice conditions that semi-automatically produces the floe size distribution of Arctic sea ice from high-resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Currently, floe size distribution data from satellite images are very rare in the literature, mainly due to the lack of a reliable algorithm to produce such data. Here, we developed the algorithm by combining various image analysis methods, including Kernel Graph Cuts, distance transformation and watershed transformation, and a rule-based boundary revalidation. The developed algorithm has been validated against the ground truth that was extracted manually with the aid of 1-m resolution visible satellite data. Comprehensive validation analysis has shown both perspectives and limitations. The algorithm tends to fail to detect small floes (mostly less than 100 m in mean caliper diameter compared to ground truth, which is mainly due to limitations in water-ice segmentation. Some variability in the power law exponent of floe size distribution is observed due to the effects of control parameters in the process of de-noising, Kernel Graph Cuts segmentation, thresholds for boundary revalidation and image resolution. Nonetheless, the algorithm, for floes larger than 100 m, has shown a reasonable agreement with ground truth under various selections of these control parameters. Considering that the coverage and spatial resolution of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data have increased significantly in recent years, the developed algorithm opens a new possibility to produce large volumes of floe size distribution data, which is essential for improving our understanding and prediction of the Arctic sea ice cover

  9. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  10. Synthetic Substrate for Application in both High and Low Throughput Assays for Botulinum Neurotoxin B Protease Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Salzameda, Nicholas T.; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Janda, Kim D.

    2009-01-01

    A FRET peptide substrate was synthesized and evaluated for enzymatic cleavage by the BoNT/B light chain protease. The FRET substrate was found to be useful in both a high throughput assay to uncover initial “hits” and a low throughput HPLC assay to determine kinetic parameters and modes of inhibition.

  11. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  12. Stress and sleep quality in high school brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Mesquita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of stress on sleep quality in a group of adolescents. METHOD: Two high schools in Alfenas, southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were chosen to participate in the study. The sample consisted of both genders (n=160 with 65.63% females. The age range of participants was 15 to18 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was applied for collection of data to quantify sleep quality. The Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms that objectively identifies symptoms of stress was applied. RESULTS: It was observed that 23.53% of stressed students and 45.33% of unstressed ones sleep well; 76.47% of stressed pupils and 54.67% of those unstressed do not sleep well. With regard to school performance, a mean of 0.65 was found for stressed students and 0.60 for those without stress, Mann-Whitney (p=0.0596. CONCLUSION: Stress contributed to raising the percentage of poor sleepers, as ell as increasing ean school performance.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência do stress sobre a qualidade do sono em um grupo de adolescentes. MÉTODO: Foram escolhidas duas instituições educacionais do ensino médio, na cidade de Alfenas, sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A amostra foi composta por ambos os sexos (n=160, com 65,63% do sexo feminino. A faixa etária dos participantes foi de 15 a 18 anos. Para a coleta de dados aplicou-se: Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh (IQSP utilizado para quantificar a qualidade do sono; o Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp (ISSL que identifica de modo objetivo a sintomatologia de stress foi aplicado. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 23,53% dos estressados dormem bem e 45,33% dos não estressados dormem bem; 76,47% dos estressados não dormem bem e 54,67% dos não estressados não dormem bem. Quanto ao rendimento escolar têm-se as médias 0,65 para os alunos estressados e 0,60 para aqueles que não sofrem de stress, Mann

  13. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, Petra; Kaltseis, Josef; Fritz, Andreas; Edlinger, Michael; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Orth-Höller, Dorothea

    2018-02-02

    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes have been described previously. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination is varying dramatically in literature. Thus, the aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture- and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3-4.6% according to national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly P. oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n=9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n=6, 11.5%) only on account to microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared to results from other European countries, possibly due to high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  15. Targeting Nitrous Oxide Reduction Efforts Using Crop-Specific, High-Resolution Emission Estimates from Synthetic Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, J. S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Launay, M.; Makowski, D.; Mueller, N. D.; O'Connell, C.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global weather patterns are projected to have important impacts on regional food security. These impacts can be substantial, but how do they compare to other drivers of food supply vulnerability, including decreasing stocks, changing trade patterns, concentration of production, and changing demand patterns? We use multi-year global datasets of yield and area for staple crops to assess relationships between metrics of drought derived from high-resolution gridded weather data and crop yields. We then evaluate how these metrics are changing over time, and compare the resulting change in the likelihood of regional yield reduction events to other systemic factors.

  16. ZK91587: a novel synthetic antimineralocorticoid displays high affinity for corticosterone (type I) receptors in the rat hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutanto, W.; de Kloet, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro cytosol binding assays have shown the properties of binding of a novel steroid, ZK91587 (15..beta.., 16..beta..b-methylene-mexrenone) in the brain of rats. Scatchard and Woolf analyses of the binding data reveal the binding of (/sup 3/H) ZK91587 to the total hippocampal coritcosteroid receptor sites with high affinity, and low capacity. When 100-fold excess RU28362 was included simultaneously with (/sup 3/H) ZK91587, the labelled steroid binds with the same affinity and capacity. Relative binding affinities (RBA) of various steroids for the Type I or Type II corticosteroid receptor in these animals are: Type I: ZK91587 = corticosterone (B) > cortisol (F); Type II: B > F >>> ZK91587. In the binding kinetic study, ZK91587 has a high association rate of binding in the rat. The steroid dissociates following a one slope pattern, indicating, the present data demonstrate that in the rat hippocampus, ZK91587 binds specifically to the Type I (corticosterone-preferring/mineralocorticoid-like receptor.

  17. Solvent-Assisted Metal Metathesis: A Highly Efficient and Versatile Route towards Synthetically Demanding Chromium Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Hao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Mian; Yan, Shu; Li, Dan; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Chromium(III)-based metal-organic frameworks (Cr-MOFs) are very attractive in a wide range of investigations because of their robustness and high porosity. However, reports on Cr-MOFs are scarce owing to the difficulties in their direct synthesis. Recently developed postsynthetic routes to obtain Cr-MOFs suffered from complicated procedures and a lack of general applicability. Herein, we report a highly efficient and versatile strategy, namely solvent-assisted metal metathesis, to obtain Cr-MOFs from a variety of Fe(III) -MOFs, including several well-known MOFs and a newly synthesized one, through judicious selection of a coordinating solvent. The versatility of this strategy was demonstrated by producing Cr-MIL-100, Cr-MIL-142A/C, Cr-PCN-333, and Cr-PCN-600 from their Fe(III) analogues and Cr-SXU-1 from a newly synthesized MOF precursor, Fe-SXU-1, in acetone as the solvent under very mild conditions. We have thus developed a general approach for the preparation of robust Cr-MOFs, which are difficult to synthesize by direct methods. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Stacking Defects in Synthetic and Meteoritic Hibonites: Implications for High-Temperature Processes in the Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Brearley, A. J.; Danielson, L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Hibonite (CaAl12O19) is a primary, highly refractory phase occurring in many Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from different chondrite groups, except CI chondrites. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest minerals to condense during cooling of the solar nebula at higher temperatures than any other major CAI mineral. Therefore, hibonite has great potential to reveal the processes and conditions of the very early, high-temperature stages of the solar nebular evolution. Previous microstructural studies of hibonite in CAIs and their Wark-Lovering (WL) rims showed the presence of numerous stacking defects in hibonite. These defects are interpreted as the modification of the stacking sequences of spinel and Ca-containing blocks within the ideal hexagonal hibonite structure, as shown by experimental studies of reaction-sintered ceramic CaO-Al2O3 compounds. We performed preliminary experiments in the CaO-Al2O3-MgO system to understand the formation processes and conditions of defect-structured hibonite found in meteorites.

  19. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. PMID:25330349

  20. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Effects of oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E on ruminal and milk fatty acid profiles in cows receiving a high-starch diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Najar, T; Enjalbert, F

    2012-10-01

    Among trans fatty acids, trans-10,cis-12 CLA has negative effects on cow milk fat production and can affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. In some but not all experiments, vitamin E has been shown to control this shift. To ascertain the effects of vitamin E on this shift of BH pathway, 2 studies were conducted. The first study explored in vitro the effects of addition of natural (RRR-α-tocopherol acetate) and synthetic (dl-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E. Compared with control and synthetic vitamin E, the natural form resulted in a greater trans-10/trans-11 ratio; however, the effect was very low, suggesting that vitamin E was neither a limiting factor for rumen BH nor a modulator of the BH pathway. An in vivo study investigated the effect of natural vitamin E (RRR-α-tocopherol) on this shift and subsequent milk fat depression. Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 2×2 crossover design. Cows received 20-kg DM of a control diet based on corn silage with 22% of wheat, and after 2 wk of adaptation, the diet was supplemented with 600 g of sunflower oil for 2 more weeks. During the last week of this 4-wk experimental period, cows were divided into 2 groups: an unsupplemented control group and a group receiving 11 g of RRR-α-tocopherol acetate per day. A trans-10 shift of ruminal BH associated with milk fat depression due to oil supplementation of a high-wheat diet was observed, but vitamin E supplementation of dairy cows did not result in a reversal toward a trans-11 BH pathway, and did not restore milk fat content. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Comparative multicenter study of a rabbit high-sensitivity thromboplastin and a recombinant thromboplastin with synthetic phospholipids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Brotóns, F; Borrell, M; Fontcuberta, J; Batlle, J; López, F; Páramo, J A; Ribera, C; Rocha, E; Vicente, V; Zuazu, I

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the results obtained with a human recombinant thromboplastin (Innovin, Baxter) (IN) and a high-sensitivity rabbit brain reagent (Thromboplastin IS, Baxter) (IS), on the performance of prothrombin time (PT) test and the functional assay of factors included in the extrinsic coagulation system, in order to establish possible differences on imprecision, diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity to the oral anticoagulant defect, between the two products. Six Spanish hospital took part in the study. Plasma samples from 221 healthy subjects, 100 patients with severe liver disease, 27 with dysfibrinogenaemia, 10 with lupus anticoagulant and from 13 individuals propositus and their relatives with congenital deficiencies of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, and their relatives were studied; 188 patients stabilized on oral anticoagulant therapy and 82 on heparin therapy were also included. The in vitro effect of heparin was tested by addition of increasing amounts of heparin (0.3 to 10.0 IU/mL) to aliquots of normal plasma. Both in the intra-assay and in the inter-assay imprecision study, a better coefficient of variation was obtained with IN when the PT was performed on abnormal samples. Prothrombin time ratio from patients with liver disease had significantly higher values with IS. On the contrary, IN had a higher sensitivity in samples from patients with dysfibrinogenaemia or from those stabilized on oral anticoagulant therapy. In showed a very low sensitivity to heparin at concentrations corresponding to the therapeutic range. The results of this field study indicate that IN, compared with a high-sensitivity rabbit brain thromboplastin, is a suitable reagent for PT determination in normal subjects, patients with liver disease or with congenital deficiencies of clotting factors. It shows a higher sensitivity in cases of dysfibrinogenaemia and in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy. In addition, the recombinant reagent had

  3. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Seixas, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Sotto-Maior-Peralva, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measure for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measure has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measure to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superposed information, and the QF may be us...

  4. High-quality weather data for grid integration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxl, C.

    2016-12-01

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. In this talk we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets will be presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The Solar Integration National Dataset (SIND) is available as time synchronized with the WIND Toolkit, and will allow for combined wind-solar grid integration studies. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. Grid integration studies are also carried out in various countries, which aim at increasing their wind and solar penetration through combined wind and solar integration data sets. We will present a multi-year effort to directly support India's 24x7 energy access goal through a suite of activities aimed at enabling large-scale deployment of clean energy and energy efficiency. Another current effort is the North-American-Renewable-Integration-Study, with the aim of providing

  5. Quality Assurance Roadmap for High Performance Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-05

    This report outlines the approach to quality assurance in the construction process for new residential construction, including seven process steps from the assessment of current construction practice, through design and documentation changes, to training and quality control for on-site personnel.

  6. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brianna; Snell, Sam; Bye-Nagel, Kyri; Tonidandel, Scott; Heyer, Laurie J; Campbell, A Malcolm

    2011-07-21

    Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008). Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  7. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  8. Spectral characterization of tissues in high spectral and spatial resolution MR images: Implications for a classification-based synthetic CT algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Abbie M; Shea, Steven M; Medved, Milica; Karczmar, Gregory S; Surucu, Murat; Gros, Sebastien; Small, William; Roeske, John

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the spectral parameters of tissues with high spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance images to be used as a foundation for a classification-based synthetic CT algorithm. A phantom was constructed consisting of a section of fresh beef leg with bone embedded in 1% agarose gel. The high spectral and spatial (HiSS) resolution MR imaging sequence used had 1.0 mm in-plane resolution and 11.1 Hz spectral resolution. This sequence was used to image the phantom and one patient. Post-processing was performed off-line with IDL and included Fourier transformation of the time-domain data, labeling of fat and water peaks, and fitting the magnitude spectra with Lorentzian functions. Images of the peak height and peak integral of both the water and fat resonances were generated and analyzed. Several regions-of-interest (ROIs) were identified in phantom: bone marrow, cortical bone, adipose tissue, muscle, agar gel, and air; in the patient, no agar gel was present but an ROI of saline in the bladder was analyzed. All spectra were normalized by the noise within each voxel; thus, all parameters are reported in terms of signal-to-noise (SNR). The distributions of tissue spectral parameters were analyzed and scatterplots generated. Water peak height in cortical bone was compared to air using a nonparametric t-test. Composition of the various ROIs in terms of water, fat, or fat and water was also reported. In phantom, the scatterplot of peak height (water versus fat) showed good separation of bone marrow and adipose tissue. Water versus fat integral scatterplot showed better separation of muscle and cortical bone than the peak height scatterplot. In the patient data, the distributions of water and fat peak heights were similar to that in phantom, with more overlap of bone marrow and cortical bone than observed in phantom. The relationship between bone marrow and cortical bone for peak integral was better separated than those of peak heights in the patient data

  9. 75 FR 41693 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers AGENCY: Grain... quality grain exported in containers ] from the mandatory inspection and weighing requirements of the... for high quality specialty grains exported in containers that was established by a final rule on...

  10. [Urethral substitution with synthetic material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, E A; Zungri Telo, E

    2000-03-01

    In spite of the numerous surgical techniques described, management of urethral stenosis continues to be an unresolved problem. Free graft urethroplasty is indicated in selected cases and several organic and synthetic materials have been described for this use. Our group reviews the synthetic alloplasts used for partial or total replacement of the male urethra. The search for an appropriate alloplast for urethral replacement has been rather frustrating. Complication rates are still too high to allow routine usage. The most encouraging results are those with new absorbable materials which cause minimal inflammatory reactions of a foreign body type. These are readily available and allow urethral replacement using tissues regenerated from removed ends.

  11. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  12. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  13. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  14. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    of the inoculated composts neither did inoculation accelerate compost process (Paper II). The main conclusions of the project are (1) increasing the nutrient recycling from agro-industrial waste in Costa Rica by redirection of more waste from other uses into the “fertilizer use” pool is not likely however...... derived nutrient sources, however, generally suffer from three major shortcomings compared to synthetic nutrient sources: (1) the relatively low concentration of nutrients makes them bulky when applied in the required amounts; (2) the immediate plant availability of organically-bound nutrients, e.g. N, P......, with specific focus on reducing nutrient losses during processing and improving bioavailability of nutrients in the final fertilizer product. The project was formulated at two levels of analysis; a contextual-system level and a compost-system level. Costa Rica was used as a contextual case to conduct a nutrient...

  15. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance use disorder treatment centers. Urine Drug Testing is utilized as a clinical diagnostic tool in substance use disorder treatment centers, and the furious pace at which new synthetic stimulants are introduced to the black market are making the detection via urine increasingly difficult. This article will discuss the prevalence, pharmacology and difficulty developing laboratory assays to detect synthetic stimulants.

  16. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal r...

  17. An automated text-based synthetic face with emotions for web lectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Web lectures have many positive aspects, e.g. they enable learners to easily control the learning experiences). To develop high-quality online learning materials takes a lot of time and human efforts [2]. An alternative is to develop a digital teacher. We have developed a prototype of a synthetic 3D

  18. Measuring quality of omnidirectional high dynamic range content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Anne-Flore; Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2017-09-01

    Although HDR content processing, coding and quality assessment have been largely addressed in the last few years, little to no work has been concentrating on how to assess quality in HDR for 360° or omnidirectional content. This paper is an attempt to answer to various questions in this direction. As a minimum, a new data set for 360° HDR content is proposed and a new methodology is designed to assess subjective quality of HDR 360° content when it is displayed on SDR HMD after applying various tone mapping operators. The results are then analyzed and conclusions are drawn.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer for simultaneous extraction and determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants in chilli products by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chaoyang; Mai, Zhibin; Yang, Yingfen; Zhu, Binghui; Xu, Xiumin; Lu, Lin; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2009-11-20

    A sorbent was synthesized and investigated for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE). Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were synthesized via precipitation polymerization procedure, where 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) was used as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The imprinting effect of the MISPE was evaluated by elution experiments. The resulting MISPE showed high extraction selectivity to water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants. The determination of multi-residue for three kinds of water-soluble and six kinds of fat-soluble synthetic colorants in chilli products was also investigated by HPLC coupled with MISPE. The mean recoveries calculated by solvent calibration curve for water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants were from 72.1% to 95.6% for chilli spice and 72.1% to 92.3% for chilli powder. The decision limit (CCalpha) and the detection capability (CCbeta) obtained for water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants were in the range of 1.2-1.6 and 1.9-2.4 microg kg(-1) in chilli spice and chilli powder. The resulting MISPE was successfully used off-line for the determination of nine kinds of synthetic colorants in chilli products.

  20. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  1. Long-run benefits from universal high-quality preschooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2014-01-01

    a formal preschool institution in 1998 are used in the analyses. OLS analyses show that three out of five quality indicators, a higher staff-per-child ratio, a higher share of male staff, and a higher share of staff with formal preschool teacher training are associated with significant improvements...... in children's test results in Danish. Boys benefit more from preschool quality than girls. Ethnic minority children benefit from higher staff stability....

  2. Modeling synthetic lethality

    OpenAIRE

    Le Meur, Nolwenn; Gentleman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Synthetic lethality defines a genetic interaction where the combination of mutations in two or more genes leads to cell death. The implications of synthetic lethal screens have been discussed in the context of drug development as synthetic lethal pairs could be used to selectively kill cancer cells, but leave normal cells relatively unharmed. A challenge is to assess genome-wide experimental data and integrate the results to better understand the underlying biological processes. We...

  3. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  4. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. METHODS: We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology — synthetic control methods — that creates a control group with which to compare Canada’s outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. RESULTS: Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. PMID:28676578

  5. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  7. Synthetic Zeolites and Other Microporous Oxide Molecular Sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, John D.

    1999-03-01

    Use of synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxides since 1950 has improved insulated windows, automobile air-conditioning, refrigerators, air brakes on trucks, laundry detergents, etc. Their large internal pore volumes, molecular-size pores, regularity of crystal structures, and the diverse framework chemical compositions allow "tailoring" of structure and properties. Thus, highly active and selective catalysts as well as adsorbents and ion exchangers with high capacities and selectivities were developed. In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, zeolites have made possible cheaper and lead-free gasoline, higher performance and lower-cost synthetic fibers and plastics, and many improvements in process efficiency and quality and in performance. Zeolites also help protect the environment by improving energy efficiency, reducing automobile exhaust and other emissions, cleaning up hazardous wastes (including the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and other radioactive wastes), and, as specially tailored desiccants, facilitating the substitution of new refrigerants for the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons banned by the Montreal Protocol.

  8. Latest Technologies and Equipment to Obtain High Quality Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharuk, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A principally new concept of providing the Ukrainian population with quality drinking water have been proposed. It is based on a system of autonomous complexes for water purification in places of direct consumption. Water treatment autonomous complexes for collective and individual use with biotesting and analytical quality control of drinking water have been developed. The choice of the cleaning methods of tap and other waters up to the quality of genetic safe is performed in accordance with its composition and is based on a block concept that provides the possibility of varying the number of units depending on the composition of the source water. The proposed technology and equipment at cost and complex problems to be solved have no analogues in the world. Over thousand of modular installations «Vega» and disinfecting vehicles «Promin» are implemented in many settlement in all regions of Ukraine.

  9. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new......: the safety and quality of food products, and the increasing competition for clean freshwater. SAFIR is funded for the period 2005-2009 under the Food Quality and Safety thematic area of the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. The challenge for the next years will be to produce safe and high quality foods...... while at the same time reducing the use of natural resources and the impact on aquatic ecosystems that are frequently already polluted. These problems are linked, since most of our vegetables are produced using irrigation water from the same ecosystems. To ensure food safety and quality, the innovative...

  10. Laboratory and field evaluations of transgenic soybean exhibiting high-dose expression of a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A gene for control of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Ted C; Baur, Matthew E; Boethel, David J; Fitzpatrick, Bentley J; Gao, Ai-Guo; Gamundi, Juan Carlos; Harrison, Leslie A; Kabuye, Victor T; McPherson, Robert M; Miklos, John A; Paradise, Mark S; Toedebusch, Andrea S; Viegas, Alejo

    2005-04-01

    Transgenic lines of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, expressing a synthetic cry1A gene (tic107) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were evaluated in screenhouse and conventional field trials for efficacy against lepidopteran pests. In screenhouse trials, Bt soybean and negative checks (isogenic segregants and parental lines) were evaluated against Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) in the United States and against A. gemmatalis, Epinotia aporema (Walsingham), Rachiplusia nu (Guenée), and Spilosoma virginica (F.) in Argentina. Bt soybean exhibited virtually complete efficacy against each of these pests, whereas negative checks suffered significant damage. Bt soybean and negative checks also were evaluated in conventional trials against native populations of A. gemmatalis and P. includens in the southeastern United States. Each of these insects caused significant damage to negative checks in one or more locations, whereas Bt soybean exhibited virtually complete efficacy against these pests. In the laboratory, lyophilized leaf tissues from Bt soybean incorporated in artificial diet at a concentration representing a 25-fold dilution of fresh tissue caused complete mortality of A. gemmatalis and near complete mortality of P. includens neonates after 11 d, whereas mortality on negative checks did not exceed 10% for either insect. Average TIC107 expression approached or exceeded 50 microg/g fresh weight at V3 stage of growth and 200 microg/g by R6 stage of growth. These results demonstrate that expression of TIC107 in soybean can not only achieve highly efficacious control of several lepidopterans under field conditions but also provide a high dose for effective insect resistance management.

  11. Clinical trial and in-vitro study comparing the efficacy of treating bony lesions with allografts versus synthetic or highly-processed xenogeneic bone grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Bernstein, Anke; Wolf, Laura; Fretwurst, Tobias; Nelson, Katja; Schmal, Hagen

    2016-02-13

    Our study aim was to compare allogeneic cancellous bone (ACB) and synthetic or highly-processed xenogeneic bone substitutes (SBS) in the treatment of skeletal defects in orthopedic surgery. 232 patients treated for bony lesions with ACB (n = 116) or SBS (n = 116) within a 10-year time period were included in this case-control study. Furthermore, both materials were seeded with human osteoblasts (hOB, n = 10) and analyzed by histology, for viability (AlamarBlue®) and protein expression activity (Luminex®). The complication rate was 14.2 %, proportion of defects without bony healing 3.6 %; neither outcome parameter differed comparing the intervention groups. Failed consolidation correlated with an increase in complications (p < 0.03). The rate of complications was further highly significant in association with the location of use (p < 0.001), but did not depend on age, ASA risk classification, BMI, smoking behavior or type of insurance. However, those factors did significantly influence the bony healing rate (p < 0.02). Complication and consolidation rates were independent of gender and the filling substances employed within the different locations. Histological examination revealed similar bone structures, whereas cell remnants were apparent only in the allografts. Both materials were biocompatible in-vitro, and seeded with human osteoblasts. The cells remained vital over the 3-week culture period and produced microscopically typical bone matrix. We observed initially increased expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteoprotegerin as well as leptin and adiponectin secretion declining after 1 week, especially in the ACB group. Although both investigated materials appeared to be similarly suitable for the treatment of skeletal lesions in-vivo and in-vitro, outcome was decisively influenced by other factors such as the site of use or epidemiological parameters.

  12. Consumers' expected quality and intention to purchase high quality pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K

    2013-03-01

    Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    The present paper presents the SAFIR project (www.safir4eu.org), which addresses two fundamental problems that over the past decade increasingly have become concerns of the general public: the one problem being the jeopardizing of safety and quality of our food products, while the other being...... the increasing competition for clean freshwater. The SAFIR project has a multi-disciplinary approach, which integrates the European as well as the global dimension of the EU-policy on food quality and safety. The main driving force behind the project idea is new research results that demonstrated that scheduled...... uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  14. Preliminary Experimental Verification of Synthetic Aperture Flow Imaging Using a Dual Stage Beamformer Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ye; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    A dual stage beamformer method for synthetic aperture flow imaging has been developed. The motivation is to increase the frame rate and still maintain a beamforming quality sufficient for flow estimation that is possible to implement in a commercial scanner. With the new method high resolution...... images can be obtained continuously, which will highly increase the frame rate. The flow velocity is estimated by using a time-domain cross-correlation technique. The approach is investigated through experiments with the SARUS scanner (Synthetic Aperture Real-time Ultrasound System). A flow rig generates...

  15. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im...

  16. Quality assessment and potential utilization of high amylolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... This study was carried out to compare the qualities of two acclaimed Nigerian amylolytic maize cultivars; SPMAT and TZEE*TZEE-W*DEMARSCUS*TZEE-W with barley, red and white sorghum. Results obtained (P ≤ 0.05) showed marked differences in the properties of the two maize cultivars compared to ...

  17. Twin pregnancy possibly associated with high semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, Camilla; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies found an association between a long waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and reduced probability of twinning and a reduced dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate in subfertile men. However, it remains unsolved whether semen quality is associated with twin offspring. We therefore studied...

  18. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assisting smallholders to produce value-added products competitively, working with a range of partners at different stages in the value chain to take pilot studies to scale, ensuring and maintaining quality, selecting appropriate technologies for different circumstances, anticipating negative effects of the market environment ...

  19. Innovation in Business Education: Developing a High Quality Online MBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C. William; Toma, Alfred G.; Yallapragada, RamMohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Online degree programs were probably pioneered by for-profit universities such as University of Phoenix. Many online degree programs were initially considered low quality academic programs compared to traditional programs. Therefore, many public and private universities were slow to adopt the online programs. However, gradually more and more…

  20. Creating High-Quality Paths for Motion Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, R.J.; Overmars, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Many algorithms have been proposed that create a path for a robot in an environment with obstacles. Most methods are aimed at finding a solution. However, for many applications, the path must be of a good quality as well. That is, a path should be short and should keep some amount of minimum

  1. The Politics of Quality Teacher Discourses: Implications for Pre-Service Teachers in High Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Lampert, Jo; Burnett, Bruce; Comber, Barbara M.; Hoff, Lutz; Ferguson, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Improving the quality of education for young people growing up in high poverty and culturally diverse communities is an escalating problem in affluent nations with increasing gaps between the wealthy and the poor. Improving the quality of teachers and improving the quality of teaching are amongst the prominent solutions offered to redress the…

  2. Building High-Performing and Improving Education Systems: Quality Assurance and Accountability. Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring, evaluation, and quality assurance in their various forms are seen as being one of the foundation stones of high-quality education systems. De Grauwe, writing about "school supervision" in four African countries in 2001, linked the decline in the quality of basic education to the cut in resources for supervision and support.…

  3. Modeling the Subjective Quality of Highly Contrasted Videos Displayed on LCD With Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight...

  4. The Cost of Inequality: The Importance of Investing in High Quality Early Childhood Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was to explore the importance of high quality early education in later secondary education development, quantifying quality in early childhood education programs, and examining how teacher education contributes to quality of early childhood education programs. For phase I, early childhood education positively…

  5. Most clinical laboratory testing in Kampala occurs in high-volume, high-quality laboratories or low-volume, low-quality laboratories. A tale of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Schroeder, Lee F; Jackson, J Brooks; Elbireer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    To describe key characteristics (laboratory quality, test volumes, and complexity) of clinical laboratories in Kampala, Uganda (population ~1.7 million). Cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to document laboratory type and quality, as well as test menus and volumes. Quality was based on the World Health Organization-Africa Region checklist. Of the 954 laboratories identified (a density of one laboratory per 1,781 persons), 779 (82%) performed only simple kit tests or light microscope examinations. The 95% (907/954) of laboratories for whom volumes were obtained performed an average aggregate of 13,189 tests daily, for a test utilization rate of around 2 tests per individual per year. Laboratories could be segregated into eight groups based on quality, test volume, and complexity. However, 90% of the testing was performed by just two groups: (1) low-volume (≤100 tests daily), low-quality laboratories performing simple tests or (2) high-volume (>100 tests daily), high-quality laboratories. Each of these two groups did 45% of the daily testing volume (90% combined). Clinical laboratory density in Kampala (1/1,781 persons) is high, approaching that in the United States (1/1,347 persons). Low-volume/low-quality and high-volume/high-quality laboratories do 90% of the daily aggregate testing. Quality improvement (QI) schemes for Africa must be appropriate to low-volume laboratories as well as to the large laboratories that have been the focus of previous QI efforts. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  6. High fidelity system modeling for high quality image reconstruction in clinical CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synho Do

    Full Text Available Today, while many researchers focus on the improvement of the regularization term in IR algorithms, they pay less concern to the improvement of the fidelity term. In this paper, we hypothesize that improving the fidelity term will further improve IR image quality in low-dose scanning, which typically causes more noise. The purpose of this paper is to systematically test and examine the role of high-fidelity system models using raw data in the performance of iterative image reconstruction approach minimizing energy functional. We first isolated the fidelity term and analyzed the importance of using focal spot area modeling, flying focal spot location modeling, and active detector area modeling as opposed to just flying focal spot motion. We then compared images using different permutations of all three factors. Next, we tested the ability of the fidelity terms to retain signals upon application of the regularization term with all three factors. We then compared the differences between images generated by the proposed method and Filtered-Back-Projection. Lastly, we compared images of low-dose in vivo data using Filtered-Back-Projection, Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space, and the proposed method using raw data. The initial comparison of difference maps of images constructed showed that the focal spot area model and the active detector area model also have significant impacts on the quality of images produced. Upon application of the regularization term, images generated using all three factors were able to substantially decrease model mismatch error, artifacts, and noise. When the images generated by the proposed method were tested, conspicuity greatly increased, noise standard deviation decreased by 90% in homogeneous regions, and resolution also greatly improved. In conclusion, the improvement of the fidelity term to model clinical scanners is essential to generating higher quality images in low-dose imaging.

  7. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  8. Develop high quality nursing service and normalize management of neonatal ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua YANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To tamp basic neonatal care, provide high quality nursing service, improve the quality of neonatal care, guarantee the safety of nursing care, achieve satisfactory project. Methods:Adjust the staff of the neonatal ward , optimize schedule; strengthen the training and knowledge; strengthen the supervision and ensure the basic nursing; the nursing quality management group work out the rate of incidence of high quality nursing service, the incidence rate of hospital infection of the newborn as well as the satisfaction of their families. Results: The different data between the control group and observation group was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 . Conclusion: Develop the neonatal ward of high quality nursing service, ensure the basic nursing implement, significantly improve the quality of nursing, reduce nursing adverse events and neonatal hospital infection incidence to" zero defects and zero tolerance", and that ensures nursing safety, and achieve the goal of " quality care demonstration project" --- patient satisfaction, social satisfaction, and government satisfaction.

  9. What makes a high quality clinical research paper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, T

    2010-05-01

    The quality of a research paper depends primarily on the quality of the research study it reports. However, there is also much that authors can do to maximise the clarity and usefulness of their papers. Journals' instructions for authors often focus on the format, style, and length of articles but do not always emphasise the need to clearly explain the work's science and ethics: so this review reminds researchers that transparency is important too. The research question should be stated clearly, along with an explanation of where it came from and why it is important. The study methods must be reported fully and, where appropriate, in line with an evidence based reporting guideline such as the CONSORT statement for randomised controlled trials. If the study was a trial the paper should state where and when the study was registered and state its registration identifier. Finally, any relevant conflicts of interest should be declared.

  10. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  11. High quality factor photonic resonators for nitride quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, T. [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, 34095 Montpellier (France); Mexis, M.; Rennesson, S.; Brimont, C.; Bretagnon, T.; Gil, B. [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, 34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, 34095 Montpellier (France); Sergent, S. [CRHEA-CNRS, Valbonne 06560 (France); Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, Nice 06102 Cedex 2 (France); Neel, D.; David, S.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS - Universite Paris Sud 11, 91405 Orsay (France); Sam-Giao, D.; Gayral, B. [CEA-INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Semond, F.; Leroux, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Valbonne 06560 (France)

    2012-03-15

    We report the realization and the optical study of nitride photonic resonators dedicated to the blue and UV spectral range. Microdisks and photonic crystal (PC) cavities are investigated containing GaN/AlN quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an AlN waveguide. The PC cavities are fabricated through the conformal growth of nitrides on a patterned Si substrate, and present delocalized and confined cavity modes in their microphotoluminescence spectra, that are compared to simulations. A large quality factor of 1800 is reached for a modified L3 cavity. In the case of microdisks, which are fabricated through a classical top-down approach, the series of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) with large quality factors (up to 7300) are observed and analysed. Scanning electron micrograph and microphotoluminescence spectrum of a 2 {mu}m AlN microdisk embedding GaN QDs; the WGMs appear as sharp peaks, with quality factors up to 5000. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  13. Potential of high-resolution detection and retrieval of precipitation fields from X-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar over land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Marzano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available X-band Synthetic Aperture Radars (X-SARs, able to image the Earth's surface at metric resolution, may provide a unique opportunity to measure rainfall over land with spatial resolution of about few hundred meters, due to the atmospheric moving-target degradation effects. This capability has become very appealing due to the recent launch of several X-SAR satellites, even though several remote sensing issues are still open. This work is devoted to: (i explore the potential of X-band high-resolution detection and retrieval of rainfall fields from space using X-SAR signal backscattering amplitude and interferometric phase; (ii evaluate the effects of spatial resolution degradation by precipitation and inhomogeneous beam filling when comparing to other satellite-based sensors. Our X-SAR analysis of precipitation effects has been carried out using both a TerraSAR-X (TSX case study of Hurricane "Gustav" in 2008 over Mississippi (USA and a COSMO-SkyMed (CSK X-SAR case study of orographic rainfall over Central Italy in 2009. For the TSX case study the near-surface rain rate has been retrieved from the normalized radar cross section by means of a modified regression empirical algorithm (MREA. A relatively simple method to account for the geometric effect of X-SAR observation on estimated rainfall rate and first-order volumetric effects has been developed and applied. The TSX-retrieved rain fields have been compared to those estimated from the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD in Mobile (AL, USA. The rainfall detection capability of X-SAR has been tested on the CSK case study using the repeat-pass coherence response and qualitatively comparing its signature with ground-based Mt. Midia C-band radar in central Italy. A numerical simulator to represent the effect of the spatial resolution and the antenna pattern of TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar (PR and Microwave Imager (TMI, using high-resolution TSX-retrieved rain images, has been also set up in

  14. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  15. Synthetic aperture flow imaging using dual stage beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ye; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    A method for synthetic aperture flow imaging using dual stage beamforming has been developed. The main motivation is to increase the frame rate and still maintain a beamforming quality sufficient for flow estimation that is possible to implement in a commercial scanner. This method can generate...... continuous high frame rate flow images with lower calculation demands than the full synthetic aperture flow imaging. The performance of the approach was investigated using Field II simulations and measurements with the experimental scanner SARUS. A laminar flow with a parabolic profile was generated...... of beamformed samples are reduced by a factor of 64 times, and the frame rate is much higher than the conventional method for the same velocity estimation accuracy....

  16. Children's perception of their synthetically corrected speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbergsson, Sofia; Wengelin, Asa; House, David

    2014-06-01

    We explore children's perception of their own speech - in its online form, in its recorded form, and in synthetically modified forms. Children with phonological disorder (PD) and children with typical speech and language development (TD) performed tasks of evaluating accuracy of the different types of speech stimuli, either immediately after having produced the utterance or after a delay. In addition, they performed a task designed to assess their ability to detect synthetic modification. Both groups showed high performance in tasks involving evaluation of other children's speech, whereas in tasks of evaluating one's own speech, the children with PD were less accurate than their TD peers. The children with PD were less sensitive to misproductions in immediate conjunction with their production of an utterance, and more accurate after a delay. Within-category modification often passed undetected, indicating a satisfactory quality of the generated speech. Potential clinical benefits of using corrective re-synthesis are discussed.

  17. Immunization of rabbits with synthetic peptides derived from a highly conserved β-sheet epitope region underneath the receptor binding site of influenza A virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ideno S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoji Ideno,1,3 Kaoru Sakai,1 Mikihiro Yunoki,2–4 Ritsuko Kubota-Koketsu,3,5 Yuji Inoue,3 Shota Nakamura,6 Teruo Yasunaga,6 Yoshinobu Okuno,5 Kazuyoshi Ikuta3 1Infectious Pathogen Research Section, Central Research Laboratory, Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Kobe, Japan; 2Research and Development Promotion Section, Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Veterinary Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan; 5Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa, Japan; 6Department of Genome Informatics, Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan Background: There is increasing concern about the speed with which health care providers can administer prophylaxis and treatment in an influenza pandemic. Generally, it takes several months to manufacture an influenza vaccine by propagation of the virus in chicken eggs or cultured cells. Newer, faster protocols for the production of vaccines that induce broad-spectrum immunity are therefore highly desirable. We previously developed human monoclonal antibody B-1 that shows broadly neutralizing activity against influenza A virus H3N2. B-1 recognizes an epitope region that includes an antiparallel β-sheet structure underneath the receptor binding site of influenza hemagglutinin (HA. In this study, the efficacy of a synthetic peptide vaccine derived from this epitope region against influenza A was evaluated. Materials and methods: Two peptides were synthesized, the upper and lower peptides. These peptides comprise amino acid residues 167–187 and 225–241, respectively, of the B-1 epitope region of HA, which is involved in

  18. High-resolution mass spectrometric determination of the synthetic cannabinoids MAM-2201, AM-2201, AM-2232, and their metabolites in postmortem plasma and urine by LC/Q-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Kei; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Mayumi; Hisatsune, Kazuaki; Taki, Kentaro; Asano, Tomomi; Kamata, Tooru; Katagai, Munehiro; Hayashi, Yumi; Kusano, Maiko; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akira

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry and accurate mass measurement by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOFMS) was applied to postmortem plasma and urine specimens from an autopsy of a fatal case involving synthetic cannabinoid use, resulting in the detection of three synthetic cannabinoids: MAM-2201, AM-1220, and AM-2232. We searched for their metabolites existing in postmortem plasma or urine by LC/Q-TOFMS and were able to detect N-dealkylated metabolites, defluorinated and further oxidized metabolites of MAM-2201, and some hydroxylated metabolites. Postmortem plasma concentrations of the parent drugs, N-dealkylated metabolites, and fluorinated and further oxidized metabolites of MAM-2201 were measured, and quantitation results revealed site differences between heart and femoral postmortem plasma concentrations of parent drugs and some metabolites, suggesting postmortem redistribution of the synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites. Quantitation results suggest that defluorination is a major metabolic pathway for MAM-2201, and N-dealkylation is a common but minor pathway for the naphthoylindole-type synthetic cannabinoids in human.

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  20. Evaluation of problematic use of mobile phones and quality of sleep among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Öz; Didem Arslantaş; Necati Buğrul; Tuğçe Koyuncu; Alaettin Ünsal

    2015-01-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the problematic use of mobile phones and quality of sleep among high school students. This is a cross-sectional study carried out on 1,131 high school students studying at Sivrihisar, a district of Eskisehir, in December 2012. The questionnaire form include the sociodemographic characteristics, problematic use of mobile phones and quality of sleep. Bianchi-Phillips problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. Median...

  1. A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol) and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K; Niu, Y; Zheng, X C; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Zhang, M; Huang, X X; Zhang, L L; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group), and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-tocopherol or DL-α-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05). Compared with the control group, concentration of α-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (pcontent was also enhanced by vitamin E inclusion, and this effect was more pronounced in the natural vitamin E group (pVitamin E supplementation increased the redness of breast (pvitamin E decreased lightness of thigh (pvitamin E inclusion reduced drip loss at 24 h of thigh muscle (pvitamin E group (pvitamin E showed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the breast (pvitamin E reduced MDA accumulation in the thigh (pvitamin E supplementation altered muscular mRNA abundance of genes related to oxidative stress (p>0.05). It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular α-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.

  2. A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group, and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-tocopherol or DL-α-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05. Compared with the control group, concentration of α-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (p0.05. It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular α-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.

  3. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  4. Rehosting of Bacterial Chaperones for High-Quality Protein Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Noad, Rob; Unzueta, Ugutz; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Roy, Polly; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Coproduction of DnaK/DnaJ in Escherichia coli enhances solubility but promotes proteolytic degradation of their substrates, minimizing the yield of unstable polypeptides. Higher eukaryotes have orthologs of DnaK/DnaJ but lack the linked bacterial proteolytic system. By coexpression of DnaK and DnaJ in insect cells with inherently misfolding-prone recombinant proteins, we demonstrate simultaneous improvement of soluble protein yield and quality and proteolytic stability. Thus, undesired side effects of bacterial folding modulators can be avoided by appropriate rehosting in heterologous cell expression systems. PMID:19820142

  5. Metabolites of 5F-AKB-48, a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, identified in human urine and liver microsomal preparations using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Niels Bjerre; Pedersen, Anders Just; Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe

    2015-01-01

    New types of synthetic cannabinoid designer drugs are constantly introduced to the illicit drug market to circumvent legislation. Recently, N-​(1-Adamant​yl)-​1-​(5-​fluoropentyl)-​1H-​indazole-​3-​carboxamide (5F-AKB-48), also known as 5F-APINACA, was identified as an adulterant in herbal products...

  6. Highly effective synthetic methods for substituted 2-arylbenzofurans using [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement: short syntheses of stemofuran a and eupomatenoid 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Okiko; Takeda, Norihiko; Naito, Takeaki

    2004-05-27

    A new and efficient synthesis of 2-arylbenzofurans has been achieved via a route involving acylation and subsequent [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of oxime ethers. Its synthetic utility is demonstrated by a short synthesis of stemofuran A and eupomatenoid 6 in which no procedure for protection of the phenolic hydroxyl groups is needed. [reaction--see text

  7. Design and construction of a first-generation high-throughput integrated molecular biology platform for production of optimized synthetic genes and improved industrial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular biological techniques for plasmid-based assembly and cloning of synthetic assembled gene open reading frames are essential for elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes. These techniques involve the production of full-length cDNA libraries as a source of plasmid-bas...

  8. Publishing high-quality climate data on the semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Andrew; Haller, Armin; Lefort, Laurent; Taylor, Kerry

    2013-04-01

    The effort over more than a decade to establish the semantic web [Berners-Lee et. al., 2001] has received a major boost in recent years through the Open Government movement. Governments around the world are seeking technical solutions to enable more open and transparent access to Public Sector Information (PSI) they hold. Existing technical protocols and data standards tend to be domain specific, and so limit the ability to publish and integrate data across domains (health, environment, statistics, education, etc.). The web provides a domain-neutral platform for information publishing, and has proven itself beyond expectations for publishing and linking human-readable electronic documents. Extending the web pattern to data (often called Web 3.0) offers enormous potential. The semantic web applies the basic web principles to data [Berners-Lee, 2006]: using URIs as identifiers (for data objects and real-world 'things', instead of documents) making the URIs actionable by providing useful information via HTTP using a common exchange standard (serialised RDF for data instead of HTML for documents) establishing typed links between information objects to enable linking and integration Leading examples of 'linked data' for publishing PSI may be found in both the UK (http://data.gov.uk/linked-data) and US (http://www.data.gov/page/semantic-web). The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is Australia's national meteorological agency, and has a new mandate to establish a national environmental information infrastructure (under the National Plan for Environmental Information, NPEI [BoM, 2012a]). While the initial approach is based on the existing best practice Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) architecture, linked-data is being explored as a technological alternative that shows great promise for the future. We report here the first trial of government linked-data in Australia under data.gov.au. In this initial pilot study, we have taken BoM's new high-quality reference surface

  9. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    James Fratantonio; Lawrence Andrade; Marcelo Febo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  10. Transient cavitation in high-quality-factor resonators at high static pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, D Felipe; Tessien, Ross A; Hiller, Robert A; Gutierrez, Joel; Scott, Corey; Tardif, Henry; Callahan, Brant; Matula, Thomas J; Crum, Lawrence A; Holt, R Glynn; Church, Charles C; Raymond, Jason L

    2010-06-01

    It is well known that cavitation collapse can generate intense concentrations of mechanical energy, sufficient to erode even the hardest metals and to generate light emissions visible to the naked eye [sonoluminescence (SL)]. Considerable attention has been devoted to the phenomenon of "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL) in which a single stable cavitation bubble radiates light flashes each and every acoustic cycle. Most of these studies involve acoustic resonators in which the ambient pressure is near 0.1 MPa (1 bar), and with acoustic driving pressures on the order of 0.1 MPa. This study describes a high-quality factor, spherical resonator capable of achieving acoustic cavitation at ambient pressures in excess of 30 MPa (300 bars). This system generates bursts of violent inertial cavitation events lasting only a few milliseconds (hundreds of acoustic cycles), in contrast with the repetitive cavitation events (lasting several minutes) observed in SBSL; accordingly, these events are described as "inertial transient cavitation." Cavitation observed in this high pressure resonator is characterized by flashes of light with intensities up to 1000 times brighter than SBSL flashes, as well as spherical shock waves with amplitudes exceeding 30 MPa at the resonator wall. Both SL and shock amplitudes increase with static pressure.

  11. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    security and the general livelihood conditions of any population. Agriculture, being one of the most weather-dependent of all human activities is highly vulnerable to climate change. African countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change because of their dependence on rain fed agriculture, high levels of poverty, low.

  12. A high-quality annotated transcriptome of swine peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: High throughput gene expression profiling assays of peripheral blood are widely used in biomedicine, as well as in animal genetics and physiology research. Accurate, comprehensive, and precise interpretation of such high throughput assays relies on well-characterized reference genomes an...

  13. MKAD Synthetic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Synthetic data used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the MKAD algorithm with respect to detecting anomalies in both the continuous numerical data and binary...

  14. Models for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaznessis Yiannis N

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  15. Synthetic Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, L.J.; Kramer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic vision system is an aircraft cockpit display technology that presents the visual environment external to the aircraft using computer-generated imagery in a manner analogous to how it would appear to the pilot if forward visibility were not restricted. The purpose of this chapter is to review the state of synthetic vision systems, and discuss selected human factors issues that should be considered when designing such displays.

  16. Hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, J.W.; Stiles, J.I.; Tye, B.K.; Sherman, F.; Wu, R.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the use of synthetic oligonucleotides for Southern blot experiments and gene bank screening, and the effect of various mismatches on the efficiency of hybridization is demonstrated. The following topics are discussed: sensitivity vs. specificity, hybridization of a 12-mer to the lambda endolysin gene; hybridization of oligonucleotide probes to the E. coli lac operator; hybridization of synthetic probes to the CYC1 gene of yeast; and cloning eucaryotic genes. (HLW)

  17. Anomalous Behavior of High Quality Factor Planar Superconducting Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megrant, Anthony; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, Ben; Dunsworth, Andrew; Quintana, Chris; Campbell, Brooks; Kelly, Julian; Barends, Rami; Chen, Yu; Jeffrey, Evan; Mutus, Josh; Neill, Charles; O'Malley, Peter; Sank, Daniel; Vainsencher, Amit; Wenner, Jim; White, Ted; Bochmann, Jorg; Hoi, Iochun; Palmstrom, Christopher; Martinis, John; Cleland, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators have proven to be invaluable tools in studying some of the decoherence mechanisms found in superconducting qubits. Surface two-level states tend to dominate decoherence at temperatures below Tc/10 and at very low microwave powers, assuming loss through other channels (e.g. quasiparticles, vortices, and radiation loss) has been mitigated through proper shielding and design. I will present recent measurements of resonators whose behavior diverges significantly from the standard two-level state model at low temperatures and low excitation energies, resulting in startling behavior of the internal quality factor. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office grant W911NF-09-1-0375.

  18. Academic coordination at university: Strategies for high quality education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Durán Bellonch

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Most lecturers and professors involved in teaching School Management and Education Management courses have been engaged in developing some innovative actions to improve the training quality that we offer to students in the Pedagogy degree at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. These actions are aimed at increasing co-ordination among the teaching staff when designing and implementing the course curricula. Co-ordination meetings, exchanges of teaching experiences, discussions about what, how and when to teach the different contents, in which courses and at what level, methodological issues pointed out through technical description cards or the elaboration of study cases to be solved have become the basis of relevant actions during the last academic years. This paper explains each one of them, and provides useful information about the theoretical background, the process carried out, some of the results obtained, the output and the tools created.

  19. Possibilities of obtaining and controlling high-quality pressure castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the type of furnace charging melting, refining and modification silumins 226 and 231 on the porosity and microstructure of castings. It was shown that in order to reduce or eliminate the porosity of the castings is necessary to the refining ECOSAL-AL113 of liquid silumin both in the melting furnace, and in the ladle and an additional nitrogen, in the heat furnace modified and refining with nitrogen. To control the effects of refining and modifying the TDA method was used. It was found that based on crystal- lization curve can be qualitatively assess the gas porosity of the castings. In order to control and quality control silumins author developed a computer program using the method of TDA, which sets out: Rm, A5, HB and casting porosity P and the concentration of hydrogen in them. The program also informs the technological procedures to be performed for liquid silumin improper preparation.

  20. High-quality lossy compression: current and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with current and future trends in the lossy compression of real sources such as imagery, video, speech and music. We put all lossy compression schemes into common framework where each can be characterized in terms of three well-defined advantages: cell shape, region shape and memory advantages. We concentrate on image compression and discuss how new entropy constrained trellis-based compressors achieve cell- shape, region-shape and memory gain resulting in high fidelity and high compression.

  1. Thermolytic Degradation of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Chemical Exposures and Pharmacological Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian F; Lefever, Timothy W; Cortes, Ricardo A; Grabenauer, Megan; Kovach, Alexander L; Cox, Anderson O; Patel, Purvi R; Pollard, Gerald T; Marusich, Julie A; Kevin, Richard C; Gamage, Thomas F; Wiley, Jenny L

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are manufactured clandestinely with little quality control and are distributed as herbal "spice" for smoking or as bulk compound for mixing with a solvent and inhalation via electronic vaporizers. Intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with seizure, excited delirium, coma, kidney damage, and other disorders. The chemical alterations produced by heating these structurally novel compounds for consumption are largely unknown. Here, we show that heating synthetic cannabinoids containing tetramethylcyclopropyl-ring substituents produced thermal degradants with pharmacological activity that varied considerably from their parent compounds. Moreover, these degradants were formed under conditions simulating smoking. Some products of combustion retained high affinity at the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and CB2 receptors, were more efficacious than (-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol (CP55,940) in stimulating CB1 receptor-mediated guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) binding, and were potent in producing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-like effects in laboratory animals, whereas other compounds had low affinity and efficacy and were devoid of cannabimimetic activity. Degradants that retained affinity and efficacy also substituted in drug discrimination tests for the prototypical synthetic cannabinoid 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018), and are likely to produce psychotropic effects in humans. Hence, it is important to take into consideration the actual chemical exposures that occur during use of synthetic cannabinoid formulations to better comprehend the relationships between dose and effect. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Differences in Use of High-quality and Low-quality Hospitals Among Working-age Individuals by Insurance Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Ioana; Heslin, Kevin C; Coffey, Rosanna M; Washington, Raynard E; Barrett, Marguerite L; Karnell, Lucy H; Escarce, José J

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that individuals with Medicaid or no insurance receive fewer evidence-based treatments and have worse outcomes than those with private insurance for a broad range of conditions. These differences may be due to patients' receiving care in hospitals of different quality. We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases 2009-2010 data to identify patients aged 18-64 years with private insurance, Medicaid, or no insurance who were hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pneumonia, stroke, or gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Multinomial logit regressions estimated the probability of admissions to hospitals classified as high, medium, or low quality on the basis of risk-adjusted, in-hospital mortality. Compared with patients who have private insurance, those with Medicaid or no insurance were more likely to be minorities and to reside in areas with low-socioeconomic status. The probability of admission to high-quality hospitals was similar for patients with Medicaid (23.3%) and private insurance (23.0%) but was significantly lower for patients without insurance (19.8%, Pinsurance groups. Accounting for demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics did not influence the results. Previously noted disparities in hospital quality of care for Medicaid recipients are not explained by differences in the quality of hospitals they use. Patients without insurance have lower use of high-quality hospitals, a finding that needs exploration with data after 2013 in light of the Affordable Care Act, which is designed to improve access to medical care for patients without insurance.

  3. A study on missing lines in the synthetic solar spectrum near the Ca triplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Jessica R.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Coelho, Paula

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic stellar spectra are extensively used for many different applications in astronomy, from stellar studies (such as in the determination of atmospheric parameters of observed stellar spectra), to extragalactic studies (e.g. as one of the main ingredients of stellar population models). One of the main ingredients of synthetic spectral libraries are the atomic and molecular line lists, which contain the data required to model all the absorption lines that should appear in these spectra. Although currently available line lists contain millions of lines, a relatively small fraction of these lines have accurate derived or measured transition parameters. As a consequence, many of these lines contain errors in the electronic transition parameters that can reach up to 200%. Furthermore, even for the Sun, our closest and most studied star, state-of-the-art synthetic spectra does not reproduce all the observed lines, indicating transitions that are missing in the line lists of the computed synthetic spectra. Given the importance and wide range of applications of these models, improvement of their quality is urgently necessary. In this work we catalogued missing lines in the atomic and molecular line lists used for the calculation of the synthetic spectra in the region of Gaia, comparing a solar model computed via a recent line list with a high quality solar atlas available in the literature. After that, we attempted the calibration of their atomic parameters with the code ALLiCE; the calibrated line parameters are publicly available for use.

  4. GPU-based minimum variance beamformer for synthetic aperture imaging of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Billy Y S; Yu, Alfred C H

    2015-03-01

    Minimum variance (MV) beamforming has emerged as an adaptive apodization approach to bolster the quality of images generated from synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging methods that are based on unfocused transmission principles. In this article, we describe a new high-speed, pixel-based MV beamforming framework for synthetic aperture imaging to form entire frames of adaptively apodized images at real-time throughputs and document its performance in swine eye imaging case examples. Our framework is based on parallel computing principles, and its real-time operational feasibility was realized on a six-GPU (graphics processing unit) platform with 3,072 computing cores. This framework was used to form images with synthetic aperture imaging data acquired from swine eyes (based on virtual point-source emissions). Results indicate that MV-apodized image formation with video-range processing throughput (>20 fps) can be realized for practical aperture sizes (128 channels) and frames with λ/2 pixel spacing. Also, in a corneal wound detection experiment, MV-apodized images generated using our framework revealed apparent contrast enhancement of the wound site (10.8 dB with respect to synthetic aperture images formed with fixed apodization). These findings indicate that GPU-based MV beamforming can, in real time, potentially enhance image quality when performing synthetic aperture imaging that uses unfocused firings. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Health care in small prisons: incorporating high-quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Casillas, Alejandra; Mary, Gérard; Secretan, Anne-Dominique; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the past, health management in Geneva's six post-trial prisons had been variable and inconsistent. In 2008, the unit of penitentiary medicine of the Geneva University Hospitals was mandated to re-organize and provide health care at all six prison facilities. The specific aim of this paper is to outline the example as a practical solution to some of the common challenges in unifying the structure and process of health services across multiple small facilities, while meeting European prison health and local quality standards. Geneva's post-trial prisons are small and close to one another in geographical proximity - ideal conditions for the construction of a health mobile team (HMT). This multidisciplinary mobile team operated like a community ambulatory care model; it was progressively launched in all prison facilities in Geneva. The authors incorporated an implementation strategy where health providers partnered with prison and community stakeholders in the health delivery model's development and adaption process. The model's strategic initiatives are described along the following areas, in light of other international prison health activity and prior care models: access to a health care professional, equivalence of care, patient consent, confidentiality, humanitarian interventions, and professional competence and independence. From the perspective of the HMT members, the authors provide the "lessons learned" through this experience, especially to providers who are working on prison health services reform and coordination improvement. The paper particularly stresses the importance of partnering with community health stakeholders and prison staff, a key component to the approach.

  6. Engineering Ecosystems and Synthetic Ecologies#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Michael T; Wang, Harris H

    2012-01-01

    Microbial ecosystems play an important role in nature. Engineering these systems for industrial, medical, or biotechnological purposes are important pursuits for synthetic biologists and biological engineers moving forward. Here, we provide a review of recent progress in engineering natural and synthetic microbial ecosystems. We highlight important forward engineering design principles, theoretical and quantitative models, new experimental and manipulation tools, and possible applications of microbial ecosystem engineering. We argue that simply engineering individual microbes will lead to fragile homogenous populations that are difficult to sustain, especially in highly heterogeneous and unpredictable environments. Instead, engineered microbial ecosystems are likely to be more robust and able to achieve complex tasks at the spatial and temporal resolution needed for truly programmable biology. PMID:22722235

  7. Synthetic microbial ecosystems for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Noirel, Josselin

    2014-06-01

    Most highly controlled and specific applications of microorganisms in biotechnology involve pure cultures. Maintaining single strain cultures is important for industry as contaminants can reduce productivity and lead to longer "down-times" during sterilisation. However, microbes working together provide distinct advantages over pure cultures. They can undertake more metabolically complex tasks, improve efficiency and even expand applications to open systems. By combining rapidly advancing technologies with ecological theory, the use of microbial ecosystems in biotechnology will inevitably increase. This review provides insight into the use of synthetic microbial communities in biotechnology by applying the engineering paradigm of measure, model, manipulate and manufacture, and illustrate the emerging wider potential of the synthetic ecology field. Systems to improve biofuel production using microalgae are also discussed.

  8. Droplet microfluidics for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Philip C; Iwai, Kosuke; Kim, Peter W; Hillson, Nathan J; Singh, Anup K

    2017-10-11

    Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to engineer biological systems for useful purposes. Organism engineering often requires the optimization of individual genes and/or entire biological pathways (consisting of multiple genes). Advances in DNA sequencing and synthesis have recently begun to enable the possibility of evaluating thousands of gene variants and hundreds of thousands of gene combinations. However, such large-scale optimization experiments remain cost-prohibitive to researchers following traditional molecular biology practices, which are frequently labor-intensive and suffer from poor reproducibility. Liquid handling robotics may reduce labor and improve reproducibility, but are themselves expensive and thus inaccessible to most researchers. Microfluidic platforms offer a lower entry price point alternative to robotics, and maintain high throughput and reproducibility while further reducing operating costs through diminished reagent volume requirements. Droplet microfluidics have shown exceptional promise for synthetic biology experiments, including DNA assembly, transformation/transfection, culturing, cell sorting, phenotypic assays, artificial cells and genetic circuits.

  9. Time-frequency analysis of synthetic aperture radar signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Brooks [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has become an important tool for remote sensing of the environment. SAR is a set of digital signal processing algorithms that are used to focus the signal returned to the radar because radar systems in themselves cannot produce the high resolution images required in remote sensing applications. To reconstruct an image, several parameters must be estimated and the quality of output image depends on the degree of accuracy of these parameters. In this thesis, we derive the fundamental SAR algorithms and concentrate on the estimation of one of its critical parameters. We show that the common technique for estimating this particular parameter can sometimes lead to erroneous results and reduced quality images. We also employ time-frequency analysis techniques to examine variations in the radar signals caused by platform motion and show how these results can be used to improve output image quality.

  10. The influence of knowledge management implementation toward the quality of high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Ainissyifa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of knowledge management implementation toward the quality of high schools. This study was conducted among five high schools under an education foundation. The analysis models used in the study were correlation analysis and t-test. The respondents were used as the profession references are 86 teachers. The result of the study shows that knowledge management implementation has a positive and significant influence toward the quality of high schools.

  11. Estimating the number of available high quality recruits at a county level

    OpenAIRE

    Duening, Timothy J

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Whether or not a person is available to be recruited is essentially determined by two factors. First, the person has to be desirable to the military in terms of meeting the entry screens. Desirable, as defined by the military, is a person of high quality. The high quality market is defined as high school graduates scoring above the Both percentile on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). The second factor is determined by the ind...

  12. Effects of oxidized corn oil and a synthetic antioxidant blend on performance, oxidative status of tissues, and fresh meat quality in finishing barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, D D; Fernández-Dueñas, D M; Kutzler, L W; Zhao, J; Harrell, R J; Campion, D R; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J; Dilger, A C

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding oxidized corn oil with or without a dietary antioxidant (AOX) on performance, tissue oxidative status, and meat quality in barrows. One hundred sixty barrows were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial of treatments in a complete randomized block design with 8 pens per treatment and 5 pigs per pen. Diets contained 5.0 mg/kg of 1 of 2 types of corn oil (fresh or oxidized) with or without antioxidant. Final oxidized oil was produced in a heated container by continuously bubbling air heated to 95°C at a rate of 80 L/min to reach a target peroxide value of approximately 150 and 7.5 mEq/kg in the final diet. After 56 d, barrows fed diets formulated with fresh oil had increased ADG (P = 0.03) and ADFI (P = 0.04) and heavier final BW (P = 0.03) than barrows fed oxidized oil. Increased G:F (P = 0.07) was observed for barrows fed diets with AOX after 28 d of feeding but not after 56 d of feeding (P = 0.67) when compared with barrows not fed AOX. An increase (P = 0.06) in plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values, a decrease (P = 0.03) in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activity, and a decrease (P = 0.01) in liver vitamin E concentrations were observed in barrows fed diets with oxidized oil. Dietary AOX reduced plasma protein carbonyl content regardless of oil type (P = 0.04). Barrows fed fresh oil had 4.4% heavier HCW (P = 0.01) and 0.7 percentage units increase in dressing percentage (P = 0.01) compared with barrows fed oxidized oil. Loin TBARS values from barrows fed AOX were lower (P negative effects of oxidized oil in finishing pigs by reducing protein oxidation and improving shelf life.

  13. Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xiongying; Sardana, Ravinder; Kaplan, Harvey; Altosaar, Illimar

    1998-01-01

    Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and β-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the m...

  14. Bust economics: foragers choose high quality habitats in lean times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny S. Bleicher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In environments where food resources are spatially variable and temporarily impoverished, consumers that encounter habitat patches with different food density should focus their foraging initially where food density is highest before they move to patches where food density is lower. Increasing missed opportunity costs should drive individuals progressively to patches with lower food density as resources in the initially high food density patches deplete. To test these expectations, we assessed the foraging decisions of two species of dasyurid marsupials (dunnarts: Sminthopsis hirtipes and S. youngsoni during a deep drought, or bust period, in the Simpson Desert of central Australia. Dunnarts were allowed access to three patches containing different food densities using an interview chamber experiment. Both species exhibited clear preference for the high density over the lower food density patches as measured in total harvested resources. Similarly, when measuring the proportion of resources harvested within the patches, we observed a marginal preference for patches with initially high densities. Models analyzing behavioral choices at the population level found no differences in behavior between the two species, but models analyzing choices at the individual level uncovered some variation. We conclude that dunnarts can distinguish between habitat patches with different densities of food and preferentially exploit the most valuable. As our observations were made during bust conditions, experiments should be repeated during boom times to assess the foraging economics of dunnarts when environmental resources are high.

  15. Nonparametric control charts for bivariate high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    For attribute data with (very) low rates of defectives, attractive control charts can be based on the maximum of subsequent groups of r failure times, for some suitable r≥1, like r=5. Such charts combine good performance with often highly needed robustness, as they allow a nonparametric adaptation

  16. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    2010). The vulnerability of the developing countries like Nigeria is worsened by ... unpredictable yields, thereby making farmers more vulnerable, particularly in Africa ..... or build resilience .488 .400 .009 -.041 .212 -.296 .337. High cost of improved varieties .175 .124 .862 .082 .086 .053 -.045. Non-availability of farm labour.

  17. Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakshane, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives.

  18. Spin Transport in High-Quality Suspended Graphene Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimaraes, Marcos H. D.; Veligura, A.; Zomer, P. J.; Maassen, T.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Tombros, N.; van Arees, B. J.; Wees, B.J. van

    We measure spin transport in high mobility suspended graphene (mu approximate to 10(5)cm(2)/(V s)), obtaining a (spin) diffusion coefficient of 0.1 m(2)/s and giving a lower bound on the spin relaxation time (tau(s) approximate to 150 ps) and spin relaxation length (lambda(s) = 4.7 mu m) for

  19. Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakshane, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. High cortisol levels are associated with low quality food choice in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Michelle; Cohen, Jessica I; Convit, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis control may be impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucocorticoids increase consumption of low quality foods high in calories, sugar, and fat. We explored the relationship between cortisol levels, poor blood glucose control, and food quality choice in T2DM. Twenty-seven healthy controls were age-, gender- and education-matched to 27 T2DM participants. Standard clinical blood tests and cortisol values were measured from fasting blood samples. Participants recorded all consumed food and drink items in a consecutive 3-day food diary. Diaries were analyzed for "high quality" and "low quality" foods using a standardized method with high reliability (0.97 and 0.86, respectively). Controlling for education, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), log-transformed cortisol (LogC) predicted the percent of low quality foods (R (2) = 0.092, β = 0.360, P quality foods chosen. Controlling for education, BMI, and LogC, HbA1C significantly predicted both the percent of low quality foods (ΔR (2) = 0.079, β = 0.348, P = 0.024) and high quality foods chosen (ΔR (2) = 0.085, β = -0.362, P = 0.022). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be mediated by cortisol, controlling for BMI and education (P quality food choice (P quality food choice may be partially mediated by cortisol. Poor blood glucose control may cause HPA axis disruption, increased consumption of low quality foods.

  1. A high-quality catalog of the Drosophila melanogaster proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Erich; Ahrens, Christian H.; Mohanty, Sonaly

    2007-01-01

    % of the predicted Drosophila melanogaster proteome by detecting 9,124 proteins from 498,000 redundant and 72,281 distinct peptide identifications. This unprecedented high proteome coverage for a complex eukaryote was achieved by combining sample diversity, multidimensional biochemical fractionation and analysis...... matching approximately 50% of D. melanogaster gene models. This library of proteotypic peptides should enable fast, targeted and quantitative proteomic studies to elucidate the systems biology of this model organism....

  2. Self-regulation and quality of life in high-functioning young adults with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuis, R.R.; Ziermans, T.B.; Rijn, S. Van; Staal, W.G.; Swaab, H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autism is generally associated with poor functional outcome but little is known about predictors of quality of life, especially during early adulthood. This study was conducted to assess subjective quality of life during early adulthood in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and

  3. Representations of a High-Quality System of Undergraduate Education in English Higher Education Policy Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Paul; Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which a high-quality system of undergraduate education is represented in recent policy documents from a range of actors interested in higher education. Drawing on Basil Bernstein's ideas, the authors conceptualise the policy documents as reflecting a struggle over competing views of quality that are expressed…

  4. Hospital-wide education committees and high-quality residency training : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silkens, Milou E. W. M.; Slootweg, Irene A.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2017-01-01

    High-quality residency training is of utmost importance for residents to become competent medical specialists. Hospital-wide education committees have been adopted by several healthcare systems to govern postgraduate medical education and to support continuous quality improvement of residency

  5. Self-Regulation and Quality of Life in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuis, Renee R.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Van Rijn, Sophie; Staal, Wouter G.; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism is generally associated with poor functional outcome but little is known about predictors of quality of life, especially during early adulthood. This study was conducted to assess subjective quality of life during early adulthood in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and its relation with self-regulating abilities.…

  6. The Relationship between Quality of Life and Eating Attitudes in Turkish High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between quality of life and eating attitudes of adolescents. This study was designed as a correlational study. Participants were 640 voluntarily participating 15-18 years old students studying at public high schools in Samsun, Turkey. Data was collected with the Quality of Life Scale for…

  7. High pulse energy, high beam quality microsecond-pulse Ti:sapphire laser at 819.7 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Guo, Chuan; Yu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Xia, Yuan-Qin; Bian, Qi; Bo, Yong; Gao, Hong-Wei; Guo, Ya-Ding; Zhang, Sheng; Cui, Da-Fu; Peng, Qin-Jun; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2017-03-01

    In this letter, a high pulse energy and high beam quality 819.7 nm Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. At incident pump energy of 774 mJ, the maximum output energy of 89 mJ at 819.7 nm with a pulse width of 100 μs is achieved at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy at 819.7 nm with pulse width of hundred microseconds for a Ti:sapphire laser. The beam quality factor M 2 is measured to be 1.18. This specific wavelength with the high pulse energy and high beam quality at 819.7 nm is a promising light source to create a polychromatic laser guide star together with a home-made 589 nm laser via exciting the sodium atoms in the mesospheric atmosphere.

  8. High-quality fuel from food waste - investigation of a stepwise process from the perspective of technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Li, Ling; Giannis, Apostolos; Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Ng, Bernard J H; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    A stepwise process (SP) was developed for sustainable energy production from food waste (FW). The process comprised of hydrothermal treatment followed by oil upgrading. Synthetic food waste was primarily used as feedstock in the hydrothermal reactor under subcritical water conditions. The produced hydrochars were analyzed for calorific value (17.0-33.7 MJ/kg) and elemental composition indicating high-quality fuel comparable to coal. Hydrothermal carbonization (e.g. 180°C) would be efficient for oil recovery (>90%) from FW, as compared to hydrothermal liquefaction (320°C) whereby lipid degradation may take place. The recovered oil was upgraded to biodiesel in a catalytic refinery process. Selected biodiesels, that is, B3 and B4 were characterized for density (872.7 and 895.5 kg/m3), kinematic viscosity (3.115 and 8.243 cSt), flash and pour point (30°C and >126°C), micro carbon (0.03% and 0.04%), sulfur (both biofuel and hydrochar production.

  9. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  10. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    During the past seven years, the DREAM collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development ${(dual}$ ${readout}$), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contirbutions of nuclear evaporation neutrons to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in "invisible energy". We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrat...

  11. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wigmans, R

    2010-01-01

    During the past seven years, the DREAM Collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development (dual readout), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event and their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contributions of nuclear evaporation to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in “invisible energy”. We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrated with e...

  12. A Comprehensive, High-Quality Orthopedic Intern Surgical Skills Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Samuel E; Patt, Joshua C; Scannell, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    To design and implement a month-long, low-cost, comprehensive surgical skills curriculum built to address the needs of orthopedic surgery interns with high satisfaction among both interns and faculty. The study design was retrospective and descriptive. The study was conducted at tertiary care referral center with a medium sized orthopedic residency surgery program (5 residents/year). Totally 5 orthopedic surgery residents and 16 orthopedic surgery faculty participated. A general mission was established-to orient the resident to the postgraduate year 1 and prepare them for success in residency. The basic tenets of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons surgical skills program framework were built. Curricular additions included anatomic study, surgical approaches, joint-specific physical examination, radiographic interpretation, preoperative planning, reduction techniques, basic emergency and operating room procedures, cadaveric procedure practice, and introduction to arthroplasty. The program was held in August during protected time for intern participants. In total, 16 orthopedic surgeons instructed 85% of the educational sessions. One faculty member did most of the preparation and organization to facilitate the program. The program ran for a cumulative 89 hours, including 14.5 hours working with cadaveric specimens. The program cost a total of $8100. The average module received a 4.15 rating on a 5-point scale, with 4 representing "good" and 5 representing "excellent." The program was appropriately timed and addressed topics relevant to the intern without sacrificing clinical experience or burdening inpatient services with interns' absence. The program received high satisfaction ratings from both the interns as well as the faculty. Additionally, the program fostered early relationships between interns and faculty-an unforeseen benefit. In the future, our program plans to better integrate validated learning metrics and improve instruction pertaining to both

  13. New lighting for the design of high quality biomedical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Claudia B.; Jaffe, Steven M.; Conner, Arlie R.

    2009-02-01

    Among the trends redefining 21st century biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics are the advent of low-cost portable analyzers. Because light is a powerful tool in many of today's most widely used life science instruments, high intensity, low cost light engines are essential to the design and proliferation of the newest bioanalytical instruments, medical devices and miniaturized analyzers. The development of new light technology represents a critical technical hurdle in the realization of point-of-care analysis. Lumencor has developed an inexpensive lighting solution, uniquely well suited to the production of safe, effective and commercially viable life science tools and biomedical devices. Lumencor's proprietary, solid-state light engine provides powerful, pure, stable, inexpensive light across the UV-Vis- NIR. Light engines are designed to directly replace the entire configuration of light management components with a single, simple unit. Power, spectral breadth and purity, stability and reliability data will demonstrate the advantages of these light engines for today's bioanalytical needs. Performance and cost analyses will be compared to traditional optical subsystems based on lamps, lasers and LEDs with respect to their suitability as sources for biomedical applications, implementation for development/evaluation of novel measurement tools and overall superior reliability. Next generation products based on such sources will be described to fulfill the demand for portable, hand-held analyzers and affordable devices with highly integrated light sources. A four color violet/cyan/green/red product will be demonstrated. A variety of multicolor prototypes, their spectral outputs and facile modulation will be discussed and their performance capabilities disclosed.

  14. EXPERT-ANALITICAL MONITORING OF LEARNING PROCESS QUALITY IN HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Korotun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The technological model is proposed for monitoring process of learning process quality in high school compliant with current European and home standards. The mathematical methods are elaborated for diverse activities as to learning process objects quality determination unified support. They self-consistently combine: automatic expert evaluation with Bayesian net and Value tree models; Delphi technique enhancement; best practices for education quality assessment. Quality estimates’ consistency index is introduced for their choice and acceptability analysis. Its permanent increasing over monitoring stages is guaranteed. The tools for these stages’ automatic support are described.

  15. Human capital, percieved domestic institutional quality and entrepreneurship among highly skilled Chinese returnees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Yue; Miao, Qi; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    aimed at assisting returnee entrepreneurs. Based on a survey of Chinese returnees and returnee entrepreneurship from 2011 to 2012, this paper examines how human capital and perceptions of domestic institutional quality affect entrepreneurial activity among highly skilled returnees. We find...

  16. The Institute of Medicine report on high-quality cancer care: implications for oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Betty; McCabe, Mary S; Levit, Laura

    2013-11-01

    To present key recommendations from a recently released Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on high-quality cancer care. The recommendations were derived from the IOM report Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis. The authors reviewed each of the recommendations to identify implications for oncology nurses. Nurses will play a vital role in the future design and delivery of high-quality cancer care. Oncology nurses should use the IOM recommendations in their settings to prepare for the delivery of oncology care amidst health system challenges, including an aging society. The IOM recommendations identify key areas of concern to nurses. Key aspects of nursing practice, including involvement in advanced care planning, patient-centered care, and evidence-based practice, are essential for high-quality care. Oncology nurses will be centrally involved in healthcare innovations, such as rapid learning systems, and as key members of a well-trained workforce.

  17. High-quality real-time temporal segmentation tool for video editing software

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Rodríguez, Carlos; García Santos, Narciso

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of video editing software has resulted in a necessity for faster and more efficient editing tools. Here, we propose a lightweight high-quality video indexing tool that is suitable for video editing software.

  18. Diode pumped 1kHz high power Nd:YAG laser with excellent beam quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godfried, Herman; Godfried, H.P; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    1997-01-01

    The design and operation of a one kilohertz diode pumped all solid-state Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system with a phase conjugate mirror is presented. The setup allows high power scaling without reduction in beam quality.

  19. Egg Quality Traits and their Repeatability Estimates in High and Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg Quality Traits and their Repeatability Estimates in High and Low Body Weight Lines of Crossbred normal Feather, Naked Neck and Frizzle Chicken. ... Shell thickness was not significantly different in both body weight lines, while yolk index ...

  20. Recycle food wastes into high quality fish feeds for safe and quality fish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Hung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Choi, Wai-Ming; Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu-Bon

    2016-12-01

    The amount of food waste generated from modern societies is increasing, which has imposed a tremendous pressure on its treatment and disposal. Food waste should be treated as a valuable resource rather than waste, and turning it into fish feeds would be a viable alternative. This paper attempts to review the feasibility of using food waste to formulate feed pellets to culture a few freshwater fish species, such as grass carp, grey mullet, and tilapia, under polyculture mode (growing different species in the same pond). These species occupy different ecological niches, with different feeding modes (i.e., herbivorous, filter feeding, etc.), and therefore all the nutrients derived from the food waste could be efficiently recycled within the ecosystem. The problems facing environmental pollution and fish contamination; the past and present situation of inland fish culture (focusing on South China); upgrade of food waste based feed pellets by adding enzymes, vitamin-mineral premix, probiotics (yeast), prebiotics, and Chinese medicinal herbs into feeds; and potential health risks of fish cultivated by food waste based pellets are discussed, citing some local examples. It can be concluded that appropriate portions of different types of food waste could satisfy basic nutritional requirements of lower trophic level fish species such as grass carp and tilapia. Upgrading the fish pellets by adding different supplements mentioned above could further elevated the quality of feeds, leading to higher growth rates, and enhanced immunity of fish. Health risk assessments based on the major environmental contaminants (mercury, PAHs and DDTs) in fish flesh showed that fish fed food waste based pellets are safer for consumption, when compared with those fed commercial feed pellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-quality thorium TRISO fuel performance in HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Nabielek, Heinz; Kania, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    Thorium as a nuclear fuel has received renewed interest, because of its widespread availability and the good irradiation performance of Th and mixed (Th,U) oxide compounds as fuels in nuclear power systems. Early HTGR development employed thorium together with high-enriched uranium (HEU). After 1980, HTGR fuel systems switched to low-enriched uranium (LEU). After completing fuel development for the AVR and the THTR with BISO coated particles, the German program expanded its efforts utilizing thorium and HEU TRISO coated particles in advanced HTGR concepts for process heat applications (PNP) and direct-cycle electricity production (HHT). The combination of a low-temperature isotropic (LTI) inner and outer pyrocarbon layers surrounding a strong, stable SiC layer greatly improved manufacturing conditions and the subsequent contamination and defective particle fractions in production fuel elements. In addition, this combination provided improved mechanical strength and a higher degree of solid fission product retention, not known previously with high-temperature isotropic (HTI) BISO coatings. The improved performance of the HEU (Th, U)O{sub 2} TRISO fuel system was successfully demonstrated in three primary areas of development: manufacturing, irradiation testing under normal operating conditions, and accident simulation testing. In terms of demonstrating performance for advanced HTGR applications, the experimental failure statistic from manufacture and irradiation testing are significantly below the coated particle requirements specified for PNP and HHT designs at the time. Covering a range to 1300 C in normal operations and 1600 C in accidents, with burnups to 13% FIMA and fast fluences to 8 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E> 16 fJ), the performance results exceed the design limits on manufacturing and operational requirements for the German HTR-Modul concept, which are 6.5 x 10{sup -5} for manufacturing, 2 x 10{sup -4} for normal operating conditions, and 5 x 10{sup -4

  2. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume outlines key steps associated with the design, building, and testing of synthetic metabolic pathways for optimal cell factory performance and robustness, and illustrates how data-driven learning from these steps can be used for rational cost-effective engineering of cell factories...... topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  3. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  4. Bacteriophage-insensitive mutants for high quality Crescenza manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella eChirico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used as starter culture for the manufacture of fermented dairy products. For the production of Crescenza and other soft cheeses, Sacco has developed and provides dairies with 3 different defined blends of S. thermophilus strains. Each blend contains 2 different S. thermophilus strains. The strains were selected based on their unique technological properties as well as different phage profiles. Analysis of 133 whey samples collected in 2009-2010 from Italian dairies showed a high prevalence (about 50% of bacteriophage attacks on the blend ST020. More specifically, the strain S. thermophilus ST1A was found to be the preferred target of the bacteriophages. A bacteriophage insensitive mutant (BIM5 of the phage-sensitive strain ST1A was successfully developed and used to substitute strain ST1A in the Crescenza starter culture ST020. The strain BIM5 showed identical technological and industrial traits as those of the phage-sensitive strain ST1A. The improved resistance of the modified Crescenza starter culture ST020R was confirmed at Italian dairies, and its effectiveness monitored on 122 whey samples collected in 2011-2012. Compared to the previous values (2009-2010, the use of the phage-hardened blend ST020R allowed reducing of frequency of phage attacks from about 50 to less than 5% of the whey samples investigated.

  5. Bacteriophage-insensitive mutants for high quality Crescenza manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Donatella; Gorla, Arianna; Verga, Viola; Pedersen, Per D; Polgatti, Eliseo; Cava, Antonio; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used as starter culture for the manufacture of fermented dairy products. For the production of Crescenza and other soft cheeses, Sacco has developed and provides dairies with three different defined blends of S. thermophilus strains. Each blend contains two different S. thermophilus strains. The strains were selected based on their unique technological properties as well as different phage profiles. Analysis of 133 whey samples collected in 2009-2010 from Italian dairies showed a high prevalence (about 50%) of bacteriophage attacks on the blend ST020. More specifically, the strain S. thermophilus ST1A was found to be the preferred target of the bacteriophages. A bacteriophage insensitive mutant (BIM5) of the phage-sensitive strain ST1A was successfully developed and used to substitute strain ST1A in the Crescenza starter culture ST020. The strain BIM5 showed identical technological and industrial traits as those of the phage-sensitive strain ST1A. The improved resistance of the modified Crescenza starter culture ST020R was confirmed at Italian dairies, and its effectiveness monitored on 122 whey samples collected in 2011-2012. Compared to the previous values (2009-2010), the use of the phage-hardened blend ST020R allowed reducing of frequency of phage attacks from about 50 to less than 5% of the whey samples investigated.

  6. Modeling the subjective quality of highly contrasted videos displayed on LCD with local backlight dimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard

    2015-02-01

    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage), and a contrast measure. The second analysis shows that modeling of leakage is necessary for objective quality assessment of sequences displayed with local backlight dimming.

  7. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use.

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Ekaterina S.; Trudeau, Linda S.; Richard Spoth

    2012-01-01

    The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ) during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to e...

  8. Impact of drilled shaft synthetic slurries on groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of the aforementioned synthetic slurries on groundwater quality. The objective of Phase I (this report), however, was to conduct a comprehensive literature survey to gather data to evalu...

  9. DESCQA: An Automated Validation Framework for Synthetic Sky Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Kovacs, Eve; Heitmann, Katrin; Uram, Thomas D.; Benson, Andrew J.; Campbell, Duncan; Cora, Sofía A.; DeRose, Joseph; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Habib, Salman; Hearin, Andrew P.; Bryce Kalmbach, J.; Krughoff, K. Simon; Lanusse, François; Lukić, Zarija; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Padilla, Nelson; Paillas, Enrique; Pope, Adrian; Ricker, Paul M.; Ruiz, Andrés N.; Tenneti, Ananth; Vega-Martínez, Cristian A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Zhou, Rongpu; Zu, Ying; The LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The use of high-quality simulated sky catalogs is essential for the success of cosmological surveys. The catalogs have diverse applications, such as investigating signatures of fundamental physics in cosmological observables, understanding the effect of systematic uncertainties on measured signals and testing mitigation strategies for reducing these uncertainties, aiding analysis pipeline development and testing, and survey strategy optimization. The list of applications is growing with improvements in the quality of the catalogs and the details that they can provide. Given the importance of simulated catalogs, it is critical to provide rigorous validation protocols that enable both catalog providers and users to assess the quality of the catalogs in a straightforward and comprehensive way. For this purpose, we have developed the DESCQA framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Dark Energy Science Collaboration as well as for the broader community. The goal of DESCQA is to enable the inspection, validation, and comparison of an inhomogeneous set of synthetic catalogs via the provision of a common interface within an automated framework. In this paper, we present the design concept and first implementation of DESCQA. In order to establish and demonstrate its full functionality we use a set of interim catalogs and validation tests. We highlight several important aspects, both technical and scientific, that require thoughtful consideration when designing a validation framework, including validation metrics and how these metrics impose requirements on the synthetic sky catalogs.

  10. Synthetic Protein Switches: Theoretical and Experimental Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic protein switches with tailored response functions are finding increasing applications as tools in basic research and biotechnology. With a number of successful design strategies emerging, the construction of synthetic protein switches still frequently necessitates an integrated approach that combines detailed biochemical and biophysical characterization in combination with high-throughput screening to construct tailored synthetic protein switches. This is increasingly complemented by computational strategies that aim to reduce the need for costly empirical optimization and thus facilitate the protein design process. Successful computational design approaches range from analyzing phylogenetic data to infer useful structural, biophysical, and biochemical information to modeling the structure and function of proteins ab initio. The following chapter provides an overview over the theoretical considerations and experimental approaches that have been successful applied in the construction of synthetic protein switches.

  11. High quality factor multi-layer symmetric hybrid plasmonic microresonator for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wu, Genzhu

    2017-11-01

    A multi-layer symmetric hybrid plasmonic microresonator with two high-index dielectric microrings symmetrically near the metallic structure is proposed. Benefiting from introducing two dielectric rings near the metal, the multi-layer hybrid plasmonic microresonator has a high quality factor about 10,000, while still capable of retaining a small mode volume around 1 . 27 μm3. As a potential application, the symmetric hybrid microresonator with air-filled gap regions could be used for sensing with a sensitivity high of 210 nm per refraction index unit, a large figure of merit of 1319 due to the high quality factor.

  12. Target Area Extension in Synthetic Aperture Array Signal Processing for High-Frame-Rate Estimate of Two-Dimensional Motion Vector In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shin-ichi; Yokoyama, Ryouta; Tamura, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masakazu

    2011-07-01

    A strategic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along a flight path has been developed including a potential extensibility in a wide-range target area and an excellent spatial resolution by utilizing two-way range stacking, matched filtering, and chirp signal transmission. For the simultaneous ultrahigh-frame-rate ultrasonic imaging of microdynamics in a living tissue, a one-way synthetic aperture array processing of a real-time-received two-dimensional (2D) echo signal followed by a successive transmission is indispensable, in which the range stacking in SAR should be modified toward the pulsed ultrasonic irradiation generated by the array transducer. Therefore, the modification of the range stacking was proposed for pulsed radiation from a flexible point ultrasonic source. Firstly, a one-way receiving range stacking algorithm was described in a spatiotemporal frequency domain, and it was consequently extended to account for the forward-range- and cross-range-dependent time delay of the 2D echo signal in each range bin for the reconstruction of the target area. The overall system performance for the linear array transducer having 256 elements with a 3.0 MHz center frequency and a 0.25 mm pitch was verified for the reconstructed images in a numerical simulation and a hardware experiment.

  13. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074806777

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  14. A comprehensive library-based, automated screening procedure for 46 synthetic cannabinoids in serum employing liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry with high-temperature electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Laura M; Kneisel, Stefan; Auwärter, Volker; Kempf, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Considering the vast variety of synthetic cannabinoids and herbal mixtures - commonly known as 'Spice' or 'K2' - on the market and the resulting increase of severe intoxications related to their consumption, there is a need in clinical and forensic toxicology for comprehensive up-to-date screening methods. The focus of this project aimed at developing and implementing an automated screening procedure for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids in serum using a liquid chromatography-ion trap-MS (LC-MS(n)) system and a spectra library-based approach, currently including 46 synthetic cannabinoids and 8 isotope labelled analogues. In the process of method development, a high-temperature ESI source (IonBooster(TM), Bruker Daltonik) and its effects on the ionization efficiency of the investigated synthetic cannabinoids were evaluated and compared to a conventional ESI source. Despite their structural diversity, all investigated synthetic cannabinoids benefitted from high-temperature ionization by showing remarkably higher MS intensities compared to conventional ESI. The employed search algorithm matches retention time, MS and MS(2)/MS(3) spectra. With the utilization of the ionBooster source, limits for the automated detection comparable to cut-off values of routine MRM methods were achieved for the majority of analytes. Even compounds not identified when using a conventional ESI source were detected using the ionBooster-source. LODs in serum range from 0.1 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml. The use of parent compounds as analytical targets offers the possibility of instantly adding new emerging compounds to the library and immediately applying the updated method to serum samples, allowing the rapid adaptation of the screening method to ongoing forensic or clinical requirements. The presented approach can also be applied to other specimens, such as oral fluid or hair, and herbal mixtures and was successfully applied to authentic serum samples. Quantitative MRM results of samples with

  15. High Quality RNA Isolation from Leaf, Shell, Root Tissues and Callus of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khosravi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of high quality RNA is a critical step in molecular genetics studies. Hazelnut is one of the most important nuts plants in the world. The presence of the taxol and other taxanes in hazelnut plant necessitates explaining their biosynthesis pathway and identifying the candidate genes. Therefore, an easy and practical method is necessary for RNA extraction from hazelnuts. Hazelnut has high levels of phenolic compounds. High amounts of polyphenolic and polysaccharide compounds in plants could be causing problems in RNA extraction procedures.  To avoid these problems, a simple and efficient method can be used based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB extraction buffer and lithium chloride for extraction of high quality RNA from different parts of hazelnut plant. Using this method, a high-quality RNA sample (light absorbed in the A260/A280 was 2.04

  16. Isolation of high quality RNA from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) and other woody plants high in secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Rajaei, Saideh; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The quality and quantity of RNA are critical for successful downstream transcriptome-based studies such as microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA isolation from woody plants, such as Pistacia vera, with very high amounts of polyphenols and polysaccharides is an enormous challenge. Here, we describe a highly efficient protocol that overcomes the limitations posed by poor quality and low yield of isolated RNA from pistachio and various recalcitrant woody plants. The key factors that resulted in a yield of 150 μg of high quality RNA per 200 mg of plant tissue include the elimination of phenol from the extraction buffer, raising the concentration of β-mercaptoethanol, long time incubation at 65 °C, and nucleic acid precipitation with optimized volume of NaCl and isopropyl alcohol. Also, the A260/A280 and A260/A230 of extracted RNA were about 1.9-2.1and 2.2-2.3, respectively, revealing the high purity. Since the isolated RNA passed highly stringent quality control standards for sensitive reactions, including RNA sequencing and real-time PCR, it can be considered as a reliable and cost-effective method for RNA extraction from woody plants.

  17. Quality metrics for high order meshes: analysis of the mechanical simulation of the heart beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamata, Pablo; Roy, Ishani; Blazevic, Bojan; Crozier, Andrew; Land, Sander; Niederer, Steven A; Hose, D Rod; Smith, Nicolas P

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a computational mesh is an important characteristic for stable and accurate simulations. Quality depends on the regularity of the initial mesh, and in mechanical simulations it evolves in time, with deformations causing changes in volume and distortion of mesh elements. Mesh quality metrics are therefore relevant for both mesh personalization and the monitoring of the simulation process. This work evaluates the significance, in meshes with high order interpolation, of four quality metrics described in the literature, applying them to analyse the stability of the simulation of the heart beat. It also investigates how image registration and mesh warping parameters affect the quality and stability of meshes. Jacobian-based metrics outperformed or matched the results of coarse geometrical metrics of aspect ratio or orthogonality, although they are more expensive computationally. The stability of simulations of a complete heart cycle was best predicted with a specificity of 61%, sensitivity of 85%, and only nominal differences were found changing the intra-element and per-element combination of quality values. A compromise between fitting accuracy and mesh stability and quality was found. Generic geometrical quality metrics have a limited success predicting stability, and an analysis of the simulation problem may be required for an optimal definition of quality.

  18. Temporal vairations in water quality of the Ogallala Aquifer on the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.; Stout, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ogallala Aquifer, under eight States of the Great Plains of US, from Texas to South Dakota, is among the largest aquifers in the world. In some regions, extraction of water for urban and agricultural uses far exceeds recharge resulting in a decline of the water table. In the southern region of the Texas High Plains (THP) this decline prompted restrictions set by a local water conservation agency in 2009 stating that in 50 years about 50% of the saturated thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer should be preserved. However, this restriction only addressed quantity and not the quality of the remaining water. In general, the quality of water being mined from an aquifer tends to change over time, leading us to measure changes in water quality over the length of a crop's growing season in the THP. We measured water quality including: EC, pH, and ion analysis, at several locations covering 5 counties in the THP. Preliminary results show that when wells are actively pumped water quality can change in complex and unpredictable ways. In some cases, water quality declines and in others water quality improves. This result encouraged us to expand and continue to measure changes in ground water quality and develop a model to quantify changes in water quality.

  19. Bullying as a risk for poor sleep quality among high school students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ci-yong; Deng, Jian-xiong; He, Yuan; Huang, Jing-hui; Huang, Guo-liang; Deng, Xue-qing; Gao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality. Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66%) reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91%) were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68%) were bullies and 784 (3.28%) were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others) was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32), bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86) or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03) were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents.

  20. Bullying as a Risk for Poor Sleep Quality among High School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ci-yong; Deng, Jian-xiong; Huang, Jing-hui; Huang, Guo-liang; Deng, Xue-qing; Gao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality. Results Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66%) reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91%) were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68%) were bullies and 784 (3.28%) were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others) was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32), bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86) or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03) were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents. PMID:25811479

  1. High yield and high quality DNA from vegetative and sexual tissues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pines are considered to be difficult for DNA extraction. However, from one species to the other there is variation in phenolic profiles and seed size that might affect final DNA yields and quality. Two DNA extraction protocols (CTAB and SDS based) were compared for their ability to produce DNA on leaves, gametophyte and ...

  2. Mining protein networks for synthetic genetic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local connectivity and global position of a protein in a protein interaction network are known to correlate with some of its functional properties, including its essentiality or dispensability. It is therefore of interest to extend this observation and examine whether network properties of two proteins considered simultaneously can determine their joint dispensability, i.e., their propensity for synthetic sick/lethal interaction. Accordingly, we examine the predictive power of protein interaction networks for synthetic genetic interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism in which high confidence protein interaction networks are available and synthetic sick/lethal gene pairs have been extensively identified. Results We design a support vector machine system that uses graph-theoretic properties of two proteins in a protein interaction network as input features for prediction of synthetic sick/lethal interactions. The system is trained on interacting and non-interacting gene pairs culled from large scale genetic screens as well as literature-curated data. We find that the method is capable of predicting synthetic genetic interactions with sensitivity and specificity both exceeding 85%. We further find that the prediction performance is reasonably robust with respect to errors in the protein interaction network and with respect to changes in the features of test datasets. Using the prediction system, we carried out novel predictions of synthetic sick/lethal gene pairs at a genome-wide scale. These pairs appear to have functional properties that are similar to those that characterize the known synthetic lethal gene pairs. Conclusion Our analysis shows that protein interaction networks can be used to predict synthetic lethal interactions with accuracies on par with or exceeding that of other computational methods that use a variety of input features, including functional annotations. This indicates that protein

  3. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Diego

    2016-08-05

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach.

  4. A green and facile hydrothermal approach for the synthesis of high-quality semi-conducting Sb2S3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Gong, Yongshuai; Li, Zhilin; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2016-11-01

    High-quality semi-conducting antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were directly deposited on the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by a green and facile one-step approach based on a hydrothermal reaction and post-annealing process without any assistance of complexing agents. The obtained Sb2S3 films possessed a relatively ideal S/Sb atomic ratio and a compact and continuous surface as the grain size of Sb2S3 was increased by high temperature annealing. The Sb2S3 film annealed at 450 °C exhibited the improved optical and electrical performances, with a narrow band gap of 1.63 eV, an electrical resistivity of 1.3 × 104 Ω cm, a carrier concentration of 7.3 × 1013 cm-3 and a carrier mobility of 6.4 cm2 V-1 s-1. This environmentally friendly synthetic route is promising for the preparation of high-quality Sb2S3 films to be used as absorber layer materials for high-performance solar cells.

  5. Towards a High Quality High School Workforce: A Longitudinal, Demographic Analysis of U.S. Public School Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Rosengrant, David; Dewar, Andrew; Shah, Lisa; Ray, Herman E.; Sheppard, Keith; Watanabe, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to improve the number and quality of the high school physics teaching workforce have taken several forms, including those sponsored by professional organizations. Using a series of large-scale teacher demographic data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this study sought to investigate trends in teacher quality…

  6. Combined microfluidization and ultrasonication: a synergistic protocol for high-efficient processing of SWCNT dispersions with high quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sida, E-mail: s.luo@buaa.edu.cn [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Liu, Tao, E-mail: tliu@fsu.edu [Florida State University, High-Performance Materials Institute (United States); Wang, Yong; Li, Liuhe [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Wang, Guantao; Luo, Yun [China University of Geosciences, Center of Safety Research, School of Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-08-15

    High-efficient and large-scale production of high-quality CNT dispersions is necessary for meeting the future needs to develop various CNT-based electronic devices. Herein, we have designed novel processing protocols by combining conventional ultrasonication process with a new microfluidization technique to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with improved processing efficiency. To judge the quality of SWCNT dispersions, one critical factor is the degree of exfoliation, which could be quantified by both geometrical dimension of the exfoliated nanotubes and percentage of individual tubes in a given dispersion. In this paper, the synergistic effect of the combined protocols was systematically investigated through evaluating SWCNT dispersions with newly developed characterization techniques, namely preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy (SRSPL). The results of both techniques draw similar conclusions that as compared with either of the processes operated separately, a low-pass microfluidization followed by a reasonable duration of ultrasonication could substantially improve the processing efficiency to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with averaged particle length and diameter as small as ~600 and ~2 nm, respectively.Graphical abstract.

  7. The effect of the amiodarone-warfarin interaction on anticoagulation quality in a single, high-quality anticoagulation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ryan D; Riggs, Kyle W; Ege, Ed J; Petroski, Gregory F; Koerber, Scott M; Flaker, Greg

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trials have reported a low time in therapeutic range (TTR) in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with both warfarin andamiodarone. These trials included centers and countries with both high and low TTRs. What is the impact of amiodarone on the TTR in a single, high-quality anticoagulation clinic? TTR was assessed in amiodarone and nonamiodarone-treated patients from a University anticoagulation clinic. Baseline characteristics between patients ever-taking or never-taking amiodarone were similar, except more amiodarone patients were smokers (19.5 vs. 6.1%, P = 0.0031). The TTR calculated from 8901international normalized ratios (INRs) in 249 nonamiodarone patients with a mean follow-up of 34 ± 20 months (mean INR 36 ± 18) was 66 ± 16.6% compared with 61.3 ± 16.2% (P = 0.111) from 1455 INRs in 41 amiodarone-treated patients with a mean follow-up of 28 ± 20 months (mean INR 35 ± 22). Factors associated with a low TTR were male sex (P = 0.0013), smoker (P = 0.0048), and amiodarone use (P = 0.0374). A second on-treatment analysis, in which the TTR was calculated only during amiodarone therapy, resulted in similar findings; however, amiodarone did not emerge as a predictor of a low TTR. In 11 patients, the TTR prior to amiodarone (54.5 ± 22.2%) was not significantly different in the first 3 months (54.6 ± 33.4%) or after 3 months (67.2 ± 33.7%) of amiodarone. In a single high-quality anticoagulation center, anticoagulation quality, as measured by the TTR, can be comparable in amiodarone and nonamiodarone-treated patients.

  8. Brisk walking to improve quality of life of high technology industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short periods of brisk walking on the quality of life (QOL) of workers in high technology industries. 86 workers were recruited from a high technology company in northern Taiwan who had not participated in regular physical activity within the last three months. They were ...

  9. The role of young, recently disturbed upland hardwood forest as high quality food patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Douglas J. Levey; John M. McCord

    2011-01-01

    Young (1-10 year post-disturbance) upland hardwood forests function as high-quality food patches by providing abundant fruit, and nutritious foliage and flowers that attract pollinating and foliar arthropods and support high populations of small mammals that, in turn, are prey for numerous vertebrate predators. Reductions in basal area increase light penetration to the...

  10. Grain yield and quality responses of tropical hybrid rice to high night-time temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, W.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Xie, F.; Schmidt, R.C.; Jagadish, K.S.V.

    2016-01-01

    High temperature has a pronounced effect on grain yield and quality in rice. Climate change has increased night temperature more than day temperature in many parts of the world. How rice responds to high night-time temperature (HNT) is largely unknown. This study presents the first effort to assess

  11. Effects of High School Students' Perceptions of School Life Quality on Their Academic Motivation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…

  12. The effect of tofacitinib on function and quality of life indicators in patients with rheumatoid arthritis resistant to synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in real clinical practice: Results of a multicenter observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Karateev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofacitinib (TOFA, a representative of a new class of targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (s-DMARD, is a promising drug for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA and other immune inflammatory diseases.Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of therapy with TOFA in combination with methotrexate (MTX and other s-DMARDs in real clinical practice in patients with active RA and previous ineffective therapy.Patients and methods. A 6-month Russian multicenter study of function and quality of life enrolled 101 patients with resistant RA: 18 men and 83 women; mean age, 51.03±11.28 years; mean disease duration, 105.4±81.43 months; rheumatoid factor-positive individuals (89.1%; and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody-positive ones (74.7%. 93 (92,1% of these patients completed a 24-week study. TOFA was used as both second-line drug (after failure of therapy with s-DMARD (n=74 and as a third-line drug (after failure of therapy with s-DMARDs and biological agents (BAs (n=74. The tools RAPID3, HAQ, and EQ-5D were used to determine disease outcomes from a patient's assessment.Results. All the three tools demonstrated significant positive changes at 3–6 months following therapy initiation. RAPID3 scores for the status of a patient achieving a low disease activity or remission coincided with the mean DAS28-ESR and SDAI scores in 60% and 68% of cases, respectively. The achievement rates of the minimally clinically significant improvement (ΔHAQ≥0.22 and functional remission (HAQ≤0.5 at 6 months of TOFA therapy were 79.6 and 30.1%, respectively. The mean change value in EQ-5D scores over 6 months was -0.162±0.21. There were no significant between the groups of patients who used TOFA as a second- or third-line agent in the majority of indicators, except EQ-5D scores at 6 months.Conclusions. The results of our multicenter study using considerable Russian material confirmed the pronounced positive effect of TOFA used

  13. A novel highly differentially expressed gene in wheat endosperm associated with bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, A.; Bundock, P. C.; Banks, P. M.; Fox, G.; Yin, X.; Henry, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression in developing wheat seeds was used to identify a gene, wheat bread making (wbm), with highly differential expression (~1000 fold) in the starchy endosperm of genotypes varying in bread making quality. Several alleles differing in the 5’-upstream region (promoter) of this gene were identified, with one present only in genotypes with high levels of wbm expression. RNA-Seq analysis revealed low or no wbm expression in most genotypes but high expression (0.2-0.4% of total gene expression) in genotypes that had good bread loaf volume. The wbm gene is predicted to encode a mature protein of 48 amino acids (including four cysteine residues) not previously identified in association with wheat quality, possibly because of its small size and low frequency in the wheat gene pool. Genotypes with high wbm expression all had good bread making quality but not always good physical dough qualities. The predicted protein was sulphur rich suggesting the possibility of a contribution to bread loaf volume by supporting the crossing linking of proteins in gluten. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of differences in bread making quality may allow more rapid development of high performing genotypes with acceptable end-use properties and facilitate increased wheat production. PMID:26011437

  14. Ethnic/racial discrimination moderates the effect of sleep quality on school engagement across high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Margaret; Mirpuri, Sheena; Yip, Tiffany

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that school engagement tends to decline across high school. At the same time, sleep problems and exposure to social stressors such as ethnic/racial discrimination increase. The current study uses a biopsychosocial perspective to examine the interactive and prospective effects of sleep and discrimination on trajectories of academic performance. Growth curve models were used to explore changes in 6 waves of academic outcomes in a sample of 310 ethnically and racially diverse adolescents (mean age = 14.47 years, SD = .78, and 64.1% female). Ethnic/racial discrimination was assessed at Time 1 in a single survey. Sleep quality and duration were also assessed at Time 1 with daily diary surveys. School engagement and grades were reported every 6 months for 3 years. Higher self-reported sleep quality in the ninth grade was associated with higher levels of academic engagement at the start of high school. Ethnic/racial discrimination moderated the relationship between sleep quality and engagement such that adolescents reporting low levels of discrimination reported a steeper increase in engagement over time, whereas their peers reporting poor sleep quality and high levels of discrimination reported the worse engagement in the ninth grade and throughout high school. The combination of poor sleep quality and high levels of discrimination in ninth grade has downstream consequences for adolescent academic outcomes. This study applies the biopsychosocial model to understand the development and daily experiences of diverse adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. High-resolution remote sensing of water quality in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Cédric G.; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Thompson, David R.; Gierach, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay–Delta Estuary watershed is a major source of freshwater for California and a profoundly human-impacted environment. The water quality monitoring that is critical to the management of this important water resource and ecosystem relies primarily on a system of fixed water-quality monitoring stations, but the limited spatial coverage often hinders understanding. Here, we show how the latest technology in visible/near-infrared imaging spectroscopy can facilitate water quality monitoring in this highly dynamic and heterogeneous system by enabling simultaneous depictions of several water quality indicators at very high spatial resolution. The airborne portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM) was used to derive high-spatial-resolution (2.6 × 2.6 m) distributions of turbidity, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chlorophyll-a concentrations in a wetland-influenced region of this estuary. A filter-passing methylmercury vs DOC relationship was also developed using in situ samples and enabled the high-spatial-resolution depiction of surface methylmercury concentrations in this area. The results illustrate how high-resolution imaging spectroscopy can inform management and policy development in important inland and estuarine water bodies by facilitating the detection of point- and nonpoint-source pollution, and by providing data to help assess the complex impacts of wetland restoration and climate change on water quality and ecosystem productivity.

  16. High-Resolution Remote Sensing of Water Quality in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Cédric G; Downing, Bryan D; Bergamaschi, Brian A; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Thompson, David R; Gierach, Michelle M

    2016-01-19

    The San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary watershed is a major source of freshwater for California and a profoundly human-impacted environment. The water quality monitoring that is critical to the management of this important water resource and ecosystem relies primarily on a system of fixed water-quality monitoring stations, but the limited spatial coverage often hinders understanding. Here, we show how the latest technology in visible/near-infrared imaging spectroscopy can facilitate water quality monitoring in this highly dynamic and heterogeneous system by enabling simultaneous depictions of several water quality indicators at very high spatial resolution. The airborne portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM) was used to derive high-spatial-resolution (2.6 × 2.6 m) distributions of turbidity, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chlorophyll-a concentrations in a wetland-influenced region of this estuary. A filter-passing methylmercury vs DOC relationship was also developed using in situ samples and enabled the high-spatial-resolution depiction of surface methylmercury concentrations in this area. The results illustrate how high-resolution imaging spectroscopy can inform management and policy development in important inland and estuarine water bodies by facilitating the detection of point- and nonpoint-source pollution, and by providing data to help assess the complex impacts of wetland restoration and climate change on water quality and ecosystem productivity.

  17. Ultra-High-Throughput Analytical Strategy Based on UHPLC-DAD in Combination with Syringe Filtration for the Quantitation of Nine Synthetic Colorants in Beverages: Impacts of Syringe Membrane Types and Sample pH on Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Je Young; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2017-11-15

    An ultra-high-throughput approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD) in combination with simple syringe filtration was successfully developed and validated for the quantitation of nine synthetic colorants in beverages. The recoveries of the colorants from the beverages were found to be dramatically affected by the syringe filter membrane types and pH of the sample solution. The high recoveries of the nine colorants (92.7-105.9%) were achieved by syringe filtration with poly(vinylidene difluoride) membrane following the pH adjustment of sample solution at pH 7.0. The sample treatment procedure was very simple and took only 1 min. The fast chromatographic separation (1 min) of the nine synthetic colorants was achieved by UHPLC-DAD using a C18-core-shell column. This analytical approach (UHPLC-DAD combined with syringe filtration) took only approximately 3 min. The established method was ultrafast, sensitive, precise, accurate, and reliable. The method was successfully applied to rapidly determine the 9 colorants in 17 beverages.

  18. Development of high-performance ion sensors based on the functions of crown ethers and synthetic bilayer membranes; Kurauneteru oyobi goseinibunshimaku no kino wo kiban to shita koseino ion denkyoku no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, H.; Sakai, T.; Ogata, T. [Tokuyama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-10

    High-Performance Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ion selective electrodes (ISEs) are reported. These are based on a new concept, which is an ion recognition site formed by molecular interaction. In the case of Na and K ISEs, crown ether compounds connecting with planar substituents were used as the ionophores. The selectivities depend on the structure of substituents. It is found that the intermolecular interaction of the planar substituent plays an important role on the improvement of selectivity. The selectivities of interactive mono (crown ether) are equal to that of bis (crown ether). It means that ion recognition site like a bis (crown ether) is formed by the interaction of mono (crown ehter)s. In the case of C1 ISE, immobilized synthetic bilayer membrane with quaternary ammonium salts was used as the ion sensitive membrane. in the immobilized synthetic bilayer membrane, ordered molecular aggregates is formed. It is found that the molecular orientation improved the Cl selectivity. The insufficient selectivity over lipophilic anions can be addition of alphatic alcohol. These resulting ISEs exhibit high speed response and long life time, and they are applicable to clinical use which demands both accurate measurement and high speed processing. (author)

  19. Disordered eating partly mediates the relationship between poor sleep quality and high body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shin-Shyuan Sally; Brown, Rhonda Frances

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the relationship between poor sleep quality and high body mass index (BMI) in a community-derived sample. In addition, we explored the premise that disordered eating (i.e. eating late at night and/or binge eating, which can occur at night) may partly explain the relationship. An online survey asked 330 participants about their height and weight, recent sleep quality, and recent experiences of binge-eating and night-time eating. Using multiple regression analyses, high BMI was shown to be related to shorter sleep duration, increased sleep latency, use of sleeping medications and worse binge-eating, whereas worse sleep quality was related to worse night-eating, after controlling for depression and demographics. Using mediational analyses, binge-eating was shown to partly mediate the relationship between worse sleep quality to higher BMI, whereas night-eating mediated the reverse association of high BMI to worse sleep quality. The results suggest that night- and/or binge-eating may partly explain the observed relationship between worse sleep quality and overweight/obesity. Thus, the relationship may simply reflect that overweight people are more likely to binge-eat while they wait for sleep to come, and this may contribute to weight gain over time. In addition, the results may indicate that eating rather than weight gain or obesity may be responsible for causing the sleep deficits in overweight people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthetic Space Vector Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    controller. The VSI controller has traditionally been operated by hardwired pulse-width modulation (PWM) or the use of a programmable microprocessor ...frequency. The primary difference between SVM and synthetic SVM is the implementation strategy of software versus inexpensive hardware, respectively. A...resistors and capacitors. There are no microcontrollers or FPGAs necessary to produce Alt-Rev SVM. F. DUAL OUTPUT VARIABLE FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR After

  1. Biopolymers Versus Synthetic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Adriana Cziple; António J. Velez Marques

    2008-01-01

    This paper present an overview of important synthetic and natural polymers with emphasis on polymer structure, the chemistry of polymer formation. an introduction to polymer characterization. The biodegradation process can take place aerobically and anaerobically with or without the presence of light. These factors allow for biodegradation even in landfill conditions which are normally inconducive to any degradation. The sheeting used to make these packages differs...

  2. Isolation of high-quality total RNA from leaves of Myrciaria dubia "CAMU CAMU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan Carlos Castro; Reátegui, Alina Del Carmen Egoavil; Flores, Julián Torres; Saavedra, Roberson Ramírez; Ruiz, Marianela Cobos; Correa, Sixto Alfredo Imán

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia is a main source of vitamin C for people in the Amazon region. Molecular studies of M. dubia require high-quality total RNA from different tissues. So far, no protocols have been reported for total RNA isolation from leaves of this species. The objective of this research was to develop protocols for extracting high-quality total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. Total RNA was purified following two modified protocols developed for leaves of other species (by Zeng and Yang, and by Reid et al.) and one modified protocol developed for fruits of the studied species (by Silva). Quantity and quality of purified total RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Additionally, quality of total RNA was evaluated with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With these three modified protocols we were able to isolate high-quality RNA (A260nm/A280nm >1.9 and A260nm/A230nm >2.0). Highest yield was produced with the Zeng and Yang modified protocol (384±46µg ARN/g fresh weight). Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis showed the integrity of isolated RNA and the absence of DNA. Another proof of the high quality of our purified RNA was the successful cDNA synthesis and amplification of a segment of the M. dubia actin 1 gene. We report three modified protocols for isolation total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. The modified protocols are easy, rapid, low in cost, and effective for high-quality and quantity total RNA isolation suitable for cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction.

  3. Clinical validation of synthetic brain MRI in children: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Hollie; Leach, James L.; Jones, Blaise V.; Care, Marguerite; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Merrow, Arnold C.; Alvarado, Enrique; Serai, Suraj D. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of synthetic MR sequences generated through post-acquisition processing of a single sequence measuring inherent R1, R2, and PD tissue properties compared with sequences acquired conventionally as part of a routine clinical pediatric brain MR exam. Thirty-two patients underwent routine clinical brain MRI with conventional and synthetic sequences acquired (22 abnormal). Synthetic axial T1, T2, and T2 fluid attenuation inversion recovery or proton density-weighted sequences were made to match the comparable clinical sequences. Two exams for each patient were de-identified. Four blinded reviewers reviewed eight patients and were asked to generate clinical reports on each exam (synthetic or conventional) at two different time points separated by a mean of 33 days. Exams were rated for overall and specific finding agreement (synthetic/conventional and compared to gold standard consensus review by two senior reviewers with knowledge of clinical report), quality, and diagnostic confidence. Overall agreement between conventional and synthetic exams was 97%. Agreement with consensus readings was 84% (conventional) and 81% (synthetic), p = 0.61. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy for specific imaging findings involving the ventricles, CSF, brain parenchyma, or vasculature between synthetic or conventional exams (p > 0.05). No significant difference in exam quality, diagnostic confidence, or noise/artifacts was noted comparing studies with synthetic or conventional sequences. Diagnostic accuracy and quality of synthetically generated sequences are comparable to conventionally acquired sequences as part of a standard pediatric brain exam. Further confirmation in a larger study is warranted. (orig.)

  4. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation.

  5. Towards developing algal synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-06-15

    The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Assessment Sleep Quality and its Relationship with Test Anxiety among High School Students in Qom- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman barmeh ziyar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Test anxiety is a special case of a general anxiety which is of particular importance in students, because students will be the future of the country and the society activists. On the other hand, sleep quality and sleep disorders, have correlation with ailments, poor performance, decreased quality of life and increase of associated costs; This study aimed to determine the quality of sleep and its relationship with test anxiety among students in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study, which was performed among 250 students who were going to pass the exam preparation classes. In order to collect data Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaires and Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 with descriptive statistics and statistical methods, independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In this study, 50% of participants were boys (n=125 and 50 percent were girls (n=125. 81.4% of subjects had poor sleep quality and 69.6% had average to high score for test anxiety. Based on the results of anxiety test and sleep quality index there was a significant correlation between anxiety and sleep quality with gender (P=0.003, r=0.447. Conclusion School children had poor sleep quality and high test anxiety, and due to their direct and significant correlation, attention to this category of students, especially for girls, is important. Therefore, anxiety and promoting sleep quality control programs are recommended in this group.

  7. Growth of high quality InGaAsN heterostructures and their laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. Yu.; Bernklau, D.; Borchert, B.; Illek, S.; Livshits, D.; Rucki, A.; Schuster, M.; Kaschner, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Dumitras, Gh.; Amann, M. C.; Riechert, H.

    2001-07-01

    Focus of this work is the optimization of growth to achieve high quality laser material for emission at 1.3 μm and beyond. GaAs/GaAsN/InGaAsN heterostructures were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. To achieve optimum crystal quality of InGaAsN heterostructures, growth was followed by a high temperature treatment at about 700°C. The high optical quality of our annealed material is attested by large exciton recombination lifetimes (more than 2 ns). Consequently, a decrease of single quantum well transparency current density down to 100 A/cm 2 is found and SWQ lasers with threshold current densities as low as 350 A/cm 2 have been made. This represents clearly the lowest laser thresholds reported so far for emission around 1.3 μm from the InGaAsN material system.

  8. Combined angiography for high-quality near-infrared autofluorescence images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querques, Giuseppe; Souied, Eric H

    2014-01-01

    To describe an innovative imaging technique to obtain high-quality near-infrared autofluorescence (NIA) images. Simultaneous fluorescein angiography + indocyanine green angiography (FA + ICGA) acquisition mode (without dye injection) of Spectralis HRA + OCT (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), setting maximum level of illuminance, and Automatic Real-time (ART) Module (Heidelberg Engineering) to increase signal-to-noise ratio. The combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope technique allows the Spectralis HRA + OCT device to create high-quality NIA ART images. This innovative imaging technique, consisting of simultaneous FA + ICGA acquisition mode, setting maximum level of illuminance, and ART, allows the Spectralis HRA + OCT device to create high-quality NIA ART images, without requiring the need for the HRA2 (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph; Heidelberg Engineering) device.

  9. Isolation of high quality RNA from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakola, L; Pirttilä, A M; Halonen, M; Hohtola, A

    2001-10-01

    A simple and efficient method is described for isolating high quality RNA from bilberry fruit. The procedure is based on the use of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and beta-mercaptoethanol in an extraction buffer in order to eliminate the polysaccharides and prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. This method is a modification of the one described for pine trees, and yields high-quality RNA suitable for cDNA based methodologies. This method is applicable for a variety of plant tissues.

  10. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  11. Different Polar Metabolites and Protein Profiles between High- and Low-Quality Japanese Ginjo Sake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Japanese ginjo sake is a premium refined sake characterized by a pleasant fruity apple-like flavor and a sophisticated taste. Because of technical difficulties inherent in brewing ginjo sake, off-flavors sometimes occur. However, the metabolites responsible for off-flavors as well as those present or absent in higher quality ginjo sake remain uncertain. Here, the relationship between 202 polar chemical compounds in sake identified using capillary electrophoresis coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and its organoleptic properties, such as quality and off-flavor, was examined. First, we found that some off-flavored sakes contained higher total amounts of metabolites than other sake samples. The results also identified that levels of 2-oxoglutaric acid and fumaric acid, metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, were highly but oppositely correlated with ginjo sake quality. Similarly, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine, co-enzymes for amino transferase, were also highly but oppositely correlated with ginjo sake quality. Additionally, pyruvic acid levels were associated with good quality as well. Compounds involved in the methionine salvage cycle, oxidative glutathione derivatives, and amino acid catabolites were correlated with low quality. Among off-flavors, an inharmonious bitter taste appeared attributable to polyamines. Furthermore, protein analysis displayed that a diversity of protein components and yeast protein (triosephosphate isomerase, TPI leakage was linked to the overall metabolite intensity in ginjo sake. This research provides insight into the relationship between sake components and organoleptic properties.

  12. Quality metrics in high-dimensional data visualization: an overview and systematization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Enrico; Tatu, Andrada; Keim, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we present a systematization of techniques that use quality metrics to help in the visual exploration of meaningful patterns in high-dimensional data. In a number of recent papers, different quality metrics are proposed to automate the demanding search through large spaces of alternative visualizations (e.g., alternative projections or ordering), allowing the user to concentrate on the most promising visualizations suggested by the quality metrics. Over the last decade, this approach has witnessed a remarkable development but few reflections exist on how these methods are related to each other and how the approach can be developed further. For this purpose, we provide an overview of approaches that use quality metrics in high-dimensional data visualization and propose a systematization based on a thorough literature review. We carefully analyze the papers and derive a set of factors for discriminating the quality metrics, visualization techniques, and the process itself. The process is described through a reworked version of the well-known information visualization pipeline. We demonstrate the usefulness of our model by applying it to several existing approaches that use quality metrics, and we provide reflections on implications of our model for future research. © 2010 IEEE

  13. Impact of synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation of distiller's dried grains with solubles and distiller's corn oil stored under high temperature and humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A R; Urriola, P E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-08-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of antioxidants, oil content in distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), quality of distiller's corn oil, and storage time on lipid peroxidation. A source of low-oil DDGS (LO-DDGS; 5.0% ether extract [EE], as-fed basis), high-oil DDGS (HO-DDGS; 13.0% EE, as-fed basis), and 2 sources of distiller's corn oil (DCO; 1.20, 0.08, and 0.48% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables [MIU], respectively [DCO-1], and 1.20, 0.01, and 0.10% MIU, respectively [DCO-2]) were obtained. Each of the 4 ingredients was divided into 18 representative subsamples (approximately 908 g for DDGS or 2 kg of DCO). Six subsamples of each ingredient were mixed with either no supplemental antioxidants (CON), Rendox-CQ (REN; 1,000 mg/kg EE; Kemin, Industries, Des Moines, IA), or Santoquin-Q4T (SAN; 1,500 mg/kg EE; Novus International, St. Louis, MO). Each mixture ( = 72) was split into thirds, and 1 portion was immediately frozen at -20°C (d 0). Two portions were stored under hot (38.6 ± 0.1°C) and humid conditions (94.0 ± 0.3% relative humidity) for 14 or 28 d. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to evaluate the effects of ingredient, antioxidant, storage time, and interactions, with d-0 values used as a covariate. From d 14 to 28, peroxide value (PV), -anisidine value (AnV), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of DCO and DDGS increased by 3- to 4-fold ( oil, respectively) exceeded ( oil, respectively). Adding REN or SAN ( oil and AnV = 6.5 ± 0.2) over the entire period (mean of d 14 and 28), but TBARS and AnV did not differ ( > 0.05) between antioxidants (TBARS = 6.1 ± 0.2 and 5.9 ± 0.2 mg malondialdehyde Eq/kg oil, respectively, and AnV = 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.2 for REN and SAN, respectively). The PV on d 14 and 28 and overall was less ( oil for SAN and REN, respectively). In summary, antioxidants reduced peroxidation of DDGS and DCO by approximately 50% during 28 d of storage at 38.6°C and 94.0% relative humidity

  14. Development of a highly sensitive and selective method for extractive spectrophotometric determination of aluminum(III) from environmental matrices, synthetic mixtures, and alloys using orthohydroxypropiophenoneisonicotinoylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, C; Rajesh Kumar, J; Adinarayana Reddy, S; Lee, Jin-Young; Varada Reddy, A

    2010-01-01

    Orthohydroxypropiophenoneisonicotinoylhydrazone (OHPINH) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminum(III). OHPINH formed a greenish-yellow colored complex with aluminum(III) in buffer solutions of pH 1 to 3. The color in pH 2 was stable for more than 48 h. The complex solution has given maximum absorbance at 390 nm when the reagent was chosen as blank and the absorbance of the reagent at this wavelength is negligible; the molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity being 0.6371x10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 4.234x10(-3) microg cm(-2), respectively. The system obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.5-3.5 microg mL(-1) with excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.999. Most of the common metal ions generally found associated with aluminum(III) do not interfere. The repeatability of the method was checked by finding the relative standard deviation. The developed method has been successfully employed for the determination of aluminum(III) environmental matrices like medicinal and leafy samples, alloys, and synthetic mixtures.

  15. Immunization of female cynomolgus macaques with a synthetic epitope of sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase results in high antibody titers but does not reduce fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollner, T L; Overstreet, J W; Branciforte, D; Primakoff, P D

    2002-06-01

    Previous studies have reported reduced fertility in female baboons immunized with a synthetic peptide derived from the sperm-specific isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C). In this study, a similar approach was used to immunize female cynomolgus macaques with the same peptide sequence (bC5-19) conjugated to a T-cell epitope from tetanus toxin (TT). Twelve female monkeys were immunized with bC5-19:TT delivered with Ribi MPL adjuvant vehicle, and 10 control female monkeys were injected with the adjuvant vehicle only. All 12 females in the treatment group developed LDH-C-specific serum antibodies as measured by ELISA, but anti-LDH-C antibodies were not detected in vaginal fluids of the immunized animals. After 4 months of timed mating immediately following the immunizations, five of the ten immunized females became pregnant, as did six of the ten control females. Anti-sera from both pregnant and nonpregnant bC5-19:TT-immunized females recognize a single band at 35 kDa on Western blots of whole sperm extracts, and purified Igs from the same sera localize along the principle piece of the flagellum of permeabilized sperm. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Simultaneous determination of 14 oil-soluble synthetic dyes in chilli products by high performance liquid chromatography with a gel permeation chromatography clean-up procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghong; Zhao, Bo; Xiao, Ruiqi; Yun, Wen; Xiao, Zhaojing; Tu, Dawei; Chen, Shiqi

    2014-02-15

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 14 fat-soluble dyes in chilli products. The samples were extracted with hexane/acetone. The cleanup was performed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) cleanup system. A HPLC separation was performed using variable wavelength detector and a gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid and methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as the mobile phases. Good linearity (R² ≥ 0.995) was observed between 0.1 and 5.0 μg/mL. Detection limits of the investigated dyes, which were evaluated at signal to noise ratio of 3, were in the ranges of 11-71 μg/kg. The recoveries of the 14 synthetic colourants in three matrices ranged from 73.4% to 103.5%. Relative standard deviations ranged from 3.7% to 12.3%. The method has been successfully used for the determination of banned dyes in real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Performance Anti-Retransmission Deception Jamming Utilizing Range Direction Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruijia; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xing; Sun, Bing

    2017-01-09

    Retransmission deception jamming seriously degrades the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) detection efficiency and can mislead SAR image interpretation by forming false targets. In order to suppress retransmission deception jamming, this paper proposes a novel multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) SAR structure range direction MIMO SAR, whose multiple channel antennas are vertical to the azimuth. First, based on the multiple channels of range direction MIMO SAR, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal was adopted as the transmission signal of each channel, which is defined as a sub-band signal. This sub-band signal corresponds to the transmission channel. Then, all of the sub-band signals are modulated with random initial phases and concurrently transmitted. The signal form is more complex and difficult to intercept. Next, the echoes of the sub-band signal are utilized to synthesize a wide band signal after preprocessing. The proposed method will increase the signal to interference ratio and peak amplitude ratio of the signal to resist retransmission deception jamming. Finally, well-focused SAR imagery is obtained using a conventional imaging method where the retransmission deception jamming strength is degraded and defocused. Simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. PARENTS AS TUTORS FIRST AND PRINCIPAL TO CREATE HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Ria Kumara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe change of new era means that each individual always evolves.Developments marked with the demands of improving the quality of human resources in its different aspects.Nation character very much dependent on the quality of human resources are.The character of quality need to fostered since an early age.There are two factors that influence character, which is innate from within yourselves sons of and views the children of the world it does possess, such as knowledge, experience, moral principles accepted, guidance, parent-child interaction and briefing.A positive environment will form the positive character also on child.The process begins with the conditions develop the character of the private tua as an influential figure to be a bust children. Keywords: character, parent, high-quality human resources

  19. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  20. Exome sequencing generates high quality data in non-target regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exome sequencing using next-generation sequencing technologies is a cost efficient approach to selectively sequencing coding regions of human genome for detection of disease variants. A significant amount of DNA fragments from the capture process fall outside target regions, and sequence data for positions outside target regions have been mostly ignored after alignment. Result We performed whole exome sequencing on 22 subjects using Agilent SureSelect capture reagent and 6 subjects using Illumina TrueSeq capture reagent. We also downloaded sequencing data for 6 subjects from the 1000 Genomes Project Pilot 3 study. Using these data, we examined the quality of SNPs detected outside target regions by computing consistency rate with genotypes obtained from SNP chips or the Hapmap database, transition-transversion (Ti/Tv ratio, and percentage of SNPs inside dbSNP. For all three platforms, we obtained high-quality SNPs outside target regions, and some far from target regions. In our Agilent SureSelect data, we obtained 84,049 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 65,231 SNPs inside target regions (a 129% increase. For our Illumina TrueSeq data, we obtained 222,171 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 95,818 SNPs inside target regions (a 232% increase. For the data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we obtained 7,139 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 1,548 SNPs inside target regions (a 461% increase. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a significant amount of high quality genotypes outside target regions can be obtained from exome sequencing data. These data should not be ignored in genetic epidemiology studies.

  1. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings: how to make trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Del Grande, Claudio; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Eveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William

    2014-05-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Three regions of Quebec. Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Irrespective of their models, PC practices' pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. MEASURING THE QUALITY OF THE HIGH EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Mitreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of quality of private and public high educational institutions in the Republic of Macedonia is being asked every academic year and results in numerous public debates which very often lead to stereotyping of individual institutions. This paper provides a comparative overview of the situation in the private and public high education system in the country through the analysis of subjective and objective indicators based on which a comparison is made between two types of high education institutions. The instruments used in the comparative analysis of subjective and objective indicators are statistical data, application of the SWOT method for comparative analysis between the units, as well as usage of various methods and techniques to improve the quality of high education. This comparative analysis raises questions and offers recommendations for the potential improvement of the quality of work of these institutions. The intent is to encourage continuous comparative evaluation and proposing practices for continuous development and growth of quality in the high education in the country.

  3. The effect of water stress on super-high- density 'Koroneiki' olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Arnon; Naor, Amos; Ben-Gal, Alon; Harlev, Guy; Zipori, Isaac; Schneider, Doron; Birger, Reuven; Peres, Moti; Gal, Yoni; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-08-15

    Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super-high-density olive orchards has increased rapidly. Water stress is an important tool in super-high-density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability for overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super-high-density orchards on oil quality parameters. In this study the effect of irrigation rate on oil quality parameters was evaluated in a six-year-old super-high-density 'Koreneiki' olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain various midday stem water potential threshold values (-1.5, -2, -2.5, -3 and -4 MPa), were applied during the oil accumulation stage. The MUFA/PUFA ratio and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increasing tree water stress. In most seasons a reduction in polyphenols was found with decreasing irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. The present study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in a super-high-density orchard lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction in polyphenol content that were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P; Krupa, S

    2013-02-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of high power single mode fiber lasers allows for a beam of high power and a good beam quality factor (M2 ” 1.2), compared to the multimode fiber lasers often utilised in macro laser metal cutting. This paper describes fundamental studies of macro laser metal cutting with a single...... mode fiber laser to study the performance of such lasers in terms of cut quality and process performance. Linear cut experiments have been performed applying a 3kW single mode fiber laser and varying the following parameters: laser power, cutting speed, focal length, focus position, cutting gas...... influence the cut quality and the maximum cutting speed in the investigated parameter space. Furthermore the achieved cutting performance is benchmarked to laser cutting with other types of lasers, CO2-lasers, disc-lasers as well as multimode fiber lasers....

  6. Three-dimensional dictionary-based deblocking for high-quality stereoscopic view generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Cheolkon; Qi, Hongtao; Sun, Zengzeng; Jiao, Licheng

    2013-10-01

    Image quality and depth perception rates in three-dimensional television (3-D TV) are undesirably decreased by coding due to the loss of high-frequency components caused by a block-based discrete cosine transform transform. Representative coding artifacts are blocking artifacts that seriously degrade the picture quality and depth perception rates. We propose a new blocking artifact reduction method in 3-D TV using an overcomplete 3-D dictionary. We first generate the overcomplete 3-D dictionary from natural and depth images using the k-singular value decomposition algorithm. Then, we perform deblocking using the 3-D dictionary after estimating an error threshold of the objective function by the third-order polynomial fitting. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively reduce annoying blocking artifacts in compressed 3-D images, i.e., video-plus-depth, and generate high-quality 3-D stereoscopic views.

  7. Synthetic cannabinoids revealing adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Avi; Benninger, Felix; Djaldetti, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    We report a 41-year-old man who presented with a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure after recent consumption of a synthetic cannabinoid. MRI showed extensive bilateral, mainly frontal, white matter lesions. Blood analysis for very long chain fatty acids was compatible with adrenoleukodystrophy, and a missense mutation in the ABCD1 gene confirmed the diagnosis. We hypothesize that cannabinoid use might have contributed to metabolic decompensation with subacute worsening of the underlying condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biopolymers Versus Synthetic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Adriana Cziple

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an overview of important synthetic and natural polymers with emphasis on polymer structure, the chemistry of polymer formation. an introduction to polymer characterization. The biodegradation process can take place aerobically and anaerobically with or without the presence of light. These factors allow for biodegradation even in landfill conditions which are normally inconducive to any degradation. The sheeting used to make these packages differs significantly from other “degradable plastics” in the market as it does not attempt to replace the current popular materials but instead enhances them by rendering them biodegradable.

  9. msmsEval: tandem mass spectral quality assignment for high-throughput proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartwright Hugh M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In proteomics experiments, database-search programs are the method of choice for protein identification from tandem mass spectra. As amino acid sequence databases grow however, computing resources required for these programs have become prohibitive, particularly in searches for modified proteins. Recently, methods to limit the number of spectra to be searched based on spectral quality have been proposed by different research groups, but rankings of spectral quality have thus far been based on arbitrary cut-off values. In this work, we develop a more readily interpretable spectral quality statistic by providing probability values for the likelihood that spectra will be identifiable. Results We describe an application, msmsEval, that builds on previous work by statistically modeling the spectral quality discriminant function using a Gaussian mixture model. This allows a researcher to filter spectra based on the probability that a spectrum will ultimately be identified by database searching. We show that spectra that are predicted by msmsEval to be of high quality, yet remain unidentified in standard database searches, are candidates for more intensive search strategies. Using a well studied public dataset we also show that a high proportion (83.9% of the spectra predicted by msmsEval to be of high quality but that elude standard search strategies, are in fact interpretable. Conclusion msmsEval will be useful for high-throughput proteomics projects and is freely available for download from http://proteomics.ucd.ie/msmseval. Supports Windows, Mac OS X and Linux/Unix operating systems.

  10. Evaluation of transgenic soybean exhibiting high expression of a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A transgene for suppressing lepidopteran population densities and crop injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Robert M; MacRae, Ted C

    2009-08-01

    Several transgenic lines of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., expressing a synthetic cry1A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), were examined in replicated field trials in 2003-2007 for suppression of naturally occurring population densities of lepidopteran pests and the resultant crop injury that they caused. Bt soybean and negative controls (isogenic segregants and parental lines) were evaluated against velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner); soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker); and green cloverworm, Hypena scabra (F.). Population densities of these lepidopteran species were essentially absent in each of the Bt soybean entries evaluated throughout the growing season in every year of the study compared with moderate (5-10 larvae per row-m) to large (20-30 larvae per row-m) peak population densities in the negative control soybean entries. These lepidopteran populations caused significant plant injury in the non-Bt soybean plots, ranging from 53% defoliation in 2003 to 17.5% in 2007, compared with < 1.5% defoliation (mostly 0.0% defoliation) in the Bt soybean plots. When two or three foliar insecticides were applied in August or September, as lepidopteran populations approached or exceeded economic threshold levels, pest populations were suppressed and defoliation was minimal in the treated non-Bt entries similar to results in Bt soybean. Soybean 100-seed weights and harvested yields were similar between the Bt and non-Bt entries each year of this study. It seems that Bt transgenic soybean provides excellent season-long control of lepidopteran pests and have yields equal to the standard cultivars examined in this study. Once available to producers, this Bt technology has the potential to provide an effective insect pest management option similar to that being used in Bt cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and Bt corn, Zea mays L., and enhance the sustainability and profitability of soybean production in the southern region where

  11. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  12. High-Density, High-Resolution, Low-Cost Air Quality Sensor Networks for Urban Air Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Stewart, G.; Bright, V.; Kaye, P.; Saffell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring air quality in highly granular environments such as urban areas which are spatially heterogeneous with variable emission sources, measurements need to be made at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Current routine air quality monitoring networks generally are either composed of sparse expensive installations (incorporating e.g. chemiluminescence instruments) or higher density low time resolution systems (e.g. NO2 diffusion tubes). Either approach may not accurately capture important effects such as pollutant "hot spots" or adequately capture spatial (or temporal) variability. As a result, analysis based on data from traditional low spatial resolution networks, such as personal exposure, may be inaccurate. In this paper we present details of a sophisticated, low-cost, multi species (gas phase, speciated PM, meteorology) air quality measurement network methodology incorporating GPS and GPRS which has been developed for high resolution air quality measurements in urban areas. Sensor networks developed in the Centre for Atmospheric Science (University of Cambridge) incorporated electrochemical gas sensors configured for use in urban air quality studies operating at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. It has been demonstrated that these sensors can be used to measure key air quality gases such as CO, NO and NO2 at the low ppb mixing ratios present in the urban environment (estimated detection limits CO and NO and NO2. Mead et al (submitted Aug., 2012)). Based on this work, a state of the art multi species instrument package for deployment in scalable sensor networks has been developed which has general applicability. This is currently being employed as part of a major 3 year UK program at London Heathrow airport (the Sensor Networks for Air Quality (SNAQ) Heathrow project). The main project outcome is the creation of a calibrated, high spatial and temporal resolution data set for O3, NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, VOCstotal, size-speciated PM, temperature, relative

  13. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol. PMID:24503897

  14. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-02-07

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol.

  15. Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation of High-Quality Japanese Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Rika; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the emotional experience, expression, and regulation processes of high-quality Japanese elementary school teachers while they interact with children, in terms of teachers' emotional competence. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited…

  16. Does Access to High Quality Early Education Vary by State Policy Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Maia C.; Morris, Pamela A.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that attending high quality, formal early childhood education (ECE) is associated with stronger cognitive and social-emotional skills, especially for low-income children. Yet at current funding levels, federally-funded programs like Head Start cannot serve all eligible children. Thus, state-level policies governing the…

  17. High quality ZnO layers with adjustable refractive indices for integrated optics applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Thin (approx. 1 μm) crystalline ZnO films with a good optical quality and a good (0002) texture are grown under two considerably different process parameter sets using a r.f. planar magnetron sputtering unit. The optical parameters of the two corresponding ZnO layers are distinctly different: high

  18. The optimal choice of negative binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    2010-01-01

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  19. A method for high-quality RNA extraction from tall fescue | Zhen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation of high-quality RNA was a precondition in molecular biology research of tall fescue. Two common approaches were adopted for the total RNA extraction by using leaves of tall fescue as the material in this experiment in order to seek the optimized total RNA extraction method of tall fescue, as well as the ...

  20. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...