WorldWideScience

Sample records for high quality single

  1. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis ... produces crystals of superior quality, circumventing many of the problems associated with, for example, flux growth from the melt. .... In these materials, it is possible to control the electric polarization by the ...

  2. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-07-06

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  3. Fast Synthesis of High Quality Biodiesel from ‘Waste Fish Oil’ by Single Step Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh C. Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A large volume of fish wastes is produced on a daily basis in the Indian sub-continent. This abundant waste source could serve as an economic feedstock for bioenergy generation. In the present study, oil extracted from discarded fish parts was used for high quality biodiesel production. More specifically, a single step transesterification of ‘waste fishoil’ with methanol using sodium methoxide (CH3ONa as homogeneous catalyst under moderate operational conditions resulted in highly pure biodiesel of > 98% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content. Characterization was performed by Fourier Transform-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FT-NMR.

  4. The effect of the amiodarone-warfarin interaction on anticoagulation quality in a single, high-quality anticoagulation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ryan D; Riggs, Kyle W; Ege, Ed J; Petroski, Gregory F; Koerber, Scott M; Flaker, Greg

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trials have reported a low time in therapeutic range (TTR) in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with both warfarin andamiodarone. These trials included centers and countries with both high and low TTRs. What is the impact of amiodarone on the TTR in a single, high-quality anticoagulation clinic? TTR was assessed in amiodarone and nonamiodarone-treated patients from a University anticoagulation clinic. Baseline characteristics between patients ever-taking or never-taking amiodarone were similar, except more amiodarone patients were smokers (19.5 vs. 6.1%, P = 0.0031). The TTR calculated from 8901international normalized ratios (INRs) in 249 nonamiodarone patients with a mean follow-up of 34 ± 20 months (mean INR 36 ± 18) was 66 ± 16.6% compared with 61.3 ± 16.2% (P = 0.111) from 1455 INRs in 41 amiodarone-treated patients with a mean follow-up of 28 ± 20 months (mean INR 35 ± 22). Factors associated with a low TTR were male sex (P = 0.0013), smoker (P = 0.0048), and amiodarone use (P = 0.0374). A second on-treatment analysis, in which the TTR was calculated only during amiodarone therapy, resulted in similar findings; however, amiodarone did not emerge as a predictor of a low TTR. In 11 patients, the TTR prior to amiodarone (54.5 ± 22.2%) was not significantly different in the first 3 months (54.6 ± 33.4%) or after 3 months (67.2 ± 33.7%) of amiodarone. In a single high-quality anticoagulation center, anticoagulation quality, as measured by the TTR, can be comparable in amiodarone and nonamiodarone-treated patients.

  5. Single domain antibodies as a powerful tool for high quality surface plasmon resonance studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio Della Pia

    Full Text Available Single domain antibodies are recombinantly expressed functional antibodies devoid of light chains. These binding elements are derived from heavy chain antibodies found in camelids and offer several distinctive properties for applications in biotechnology such as small size, stability, solubility, and expression in high yields. In this study we demonstrated the potential of using single domain antibodies as capturing molecules in biosensing applications. Single domain antibodies raised against green fluorescent protein were anchored onto biosensor surfaces by using several immobilization strategies based on Ni2+:nitrilotriacetic acid-polyhistidine tag, antibody-antigen, biotin-streptavidin interactions and amine-coupling chemistry. The interaction with the specific target of the single domain antibodies was characterized by surface plasmon resonance. The immobilized single domain antibodies show high affinities for their antigens with KD = 3-6 nM and outperform other antibody partners as capturing molecules facilitating also the data analysis. Furthermore they offer high resistance and stability to a wide range of denaturing agents. These unique biophysical properties and the production of novel single domain antibodies against affinity tags make them particularly attractive for use in biosensing and diagnostic assays.

  6. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-20

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  7. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: razzaque_ru2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-15

    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  8. High-quality Thermodynamic Data on the Stability Changes of Proteins Upon Single-site Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucci, Fabrizio, E-mail: fapucci@ulb.ac.be; Bourgeas, Raphaël, E-mail: rbourgeas@ulb.ac.be; Rooman, Marianne, E-mail: mrooman@ulb.ac.be [Department of BioModeling, BioInformatics and BioProcesses, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 165/61, Roosevelt Avenue 50, 1050 Brussels, Belgium and Interuniversity Institute of Bioinformatics in Brussels, CP 263, Triumph Bld, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    We have set up and manually curated a dataset containing experimental information on the impact of amino acid substitutions in a protein on its thermal stability. It consists of a repository of experimentally measured melting temperatures (T{sub m}) and their changes upon point mutations (ΔT{sub m}) for proteins having a well-resolved x-ray structure. This high-quality dataset is designed for being used for the training or benchmarking of in silico thermal stability prediction methods. It also reports other experimentally measured thermodynamic quantities when available, i.e., the folding enthalpy (ΔH) and heat capacity (ΔC{sub P}) of the wild type proteins and their changes upon mutations (ΔΔH and ΔΔC{sub P}), as well as the change in folding free energy (ΔΔG) at a reference temperature. These data are analyzed in view of improving our insights into the correlation between thermal and thermodynamic stabilities, the asymmetry between the number of stabilizing and destabilizing mutations, and the difference in stabilization potential of thermostable versus mesostable proteins.

  9. High-quality Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a microcavity in single-multi-single mode fiber structure for refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Guoqiang; Gao, Renxi; Qu, Shiliang

    2017-02-01

    A fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a microcavity with two symmetric openings in single-multi-single mode fiber (SMSF) structure is proposed. By using the finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM), the interference spectrum simulation result shows that the MZI can still have high-quality interference even if the microcavity deviates along the radial direction for 3 μm. Therefore, it allows a larger fabrication tolerance and tremendously decreases the fabrication difficulty. Then a microcavity with two symmetric openings in SMSF was fabricated by using femtosecond laser-induced water breakdown. The insertion loss of the microcavity immerged in water is only -8  dB, and the MZ interference peak contrast in the transmission spectrum reaches more than 30 dB. The MZI based on the microcavity in SMSF can be used as a practical liquid refractive index sensor as its high-quality interference spectrum, ultrahigh sensitivity (9756.75 nm/RIU), high refractive index resolution (2×10-5  RIU), good linearity (99.93%), and low-temperature crosstalk (0.04 nm/°C).

  10. High quality single crystal Ge nano-membranes for opto-electronic integrated circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, V. A., E-mail: vishal.shah@warwick.ac.uk; Gammon, P. M. [Department of Engineering, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Rhead, S. D.; Halpin, J. E.; Trushkevych, O.; Wilson, N. R.; Myronov, M.; Edwards, R. S.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E.; Parker, E. H. C.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chávez-Ángel, E. [ICN2-Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Department of Physics, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Shchepetov, A.; Prunnila, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2-Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); and others

    2014-04-14

    A thin, flat, and single crystal germanium membrane would be an ideal platform on which to mount sensors or integrate photonic and electronic devices, using standard silicon processing technology. We present a fabrication technique compatible with integrated-circuit wafer scale processing to produce membranes of thickness between 60 nm and 800 nm, with large areas of up to 3.5 mm{sup 2}. We show how the optical properties change with thickness, including appearance of Fabry-Pérot type interference in thin membranes. The membranes have low Q-factors, which allow the platforms to counteract distortion during agitation and movement. Finally, we report on the physical characteristics showing sub-nm roughness and a homogenous strain profile throughout the freestanding layer, making the single crystal Ge membrane an excellent platform for further epitaxial growth or deposition of materials.

  11. Stress engineering of high-quality single crystal diamond by heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Golding, B.

    2016-02-01

    A method for lateral overgrowth of low-stress single crystal diamond by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is described. The process is initiated by deposition of a thin (550 nm) (001) diamond layer on Ir-buffered a-plane sapphire. The diamond is partially masked by periodic thermally evaporated Au stripes using photolithography. Lateral overgrowth of the Au occurs with extremely effective filtering of threading dislocations. Thermal stress resulting from mismatch of the low thermal expansion diamond and the sapphire substrate is largely accommodated by the ductile Au layer. The stress state of the diamond is investigated by Raman spectroscopy for two thicknesses: at 10 μm where the film has just overgrown the Au mask and at 180 μm where the film thickness greatly exceeds the scale of the masking. For the 10-μm film, the Raman linewidth shows spatial oscillations with the period of the Au stripes with a factor of 2 to 3 reduction relative to the unmasked region. In a 180-μm thick diamond film, the overall surface stress was extremely low, 0.00 ± 0.16 GPa, obtained from the Raman shift averaged over the 7.5 mm diameter of the crystal at its surface. We conclude that the metal mask protects the overgrown diamond layer from substrate-induced thermal stress and cracking. It is also responsible for low internal stress by reducing dislocation density by several orders of magnitude.

  12. High Quality Nanogap Electrodes for Electronic Transport Measurements of Single Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Danvers E.; Strachan, Douglas R.; Guiton, Beth S.; Davies, Peter K.; Park, Tae Hong; Therien, Michael J.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    2007-03-01

    Electromigrated metal electrodes and resulting devices have shown great promise in moving towards the realization of single molecule-based electronic devices holding the potential for a wide range of electronic applications. At present, a major concern is that the electronic behavior of such devices may be greatly influenced by residual nanoscale metal particles. We have developed a computer controlled electromigration (CCE) process for creating nanogaps at room temperature which allows us to characterize a bare nanogap before putting a molecule into the nanogap.^1 This is very different from other approaches used in the field where nanogaps are formed at low temperature with molecules already attached to the nanowire by employing a simple ramp up in voltage. Among the bare nanogaps we produced using CCE, tunneling behavior is observed with no indication of transport signatures associated with metal particle formation. Details of molecular measurements utilizing these clean gaps will be discussed. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NIRT Grant No. 0304531 and MRSEC award DMR05-20020). ^1D. R. Strachan, D. E. Smith, D. E. Johnston et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 043109 (2005).

  13. A new RE + 011 TSIG method for the fabrication of high quality and large size single domain YBCO bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. M.; Chen, L. P.; Wang, X. J.

    2016-02-01

    High quality single domain YBCO bulk superconductors, 20 mm in diameter, have been fabricated using a new top seeded infiltration and growth method (called the RE + 011 TSIG method), with a new solid phase (Y2O3 + xBaCuO2) instead of the conventional Y2BaCuO5 solid phase, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0. The effects of different BaCuO2 contents x on the growth morphology, microstructure, and levitation force have been investigated. The results show that the levitation force of the YBCO bulks first increases and then decreases with increasing x, and reaches maximum levitation forces of about 49.2 N (77 K, 0.5 T, with the traditional liquid phase of YBa2Cu3O y + 3 BaCuO2 + 2 CuO) and 47 N (77.3 K, 0.5 T, with the new liquid phase of Y2O3 + 10 BaCuO2 + 6 CuO) when x = 1.2, which is much higher than that of the samples fabricated with the conventional solid phases (23 N). The average Y2BaCuO5 particle size is about 1 μm, which is much smaller than the 3.4 μm in the samples prepared with the conventional Y2BaCuO5 solid phase; this means that the flux pinning force of the sample can be improved by using the new solid phase. Based on this method, single domain YBCO bulks 40 mm, 59 mm, and 93 mm in diameter have also been fabricated using the TSIG process with the new solid phases (Y2O3 + 1.2BaCuO2). These results indicate that the new TSIG process developed by our lab is a very important and practical method for the fabrication of low cost, large size, and high quality single domain REBCO bulk superconductors.

  14. High quality methylome-wide investigations through next-generation sequencing of DNA from a single archived dry blood spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Karolina A; Xie, Lin Y; Nerella, Srilaxmi; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2013-05-01

    The potential importance of DNA methylation in the etiology of complex diseases has led to interest in the development of methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) aimed at interrogating all methylation sites in the human genome. When using blood as biomaterial for a MWAS the DNA is typically extracted directly from fresh or frozen whole blood that was collected via venous puncture. However, DNA extracted from dry blood spots may also be an alternative starting material. In the present study, we apply a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein enrichment-based technique in combination with next generation sequencing (MBD-seq) to assess the methylation status of the ~27 million CpGs in the human autosomal reference genome. We investigate eight methylomes using DNA from blood spots. This data are compared with 1,500 methylomes previously assayed with the same MBD-seq approach using DNA from whole blood. When investigating the sequence quality and the enrichment profile across biological features, we find that DNA extracted from blood spots gives comparable results with DNA extracted from whole blood. Only if the amount of starting material is ≤ 0.5µg DNA we observe a slight decrease in the assay performance. In conclusion, we show that high quality methylome-wide investigations using MBD-seq can be conducted in DNA extracted from archived dry blood spots without sacrificing quality and without bias in enrichment profile as long as the amount of starting material is sufficient. In general, the amount of DNA extracted from a single blood spot is sufficient for methylome-wide investigations with the MBD-seq approach.

  15. Detailed optical spectroscopy of hybridization gap and hidden-order transition in high-quality URu2Si2 single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachar, N.; Stricker, D.; Muleady, S.; Wang, K.; Mydosh, J.A.; Huang, Y.K.; van der Marel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed temperature and frequency dependence of the optical conductivity measured on clean high-quality single crystals of URu2Si2 of ac− and ab-plane surfaces. Our data demonstrate the itinerant character of the narrow 5f bands, becoming progressively coherent as the temperature is

  16. Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2008-08-18

    We demonstrate a stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Full quantum state tomographic measurement performed on the photon-pairs has revealed a very high state purity of 0.94, and an entanglement fidelity exceeding 0.96 at the low-rate-regime. At higher rates, entanglement quality degrades due to emission of multiple-pairs. Using a new model, we have confirmed that the observed degradation is largely due to double- and triple-pair emissions.

  17. A new reducing agent to prepare single-layer, high-quality reduced graphene oxide for device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shun; Yu, Kehan; Cui, Shumao; Bo, Zheng; Lu, Ganhua; Chen, Junhong

    2011-07-01

    We report on a novel, efficient, and one-step approach to prepare single-layer reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspensions and films using hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The effective chemical reduction of GO was evidenced by a significant increase in the C/O ratio and five orders of magnitude decrease in the GO resistance. Field-effect transistor gas sensors were fabricated using as-produced RGO sheets and the resulting sensor exhibited a fast response and a high sensitivity to low-concentration target gases at room temperature.

  18. Growth of high quality single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator via solid state reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Anil K. [Department of Physics, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut 250004 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bengaluru 560012 (India); Majhi, Kunjalata; Banerjee, Abhishek; Ganesan, R.; Kumar, P. S. Anil [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bengaluru 560012 (India); Devi, Poonam [Department of Physics, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut 250004 (India); Mishra, P.; Lohani, H.; Sekhar, B. R. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2016-05-23

    Recently discovered, Topological Insulators (TIs) have garnered enormous amount of attention owing to its unique surface properties which has potential applications in the field of spintronics and other modern technologies. For all this, it should require a very good quality samples. There are a number of techniques suggested by people for the growth of good quality TIs. Here, we are reporting the growth of high quality single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} (a TI) by slow cooling solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction measurements performed on a cleaved flake of single crystal Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} showed up with proper orientations of the crystal planes. High energy X-ray diffraction has been performed to confirm the stoichiometry of the compound and also recorded Laue patterns prove the single crystalline nature of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Moreover, angle resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) carried out on a flat crystal flake shows distinct Dirac dispersion of surface bands at the gamma point clarifying it as a 3D topological insulator.

  19. Experimental and numerical study on growth of high-quality ZnO single-crystal microtubes by optical vapor supersaturated precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Yan, Yinzhou; Zeng, Yong; Jiang, Yijian

    2017-06-01

    In this work, high-quality free-standing ZnO single-crystal microtubes with hexagonal cross-section were fabricated by an optical image furnace. Optical vapor supersaturated precipitation (OVSP) and axial photo-thermal-decomposition were proposed to interpret the microrods growth and microtubes formation, respectively. The maximum dimensions of the grown microtube were 5 mm in length, 100 μm in diameter and 1 μm in facet wall thickness. In our previous work, a new room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) peak ( 392 nm) of ZnO microtubes was attributed to VZn-related donor-acceptor-pairs (DAP) transition. This work further confirmed the VZn-related acceptors widely existing during ZnO microrods/ microtubes growth by OVSP. The effects of major growth parameters (e.g. lamp power, filament geometry and growth platform shape) on temperature field at the growth platform of precursor rod were studied by a finite element model as well. The lamp power of 65% (1500 W), thick single-filament and appropriate conical growth platform were optimized for a uniform temperature field to achieve consistent finish quality of microtubes and prevent twin-microtubes formation. This work would be beneficial for batch growth of the novel ZnO microtubes/microrods with high quality for a variety of applications.

  20. Copper-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition for high-quality and metal-free single-layer graphene on amorphous SiO2 substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungki; Song, Intek; Park, Chibeom; Son, Minhyeok; Hong, Misun; Kim, Youngwook; Kim, Jun Sung; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Baik, Jaeyoon; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2013-08-27

    We report that high-quality single-layer graphene (SLG) has been successfully synthesized directly on various dielectric substrates including amorphous SiO2/Si by a Cu-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The Cu vapors produced by the sublimation of Cu foil that is suspended above target substrates without physical contact catalyze the pyrolysis of methane gas and assist nucleation of graphene on the substrates. Raman spectra and mapping images reveal that the graphene formed on a SiO2/Si substrate is almost defect-free and homogeneous single layer. The overall quality of graphene grown by Cu-vapor-assisted CVD is comparable to that of the graphene grown by regular metal-catalyzed CVD on a Cu foil. While Cu vapor induces the nucleation and growth of SLG on an amorphous substrate, the resulting SLG is confirmed to be Cu-free by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SLG grown by Cu-vapor-assisted CVD is fabricated into field effect transistor devices without transfer steps that are generally required when SLG is grown by regular CVD process on metal catalyst substrates. This method has overcome two important hurdles previously present when the catalyst-free CVD process is used for the growth of SLG on fused quartz and hexagonal boron nitride substrates, that is, high degree of structural defects and limited size of resulting graphene, respectively.

  1. High-quality Single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesis by hot filament CVD on Ru nanoparticule catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Bouanis, Fatima Zara; Baraton, Laurent; Huc, Vincent; Pribat, Didier; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) growth on Ru nanoparticle catalyst via hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) with two independent W filaments for the carbon precursor (methane) and the hydrogen dissociation respectively. The Ru nanoparticles were obtained following a two-step strategy. At first the growth substrate is functionalized by silanisation, then a self assembly of a ruthenium porphyrin complex monolayer on pyridine...

  2. Effect of single- and two-cycle high hydrostatic pressure treatments on water properties, physicochemical and microbial qualities of minimally processed squids (todarodes pacificus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Jiao, Shunshan; Lian, Zixuan; Deng, Yun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of single- and two-cycle high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on water properties, physicochemical, and microbial qualities of squids (Todarodes pacificus) during 4 °C storage for up to 10 d. Single-cycle treatments were applied at 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 20 min (S-200, S-400, and S-600), and two-cycle treatments consisted of two 10 min cycles at 200, 400, or 600 MPa, respectively (T-200, T-400, and T-600). HHP-treated samples had higher (P pressure level caused no significant difference in water state of squids. The two-cycle HHP treatment was more effective in controlling total volatile basic nitrogen, pH, and total plate counts (TPC) of squids during storage, in which TPC of S-600 and T-600 was 2.9 and 1.8 log CFU/g at 10 d, respectively, compared with 7.5 log CFU/g in control. HHP treatments delayed browning discoloration of the squids during storage, and the higher pressure level and two-cycle HHP were more effective. Water properties highly corresponded with color and texture indices of squids. This study demonstrated that the two-cycle HHP treatment was more effective in controlling microbial growth and quality deterioration while having similar impact on the physicochemical and water properties of squids in comparison with the single-cycle treatment, thus more desirable for extending shelf-life of fresh squids. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Krypton Gas for High Quality Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis by KrF Excimer Laser Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Al-Zanganawee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the production of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by KrF excimer laser ablation method under the krypton gas atmosphere. For the ablation experiment 450 mJ energy and 30 Hz repetition rate KrF excimer laser was used, and the target was prepared with the following composition: 0.6% Ni, 0.6% Co, and 98.8% C (atomic percentage. The ablation product was characterized by confocal Raman microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The SWCNTs obtained are a mixture of semiconducting and metallic types with narrow diameters distribution of 1.26 to 1.49 nm, are micrometers long, and contain low amount of graphite and amorphous carbon.

  4. High quality-factor label-free single analyte detection with MEMS cantilevers integrated into microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartanas, Tadas; Ostanin, Victor; Challa, Pavan Kumar; Daly, Ronan; Charmet, Jerome; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-10-06

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled the development of a new generation of sensor platforms. Acoustic sensor operation in liquid, the native environment of biomolecules, causes, however, significant degradation of sensing performance due to viscous drag and relies on the availability of capture molecules to bind analytes of interest to the sensor surface. Here we describe a strategy to interface MEMS sensors with microfluidic platforms through an aerosol spray. Our sensing platform comprises a microfluidic spray nozzle and a micro-cantilever array operated in dynamic mode within a closed loop oscillator. A solution containing the analyte is sprayed uniformly through pico-litre droplets onto the micro-cantilever surface; the micron-scale drops evaporate rapidly and leave the solutes behind, adding to the mass of the cantilever. This sensing scheme results in a 50-fold increase in the quality factor compared to operation in liquid, yet allows the analytes to be introduced into the sensing system from a solution phase. It achieves a 370 femtogram limit of detection and we demonstrate quantitative label-free analysis of inorganic salts and model proteins. These results demonstrate that the standard resolution limits of cantilever sensing in dynamic mode can be overcome with the integration of spray microfluidics with MEMS.

  5. Synthesis of High-quality Single- and Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes on Fe/MgO Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran B. Kashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fe/MgO catalysts with three different iron contents (5, 10, and 15 wt.% were prepared by three catalyst preparation methods: impregnation, solution combustion synthesis, and co-calcination of metal ni‐ trates. The resulting catalysts were subjected to methane at 900°C in order to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The powders and products were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of MgFe2O4 upon heating the catalysts to 900°C was confirmed by XRD. After the growth step, corresponding peaks of MgFe2O4 disappeared and metallic iron peaks appeared, indicating that MgFe2O4 is the responsible phase for production of iron nanoparticles. HRTEM images showed that the product on the 5 wt.% catalysts was mostly SWNTs and DWNTs with no evidence of carbon nanofi‐ bres or multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the co-calcina‐ tion catalyst. Furthermore, ID/IG ratios obtained from Raman spectra were all below 0.1, except for one sample, showing the good quality of the products.

  6. Evaluation of Genome Based Estimated Breeding Values for Meat Quality in a Berkshire Population Using High Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baby

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV was evaluated for sixteen meat quality traits in a Berkshire population (n = 1,191 that was collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Korea. The animals were genotyped with the Illumina porcine 62 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP bead chips, in which a set of 36,605 SNPs were available after quality control tests. Two methods were applied to evaluate GEBV accuracies, i.e. genome based linear unbiased prediction method (GBLUP and Bayes B, using ASREML 3.0 and Gensel 4.0 software, respectively. The traits composed different sets of training (both genotypes and phenotypes and testing (genotypes only data. Under the GBLUP model, the GEBV accuracies for the training data ranged from 0.42±0.08 for collagen to 0.75±0.02 for water holding capacity with an average of 0.65±0.04 across all the traits. Under the Bayes B model, the GEBV accuracy ranged from 0.10±0.14 for National Pork Producers Council (NPCC marbling score to 0.76±0.04 for drip loss, with an average of 0.49±0.10. For the testing samples, the GEBV accuracy had an average of 0.46±0.10 under the GBLUP model, ranging from 0.20±0.18 for protein to 0.65±0.06 for drip loss. Under the Bayes B model, the GEBV accuracy ranged from 0.04±0.09 for NPCC marbling score to 0.72±0.05 for drip loss with an average of 0.38±0.13. The GEBV accuracy increased with the size of the training data and heritability. In general, the GEBV accuracies under the Bayes B model were lower than under the GBLUP model, especially when the training sample size was small. Our results suggest that a much greater training sample size is needed to get better GEBV accuracies for the testing samples.

  7. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  8. High-quality binary interactome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreze, Matija; Monachello, Dario; Lurin, Claire; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Physical interactions mediated by proteins are critical for most cellular functions and altogether form a complex macromolecular "interactome" network. Systematic mapping of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-metabolite interactions at the scale of the whole proteome can advance understanding of interactome networks with applications ranging from single protein functional characterization to discoveries on local and global systems properties. Since the early efforts at mapping protein-protein interactome networks a decade ago, the field has progressed rapidly giving rise to a growing number of interactome maps produced using high-throughput implementations of either binary protein-protein interaction assays or co-complex protein association methods. Although high-throughput methods are often thought to necessarily produce lower quality information than low-throughput experiments, we have recently demonstrated that proteome-scale interactome datasets can be produced with equal or superior quality than that observed in literature-curated datasets derived from large numbers of small-scale experiments. In addition to performing all experimental steps thoroughly and including all necessary controls and quality standards, careful verification of all interacting pairs and validation tests using independent, orthogonal assays are crucial to ensure the release of interactome maps of the highest possible quality. This chapter describes a high-quality, high-throughput binary protein-protein interactome mapping pipeline that includes these features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Facile synthesis of CuSe nanoparticles and high-quality single-crystal two-dimensional hexagonal nanoplatelets with tunable near-infrared optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yimin [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Korolkov, Ilia [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Qiao, Xvsheng [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Xianghua [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Wan, Jun; Fan, Xianping [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A rapid injection approach is used to synthesize the copper selenide nanoparticles and two-dimensional single crystal nanoplates. This technique excludes the use of toxic or expensive materials, increasing the availability of two-dimensional binary chalcogenide semiconductors. The structure of the nanocrystals has been studied and the possible formation mechanism of the nanoplates has been proposed. The optical absorption showed that the nanoplates demonstrated wide and tuneable absorption band in the visible and near infrared region. These nanoplates could be interesting for converting solar energy and for nanophotonic devices operating in the near infrared. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of the copper selenides nanoparticles and nanoplates synthesized at 180 °C for 0 min, 10 min, 60 min. And the growth mechanism of the copper selenide nanoplates via the “oriented attachment”. Display Omitted - Highlights: • CuSe nanoparticles and nanoplates are synthesized by a rapid injection approach. • CuSe band gap can be widely tuned simply by modifying the synthesized time. • Al{sup 3+} ions have a significant impact on the growth rate of the nanoplates. • Growth mechanism of the CuSe nanoplates is based on the “oriented attachment”.

  10. Tadpole begging reveals high quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M B; Strickler, S A; Stynoski, J L

    2017-05-01

    Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources nonrandomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e. begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses - Signal of Need, Signal of Quality and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly. We assessed the information content of intense tadpole begging with an experimental manipulation of tadpole condition (need/quality) and food deprivation (hunger). This experiment revealed patterns consistent with the Signal of Quality hypothesis and directly counter to predictions of Signal of Need and Signal of Hunger. Begging effort and performance were higher in more developed and higher condition tadpoles and declined with food deprivation. Free-living mothers were unlikely to feed tadpoles of a nonbegging species experimentally cross-fostered with their own, and allocated larger meals to more developed tadpoles and those that vibrated at higher speed. Mother O. pumilio favour their high-quality young, and because their concurrent offspring are reared in separate nurseries, must do so by making active allocation decisions. Our results suggest that these maternal choices are based at least in part on offspring signals, indicating that offspring solicitation can evolve to signal high quality. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Quality Scalability Compression on Single-Loop Solution in HEVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a quality scalable extension design for the upcoming high efficiency video coding (HEVC standard. In the proposed design, the single-loop decoder solution is extended into the proposed scalable scenario. A novel interlayer intra/interprediction is added to reduce the amount of bits representation by exploiting the correlation between coding layers. The experimental results indicate that the average Bjøntegaard delta rate decrease of 20.50% can be gained compared with the simulcast encoding. The proposed technique achieved 47.98% Bjøntegaard delta rate reduction compared with the scalable video coding extension of the H.264/AVC. Consequently, significant rate savings confirm that the proposed method achieves better performance.

  12. High-quality Indonesian condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    A Japanese technical team visiting the condom plant at Banjaran, Indonesia, as part of the Japanese Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund project which funded the plant, found locally produced condoms of superior quality. The marketing expert on the team predicted that family planning services provided by private practitioners and paid for by clients will account for over 50% of family planning acceptors in Indonesia by 2000. Now only 10% receive private services. Condoms are in use by 3.9% of acceptors nationwide, although as many as 15% use condoms in the capitol city. Indonesians need to be informed of the high quality of domestic condoms; marketing them for a fee will encourage this view. It is expected that in Indonesia, 2 social movements will encourage family planning, the "Posyandu" an integrated family planning and health scheme established in villages by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board, and "Arisan," a traditional system for mutual help by which villagers pool food and money to provide medicines.

  13. Assessing the effect of high-repetitive single limb exercises (HRSLE) on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Single-limb knee extension exercises have been found to be effective at improving lower extremity exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since the positive local physiological effects of exercise training only occur in the engaged muscle(s), should upper extremity muscles also be included to determine the effect of single limb exercises in COPD patients. Methods/design Trial design: a prospective, assessor-blind, block randomized controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial. Participants: stage II-IV COPD patients, > 40 years of age, ex-smokers, with stable medical treatment will be included starting May 2011. Recruitment at three locations in Sweden. Interventions: 1) high-repetitive single limb exercise (HRSLE) training with elastic bands, 60 minutes, three times/week for 8 weeks combined with four sessions of 60 minutes patient education, or 2) the same patient education alone. Outcomes: Primary: determine the effects of HRSLE on local muscle endurance capacity (measured as meters walked during 6-minute walk test and rings moved on 6-minute ring and pegboard test) and quality of life (measured as change on the Swedish version of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire). Secondary: effects on maximal strength, muscular endurance, dyspnea, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression. The relationship between changes in health-related variables and changes in exercise capacity, sex-related differences in training effects, feasibility of the program, strategies to determine adequate starting resistance and provide accurate resistance for each involved movement and the relationship between muscle fatigue and dyspnea in the different exercise tests will also be analyzed. Randomization: performed by a person independent of the recruitment process and using a computer random number generator. Stratification by center and gender with a 1:1 allocation to the intervention or control using random block sizes. Blinding

  14. Assessing the effect of high-repetitive single limb exercises (HRSLE on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Andre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-limb knee extension exercises have been found to be effective at improving lower extremity exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Since the positive local physiological effects of exercise training only occur in the engaged muscle(s, should upper extremity muscles also be included to determine the effect of single limb exercises in COPD patients. Methods/design Trial design: a prospective, assessor-blind, block randomized controlled, parallel-group multicenter trial. Participants: stage II-IV COPD patients, > 40 years of age, ex-smokers, with stable medical treatment will be included starting May 2011. Recruitment at three locations in Sweden. Interventions: 1 high-repetitive single limb exercise (HRSLE training with elastic bands, 60 minutes, three times/week for 8 weeks combined with four sessions of 60 minutes patient education, or 2 the same patient education alone. Outcomes: Primary: determine the effects of HRSLE on local muscle endurance capacity (measured as meters walked during 6-minute walk test and rings moved on 6-minute ring and pegboard test and quality of life (measured as change on the Swedish version of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire. Secondary: effects on maximal strength, muscular endurance, dyspnea, self-efficacy, anxiety and depression. The relationship between changes in health-related variables and changes in exercise capacity, sex-related differences in training effects, feasibility of the program, strategies to determine adequate starting resistance and provide accurate resistance for each involved movement and the relationship between muscle fatigue and dyspnea in the different exercise tests will also be analyzed. Randomization: performed by a person independent of the recruitment process and using a computer random number generator. Stratification by center and gender with a 1:1 allocation to the intervention or control using random

  15. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  16. Facet engineering of high power single emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanson, Dan; Levi, Moshe; Shamay, Moshe; Tesler, Renana; Rappaport, Noam; Don, Yaroslav; Karni, Yoram; Schnitzer, Itzhak; Sicron, Noam; Shusterman, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    The ever increasing demand for high-power, high-reliability operation of single emitters at 9xx nm wavelengths requires the development of laser diodes with improved facet regions immune to both catastrophic and wear-out failure modes. In our study, we have evaluated several laser facet definition technologies in application to 90 micron aperture single emitters in asymmetric design (In)GaAs/AlGaAs based material emitting at 915, 925 and 980nm. A common epitaxy and emitter design makes for a straightforward comparison of the facet technologies investigated. Our study corroborates a clear trend of increasing difficulty in obtaining reliable laser operation from 980nm down to 915nm. At 980nm, one can employ dielectric facet passivation with a pre-clean cycle delivering a device lifetime in excess of 3,000 hours at increasing current steps. At 925nm, quantum-well intermixing can be used to define non-absorbing mirrors giving good device reliability, albeit with a large efficiency penalty. Vacuum cleaved emitters have delivered excellent reliability at 915nm, and can be expected to perform just as well at 925 and 980nm. Epitaxial regrowth of laser facets is under development and has yet to demonstrate an appreciable reliability improvement. Only a weak correlation between start-of-life catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) levels and reliability was established. The optimized facet design has delivered maximum powers in excess of 19 MW/sq.cm (rollover limited) and product-grade 980nm single emitters with a slope efficiency of >1 W/A and a peak efficiency of >60%. The devices have accumulated over 1,500 hours of CW operation at 11W. A fiber-coupled device emits 10W ex-fiber with 47% efficiency.

  17. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  18. Fast High-Quality Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Wyvill, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the noise functions available in a graphics programmer's toolbox are either slow to compute or they involve grid-line artifacts making them of lower quality. In this paper we present a real-time noise computation with no grid-line artifacts or other regularity problems. In other wor...

  19. High pressure single crystal and powder XRD study for neighborite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.

    2016-12-01

    After Murakami et al. (2004) identified the post-perovskite (ppv) phase transition in MgSiO3 perovskite (pv) at pressures and temperatures consistent with the onset of Earth's D" layer, lots of post-perovskite type phase transitions were founded in other similar systems. These discoveries provided a better understanding of heterogeneous structures and seismic anisotropy observed in the controversial region of the lower mantle. With previous experimental evidence showing the analogue system of neighborite NaMgF3 will transform from pv to ppv at 30 GPa, we performed high quality single crystal XRD experiment, which led to a more precise structure determination. Using helium as pressure medium, one metastable low symmetric phase before the pv-ppv structure transition was discovered, whose total energy was calculated as well. The comparison between single crystal and powder XRD data will be presented, and potential application will be discussed.

  20. High-Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27...

  1. Highly efficient sources of single indistinguishable photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state sources capable of emitting single photons on demand are of great interest in quantum information applications. Ideally, such a source should emit exactly one photon into the collection optics per trigger, the emitted photons should be indistinguishable and the source should...

  2. High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan M; Wagner, Jakob B; Samuelson, Lars; Deppert, Knut; Borgström, Magnus T

    2010-03-10

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27.6 at liquid helium temperature. These sub-100-nm-diameter structures are promising components for solar cells as well as electronic applications.

  3. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenologica...... data on Tb. The conduction-electron polarization at zero field and temperature is (0.33+or-0.05) mu B/ion, and the susceptibility is greater than the Pauli susceptibility calculated from the band-structure.......The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological...... Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange interactions, effective single-ion anisotropy and magnetoelastic contributions. The parameters of this Hamiltonian were determined by fitting the theoretical results for the spin wave dispersion and energy gap as a function of temperature and magnetic field to existing...

  4. A Comparative Study of Identity Styles, Quality of Life and Behavioral Problems between Single Parent and Two Parent Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Zoleykha; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Fathi Azar, Eskander

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate identity styles, quality of life and behavioral difficulties between adolescents with single and two-parent status. In this causal- comparative study, a total of 214 high school students were selected, then 112 single parent students (59 females and 53 males) were selected by the voluntary response sampling…

  5. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan SERİN, Alper AYTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Total Quality Management (TQM has been even more common and most recently its use in high education has been discussed. Likewise the enterprises producing various products, universities have also inputs, processes, and outputs. Due to conditions of competition, universities have to improve the qualities of these inputs, processes, and outputs, according to satisfaction, demands, and expectations of internal and external customers. If the TQM has been implemented in the universities with a manner that aims for customer satisfaction (students, lecturers, public and private establishments, and families, supports constant development, ensures participatory approach, and encourages working in groups, it will provide universities with effectiveness, efficiency, dynamics, and economics. In this study, common problems of universities, definitions of quality and TQM in high education, customer concept at universities, and factors affecting the quality of education have been explained. Besides, in order TQM approach to be successfully implemented in the universities, various suggestions have been presented.

  6. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of beef: 1. A single composite score can predict beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2017-08-01

    Quantifying consumer responses to beef across a broad range of demographics, nationalities and cooking methods is vitally important for any system evaluating beef eating quality. On the basis of previous work, it was expected that consumer scores would be highly accurate in determining quality grades for beef, thereby providing evidence that such a technique could be used to form the basis of and eating quality grading system for beef. Following the Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia tasted cooked beef samples, then allocated them to a quality grade; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. The consumers also scored beef samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking. The beef was sourced from all countries involved in the study and cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, with each experimental group in the study consisting of a single cooking doneness within a cooking method for each country. For each experimental group, and for the data set as a whole, a linear discriminant function was calculated, using the four sensory scores which were used to predict the quality grade. This process was repeated using two conglomerate scores which are derived from weighting and combining the consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking, the original meat quality 4 score (oMQ4) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and current meat quality 4 score (cMQ4) (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3). From the results of these analyses, the optimal weightings of the sensory scores to generate an 'ideal meat quality 4 score (MQ4)' for each country were calculated, and the MQ4 values that reflected the boundaries between the four quality grades were determined. The oMQ4 weightings were far more accurate in categorising European meat samples than the cMQ4 weightings, highlighting that

  7. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  8. Assuring quality in high-consequence engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Marcey L.; Kolb, Rachel R.

    2014-03-01

    In high-consequence engineering organizations, such as Sandia, quality assurance may be heavily dependent on staff competency. Competency-dependent quality assurance models are at risk when the environment changes, as it has with increasing attrition rates, budget and schedule cuts, and competing program priorities. Risks in Sandia's competency-dependent culture can be mitigated through changes to hiring, training, and customer engagement approaches to manage people, partners, and products. Sandia's technical quality engineering organization has been able to mitigate corporate-level risks by driving changes that benefit all departments, and in doing so has assured Sandia's commitment to excellence in high-consequence engineering and national service.

  9. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Zsók, V.; Horváth, Z.; Plasmeijer, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In

  10. Single-trial analysis of the neural correlates of speech quality perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porbadnigk, Anne K.; Treder, Matthias S.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Antons, Jan-Niklas; Schleicher, Robert; Möller, Sebastian; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Assessing speech quality perception is a challenge typically addressed in behavioral and opinion-seeking experiments. Only recently, neuroimaging methods were introduced, which were used to study the neural processing of quality at group level. However, our electroencephalography (EEG) studies show that the neural correlates of quality perception are highly individual. Therefore, it became necessary to establish dedicated machine learning methods for decoding subject-specific effects. Approach. The effectiveness of our methods is shown by the data of an EEG study that investigates how the quality of spoken vowels is processed neurally. Participants were asked to indicate whether they had perceived a degradation of quality (signal-correlated noise) in vowels, presented in an oddball paradigm. Main results. We find that the P3 amplitude is attenuated with increasing noise. Single-trial analysis allows one to show that this is partly due to an increasing jitter of the P3 component. A novel classification approach helps to detect trials with presumably non-conscious processing at the threshold of perception. We show that this approach uncovers a non-trivial confounder between neural hits and neural misses. Significance. The combined use of EEG signals and machine learning methods results in a significant ‘neural’ gain in sensitivity (in processing quality loss) when compared to standard behavioral evaluation; averaged over 11 subjects, this amounts to a relative improvement in sensitivity of 35%.

  11. Methodological quality of meta-analyses of single-case experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Laleh; Heyvaert, Mieke; Declercq, Lies; Fernández-Castilla, Belén; Ferron, John M; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S Natasha; Onghena, Patrick; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2017-12-28

    Methodological rigor is a fundamental factor in the validity and credibility of the results of a meta-analysis. Following an increasing interest in single-case experimental design (SCED) meta-analyses, the current study investigates the methodological quality of SCED meta-analyses. We assessed the methodological quality of 178 SCED meta-analyses published between 1985 and 2015 through the modified Revised-Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) checklist. The main finding of the current review is that the methodological quality of the SCED meta-analyses has increased over time, but is still low according to the R-AMSTAR checklist. A remarkable percentage of the studies (93.80% of the included SCED meta-analyses) did not even reach the midpoint score (22, on a scale of 0-44). The mean and median methodological quality scores were 15.57 and 16, respectively. Relatively high scores were observed for "providing the characteristics of the included studies" and "doing comprehensive literature search". The key areas of deficiency were "reporting an assessment of the likelihood of publication bias" and "using the methods appropriately to combine the findings of studies". Although the results of the current review reveal that the methodological quality of the SCED meta-analyses has increased over time, still more efforts are needed to improve their methodological quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Single Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gamm, B.; Popescu, R.; Blank, H.; Schneider, R; Beyer, A.; Gölzhäuser, A.; Gerthsen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Single atoms can be considered as basic objects for electron microscopy to test the microscope performance and basic concepts for modeling of image contrast. In this work high-resolution transmission electron microscopy was applied to image single platinum atoms in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The atoms are deposited on a self-assembled monolayer substrate which induces only negligible contrast. Single-atom contrast simulations were performed on the basis of Weick...

  13. Factors affecting fertilisation and early embryo quality in single- and superovulated dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Roberto; Bastos, Michele R; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2010-01-01

    Data on fertilisation and embryo quality in dairy cattle are presented and the main factors responsible for the low fertility of single-ovulating lactating cows and embryo yield in superovulated dairy cattle are highlighted. During the past 50 years, the fertility in high-producing lactating dairy cattle has decreased as milk production increased. Recent data show conception rates to first service to be approximately 32% in lactating cows, whereas in heifers it has remained above 50%. Fertilisation does not seem to be the principal factor responsible for the low fertility in single-ovulating cows, because it has remained above 80%. Conversely, early embryonic development is impaired in high-producing dairy cows, as observed by most embryonic losses occurring during the first week after fertilisation. However, in superovulated dairy cattle, although fertilisation failure is more pronounced, averaging approximately 45%, the percentage of fertilised embryos viable at 1 week is quite high (>70%). Among the multifactorial causes of low fertility in lactating dairy cows, high feed intake associated with low concentrations of circulating steroids may contribute substantially to reduced embryo quality. Fertilisation failure in superovulated cattle may be a consequence of inappropriate gamete transport due to hormonal imbalances.

  14. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  15. Process for Forming a High Temperature Single Crystal Canted Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J (Inventor); Ritzert, Frank J (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A process for forming a high temperature single crystal canted spring is provided. In one embodiment, the process includes fabricating configurations of a rapid prototype spring to fabricate a sacrificial mold pattern to create a ceramic mold and casting a canted coiled spring to form at least one canted coil spring configuration based on the ceramic mold. The high temperature single crystal canted spring is formed from a nickel-based alloy containing rhenium using the at least one coil spring configuration.

  16. Power quality improvement of single-phase photovoltaic systems through a robust synchronization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    An increasing amount of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems on the distribution network requires more advanced synchronization methods in order to meet the grid codes with respect to power quality and fault ride through capability. The response of the synchronization technique selected...... is crucial for the performance of PV inverters. In this paper, a new synchronization method with good dynamics and accurate response under highly distorted voltage is proposed. This method uses a Multi-Harmonic Decoupling Cell (MHDC), which cancels out the oscillations on the synchronization signals due...

  17. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  18. Decision making based on single and double acceptance sampling plans for assessing quality of lots

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenija Dumičic

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acceptance sampling is a statistical tool of quality control. Sampling plans and operating characteristic (OC) curves are very useful for conducting acceptance sampling and provide the quality manager with tools to evaluate the quality of a production run or shipment. There are developed different sampling plans, but common used in practise are single and double acceptance sampling plans. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to test if applying of single and double sampling plan c...

  19. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...

  20. Improved perovskite film quality and solar cell performances using dual single solution coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltakesmez, Ali; Biber, Mehmet; Tüzemen, Sebahattin

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present high quality perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx thin films prepared by a combination of static and dynamic coating approaches, named dual single solution coating. Static coating, dynamic coating and the combination of these are comparatively studied. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence techniques are used for the determination of morphological, structural, and optical properties of thin films prepared using different coating approaches and deposition temperatures. All the coating approaches are repeated at room temperature and with hot deposition. The high quality and density CH3NH3PbI3-xClx films with full surface coverage are obtained using the dual single solution coating, particularly with hot-deposition. The perovskite solar cells prepared by the dual coating approach with hot deposition have better values for all the performance parameters in comparison to the other coating approaches, resulting in high efficiencies. The best device has a short circuit current of 22.03 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 0.91 V, a fill factor of 0.73, and a power conversion efficiency of 14.68% from short-circuit to forward bias, and 22.39 mA/cm2, 0.91 V, 75% and 15.32% for the vice-versa, respectively.

  1. The quality of life of single mothers making the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay; Davis, Elise; Smyth, Paul; McKenzie, Hayley

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the quality of life of single mothers making the mandatory transition from welfare to work. The Australian government purported that the benefits of making this transition would include higher incomes, better social participation, and improved wellbeing. It is currently unknown, however, how single mothers currently engaged in welfare to work programs evaluate their quality of life. Quality of life scores for 334 single mothers engaged in welfare to work in Australia were compared with normative data. Participants reported significantly lower quality of life scores than the general population for all quality of life domains, highlighting the need to carefully examine welfare to work policies to ensure they promote participants' quality of life.

  2. The effects of prospective mate quality on investments in healthy body weight among single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew C; Cronin, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines how a single female's investment in healthy body weight is affected by the quality of single males in her marriage market. A principle concern in estimation is the presence of market-level unobserved heterogeneity that may be correlated with changes in single male quality, measured as earning potential. To address this concern, we employ a differencing strategy that normalizes the exercise behaviors of single women to those of their married counterparts. Our main results suggest that when potential mate quality in a marriage market decreases, single black women invest less in healthy body weight. For example, we find that a 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of low quality single black males leads to a 5-10% decrease in vigorous exercise taken by single black females. Results for single white women are qualitatively similar, but not consistent across specifications. These results highlight the relationship between male and female human capital acquisition that is driven by participation in the marriage market. Our results suggest that programs designed to improve the economic prospects of single males may yield positive externalities in the form of improved health behaviors, such as more exercise, particularly for single black females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates of a Single-Item Quality-of-Life Measure in People Aging with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebens, Hilary C; Tsukerman, Dmitry; Adkins, Rodney H; Kahan, Jason; Kemp, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Practical quality-of-life (QOL) screening methods are needed to help focus clinical decision-making on what matters to individuals with disabilities. A secondary analysis of a database from a large study of adults aging with impairments focused on four diagnostic groups: cerebral palsy (n = 134), polio (n = 321), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 99), and stroke (n = 82). Approximately 20% of cases were repeated measures of the same individuals 3-5 yrs later. Functional levels, depression, and social interactions were assessed. The single-item, subjective, seven-point Kemp Quality of Life Scale measured QOL. For each diagnostic group, Kemp Quality of Life Scale responses were divided into low, average, and high QOL subgroups. Analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference tests compared clinical characteristics among these subgroups. Duration of disability varied among the four groups. Within each group, QOL subgroups were similar in age, sex, and duration of disability. Low mean QOL was associated with lower functional level, higher depression scores, and lower social interaction (P Quality of Life Scale relates significantly to clinically relevant variables in adults with impairments. The scale's utility in direct clinical care merits further examination.

  4. A guide to highly effective quality programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, John; Fifer, Joe

    2010-01-01

    To dramatically improve quality while decreasing costs, hospitals should: ensure all executives are vocal and visible supporters of quality improvement; focus the board of directors on quality as a strategic priority; strategically target quality resources to improve care for the majority of patients; use the finance system as the foundation for automated quality reporting; form a strong alliance between the CFO and chief quality officer, with each playing a leadership role in the quality program; rely on a well-executed quality program to improve efficiency and decrease the cost of care.

  5. Single semen analysis as a predictor of semen quality: clinical and epidemiological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Lars; Wetterstrand, Boel; Haugen, Trine B; Malm, Gunilla; Malm, Johan; Bjørsvik, Cathrine; Henrichsen, Trine; Sæther, Thomas; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2009-01-01

    It is generally thought that a single ejaculate is a bad predictor of semen quality of a subject, because of significant intra-individual variation. Therefore, we investigated the degree to which the results of a first semen analysis differ from that of a second analysis among men from a general population in Norway. In addition, we analysed how the two different semen results mirrored the overall semen quality assessment. A total of 199 volunteers participated in the study and delivered two semen samples with an interval of 6 months. The semen parameters were determined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 1999 guidelines, which were also used to determine whether semen quality was normal or abnormal. In addition, the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was determined using the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay. The two samples from each individual were very similar with regard to standard semen parameters and DFI (rs: 0.67–0.72), and there were no significant systematic differences between the two samples. The result of the first sample (normal/abnormal) was highly predictive of the overall conclusion based on the two samples (sperm concentration: in 93% of the cases (95% confidence interval [CI]: 89%–96%); sperm motility: in 85% of the cases (95% CI: 79%–89%); overall semen quality: in 85% of the cases (95% CI: 80%–90%). In epidemiological studies, one ejaculate is a sufficient indicator of semen quality in a group of subjects. In a clinical situation, when the question is whether the semen quality is normal or not, the first ejaculate will, in at least 85% of cases, give a correct overall conclusion. PMID:19823177

  6. High performance platinum single atom electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jiao, Menggai; Lu, Lanlu; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Li, Yuping; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Luhua; Wu, Zhijian; Liu, Di-Jia; Zhuang, Lin; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Bingsen; Su, Dangsheng; Song, Ping; Xing, Wei; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Zheng; Sun, Gongquan

    2017-07-01

    For the large-scale sustainable implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in vehicles, high-performance electrocatalysts with low platinum consumption are desirable for use as cathode material during the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Here we report a carbon black-supported cost-effective, efficient and durable platinum single-atom electrocatalyst with carbon monoxide/methanol tolerance for the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. The acidic single-cell with such a catalyst as cathode delivers high performance, with power density up to 680 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with a low platinum loading of 0.09 mgPt cm-2, corresponding to a platinum utilization of 0.13 gPt kW-1 in the fuel cell. Good fuel cell durability is also observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that the main effective sites on such platinum single-atom electrocatalysts are single-pyridinic-nitrogen-atom-anchored single-platinum-atom centres, which are tolerant to carbon monoxide/methanol, but highly active for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  7. High performance platinum single atom electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jiao, Menggai; Lu, Lanlu; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Li, Yuping; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Luhua; Wu, Zhijian; Liu, Di-jia; Zhuang, Lin; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Bingsen; Su, Dangsheng; Song, Ping; Xing, Wei; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Zheng; Sun, Gongquan

    2017-01-01

    For the large-scale sustainable implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in vehicles, high-performance electrocatalysts with low platinum consumption are desirable for use as cathode material during the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Here we report a carbon black-supported cost-effective, efficient and durable platinum single-atom electrocatalyst with carbon monoxide/methanol tolerance for the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. The acidic single-cell with such a catalyst as cathode delivers high performance, with power density up to 680 mW cm−2 at 80 °C with a low platinum loading of 0.09 mgPt cm−2, corresponding to a platinum utilization of 0.13 gPt kW−1 in the fuel cell. Good fuel cell durability is also observed. Theoretical calculations reveal that the main effective sites on such platinum single-atom electrocatalysts are single-pyridinic-nitrogen-atom-anchored single-platinum-atom centres, which are tolerant to carbon monoxide/methanol, but highly active for the oxygen reduction reaction. PMID:28737170

  8. Quality control of dairy products using single frequency admittance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrook, M. F.; Darbyshire, A. M.; Petty, M. C.

    2006-02-01

    A reusable device for the detection of adulteration in dairy products such as milk and cream has been developed. The ac electrical admittance spectra of different samples have been studied using both uncoated and alkyl mercaptan-coated gold electrodes. Uncoated gold electrodes exhibited a polarization at around 250 Hz for full fat milk, while mercaptan-coated gold electrodes showed a similar effect at around 2 kHz. The characteristics at 100 kHz and 8 °C for all skimmed milk samples revealed a linear decrease in conductance with increasing water content over the entire range of water concentration. In contrast, the conductance of full fat milk, single and double cream, showed a linear decrease only at added water concentration higher than 6%. At lower concentrations, these dairy products exhibited anomalous conductivity maxima.

  9. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: apedicelli@rm.unicatt.it; Rollo, Massimo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mrollo@rm.unicatt.it; Piano, Mariangela [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mariangela.piano@gmail.com; Re, Thomas J. [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: tomjre@gmail.com; Cipriani, Maria C. [Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: alexped@yahoo.com; Colosimo, Cesare [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: lbonomo@rm.unicatt.it

    2009-02-15

    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  10. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  11. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible

  12. Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for unilateral palpable testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bianchi and Squire introduced single high trans-scrotal incision for mobilisation of palpable undescended testes to decrease the potential morbidity of the traditional inguinal approach. This incision has not gained widespread acceptance and there is still a considerable debate about its efficacy. This study ...

  13. Temporal dynamics of high repetition rate pulsed single longitudinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theoretical and experimental studies of temporal dynamics of grazing incidence grating (GIG) cavity, single-mode dye laser pumped by high repetition rate copper vapour laser (CVL) are presented. Spectral chirp of the dye laser as they evolve in the cavity due to transient phase dynamics of the amplifier gain medium is ...

  14. High Quality Data for Grid Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Draxl, Caroline; Sengupta, Manajit; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-01-22

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. The existing electric grid infrastructure in the US in particular poses significant limitations on wind power expansion. In this presentation we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets are presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. The need for high-resolution weather data pushes modeling towards finer scales and closer synchronization. We also present how we anticipate such datasets developing in the future, their benefits, and the challenges with using and disseminating such large amounts of data.

  15. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  16. Applying Quality Indicators to Single-Case Research Designs Used in Special Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Jeremy D.; Dattilo, John; Rusch, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. Specifically, this article describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.'s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria.…

  17. Approaches to Quality Risk Management When Using Single-Use Systems in the Manufacture of Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Hirose, Akihiko; Katori, Noriko; Hashii, Norikata; Arai, Susumu; Awatsu, Hirotoshi; Eiza, Akira; Hara, Yoshiaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Inoue, Tomomi; Isono, Tetsuya; Iwakura, Masahiro; Kajihara, Daisuke; Kasahara, Nobuo; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Sei; Nakagawa, Taishiro; Okumura, Takehiro; Omasa, Takeshi; Takuma, Shinya; Terashima, Iyo; Tsukahara, Masayoshi; Tsutsui, Maiko; Yano, Takahiro; Kawasaki, Nana

    2015-10-01

    Biologics manufacturing technology has made great progress in the last decade. One of the most promising new technologies is the single-use system, which has improved the efficiency of biologics manufacturing processes. To ensure safety of biologics when employing such single-use systems in the manufacturing process, various issues need to be considered including possible extractables/leachables and particles arising from the components used in single-use systems. Japanese pharmaceutical manufacturers, together with single-use suppliers, members of the academia and regulatory authorities have discussed the risks of using single-use systems and established control strategies for the quality assurance of biologics. In this study, we describe approaches for quality risk management when employing single-use systems in the manufacturing of biologics. We consider the potential impact of impurities related to single-use components on drug safety and the potential impact of the single-use system on other critical quality attributes as well as the stable supply of biologics. We also suggest a risk-mitigating strategy combining multiple control methods which includes the selection of appropriate single-use components, their inspections upon receipt and before releasing for use and qualification of single-use systems. Communication between suppliers of single-use systems and the users, as well as change controls in the facilities both of suppliers and users, are also important in risk-mitigating strategies. Implementing these control strategies can mitigate the risks attributed to the use of single-use systems. This study will be useful in promoting the development of biologics as well as in ensuring their safety, quality and stable supply.

  18. Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S J; Tao, Y; van der Slot, P J M; Bastiaens, H J M; Herek, J; Biedron, S G; Danailov, M B; Milton, S V; Boller, K-J

    2015-09-21

    For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic output energy, fluctuations of the direction of the emission (pointing instabilities), and fluctuations of the beam divergence and shape that reduce the spatial coherence. We present the first single-shot measurements of waveguided high-harmonic generation in a waveguided (capillary-based) geometry. Using a capillary waveguide filled with Argon gas as the nonlinear medium, we provide the first characterization of shot-to-shot fluctuations of the pulse energy, of the divergence and of the beam pointing. We record the strength of these fluctuations vs. two basic input parameters, which are the drive laser pulse energy and the gas pressure in the capillary waveguide. In correlation measurements between single-shot drive laser beam profiles and single-shot high-harmonic beam profiles we prove the absence of drive laser beam-pointing-induced fluctuations in the high-harmonic output. We attribute the main source of high-harmonic fluctuations to ionization-induced nonlinear mode mixing during propagation of the drive laser pulse inside the capillary waveguide.

  19. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  20. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANAND

    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  1. Construction of High-Quality Camel Immune Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Ema; Poignavent, Vianney; Vincke, Cécile; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Muyldermans, Serge; Monsion, Baptiste

    2018-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies libraries of heavy-chain only immunoglobulins from camelids or shark are enriched for high-affinity antigen-specific binders by a short in vivo immunization. Thus, potent binders are readily retrieved from relatively small-sized libraries of 10(7)-10(8) individual transformants, mostly after phage display and panning on a purified target. However, the remaining drawback of this strategy arises from the need to generate a dedicated library, for nearly every envisaged target. Therefore, all the procedures that shorten and facilitate the construction of an immune library of best possible quality are definitely a step forward. In this chapter, we provide the protocol to generate a high-quality immune VHH library using the Golden Gate Cloning strategy employing an adapted phage display vector where a lethal ccdB gene has to be substituted by the VHH gene. With this procedure, the construction of the library can be shortened to less than a week starting from bleeding the animal. Our libraries exceed 10(8) individual transformants and close to 100% of the clones harbor a phage display vector having an insert with the length of a VHH gene. These libraries are also more economic to make than previous standard approaches using classical restriction enzymes and ligations. The quality of the Nanobodies that are retrieved from immune libraries obtained by Golden Gate Cloning is identical to those from immune libraries made according to the classical procedure.

  2. Genetic variability and correlation in single cross hybrids of quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenotypic coefficients of variations were higher than the genotypic coefficients of variations for all the traits studied. Thousand seed weight had the highest genotypic coefficients of variation. The highest genetic gainwas obtained for plant height. Thousand seed weight and ear height also recorded high genetic gain.

  3. Quantifying and optimizing single-molecule switching nanoscopy at high speeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    Full Text Available Single-molecule switching nanoscopy overcomes the diffraction limit of light by stochastically switching single fluorescent molecules on and off, and then localizing their positions individually. Recent advances in this technique have greatly accelerated the data acquisition speed and improved the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging. However, it has not been quantified whether this speed increase comes at the cost of compromised image quality. The spatial and temporal resolution depends on many factors, among which laser intensity and camera speed are the two most critical parameters. Here we quantitatively compare the image quality achieved when imaging Alexa Fluor 647-immunolabeled microtubules over an extended range of laser intensities and camera speeds using three criteria - localization precision, density of localized molecules, and resolution of reconstructed images based on Fourier Ring Correlation. We found that, with optimized parameters, single-molecule switching nanoscopy at high speeds can achieve the same image quality as imaging at conventional speeds in a 5-25 times shorter time period. Furthermore, we measured the photoswitching kinetics of Alexa Fluor 647 from single-molecule experiments, and, based on this kinetic data, we developed algorithms to simulate single-molecule switching nanoscopy images. We used this software tool to demonstrate how laser intensity and camera speed affect the density of active fluorophores and influence the achievable resolution. Our study provides guidelines for choosing appropriate laser intensities for imaging Alexa Fluor 647 at different speeds and a quantification protocol for future evaluations of other probes and imaging parameters.

  4. Sharpening high resolution information in single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J J; Luque, D; Castón, J R; Carrascosa, J L

    2008-10-01

    Advances in single particle electron cryomicroscopy have made possible to elucidate routinely the structure of biological specimens at subnanometer resolution. At this resolution, secondary structure elements are discernable by their signature. However, identification and interpretation of high resolution structural features are hindered by the contrast loss caused by experimental and computational factors. This contrast loss is traditionally modeled by a Gaussian decay of structure factors with a temperature factor, or B-factor. Standard restoration procedures usually sharpen the experimental maps either by applying a Gaussian function with an inverse ad hoc B-factor, or according to the amplitude decay of a reference structure. EM-BFACTOR is a program that has been designed to widely facilitate the use of the novel method for objective B-factor determination and contrast restoration introduced by Rosenthal and Henderson [Rosenthal, P.B., Henderson, R., 2003. Optimal determination of particle orientation, absolute hand, and contrast loss in single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. J. Mol. Biol. 333, 721-745]. The program has been developed to interact with the most common packages for single particle electron cryomicroscopy. This sharpening method has been further investigated via EM-BFACTOR, concluding that it helps to unravel the high resolution molecular features concealed in experimental density maps, thereby making them better suited for interpretation. Therefore, the method may facilitate the analysis of experimental data in high resolution single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

  5. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...... methods, and explanins in practical terms the concept of HACCP/QACCP quality system and procedure for aplication to HQCF production. The procedures described in this manual should help cassava processing enterprises to implement the HACCP/QACCP system from the point of root delivery through every...

  6. Quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of single atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Björn; Blank, Holger; Popescu, Radian; Schneider, Reinhard; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2012-02-01

    Single atoms can be considered as the most basic objects for electron microscopy to test the microscope performance and basic concepts for modeling image contrast. In this work high-resolution transmission electron microscopy was applied to image single platinum, molybdenum, and titanium atoms in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The atoms are deposited on a self-assembled monolayer substrate that induces only negligible contrast. Single-atom contrast simulations were performed on the basis of Weickenmeier-Kohl and Doyle-Turner form factors. Experimental and simulated image intensities are in quantitative agreement on an absolute intensity scale, which is provided by the vacuum image intensity. This demonstrates that direct testing of basic properties such as form factors becomes feasible.

  7. High power and single mode quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuto, Alfredo; Bidaux, Yves; Blaser, Stéphane; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Rochat, Michel; Muller, Antoine; Bonzon, Christopher; Faist, Jerome

    2016-05-16

    We present a single mode quantum cascade laser with nearly 1 W optical power. A buried distributed feedback reflector is used on the back section for wavelength selection. The laser is 6 mm long, 3.5 μm wide, mounted episide-up and the laser facets are left uncoated. Laser emission is centered at 4.68 μm. Single-mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of more than 30 dB is obtained in whole range of operation. Farfield measurements prove a symmetric, single transverse-mode emission in TM00-mode with typical divergences of 41° and 33° in the vertical and horizontal direction respectively. This work shows the potential for simple fabrication of high power lasers compatible with standard DFB processing.

  8. Depression and quality of life for women in single-parent and nuclear families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero Hernández, René; Estrada Aranda, Benito; González Ramírez, Mónica Teresa

    2009-05-01

    This is a cross-sectional study which objectives are 1) to determine the predictors for perceived quality of life and 2) to analyze the differences between women from single-parent families and bi-parent families, about their quality of life, depression and familiar income. We worked with a non-probabilistic sample of 140 women from Monterrey, N.L, Mexico, 107 are from bi-parent families and 33 from single parent families. Some of the results show that women from single-parent families have lower quality of life (Z = -2.224, p = .026), lower income (Z = -2.727, p = .006) and greater depression (Z = -6.143, p = .001) than women from bi-parental families. The perceived quality of life's predictors, using a multiple regression model (n = 140) were depression, income and number of children, those variables explaining 25.4% of variance.

  9. Inkjet Printed Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Ambipolar and Unipolar Transistors for High-Performance Complementary Logic Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucella, Sadir Gabriele; Salazar-Rios, Jorge Mario; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Fritsch, Martin; Scherf, Ullrich; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Caironi, Mario

    Inkjet printed single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) field-effect transistors with mobilities of 15 and 7 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) for holes and electrons, respectively, and high on-off ratio, are demonstrated. The high loading of the ink formulation and high electronic quality of the sorted SWCNT enable

  10. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known

  11. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields

  12. Single-stage electronic ballast with high-power factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun-Yoon; Kwon, Jung-Min; Kwon, Bong-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    This article proposes a single-stage electronic ballast circuit with high-power factor. The proposed circuit was derived by sharing the switches of the power factor correction (PFC) and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter. This integration of switches forms the proposed single-stage electronic ballast, which provides an almost unity power factor and a ripple-free input current by using a coupled inductor without increasing the voltage stress. In addition, it realises zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) by employing the self-oscillation technique. The saturable transformer constituting the self-oscillating drive limits the lamp current and dominates the switching frequency of the ballast. Therefore, the proposed single-stage ballast has the advantage of high-power factor, high efficiency, low cost and high reliability. Steady-state analysis of the PFC and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter are described. The results of experiments performed using a 30 W fluorescent lamp are also presented to confirm the performance of the proposed ballast.

  13. Realization and characterization of single-frequency tunable 637.2 nm high-power laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jieying; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2016-01-01

    We report the generation of narrow-linewidth 637.2 nm laser by single-pass sum-frequency generation (SFG) of two infrared lasers at 1560.5 nm and 1076.9 nm in PPMgO:LN crystal. Over 8.75 W of single-frequency continuously tunable 637.2 nm laser is realized, and corresponding conversion efficiency is 38%. We study the behavior of crystals with different poling periods. The detailed experiments show that the output red lasers have very good power stability and beam quality. This high-performance 637.2 nm laser is significant for the realization of high power ultra-violet (UV) 318.6 nm laser via cavity-enhanced frequency doubling. Narrow-linewidth 318.6 nm laser is important for Rydberg excitation of cesium atoms via single-photon transition.

  14. The Singapore high resolution single cell imaging facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Frank; Chen, Xiao; Vera, Armin Baysic De; Udalagama, Chammika N. B.; Ren, M.; Kan, Jeroen A. van; Bettiol, Andrew A.

    2011-10-01

    The Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore has recently expanded from three state-of-the-art beam lines to five. Two new beam lines have been constructed: A second generation proton beam writing line, and a high resolution single cell imaging facility. Both systems feature high demagnification lens systems based on compact Oxford Microbeams OM52 lenses, coupled with reduced lens/image distances. The single cell imaging facility is designed around OM52 compact lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations including the spaced Oxford triplet and the double crossover Russian quadruplet. The new facility has design specifications aimed at spatial resolutions below 50 nm, with a variety of techniques including STIM, secondary electron and fluorescence imaging, and an in-built optical and fluorescence microscope for sample imaging, identification and positioning. Preliminary tests using the single space Oxford triplet configuration have indicated a beam spot size of 31 × 39 nm in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, at beam currents of ∼10,000 protons per second. However, a weakness in the specifications of the electrostatic scanning system has been identified, and a more stable scanning system needs to be implemented before we can fully realize the optimum performance. A single whole fibroblast cell has been scanned using 1.5 MeV protons, and a median fit to the proton transmission energy loss data has shown that proton STIM gives excellent details of the cell structure despite the relatively poor contrast of proton STIM compared with alpha STIM.

  15. The Singapore high resolution single cell imaging facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, Frank, E-mail: phywattf@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Dept. of Physics, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Chen, Xiao; Vera, Armin Baysic De; Udalagama, Chammika N.B.; Ren, M.; Kan, Jeroen A van; Bettiol, Andrew A [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Dept. of Physics, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2011-10-15

    The Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore has recently expanded from three state-of-the-art beam lines to five. Two new beam lines have been constructed: A second generation proton beam writing line, and a high resolution single cell imaging facility. Both systems feature high demagnification lens systems based on compact Oxford Microbeams OM52 lenses, coupled with reduced lens/image distances. The single cell imaging facility is designed around OM52 compact lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations including the spaced Oxford triplet and the double crossover Russian quadruplet. The new facility has design specifications aimed at spatial resolutions below 50 nm, with a variety of techniques including STIM, secondary electron and fluorescence imaging, and an in-built optical and fluorescence microscope for sample imaging, identification and positioning. Preliminary tests using the single space Oxford triplet configuration have indicated a beam spot size of 31 x 39 nm in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, at beam currents of {approx}10,000 protons per second. However, a weakness in the specifications of the electrostatic scanning system has been identified, and a more stable scanning system needs to be implemented before we can fully realize the optimum performance. A single whole fibroblast cell has been scanned using 1.5 MeV protons, and a median fit to the proton transmission energy loss data has shown that proton STIM gives excellent details of the cell structure despite the relatively poor contrast of proton STIM compared with alpha STIM.

  16. High-resolution, single-molecule measurements of biomolecular motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, William J; Woodside, Michael T; Block, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    Many biologically important macromolecules undergo motions that are essential to their function. Biophysical techniques can now resolve the motions of single molecules down to the nanometer scale or even below, providing new insights into the mechanisms that drive molecular movements. This review outlines the principal approaches that have been used for high-resolution measurements of single-molecule motion, including centroid tracking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and optical traps. For each technique, the principles of operation are outlined, the capabilities and typical applications are examined, and various practical issues for implementation are considered. Extensions to these methods are also discussed, with an eye toward future application to outstanding biological problems.

  17. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Strohm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  18. Preparation and characterization of single crystal samples for high-pressure experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, D; Antonangeli, D; Aracne, C; Benterou, J

    2005-10-26

    To date, most research utilizing the diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been conducted with polycrystalline samples, thus the results are limited to addressing average bulk properties. However, experiments on single crystals can yield data on a range of orientation dependent properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, elasticity and plasticity. Here we report new procedures to produce extremely high-quality metallic single crystal samples of size compatible with DAC experiments in the Mbar range. So far, we have produced samples of zinc, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, cobalt, molybdenum and cerium, and have evaluated the quality of the finished samples with white-light interferometry, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and inelastic x-ray scattering.

  19. At the interface between sensation and emotion : perceived qualities of single chords

    OpenAIRE

    Lahdelma, Imre

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the perception of single chords, both in terms of perceived emotions and psychoacoustic qualities. Previous empirical research on harmony perception has mainly been concerned with horizontal aspects of harmony: studies focusing on vertical harmony perception have been rare. The current work aims to fill some of the still evident gaps between musicology, music psychology, and psychoacoustics with regard to single chord pe...

  20. Image quality with single-heartbeat 320-multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle Claire; Weir, Nicholas W; Mirsadraee, Saeed; Scott, Anne E; Uren, Neal G; McKillop, Graham; van Beek, Edwin J R; Reid, John H; Newby, David E

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to establish the feasibility of single-heartbeat 320-multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTCA) and assess variables affecting image quality. Consecutive patients (n = 249, 38% male) underwent CTCA. Two observers assessed image quality using a 4-point scale (1, excellent; 4, poor). Mean heart rate was 60 beats per minute (95% confidence interval, 59-62); body mass index, 29 kg/m (28-30); and dose-length product, 283 mGy·cm (266-301). During scanning, 133 (51%) received sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), 9 (4%) had ectopics, and 12 (5%) had atrial fibrillation. Diagnostic image quality was obtained in 99% with mean image quality of 1.4 (1.3, 1.5). Age, sex, atrial fibrillation, ectopics, diabetes mellitus (12%), and obstructive disease were not related to image quality. A lower heart rate and GTN were associated with improved image quality (P ≤ 0.001). Optimal image quality in single-heartbeat 320-multidetector CTCA is achievable in 99% of unselected patients. Image quality is improved by lower heart rate and GTN.

  1. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  2. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  3. Decision making based on single and double acceptance sampling plans for assessing quality of lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Dumičic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acceptance sampling is a statistical tool of quality control. Sampling plans and operating characteristic (OC curves are very useful for conducting acceptance sampling and provide the quality manager with tools to evaluate the quality of a production run or shipment. There are developed different sampling plans, but common used in practise are single and double acceptance sampling plans. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to test if applying of single and double sampling plan can lead to statistically significant different conclusion about quality level of observed lot. Methods/Approach: Statistical tests of difference in proportions are used to test if there is some statistically significant difference in probabilities of lot fraction defectives between a single and a double sampling plan at the same levels of probability of acceptance. Results: The results of the analysis show that in some cases there is statistically significant difference. Namely, the quality manager should be careful when he chooses to use, instead of the first, the second sampling plan with different parameters because on that way he could make statistically significant different conclusion about quality level of observed lot. Conclusions: The paper shows that some intentional manipulations by using different sampling plans are possible.

  4. High-speed single-pixel digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Humberto; Martínez-León, Lluís.; Soldevila, Fernando; Araiza-Esquivel, Ma.; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús

    2017-06-01

    The complete phase and amplitude information of biological specimens can be easily determined by phase-shifting digital holography. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) based on liquid crystal technology, with a frame-rate around 60 Hz, have been employed in digital holography. In contrast, digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) can reach frame rates up to 22 kHz. A method proposed by Lee to design computer generated holograms (CGHs) permits the use of such binary amplitude modulators as phase-modulation devices. Single-pixel imaging techniques record images by sampling the object with a sequence of micro-structured light patterns and using a simple photodetector. Our group has reported some approaches combining single-pixel imaging and phase-shifting digital holography. In this communication, we review these techniques and present the possibility of a high-speed single-pixel phase-shifting digital holography system with phase-encoded illumination. This system is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with a DMD acting as the modulator for projecting the sampling patterns on the object and also being used for phase-shifting. The proposed sampling functions are phaseencoded Hadamard patterns generated through a Lee hologram approach. The method allows the recording of the complex amplitude distribution of an object at high speed on account of the high frame rates of the DMD. Reconstruction may take just a few seconds. Besides, the optical setup is envisaged as a true adaptive system, which is able to measure the aberration induced by the optical system in the absence of a sample object, and then to compensate the wavefront in the phasemodulation stage.

  5. Single-bonded allotrope of nitrogen predicted at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adebayo A.; Greschner, Michael J.; Majumdar, Arnab; Wan, Biao; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Zhiping; Gou, Huiyang; Yao, Yansun

    2017-12-01

    An allotrope of nitrogen formed solely by N-N single bonds is predicted to exist between 100 and 150 GPa. The crystal structure has the Pccn symmetry and is characterized by a distorted tetrahedral network consisting of fused N8, N10, and N12 rings. Stability of this structure is established by phonon and vibrational free energy calculations at 0 K and finite temperatures. The simulated x-ray diffraction pattern of the Pccn phase is compared to the pattern of a recently synthesized nitrogen phase at the same P -T conditions, which suggests that the Pccn phase is likely a minor component of the latter. The Pccn phase is expected to form above the stability field of the cubic gauche (cg) phase. The outstanding metastability of this phase is attributed to the intrinsic stability of the s p3 bonding as well as the energetically favorable dihedral angles between N-N single bonds, in either gauche or trans conformation. The prediction of another single-bonded phase of nitrogen after the lab-synthesized cg phase will stimulate research on metastable phases of nitrogen and their applications as high-energy-density materials.

  6. Superlocalization of single molecules and nanoparticles in high-fidelity optical imaging microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Sun, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning

    2011-07-01

    Superlocalization of single molecules and nanoparticles with a precision of subnanometer to a few tens of nanometers is crucial for elucidating nanoscale structures and movements in biological and chemical systems. A novel design of ultraflat and ultrathin glass/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid microdevices is introduced to provide almost uncompromised optical imaging quality for on-chip superlocalization and super-resolution imaging of single molecules and nanoparticles under a variety of microscopy modes. The performance of the high-fidelity (Hi-Fi) optical imaging microfluidic device was validated by precisely mapping micronecklaces made of fluorescent microtubules and 40 nm gold nanoparticles and by demonstrating the activation and excitation cycles of single Alexa Fluor 647 dyes for direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy in PDMS-based microchannels for the first time. Furthermore, the microdevice's feasibility for multimodality microscopy imaging was demonstrated by a vertical scan of live cells in epi-fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy modes simultaneously.

  7. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of high power single mode fiber lasers allows for a beam of high power and a good beam quality factor (M2 ” 1.2), compared to the multimode fiber lasers often utilised in macro laser metal cutting. This paper describes fundamental studies of macro laser metal cutting with a single...... mode fiber laser to study the performance of such lasers in terms of cut quality and process performance. Linear cut experiments have been performed applying a 3kW single mode fiber laser and varying the following parameters: laser power, cutting speed, focal length, focus position, cutting gas...... influence the cut quality and the maximum cutting speed in the investigated parameter space. Furthermore the achieved cutting performance is benchmarked to laser cutting with other types of lasers, CO2-lasers, disc-lasers as well as multimode fiber lasers....

  8. Colloid single-layer centrifugation improves post-thaw donkey (Equus asinus) sperm quality and is related to ejaculate freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, I; Dorado, J; Acha, D; Gálvez, M J; Urbano, M; Hidalgo, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether colloid single-layer centrifugation (SLC) improves post-thaw donkey sperm quality and if this potential enhancement is related to ejaculate freezability. Semen from Andalusian donkeys was frozen following a standard protocol. SLC was performed on frozen-thawed semen and post-thaw sperm parameters were compared with uncentrifuged samples. Sperm quality was estimated by integrating in a single value sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), morphology and viability (evaluated under brightfield or fluorescence microscopy). Sperm freezability was calculated as the relationship between sperm quality obtained before freezing and after thawing. Ejaculates were classified into low, medium and high freezability groups using the 25th and 75th percentiles as thresholds. All sperm parameters were significantly (P<0.01) higher in SLC-selected samples in comparison to uncentrifuged frozen-thawed semen and several kinematic parameters were even higher than those obtained in fresh semen. The increment of sperm parameters after SLC selection was correlated with ejaculate freezability, obtaining the highest values after SLC in semen samples with low freezability. We concluded that, based on the sperm-quality parameters evaluated, SLC can be a suitable procedure to improve post-thaw sperm quality of cryopreserved donkey semen, in particular for those ejaculates with low freezability.

  9. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  10. Single-shot LIBS spectral quality for waste particles in open air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, H.; Bakker, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the ability of LIBS to produce quality spectra from small particles of concrete demolition waste using single-shot spectra collected in open air. The 2–8?mm materials are rounded river gravel, green glass shards, and plastic flakes. Considered are focal length, air, moisture,

  11. Single-platelet nanomechanics measured by high-throughput cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David R.; Qiu, Yongzhi; Fay, Meredith E.; Tennenbaum, Michael; Chester, Daniel; Cuadrado, Jonas; Sakurai, Yumiko; Baek, Jong; Tran, Reginald; Ciciliano, Jordan C.; Ahn, Byungwook; Mannino, Robert G.; Bunting, Silvia T.; Bennett, Carolyn; Briones, Michael; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Smith, Michael L.; Brown, Ashley C.; Sulchek, Todd; Lam, Wilbur A.

    2017-02-01

    Haemostasis occurs at sites of vascular injury, where flowing blood forms a clot, a dynamic and heterogeneous fibrin-based biomaterial. Paramount in the clot's capability to stem haemorrhage are its changing mechanical properties, the major drivers of which are the contractile forces exerted by platelets against the fibrin scaffold. However, how platelets transduce microenvironmental cues to mediate contraction and alter clot mechanics is unknown. This is clinically relevant, as overly softened and stiffened clots are associated with bleeding and thrombotic disorders. Here, we report a high-throughput hydrogel-based platelet-contraction cytometer that quantifies single-platelet contraction forces in different clot microenvironments. We also show that platelets, via the Rho/ROCK pathway, synergistically couple mechanical and biochemical inputs to mediate contraction. Moreover, highly contractile platelet subpopulations present in healthy controls are conspicuously absent in a subset of patients with undiagnosed bleeding disorders, and therefore may function as a clinical diagnostic biophysical biomarker.

  12. [Quality evaluation of decoction of single medicinal herb--a case of Lonicerae Japinicae Flos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun-Tao; Li, Qi; Fan, Zi-Quan; Wang, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing; Tong, Jia-Yu; Takehisa, Tomada; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Decoction of single medicinal herb is a reference for the standardization of different dosage form of Chinese medicine and it provides a new direction for solving the problems existing in the quality of Chinese medicinal granules such no uniform dosage forms and no clear quality standard. There are few reports on the idea, method and preparation of single herb standard decoction. Our country is in urgent need of that information in order to improve the consistency and stability of traditional Chinese medicine products. Here, Lonicerae Japinicae Flos was selected as an example to elucidate the preparation and quality evaluation of Chinese single herbal medicine decoction. Twelve batches of representative Lonicerae Japinicae Flos were collected, UPLC fingerprints were established, and the chemical structures of main peaks were identified with UPLC-QTOF-MS and standard compounds. The main components in the decoction are organic acids and iridoids. The extract rate of the standard decoction was (34.2±2.9)% and the transfer rate is (78.6±8.4)% in the form of chlorogenic acid, within the range of 75%-125% of mean. This paper established a method for the quality evaluation of standard decoction of Lonicerae Japinicae Flos and provided reference for the quality control method of terminal products from decoction of Lonicerae Japinicae Flos. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. From joint to single audits – Audit quality differences and auditor pairing background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    A recent EU regulation incentivises the use of joint audits. Concerns motivating this regulation imply that a B4 audit firm is paired with a NB4. However, in the first theoretical study of joint audits Deng et al. (2014) predict that adding a firm with lower technological efficiency to form a joi...... audit system was replaced by a voluntary joint audit system for listed companies. We find no evidence that audit quality differs between single and joint audits irrespective of the joint audit combinations....... audit will reduce the overall quality and adding a firm with similar technological efficiency will only provide the same audit quality as single audits. This paper is the first to provide empirical evidence to the predictions. We exploit a unique natural experiment in Denmark in which a mandatory joint...

  14. Quality Control Review of the Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP FY 2014 Single Audit of Logistics Management Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    E M B E R 2 9 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-138 Quality Control Review of the Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP FY 2014 Single Audit of Logistics... quality control review of the Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP (DHG) FY 2014 single audit of Logistics Management Institute (LMI) to determine whether...Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP SUBJECT: Quality Control Review of the Dixon Hughes Goodman LLP FY 2014 Single Audit of Logistics Management Institute

  15. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  16. Single top quality embryo transfer as a model for prediction of early pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neubourg, D; Gerris, J; Mangelschots, K; Van Royen, E; Vercruyssen, M; Elseviers, M

    2004-06-01

    Single embryo transfer (particularly of a top quality embryo) is an excellent model to correlate embryo quality in terms of morphological criteria to early pregnancy. We investigated whether this model could provide us with more information on what happens after implantation in the first trimester of pregnancy. The outcome of 370 consecutive single top quality embryo transfers in patients younger than 38 years was analysed for pregnancy and first-trimester pregnancy loss (FTPL) before 13 weeks of gestation. Analysis was done on each cohort of embryos from which the transferred top quality embryo was selected. Serum HCG levels were measured on day 8 and day 12 after day 3 embryo transfer. The HCG index was calculated as the level of HCG on day 12/HCG on day 8. The pregnancy rate after single top quality embryo transfer was 51.9%. This was independent of the patients' age. FTPL, however, appeared to be age dependent: 15.4% for the whole group, 9% in patients younger than 30 years and 19% in patients above 30 years. The pregnancy rate was 50% in IVF cycles and 52% in ICSI cycles; FTPL was 19% in IVF cycles and 10% in ICSI cycles. Multiple regression analysis showed that these differences originated from age differences between both populations rather than from technique-related factors. An HCG level >or=45 IU/l on day 12 was predictive for ongoing pregnancy with 75.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity; an HCG index >or=3.5 similarly predicted ongoing pregnancy with 72.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These data show that embryo selection for transfer on day 3 can be used as an excellent tool for prediction of pregnancy but not for prediction of FTPL. The pregnancy rate of a single top quality embryo is not related to age, whereas FTPL is age dependent.

  17. High Throughput Characterization of Epitaxially Grown Single-Layer MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Ghasemi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of single-layer MoS2 with chemical vapor deposition is an established method that can produce large-area and high quality samples. In this article, we investigate the geometrical and optical properties of hundreds of individual single-layer MoS2 crystallites grown on a highly-polished sapphire substrate. Most of the crystallites are oriented along the terraces of the sapphire substrate and have an area comprised between 10 µm2 and 60 µm2. Differential reflectance measurements performed on these crystallites show that the area of the MoS2 crystallites has an influence on the position and broadening of the B exciton while the orientation does not influence the A and B excitons of MoS2. These measurements demonstrate that differential reflectance measurements have the potential to be used to characterize the homogeneity of large-area chemical vapor deposition (CVD-grown samples.

  18. High-power green light generation by second harmonic generation of single-frequency tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Sumpf, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    laser emits in excess of 9 W single-frequency output power with a good beam quality. The output from the tapered diode laser is frequency doubled using periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. We investigate the modulation potential of the green light and improve the modulation depth from 1:4 to 1:50.......We demonstrate the generation of high power (>1.5W) and single-frequency green light by single-pass second harmonic generation of a high power tapered diode laser. The tapered diode laser consists of a DBR grating for wavelength selectivity, a ridge section and a tapered section. The DBR tapered...

  19. Signal quality of single dose gadobenate dimeglumine pulmonary MRA examinations exceeds quality of MRA performed with double dose gadopentetate dimeglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Pamela K; Chenevert, Thomas L; Sostman, H Dirk; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Stein, Paul D; Goodman, Lawrence R; Londy, Frank J; Narra, Vamsidhar; Hales, Charles A; Hull, Russell D; Tapson, Victor F; Weg, John G

    2012-02-01

    During a recent multi-center trial assessing gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), the Food and Drug Administration announced a risk of nephrogenic sclerosing fibrosis in patients with renal insufficiency who had received intravenous Gd-based MR contrast agents. Although no patients in this trial had renal insufficiency, in cautious response to this announcement, the trial protocol was changed from an intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/Kg of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent to 0.1 mmol/Kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The study described herein compares the signal quality of pulmonary MRA performed with double dose conventional agent to single dose gadobenate dimeglumine. This study is a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter study in men and women ≥18 years with documented presence or absence of PE. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at all participating centers, and all patients provided written indication of informed consent. We performed both objective and subjective analysis of pulmonary artery image quality. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the main pulmonary artery were assessed in single and double dose protocols and compared. SNR and CNR of the main PA were correlated with subjective quality assessment of main/lobar, segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Although there were individual outliers, both SNR (P = 0.01) and CNR (P = 0.008) were higher in all quartiles for examinations using gadobenate dimeglumine than with gadopentetate dimeglumine. Subjective quality of vascular signal intensity at each vessel order was significantly better for gadobenate dimeglumine (P dimeglumine provides better pulmonary MRA signal quality than double dose of a conventional Gd-based MR contrast agent.

  20. QUALITY ANALYSIS OF SINGLE TREE OBJECT WITH OBIA AND VEGETATION INDEX FROM LAPAN SURVEILLANCE AIRCRAFT MULTISPECTRAL DATA IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwita Mustika Sari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution remote sensing data as the acquisition result of LAPAN Surveillance Aircraft (LSA has the potential to analyze urban areas. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of LSA multispectral data utilization with an analysis of the single tree object in urban areas with OBIA and vegetation index. The method proposed in this study is a hierarchical classification to obtain the specific tree object that will be used further to analyze the quality of vegetation. In particular, analysis of the vegetation quality on the tree object was carried out by calculating the value of vegetation index NDVI. As a result, the overall accuracy of the hierarchical classification of objects in urban areas reached 88 %. In conclusion, the analysis of the quality of vegetation NDVI has been able to perceive the condition of trees in the urban area.

  1. Simulation of High Quality Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kortbek, Jacob; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates if the influence on image quality using physical transducers can be simulated with an sufficient accuracy to reveal system performance. The influence is investigated in a comparative study between Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation (SASB) and Dynamic Receive Focus...... is modeled by incorporating measured element pulse echo responses into the simulation software. Validation is performed through measurements on a water phantom with three metal wires, each with a diameter of 0.07 mm. Results show that when comparing measurement and simulation, the lateral beam profile using...

  2. Achieving High-Quality Multicultural Geriatric Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    As the ethnic diversity of the U.S. population increases, there is a growing awareness of healthcare disparities and the need to address them. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethnogeriatrics Committee developed outlines healthcare disparities in the United States and the minimum quality indicators that healthcare organizations and healthcare providers should adopt to ensure that all older adults receive care that is culturally appropriate and takes into account level of health literacy. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Development of a Single High Fat Meal Challenge to Unmask ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress tests are used clinically to determine the presence of underlying disease and predict future cardiovascular risk. In previous studies, we used treadmill exercise stress in rats to unmask the priming effects of air pollution inhalation. Other day-to-day activities stress the cardiovascular system, and when modeled experimentally, may be useful in identifying latent effects of air pollution exposure. For example, a single high fat (HF) meal can cause transient vascular endothelial dysfunction and increases in LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oxidative stress, and inflammation. Given the prevalence of HF meals in western diets, the goal of this study was to develop a HF meal challenge in rats to see if air pollution primes the body for a subsequent stress-induced adverse response. Healthy male Wistar Kyoto rats were fasted for six hours and then administered a single oral gavage of isocaloric lard-based HF or low fat (LF) suspensions, or a water vehicle control. We hypothesized that rats given a HF load would elicit postprandial changes in cardiopulmonary function that were distinct from LF and vehicle controls. One to four hours after gavage, rats underwent whole body plethysmography to assess breathing patterns, cardiovascular ultrasounds, blood draws for measurements of systemic lipids and hormones and a test for sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia. HF gavage caused an increase in circulating TG relative to LF and vehicle controls and an incre

  4. Production of high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of producing high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts was evaluated in various ways. With this, a contribution has been made to a more efficient usage of natural resources while yielding a high-quality product. Crude oil extracted from herring byproducts

  5. Looking for High Quality Accreditation in Higher Education in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gama, Jesús Alfonso; Vega Vega, Anselmo

    2017-01-01

    We look for the High Quality Accreditation of tertiary education in two ways: one, involving large amount of information, including issues such as self-assessment, high quality, statistics, indicators, surveys, and field work (process engineering), during several periods of time; and the second, in relation to the information contained there about…

  6. High-Resolution Single-Grain Diffraction of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, Ulrich; Ribárik, Gábor; Ungar, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    . The microstructure usually influences the materials properties critically. It has been demonstrated that, by using high-energy synchrotron radiation, diffraction peaks off individual grains can be recorded in-situ during processing. Important information such as the orientation, average strain, and size...... of individual grains can be obtained, even if the peak shapes are commonly not analyzed. However, it is also well-known that the shape of diffraction peaks, if observed with sufficient resolution, contains significant information about the microstructure. While the intensity distribution in reciprocal space......). Conventional radial profile (line shape) analysis techniques average over many grains with possibly significantly different microstructure. Under conditions of single-grain diffraction, these limitations are overcome and the intensity distributions along all three directions of reciprocal space are accessible....

  7. High pressure Raman spectra of monoglycine nitrate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. O.; Moura, G. M.; Dos Santos, A. O.; Lima, R. J. C.; Freire, P. T. C.; Façanha Filho, P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Single crystal of monoglycine nitrate has been studied by Raman spectroscopy under high pressures up to 5.5 GPa. The results show changes in lattice modes in the pressure ranges of 1.1-1.6 GPa and 4.0-4.6 GPa. The first change occurs with appearance of bands related to the lattice modes as well as discontinuity in the slope of dΩ/dP of these modes. Moreover, bands associated with the skeleton of glycine suggest that the molecule undergoes conformational modifications. The appearance of a strong band at 55 cm- 1 point to a second phase transition associated with the lattice modes, while the internal modes remain unchanged. These anomalies are probably due to rearrangement of hydrogen bonds. Additionally, decompression to ambient pressure shows that the phase transitions are reversible. Finally, the results show that the nitrate anions play an important role on the stability of the monoglycine nitrate crystal.

  8. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.

    2016-01-07

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  9. Single DNA molecule patterning for high-throughput epigenetic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Aline; Cipriany, Benjamin R; Benítez, Jaime J; Craighead, Harold G

    2011-11-01

    We present a method for profiling the 5-methyl cytosine distribution on single DNA molecules. Our method combines soft-lithography and molecular elongation to form ordered arrays estimated to contain more than 250 000 individual DNA molecules immobilized on a solid substrate. The methylation state of the DNA is detected and mapped by binding of fluorescently labeled methyl-CpG binding domain peptides to the elongated dsDNA molecules and imaging of their distribution. The stretched molecules are fixed in their extended configuration by adsorption onto the substrate so analysis can be performed with high spatial resolution and signal averaging. We further prove this technique allows imaging of DNA molecules with different methylation states.

  10. Single-subject research design: recommendations for levels of evidence and quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser Logan, Lynne; Hickman, Robbin R; Harris, Susan R; Heriza, Carolyn B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this article is to present a set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, to foster a critical review of published single-subject research articles. In developing these guidelines, we reviewed levels of evidence and quality/rigor criteria that are in wide use for group research designs, e.g. randomized controlled trials, such as those developed by the Treatment Outcomes Committee of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. We also reviewed methodological articles on how to conduct and critically evaluate single-subject research designs (SSRDs). We then subjected the quality questions to interrater agreement testing and refined them until acceptable agreement was reached. We recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single-subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews, and by clinicians who aim to practise evidence-based medicine and who wish to critically review pediatric single-subject research.

  11. A Preliminary Examination to Identify the Presence of Quality Indicators in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

    2008-01-01

    Scholars in the field of special education put forth a series of papers that proposed quality indicators for specific research designs that must be present for a study to be considered of high quality, as well as standards for evaluating a body of research to determine whether a practice is evidence-based. The purpose of this article was to pilot…

  12. SVMQA: support-vector-machine-based protein single-model quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavalan, Balachandran; Lee, Jooyoung

    2017-08-15

    The accurate ranking of predicted structural models and selecting the best model from a given candidate pool remain as open problems in the field of structural bioinformatics. The quality assessment (QA) methods used to address these problems can be grouped into two categories: consensus methods and single-model methods. Consensus methods in general perform better and attain higher correlation between predicted and true quality measures. However, these methods frequently fail to generate proper quality scores for native-like structures which are distinct from the rest of the pool. Conversely, single-model methods do not suffer from this drawback and are better suited for real-life applications where many models from various sources may not be readily available. In this study, we developed a support-vector-machine-based single-model global quality assessment (SVMQA) method. For a given protein model, the SVMQA method predicts TM-score and GDT_TS score based on a feature vector containing statistical potential energy terms and consistency-based terms between the actual structural features (extracted from the three-dimensional coordinates) and predicted values (from primary sequence). We trained SVMQA using CASP8, CASP9 and CASP10 targets and determined the machine parameters by 10-fold cross-validation. We evaluated the performance of our SVMQA method on various benchmarking datasets. Results show that SVMQA outperformed the existing best single-model QA methods both in ranking provided protein models and in selecting the best model from the pool. According to the CASP12 assessment, SVMQA was the best method in selecting good-quality models from decoys in terms of GDTloss. SVMQA method can be freely downloaded from http://lee.kias.re.kr/SVMQA/SVMQA_eval.tar.gz. jlee@kias.re.kr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. A high efficiency superconducting nanowire single electron detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosticher, M.; Ladan, F.R.; Maneval, J.P.; Dorenbos, S.N.; Zijlstra, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Zwiller, V.; Lupa?cu, A.; Nogues, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of single electrons using a Nb0.7Ti0.3N superconducting wire deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate. While it is known that this device is sensitive to single photons, we show that it also detects single electrons with kilo-electron-volt energy emitted from the cathode of

  14. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  15. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  16. High Efficiency Single Crystal CdTe Solar Cells: November 19, 2009 - January 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, M.; Gilmore, A.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the program was to develop single crystal CdTe-based top cells grown on Si solar cells as a platform for the subsequent manufacture of high efficiency tandem cells for CPV applications. The keys to both the single junction and the tandem junction cell architectures are the ability to grow high quality single-crystal CdTe and CdZnTe layers on p-type Si substrates, to dope the CdTe and CdZnTe controllably, both n and p-type, and to make low resistance ohmic front and back contacts. EPIR demonstrated the consistent MBE growth of CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si having high crystalline quality despite very large lattice mismatches; epitaxial CdTe/Si and CdZnTe/Si consistently showed state-of-the-art electron mobilities and good hole mobilities; bulk minority carrier recombination lifetimes of unintentionally p-doped CdTe and CdZnTe grown by MBE on Si were demonstrated to be consistently of order 100 ns or longer; desired n- and p-doping levels were achieved; solar cell series specific resistances <10 ?-cm2 were achieved; A single-junction solar cell having a state-of-the-art value of Voc and a unverified 16.4% efficiency was fabricated from CdZnTe having a 1.80 eV bandgap, ideal for the top junction in a tandem cell with a Si bottom junction.

  17. Single-crystal study of highly anisotropic CeNiGe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikul, A P; Kaczorowski, D; Bukowski, Z; Plackowski, T; Gofryk, K [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-09-01

    High quality single crystals of CeNiGe{sub 2} have been investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity and thermoelectric power measurements, carried out along all three principal crystallographic directions. The compound is an antiferromagnetic Kondo system that orders magnetically at T{sub N} = 3.9 K and undergoes a spin structure rearrangement at T{sub 1} = 3.2 K. The magnetic behaviour is strongly anisotropic with the easy magnetic direction parallel to the crystallographic a-axis. The Kondo temperature and the total crystal field splitting are of the order of 20 and 100 K, respectively.

  18. Producing affordable high-quality biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draak, H. D.

    2004-12-31

    A novel process to produce biodiesel fuel, used to power an automobile and heat a single-family home, including a domestic hot water heater, is discussed. Although currently used on a very small scale, the process is said to be capable of producing biodiesel on a commercial scale and marketed at the same wholesale price as petro-diesel, with enough price flexibility to adjust up or down to keep pace with fluctuations in oil prices. The basic materials used are canola oil and used fryer oil from restaurants. The crucial points are to pre-treat the used fryer oil to remove impurities, and to wash the newly-produced biodiesel afterwards. Using these materials, production cost is 19 cents per liter (before overhead). Public apathy and the lack of an infrastructure for distribution are major obstacles to commercial-scale production, but the inventor of the process is confident that with a dwindling oil supply and ever-rising oil prices, the opportunities for change to alternative sources of energy are constantly improving. photos.

  19. Generation of High Quality Laser Accelerated Ion Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.; Nishihara, K.; Tajima, T.; Pegoraro, F.; Khoroshkov, V. S.; Mima, K.; Daido, H.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Nagai, K.; Sakabe, S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to achieve a high quality, i. e. monoergetic, intense ion beam, we propose the use of a double layer target. The first layer, at the target front, consists of high-Z atoms, while the second (rear) layer is a thin coating of low-Z atoms. The high quality proton beams from the double layer target, irradiated by an ultra-intense laser pulse, are demonstrated with three dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations.

  20. A novel high-efficiency single-mode quantum dot single photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel single-mode single photon source exploiting the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a photonic wire. Besides an excellent coupling (>95%) of QD spontaneous emission to the fundamental guided mode [1], we show that a single photon collection efficiency...... above 80% within a 0.5 numerical aperture can be achieved using a bottom Bragg mirror and a tapering of the nanowire tip. Because this photon collection strategy does not exploit the Purcell effect, it could also be efficiently applied to broadband single photon emitters such as F-centers in diamond....

  1. Single-frequency MOPA system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuchumishev, D; Gaydardzhiev, A; Trifonov, A; Buchvarov, I [Department of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., BG-1164, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-06-30

    Near-diffraction-limited pulses of a single-frequency and passively Q-switched Nd : YAG laser (240 {mu}J, 830 ps at 0.5 kHz) are amplified up to 13 mJ in a master oscillator - power amplifier system that consists of a preamplifier and two stage diode-pumped amplifier, whilst preserving pulse duration, beam quality and linear polarisation.

  2. Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Most frequently, soil metal pollution results from the occurrence of repeated single-metal and, above all, multi-metal pollution events, with concomitant adverse consequences for soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) pollution events on soil quality, as reflected by the values of a variety of soil microbial parameters with potential as bioindicators of soil functioning. Specifically, parameters of microbial activity (potentially mineralizable nitrogen, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity) and biomass (fungal and bacterial gene abundance by RT-qPCR) were determined, in the artificially metal-polluted soil samples, at regular intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Similarly, we studied the evolution over time of CaCl2-extractable metal fractions, in order to estimate metal bioavailability in soil. Different metals showed different values of bioavailability and relative bioavailability ([metal]bio/[metal]tot) in soil throughout the experiment, under both repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events. Both repeated Zn-pollution and multi-metal pollution events led to a significant reduction in the values of acid phosphatase activity, and bacterial and fungal gene abundance, reflecting the negative impact of these repeated events on soil microbial activity and biomass, and, hence, soil quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case

  4. Single-Seed Casting Large-Size Monocrystalline Silicon for High-Efficiency and Low-Cost Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To grow high-quality and large-size monocrystal-line silicon at low cost, we proposed a single-seed casting technique. To realize this technique, two challenges—polycrystalline nucleation on the crucible wall and dislocation multiplication inside the crystal—needed to be addressed. Numerical analysis was used to develop solutions for these challenges. Based on an optimized furnace structure and operating conditions from numerical analysis, experiments were performed to grow monocrystalline silicon using the single-seed casting technique. The results revealed that this technique is highly superior to the popular high-performance multicrystalline and multiseed casting mono-like techniques.

  5. APPLICATION OF HIGH VOLTAGE DIVIDERS FOR POWER QUALITY INDICES MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Anokhin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Determination of power quality indices in high-voltage power grids allows to find the reasons for the deterioration of the power quality. The relevant national and International Standards for power quality contain relevant norms of quality indices and requirements for their accuracy measurement. Problem. The most complicated part in the process of measuring the power quality indices at high voltage is the selection of the corresponding high-voltage scale voltage converters. Therefore, comparing the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 to high voltage scale voltage converters is an important task. Goal. Analysis of the International Standard IEC 61000-4-30 requirements feasibility for measuring the indices of power quality in high-voltage electrical networks using different types of high-voltage scale voltage converters. Methodology. Comparison of the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 Standard to high-voltage scale voltage converters, when measuring power quality indices, with the characteristics of high voltage electromagnetic transformers used in Ukraine, and with promising developments of high-voltage converters of other types. Results. It is shown in the study that in order to fulfill some of the requirements for class A of IEC 61000-4-30, the characteristics of electromagnetic voltage transformers should be determined in the substation conditions using mobile calibration high-voltage laboratories. To meet all the requirements for Class A IEC 61000-4-30, it is recommended to use broadband high-voltage dividers of resistive-capacitive type. Originality. In study it is shown firstly that all the requirements of the IEC 61000-4-30 Standard for high-voltage scale voltage converters can be performed on the basis of the use of broadband resistive-capacitive damped voltage dividers. Practical value. Expositions of specific types of resistive-capacitive high-voltage dividers are presented, their parameters are confirmed by the results of state

  6. High-throughput deterministic single-cell encapsulation and droplet pairing, fusion, and shrinkage in a single microfluidic device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeman, R.M.; Kemna, Evelien; Wolbers, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    In this article, we present a microfluidic device capable of successive high-yield single-cell encapsulation in droplets, with additional droplet pairing, fusion, and shrinkage. Deterministic single-cell encapsulation is realized using Dean-coupled inertial ordering of cells in a Yin-Yang-shaped

  7. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  8. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Single-Channel Speech Separation Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results.......Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...

  9. Single event effects in high-energy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Alía, Rubén; Brugger, Markus; Danzeca, Salvatore; Cerutti, Francesco; de Carvalho Saraiva, Joao Pedro; Denz, Reiner; Ferrari, Alfredo; Foro, Lionel L.; Peronnard, Paul; Røed, Ketil; Secondo, Raffaello; Steckert, Jens; Thurel, Yves; Toccafondo, Iacocpo; Uznanski, Slawosz

    2017-03-01

    The radiation environment encountered at high-energy hadron accelerators strongly differs from the environment relevant for space applications. The mixed-field expected at modern accelerators is composed of charged and neutral hadrons (protons, pions, kaons and neutrons), photons, electrons, positrons and muons, ranging from very low (thermal) energies up to the TeV range. This complex field, which is extensively simulated by Monte Carlo codes (e.g. FLUKA) is due to beam losses in the experimental areas, distributed along the machine (e.g. collimation points) and deriving from the interaction with the residual gas inside the beam pipe. The resulting intensity, energy distribution and proportion of the different particles largely depends on the distance and angle with respect to the interaction point as well as the amount of installed shielding material. Electronics operating in the vicinity of the accelerator will therefore be subject to both cumulative damage from radiation (total ionizing dose, displacement damage) as well as single event effects which can seriously compromise the operation of the machine. This, combined with the extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components due to budget, performance and availability reasons, results in the need to carefully characterize the response of the devices and systems to representative radiation conditions.

  10. Physical and mechanical properties of single and large crystal high-RRR niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapati Myneni

    2005-07-10

    High RRR bulk niobium SRF cavities are the building blocks of the latest and future particle accelerators, free electron lasers (FEL's) and energy recovery linacs (ERL's.). These cavities are fabricated from high purity (RRR) poly crystalline niobium sheets via deep drawing, e-beam welding and surface treatment to obtain high accelerating gradients and quality factors. However, the starting bulk RRR niobium properties are not yet optimized with respect to both cost reduction and achievement of ultimate performance. A major limitation in achieving the highest performance can possibly be attributed to imperfections at or near the grain boundaries. Recently, at Jefferson Lab single/large grain RRR niobium cavities are developed using customized RRR ingots with optimized amounts of impurities such as Tantalum and minimizing the interstitial contents (O, C, N and H).

  11. Transient cavitation in high-quality-factor resonators at high static pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitan, D Felipe; Tessien, Ross A; Hiller, Robert A; Gutierrez, Joel; Scott, Corey; Tardif, Henry; Callahan, Brant; Matula, Thomas J; Crum, Lawrence A; Holt, R Glynn; Church, Charles C; Raymond, Jason L

    2010-06-01

    It is well known that cavitation collapse can generate intense concentrations of mechanical energy, sufficient to erode even the hardest metals and to generate light emissions visible to the naked eye [sonoluminescence (SL)]. Considerable attention has been devoted to the phenomenon of "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL) in which a single stable cavitation bubble radiates light flashes each and every acoustic cycle. Most of these studies involve acoustic resonators in which the ambient pressure is near 0.1 MPa (1 bar), and with acoustic driving pressures on the order of 0.1 MPa. This study describes a high-quality factor, spherical resonator capable of achieving acoustic cavitation at ambient pressures in excess of 30 MPa (300 bars). This system generates bursts of violent inertial cavitation events lasting only a few milliseconds (hundreds of acoustic cycles), in contrast with the repetitive cavitation events (lasting several minutes) observed in SBSL; accordingly, these events are described as "inertial transient cavitation." Cavitation observed in this high pressure resonator is characterized by flashes of light with intensities up to 1000 times brighter than SBSL flashes, as well as spherical shock waves with amplitudes exceeding 30 MPa at the resonator wall. Both SL and shock amplitudes increase with static pressure.

  12. High brightness single photon sources based on photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.; Bazin, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel single-photon-source based on the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a single-mode photonic wire. This geometry ensures a very large coupling (> 95%) of the spontaneous emission to the guided mode. Numerical simulations show that a photon collection efficiency...... of GaAs and defined by reactive-ion etching....

  13. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  14. Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Online presentation and webinar by Stracke, C. M. (2017, 18 December) on "Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER" for the Belt and Road Open Education Learning Week by the Beijing Normal University, China.

  15. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-01-01

    Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the...

  16. Quality of root canal fillings performed by undergraduate dental students on single-rooted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C D; Burke, F M

    2006-05-01

    Root canal therapy is an accepted and successful form of tooth conservation. Educational guidelines require dental schools to ensure that their graduates are competent on graduation at performing root canal therapy. The aim of this investigation was to assess the technical quality of root canal fillings placed by undergraduate students in single-rooted teeth. A total of 100 radiographs of root canal fillings placed by undergraduate students in single-rooted teeth were examined under even illumination in a darkened room using x2 magnification. These were graded as 'adequate', where the root canal filling was within 2 mm of the radiographic apex, 'under-filled', where the root canal filling was >2 mm from the radiographic apex, and 'over-filled', where the root canal filling was extruded beyond the radiographic apex. The presence of voids, fractured instruments, and root perforations were also noted. All teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer (Roth Cement), using a cold lateral condensation technique. Of 100 teeth, 10% (n = 10) had voids. Of the remainder, 70% (n = 63) were judged to be 'acceptable', 21% (n = 19) were 'under-filled', and 9% (n = 8) were 'over-filled'. There was no evidence of fractured instruments or root perforations in any root filling examined. The quality of root canal fillings placed in single-rooted teeth by undergraduate dental students at the University Dental School and Hospital, Cork was acceptable (63% of root fillings placed in single rooted teeth were graded as 'adequate'). The probable reasons for this are multi-factorial, but may be linked to the amount of pre-clinical and clinical teaching in endodontics at the University Dental School and Hospital, Cork. It should be remembered that factors other than radiographic quality/evidence must be considered when determining the outcome of root canal therapy.

  17. Quality control of slope-intercept measurements of glomerular filtration rate using single-sample estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John S; Persaud, Linda; Zivanovic, Maureen A

    2005-08-01

    Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the slope-intercept technique determines the plasma clearance curve by fitting a straight line to the logarithm of sample count rate. When two samples are used there is no check on the validity of curve fitting. GFR may also be estimated from single-sample concentrations. This study describes a method of quality control for the two-sample technique using the agreement between the one-sample and two-sample estimates. GFR measurements using Tc-DTPA were performed on 225 adults and 100 children using two samples taken between 2 h and 4 h post-injection. The two-sample values obtained using the British Nuclear Medicine Guidelines slope-intercept technique were compared to one-sample estimates obtained using a new general equation. Equations describing the variation of GFR error with GFR value were defined. These were used to determine action levels giving the limits of expected agreement between slope-intercept and single-sample values. The use of these action levels for quality control was demonstrated in a further 120 GFR measurements. The variation of single-sample error estimate with GFR depended both on the time of sample and body surface area. For specific sample groups, the error variation with GFR could be approximated using a truncated quadratic equation. Four studies were identified as failing quality control in the dataset used to define the error equations. Two studies failed in the test dataset. One-sample equations give reliable estimates of GFR, which may be used for quality control of slope-intercept GFR assessment.

  18. Cavity quantum electrodynamics studies with site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots integrated into high quality microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzenstein, S.; Schneider, C.; Albert, F.

    2011-01-01

    . The nanoholes are located relative to cross markers which allows for a precise spatial alignment of the site-controlled QDs (SCQDs) and the photonic modes of high quality microcavites with an accuracy better than 50 nm. We also address the optical quality of the SCQDs in terms of the single SCQD emission mode...

  19. Single-Molecule High-Resolution Imaging with Photobleaching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew P. Gordon; Taekjip Ha; Paul R. Selvin; Gordon A. Baym

    2004-01-01

    ... of 1.5 nm with subsecond time resolution. Here we locate the position of two dyes and determine their separation with 5-nm precision, using the quantal photobleaching behavior of single fluorescent dye molecules...

  20. Improved Murine Blastocyst Quality and Development in a Single Culture Medium Compared to Sequential Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Justin M; Zimmer, Randall L; Nabli, Henda; Davis, J Wade; Sutovsky, Peter; Sutovsky, Miriam; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L

    2016-03-01

    Validate single versus sequential culture media for murine embryo development. Prospective laboratory experiment. Assisted Reproduction Laboratory. Murine embryos. Thawed murine zygotes cultured for 3 or 5 days (d3 or d5) in single or sequential embryo culture media developed for human in vitro fertilization. On d3, zygotes developing to the 8 cell (8C) stage or greater were quantified using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and quality was assessed by morphological analysis. On d5, the number of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage was counted. DAPI was used to quantify total nuclei and inner cell mass nuclei. Localization of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) was reference points for evaluating cell quality. Comparing outcomes in single versus to sequential media, the odds of embryos developing to the 8C stage on d3 were 2.34 time greater (P = .06). On d5, more embryos reached the blastocyst stage (P = culture. Human embryo studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. High-Performance Single-Photon Sources via Spatial Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ingredient for tasks such as quantum cryptography , quantum repeater, quantum teleportation, quantum computing, and truly-random number generation. Recently...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Single photons sources are desired for many potential quantum information applications. One common method to produce...photons sources are desired for many potential quantum information applications. One common method to produce single photons is based on a “heralding

  2. High quality image oriented telemedicine with multimedia technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H; Minato, K; Takahasi, T

    1999-07-01

    Researchers at Osaka and Kyoto University hospital performed three experiments, beginning in 1995, which looked at high quality-oriented telemedicine. This paper describes the system design for the three projects. Experiment 1 applied high-definition TV images and B-ISDN for distance learning and medical information exchange. Experiment 2 developed a super high-definition medical image filing system and the images were transmitted via B-ISDN for teleconferences and experiment 3 utilized digital, high-definition, TV images and communication satellites for teleconferences. Multimedia and communication technologies were considered to be fundamental components of telemedicine. The three projects were evaluated initially for quality of images, operability and utility. The experimental design and its implementation showed that it was possible to provide high quality image-oriented telemedicine in the health care environment. Obstacles to establishing practical telemedicine are also discussed.

  3. Single step high-speed printing of continuous silver lines by laser-induced forward transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerto, D., E-mail: puerto@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France); Biver, E. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France); Oxford Lasers Ltd., Unit 8, Moorbrook Park, Didcot, OX11 7HP (United Kingdom); Alloncle, A.-P.; Delaporte, Ph. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 laboratory Campus de Luminy, C.917, Marseille (France)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks. • We have achieved the printing of lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s (1 MHz laser). • The ejection dynamics has been investigated by means of a time-resolved imaging technique. • The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to print lines at high velocities. • Continuous conductive lines of silver inks are laser-printed on PET flexible substrates. - Abstract: The development of high-speed ink printing process by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is of great interest for the printing community. To address the problems and the limitations of this process that have been previously identified, we have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks by LIFT and demonstrated for the first time the printing of continuous conductive lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s using a 1 MHz repetition rate laser. We investigated the printing process by means of a time-resolved imaging technique to visualize the ejection dynamics of single and adjacent jets. The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to achieve single step printing of continuous lines at high velocities. We use a 30 ps pulse duration laser with a wavelength of 343 nm and a repetition rate from 0.2 to 1 MHz. A galvanometric mirror head controls the distance between two consecutives jets by scanning the focused beam along an ink-coated donor substrate at different velocities. Droplets and lines of silver inks are laser-printed on glass and PET flexible substrates and we characterized their morphological quality by atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical microscope.

  4. High sensitivity fluorescent single particle and single molecule detection apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Peck, Konan; Stryer, Lubert

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus is described for ultrasensitive detection of single fluorescent particles down to the single fluorescent molecule limit in a fluid or on a substrate comprising means for illuminating a predetermined volume of the fluid or area of the substrate whereby to emit light including background light from the fluid and burst of photons from particles residing in the area. The photon burst is detected in real time to generate output representative signal. The signal is received and the burst of energy from the fluorescent particles is distinguished from the background energy to provide an indication of the number, location or concentration of the particles or molecules.

  5. A Quality Evaluation of Single and Multiple Camera Calibration Approaches for an Indoor Multi Camera Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adduci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human detection and tracking has been a prominent research area for several scientists around the globe. State of the art algorithms have been implemented, refined and accelerated to significantly improve the detection rate and eliminate false positives. While 2D approaches are well investigated, 3D human detection and tracking is still an unexplored research field. In both 2D/3D cases, introducing a multi camera system could vastly expand the accuracy and confidence of the tracking process. Within this work, a quality evaluation is performed on a multi RGB-D camera indoor tracking system for examining how camera calibration and pose can affect the quality of human tracks in the scene, independently from the detection and tracking approach used. After performing a calibration step on every Kinect sensor, state of the art single camera pose estimators were evaluated for checking how good the quality of the poses is estimated using planar objects such as an ordinate chessboard. With this information, a bundle block adjustment and ICP were performed for verifying the accuracy of the single pose estimators in a multi camera configuration system. Results have shown that single camera estimators provide high accuracy results of less than half a pixel forcing the bundle to converge after very few iterations. In relation to ICP, relative information between cloud pairs is more or less preserved giving a low score of fitting between concatenated pairs. Finally, sensor calibration proved to be an essential step for achieving maximum accuracy in the generated point clouds, and therefore in the accuracy of the produced 3D trajectories, from each sensor.

  6. THE VISUAL METHOD IN QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SINGLE-LAP ADHESIVE JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents selected criteria for the quality assessment of single-lap adhesive joints formed on 0.66±0.04 thick hot dip zinc coated sheets with the hot dip zinc coating thickness equal to 18 µm. Three types of epoxy adhesives and three variants of the mass of adhesives were tested (1 g, 2 g and 3 g. The work intended to assess the capacity of the visual method with regard to evaluating joint quality, allowing for the presence and the size of spew fillet, joint dimensions and the effect of spew fillet on adhesive joint strength. The strength of analysed adhesive joints was determined in destructive tests.

  7. A Procedure for High Resolution Satellite Imagery Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Crespi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF. This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites.

  8. Single-photon interference experiment for high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    We follow the reductio ad absurdum reasoning described in the book "Sneaking a Look at God's Cards" by Giancarlo Ghirardi to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup analog to the conventional Young double-slit experiment. We aim at showing the double nature of light by measuring the existence of interference fringes down to the single-photon level. The setup includes a strongly attenuated laser, polarizing beam splitters, half-waveplates, polarizers and single-photon detectors.

  9. Key factors for a high-quality VR experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Doré, Renaud; Mollet, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    For many years, Virtual Reality has been presented as a promising technology that could deliver a truly new experience to users. The media and entertainment industry is now investigating the possibility to offer a video-based VR 360 experience. Nevertheless, there is a substantial risk that VR 360 could have the same fate as 3DTV if it cannot offer more than just being the next fad. The present paper aims at presenting the various quality factors required for a high-quality VR experience. More specifically, this paper will focus on the main three VR quality pillars: visual, audio and immersion.

  10. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  11. The High Flying Leadership Qualities: What Matters the Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    which is an important leadership quality … If it’s important to the supervisor to develop skills and education in both them- selves and employees, it...IATIO N THE HIGH FLYING Leadership Qualities: What Matters the Most? Col Robert L. Tremaine, USAF (Ret.) Like many U.S. companies, the Department...every DoD organization invests in leadership development the same way. The ones that do think more deeply about their future have thoughtful and

  12. Growth of high quality InGaAsN heterostructures and their laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. Yu.; Bernklau, D.; Borchert, B.; Illek, S.; Livshits, D.; Rucki, A.; Schuster, M.; Kaschner, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Dumitras, Gh.; Amann, M. C.; Riechert, H.

    2001-07-01

    Focus of this work is the optimization of growth to achieve high quality laser material for emission at 1.3 μm and beyond. GaAs/GaAsN/InGaAsN heterostructures were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. To achieve optimum crystal quality of InGaAsN heterostructures, growth was followed by a high temperature treatment at about 700°C. The high optical quality of our annealed material is attested by large exciton recombination lifetimes (more than 2 ns). Consequently, a decrease of single quantum well transparency current density down to 100 A/cm 2 is found and SWQ lasers with threshold current densities as low as 350 A/cm 2 have been made. This represents clearly the lowest laser thresholds reported so far for emission around 1.3 μm from the InGaAsN material system.

  13. Temporal dynamics of high repetition rate pulsed single longitudinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion dynamics closely affects both spectral and temporal behaviour of the dye laser. The frequency chirp of the dye laser during the evolution due to pulsation of population is studied for our cavity and the results are presented. 2. Experimental method. Figure 1 shows the schematic of the single longitudinal mode (SLM) dye ...

  14. Cheap arbitrary high order methods for single integrand SDEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Kristian; Kværnø, Anne

    2017-01-01

    -series of the exact solution and numerical approximation are, due to the single integrand and the usual rules of calculus holding for Stratonovich integration, similar to the ODE case. The only difference is that integration with respect to time is replaced by integration with respect to the measure induced...

  15. Simple single-emitting layer hybrid white organic light emitting with high color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneously achieving a high efficiency and color quality at luminance levels required for solid-state lighting has been difficult for white organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Single-emitting layer (SEL) white OLEDs, in particular, exhibit a significant tradeoff between efficiency and color stability. Furthermore, despite the simplicity of SEL white OLEDs being its main advantage, the reported device structures are often complicated by the use of multiple blocking layers. In this paper, we report a highly simplified three-layered white OLED that achieves a low turn-on voltage of 2.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 18.9% and power efficiency of 30 lm/W at 1000 cd/cm2. This simple white OLED also shows good color quality with a color rendering index of 75, CIE coordinates (0.42, 0.46), and little color shifting at high luminance. The device consists of a SEL sandwiched between a hole transport layer and an electron transport layer. The SEL comprises a thermally activated delayer fluorescent molecule having dual functions as a blue emitter and as a host for other lower energy emitters. The improved color stability and efficiency in such a simple device structure is explained as due to the elimination of significant energy barriers at various organic-organic interfaces in the traditional devices having multiple blocking layers.

  16. Defects of diamond single crystal grown under high temperature and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qingcai, E-mail: suqc@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Li, Musen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The diamond single crystal, synthesized with Fe–Ni–C–B system of catalyst under high temperature and high pressure, had been observed by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The presence of a cellular structure suggested that the diamond grew from melted catalyst solution and there existed a zone of component supercooling zone in front of the solid–liquid interface. The main impurities in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. The triangle screw pit revealed on the (111) plane was generated by the screw dislocation meeting the diamond (111) plane at the points of emergence of dislocations. A narrow twin plane was formed between the two (111) plane. - Highlights: • High pressure, high temperature synthesis of diamond single crystal. • Fe–Ni–C–B used as catalyst, graphite as carbon source. • The main impurity in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Surface defects arose from screw dislocations and stacking faults.

  17. Next Generation High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, we have witnessed an explosion of video initiatives in the industry worldwide. Several advancements in video technology are currently improving the way we interact and collaborate. These advancements are forcing tendencies and overall experiences: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To cope with this technology progresses, CERN IT Department has taken the leading role to establish strategies and directions to improve the user experience in remote dispersed meetings and remote collaboration at large in the worldwide LHC communities. Due to the high rate of dispersion in the LHC user communities, these are critically dependent of videoconferencing technology, with a need of robustness and high quality for the best possible user experience. We will present an analysis of the factors that influenced the technical and strategic choices to improve the reliability, efficiency and overall quality of the LHC remote sessions. In particular, ...

  18. Two open access, high-quality datasets from anesthetic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumin, David; Newton-Wade, Vanessa; Harrison, Michael J; Merry, Alan F

    2013-01-01

    To provide a set of high-quality time-series physiologic and event data from anesthetic cases formatted in an easy-to-use structure. With ethics committee approval, data from surgical operations under general anesthesia were collected, including physiologic data, drug administrations, events, and clinicians' comments. These data were de-identified, formatted in a combined CSV/XML structure and made publicly available. Two separate datasets were collected containing physiologic time-series data and time-stamped events for 34 patients. For 20 patients, the data included 400 physiologic signals collected over 20 h, 274 events, and 597 drug administrations. For 14 patients, the data included 23 physiologic signals collected over 69 h, with 286 time stamped comments. Data reuse potentially saves significant time and financial costs. However, there are few high-quality repositories for accessible physiologic data and clinical interventions from surgical cases. De-identifying records assists with overcoming problems of privacy and storing the data in a format which is easily manipulated with computing resources facilitates access by the wider research community. It is hoped that additional high-quality data will be added. Future work includes developing tools to explore and visualize the data more efficiently, and establishing quality control measures. An approach to collecting and storing high-quality datasets from surgical operations under anesthesia such that they can be easily accessed by others for use in research has been demonstrated.

  19. Introduction of the SHX-III System, a Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Michiro; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Kabasawa, Mitsuaki; Ishikawa, Koji; Murooka, Hiroki; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2008-11-01

    The SHX-III system, categorized as a single-wafer high-current ion implanter, has been developed by SEN Corporation in order to meet all the requirements for high dose and relatively high mid-dose applications, including high-tilted multi-step implantation. Recently the three major advanced device types, namely logic devices, memory and imagers, started to require high-current ion implanters in diverse ways. The SHX-III is designed to fulfill such a variety of requirements in one system. The SHX-III has the same end station as the MC3-II/WR, SEN's latest medium current implanter, which has a mechanical throughput of 450 WPH. This capability and precise dose control system of the SHX-III causes dramatic productivity enhancement for application of mid-high dose, ranged between 5E13 to 2E14 atoms/cm2, usually performed by medium current ion implanters. In this paper the concept and performance of the SHX-III will be described, concerning influence of device characteristics. A concept and performance data of the SHX figure that this system can provide implant quality and productivity as far as the 32 nm node.

  20. High resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Campos, J D; Neyenhuis, B; Mizrahi, J; Monroe, C

    2015-01-01

    We report the optical imaging of a single atom with nanometer resolution using an adaptive optical alignment technique that is applicable to general optical microscopy. By decomposing the image of a single laser-cooled atom, we identify and correct optical aberrations in the system and realize an atomic position sensitivity of $\\approx$ 0.5 nm/$\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}}$ with a minimum uncertainty of 1.7 nm, allowing the direct imaging of atomic motion. This is the highest position sensitivity ever measured for an isolated atom, and opens up the possibility of performing out-of-focus 3D particle tracking, imaging of atoms in 3D optical lattices or sensing forces at the yoctonewton (10$^{-24}$ N) scale.

  1. Production of high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Aidos, I.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of producing high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts was evaluated in various ways. With this, a contribution has been made to a more efficient usage of natural resources while yielding a high-quality product. Crude oil extracted from herring byproducts is relatively rich in essentialw-3 PUFAs such as EPA and DHA, and is relatively stable during storage. The main conclusions of this study were: herring byprodu...

  2. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the method of interviewing by questionnaires was applied. The sample survey was conducted among undergraduate students, teachers and staff of the Teacher Training Faculty in Uzice.

  3. Ethnic/racial discrimination moderates the effect of sleep quality on school engagement across high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Margaret; Mirpuri, Sheena; Yip, Tiffany

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that school engagement tends to decline across high school. At the same time, sleep problems and exposure to social stressors such as ethnic/racial discrimination increase. The current study uses a biopsychosocial perspective to examine the interactive and prospective effects of sleep and discrimination on trajectories of academic performance. Growth curve models were used to explore changes in 6 waves of academic outcomes in a sample of 310 ethnically and racially diverse adolescents (mean age = 14.47 years, SD = .78, and 64.1% female). Ethnic/racial discrimination was assessed at Time 1 in a single survey. Sleep quality and duration were also assessed at Time 1 with daily diary surveys. School engagement and grades were reported every 6 months for 3 years. Higher self-reported sleep quality in the ninth grade was associated with higher levels of academic engagement at the start of high school. Ethnic/racial discrimination moderated the relationship between sleep quality and engagement such that adolescents reporting low levels of discrimination reported a steeper increase in engagement over time, whereas their peers reporting poor sleep quality and high levels of discrimination reported the worse engagement in the ninth grade and throughout high school. The combination of poor sleep quality and high levels of discrimination in ninth grade has downstream consequences for adolescent academic outcomes. This study applies the biopsychosocial model to understand the development and daily experiences of diverse adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Optical Absorption in Commercial Single Mode Optical Fibers in a High Energy Physics Radiation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, T; Kuhnhenn, J; Hoeffgen, S K; Weinand, U

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the radiation induced attenuation of light at 1310 nm and 1550 nm in 12 commercially available single mode (SM) optical fibers. The fiber samples are exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co source and to a high energy physics radiation field. The attenuation is studied as a function of total dose, dose rate, light power and temperature. Radiation hard fibers from one manufacturer show an extraordinary low attenuation for light at 1310 nm that does not exceed 5 dB/km even after a total dose of 1 MGy. 2500 km of this type of fiber have been produced by the manufacturer and quality assurance measurements of the production batches are presently ongoing.

  5. TiN superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with single-photon quality factors of 1.5 million

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusine, Greg; Rosenberg, Danna; Hover, David; Das, Rabindra; Melville, Alexander; Miloshi, Xhovalin; Woods, Wayne; Yoder, Jonilyn; Oliver, William

    The investigation of loss mechanisms in superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator provides an efficient means to elucidate relevant loss mechanisms affecting superconducting qubit circuits. As compared to superconducting qubits, the reduced complexity of CPW fabrication coupled with the straightforward characterization of CPW properties facilitates the deconvolution of the impact of individual fabrication steps on the CPW performance. We assess this impact by characterizing the statistically significant differences in internal quality factors (Qi) at the single-photon level resulting from different fabrication processes in aluminum and titanium nitride (TiN) superconducting thin film CPW resonators on silicon. We demonstrate repeatable Qi's at the single-photon level of approximately 1.5x10 in TiN CPW resonators with 90 percent of devices showing Qi's above 1x106 and single Qi's as high as 3.8x106. This work is sponsored in part by the Laboratory for Physical Science, IARPA, and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  6. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  7. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  8. An improved multi-exposure approach for high quality holographic femtosecond laser patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei, E-mail: huyl@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Jiawen, E-mail: huyl@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Lao, Zhaoxin; Ni, Jincheng; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Wu, Dong [Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-12-01

    High efficiency two photon polymerization through single exposure via spatial light modulator (SLM) has been used to decrease the fabrication time and rapidly realize various micro/nanostructures, but the surface quality remains a big problem due to the speckle noise of optical intensity distribution at the defocused plane. Here, a multi-exposure approach which used tens of computer generate holograms successively loaded on SLM is presented to significantly improve the optical uniformity without losing efficiency. By applying multi-exposure, we found that the uniformity at the defocused plane was increased from ∼0.02 to ∼0.6 according to our simulation. The fabricated two series of letters “HELLO” and “USTC” under single-and multi-exposure in our experiment also verified that the surface quality was greatly improved. Moreover, by this method, several kinds of beam splitters with high quality, e.g., 2 × 2, 5 × 5 Daman, and complex nonseperate 5 × 5, gratings were fabricated with both of high quality and short time (<1 min, 95% time-saving). This multi-exposure SLM-two-photon polymerization method showed the promising prospect in rapidly fabricating and integrating various binary optical devices and their systems.

  9. Reliability and validity of a single item measure of quality of life scale for adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Abebaw M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to monitor health related quality of life in order to determine the efficacy of interventions and physical functioning of patients with cystic fibrosis in their daily activities. There is no a single-item global quality of life scale for routine clinical practice for adult patients with cystic fibrosis. We assessed the reliability and validity of a single-item global quality of life scale and compared with the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (CF-QOL for adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Method 121 (men = 66, women = 55 adult cystic fibrosis patients self-completed the CF-QOL, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the single item global quality of life scale at the out patient clinic. 33 (17 women completed the repeat questionnaires at home within two weeks. Socio-demographic characteristic and lung function data were extracted from the recent medical notes. Results Mean (SD age was 29.6 (8.9 years and mean (SD forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 2.20 (0.94 litres. The test-retest reproducibility using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC for the CF-QOL was 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.91. The single item global quality of life ICC score was 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.88. Concurrent validity of the single-item global quality of life was examined in relation to all items of the CF-QOL, frequent episodes of readmission, anxiety and depression (all, p Conclusion The study provides preliminary evidence that the single-item quality of life scale is acceptable, valid and repeatable for adult patients with cystic fibrosis. It is a promising tool that can be easily incorporated into a routine clinical practice to assess patients' quality of life.

  10. Production and postharvest quality maintenance of single unit and bunching broccoli in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Jett, Lewis W.

    1990-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has become an increasingly popular vegetable with American consumers. Much of the attractiveness of fresh broccoli is derived from this vegetable's high nutrition and excellent organoleptic properties. In a consumer response survey, Virginia Master Gardeners indicated a preference for broccoli that has less stalk and more florets by weight. The objectives of this research were to produce single unit broccoli, and to examine vac...

  11. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  12. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  13. Coming soon to your clinic: high-quality ART.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Empel, IW van; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of 'patient-friendly' medically assisted reproduction includes a robust set of clinical practice principles, to improve the quality of subfertility care. This concept is an important move away from the sole focus on effectiveness and high pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction

  14. The High-Quality School: Thoughtful vs. Technocratic Leadership. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Clark

    Four ideas or theses about schooling and leadership together form a coherent approach to teaching and learning in the high-quality school. They form the basis, if not for large-scale reform, at least for individual consideration and adoption. The first thesis is that humans are creatures of perspective or viewpoint. The second thesis is that the…

  15. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... architectural quality. Development must maintain a uniformly high standard of architecture, representative of the best contemporary design and planning concepts. Great care and sensitivity must be shown in the... GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE...

  16. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malawi has high rates of maternal mortality despite concerted efforts to increase the rate of births at health facilities. In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve the quality of health services. Similar initiatives have proven ...

  17. Supplementation of quality protein to high producing Jersey cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evelen

    The milk yield potential of 500 kg cows grazing ryegrass pasture, with no supplementation, is 16 to. 17 litres a day (Dugmore, 1995). The aim of the study was to determine whether grazing cows that are receiving maize supplementation, with minerals included, would respond to the addition of a high quality protein source,.

  18. The Nature of Spontaneity in High Quality Mathematics Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gaye

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneity has been linked to high quality learning experiences in mathematics (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1992; Williams, 2002).This paper shows how spontaneity can be identified by attending to the nature of social elements in the process of abstracting (Dreyfus, Hershkowitz, & Schwarz, 2001). This process is elaborated…

  19. Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, S.J.; Tao, Y.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Biedron, S.G.; Danailov, M.B.; Milton, S.V.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2015-01-01

    For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic

  20. Highly qualified does not equal high quality: A study of urban stakeholders' perceptions of quality in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel Joseph

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions that urban stakeholders hold about what characteristics should distinguish a high school science teacher whom they would consider to demonstrate high quality in science teaching. A maximum variation sample of six science teachers, three school administrators, six parents and six students from a large urban public school district were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, a list of observable characteristics which urban stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching was generated. Observational techniques were utilized to determine the extent to which six urban high school science teachers, who meet the NCLB Act criteria for being "highly qualified", actually possessed the characteristics which these stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set. The findings suggest that urban stakeholders perceive that a high school science teacher who demonstrates high quality in science teaching should be knowledgeable about their subject matter, their student population, and should be resourceful; should possess an academic background in science and professional experience in science teaching; should exhibit professionalism, a passion for science and teaching, and a dedication to teaching and student learning; should be skillful in planning and preparing science lessons and in organizing the classroom, in presenting the subject matter to students, in conducting a variety of hands-on activities, and in managing a classroom; and should assess whether students complete class goals and objectives, and provide feedback about grades for students promptly. The findings further reveal that some of the urban high school science teachers who were deemed to be "highly qualified", as defined by the NCLB Act, engaged in practices that threatened quality in science

  1. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  2. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Chen; Chengcheng Xue; Yang Zhao; Deyong Chen; Min-Hsien Wu; Junbo Wang

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance ...

  3. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  4. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Mechanical, Aerospace, Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.

  5. High-throughput single-cell PCR using microfluidic emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mira; Mazutis, Linas; Agresti, Jeremy; Sommer, Morten; Dantas, Gautam; Church, George; Turnbaugh, Peter; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    The human gut and other environmental samples contain large populations of diverse bacteria that are poorly characterized and unculturable, yet have many functions relevant to human health. Our goal is to identify exactly which species carry some gene of interest, such as a carbohydrate metabolism gene. Conventional metagenomic assays sequence DNA extracted in bulk from populations of mixed cell types, and are therefore unable to associate a gene of interest with a species-identifying 16S gene, to determine that the two genes originated from the same cell. We solve this problem by microfluidically encapsulating single bacteria cells in drops, using PCR to amplify the two genes inside any drop whose encapsulated cell contains both genes, and sequencing the DNA from those drops that contain both amplification products.

  6. Development of Droplet Microfluidics Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent developments in droplet microfluidics enabling high-throughput single-cell analysis. Five key aspects in this field are included in this review: (1 prototype demonstration of single-cell encapsulation in microfluidic droplets; (2 technical improvements of single-cell encapsulation in microfluidic droplets; (3 microfluidic droplets enabling single-cell proteomic analysis; (4 microfluidic droplets enabling single-cell genomic analysis; and (5 integrated microfluidic droplet systems enabling single-cell screening. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities by focusing on key performances of throughput, multifunctionality, and absolute quantification.

  7. CIS-based registration of quality of life in a single source approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riek Markus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Documenting quality of life (QoL in routine medical care and using it both for treatment and for clinical research is not common, although such information is absolutely valuable for physicians and patients alike. We therefore aimed at developing an efficient method to integrate quality of life information into the clinical information system (CIS and thus make it available for clinical care and secondary use. Methods We piloted our method in three different medical departments, using five different QoL questionnaires. In this setting we used structured interviews and onsite observations to perform workflow and form analyses. The forms and pertinent data reports were implemented using the integrated tools of the local CIS. A web-based application for mobile devices was developed based on XML schemata to facilitate data import into the CIS. Data exports of the CIS were analysed with statistical software to perform an analysis of data quality. Results The quality of life questionnaires are now regularly documented by patients and physicians. The resulting data is available in the Electronic Health Record (EHR and can be used for treatment purposes and communication as well as research functionalities. The completion of questionnaires by the patients themselves using a mobile device (iPad and the import of the respective data into the CIS forms were successfully tested in a pilot installation. The quality of data is rendered high by the use of automatic score calculations as well as the automatic creation of forms for follow-up documentation. The QoL data was exported to research databases for use in scientific analysis. Conclusion The CIS-based QoL is technically feasible, clinically accepted and provides an excellent quality of data for medical treatment and clinical research. Our approach with a commercial CIS and the web-based application is transferable to other sites.

  8. Modelling and Simulation of Single-Phase Series Active Compensator for Power Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Mathuria, Kirti; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneshwari, G.

    2017-10-01

    A single-phase active series compensator is proposed in this work to reduce harmonic currents at the ac mains and to regulate the dc link voltage of a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) that acts as the front end converter for a voltage source inverter feeding an ac motor. This ac motor drive is used in any of the domestic, commercial or industrial appliances. Under fluctuating ac mains voltages, the dc link voltage of the DBR depicts wide variations and hence the ac motor is used at reduced rating as compared to its name-plate rating. The active series compensator proposed here provides dual functions of improving the power quality at the ac mains and regulating the dc link voltage thus averting the need for derating of the ac motor.

  9. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, R.; Rivera, M.; Feng, P., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 00936-8377, PR/USA (Puerto Rico); Aldalbahi, A. [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  10. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velazquez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  11. The association between embryo quality and perinatal outcome of singletons born after single embryo transfers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Galia; Son, Weon-Young; Buckett, William; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2014-07-01

    Does the quality of a single transferred embryo have an effect on the pregnancy outcome? After adjusting for confounding maternal variables, poor embryo quality was not associated with adverse obstetric or perinatal outcome in this small pilot study. Embryo quality is a major predictor of the success of in vitro fertilization treatment and studies have demonstrated a strong association between embryo morphology, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. However, the association with obstetric and perinatal outcomes has not been evaluated. This single center, retrospective cohort study included 1541 fresh single embryo transfers (SETs) using non-donor oocytes in women ≤40 years between December 2008 and 2012. We compared the cycle outcome and singleton live births resulting from the transfer of a single fresh good quality (Grade 2) embryo with those resulting from the transfer of a single poor quality (fair, Grade 3 or poor, Grade 4) embryo in the cleavage or blastocyst stages. The cycle outcome parameters were biochemical pregnancy and clinical intrauterine pregnancy. The pregnancy outcomes were live birth, miscarriages and stillbirths after 20 weeks of gestation. Among the live births, perinatal outcome parameters included birthweight, small for gestational age, preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and neonatal complications. Covariates were maternal age, body mass index, smoking status, parity and gender of the baby. There were 1193 good quality SETs and 348 poor quality embryo transfers. SETs performed during the study period resulted in 563 pregnancies and 440 singleton births. There was a higher clinical pregnancy rate (41.5%) and live birth rate (32.3%) in the good quality embryo transfer group compared with that in the poor quality transfer group (19.2 and 15.5%, respectively; P quality embryo. Multivariable logistic regression analyses for pregnancy complications revealed no increased risk of maternal or neonatal complications with the

  12. Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-11-01

    A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

  13. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  14. Vascular effects of a single high salt meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Kader Abdel Wahab

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: High salt intake may acutely impair vascular function in different vascular beds independent of the increase of blood pressure. Plasma sodium increase may be one of the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Integration study of high quality teaching resources in universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglu Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development level and quality of education depend on the merits and efficiency in the use of teaching resources, especially in the case of obvious contradiction between the demand and supply of teaching resources. So to integrate teaching resources, improve the efficiency in the use of high quality teaching resources, and take the road of content development to enhance the competitiveness of education has become very important and urgent.Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of analysis on the teaching resources of universities and the problems they faced, this paper introduced the basic concepts of cloud storage, and built the integration architecture of high quality teaching resources in universities based on the cloud storage.Findings and Originality/value: The HDFS-based cloud storage proposed in this paper is a dynamically adjustable and Internet-based storage solution, and the users can access storage targets using the network through a common and easy-to-use protocol and application programming interfaces. This new technology is useful for end users benefits. With the continuous development and improvement of cloud storage, it will necessarily result in more and more applications in the institutions of higher learning and education network.Originality/value: This paper introduced the cloud storage into the integration of high quality teaching resources in universities first and as a new form of service, it can be a good solution.

  16. The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....

  17. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... take the first train in their direction. The article examines four different approaches to examine operation quality for high-frequent operation that are based on the experiences of the passengers. These approaches are the service frequency of the operation, travel time extension, a combination...... operation simulation software. Combining the passenger delay model with simulation software gives the possibility to forecast future infrastructure and operation scenarios which make it possible to improve the planning....

  18. High quality early childhood education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Varona Alabern

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States education system, K-12 produced impressive results for most of the 20th century. We trace its origins back to the end of the 19th century, when the America’s social and economical needs and its circumstances were very different from the ones today. Nowadays, American society is far more complex and demands highly qualified citizens, a requirement which inevitably starts with high quality early childhood education, as we will illustrate below. Therefore, experts are currently requesting all public administrations and private sector to take further steps to ensure high quality preschool education for everyone in order to improve Americans’ skills and the United States’ economy, as well as to overcome the existing inequalities.

  19. Conducting high quality writing intervention research: Twelve recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Graham

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Writing intervention research can enhance our knowledge about writing, its development, and how to teach it effectively. Despite the importance of such research, many of the writing intervention studies conducted previously were of poor quality, as documented by Graham and colleagues in a series of meta-analyses (Graham, McKeown, Kiuhara, & Harris, 2012; Graham & Perin, 2007; Rogers & Graham, 2008. In this article, we offer 12 recommendations for conducting high quality intervention research, recommendations that draw on those meta-analyses as well as previous work on improving the quality of intervention research (Pressley & Harris, 1994a, 1994b and our experiences as writing intervention researchers and editors of journals that publish intervention research (including the Journal of Writing Research . The recommendations address issues and actions involved in designing, conducting, and reporting such research.

  20. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  1. High-precision force sensing using a single trapped ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Peter A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Singer, Kilian

    2016-06-01

    We introduce quantum sensing schemes for measuring very weak forces with a single trapped ion. They use the spin-motional coupling induced by the laser-ion interaction to transfer the relevant force information to the spin-degree of freedom. Therefore, the force estimation is carried out simply by observing the Ramsey-type oscillations of the ion spin states. Three quantum probes are considered, which are represented by systems obeying the Jaynes-Cummings, quantum Rabi (in 1D) and Jahn-Teller (in 2D) models. By using dynamical decoupling schemes in the Jaynes-Cummings and Jahn-Teller models, our force sensing protocols can be made robust to the spin dephasing caused by the thermal and magnetic field fluctuations. In the quantum-Rabi probe, the residual spin-phonon coupling vanishes, which makes this sensing protocol naturally robust to thermally-induced spin dephasing. We show that the proposed techniques can be used to sense the axial and transverse components of the force with a sensitivity beyond the range, i.e. in the (xennonewton, 10-27). The Jahn-Teller protocol, in particular, can be used to implement a two-channel vector spectrum analyzer for measuring ultra-low voltages.

  2. High-throughput deterministic single-cell encapsulation and droplet pairing, fusion, and shrinkage in a single microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Rogier M; Kemna, Evelien W M; Wolbers, Floor; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we present a microfluidic device capable of successive high-yield single-cell encapsulation in droplets, with additional droplet pairing, fusion, and shrinkage. Deterministic single-cell encapsulation is realized using Dean-coupled inertial ordering of cells in a Yin-Yang-shaped curved microchannel using a double T-junction, with a frequency over 2000 Hz, followed by controlled droplet pairing with a 100% success rate. Subsequently, droplet fusion is realized using electrical actuation resulting in electro-coalescence of two droplets, each containing a single HL60 cell, with 95% efficiency. Finally, volume reduction of the fused droplet up to 75% is achieved by a triple pitchfork structure. This droplet volume reduction is necessary to obtain close cell-cell membrane contact necessary for final cell electrofusion, leading to hybridoma formation, which is the ultimate aim of this research. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  4. High purity, low dislocation GaAs single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.; Kirkpatrick, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid encapsulated Czochralski crystal growth techniques for producing undoped, high resistivity, low dislocation material suitable for device applications is described. Technique development resulted in reduction of dislocation densities in 3 inch GaAs crystals. Control over the melt stoichiometry was determined to be of critical importance for the reduction of twinning and polycrystallinity during growth.

  5. Single Grain TFTs for High Speed Flexible Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baiano, A.

    2009-01-01

    SG-TFTs fabricated by the ?-Czochralski process have already reached a performance as high as that of SOI MOSFET devices. However, one of the most important and challenging goals is extending SG-TFT technology to reach a higher level of performance than that achieved with SOI technology. This thesis

  6. Single phase forced convection cooling of high power leds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozdemir, M.Z.; Chestakov, D.; Frijns, A.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    LEDs are strong candidates for future illumination applications dueto their much lower consumption of energy compared to conventional lighting options. One of key problems in development of LEDs is successful thermal management during illumination. Therefore, current research ongoing related to high

  7. High frequency ultrasound imaging of a single-species biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Goertz, D. E.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; de Jong, N.; Wu, M. K.; Wesselink, P. R.

    Objective: This study evaluated the feasibility of a high frequency ultrasound scan to examine the 3D morphology of Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown in vitro. Methods: Six 2-day S. mutans biofilms and six 7-day biofilms were grown on tissue culture membranes and on bovine dentine discs. A sterile

  8. Fully automated quality assurance and localization of volumetric MEG for single-subject mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tynan; Bardouille, Tim; Stroink, Gerhard; Boe, Shaun; Patterson, Steve; Beyea, Steven

    2016-06-15

    Robust and reproducible source mapping with magnetoencephalography is particularly challenging at the individual level. We evaluated a receiver-operating characteristic reliability (ROC-r) method for automated production of volumetric MEG maps in single-subjects. ROC-r provides quality assurance comparable to that offered by goodness-of-fit (GoF) and confidence volume (CV) for equivalent current dipole (ECD) modeling. ROC-r utilizes within-session reproducibility for quality assurance, latency identification, and thresholding of volumetric source maps. We tested ROC-r on simulated and real MEG with a strongly focal source, using somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) elicited by bilateral median nerve stimulation (MNS). For quality assurance, the ROC-r reliable fraction (FR) was compared to the ECD GoF and CV. Peak beamformer locations and latencies identified by ROC-r were compared to the ECD for co-localization accuracy. The predominant component of the SEF response occurred around 35ms, contralateral to the MNS. FR and 1/CV were more strongly correlated (mean Pearson's correlation: 0.76; 95% CI 0.60-0.87) than FR and GoF (0.65; 95% CI 0.32-0.85). There was no difference in the latency of the peak GoF (35.0+/-0.6ms), CV (34.8+/-0.7ms) and FR (35.5+/-0.8ms). The ECD fits and ROC-r peaks co-localized to within a mean (median) distance of 8.3+/-5.9mm (6.2mm). ROC-r volumetric mapping co-localized closely with the standard ECD approach. This analysis can be added to any whole-brain MEG source imaging protocol, and is especially useful for single-subject mapping. Additionally, the development of FR as an analogue to GoF or CV for volumetric mapping is a critical improvement for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Lattice-Trapped and Cavity-Enhanced High-Quality Quantum Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Jun; Wang, Xu-Jie; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Quantum memory plays an increasing essential part in many applications of quantum information science. Currently, the intense research and crucial challenge is that integration of a full functional quantum memory with various high-performance properties in a single system. Storage lifetime and retrieval efficiency are the two most important qualities of quantum memory, especially indispensable for quantum repeater and long-distance quantum communication. Here based on techniques of magic optical lattice trap and ring cavity enhancement, we experimentally achieved a high-quality cold atom quantum memory. The initial intrinsic retrieval efficiency is up to 77(5)%, with an e-1-storage lifetime about 0.25 sec for the first time. Such high effective and long-lived quantum memory should be significantly important for quantum communication and cryptography, and would truly stimulate a first practical demonstration of long distance quantum repeaters in the near future.

  10. High quality atomically thin PtSe2 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingzhe; Wang, Eryin; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Guangqi; Zhang, Hongyun; Zhang, Kenan; Yao, Wei; Lu, Nianpeng; Yang, Shuzhen; Wu, Shilong; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Wu, Yang; Yu, Pu; Duan, Wenhui; Zhou, Shuyun

    2017-12-01

    Atomically thin PtSe2 films have attracted extensive research interests for potential applications in high-speed electronics, spintronics and photodetectors. Obtaining high quality thin films with large size and controlled thickness is critical. Here we report the first successful epitaxial growth of high quality PtSe2 films by molecular beam epitaxy. Atomically thin films from 1 ML to 22 ML have been grown and characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Moreover, a systematic thickness dependent study of the electronic structure is revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and helical spin texture is revealed by spin-ARPES. Our work provides new opportunities for growing large size single crystalline films to investigate the physical properties and potential applications of PtSe2.

  11. Family Perspectives on High-Quality Pediatric Subspecialty Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kristin N; Ashcraft, Laura Ellen; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mehrotra, Ateev; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Although children are frequently referred to subspecialist physicians, many inadequacies in referral processes have been identified from physician and system perspectives. Little is known, however, about how to comprehensively measure or improve the quality of the referral systems from a family-centered perspective. To foster family-centered improvements to pediatric subspecialty referrals, we sought to develop a framework for high-quality, patient-centered referrals from the perspectives of patients and their families. We used stakeholder-informed qualitative analysis of parent, caregiver, and patient interviews to identify outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals as perceived by patients and their family members. We interviewed 21 informants. Informants identified 5 desired outcomes of subspecialty referrals: improved functional status or symptoms; improved long-term outcomes; improved knowledge of their disease; informed expectations; and reduced anxiety about the child's health status. Processes that informants identified as supporting these outcomes centered around 6 key steps in subspecialty referrals, including the referral decision, previsit information transfer, appointment scheduling, subspecialist visit, postvisit information transfer, and ongoing care integration and communication. Health care delivery structures identified by informants as supporting these processes included physical infrastructure, human resources, and information technology systems. We identified family-centered outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals. These domains can be used not only to improve measurement of the quality of existing referral systems but also to inform future interventions to improve patient-centered outcomes for children in need of specialty care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism multiplex assay for parentage assignment in New Zealand sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Clarke

    Full Text Available Accurate pedigree information is critical to animal breeding systems to ensure the highest rate of genetic gain and management of inbreeding. The abundance of available genomic data, together with development of high throughput genotyping platforms, means that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are now the DNA marker of choice for genomic selection studies. Furthermore the superior qualities of SNPs compared to microsatellite markers allows for standardization between laboratories; a property that is crucial for developing an international set of markers for traceability studies. The objective of this study was to develop a high throughput SNP assay for use in the New Zealand sheep industry that gives accurate pedigree assignment and will allow a reduction in breeder input over lambing. This required two phases of development--firstly, a method of extracting quality DNA from ear-punch tissue performed in a high throughput cost efficient manner and secondly a SNP assay that has the ability to assign paternity to progeny resulting from mob mating. A likelihood based approach to infer paternity was used where sires with the highest LOD score (log of the ratio of the likelihood given parentage to likelihood given non-parentage are assigned. An 84 "parentage SNP panel" was developed that assigned, on average, 99% of progeny to a sire in a problem where there were 3,000 progeny from 120 mob mated sires that included numerous half sib sires. In only 6% of those cases was there another sire with at least a 0.02 probability of paternity. Furthermore dam information (either recorded, or by genotyping possible dams was absent, highlighting the SNP test's suitability for paternity testing. Utilization of this parentage SNP assay will allow implementation of progeny testing into large commercial farms where the improved accuracy of sire assignment and genetic evaluations will increase genetic gain in the sheep industry.

  13. A high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism multiplex assay for parentage assignment in New Zealand sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shannon M; Henry, Hannah M; Dodds, Ken G; Jowett, Timothy W D; Manley, Tim R; Anderson, Rayna M; McEwan, John C

    2014-01-01

    Accurate pedigree information is critical to animal breeding systems to ensure the highest rate of genetic gain and management of inbreeding. The abundance of available genomic data, together with development of high throughput genotyping platforms, means that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now the DNA marker of choice for genomic selection studies. Furthermore the superior qualities of SNPs compared to microsatellite markers allows for standardization between laboratories; a property that is crucial for developing an international set of markers for traceability studies. The objective of this study was to develop a high throughput SNP assay for use in the New Zealand sheep industry that gives accurate pedigree assignment and will allow a reduction in breeder input over lambing. This required two phases of development--firstly, a method of extracting quality DNA from ear-punch tissue performed in a high throughput cost efficient manner and secondly a SNP assay that has the ability to assign paternity to progeny resulting from mob mating. A likelihood based approach to infer paternity was used where sires with the highest LOD score (log of the ratio of the likelihood given parentage to likelihood given non-parentage) are assigned. An 84 "parentage SNP panel" was developed that assigned, on average, 99% of progeny to a sire in a problem where there were 3,000 progeny from 120 mob mated sires that included numerous half sib sires. In only 6% of those cases was there another sire with at least a 0.02 probability of paternity. Furthermore dam information (either recorded, or by genotyping possible dams) was absent, highlighting the SNP test's suitability for paternity testing. Utilization of this parentage SNP assay will allow implementation of progeny testing into large commercial farms where the improved accuracy of sire assignment and genetic evaluations will increase genetic gain in the sheep industry.

  14. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  15. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Shikha; Agarwal, Ritika

    2014-02-01

    The goal of Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis in a particular language is to convert arbitrary input text to intelligible and natural sounding speech. However, for a particular language like Hindi, which is a highly confusing language (due to very close spellings), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality speech synthesis with the involvement of Spellchecker which generates spell suggestions for misspelled words automatically. Involvement of spellchecker would increase the efficiency of speech synthesis by providing spell suggestions for incorrect input text. Furthermore, we have provided the comparative study for evaluating the resultant effect on to phonetic text by adding spellchecker on to input text.

  16. Wellbeing Understanding in High Quality Healthcare Informatics and Telepractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The proper use of healthcare informatics technology and multidimensional conceptual clarity are fundamental to create and boost outstanding clinical and telepractice results. Avoiding even terminology ambiguities is mandatory for high quality of care service. For instance, well-being or wellbeing is a different way to write the same concept only, or there is a good deal of ambiguity around the meanings of these terms the way they are written. In personal health, healthcare and healthcare informatics, this kind of ambiguity and lack of conceptual clarity has been called out repeatedly over the past 50 years. It is time to get the right, terse scenario. We present a brief review to develop and achieve ultimate wellbeing understanding for practical high quality healthcare informatics and telepractice application. This article presents an innovative point of view on deeper wellbeing understanding towards its increased clinical effective application.

  17. Quality of life two years after severe trauma: a single-centre evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaske, Sigune; Lefering, Rolf; Trentzsch, Heiko; Driessen, Arne; Bouillon, Bertil; Maegele, Marc; Probst, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Trauma related injuries are a main cause for long-lasting morbidity and disability especially in younger patients with their productive years ahead. On a routine basis, we assessed health related quality of life two years after trauma of severely injured patients at our level-I trauma centre via posted survey. The posted survey included (1) POLO-Chart questionnaire with European Quality of Life (EuroQoL), Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF 36) and the recently developed and validated Trauma Outcome Profile (TOP) combined with (2) single centre data according to TraumaRegister DGU(®) data sets including trauma mechanism, injuries and initial treatment. Inclusion criteria were severely injured patients ≥ 18 years, treated between 2008 and 2010. Exclusion criteria were death, cognitive impairment, lack of German language and denial of participation. 129 datasets were eligible for analysis reflecting a typical trauma collective with mean age 44 years, predominantly male (67%), mean ISS 22 and 98% blunt trauma. Two years after trauma, 62% of the patients reported of relevant remaining pain and 64% of severe functional deficit in at least one body region. Sixty-four percent of the patients suffered from decreased overall quality of life (EuroQoL≤0.8). Additionally, all domains of SF-36 were impaired compared to an age and gender adjusted cohort of healthy individuals, especially domains of pain and activity of daily living. These impairments were associated with decreased 'social functioning' and 'emotional role functioning'. TOP results confirmed these findings: Quality of life was decreased in almost every dimension. TOP additionally identified sequels especially in domains of "Mental Functioning" and impairments in psychological recovery including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety. Socioeconomic impairments were frequent including further hospitalisations (62%), duration of inability to work ≥ 6 month (54%), financial disadvantages (45%) and

  18. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  19. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhanguo; Chen, Junping

    2012-07-28

    Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome), and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  20. CD 116: A vigorous wheat cultivar with high industrial quality

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Assis Franco; Volmir Sergio Marchioro; Tatiane Dalla Nora; Ivan Schuster; Edson Feliciano de Oliveira; Elisa Serra Negra Vieira; Fábio Júnior Alcantara de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Cultivar CD 116 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC) and issuitable for cultivation in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Goiás, andDistrito Federal. CD 116 is tolerant to the major diseases, particularly blast, has a high industrial grain quality and meanyield of 3908 kg ha-1, exceeding the control cultivars by 6%.

  1. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of bevacizumab (Avastin® repacked in single-use glass vials for intravitreal administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. A. Sugimoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Avastin® (bevacizumab is an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody given as an off-label drug by intravitreal administration for treatment of ocular diseases. The drug's clinical application and its cost-benefit profile has generated demand for its division into single-use vials to meet the low volume and low-cost doses necessary for intraocular administration. However, the safety of compounding the drug in single-use vials is still under discussion. In this study, the stability and efficacy of Avastin® repacked in individual single-use glass vials and glass ampoules by external compounding pharmacies were evaluated. Methods: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC, dynamic light scattering (DLS, and turbidimetry were selected to detect the formation of aggregates of various sizes. Changes in bevacizumab biological efficacy were investigated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Repacked and reference bevacizumab showed similar results when analyzed by PAGE. By SEC, a slight increase in high molecular weight aggregates and a reduction in bevacizumab monomers were observed in the products of the three compounding pharmacies relative to those in the reference bevacizumab. A comparison of repacked and reference SEC chromatograms showed that the mean monomer loss was ≤1% for all compounding pharmacies. Protein aggregates in the nanometer- and micrometer-size ranges were not detected by DLS and turbidimetry. In the efficacy assay, the biological function of repacked bevacizumab was preserved, with <3% loss of VEGF binding capacity relative to that of the reference. Conclusion: The results showed that bevacizumab remained stable after compounding in ampoules and single-use glass vials; no significant aggregation, fragmentation, or loss of biological activity was observed.

  3. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  4. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  5. High quality factor resonance at room temperature with nanostrings under high tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbridge, Scott S.; Parpia, Jeevak M.; Reichenbach, Robert B.; Bellan, Leon M.; Craighead, H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Quality factors as high as 207 000 are demonstrated at room temperature for radio-frequency silicon nitride string resonators with cross sectional dimensions on the scale of 100 nm, made with a nonlithographic technique. A product of quality factor and surface to volume ratio greater than 6000 nm-1 is presented, the highest yet reported. Doubly clamped nanostring resonators are fabricated in high tensile-stress silicon nitride using a nonlithographic electrospinning process. We fabricate devices with an electron beam process, and demonstrate frequency and quality factor results identical to those obtained with the nonlithographic technique. We also compare high tensile-stress doubly clamped beams with doubly clamped and cantilever resonators made of a lower stress material, as well as cantilever beams made of the high stress material. In all cases, the doubly clamped high stress beams have the highest quality factors. We therefore attribute the high quality factors to high tensile stress. Potential dominant loss mechanisms are discussed, including surface and clamping losses, and thermoelastic dissipation. Some practical advantages offered by these nanostrings for mass sensing are discussed.

  6. Broken symmetry dielectric resonators for high quality-factor Fano metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I; Warne, Larry K; Langston, William L; Luk, Ting S; Wendt, Joel R; Reno, John L; Keeler, Gordon A; Brener, Igal; Sinclair, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach to dielectric metasurface design that relies on a single resonator per unit cell and produces robust, high quality-factor Fano resonances. Our approach utilizes symmetry breaking of highly symmetric resonator geoemetries, such as cubes, to induce couplings between the otherwise orthogonal resonator modes. In particular, we design perturbations that couple "bright" dipole modes to "dark" dipole modes whose radiative decay is suppressed by local field effects in the array. Our approach is widely scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies. We first unravel the Fano resonance behavior through numerical simulations of a germanium resonator-based metasurface that achieved a quality-factor of ~1300 at ~10.8 um. Then, we present two experimental demonstrations operating in the near-infrared (~1 um): a silicon-based implementation that achieved a quality-factor of ~350; and a gallium arsenide-based structure that achieves a quality-factor of ~600 - the highest near-infrared quality-...

  7. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  8. Clinical and quality of life data correlation with a single-optic accommodating intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, María L.; Piñero, David P.; Blanes-Mompó, Francisco J.; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine a single-optic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) visual performance by correlating IOL implanted eyes’ defocus curve with the intraocular aberrometric profile and the impact on the quality of life (QOL). Methods Prospective consecutive case series study including a total of 25 eyes of 14 patients with ages ranging between 52 and 79 years old. All cases underwent cataract surgery with implantation of the single-optic accommodating IOL Crystalens HD (Bausch & Lomb). Distance and near visual acuity outcomes, intraocular aberrations, the defocus curve and QOL (NEI VFQ-25) were evaluated 3 months after surgery. Results A significant improvement in distance visual acuity was found postoperatively (p = 0.02). Mean postoperative LogMAR uncorrected near visual acuity was 0.44 ± 0.23 (20/30). 60% of eyes had a postoperative addition between 0 and 1.5 diopters (D). The defocus curve showed an area of maximum visual acuity for the levels of defocus corresponding to distance and intermediate vision (−1 to +0.5 D). Postoperative intermediate visual acuity correlated significantly some QOL indices (r ≥ 0.51, p ≤ 0.03; difficulty in going down steps or seeing how people react to things that patient says) as well as with J0 component of manifest cylinder. Postoperative distance-corrected near visual acuity correlated significantly with age (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). Conclusions This accommodating IOL seems to be able to restore the distance visual function as well as to provide an improvement in intermediate and near vision with a significant impact on patient's QOL, although limited by age and astigmatism. Future studies with larger sample sizes should confirm all these trends.

  9. Improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction following the move to single-family room NICU design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jo; DeLand, Marion; Gibbins, Sharyn; MacMillan York, Elizabeth; Robson, Kate

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in staff quality of work life and parent satisfaction when a neonatal intensive care unit moved from an open-bay design to a single-room model of care. This descriptive study measured staff quality of work life and family satisfaction before and at 2 time periods after the relocation of a perinatal centre and the introduction of single-family room care. Differences in work life quality and satisfaction were determined using 2-sample t-tests. There were improvements in staff quality of work life and family satisfaction at both time periods following the move. Lessons learned may be of value to other units considering such a move. A neonatal intensive care unit designed to contribute to parental and staff well-being is a model to be considered for future neonatal designs.

  10. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  11. Effect of second phase on single phase flow meters in steam quality measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pusayatanont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from an investigation of the two phase flow, especially liquid ingas phase, in most mainly used flow meter in steam industry namely differential pressuremeter is investigated. As in general, a flowmeter is designed and employed to measure flowrate of single phase fluid. There are many types of meter available in the market characterizeby their working principles, installed conditions and measured fluid. All meters representtheir accuracies under the single phase flow condition. However, when they are working inunusual conditions especially under multiphase flow, most meters lose their accuraciessignificantly even there is small amount of second phase introduced into the system. Tounderstand the deteriorated performance of the meter under two phase flow, additional studyon the effect the second phase on the meter is required.The laboratory experiment is set up to simulate the wet steam by flowing compressed airin the 2 inch pipe. Water droplet is generated by pressurized water flowing through a nozzleand then spayed into the system in range of 25% maximum by mass fraction. The signal fromeach flowmeter is collected by digital computer and analyzed using FFT and power spectrumdensity. The results show that the presence of the second phase in the system causes highfrequency fluctuation and causes significant error on meter reading. Flow manufacturersalways add low-pass filter circuit to remove this high frequency signal, however, this papershows that the high frequency signal in specific region is useful as it can be use to estimatedthe percentage of the second phase in the main phase system.

  12. Rapid continuous flow synthesis of high-quality silver nanocubes and nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    We report a biphasic-liquid segmented continuous flow method for the synthesis of high-quality plasmonic single crystal silver nanocubes and nanospheres. The nanocubes were synthesized with controllable edge lengths from 20 to 48 nm. Single crystal nanospheres with a mean size of 29 nm were obtained by in-line continuous-flow etching of as-produced 39 nm nanocubes with an aqueous solution of FeNO3. In comparison to batch synthesis, the demonstrated processes represent highly scalable reactions, in terms of both production rate and endurance. The reactions were conducted in a commercially available flow-reactor system that is easily adaptable to industrial-scale production, facilitating widespread utilization of the procedure and the resulting nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  13. High-temperature, high-frequency fretting fatigue of a single crystal nickel alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlik, John Frederick

    Fretting is a structural damage mechanism arising from a combination of wear, corrosion, and fatigue between two nominally clamped surfaces subjected to an oscillatory loading. A critical location for fretting induced damage has been identified at the blade/disk and blade/damper interfaces of gas turbine engine turbomachinery and space propulsion components. The high-temperature, high-frequency loading environment seen by these components lead to severe stress gradients at the edge-of-contact that could potentially foster crack growth leading to component failure. These contact stresses drive crack nucleation in fretting and are very sensitive to the geometry of the contacting bodies, the contact loads, materials, temperature, and contact surface tribology (friction). To diagnose the threat that small and relatively undetectable fretting fatigue cracks pose to damage tolerance and the ensuing structural integrity of aerospace components, a strong motivation exists to develop a quantitative mechanics based understanding of fretting crack nucleation in advanced aerospace alloys. In response to this need, the objective of this work is to characterize the fretting behavior exhibited by a polycrystalline/single crystal nickel contact subjected to elevated frequency and temperature. The effort to meet this objective is two fold: (1) to develop a well-characterized experimental fretting rig to investigate fretting behavior of advanced aerospace alloys at high frequency and high temperature, and (2) to develop the associated contact modeling tools for calculating contact stresses given in-situ experimentally measured remote contact loads. By coupling the experimental results and stress analysis, this effort aims to correlate the fretting crack nucleation behavior with the local contact stresses calculated from the devised three dimensional, anisotropic, dissimilar material contact model. The experimental effort is first motivated by a survey of recent fretting issues and

  14. Ferroelectric InMnO{sub 3}: Growth of single crystals, structure and high-temperature phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekheet, Maged F., E-mail: maged.bekheet@ceramics.tu-berlin.de [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fachgebiet Keramische Werkstoffe / Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 40, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Svoboda, Ingrid; Liu, Na [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bayarjargal, Lkhamsuren [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Goethe-Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, d-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Irran, Elisabeth [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Dietz, Christian; Stark, Robert W.; Riedel, Ralf [Fachbereich Material‐ und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gurlo, Aleksander [Fachgebiet Keramische Werkstoffe / Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften und -technologien, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 40, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    To understand the origin of the ferroelectricity in InMnO{sub 3}, single crystals with average size of 1 mm were grown in PbF{sub 2} flux at 950 °C. The results of single crystal X-ray diffraction, second harmonic generation and piezoresponse force microscopy studies of high-quality InMnO{sub 3} single crystals reveal that the room-temperature state in this material is ferroelectric with P6{sub 3}cm symmetry. The polar InMnO{sub 3} specimen undergoes a reversible phase transition from non-centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}cm structure to a centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}/mmc structure at 700 °C as confirmed by the in situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments. - Graphical abstract: Piezoresponse fore microscopy (PFM) studies of high quality InMnO{sub 3} single crystal revealed that the room-temperature state of this material is ferroelectric with a clear cloverleaf pattern corresponding to six antiphase ferroelectric domains with alternating polarization ±P{sub z}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • InMnO{sub 3} single crystals with average size of 1 mm were grown in PbF{sub 2} flux at 950 °C. • The room-temperature state of InMnO{sub 3} is ferroelectric with polar P6{sub 3}cm structure. • PolarInMnO{sub 3} reversibly transforms to a centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}/mmc structure above 700 °C.

  15. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    Agriculture faces several challenges of future provision of nutrients such as limited P reserves and increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers and recycling of nutrients from organic waste can be an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of the agricultural systems. Organically...... and S, is often low; and (3) the unbalanced composition of nutrients rarely matches crop demands. Therefore the objective of this project was to investigate the potential for (1) recycling nutrients from agro-industrial wastes and (2) compost biotransformation into high-quality organic fertilizers......, including three succeeding compost experiments, conducted in Denmark (Paper II). The composting studies investigated three management interventions to enhance the compost fertilizer quality and accelerate compost turnover: (1) the addition of nutrient rich material, (2) the compost turning frequency and (3...

  16. Efficient high-quality volume rendering of SPH data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraedrich, Roland; Auer, Stefan; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    High quality volume rendering of SPH data requires a complex order-dependent resampling of particle quantities along the view rays. In this paper we present an efficient approach to perform this task using a novel view-space discretization of the simulation domain. Our method draws upon recent work on GPU-based particle voxelization for the efficient resampling of particles into uniform grids. We propose a new technique that leverages a perspective grid to adaptively discretize the view-volume, giving rise to a continuous level-of-detail sampling structure and reducing memory requirements compared to a uniform grid. In combination with a level-of-detail representation of the particle set, the perspective grid allows effectively reducing the amount of primitives to be processed at run-time. We demonstrate the quality and performance of our method for the rendering of fluid and gas dynamics SPH simulations consisting of many millions of particles.

  17. High Quality Test Pattern Generation and Boolean Satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Eggersglüß, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an overview of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) and introduces novel techniques to complement classical ATPG, based on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT).  A fast and highly fault efficient SAT-based ATPG framework is presented which is also able to generate high-quality delay tests such as robust path delay tests, as well as tests with long propagation paths to detect small delay defects. The aim of the techniques and methodologies presented in this book is to improve SAT-based ATPG, in order to make it applicable in industrial practice. Readers will learn to improve the performance and robustness of the overall test generation process, so that the ATPG algorithm reliably will generate test patterns for most targeted faults in acceptable run time to meet the high fault coverage demands of industry. The techniques and improvements presented in this book provide the following advantages: Provides a comprehensive introduction to test generation and Boolean Satisfiability (SAT); Describes a...

  18. Hydrogel Droplet Microfluidics for High-Throughput Single Molecule/Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2017-01-17

    Heterogeneity among individual molecules and cells has posed significant challenges to traditional bulk assays, due to the assumption of average behavior, which would lose important biological information in heterogeneity and result in a misleading interpretation. Single molecule/cell analysis has become an important and emerging field in biological and biomedical research for insights into heterogeneity between large populations at high resolution. Compared with the ensemble bulk method, single molecule/cell analysis explores the information on time trajectories, conformational states, and interactions of individual molecules/cells, all key factors in the study of chemical and biological reaction pathways. Various powerful techniques have been developed for single molecule/cell analysis, including flow cytometry, atomic force microscopy, optical and magnetic tweezers, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, and so forth. However, some of them have the low-throughput issue that has to analyze single molecules/cells one by one. Flow cytometry is a widely used high-throughput technique for single cell analysis but lacks the ability for intercellular interaction study and local environment control. Droplet microfluidics becomes attractive for single molecule/cell manipulation because single molecules/cells can be individually encased in monodisperse microdroplets, allowing high-throughput analysis and manipulation with precise control of the local environment. Moreover, hydrogels, cross-linked polymer networks that swell in the presence of water, have been introduced into droplet microfluidic systems as hydrogel droplet microfluidics. By replacing an aqueous phase with a monomer or polymer solution, hydrogel droplets can be generated on microfluidic chips for encapsulation of single molecules/cells according to the Poisson distribution. The sol-gel transition property endows the hydrogel droplets with new functionalities and diversified applications in single

  19. Ce-doped LuAG single-crystal fibers grown from the melt for high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X; Moretti, F; Pauwels, K; Lecoq, P; Auffray, E; Dujardin, C

    2014-01-01

    Under a stationary stable regime undoped and Ce-doped LuAG (Lu3Al5O12) single-crystal fibers were grown by a micro-pulling-down technique. The meniscus length corresponding to the equilibrium state was <200 mu m. Fluctuations in the fiber composition and pulling rate were found to have a significant effect on the properties of the fibers grown. A great improvement in the performance was found in samples containing low Ce concentrations (<= 0.1 at.\\%) and produced using pulling rates <0.5 mm min(-1). Under such conditions a good lateral surface fiber quality was obtained and light propagation was significantly improved. Conversely, a high Ce concentration and a high pulling rate resulted in a strong degradation of the fiber surface quality causing defects to appear and a decrease in light output. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  1. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Short time synthesis of high quality carbon nanotubes with high rates by CVD of methane on continuously emerged iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, Behnam, E-mail: bahrami@email.sc.edu [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Abasali [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, Yadollah, E-mail: mortazav@ut.ac.ir [Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaieli, Mohamad [Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We report the variation of yield and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on iron oxide-MgO at 900-1000 deg. C for 1-60 min. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of MgO powder with iron nitrate, dried, and calcined at 300 deg. C. As calcined and unreduced catalyst in quartz reactor was brought to the synthesis temperature in helium flow in a few minutes, and then the flow was switched to methane. The iron oxide was reduced to iron nanoparticles in methane, while the CNTs were growing. TEM micrographs, in accordance with Raman RBM peaks, indicate the formation of mostly single wall carbon nanotubes of about 1.0 nm size. High quality CNTs with I{sub G}/I{sub D} Raman peak ratio of 14.5 are formed in the first minute of CNTs synthesis with the highest rate. Both the rate and quality of CNTs degrades with increasing CNTs synthesis time. Also CNTs quality sharply declines with temperature in the range of 900-1000 deg. C, while the CNTs yield passes through a maximum at 950 deg. C. About the same CNTs lengths are formed for the whole range of the synthesis times. A model of continuous emergence of iron nanoparticle seeds for CNTs synthesis may explain the data. The data can also provide information for continuous production of CNTs in a fluidized bed reactor.

  3. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  4. Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry Quality Assessment Method Based on Single Survey Line Data: A Study by SGA-WZ02 Gravimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghao; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong; Cai, Shaokun; Yu, Ruihang

    2018-01-26

    Quality assessment is an important part in the strapdown airborne gravimetry. Root mean square error (RMSE) evaluation method is a classical way to evaluate the gravimetry quality, but classical evaluation methods are preconditioned by extra flight or reference data. Thus, a method, which is able to largely conquer the premises of classical quality assessment methods and can be used in single survey line, has been developed in this paper. According to theoretical analysis, the method chooses the stability of two horizontal attitude angles, horizontal specific force and vertical specific force as the determinants of quality assessment method. The actual data, collected by SGA-WZ02 from 13 flights 21 lines in certain survey, was used to build the model and elaborate the method. To substantiate the performance of the quality assessment model, the model is applied in extra repeat line flights from two surveys. Compared with internal RMSE, standard deviation of assessment residuals are 0.23 mGal and 0.16 mGal in two surveys, which shows that the quality assessment method is reliable and stricter. The extra flights are not necessary by specially arranging the route of flights. The method, summarized from SGA-WZ02, is a feasible approach to assess gravimetry quality using single line data and is also suitable for other strapdown gravimeters.

  5. Sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women (gestational diabetes and hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Fatemeh; Sehhatiei Shafaei, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is one of the most basic human requirements. This research aims at determining the status of sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran, in 2015. This research was a sectional study done on 364 qualified women in 28-36 weeks of pregnancy suffering from mild preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The sampling was done as convenience. Personal-social-midwifery questionnaire, Pittsburg sleep quality, and quality of life in pregnancy (QOL-ORAV) were used for gathering data. Multivariate linear regression model was used for determining the relationship between sleep quality and its subsets with quality of life and controlling confounders. In the current study, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 96.4%. Mean (SD) of the total score of sleep quality was 10.1 (4.1) and the total score of quality of life was 61.7 (17.3). According to Pearson's correlation test, there was statistically significant relationship between quality of life and sleep quality and all its subsets except sleep duration and use of sleep medication (p quality of life. The findings of current research show that sleep quality is low among high-risk pregnant women and quality of life is medium. So, it is necessary that required training is given by health cares for improving sleep quality and quality of life to mothers.

  6. Performing High-Quality Science on CubeSats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Zurbuchen, Thomas; von Steiger, Rudolf; Bartalev, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    January 2016 the International Space Science Institute in Berne, Switzerland,hosted a two-day Forum to focus on the rapid evolution of CubeSats as an enabling technology platform, with special emphasis on their promise to perform high-quality science.The Forum was initiated in coordination...... in this area of research. Our discussions focused on four themes characteristic of CubeSats and their evolution: 1) identification of appropriate science in avariety of research disciplines, 2) technology development, 3) international vs. national approaches, and 4) educational benefits. These discussions...

  7. Stress and sleep quality in high school brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Gema; Reimão, Rubens

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of stress on sleep quality in a group of adolescents. Two high schools in Alfenas, southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were chosen to participate in the study. The sample consisted of both genders (n=160) with 65.63% females. The age range of participants was 15 to18 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was applied for collection of data to quantify sleep quality. The Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms that objectively identifies symptoms of stress was applied. It was observed that 23.53% of stressed students and 45.33% of unstressed ones sleep well; 76.47% of stressed pupils and 54.67% of those unstressed do not sleep well. With regard to school performance, a mean of 0.65 was found for stressed students and 0.60 for those without stress, Mann-Whitney (p=0.0596). Stress contributed to raising the percentage of poor sleepers, as ell as increasing ean school performance.

  8. CCD Astrophotography High-Quality Imaging from the Suburbs

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This is a reference book for amateur astronomers who have become interested in CCD imaging. Those glorious astronomical images found in astronomy magazines might seem out of reach to newcomers to CCD imaging, but this is not the case. Great pictures are attainable with modest equipment. Adam Stuart’s many beautiful images, reproduced in this book, attest to the quality of – initially – a beginner’s efforts. Chilled-chip astronomical CCD-cameras and software are also wonderful tools for cutting through seemingly impenetrable light-pollution. CCD Astrophotography from the Suburbs describes one man’s successful approach to the problem of getting high-quality astronomical images under some of the most light-polluted conditions. Here is a complete and thoroughly tested program that will help every CCD-beginner to work towards digital imaging of the highest quality. It is equally useful to astronomers who have perfect observing conditions, as to those who have to observe from light-polluted city skies.

  9. Application of single particle analysis performed by SEM-EDX to air quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deboudt, K; Choel, M; Flament, P [Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, FRE CNRS 2816 ELICO, Wimereux (France)], E-mail: karine.deboudt@univ-littoral.fr

    2008-08-15

    Single-particle analysis of short-term aerosol samplings can provide information on the rapid evolution of size distribution and chemical composition of pollution aerosols, notably in source areas where reactive compounds are present. The aim of this work is to evaluate the capability of automated particle analysis performed by SEM-EDX to describe such rapid evolutions. Two sampling campaigns were performed at a highly urbanised and industrialised coastal site. The first one corresponded to low atmospheric particle loads and low temporal variation of particle mass concentrations. In these conditions, the lower analysed particle number to yield representative results was 1 000 particles per impaction stage. During the second one, a pollution event with a significant increase in particle mass concentrations was recorded. The ability of automated SEM-EDX to describe short temporal variation in particle chemical composition was demonstrated here.

  10. Reference quality assembly of the 3.5-Gb genome of Capsicum annuum from a single linked-read library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Maheshwari, Shamoni; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa A; Jaffe, David; Williams, Stephen R; Weisenfeld, Neil; Ramakrishnan, Srividya; Kumar, Vijay; Shah, Preyas; Schatz, Michael C; Church, Deanna M; Van Deynze, Allen

    2018-01-01

    Linked-Read sequencing technology has recently been employed successfully for de novo assembly of human genomes, however, the utility of this technology for complex plant genomes is unproven. We evaluated the technology for this purpose by sequencing the 3.5-gigabase (Gb) diploid pepper (Capsicum annuum) genome with a single Linked-Read library. Plant genomes, including pepper, are characterized by long, highly similar repetitive sequences. Accordingly, significant effort is used to ensure that the sequenced plant is highly homozygous and the resulting assembly is a haploid consensus. With a phased assembly approach, we targeted a heterozygous F1 derived from a wide cross to assess the ability to derive both haplotypes and characterize a pungency gene with a large insertion/deletion. The Supernova software generated a highly ordered, more contiguous sequence assembly than all currently available C. annuum reference genomes. Over 83% of the final assembly was anchored and oriented using four publicly available de novo linkage maps. A comparison of the annotation of conserved eukaryotic genes indicated the completeness of assembly. The validity of the phased assembly is further demonstrated with the complete recovery of both 2.5-Kb insertion/deletion haplotypes of the PUN1 locus in the F1 sample that represents pungent and nonpungent peppers, as well as nearly full recovery of the BUSCO2 gene set within each of the two haplotypes. The most contiguous pepper genome assembly to date has been generated which demonstrates that Linked-Read library technology provides a tool to de novo assemble complex highly repetitive heterozygous plant genomes. This technology can provide an opportunity to cost-effectively develop high-quality genome assemblies for other complex plants and compare structural and gene differences through accurate haplotype reconstruction.

  11. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1 early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2 microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3 microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4 integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  12. Microfluidic impedance flow cytometry enabling high-throughput single-cell electrical property characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-04-29

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  13. Recent Advances for High-Efficiency Sources of Single Photons Based on Photonic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, J. M.; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Photonic nanowires have recently been used to tailor the spontaneous emission of embedded quantum dots, and to develop record efficiency single-photon sources. We will present recent developments in this field mainly 1) the observation of a strong inhibition of the spontaneous emission of quantum...... dots in ultrathin photonic wires 2) the control of the linear polarization of the single photons by photonic wires with an elliptical section, 3) the joint observation (unlike-cavity-based devices) of a record high efficiency and pure single photon emission process in a photonic wire single photon...

  14. Single crystal growth, characterization and high-pressure Raman spectroscopy of impurity-free magnesite (MgCO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen; Li, Zeming; Yin, Yuan; Li, Rui; Chen, Lin; He, Yu; Dong, Haini; Dai, Lidong; Li, Heping

    2017-11-01

    The understanding of the physical and chemical properties of magnesite (MgCO3) under deep-mantle conditions is highly important to capture the essence of deep-carbon storage in Earth's interior. To develop standard rating scales, the impurity-free magnesite single crystal, paying particular attention to the case of avoiding adverse impacts of Ca2+, Fe2+, and Mn2+ impurities in natural magnesite, is undoubtedly necessary for all research of magnesite, including crystalline structural phase transitions, anisotropic elasticity and conductivity, and equation of state (EoS). Thus, a high-quality single crystal of impurity-free magnesite was grown successfully for the first time using the self-flux method under high pressure-temperature conditions. The size of the magnesite single crystal, observed in a plane-polarized microscope, exceeds 200 μm, and the crystal exhibits a rhombohedral structure to cleave along the (101) plane. In addition, its composition of Mg0.999 ± 0.001CO3 was quantified through electron probing analysis. The structural property was investigated by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction and the unit cell dimensions obtained in the rhombohedral symmetry of the R\\bar {3}c space group are a = 4.6255 (3) and c = 14.987 (2), and the final R = 0.0243 for 718 reflections. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of the magnesite single crystal was performed up to 27 GPa at ambient temperature. All Raman active bands, ν i, without any splitting increased almost linearly with increasing pressure. In combination with the high-pressure Raman results {{d/ν _i}}{{{d}P}} and the bulk modulus K T (103 GPa) reported from magnesite EoS studies, the mode Grüneisen parameters (1.49, 1.40, 0.26, and 0.27) of each vibration (T, L, ν 4, and ν 1) were calculated.

  15. Fast Batch Production of High-Quality Graphene Films in a Sealed Thermal Molecular Movement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianbao; Hu, Junxiong; Li, Qi; Wang, Rubing; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Zhu, Yongbo; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Dong, Guocai; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Liwei

    2017-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of high-quality graphene has emerged as the most promising technique in terms of its integrated manufacturing. However, there lacks a controllable growth method for producing high-quality and a large-quantity graphene films, simultaneously, at a fast growth rate, regardless of roll-to-roll (R2R) or batch-to-batch (B2B) methods. Here, a stationary-atmospheric-pressure CVD (SAPCVD) system based on thermal molecular movement, which enables fast B2B growth of continuous and uniform graphene films on tens of stacked Cu(111) foils, with a growth rate of 1.5 µm s-1 , is demonstrated. The monolayer graphene of batch production is found to nucleate from arrays of well-aligned domains, and the films possess few defects and exhibit high carrier mobility up to 6944 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. The results indicate that the SAPCVD system combined with single-domain Cu(111) substrates makes it possible to realize fast batch-growth of high-quality graphene films, which opens up enormous opportunities to use this unique 2D material for industrial device applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Single Crystal Piezoelectric Deformable Mirrors with High Actuator Density and Large Stroke Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors with high actuator density, fine pitch, large stroke and no floating wires will be developed for future NASA science...

  17. Single Crystal Piezomotor for Large Stroke, High Precision and Cryogenic Actuations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes a novel single crystal piezomotor for large stroke, high precision, and cryogenic actuations with capability of position set-hold with...

  18. Design and evaluation of a single-span bridge using ultra-high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    "Research presented herein describes an application of a newly developed material called Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) to a : single-span bridge. The two primary objectives of this research were to develop a shear design procedure for possib...

  19. Design and evaluation of a single-span bridge using ultra-high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Research presented herein describes an application of a newly developed material called Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) to a : single-span bridge. The two primary objectives of this research were to develop a shear design procedure for possibl...

  20. High Energy Single Frequency Fiber Laser at Low Repetition Rate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system operating at low repetition rate of 10 Hz to 1 kHz for coherent Lidar systems...

  1. High Energy Single Frequency Fiber Laser at Low Repetition Rate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  2. Key elements of high-quality practice organisation in primary health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Lisa; Janamian, Tina; Jackson, Claire L

    2014-08-04

    To identify elements that are integral to high-quality practice and determine considerations relating to high-quality practice organisation in primary care. A narrative systematic review of published and grey literature. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Emerald Insight, PsycInfo, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service website, Google Scholar) were searched in November 2013 and used to identify articles published in English from 2002 to 2013. Reference lists of included articles were searched for relevant unpublished articles and reports. Data were configured at the study level to allow for the inclusion of findings from a broad range of study types. Ten elements were most often included in the existing organisational assessment tools. A further three elements were identified from an inductive thematic analysis of descriptive articles, and were noted as important considerations in effective quality improvement in primary care settings. Although there are some validated tools available to primary care that identify and build quality, most are single-strategy approaches developed outside health care settings. There are currently no validated organisational improvement tools, designed specifically for primary health care, which combine all elements of practice improvement and whose use does not require extensive external facilitation.

  3. Quality control metrics improve repeatability and reproducibility of single-nucleotide variants derived from whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Soika, V; Meehan, J; Su, Z; Ge, W; Ng, H W; Perkins, R; Simonyan, V; Tong, W; Hong, H

    2015-08-01

    Although many quality control (QC) methods have been developed to improve the quality of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in SNV-calling, QC methods for use subsequent to single-nucleotide polymorphism-calling have not been reported. We developed five QC metrics to improve the quality of SNVs using the whole-genome-sequencing data of a monozygotic twin pair from the Korean Personal Genome Project. The QC metrics improved both repeatability between the monozygotic twin pair and reproducibility between SNV-calling pipelines. We demonstrated the QC metrics improve reproducibility of SNVs derived from not only whole-genome-sequencing data but also whole-exome-sequencing data. The QC metrics are calculated based on the reference genome used in the alignment without accessing the raw and intermediate data or knowing the SNV-calling details. Therefore, the QC metrics can be easily adopted in downstream association analysis.

  4. Image-Based Single Cell Profiling: High-Throughput Processing of Mother Machine Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Christian Carsten; Grünberger, Alexander; Helfrich, Stefan; Probst, Christopher; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Nöh, Katharina

    Microfluidic lab-on-chip technology combined with live-cell imaging has enabled the observation of single cells in their spatio-temporal context. The mother machine (MM) cultivation system is particularly attractive for the long-term investigation of rod-shaped bacteria since it facilitates continuous cultivation and observation of individual cells over many generations in a highly parallelized manner. To date, the lack of fully automated image analysis software limits the practical applicability of the MM as a phenotypic screening tool. We present an image analysis pipeline for the automated processing of MM time lapse image stacks. The pipeline supports all analysis steps, i.e., image registration, orientation correction, channel/cell detection, cell tracking, and result visualization. Tailored algorithms account for the specialized MM layout to enable a robust automated analysis. Image data generated in a two-day growth study (≈ 90 GB) is analyzed in ≈ 30 min with negligible differences in growth rate between automated and manual evaluation quality. The proposed methods are implemented in the software molyso (MOther machine AnaLYsis SOftware) that provides a new profiling tool to analyze unbiasedly hitherto inaccessible large-scale MM image stacks. Presented is the software molyso, a ready-to-use open source software (BSD-licensed) for the unsupervised analysis of MM time-lapse image stacks. molyso source code and user manual are available at https://github.com/modsim/molyso.

  5. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanmu; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than 10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high Q-factor of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows th...

  6. Study of high quality spinel zinc gallate nanowires grown using CVD and ALD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudheer; Sarau, G.; Tessarek, C.; Göbelt, M.; Christiansen, S.; Singh, R.

    2015-08-01

    High quality single crystalline zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) nanowires (NWs) were grown using a combination of chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition techniques. Morphological, structural and optical investigations revealed the formation of Ga2O3-ZnO core-shell NWs and their conversion into ZnGa2O4 NWs after annealing via a solid state reaction. This material conversion was systematically confirmed for single NWs by various measurement techniques including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and voltage-dependent cathodoluminescence. Moreover, a model system based on the obtained results has been provided explaining the formation mechanism of the ZnGa2O4 NWs.

  7. Health Insurance without Single Crossing : Why Healthy People have High Coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.

    2011-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high (health) risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing in

  8. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  9. High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystals.

  10. Control scheme towards enhancing power quality and operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Salem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high reliable grid-connected photovoltaic (PV systems with high power quality and high operation efficiency is highly required for distributed generation units. A double grid-frequency voltage ripple is found on the dc-link voltage in single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected systems due to the unbalance of the instantaneous dc input and ac output powers. This voltage ripple has undesirable effects on the power quality and operational efficiency of the whole system. Harmonic distortion in the injected current to the grid is one of the problems caused by this double grid-frequency voltage ripple. The double grid frequency ripple propagates to the PV voltage and current which disturb the extracted maximum power from the PV array. This paper introduces intelligent solutions towards mitigate the side effects of the double grid-frequency voltage ripple on the transferred power quality and the operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected PV system. The proposed system has three control loops: MPPT control loop, dc-link voltage control loop and inverter current control loop. Solutions are introduced for all the three control loops in the system. The current controller cancels the dc-link voltage effect on the total harmonic distortion of the output current. The dc-link voltage controller is designed to generate a ripple free reference current signal that leads to enhance the quality of the output power. Also a modified MPPT controller is proposed to optimize the extracted power from the PV array. Simulation results show that higher injected power quality is achieved and higher efficiency of the overall system is realized.

  11. Feasibility and effects of TAI CHI for the promotion of sleep quality and quality of life: a single-group study in a sample of older Chinese individuals in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Catherine Mei-Han; Lee, Paul H

    2014-03-01

    Poor sleep in later life is a global issue that reduces many individuals' quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and effects of a simplified tai chi exercise intervention on sleep quality and QOL among Chinese community-dwelling older adults with poor sleep quality. This single-group, descriptive feasibility study included 34 individuals with poor sleep quality who agreed to participate in a 12-week tai chi intervention. Twenty-six individuals completed the program (23.5% dropout rate). Older adults with poor sleep quality who completed the intervention showed significant improvement in the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 mental component and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global and component scores. The low recruitment and attendance and high dropout rates might be associated with participants' age, gender, and sleep quality. Further long-term studies are required to examine the potential effects of the tai chi intervention. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 40(3), 46-52.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakshane, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives.

  13. Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakshane, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. High quality yarns from high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highest quality yarns from upland cotton are typically produced by using combing in the textile mill. Combing is a resource-intensive process in which short fibers are removed from cotton before spinning. The improvement in fiber length and length uniformity of upland cotton when high speed ro...

  15. Efficient generation of high beam-quality attosecond pulse with polarization-gating Bessel-Gauss beam from highly-ionized media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Qingbin; Hong, Weiyi; Wang, Shaoyi; Wang, Zhe; Lu, Peixiang

    2012-07-02

    Single attosecond pulse generation with polarization gating Bessel-Gauss beam in relatively strongly-ionized media is investigated. The results show that Bessel-Gauss beam has the ability to suppress the spatial plasma dispersion effects caused by high density of free electrons, thus the laser field can maintain its spatial profile through highly-ionized medium. This indicates the use of Bessel-Gauss beam has advantages over Gaussian beam in high harmonic generation under high ionization conditions. In our scheme, significant improvement of spatiotemporal properties of harmonics is achieved and an isolated attosecond pulse with high beam quality is filtered out using polarization gating.

  16. High-quality electron beam generation in a proton-driven hollow plasma wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Xia, G.; Lotov, K. V.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Hanahoe, K.; Mete-Apsimon, O.

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators have demonstrated substantially higher accelerating gradients compared to conventional accelerators and the viability of accelerating electrons to the energy frontier in a single plasma stage. However, due to the strong intrinsic transverse fields varying both radially and in time, the witness beam quality is still far from suitable for practical application in future colliders. Here we demonstrate the efficient acceleration of electrons in proton-driven wakefields in a hollow plasma channel. In this regime, the witness bunch is positioned in the region with a strong accelerating field, free from plasma electrons and ions. We show that the electron beam carrying the charge of about 10% of 1 TeV proton driver charge can be accelerated to 0.6 TeV with a preserved normalized emittance in a single channel of 700 m. This high-quality and high-charge beam may pave the way for the development of future plasma-based energy frontier colliders.

  17. Determination of saffron quality by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle García-Rodríguez, M; Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Tarantilis, Petros A; López-Córcoles, Horacio; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2014-08-13

    The aim of this work was to propose a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for determining the three main compounds responsible for determining the quality of saffron (crocetin esters, picrocrocin, and safranal) by preparing an aqueous extract according to the ISO 3632 standard to solve the difficulty that this standard has for aroma and taste determination by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Toward this aim, laboratory-isolated picrocrocin, a safranal standard with a purity of ≥ 88%, trans-crocetin di(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-4-GG) and trans-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-3-Gg) standards, both with a purity of ≥ 99%, and 50 different saffron spice samples from Italy, Iran, Greece, and Spain were used in the intralaboratory validation of the HPLC method. The analytical method proposed was adequate in terms of linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy for determining the three foremost parameters that define the quality of saffron using only a saffron solution prepared according to the ISO 3632 standard.

  18. Improving eggshell quality at high temperatures with dietary sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnave, D; Muheereza, S K

    1997-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted that confirmed the hypothesis that a dietary bicarbonate supplement will improve eggshell quality in hens at high temperatures as long as feed is consumed during the period of eggshell formation. End-of-lay hens were maintained on continuous light at temperatures of 30 and 35 C. Individual egg weights and shell quality measures for each hen were calculated as a proportion of the initial values determined during an acclimatization period at 25 C. Improvements in shell breaking strength in both experiments were observed as a result of supplementing control diets with 1% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). This response to NaHCO3 was not a reflection of a reduced rate of lay or egg mass output, as these were similar or inferior on the control diets. Similar feed intakes on the control and NaHCO3 diets indicated that the response was not related to differences in calcium intakes. Supplements of zinc methionine and ascorbic acid proved to be inferior to NaHCO3. Improvements in egg weight were associated with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  19. The Single Soldier Quality of Life Initiative: Great Expectations of Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Appellant could not cook in his room, have overnight guests, or have unaccompanied underage guests. Appellant knew he was subject to inspection to a degree...between the single or unaccompanied soldier, the installation staff, and the local command. In October 1990, the Chief of Staff of the Army directed that...battalions and tactical units are required to educate leaders on single soldier issues. The USAREUR staff was tasked to develop single soldier programs of

  20. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60% near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB. Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed.

  1. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.

    1987-02-19

    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  2. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    . Glucosinolates can be transformed enzymatic by the enzyme myrosinase (EC. 3.2.1.147), or non-enzymatic by heat treatment or under the acidic and reducing conditions in the stomach of monogastrics. The type of transformation product depends on the parent glucosinolate and of the chemical conditions, and in some...... for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...... cake was included, while losses up to 88% were observed when cold-pressed rapeseed caked was used. N-balance trials with rats clearly demonstrated effects on the biologic value caused by high glucosinolate concentrations, active myrosinase and long temperature treatments. The second study (manuscript...

  3. Towards organizational development for sustainable high-quality medical teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Rik; de Caluwé, Léon I A; Stuyt, Paul M J; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke

    2013-02-01

    Literature shows that faculty development programmes are not organizationally embedded in academic hospitals. This leaves medical teaching a low and informal status. The purpose of this article is to explore how organizational literature can strengthen our understanding of embedding faculty development in organizational development, and to provide a useful example of organizational development with regards to medical teaching and faculty development. Constructing a framework for organizational development from the literature, based on expert brainstorming. This framework is applied to a case study. A framework for organizational development is described. Applied in a context of medical teaching, these organizational insights show the process (and progress) of embedding faculty development in organizational development. Organizational development is a necessary condition for assuring sustainable faculty development for high-quality medical teaching. Organizational policies can only work in an organization that is developing. Recommendations for further development and future research are discussed.

  4. Power quality in high-tech campus: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Redel, M.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain). Departamento de Electrotecnia y Electronica

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from a power-quality audit conducted at a high-tech campus over the last year. Voltage and current were measured at various R and D buildings; it was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags and surges. The paper examines the causes and effects of power disturbances that affect computer or any other microprocessor-based equipment and analyses the auto-protection capabilities of modern power supplies. The convenience of 'enhanced power supply' or 'low-cost customer-side' protection solutions is also discussed. Finally, it addresses the role of the standards on the protection of electronic equipment and the implications for the final customer. (author)

  5. Sensing and Sensibility: Single-Islet-based Quality Control Assay of Cryopreserved Pancreatic Islets with Functionalized Hydrogel Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanyu; Shu, Zhiquan; Gao, Dayong; Shen, Amy Q

    2016-01-21

    Despite decades of research and clinical studies of islet transplantations, finding simple yet reliable islet quality assays that correlate accurately with in vivo potency is still a major challenge, especially for real-time and single-islet-based quality assessment. Herein, proof-of-concept studies of a cryopreserved microcapsule-based quality control assays are presented for single islets. Individual rat pancreatic islets and fluorescent oxygen-sensitive dye (FOSD) are encapsulated in alginate hydrogel microcapsules via a microfluidic device. To test the susceptibility of the microcapsules and the FOSD to cryopreservation, the islet microcapsules containing FOSD are cryopreserved and the islet functionalities (adenosine triphosphate, static insulin release measurement, and oxygen consumption rate) are assessed after freezing and thawing steps. The cryopreserved islet capsules with FOSD remain functional after encapsulation and freezing/thawing procedures, validating a simple yet reliable individual-islet-based quality control method for the entire islet processing procedure prior to transplantation. This work also demonstrates that the functionality of cryopreserved islets can be improved by introducing trehalose into the routinely used cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide. The functionalized alginate hydrogel microcapsules with embedded FOSD and optimized cryopreservation protocol presented in this work serve as a versatile islet quality assay and offer tremendous promise for tackling existing challenges in islet transplantation procedures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High-quality stable electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration in high density plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality, stable electron beams are produced from self-injected laser wakefield acceleration using the interaction of moderate 3 TW, 45 fs duration Ti:sapphire laser pulses with high density (>5×10^{19}   cm^{−3} helium gas jet plasma. The electron beam has virtually background-free quasimonoenergetic distribution with energy 35.6_{−2.5}^{+3.9}  MeV, charge 3.8_{−1.2}^{+2.8}  pC, divergence and pointing variation ∼10  mrad. The stable and high quality of the electron beam opens an easy way for applications of the laser wakefield accelerator in the future, particularly due to the widespread availability of sub-10 TW class lasers with a number of laser plasma laboratories around the world.

  7. Nanosecond X-ray detector based on high resistivity ZnO single crystal semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Chen, Liang; He, Yongning; Liu, Jinliang; Peng, Wenbo; Huang, Zhiyong; Qi, Xiaomeng; Pan, Zijian; Zhang, Wenting; Zhang, Zhongbing; Ouyang, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    The pulse radiation detectors are sorely needed in the fields of nuclear reaction monitoring, material analysis, astronomy study, spacecraft navigation, and space communication. In this work, we demonstrate a nanosecond X-ray detector based on ZnO single crystal semiconductor, which emerges as a promising compound-semiconductor radiation detection material for its high radiation tolerance and advanced large-size bulk crystal growth technique. The resistivity of the ZnO single crystal is as high as 1013 Ω cm due to the compensation of the donor defects (VO) and acceptor defects (VZn and Oi) after high temperature annealing in oxygen. The photoconductive X-ray detector was fabricated using the high resistivity ZnO single crystal. The rise time and fall time of the detector to a 10 ps pulse electron beam are 0.8 ns and 3.3 ns, respectively, indicating great potential for ultrafast X-ray detection applications.

  8. Analysis of Temporal Change in Voice Quality After Thyroidectomy: Single-institution Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Ki Jeong; Hwang, Soo Min; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Cho, Jae-Gu; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Kwon, Soon-Young; Woo, Jeong-Soo; Jung, Kwang-Yoon

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the temporal changes of voice quality after thyroidectomy and assessed the predictive perioperative parameters of postthyroidectomy voice disorder (PTVD). This is a prospective cohort study. From March 2011 to July 2014, 559 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with or without central neck dissection were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent prospective voice evaluation using the subjective and objective comprehensive battery of assessments, preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Fundamental frequency (F0) was not significantly decreased during the postoperative follow-up. Maximal vocal pitch (MVP) and maximal intensity were not recovered, even at 1 year postoperatively, whereas the Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain scale reached preoperative value at postoperative 3-6 months and voice handicap index at 1 year. Postoperative 1-month MVP was the best predictor for PTVD, and the cut-off value was 80% of preoperative value. Wide surgical extent and high preoperative F0 were the parameters that significantly correlated with PTVD (P = 0.021 and P voice parameters should be considered in preoperative counseling. Intensive voice therapy may be needed for patients with the ability to produce higher pitch than normal preoperatively and wide surgical extent. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single cell proteomics in biomedicine: High-dimensional data acquisition, visualization, and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yapeng; Shi, Qihui; Wei, Wei

    2017-02-01

    New insights on cellular heterogeneity in the last decade provoke the development of a variety of single cell omics tools at a lightning pace. The resultant high-dimensional single cell data generated by these tools require new theoretical approaches and analytical algorithms for effective visualization and interpretation. In this review, we briefly survey the state-of-the-art single cell proteomic tools with a particular focus on data acquisition and quantification, followed by an elaboration of a number of statistical and computational approaches developed to date for dissecting the high-dimensional single cell data. The underlying assumptions, unique features, and limitations of the analytical methods with the designated biological questions they seek to answer will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to those information theoretical approaches that are anchored in a set of first principles of physics and can yield detailed (and often surprising) predictions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A Model for Improving the Health and Quality of Life of Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the impoverished population of coastal Kenya, there is a rapidly growing group of young single mothers who suffer from adverse health outcomes, incomplete schooling, social ostracism by their communities, and economic hardship. To address this problem, in 2008 the Single Mothers Program (SMP) selected a ...

  11. A Model for Improving the Health and Quality of Life of Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    problem, in 2008 the Single Mothers Program (SMP) selected a group of vulnerable single mothers, provided them with basic relief and education, equipped .... Africans for exacerbating a range of social ills, including gambling, prostitution, and ..... period—when many of them were still teenagers and new mothers with no ...

  12. On the dipole, velocity and acceleration forms in high-order harmonic generation from a single atom or molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    On the dipole, velocity and acceleration forms in high-order harmonic generation from a single atom or molecule......On the dipole, velocity and acceleration forms in high-order harmonic generation from a single atom or molecule...

  13. Highly Durable Platinum Single-Atom Alloy Catalyst for Electrochemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jiwhan; Roh, Chi-Woo; Sahoo, Suman Kalyan

    2018-01-01

    Single atomic Pt catalyst can offer efficient utilization of the expensive platinum and provide unique selectivity because it lacks ensemble sites. However, designing such a catalyst with high Pt loading and good durability is very challenging. Here, single atomic Pt catalyst supported on antimony...... functional theory calculations show that replacing Sb sites with Pt atoms in the bulk phase or at the surface of SbSn or ATO is energetically favorable. The Pt1/ATO shows superior activity and durability for formic acid oxidation reaction, compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The single atomic Pt...

  14. Diversity in diabetes care programmes and views on high quality diabetes care: are we in need of a standardized framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth A.D. Borgermans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods: A review of systematic reviews was performed. Four databases (MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine, COCHRANE database of Systematic Reviews, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Database-CINAHL and Pre-Cinahl were searched for English review articles published between November 1989 and December 2006. Methodological quality of the articles was assessed. A standardized extraction form was used to assess features of diabetes care programmes and diabetes quality indicators with special reference to those aspects that hinder the conceptualization of high quality diabetes care. Based on these findings the relationship between diversity in diabetes care programmes and the conceptualization of high quality diabetes care was further explored. Results: Twenty-one systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria representing a total of 185 diabetes care programmes. Six elements were identified to produce a picture of diversity in diabetes care programmes and hinder their standardization: 1 the variety and relative absence of conceptual backgrounds in diabetes care programmes, 2 confusion over what is considered a constituent of a diabetes care program and components of the implementation strategy, 3 large variety in type of diabetes care programmes, settings and related goals, 4 a large number and variety in interventions and quality indicators used, 5 no conclusive evidence on effectiveness, 6 no systematic results on costs. Conclusions: There is large diversity in diabetes care programmes and related quality indicators. From this review and our analysis on the mutual relationship between diversity in diabetes care programmes and the conceptualization of high quality diabetes care, we conclude that no single conceptual framework used to date provides a comprehensive overview of attributes of high quality diabetes care linked to quality indicators at the structure, process and outcome level. There is a need for a

  15. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Zhao, Yuning; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Bader, Samuel; Fay, Patrick; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2015-12-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  16. Limiting Energy Dissipation Induces Glassy Kinetics in Single-Cell High-Precision Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Jayajit

    2016-01-01

    Single cells often generate precise responses by involving dissipative out-of-thermodynamic equilibrium processes in signaling networks. The available free energy to fuel these processes could become limited depending on the metabolic state of an individual cell. How does limiting dissipation affect the kinetics of high precision responses in single cells? I address this question in the context of a kinetic proofreading scheme used in a simple model of early time T cell signaling. I show usin...

  17. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Nurse Education, Practice, Quality and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Award to Nurse Education, Practice, Quality and Retention (NEPQR) Program Grantee; Exception to... Award to Nurse Education, Practice, Quality and Retention (NEPQR) Program Grantee--Texas A&M University... feasibility study, Transitioning Enlisted Health Care Training into Academic Credit for Nursing Education...

  18. Graduating dental students' ability to produce quality root canal fillings using single- or multiple-cone obturation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gound, Tom G; Sather, James P; Kong, Tae S; Makkawy, Hany A; Marx, David B

    2009-06-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to compare the quality (length and density) and efficiency (time to completion) of obturation when single- or multiple-cone obturation techniques were used by graduating dental school students on previously instrumented single-canalled teeth using simulated clinical conditions in vitro. Five students took part in the study, each of whom obturated thirty-six teeth using six obturation techniques. The multiple-cone techniques included lateral condensation of gutta-percha, the technique the students had used in their laboratory and clinical courses, and two similar variations: lateral condensation of Epiphany and mechanical lateral condensation of gutta-percha. These three methods were compared to three single-cone techniques: Thermafil, Activ GP, and GuttaFlow. The students had no experience with single-cone techniques except for a brief introduction and demonstration. All obturations were timed, and post-obturation radiographs were taken in the clinical and proximal views (CV and PV). The radiographs were read by two endodontic faculty members who were blinded to technique, student, and fellow faculty member's results. Data were also separated by operator experience with individual techniques: the first three obturations/techniques were compared to the final three obturations/techniques. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests. The quality produced or time required rarely differed within multiple-cone or single-cone groups, but statistical differences did occur between the two groups. Multiple-cone obturation was more likely to produce adequate length (p=0.0042), density in the CV (p=0.0056), and density in the PV (p=0.0003). Conversely, the single-cone techniques were significantly faster (mean 350 seconds) than the multiple-cone techniques (mean 464 seconds) (p=0.0020). Quality did not improve significantly with the experienced groups versus the inexperienced with any of the six techniques, but the mean time for obturation

  19. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  20. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  1. Stress and sleep quality in high school brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Mesquita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of stress on sleep quality in a group of adolescents. METHOD: Two high schools in Alfenas, southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were chosen to participate in the study. The sample consisted of both genders (n=160 with 65.63% females. The age range of participants was 15 to18 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was applied for collection of data to quantify sleep quality. The Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms that objectively identifies symptoms of stress was applied. RESULTS: It was observed that 23.53% of stressed students and 45.33% of unstressed ones sleep well; 76.47% of stressed pupils and 54.67% of those unstressed do not sleep well. With regard to school performance, a mean of 0.65 was found for stressed students and 0.60 for those without stress, Mann-Whitney (p=0.0596. CONCLUSION: Stress contributed to raising the percentage of poor sleepers, as ell as increasing ean school performance.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência do stress sobre a qualidade do sono em um grupo de adolescentes. MÉTODO: Foram escolhidas duas instituições educacionais do ensino médio, na cidade de Alfenas, sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A amostra foi composta por ambos os sexos (n=160, com 65,63% do sexo feminino. A faixa etária dos participantes foi de 15 a 18 anos. Para a coleta de dados aplicou-se: Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh (IQSP utilizado para quantificar a qualidade do sono; o Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp (ISSL que identifica de modo objetivo a sintomatologia de stress foi aplicado. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 23,53% dos estressados dormem bem e 45,33% dos não estressados dormem bem; 76,47% dos estressados não dormem bem e 54,67% dos não estressados não dormem bem. Quanto ao rendimento escolar têm-se as médias 0,65 para os alunos estressados e 0,60 para aqueles que não sofrem de stress, Mann

  2. Approaches in breeding for high quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić Miloje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most African and South American countries. The main problem in human nutrition in developing countries, and in livestock feed in developed countries, is insufficient production and poor quality of cereal proteins. In the case of maize, due to the very low content of essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan in grain endosperm, biological value is very low, which is main limiting factor of common maize in human nutrition and feeding of monogastric animals. Quality protein maize (QPM can help in solving of this problem. Maize production also faces serious constraints caused by agro-ecological conditions and poor socio-economic situation. To alleviate the effect of the constraints, selected genotypes with more desirable traits and appropriate field-plot techniques to create multiple-stress conditions, were used. It was found that, in downy mildew nursery distance up to 35 m from spreader plot is providing sufficient down load of spores for plant infection, provided that the testing breeding materials are planted towards to down-stream direction of the dominant wind. Using these breeding approaches large number of early, white and flint synthetics, composites and inbred lines were created with resistance or tolerance to downy mildew (DMR, maize streak virus (SR and drought (DT. Created genotypes exhibited very good kernel modification and yield potential under low and normal inputs. In the case of synthetics and composites, besides tolerance to multiple stress factors, they were competing in yield with local QPM and normal maize checks. In the case of created inbred lines high combining ability was exhibited both in non-conventional and conventional maize hybrids. Trial data revealed that in the most cases the best entries were over-yielding the best checks.

  3. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, Petra; Kaltseis, Josef; Fritz, Andreas; Edlinger, Michael; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Orth-Höller, Dorothea

    2018-02-02

    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes have been described previously. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination is varying dramatically in literature. Thus, the aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture- and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3-4.6% according to national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly P. oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n=9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n=6, 11.5%) only on account to microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared to results from other European countries, possibly due to high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  5. High-quality ChIP-seq analysis of MBD3 in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Takashi; Takaku, Motoki; Wade, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Chromatin accessibility is tightly regulated by multiple factors/mechanisms to establish different cell type-specific gene expression programs from a single genome. Dysregulation of this process can lead to diseases including cancer. The Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is thought to orchestrate chromatin structure using its intrinsic nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the NuRD complex regulates chromatin structure in vivo are not yet known. To explore the regulatory mechanisms of the NuRD complex, we mapped genome-wide localization of MBD3, a structural component of NuRD, in a human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) using a modified ChIP-seq protocol. Our data showed high quality localization information (i.e., high mapping efficiency and low PCR duplication rate) and excellent consistency between biological replicates. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE76116).

  6. High luminous flux from single crystal phosphor-converted laser-based white lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Cantore, Michael

    2015-12-14

    The efficiency droop of light emitting diodes (LEDs) with increasing current density limits the amount of light emitted per wafer area. Since low current densities are required for high efficiency operation, many LED die are needed for high power white light illumination systems. In contrast, the carrier density of laser diodes (LDs) clamps at threshold, so the efficiency of LDs does not droop above threshold and high efficiencies can be achieved at very high current densities. The use of a high power blue GaN-based LD coupled with a single crystal Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) sample was investigated for white light illumination applications. Under CW operation, a single phosphor-converted LD (pc-LD) die produced a peak luminous efficacy of 86.7 lm/W at 1.4 A and 4.24 V and a peak luminous flux of 1100 lm at 3.0 A and 4.85 V with a luminous efficacy of 75.6 lm/W. Simulations of a pc-LD confirm that the single crystal YAG:Ce sample did not experience thermal quenching at peak LD operating efficiency. These results show that a single pc-LD die is capable of emitting enough luminous flux for use in a high power white light illumination system.

  7. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell waste management area B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Narbutovskih

    2000-03-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a first determination groundwater quality assessment at the Hanford Site. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement during the time period 1996--1998. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY had entered the groundwater at levels above the drinking water standards (DWS). The resulting assessment report documented evidence demonstrating that waste from the WMA has, most likely, impacted groundwater quality. Based on 40 CFR 265.93 [d] paragraph (7), the owner-operator must continue to make the minimum required determinations of contaminant level and of rate/extent of migrations on a quarterly basis until final facility closure. These continued determinations are required because the groundwater quality assessment was implemented prior to final closure of the facility.

  8. Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant...... increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined...

  9. Storing single photons emitted by a quantum memory on a highly excited Rydberg state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distante, Emanuele; Farrera, Pau; Padrón-Brito, Auxiliadora; Paredes-Barato, David; Heinze, Georg; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2017-01-19

    Strong interaction between two single photons is a long standing and important goal in quantum photonics. This would enable a new regime of nonlinear optics and unlock several applications in quantum information science, including photonic quantum gates and deterministic Bell-state measurements. In the context of quantum networks, it would be important to achieve interactions between single photons from independent photon pairs storable in quantum memories. So far, most experiments showing nonlinearities at the single-photon level have used weak classical input light. Here we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of a paired single photon emitted by an ensemble quantum memory in a strongly nonlinear medium based on highly excited Rydberg atoms. We show that nonclassical correlations between the two photons persist after retrieval from the Rydberg ensemble. Our result is an important step towards deterministic photon-photon interactions, and may enable deterministic Bell-state measurements with multimode quantum memories.

  10. Limiting Energy Dissipation Induces Glassy Kinetics in Single-Cell High-Precision Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayajit

    2016-03-08

    Single cells often generate precise responses by involving dissipative out-of-thermodynamic-equilibrium processes in signaling networks. The available free energy to fuel these processes could become limited depending on the metabolic state of an individual cell. How does limiting dissipation affect the kinetics of high-precision responses in single cells? I address this question in the context of a kinetic proofreading scheme used in a simple model of early-time T cell signaling. Using exact analytical calculations and numerical simulations, I show that limiting dissipation qualitatively changes the kinetics in single cells marked by emergence of slow kinetics, large cell-to-cell variations of copy numbers, temporally correlated stochastic events (dynamic facilitation), and ergodicity breaking. Thus, constraints in energy dissipation, in addition to negatively affecting ligand discrimination in T cells, can create a fundamental difficulty in determining single-cell kinetics from cell-population results. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  12. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. PMID:25330349

  13. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Inertial-ordering-assisted droplet microfluidics for high-throughput single-cell RNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hui-Sung; Je, Kwanghwi; Min, Jae-Woong; Park, Donghyun; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Shin, Seung-Ho; Park, Woong-Yang; Yoo, Chang Eun; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2018-02-27

    Single-cell RNA-seq reveals the cellular heterogeneity inherent in the population of cells, which is very important in many clinical and research applications. Recent advances in droplet microfluidics have achieved the automatic isolation, lysis, and labeling of single cells in droplet compartments without complex instrumentation. However, barcoding errors occurring in the cell encapsulation process because of the multiple-beads-in-droplet and insufficient throughput because of the low concentration of beads for avoiding multiple-beads-in-a-droplet remain important challenges for precise and efficient expression profiling of single cells. In this study, we developed a new droplet-based microfluidic platform that significantly improved the throughput while reducing barcoding errors through deterministic encapsulation of inertially ordered beads. Highly concentrated beads containing oligonucleotide barcodes were spontaneously ordered in a spiral channel by an inertial effect, which were in turn encapsulated in droplets one-by-one, while cells were simultaneously encapsulated in the droplets. The deterministic encapsulation of beads resulted in a high fraction of single-bead-in-a-droplet and rare multiple-beads-in-a-droplet although the bead concentration increased to 1000 μl -1 , which diminished barcoding errors and enabled accurate high-throughput barcoding. We successfully validated our device with single-cell RNA-seq. In addition, we found that multiple-beads-in-a-droplet, generated using a normal Drop-Seq device with a high concentration of beads, underestimated transcript numbers and overestimated cell numbers. This accurate high-throughput platform can expand the capability and practicality of Drop-Seq in single-cell analysis.

  15. New lighting for the design of high quality biomedical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Claudia B.; Jaffe, Steven M.; Conner, Arlie R.

    2009-02-01

    Among the trends redefining 21st century biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics are the advent of low-cost portable analyzers. Because light is a powerful tool in many of today's most widely used life science instruments, high intensity, low cost light engines are essential to the design and proliferation of the newest bioanalytical instruments, medical devices and miniaturized analyzers. The development of new light technology represents a critical technical hurdle in the realization of point-of-care analysis. Lumencor has developed an inexpensive lighting solution, uniquely well suited to the production of safe, effective and commercially viable life science tools and biomedical devices. Lumencor's proprietary, solid-state light engine provides powerful, pure, stable, inexpensive light across the UV-Vis- NIR. Light engines are designed to directly replace the entire configuration of light management components with a single, simple unit. Power, spectral breadth and purity, stability and reliability data will demonstrate the advantages of these light engines for today's bioanalytical needs. Performance and cost analyses will be compared to traditional optical subsystems based on lamps, lasers and LEDs with respect to their suitability as sources for biomedical applications, implementation for development/evaluation of novel measurement tools and overall superior reliability. Next generation products based on such sources will be described to fulfill the demand for portable, hand-held analyzers and affordable devices with highly integrated light sources. A four color violet/cyan/green/red product will be demonstrated. A variety of multicolor prototypes, their spectral outputs and facile modulation will be discussed and their performance capabilities disclosed.

  16. Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for unilateral palpable testis: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoutaz A. Eltayeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bianchi and Squire introduced single high trans-scrotal incision for mobilisation of palpable undescended testes to decrease the potential morbidity of the traditional inguinal approach. This incision has not gained widespread acceptance and there is still a considerable debate about its efficacy. This study evaluated the outcome of high single scrotal incision in comparison to the classic inguinal exploration for unilateral palpable testes regardless to its pre-operative location to assure its validity and safety. Patients and Methods: This was a randomised controlled study conducted on seventy males with palpable unilateral undescended testicles from November 2009 to October 2013. They were divided into two equal groups; group I had high single scrotal incision and group II had the classic inguinal approach. The comparative parameters between both groups were the operative time, intra-and post-operative complications, post-operative pain and scar. Results: There was statistical significant difference between both groups regarding the operative time (P < 0.001. The high scrotal approach (Group I was not completed in three cases and were converted to the classic inguinal approach. No statistical significant difference between both groups regarding the post-operative complications. Conclusions: Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended testis is safe, has shorter operative time but may not be suitable for proximally lying testis.

  17. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Seixas, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Sotto-Maior-Peralva, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measure for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measure has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measure to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superposed information, and the QF may be us...

  18. High-quality weather data for grid integration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxl, C.

    2016-12-01

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. In this talk we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets will be presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The Solar Integration National Dataset (SIND) is available as time synchronized with the WIND Toolkit, and will allow for combined wind-solar grid integration studies. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. Grid integration studies are also carried out in various countries, which aim at increasing their wind and solar penetration through combined wind and solar integration data sets. We will present a multi-year effort to directly support India's 24x7 energy access goal through a suite of activities aimed at enabling large-scale deployment of clean energy and energy efficiency. Another current effort is the North-American-Renewable-Integration-Study, with the aim of providing

  19. An automated system for high-throughput single cell-based breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Kida, Akiko; Jie, Xu; Kurokawa, Masaya; Iijima, Masumi; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D.; Nikaido, Itoshi; Ueda, Hiroki R.; Tatematsu, Kenji; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Akihiko; Fujii, Ikuo; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    When establishing the most appropriate cells from the huge numbers of a cell library for practical use of cells in regenerative medicine and production of various biopharmaceuticals, cell heterogeneity often found in an isogenic cell population limits the refinement of clonal cell culture. Here, we demonstrated high-throughput screening of the most suitable cells in a cell library by an automated undisruptive single-cell analysis and isolation system, followed by expansion of isolated single cells. This system enabled establishment of the most suitable cells, such as embryonic stem cells with the highest expression of the pluripotency marker Rex1 and hybridomas with the highest antibody secretion, which could not be achieved by conventional high-throughput cell screening systems (e.g., a fluorescence-activated cell sorter). This single cell-based breeding system may be a powerful tool to analyze stochastic fluctuations and delineate their molecular mechanisms. PMID:23378922

  20. Quality Assurance Roadmap for High Performance Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-05

    This report outlines the approach to quality assurance in the construction process for new residential construction, including seven process steps from the assessment of current construction practice, through design and documentation changes, to training and quality control for on-site personnel.

  1. Stretching single DNA molecules to demonstrate high-force capabilities of holographic optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, Arnau; van der Horst, Astrid; Blab, Gerhard A.; Downing, Benjamin P. B.; Forde, Nancy R.

    2010-01-01

    The well calibrated force-extension behaviour of single double-stranded DNA molecules was used as a standard to investigate the performance of phase-only holographic optical tweezers at high forces. Specifically, the characteristic overstretch transition at 65 pN was found to appear where expected,

  2. Variation of low temperature internal friction of microplastic deformation of high purity molybdenum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal-Val, P.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur); Kaufmann, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin)

    1984-08-01

    Amplitude and temperature spectra of ultrasound absorption in weakly deformed high purity molybdenum single crystals of different orientations were measured. The results were discussed in terms of parameter changes related to quasiparticle or dislocation oscillations, respectively, dislocation point defect interactions as well as defect generation at microplastic deformation.

  3. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Masaaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Collaborative Research, Anan National College of Technology, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan); Choi, Wookjin; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukuda, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Sugimoto, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Gunma, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  4. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  5. A 5 cm single-discharge CO2 laser having high power output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Boer, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    A single-discharge self-sustained CO2 laser has been constructed with a gap distance of 5 cm. The system has a very simple construction; it produces a very uniform discharge with an output power of 50 Joules per liter for a CO2 : N2 : He = 1 : 1 : 3 mixture. The efficiency can be as high as 19%.

  6. Raman study of bromine-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Bing Bing; Yu Miao; Zou Guang Tian; Carlsten, J; Wagberg, T; Sundqvist, B

    2002-01-01

    Raman results for different single-walled carbon nanotube bundles doped with Br sub 2 were studied both at ambient pressure and under high pressure up to 6 GPa. Our study indicates that bromine resides in the interstitial channel of nanotube bundles as a form of polymer.

  7. Achievement, School Integration, and Self-Efficacy in Single-Sex and Coeducational Parochial High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Kara Hanson

    2014-01-01

    A structural model for prior achievement, school integration, and self-efficacy was developed using Tinto's theory of student attrition and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The model was tested and revised using a sample of 1,452 males and females from single-sex and coeducational parochial high schools. Results indicated that the theoretically…

  8. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  9. Simultaneous regeneration of two 160 Gbit/s WDM channels in a single highly nonlinear fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ju; Ji, Hua; Hu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate simultaneous all-optical regeneration of two 160-Gbit/s wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) channels in a single highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). The multi-channel regeneration performance is confirmed by bit-error rate (BER) measurements. The receiver powers at a BER...

  10. 75 FR 41693 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers AGENCY: Grain... quality grain exported in containers ] from the mandatory inspection and weighing requirements of the... for high quality specialty grains exported in containers that was established by a final rule on...

  11. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  12. Randomization and Data-Analysis Items in Quality Standards for Single-Case Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Wendt, Oliver; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Reporting standards and critical appraisal tools serve as beacons for researchers, reviewers, and research consumers. Parallel to existing guidelines for researchers to report and evaluate group-comparison studies, single-case experimental (SCE) researchers are in need of guidelines for reporting and evaluating SCE studies. A systematic search was…

  13. Advantages of Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing in High-GC Content Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Shin

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing has become the most widely used sequencing technology in genomics research, but it has inherent drawbacks when dealing with high-GC content genomes. Recently, single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT was introduced as a third-generation sequencing strategy to compensate for this drawback. Here, we report that the unbiased and longer read length of SMRT sequencing markedly improved genome assembly with high GC content via gap filling and repeat resolution.

  14. High-field magnetisation measurements on R sub 2 Fe sub 14 B single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, R.; Franse, J.J.M.; Menovsky, A.A.; Radwanski, R.J. (Amsterdam Univ. (NL). Natuurkundig Lab.); Song-quan, J.; Fu-ming, Y. (Academia Sinica, Beijing (CN). Inst. of Physics); Li, H.S.; Gavigan, J.P. (Trinity Coll. Dublin (IE). Dept. of Pure and Applied Physics)

    1988-12-01

    High-field magnetisation measurements on single crystalline samples of Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and Dy{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are presented and discussed within a two-sublattice model. Special attention is given to the high-field part of the curves (B{sub o} > 20 T).

  15. Implementation of Low Frequency Ac to High Frequency Ac with Single Stage Zvs-Pwm Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    S. Arumugam S. Ramareddy M. Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel soft-switching pulse width modulation (PWM) utility frequency AC to high frequency (HF) AC power conversion circuit incorporating boost-active clamp single stage inverter topology. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective HF consumer induction heating applications. Its operating principle is presented. The operating performances of this high frequency inverter using the latest insulated gate bipolar transistors are illustrated, which ...

  16. Structure determination from a single high-pressure-frozen virus crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Anja; Wagner, Armin; Warmer, Martin; Reimer, Rudolph; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Ren, Jingshan; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Meents, Alke

    2013-02-01

    Successful cryogenic X-ray structure determination from a single high-pressure-frozen bovine enterovirus 2 crystal is reported. The presented high-pressure-freezing procedure is based on a commercially available device and allows the cryocooling of macromolecular crystals directly in their mother liquor without the time- and crystal-consuming search for optimal cryoconditions. The method is generally applicable and will allow cryogenic data collection from all types of macromolecular crystals.

  17. Single-stranded DNA library preparation from highly degraded DNA using T4 DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Gerber, Tobias; Glocke, Isabelle; Korlevic, Petra; Lippik, Laurin; Nagel, Sarah; Riehl, Lara Maria; Schmidt, Anna; Meyer, Matthias

    2017-06-02

    DNA library preparation for high-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA usually involves ligation of adapters to double-stranded DNA fragments. However, for highly degraded DNA, especially ancient DNA, library preparation has been found to be more efficient if each of the two DNA strands are converted into library molecules separately. We present a new method for single-stranded library preparation, ssDNA2.0, which is based on single-stranded DNA ligation with T4 DNA ligase utilizing a splinter oligonucleotide with a stretch of random bases hybridized to a 3΄ biotinylated donor oligonucleotide. A thorough evaluation of this ligation scheme shows that single-stranded DNA can be ligated to adapter oligonucleotides in higher concentration than with CircLigase (an RNA ligase that was previously chosen for end-to-end ligation in single-stranded library preparation) and that biases in ligation can be minimized when choosing splinters with 7 or 8 random nucleotides. We show that ssDNA2.0 tolerates higher quantities of input DNA than CircLigase-based library preparation, is less costly and better compatible with automation. We also provide an in-depth comparison of library preparation methods on degraded DNA from various sources. Most strikingly, we find that single-stranded library preparation increases library yields from tissues stored in formalin for many years by several orders of magnitude. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Searching for Next Single-Phase High-Entropy Alloy Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Alman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable technological interest in high-entropy alloys (HEAs since the initial publications on the topic appeared in 2004. However, only several of the alloys investigated are truly single-phase solid solution compositions. These include the FCC alloys CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi based on 3d transition metals elements and BCC alloys NbMoTaW, NbMoTaVW, and HfNbTaTiZr based on refractory metals. The search for new single-phase HEAs compositions has been hindered by a lack of an effective scientific strategy for alloy design. This report shows that the chemical interactions and atomic diffusivities predicted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations which are closely related to primary crystallization during solidification can be used to assist in identifying single phase high-entropy solid solution compositions. Further, combining these simulations with phase diagram calculations via the CALPHAD method and inspection of existing phase diagrams is an effective strategy to accelerate the discovery of new single-phase HEAs. This methodology was used to predict new single-phase HEA compositions. These are FCC alloys comprised of CoFeMnNi, CuNiPdPt and CuNiPdPtRh, and HCP alloys of CoOsReRu.

  19. High-pressure catalytic reactions over single-crystal metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, JoséA.; Wayne Goodman, D.

    1991-11-01

    Studies dealing with high-pressure catalytic reactions over single-crystal surfaces are reviewed. The coupling of an apparatus for the measurement of reaction kinetics at elevated pressures with an ultrahigh vacuum system for surface analysis allows detailed study of structure sensitivity, the effects of promoters and inhibitors on catalytic activity, and, in certain cases, identification of reaction intermediates by post-reaction surface analysis. Examples are provided which demonstrate the relevance of single-crystal studies for modeling the behaviour of high-surface-area supported catalysts. Studies of CO methanation and CO oxidation over single-crystal surfaces provide convincing evidence that these reactions are structure insensitive. For structure-sensitive reactions (ammonia synthesis, alkane hydrogenolysis, alkane isomerization, water-gas shift reaction, etc.) model single-crystal studies allow correlations to be established between surface structure and catalytic activity. The effects of both electronegative (S and P) and electropositive (alkali metals) impurities upon the catalytic activity of metal single crystals for ammonia synthesis, CO methanation, alkane hydrogenolysis, ethylene epoxidation and water-gas shift are discussed. The roles of "ensemble" and "ligand" effects in bimetallic catalysts are examined in light of data obtained using surfaces prepared by vapor-depositing one metal onto a crystal face of a dissimilar metal.

  20. Experimental study of micro-milling mechanism and surface quality of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qi; Gong, Yadong; Zhou, Yun Guang; Wen, Xue Long [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-01-15

    Micro-milling is widely used as a method for machining of micro-parts with high precision and efficiency. Taking the nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 as the research object, the crystal characteristics of single-crystal materials were analysed, and the removal mechanism of single-crystal micro-milled parts was described. Based on molecular dynamics, a simulation model for nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 micro-milling was established. Based on the response surface method of central composite design, the influences of spindle speed, feed rate, and milling depth on the surface roughness were examined, and a second-order regression model of the DD98 surface roughness was established. Using analysis of variance and the residuals of the model, a significant influence on surface roughness was found in the following order from large to small: Feed rate, spindle speed, and milling depth. Comparisons were conducted between the micro-milling experimental values and the predicted model values for different process parameters. The results show that the model fit is relatively high, and the adaptability is good. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the micro-milling surfaces was performed to verify the slip and the removal mechanism of single-crystal materials. These results offer a theoretical reference and experimental basis for micro-milling of single-crystal materials.

  1. Highly conducting, strong nanocomposites based on nanocellulose-assisted aqueous dispersions of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Mahiar M; Hajian, Alireza; Fall, Andreas B; Håkansson, Karl; Salajkova, Michaela; Lundell, Fredrik; Wågberg, Lars; Berglund, Lars A

    2014-03-25

    It is challenging to obtain high-quality dispersions of single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) in composite matrix materials, in order to reach the full potential of mechanical and electronic properties. The most widely used matrix materials are polymers, and the route to achieving high quality dispersions of SWNT is mainly chemical functionalization of the SWNT. This leads to increased cost, a loss of strength and lower conductivity. In addition full potential of colloidal self-assembly cannot be fully exploited in a polymer matrix. This may limit the possibilities for assembly of highly ordered structural nanocomposites. Here we show that nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) can act as an excellent aqueous dispersion agent for as-prepared SWNTs, making possible low-cost exfoliation and purification of SWNTs with dispersion limits exceeding 40 wt %. The NFC:SWNT dispersion may also offer a cheap and sustainable alternative for molecular self-assembly of advanced composites. We demonstrate semitransparent conductive films, aerogels and anisotropic microscale fibers with nanoscale composite structure. The NFC:SWNT nanopaper shows increased strength at 3 wt % SWNT, reaching a modulus of 13.3 GPa, and a strength of 307 MPa. The anisotropic microfiber composites have maximum conductivities above 200 S cm(-1) and current densities reaching 1400 A cm(-2).

  2. 78 FR 41075 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Single Family Quality Assurance-Solicitation of Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... process (QAP). The objective of FHA's QAP is to promote quality lending practices by FHA's approved... strengthen its current QAP. DATES: Comment Due Date: September 9, 2013. ADDRESSES: Interested persons are... as part of its QAP. For example, for each lender, FHA computes a Compare Ratio, which measures the...

  3. Measuring quality of omnidirectional high dynamic range content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Anne-Flore; Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2017-09-01

    Although HDR content processing, coding and quality assessment have been largely addressed in the last few years, little to no work has been concentrating on how to assess quality in HDR for 360° or omnidirectional content. This paper is an attempt to answer to various questions in this direction. As a minimum, a new data set for 360° HDR content is proposed and a new methodology is designed to assess subjective quality of HDR 360° content when it is displayed on SDR HMD after applying various tone mapping operators. The results are then analyzed and conclusions are drawn.

  4. Desensitization protocol for highly sensitized renal transplant patients: A single-center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kute, Vivek B.; Vanikar, Aruna V.; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Shah, Pankaj R; Kamal R Goplani; Patel, Himanshu V.; Gumber, Manoj R.; Patel, Rashmi D; Kamal V Kanodia; Kamlesh S Suthar; Trivedi, Varsha B; Pranjal R Modi

    2011-01-01

    Highly sensitized patients are destined to remain untransplanted for long. Early transplantation results in cost-saving, reduced morbidity/mortality and improved quality of life. We carried out a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of desensitization protocol vis-à-vis patient/graft survival in living donor renal transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Between December 2008 and April 2010, 34 renal transplant (RTx) patients underwent desensitization protocol. An anti-...

  5. Single-order laser high harmonics in XUV for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular wavepacket dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuho Fushitani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present applications of extreme ultraviolet (XUV single-order laser harmonics to gas-phase ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultrashort XUV pulses at 80 nm are obtained as the 5th order harmonics of the fundamental laser at 400 nm by using Xe or Kr as the nonlinear medium and separated from other harmonic orders by using an indium foil. The single-order laser harmonics is applied for real-time probing of vibrational wavepacket dynamics of I2 molecules in the bound and dissociating low-lying electronic states and electronic-vibrational wavepacket dynamics of highly excited Rydberg N2 molecules.

  6. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  7. Long-run benefits from universal high-quality preschooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2014-01-01

    a formal preschool institution in 1998 are used in the analyses. OLS analyses show that three out of five quality indicators, a higher staff-per-child ratio, a higher share of male staff, and a higher share of staff with formal preschool teacher training are associated with significant improvements...... in children's test results in Danish. Boys benefit more from preschool quality than girls. Ethnic minority children benefit from higher staff stability....

  8. Is a single-item visual analogue scale as valid, reliable and responsive as multi-item scales in measuring quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A G E M; van Lanschot, J J B; Stalmeier, P F M; van Sandick, J W; Hulscher, J B F; de Haes, J C J M; Sprangers, M A G

    2004-03-01

    To compare the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a single, global quality of life question to multi-item scales. Data were obtained from 83 consecutive patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma undergoing either transhiatal or transthoracic oesophagectomy. Quality of life was measured at baseline, 5 weeks, 3 and 12 months post-operatively with a single-item Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100, the multi-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-20 (MOS SF-20) and Rotterdam Symptom Check-List (RSCL). Convergent and discriminant validity, test-retest reliability and both distribution-based and anchor-based responsiveness were evaluated. At baseline and at 5 weeks, the VAS showed high correlations with the MOS SF-20 health perceptions scale (r = 0.70 and 0.72) and moderate to high correlations with all other subscales of the MOS SF-20 and RSCL (r = 0.29-0.70). The test-retest reliability intra-class correlation for the VAS was 0.87. At 5 weeks post-operatively, the distribution-based responsiveness was moderate for the VAS (standardised response mean: -0.47; effect size: -0.56), high for the physical subscales of the MOS SF-20 and RSCL (-1.08 to -1.51) and low for the psychological subscales (0.11 to -0.25). Five weeks post-operatively, anchor-based responsiveness was highest for the VAS (r = 0.54). The VAS is an instrument with good validity, excellent reliability, moderate distribution-based responsiveness and good anchor-based responsiveness compared to multi-item questionnaires. Its use is recommended in clinical trials to assess global quality of life.

  9. High Energy, Single-Mode, All-Solid-State and Tunable UV Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Hovis, FLoyd

    2007-01-01

    A high energy, single mode, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser primarily for pumping an UV converter is developed. Greater than 1 J/pulse at 50 HZ PRF and pulse widths around 22 ns have been demonstrated. Higher energy, greater efficiency may be possible. Refinements are known and practical to implement. Technology Demonstration of a highly efficient, high-pulse-energy, single mode UV wavelength generation using flash lamp pumped laser has been achieved. Greater than 90% pump depletion is observed. 190 mJ extra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency > 21% (> 27% for 1 mJ seed). 160 mJ intra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency up to 24% Fluence laser is being refined to match or exceed the above UV converter results. Currently the Nd:YAG pump laser development is a technology demonstration. System can be engineered for compact packaging.

  10. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-02

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence.

  11. High-yield self-limiting single-nanowire assembly with dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Erik M; Grachev, Oleg; Duan, Xiangfeng; Martin, Samuel; Stumbo, David P

    2010-07-01

    Single-crystal nanowire transistors and other nanowire-based devices could have applications in large-area and flexible electronics if conventional top-down fabrication techniques can be integrated with high-precision bottom-up nanowire assembly. Here, we extend dielectrophoretic nanowire assembly to achieve a 98.5% yield of single nanowires assembled over 16,000 patterned electrode sites with submicrometre alignment precision. The balancing of surface, hydrodynamic and dielectrophoretic forces makes the self-assembly process controllable, and a hydrodynamic force component makes it self-limiting. Our approach represents a methodology to quantify nanowire assembly, and makes single nanowire assembly possible over an area limited only by the ability to reproduce process conditions uniformly.

  12. Temporal and spatial multiplexed infrared single-photon counter based on high-speed avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuliang; Ding, Chengjie; Pan, Haifeng; Huang, Kun; Laurat, Julien; Wu, Guang; Wu, E

    2017-03-15

    We report on a high-speed temporal and spatial multiplexed single-photon counter with photon-number-resolving capability up to four photons. The infrared detector combines a fiber loop to split, delay and recombine optical pulses and a 200 MHz dual-channel single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. To fully characterize the photon-number-resolving capability, we perform quantum detector tomography and then reconstruct its positive-operator-valued measure and the associated Wigner functions. The result shows that, despite of the afterpulsing noise and limited system detection efficiency, this temporal and spatial multiplexed single-photon counter can already find applications for large repetition rate quantum information schemes.

  13. Timing discriminator based on single-flux-quantum circuit toward high time-resolved photon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yabuno, Masahiro; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka

    2017-12-01

    We propose a new time discriminating method based on a single-flux quantum (SFQ) circuit to realize a high time-resolved single-photon detection scheme that uses a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD). The timing discriminator consists of an SFQ comparator and an interface circuit for converting the output signals of an SSPD into SFQ pulses. Prior to connecting with the SSPD, we evaluated the timing jitters of the SFQ timing discriminator itself by applying external electrical pulses. The timing jitters of the SFQ timing discriminator were found to be dominated by the timing jitters in the interface circuit. However, it was estimated to be below 10 ps even with an input pulse amplitude of 20 μA, which is close to the typical output amplitude of the SSPD.

  14. Single Longitudinal Mode, High Repetition Rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF Laser for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Petros, M.; Chen, Songsheng; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Nyung; Singh, U.

    2009-01-01

    Ho:YLF/LuLiF lasers have specific applications for remote sensing such as wind-speed measurement and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement in the atmosphere because the operating wavelength (around 2 m) is located in the eye-safe range and can be tuned to the characteristic lines of CO2 absorption and there is strong backward scattering signal from aerosol (Mie scattering). Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ [1]. For highly precise CO2 measurements with coherent detection technique, a laser with high repetition rate is required to averaging out the speckle effect [2]. In addition, laser efficiency is critically important for the air/space borne lidar applications, because of the limited power supply. A diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser is difficult to efficiently operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. However, a Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can be operated at high repetition rates efficiently [3]. No matter whether wind-speed or carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement is the goal, a Ho:YLF/LuLiF laser as the transmitter should operate in a single longitudinal mode. Injection seeding is a valid technique for a Q-switched laser to obtain single longitudinal mode operation. In this paper, we will report the new results for a single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. In order to avoid spectral hole burning and make injection seeding easier, a four mirror ring cavity is designed for single longitudinal mode, high repetition rate Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The ramp-fire technique is chosen for injection seeding.

  15. Analysis of the proficiency of single radial immunodiffusion assays for quality control of influenza vaccines in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yejin; Lee, Sunmi; Kwon, Seong Yi; Lee, Younghee; Park, Yong Keun; Ban, Sang Ja

    2017-10-27

    Influenza vaccine potency, which is determined by quantitatively measuring the content of Hemagglutinin (HA), is an essential index representing the efficacy of the vaccine. Standardization of the single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay, a method for measuring HA content, and proficiency of the testing institutions are crucial for influenza vaccine quality control. Herein, we assessed the proficiency of SRID assays at the National Control Laboratory (NCL) of Korea and several vaccine manufacturers. Eight laboratories participated in this study, and the proficiencies of all laboratories yielded satisfactory results in overall SRID assays. In contrast, there were some unsatisfactory results in measuring with different types of agarose gel plates produced by other laboratories. Overall, our findings demonstrated that the proficiency of SRID assay in the tested laboratories is acceptable for quality control of influenza vaccines and that detailed review on the validation reports regarding the test methods will be helpful for better control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A Single-Phase Voltage-Controlled Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System With Power Quality Conditioner Functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Liserre, Marco; Mastromauro, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. Also low power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase photovoltaic system that provides grid voltage support and compensation...... of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC) thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage...

  17. Efficacy of a Checklist for Office-Laboratory Communication: A Clinical Study on Quality Outcomes for Single Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciano, Mario E; De Maria, Andrea; Morello, Marco; Poglio, Enrico; Audenino, Guido

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a structured communication protocol between dentists and dental laboratory technicians. A total of 112 single metal-ceramic crowns, fabricated by four different dentist-dental technician pairs, were evaluated at the clinical try-in appointment. Subsequently, each professional pair produced another 112 crowns using a checklist. The scores showed a statistically significant improvement in clinical outcomes with the use of a checklist by reducing adjustment times for contact area, fit, and occlusion and number of appointments. The use of a checklist improved crown quality.

  18. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally...... solving the coupling problem introduced by the common switching leg. The modulation method is similar to the well-known space vector modulation widely used with three-phase voltage source converters, which thus brings extra flexibility to the TL-UPQC system. Two optimized modulation modes with either...

  19. High-perfomance Ce-doped multicomponent garnet single crystalline film scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T. [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki, University in Bydgoszcz, Powstancow, Wielkopolskich str., 2, 85090, Bydgoszcz (Poland); Department of Electronics of Ivan Franko, National University of Lviv, Gen. Tarnavskiy str. 17, 79017, Lviv (Ukraine); Sidletskiy, O. [Institute for Single Crystals, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenina str., 60, 61001, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Fedorov, A. [SSI Institute for Single Crystals, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenina str., 60, 61178, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Bilski, P.; Twardak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physic, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego str., 176, 31-342, Krakow (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    We report for the first time the optimized content and excellent scintillation properties of single crystalline film (SCF) scintillators of multicomponent Gd{sub 3-x}Lu{sub x} Al{sub 5-y}Ga{sub y} O{sub 12}:Ce garnet compounds grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method. The Gd{sub 1.5}Lu{sub 1.5}Al{sub 2.75}Ga{sub 2.25}O{sub 12}:Ce and Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2.75-2}Ga{sub 2.25-3}O{sub 12}:Ce SCF show the light yield (LY) comparable with that of high-quality bulk crystal analogues of these garnets but faster scintillation decay and very low thermoluminescence in the above room temperature range. To our knowledge, these SCF possess the highest LY values ever obtained in LPE grown garnet SCF scintillators exceeding by at least 1.5-1.6 times the values previously reported for SCF scintillators. Left figure: image of Gd{sub 1.5}Lu{sub 1.5}Al{sub 2.75}Ga{sub 2.25}O{sub 12}:Ce (PbO) (inset, left) and Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2.35}Ga{sub 2.65}O{sub 12}:Ce (BaO) (inset, right) SCF scintillators, grown by LPE method onto Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2.5}Ga{sub 2.5}O{sub 12} (GAGG) substrate; in the middle, green-yellow light emitting by Gd{sub 1.5}Lu{sub 1.5}Al{sub 2.75}Ga{sub 2.25}O{sub 12}:Ce (BaO) SCF under 350 nm laser illumination. Right figure: XRD pattern of (1200) planes of the Gd{sub 1.5}Lu{sub 1.5}Al{sub 2.75}Ga{sub 2.25}O{sub 12}:Ce (PbO) (black) and Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2.75}Ga{sub 2.25}O{sub 12}:Ce (BaO) (red) SCFs, grown onto GAGG substrates. The film/substrate lattice misfit is -0.73% and -0.3%, respectively. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. The perceived quality of interprofessional teamwork in an intensive care unit: A single centre intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulcke, Bo; Vyt, Andre; Vanheule, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a study that evaluated the quality of teamwork in a surgical intensive care unit and assessed whether teamwork could be improved significantly through a tailor-made intervention. The quality of teamwork prior to and after the intervention was assessed using the Interprofessional Practice and Education Quality Scales (IPEQS) using the PROSE online diagnostics and documenting system, which assesses three domains of teamwork: organisational factors, care processes, and team members' attitudes and beliefs. Furthermore, team members evaluated strengths and weaknesses of the teamwork through open-ended questions. Information gathered by means of the open questions was used to design a tailor-made 12-week intervention consisting of (1) optimising the existing weekly interdisciplinary meetings with collaborative decision-making and clear communication of goal-oriented actions, including the psychosocial aspects of care; and (2) organising and supporting the effective exchange of information over time between all professions involved. It was found that the intervention had a significant impact on organisational factors and care processes related to interprofessional teamwork for the total group and within all subgroups, despite baseline differences between the subgroups in interprofessional teamwork. In conclusion, teamwork, and more particularly the organisational aspects of interprofessional collaboration and processes of care, can be improved by a tailor-made intervention that takes into account the professional needs of healthcare workers.

  1. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  2. The more the merrier: high-throughput single-molecule techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Flynn R; Monachino, Enrico; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2017-06-15

    The single-molecule approach seeks to understand molecular mechanisms by observing biomolecular processes at the level of individual molecules. These methods have led to a developing understanding that for many processes, a diversity of behaviours will be observed, representing a multitude of pathways. This realisation necessitates that an adequate number of observations are recorded to fully characterise this diversity. The requirement for large numbers of observations to adequately sample distributions, subpopulations, and rare events presents a significant challenge for single-molecule techniques, which by their nature do not typically provide very high throughput. This review will discuss many developing techniques which address this issue by combining nanolithographic approaches, such as zero-mode waveguides and DNA curtains, with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, and by drastically increasing throughput of force-based approaches such as magnetic tweezers and laminar-flow techniques. These methods not only allow the collection of large volumes of single-molecule data in single experiments, but have also made improvements to ease-of-use, accessibility, and automation of data analysis. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. A Revisit to High Thermoelectric Performance of Single-layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zelin; Liao, Quanwen; Fang, Haisheng; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei; Ding, Zhidong; Luo, Tengfei; Yang, Nuo

    2015-12-01

    Both electron and phonon transport properties of single layer MoS2 (SLMoS2) are studied. Based on first-principles calculations, the electrical conductivity of SLMoS2 is calculated by Boltzmann equations. The thermal conductivity of SLMoS2 is calculated to be as high as 116.8 Wm-1K-1 by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The predicted value of ZT is as high as 0.11 at 500 K. As the thermal conductivity could be reduced largely by phonon engineering, there should be a high possibility to enhance ZT in the SLMoS2-based materials.

  4. A fire risk assessment model for residential high-rises with a single stairwell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N. D.; Steffensen, F.B.; Valkvist, M.B.

    2018-01-01

    As few or none prescriptive guidelines for fire risk assessment of residential high-rise buildings exist, it has been unclear which fire safety design features constitute an acceptable (adequate) safety level. In order to fill this gap a simplified risk-based decision-support tool, the Fire Risk...... Model (FRM), was developed. The FRM evaluates both the risk level to the occupants and the property risk level as a function of the building characteristics, height and fire safety features for single stairwell residential high-rise buildings. The acceptability of a high-rise design is then defined...

  5. High-power single-frequency pulsed laser based on a Yb-doped large-pitch photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yong-Ho; Kim, Yonghee; Park, Hyunmin; Lim, Gwon; Ko, Kwang-Hoon; Kim, Taek Soo; Jeong, Do-Young

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a high-power single-frequency pulsed fiber laser system utilizing a Yb-doped rod-type large-pitch photonic crystal fiber. The maximal peak power is 33 kW with a 0.4-mJ pulse energy and a 70-MHz linewidth, and the average power is 60 W at a 150-kHz repetition rate. At a higher repetition rate, the average power can be increased to 190 W, which is limited by the onset of transverse-mode instability in the large-pitch photonic crystal fiber. The output beam is linearly polarized and shows a good beam quality with a M2 value of 1.2.

  6. Melon Transcriptome Characterization: Simple Sequence Repeats and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Discovery for High Throughput Genotyping across the Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Blanca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Melon ( L. ranks among the highest-valued fruit crops worldwide. Some genomic tools are available for this crop, including a Sanger transcriptome. We report the generation of 689,054 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from two 454 sequencing runs, using normalized and nonnormalized complementary DNA (cDNA libraries prepared from four genotypes belonging to the two subspecies and the main commercial types. 454 ESTs were combined with the Sanger available ESTs and de novo assembled into 53,252 unigenes. Over 63% of the unigenes were functionally annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms and 21% had known orthologs of (L. Heynh. Annotation distribution followed similar tendencies than that reported for , suggesting that the dataset represents a fairly complete melon transcriptome. Furthermore, we identified a set of 3298 unigenes with microsatellite motifs and 14,417 sequences with single nucleotide variants of which 11,655 single nucleotide polymorphism met criteria for use with high-throughput genotyping platforms, and 453 could be detected as cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS. A set of markers were validated, 90% of them being polymorphic in a number of variable accessions. This transcriptome provides an invaluable new tool for biological research, more so when it includes transcripts not described previously. It is being used for genome annotation and has provided a large collection of markers that will allow speeding up the process of breeding new melon varieties.

  7. Use of a miniature diamond-anvil cell in high-pressure single-crystal neutron Laue diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Binns

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The first high-pressure neutron diffraction study in a miniature diamond-anvil cell of a single crystal of size typical for X-ray diffraction is reported. This is made possible by modern Laue diffraction using a large solid-angle image-plate detector. An unexpected finding is that even reflections whose diffracted beams pass through the cell body are reliably observed, albeit with some attenuation. The cell body does limit the range of usable incident angles, but the crystallographic completeness for a high-symmetry unit cell is only slightly less than for a data collection without the cell. Data collections for two sizes of hexamine single crystals, with and without the pressure cell, and at 300 and 150 K, show that sample size and temperature are the most important factors that influence data quality. Despite the smaller crystal size and dominant parasitic scattering from the diamond-anvil cell, the data collected allow a full anisotropic refinement of hexamine with bond lengths and angles that agree with literature data within experimental error. This technique is shown to be suitable for low-symmetry crystals, and in these cases the transmission of diffracted beams through the cell body results in much higher completeness values than are possible with X-rays. The way is now open for joint X-ray and neutron studies on the same sample under identical conditions.

  8. Use of a miniature diamond-anvil cell in high-pressure single-crystal neutron Laue diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Jack; Kamenev, Konstantin V; McIntyre, Garry J; Moggach, Stephen A; Parsons, Simon

    2016-05-01

    The first high-pressure neutron diffraction study in a miniature diamond-anvil cell of a single crystal of size typical for X-ray diffraction is reported. This is made possible by modern Laue diffraction using a large solid-angle image-plate detector. An unexpected finding is that even reflections whose diffracted beams pass through the cell body are reliably observed, albeit with some attenuation. The cell body does limit the range of usable incident angles, but the crystallographic completeness for a high-symmetry unit cell is only slightly less than for a data collection without the cell. Data collections for two sizes of hexamine single crystals, with and without the pressure cell, and at 300 and 150 K, show that sample size and temperature are the most important factors that influence data quality. Despite the smaller crystal size and dominant parasitic scattering from the diamond-anvil cell, the data collected allow a full anisotropic refinement of hexamine with bond lengths and angles that agree with literature data within experimental error. This technique is shown to be suitable for low-symmetry crystals, and in these cases the transmission of diffracted beams through the cell body results in much higher completeness values than are possible with X-rays. The way is now open for joint X-ray and neutron studies on the same sample under identical conditions.

  9. Highly efficient high power single-mode fiber amplifier utilizing the distributed mode filtering bandgap rod fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    We report on an ytterbium doped single mode distributed mode filtering rod fiber in an amplifier configuration delivering high average output power, up to 292 watts, using a mode-locked 30ps source at 1032nm with good power conversion efficiency. We study the modal stability of the output beam...... at high average output power levels and demonstrate a 44% power improvement before the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities by operating the rod fiber in a leaky waveguide regime. We investigate the guiding dynamics of the rod fiber and explain the improved performance by thermally induced...

  10. Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouzes, Eric; Medkova, Martina; Savenelli, Neal; Marran, Dave; Twardowski, Mariusz; Hutchison, J Brian; Rothberg, Jonathan M; Link, Darren R; Perrimon, Norbert; Samuels, Michael L

    2009-08-25

    We present a droplet-based microfluidic technology that enables high-throughput screening of single mammalian cells. This integrated platform allows for the encapsulation of single cells and reagents in independent aqueous microdroplets (1 pL to 10 nL volumes) dispersed in an immiscible carrier oil and enables the digital manipulation of these reactors at a very high-throughput. Here, we validate a full droplet screening workflow by conducting a droplet-based cytotoxicity screen. To perform this screen, we first developed a droplet viability assay that permits the quantitative scoring of cell viability and growth within intact droplets. Next, we demonstrated the high viability of encapsulated human monocytic U937 cells over a period of 4 days. Finally, we developed an optically-coded droplet library enabling the identification of the droplets composition during the assay read-out. Using the integrated droplet technology, we screened a drug library for its cytotoxic effect against U937 cells. Taken together our droplet microfluidic platform is modular, robust, uses no moving parts, and has a wide range of potential applications including high-throughput single-cell analyses, combinatorial screening, and facilitating small sample analyses.

  11. The high-speed operation of single phase switched reluctance motor considering magnetic saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joonseon; Won, Sung Hong; Lee, Ju

    2006-04-01

    In the high-speed operation of SRM, the conventional pulse width modulation (PWM) drive method is not available because of the limitation of switching speed; therefore the single-pulse drive method is commonly employed. On the contrary, the use of the single-pulse drive method cannot avoid the overcurrent in the low-speed operation because of the insufficient back emf and the difficulty of duty control. With these reasons, the switching method is commonly changed from PWM at the low-speed operation to the single-pulse method at the high-speed operation. In the fan application, the required load torque increases as a square of the fan speed; it requires more current for the torque generation. Therefore at the mode transition between PWM and single-pulse drive, it is unavoidable that the phase current rapidly increases if the nonlinearity of inductance to the current is not considered. In this paper, by using finite element method (FEM) which is considered with the nonlinearity of the inductance with respect to the current, the speed of mode transition is calculated (18 000 rpm) and verified by the experiment.

  12. Latest Technologies and Equipment to Obtain High Quality Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharuk, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A principally new concept of providing the Ukrainian population with quality drinking water have been proposed. It is based on a system of autonomous complexes for water purification in places of direct consumption. Water treatment autonomous complexes for collective and individual use with biotesting and analytical quality control of drinking water have been developed. The choice of the cleaning methods of tap and other waters up to the quality of genetic safe is performed in accordance with its composition and is based on a block concept that provides the possibility of varying the number of units depending on the composition of the source water. The proposed technology and equipment at cost and complex problems to be solved have no analogues in the world. Over thousand of modular installations «Vega» and disinfecting vehicles «Promin» are implemented in many settlement in all regions of Ukraine.

  13. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new......: the safety and quality of food products, and the increasing competition for clean freshwater. SAFIR is funded for the period 2005-2009 under the Food Quality and Safety thematic area of the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. The challenge for the next years will be to produce safe and high quality foods...... while at the same time reducing the use of natural resources and the impact on aquatic ecosystems that are frequently already polluted. These problems are linked, since most of our vegetables are produced using irrigation water from the same ecosystems. To ensure food safety and quality, the innovative...

  14. Statistical quality control charts for liver transplant process indicators: evaluation of a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona, M A; Soriano, A; Aguirre-Jaime, A; Barrera, M A; Medina, M L; Bañon, N; Mendez, S; Lopez, E; Portero, J; Dominguez, D; Gonzalez, A

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation, the best option for many end-stage liver diseases, is indicated in more candidates than the donor availability. In this situation, this demanding treatment must achieve excellence, accessibility and patient satisfaction to be ethical, scientific, and efficient. The current consensus of quality measurements promoted by the Sociedad Española de Trasplante Hepático (SETH) seeks to depict criteria, indicators, and standards for liver transplantation in Spain. According to this recommendation, the Canary Islands liver program has studied its experience. We separated the 411 cadaveric transplants performed in the last 15 years into 2 groups: The first 100 and the other 311. The 8 criteria of SETH 2010 were correctly fulfilled. In most indicators, the outcomes were favorable, with an actuarial survivals at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years of 84%, 79%, 76%, and 65%, respectively; excellent results in retransplant rates (early 0.56% and long-term 5.9%), primary nonfunction rate (0.43%), waiting list mortality (13.34%), and patient satisfaction (91.5%). On the other hand, some indicators of mortality were worse as perioperative, postoperative, and early mortality with normal graft function and reoperation rate. After the analyses of the series with statistical quality control charts, we observed an improvement in all indicators, even in the apparently worst, early mortality with normal graft functions in a stable program. Such results helped us to discover specific areas to improve the program. The application of the quality measurement, as SETH consensus recommends, has shown in our study that despite being a consuming time process, it is a useful tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumers' expected quality and intention to purchase high quality pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K

    2013-03-01

    Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    The present paper presents the SAFIR project (www.safir4eu.org), which addresses two fundamental problems that over the past decade increasingly have become concerns of the general public: the one problem being the jeopardizing of safety and quality of our food products, while the other being...... the increasing competition for clean freshwater. The SAFIR project has a multi-disciplinary approach, which integrates the European as well as the global dimension of the EU-policy on food quality and safety. The main driving force behind the project idea is new research results that demonstrated that scheduled...... uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  17. HIGH-SPEED SINGLE QUANTUM DOT IMAGING OF IN LIVE CELLS REVEAL HOP DIFFUSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerholm, B. Christoffer; Clausen, Mathias P.

    2011-01-01

    Ultra high-speed single particle tracking (image frame rates 40-50 kHz) experiments with 40 nm gold particles has indicated that lipids and proteins in the plasma membrane undergo hop-diffusion between nanometer sized compartments (Fujiwara et al. (2002) J Cell Biol. 157:1071-81). These findings...... have yet to be independently confirmed. In this work, we show that high-speed single particle tracking with quantum dots (QDs) and using a standard wide-field fluorescence microscope and an EMCCD is possible at image acquisition rates of up to ~2000 Hz. The spatial precision in these experiments is ~40...... nm (as determined from the standard deviation of repeated position measurements of an immobile QD on a cell). Using this system, we show that membrane proteins and lipids, which have been exogenously labeled with functionalized QDs, show examples of three types of motion in the plasma membrane...

  18. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: yamasita@kit.ac.jp [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  19. High-speed atomic force microscopy: Structure and dynamics of single proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casuso, Ignacio; Rico, Felix; Scheuring, Simon

    2011-10-01

    For surface analysis of biological molecules, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an appealing technique combining data acquisition under physiological conditions, for example buffer solution, room temperature and ambient pressure, and high resolution. However, a key feature of life, dynamics, could not be assessed until recently because of the slowness of conventional AFM setups. Thus, for observing bio-molecular processes, the gain of image acquisition speed signifies a key progress. Here, we review the development and recent achievements using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM). The HS-AFM is now the only technique to assess structure and dynamics of single molecules, revealing molecular motor action and diffusion dynamics. From this imaging data, watching molecules at work, novel and direct insights could be gained concerning the structure, dynamics and function relationship at the single bio-molecule level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a high-speed single-photon pixellated detector for visible wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raighne, Aaron Mac [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, England (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aaron.macraighne@gmail.com; Teixeira, Antonio; Mathot, Serge [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Jarron, Pierre [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Brownlee, Colin [Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Val [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, England (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    We present the development of a high-speed, single-photon counting, Hybrid Photo Detector (HPD). The HPD consists of a vacuum tube, containing the detector assembly, sealed with a transparent optical input window. Photons incident on the photocathode eject a photoelectron into a large electric field, which accelerates the incident electron onto a silicon detector. The silicon detector is bump bonded to a Medipix readout chip. This set-up allows for the detection and readout of low incident photon intensities at rates that are otherwise unattainable with current camera technology. Reported is the fabrication of the camera that brings together a range of sophisticated design and fabrication techniques and the expected theoretical imaging performance. Applications to cellular and molecular microscopy are also described in which single-photon-counting abilities at high frame rates are crucial.

  1. Recombineering: highly efficient in vivo genetic engineering using single-strand oligos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitzke, James A; Thomason, Lynn C; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Li, Xintian; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Recombineering provides the ability to make rapid, precise, and inexpensive genetic alterations to any DNA sequence, either in the chromosome or cloned onto a vector that replicates in E. coli (or other recombineering-proficient bacteria), and to do so in a highly efficient manner. Complicated genetic constructs that are impossible to make with in vitro genetic engineering can be created in days with recombineering. Recombineering with single-strand DNA (ssDNA) can be used to create single or multiple clustered point mutations, small or large (up to 10kb) deletions, and small (10-20 base) insertions such as sequence tags. Using optimized conditions, point mutations can be made with such high frequencies that they can be found without selection. This technology excels at creating both directed and random mutations. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a high-speed single-photon pixellated detector for visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Raighne, Aaron; Mathot, Serge; McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John; Jarron, Pierre; Brownlee, Colin; O’Shea, Val

    2009-01-01

    We present the development of a high-speed, single-photon counting, Hybrid Photo Detector (HPD). The HPD consists of a vacuum tube, containing the detector assembly, sealed with a transparent optical input window. Photons incident on the photocathode eject a photoelectron into a large electric field, which accelerates the incident electron onto a silicon detector. The silicon detector is bump bonded to a Medipix readout chip. This set-up allows for the detection and readout of low incident photon intensities at rates that are otherwise unattainable with current camera technology. Reported is the fabrication of the camera that brings together a range of sophisticated design and fabrication techniques and the expected theoretical imaging performance. Applications to cellular and molecular microscopy are also described in which single-photon-counting abilities at high frame rates are crucial

  3. Comparison of Deformation in High-Purity Single/Large Grain and Polycrystalline Niobium Superconducting Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-07-10

    The current approach for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is to roll and deep draw sheets of polycrystalline high-purity niobium. Recently, a new technique was developed at Jefferson Laboratory that enables the fabrication of single-crystal high-purity Nb SRF cavities. To better understand the differences between SRF cavities fabricated out of fine-grained polycrystalline sheet in the standard manner and single crystal cavities fabricated by the new technique, two half-cells were produced according to the two different procedures and compared using a variety of analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning laser confocal microscopy, profilometry, and X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic orientations, texture, and residual stresses were determined in the samples before and after forming and this poster presents the results of this ongoing study.

  4. Ultra-high negative dispersion compensating square lattice based single mode photonic crystal fiber with high nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Ibadul; Khatun, Maksuda; Ahmed, Kawsar

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents dispersion tailoring of photonic crystal fibers creating artificial defect along one of the regular square axes. A finite element method (FEM) has been enforced for numerical investigation of several guiding properties of the PCF covering a broad wavelength range about 1340-1640 nm over the telecommunication windows. According to simulation, the proposed PCF has obtained a strictly single-mode fiber, which has an ultra-high negative dispersion of about -584.60 to -2337.60 ps/(nm-km) and also possible to cover the highest nonlinearity order of 131.91 W-1 km-1 under the operating wavelength. Moreover, the proposed PCF structure experimentally focuses on higher nonlinear coefficient, which successfully compensates the chromatic dispersion of standard single mode in entire band of interest and greatly applicable to the optical transmission system. Additionally, the single mode behavior of S-PCF is explicated by employing V parameter. In our dispersion sensitive analysis, this fiber is significantly more robust due to successfully achieve ultra-high negative dispersion, which gains more promiscuous compared to the prior best results.

  5. High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Super-Resolution Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5514--17-9692 High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate

  6. Experimental study of the lower critical field in high-{Tc}-single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstatter, C.; Boehmer, C. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Univ., Wien (Austria); Weber, H.W.; Veal, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1997-08-01

    Employing SQUID magnetometry and novel measuring and evaluation techniques, precise information on the first penetration field can be obtained and used to extract H{sub cl}. Tl- and Bi-based as well as a series of oxygen deficient Y-123 high {Tc} superconducting single crystals were investigated (H{parallel}c). In all cases, H{sub cl} is smaller than previously reported and can be described by BCS-theory.

  7. Fabrication of high yield horizontally aligned single wall carbon nanotubes for molecular electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Imad

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary properties of the single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have stimulated an enormous amount of research towards the realization of SWCNT-based products for different applications ranging form nanocomposites to nanoelectronics. Their high charge mobility, exceedingly good current-carrying capacities and ability to be either semiconducting or metallic render them ideal building blocks for nanoelectronics. For nanoelectronic applications, either individual or parallel aligned SW...

  8. A cost effective harmonic cancellation method for high frequency Silicon Carbide MOSFET based single phase inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Harrasi, A; Zobaa, AF

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a combinational modulation method to be used in classic full-bridge single phase inverters. The proposed method eliminates even-order harmonics at PWM stage in control section unlike the conventional method of even order harmonic cancelation in power stage and offers a cost effective design by switching one leg at high frequency. Using a low cost Digital Signal Controller (DSC) platform, regular sampling technique based on real time calculation was employed to verify the...

  9. High Throughput Single-cell and Multiple-cell Micro-encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lagus, Todd P.; Edd, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic encapsulation methods have been previously utilized to capture cells in picoliter-scale aqueous, monodisperse drops, providing confinement from a bulk fluid environment with applications in high throughput screening, cytometry, and mass spectrometry. We describe a method to not only encapsulate single cells, but to repeatedly capture a set number of cells (here we demonstrate one- and two-cell encapsulation) to study both isolation and the interactions between cells in groups of ...

  10. High efficiency Yb3+-doped phosphate single-mode fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczyk, M.; Stępień, R.; Piechal, B.; Pysz, D.; Stawicki, K.; Siwicki, B.; Buczyński, R.

    2017-10-01

    We report on a ytterbium-doped phosphate glass single-mode fibre laser, 4 cm long, with a maximum output power of 11.6 W and a slope efficiency of 66.6%. We developed the double-clad fibre with a 19 µm diameter step-index core and a pump waveguide with a high numerical aperture due to external air-cladding. The estimated pump absorption in the fibre exceeded 700 dB m-1.

  11. Quality assessment and potential utilization of high amylolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... This study was carried out to compare the qualities of two acclaimed Nigerian amylolytic maize cultivars; SPMAT and TZEE*TZEE-W*DEMARSCUS*TZEE-W with barley, red and white sorghum. Results obtained (P ≤ 0.05) showed marked differences in the properties of the two maize cultivars compared to ...

  12. Twin pregnancy possibly associated with high semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, Camilla; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies found an association between a long waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and reduced probability of twinning and a reduced dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate in subfertile men. However, it remains unsolved whether semen quality is associated with twin offspring. We therefore studied...

  13. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assisting smallholders to produce value-added products competitively, working with a range of partners at different stages in the value chain to take pilot studies to scale, ensuring and maintaining quality, selecting appropriate technologies for different circumstances, anticipating negative effects of the market environment ...

  14. Innovation in Business Education: Developing a High Quality Online MBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C. William; Toma, Alfred G.; Yallapragada, RamMohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Online degree programs were probably pioneered by for-profit universities such as University of Phoenix. Many online degree programs were initially considered low quality academic programs compared to traditional programs. Therefore, many public and private universities were slow to adopt the online programs. However, gradually more and more…

  15. Creating High-Quality Paths for Motion Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, R.J.; Overmars, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Many algorithms have been proposed that create a path for a robot in an environment with obstacles. Most methods are aimed at finding a solution. However, for many applications, the path must be of a good quality as well. That is, a path should be short and should keep some amount of minimum

  16. High content screening as high quality assay for biological evaluation of photosensitizers in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela M F Vaz

    Full Text Available A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4. The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT. The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells. A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR study for photosensitizer libraries.

  17. The Politics of Quality Teacher Discourses: Implications for Pre-Service Teachers in High Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Lampert, Jo; Burnett, Bruce; Comber, Barbara M.; Hoff, Lutz; Ferguson, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Improving the quality of education for young people growing up in high poverty and culturally diverse communities is an escalating problem in affluent nations with increasing gaps between the wealthy and the poor. Improving the quality of teachers and improving the quality of teaching are amongst the prominent solutions offered to redress the…

  18. Building High-Performing and Improving Education Systems: Quality Assurance and Accountability. Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring, evaluation, and quality assurance in their various forms are seen as being one of the foundation stones of high-quality education systems. De Grauwe, writing about "school supervision" in four African countries in 2001, linked the decline in the quality of basic education to the cut in resources for supervision and support.…

  19. Modeling the Subjective Quality of Highly Contrasted Videos Displayed on LCD With Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight...

  20. The Cost of Inequality: The Importance of Investing in High Quality Early Childhood Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was to explore the importance of high quality early education in later secondary education development, quantifying quality in early childhood education programs, and examining how teacher education contributes to quality of early childhood education programs. For phase I, early childhood education positively…

  1. EPD and EPDnew, high-quality promoter resources in the next-generation sequencing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreos, René; Ambrosini, Giovanna; Cavin Périer, Rouayda; Bucher, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD), available online at http://epd.vital-it.ch, is a collection of experimentally defined eukaryotic POL II promoters which has been maintained for more than 25 years. A promoter is represented by a single position in the genome, typically the major transcription start site (TSS). EPD primarily serves biologists interested in analysing the motif content, chromatin structure or DNA methylation status of co-regulated promoter subsets. Initially, promoter evidence came from TSS mapping experiments targeted at single genes and published in journal articles. Today, the TSS positions provided by EPD are inferred from next-generation sequencing data distributed in electronic form. Traditionally, EPD has been a high-quality database with low coverage. The focus of recent efforts has been to reach complete gene coverage for important model organisms. To this end, we introduced a new section called EPDnew, which is automatically assembled from multiple, carefully selected input datasets. As another novelty, we started to use chromatin signatures in addition to mRNA 5'tags to locate promoters of weekly expressed genes. Regarding user interfaces, we introduced a new promoter viewer which enables users to explore promoter-defining experimental evidence in a UCSC genome browser window.

  2. High-speed bridge circuit for InGaAs avalanche photodiode single-photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Atsushi

    2014-02-01

    Because of low power consumption and small footprint, avalanche photodiodes (APD) have been commonly applied to photon detection. Recently, high speed quantum communication has been demonstrated for high bit-rate quantum key distribution. For the high speed quantum communication, photon detectors should operate at GHz-clock frequencies. We propose balanced detection circuits for GHz-clock operation of InGaAs-APD photon detectors. The balanced single photon detector operates with sinusoidal wave gating. The sinusoidal wave appearing in the output is removed by the subtraction from APD signal without sharp band-elimination filters. Omission of the sharp filters removes the constraint on the operating frequency of the single photon detector. We present two designs, one works with two identical APDs, the other with one APD and a low-pass filter. The sinusoidal gating enables to eliminate the gating noise even with the simple configuration of the latter design. We demonstrated the balanced single photon detector operating with 1.020GHz clock at 233 K, 193 K, and 186.5 K. The dark count probability was 4.0 x 10-4 counts/pulse with the quantum efficiency of 10% at 233K, and 1.6 x 10-4 counts/pulse at 186.5 K. These results were obtained with easily available APDs (NR8300FP-C.C, RENESASS) originally developed for optical time-domain reflectmeters.

  3. High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-04-25

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.

  4. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics

    2016-08-09

    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  5. Single-experiment displacement assay for quantifying high-affinity binding by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the gold standard for dissecting the thermodynamics of a biomolecular binding process within a single experiment. However, reliable determination of the dissociation constant (KD) from a single titration is typically limited to the range 100 μM>KD>1 nM. Interactions characterized by a lower KD can be assessed indirectly by so-called competition or displacement assays, provided that a suitable competitive ligand is available whose KD falls within the directly accessible window. However, this protocol is limited by the fact that it necessitates at least two titrations to characterize one high-affinity inhibitor, resulting in considerable consumption of both sample material and time. Here, we introduce a fast and efficient ITC displacement assay that allows for the simultaneous characterization of both a high-affinity ligand and a moderate-affinity ligand competing for the same binding site on a receptor within a single experiment. The protocol is based on a titration of the high-affinity ligand into a solution containing the moderate-affinity ligand bound to the receptor present in excess. The resulting biphasic binding isotherm enables accurate and precise determination of KD values and binding enthalpies (ΔH) of both ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation, explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses, and elaborate on potential applications to protein-inhibitor interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of high frequency focused transducers for single beam acoustic tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng

    Contactless particle trapping and manipulation have found many potential applications in diverse fields, especially in biological and medical research. Among the various methods, optical tweezers is the most well-known and extensively investigated technique. However, there are some limitations for particle manipulation based on optical tweezers. Due to the conceptual similarity with the optical tweezers and recent advances in high frequency ultrasonic transducer, a single beam acoustic tweezer using high frequency (≥ 20 MHz) focused transducer has recently been considered, and its feasibility was theoretically and experimentally investigated. This dissertation mainly describes the development of high frequency focused ultrasonic transducers for single beam acoustic tweezers applications. Three different types of transducers were fabricated. First, a 60 MHz miniature focused transducer (rabbit eye was also obtained with this device. Second approach is to build a 200 MHz self-focused ZnO transducer by sputtering ZnO film on a curved surface of the aluminum backing material. An individual 10 microm microsphere was effectively manipulated in two dimensions by this type of transducer. Another ultrahigh frequency focused transducer based on silicon lens design has also been developed, where a 330 MHz silicon lens transducer was fabricated and evaluated. Microparticle trapping experiment was carried out to demonstrate that silicon lens transducer can manipulate a single microsphere as small as 5 microm. The realization of single beam acoustic tweezers using high frequency focused transducers can offer wide range of applications in biomedical and chemical sciences including intercellular kinetics studies and cell stimulation. Additionally, we propose a simple and efficient approach to prepare xPMN-PT-(1-x)PZT (where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) composite films with controllable dielectric constant that offers better performance for high frequency ultrasonic

  7. Spatially detailed retrievals of spring phenology from single-season high-resolution image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; Meroni, Michele; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; O'Connor, Brian; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Heurich, Marco; Shepherd, Anita; Paganini, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Vegetation indices derived from satellite image time series have been extensively used to estimate the timing of phenological events like season onset. Medium spatial resolution (≥250 m) satellite sensors with daily revisit capability are typically employed for this purpose. In recent years, phenology is being retrieved at higher resolution (≤30 m) in response to increasing availability of high-resolution satellite data. To overcome the reduced acquisition frequency of such data, previous attempts involved fusion between high- and medium-resolution data, or combinations of multi-year acquisitions in a single phenological reconstruction. The objectives of this study are to demonstrate that phenological parameters can now be retrieved from single-season high-resolution time series, and to compare these retrievals against those derived from multi-year high-resolution and single-season medium-resolution satellite data. The study focuses on the island of Schiermonnikoog, the Netherlands, which comprises a highly-dynamic saltmarsh, dune vegetation, and agricultural land. Combining NDVI series derived from atmospherically-corrected images from RapidEye (5 m-resolution) and the SPOT5 Take5 experiment (10m-resolution) acquired between March and August 2015, phenological parameters were estimated using a function fitting approach. We then compared results with phenology retrieved from four years of 30 m Landsat 8 OLI data, and single-year 100 m Proba-V and 250 m MODIS temporal composites of the same period. Retrieved phenological parameters from combined RapidEye/SPOT5 displayed spatially consistent results and a large spatial variability, providing complementary information to existing vegetation community maps. Retrievals that combined four years of Landsat observations into a single synthetic year were affected by the inclusion of years with warmer spring temperatures, whereas adjustment of the average phenology to 2015 observations was only feasible for a few pixels

  8. HT-COMET: a novel automated approach for high throughput assessment of human sperm chromatin quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Océane; Reintsch, Wolfgang E; Chan, Peter; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Can we make the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) for human sperm a more accurate and informative high throughput assay? We developed a standardized automated high throughput comet (HT-COMET) assay for human sperm that improves its accuracy and efficiency, and could be of prognostic value to patients in the fertility clinic. The comet assay involves the collection of data on sperm DNA damage at the level of the single cell, allowing the use of samples from severe oligozoospermic patients. However, this makes comet scoring a low throughput procedure that renders large cohort analyses tedious. Furthermore, the comet assay comes with an inherent vulnerability to variability. Our objective is to develop an automated high throughput comet assay for human sperm that will increase both its accuracy and efficiency. The study comprised two distinct components: a HT-COMET technical optimization section based on control versus DNAse treatment analyses ( ITALIC! n = 3-5), and a cross-sectional study on 123 men presenting to a reproductive center with sperm concentrations categorized as severe oligozoospermia, oligozoospermia or normozoospermia. Sperm chromatin quality was measured using the comet assay: on classic 2-well slides for software comparison; on 96-well slides for HT-COMET optimization; after exposure to various concentrations of a damage-inducing agent, DNAse, using HT-COMET; on 123 subjects with different sperm concentrations using HT-COMET. Data from the 123 subjects were correlated to classic semen quality parameters and plotted as single-cell data in individual DNA damage profiles. We have developed a standard automated HT-COMET procedure for human sperm. It includes automated scoring of comets by a fully integrated high content screening setup that compares well with the most commonly used semi-manual analysis software. Using this method, a cross-sectional study on 123 men showed no significant correlation between sperm concentration and sperm DNA

  9. HT-COMET: a novel automated approach for high throughput assessment of human sperm chromatin quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Océane; Reintsch, Wolfgang E.; Chan, Peter; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can we make the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) for human sperm a more accurate and informative high throughput assay? SUMMARY ANSWER We developed a standardized automated high throughput comet (HT-COMET) assay for human sperm that improves its accuracy and efficiency, and could be of prognostic value to patients in the fertility clinic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The comet assay involves the collection of data on sperm DNA damage at the level of the single cell, allowing the use of samples from severe oligozoospermic patients. However, this makes comet scoring a low throughput procedure that renders large cohort analyses tedious. Furthermore, the comet assay comes with an inherent vulnerability to variability. Our objective is to develop an automated high throughput comet assay for human sperm that will increase both its accuracy and efficiency. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study comprised two distinct components: a HT-COMET technical optimization section based on control versus DNAse treatment analyses (n = 3–5), and a cross-sectional study on 123 men presenting to a reproductive center with sperm concentrations categorized as severe oligozoospermia, oligozoospermia or normozoospermia. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Sperm chromatin quality was measured using the comet assay: on classic 2-well slides for software comparison; on 96-well slides for HT-COMET optimization; after exposure to various concentrations of a damage-inducing agent, DNAse, using HT-COMET; on 123 subjects with different sperm concentrations using HT-COMET. Data from the 123 subjects were correlated to classic semen quality parameters and plotted as single-cell data in individual DNA damage profiles. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We have developed a standard automated HT-COMET procedure for human sperm. It includes automated scoring of comets by a fully integrated high content screening setup that compares well with the most commonly used semi

  10. Design of single-layer high-efficiency transmitting phase-gradient metasurface and high gain antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Yang, Xiaoqing; Su, Piqiang; Luo, Jiefang; Chen, Huijie; Yuan, Jianping; Li, Lixin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, based on rotation phase-gradient principle, a single-layer, high-efficiency transmitting metasurface is designed and applied to high-gain antenna. In the case of circularly polarized incident wave, the PCR (polarization conversions ratio) of the metasurface element is greater than 90% in the band of 9.11–10.48 GHz. The transmitting wave emerges an anomalous refraction when left-handed circularly polarized wave are incident perpendicularly to the 1D phase-gradient metasurface, which is composed of cycle arrangement of 6 units with step value of 30°. The simulated anomalous refraction angle is 40.1°, coincided with the theoretical design value (40.6°). For further application, the 2D focused metasurface is designed to enhance the antenna performance while the left-handed circularly polarized antenna is placed at the focus. The simulated max gain is increased by 12 dB (182%) and the half-power beamwidth is reduced by 74.6°. The measured results are coincided with the simulations, which indicates the antenna has high directivity. The designed single-layer transmission metasurface has advantages of thin thickness (only 1.5 mm), high efficiency and light weight, and will have important application prospects in polarization conversion and beam control.

  11. CESAME: Providing High Quality Professional Development in Science and Mathematics for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Paul

    2002-04-01

    It is appropriate that after almost half a century of Science and Mathematics education reform we take a look back and a peek forward to understand the present state of this wonderfully complex system. Each of the components of this system including teaching, professional development, assessment, content and the district K-12 curriculum all need to work together if we hope to provide quality science, mathematics and technology education for ALL students. How do the state and national standards drive the system? How do state policies on student testing and teacher licensure come into play? How do we improve the preparation, retention and job satisfaction of our K-12 teachers? What initiatives have made or are making a difference? What else needs to be done? What can the physics community do to support local efforts? This job is too big for any single organization or individual but we each can contribute to the effort. Our Center at Northeastern University, with support from the National Science Foundation, has a sharply defined focus: to get high quality, research-based instructional materials into the hands of K-12 classroom teachers and provide the support they need to use the materials effectively in their classrooms.

  12. Seed production and quality of maize in High Valleys of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Virgen-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase the productivity of maize in High Valleys of Mexico, at the Valley of México and Bajio Experimental Stations of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following activities were carried out: production of registered seed to strengthen seed micro- enterprises of national capital, quality evaluation of certified seed, and generation of production technology. Between 2005 and 2013, 46.71 tons of registered seed of the hybrids parents: H-40, H-48, H-50, H-52, H-66, H-70 and H-161, and the varieties: VS-22, V-54A and V-55A were produced and sold to 31 seed producers in the Estado de Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, Morelos, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Jalisco; that satisfied 60 % of demand per year (8.68 t. In 2013 and 2014, agreements were signed between INIFAP and four micro-enterprises to produce registered seeds. The certified seed produced by companies reached certification standards, germination percentage ≥ 85, 98% pure seed and less than 2% inert matter; test weight between 72 and 78 kg/hl, thousand seed weight between 288 and 361 g and genetic quality between 96 and 98 % of the true type plants. The study identified information about locations, potential yields, population density, and planting dates for the production of parents, lines and single crosses, in the Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala.

  13. Most clinical laboratory testing in Kampala occurs in high-volume, high-quality laboratories or low-volume, low-quality laboratories. A tale of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Schroeder, Lee F; Jackson, J Brooks; Elbireer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    To describe key characteristics (laboratory quality, test volumes, and complexity) of clinical laboratories in Kampala, Uganda (population ~1.7 million). Cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to document laboratory type and quality, as well as test menus and volumes. Quality was based on the World Health Organization-Africa Region checklist. Of the 954 laboratories identified (a density of one laboratory per 1,781 persons), 779 (82%) performed only simple kit tests or light microscope examinations. The 95% (907/954) of laboratories for whom volumes were obtained performed an average aggregate of 13,189 tests daily, for a test utilization rate of around 2 tests per individual per year. Laboratories could be segregated into eight groups based on quality, test volume, and complexity. However, 90% of the testing was performed by just two groups: (1) low-volume (≤100 tests daily), low-quality laboratories performing simple tests or (2) high-volume (>100 tests daily), high-quality laboratories. Each of these two groups did 45% of the daily testing volume (90% combined). Clinical laboratory density in Kampala (1/1,781 persons) is high, approaching that in the United States (1/1,347 persons). Low-volume/low-quality and high-volume/high-quality laboratories do 90% of the daily aggregate testing. Quality improvement (QI) schemes for Africa must be appropriate to low-volume laboratories as well as to the large laboratories that have been the focus of previous QI efforts. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  14. High fidelity system modeling for high quality image reconstruction in clinical CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synho Do

    Full Text Available Today, while many researchers focus on the improvement of the regularization term in IR algorithms, they pay less concern to the improvement of the fidelity term. In this paper, we hypothesize that improving the fidelity term will further improve IR image quality in low-dose scanning, which typically causes more noise. The purpose of this paper is to systematically test and examine the role of high-fidelity system models using raw data in the performance of iterative image reconstruction approach minimizing energy functional. We first isolated the fidelity term and analyzed the importance of using focal spot area modeling, flying focal spot location modeling, and active detector area modeling as opposed to just flying focal spot motion. We then compared images using different permutations of all three factors. Next, we tested the ability of the fidelity terms to retain signals upon application of the regularization term with all three factors. We then compared the differences between images generated by the proposed method and Filtered-Back-Projection. Lastly, we compared images of low-dose in vivo data using Filtered-Back-Projection, Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space, and the proposed method using raw data. The initial comparison of difference maps of images constructed showed that the focal spot area model and the active detector area model also have significant impacts on the quality of images produced. Upon application of the regularization term, images generated using all three factors were able to substantially decrease model mismatch error, artifacts, and noise. When the images generated by the proposed method were tested, conspicuity greatly increased, noise standard deviation decreased by 90% in homogeneous regions, and resolution also greatly improved. In conclusion, the improvement of the fidelity term to model clinical scanners is essential to generating higher quality images in low-dose imaging.

  15. Functional source separation improves the quality of single trial visual evoked potentials recorded during concurrent EEG-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Camillo; Ostwald, Dirk; Bagshaw, Andrew P

    2010-03-01

    EEG quality is a crucial issue when acquiring combined EEG-fMRI data, particularly when the focus is on using single trial (ST) variability to integrate the data sets. The most common method for improving EEG data quality following removal of gross MRI artefacts is independent component analysis (ICA), a completely blind source separation technique. In the current study, a different approach is proposed based on the functional source separation (FSS) algorithm. FSS is an extension of ICA that incorporates prior knowledge about the signal of interest into the data decomposition. Since in general the part of the EEG signal that will contain the most relevant information is known beforehand (i.e. evoked potential peaks, spectral bands), FSS separates the signal of interest by exploiting this prior knowledge without renouncing the advantages of using only information contained in the original signal waveforms. A reversing checkerboard stimulus was used to generate visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in healthy control subjects. Gradient and ballistocardiogram artefacts were removed with template subtraction techniques to form the raw data, which were then subjected to ICA denoising and FSS. The resulting EEG data sets were compared using several metrics derived from average and ST data and correlated with fMRI data. In all cases, ICA was an improvement on the raw data, but the most obvious improvement was provided by FSS, which consistently outperformed ICA. The results show the benefit of FSS for the recovery of good quality single trial evoked potentials during concurrent EEG-fMRI recordings. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single step spray drying method to develop proliposomes for inhalation: a systematic study based on quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil-Gadhe, Arpana; Pokharkar, Varsha

    2014-04-01

    Quality by Design (QbD) is a systematic approach to develop drug products which includes evaluation of formulation parameters to achieve defined final product quality. In the present study principles of QbD were extended to the preparation, in-vitro and in-vivo performance of rifapentine-loaded proliposomes for pulmonary inhalation where final product needs to comply with specific properties. The rifapentine-loaded proliposomes for the treatment of tuberculosis were prepared in single step by spray drying method and independent variables were optimized using factorial design approach. Contour plots and multiple regression analysis were used to study the effect of selected independent variables on dependent variables. The effect of presence of drug: hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and type of charged lipid in the formulation at three levels were studied on mass median diameter (MMD), liposomal vesicle size, % encapsulation efficiency (% EE), mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction (FPF) as critical quality attributes. Optimized formulation (R-LDPI-7) with drug: HSPC ratio of 1:2 and stearyl amine as charged lipid were found to give respirable proliposomes with MMAD of 1.56 ± 0.16 μm and FPF of 92.5 ± 1.5%. Sustained drug release with Higuchi diffusion kinetics was achieved from liposomally encapsulated rifapentine. Pulmonary pharmacokinetics of optimized batch R-LDPI-7 revealed longer retention of drug in lungs with 7 fold increase in both, the mean residence time and t1/2 as compared to R-DPI-0. The study results demonstrated the application of QbD principles and design of experiment (DOE) approach to develop drug encapsulated proliposomes for inhalation by spray drying in single step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-time, single-step bioassay using nanoplasmonic resonator with ultra-high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ellman, Jonathan A; Chen, Fanqing Frank; Su, Kai-Hang; Wei, Qi-Huo; Sun, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    A nanoplasmonic resonator (NPR) comprising a metallic nanodisk with alternating shielding layer(s), having a tagged biomolecule conjugated or tethered to the surface of the nanoplasmonic resonator for highly sensitive measurement of enzymatic activity. NPRs enhance Raman signals in a highly reproducible manner, enabling fast detection of protease and enzyme activity, such as Prostate Specific Antigen (paPSA), in real-time, at picomolar sensitivity levels. Experiments on extracellular fluid (ECF) from paPSA-positive cells demonstrate specific detection in a complex bio-fluid background in real-time single-step detection in very small sample volumes.

  18. A Sepic-Type Single-Stage Electronic Ballast for High Line Voltage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Chen, Kuo-Kuang

    In this paper, a sepic-type single-stage electronic ballast (STSSEB) is proposed, which is derived from the combination of a sepic converter and a half-bridge inverter. The ballast can not only step down input voltage directly but achieve high power factor, reduce voltage stress, improve efficiency and lower cost. Since component stress is reduced significantly, the presented ballast can be applied to high voltage mains. Derivation of the STSSEB is first presented. Then, analysis, design and practical consideration for the STSSEB are discussed. A 347Vac 60W prototype has been simulated and implemented. Simulations and experimental results have verified the feasibility of the proposed STSSEB.

  19. Comparison of high order modes damping techniques for 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Shashkov, Ya V; Zobov, M M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, applications of 800 MHz harmonic cavities in both bunch lengthening and shortening regimes are under consideration and discussion in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. In this paper we study electromagnetic characteristics of high order modes (HOM) for a single cell 800 MHz superconducting cavity and arrays of such cavities connected by drifts tubes. Different techniques for the HOM damping such as beam pipe grooves, coaxial-notch loads, fluted beam pipes etc. are investigated and compared. The influence of the sizes and geometry of the drift tubes on the HOM damping is analyzed.

  20. Develop high quality nursing service and normalize management of neonatal ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua YANG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To tamp basic neonatal care, provide high quality nursing service, improve the quality of neonatal care, guarantee the safety of nursing care, achieve satisfactory project. Methods:Adjust the staff of the neonatal ward , optimize schedule; strengthen the training and knowledge; strengthen the supervision and ensure the basic nursing; the nursing quality management group work out the rate of incidence of high quality nursing service, the incidence rate of hospital infection of the newborn as well as the satisfaction of their families. Results: The different data between the control group and observation group was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 . Conclusion: Develop the neonatal ward of high quality nursing service, ensure the basic nursing implement, significantly improve the quality of nursing, reduce nursing adverse events and neonatal hospital infection incidence to" zero defects and zero tolerance", and that ensures nursing safety, and achieve the goal of " quality care demonstration project" --- patient satisfaction, social satisfaction, and government satisfaction.

  1. Temporal reliability of ultra-high field resting-state MRI for single-subject sensorimotor and language mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Seixas, Daniela; Castro, São Luís

    2016-11-15

    Resting-state fMRI is a well-suited technique to map functional networks in the brain because unlike task-based approaches it requires little collaboration from subjects. This is especially relevant in clinical settings where a number of subjects cannot comply with task demands. Previous studies using conventional scanner fields have shown that resting-state fMRI is able to map functional networks in single subjects, albeit with moderate temporal reliability. Ultra-high resolution (7T) imaging provides higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spatial resolution and is thus well suited to assess the temporal reliability of mapping results, and to determine if resting-state fMRI can be applied in clinical decision making including preoperative planning. We used resting-state fMRI at ultra-high resolution to examine whether the sensorimotor and language networks are reliable over time - same session and one week after. Resting-state networks were identified for all subjects and sessions with good accuracy. Both networks were well delimited within classical regions of interest. Mapping was temporally reliable at short and medium time-scales as demonstrated by high values of overlap in the same session and one week after for both networks. Results were stable independently of data quality metrics and physiological variables. Taken together, these findings provide strong support for the suitability of ultra-high field resting-state fMRI mapping at the single-subject level. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-pulse femtosecond laser Bessel beams drilling of high-aspect-ratio microholes based on electron dynamics control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Xiaowei; Xia, Bo; Yan, Xueliang; Han, Weina; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lan

    2014-11-01

    Microholes drilling has attracted extensive research efforts for its broad applications in photonics, microfluidics, optical fibers and many other fields. A femtosecond (fs) laser is a promising tool for high-precision materials processing with reduced recast/microcracks and minimized heat affected zones. But there remain many challenges in hole drilling using conventional fs laser with Gaussian beams, such as low aspect ratio and taper effects. We report small-diameter and high-aspect-ratio microholes with taper free drilling in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) using single-pulse fs laser Bessel beams. Axicon is used to transform Gaussian beams into Bessel beams, which then irradiate in the sample by a telescope consisting of plano-convex lens and microscope objective. Using this technique, we enhance the aspect ratio of microholes by 55 times as compared with Gaussian beams. We attribute this high aspect ratio and high quality microholes formation to the unique spatial intensity distribution and propagation stability of Bessel beams, which can effectively adjust the transient localized electron density distribution leading to a long and uniform localized-interacted zone. By using the optimized pulse energy and focal depth position, the microholes diameter ranges between 1.4-2.1 μm and the aspect ratio can exceed 460. This efficient technique is of great potentials for fabrication of microphotonics devices and microfluidics.

  3. High step-up isolated efficient single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gopi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an isolated high step-up single switch DC-DC converter for renewable energy source is proposed. In the proposed converter high step-up voltage is obtained by single power switching technique that operates low duty cycle with isolated transformer inductors and switched capacitors and power diodes. The disadvantage of conventional converters is that it has high duty ratio and high voltage stress on power devices with less efficiency. The proposed converter eliminates the switching losses and recycles the leakage energy which includes reverse recovery energy of the power diode by using passive clamp circuit. To achieve high output voltage gain, the isolated transformer primary terminal and secondary terminal are connected in series during switching operation. PSIM software has been used for simulation. Simulation circuit is analyzed at 40Vdc/400Vdc, 200 W and this operation is validated by implementing in the hardware model at 12Vdc/120Vdc, 60 W.

  4. Kink structures induced in nickel-based single crystal superalloys by high-Z element migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Ying [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Zhenju; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Ze [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Innovative kink structures generate at the γ/γ′ interfaces in the crept superalloy. • Clusters of heavy elements congregate at the apex of the kinks. • Dislocation core absorbs hexagonal structural high-Z elements. - Abstract: Here, we investigate a new type of kink structure that is found at γ/γ′ interfaces in nickel-based single crystal superalloys. We studied these structures at the atomic and elemental level using aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The core of the dislocation absorbs high-Z elements (i.e., Co and Re) that adopt hexagonal arrangements, and it extrudes elements (i.e., Ni and Al) that adopt face centered cubic (fcc) structures. High-Z elements (i.e., Ta and W) and Cr, which is a low-Z element, are stabilized in body centered cubic (bcc) arrangements; Cr tends to behave like Re. High-Z elements, which migrate and adopt a hexagonal structure, induce kink formation at γ/γ′ interfaces. This process must be analyzed to fully understand the kinetics and dynamics of creep in nickel-based single crystal superalloys.

  5. What makes a high quality clinical research paper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, T

    2010-05-01

    The quality of a research paper depends primarily on the quality of the research study it reports. However, there is also much that authors can do to maximise the clarity and usefulness of their papers. Journals' instructions for authors often focus on the format, style, and length of articles but do not always emphasise the need to clearly explain the work's science and ethics: so this review reminds researchers that transparency is important too. The research question should be stated clearly, along with an explanation of where it came from and why it is important. The study methods must be reported fully and, where appropriate, in line with an evidence based reporting guideline such as the CONSORT statement for randomised controlled trials. If the study was a trial the paper should state where and when the study was registered and state its registration identifier. Finally, any relevant conflicts of interest should be declared.

  6. The accuracy of the crystal chemical parameters at high-pressure conditions from single-crystal X-ray diffraction in diamond-anvil cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta

    applications also in the materials science as it can provide useful information about the properties and performance of new materials. Over the past decades, the research in this field has been strongly developed due to the advances in computer capabilities and to the technological improvements of X-ray...... instruments. At the same time, the high-pressure experiments have benefited by the strong improvements on the high-pressure devices, in particular the diamond-anvil cell (DAC). The aim of this research project is to assess the quality of the data obtained by means of the single-crystal X-ray diffraction...... technique through the study of different mineral phases. The procedure for setting up an experiment under high-pressure conditions, using a single crystal as sample held within a DAC, are presented here with all the details of the in situ measurements at high-pressure conditions. The research project...

  7. Research on producing high quality diffractive optical elements in volume at a low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschner, Walter

    1997-11-01

    Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) can be utilized in a variety of possible applications in modern optical, as well as optoelectronic systems. The current roadblock for application of DOEs in consumer products is not the feasibility of the approach, as numerous applications have been successfully demonstrated. In order for the breakthrough to occur in industry, it is important to determine a convenient and cost-effective method for manufacturing DOEs. The industry will improve the design of their legacy systems and start including DOEs only when the performance improvement (which the utilization of DOEs achieves), can be purchased with a minimal amount of additional capital investment and cost-per-part. Therefore, the focus of this dissertation was to find a cost-effective method of fabricating large quantities of DOEs with currently available fabrication tools. Direct-write approaches were investigated to fabricate high-quality masters for a subsequent replication procedure based upon molding or casting. Electron-Beam Direct-Write was carried-out in a positive Novolac-based photo-resist which provides dry etch resistivity. Another focus of this development was to find a way to minimize Electron-Beam writing time for a given element. Proximity effect characterization and compensation has been carried-out in order to increase the fidelity of the pattern reproduction. A dry-etching procedure has been developed in order to transfer resist profiles into the substrate material. During this transfer step, the etch rates of resist and substrate material can be controlled; this in turn allows a choice of final feature depth in the substrate material (depending on refractive index and wavelength in use). Two Gray-Scale masking approaches were developed to allow the cost-effective mass fabrication of DOEs in a single optical exposure step. Thin film evaporation of Inconel achieves high-quality masks at a high price. High Energy Beam Sensitive Glass, the second mask material

  8. Simulating the 2012 High Plains drought using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, I. D.; Denning, S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited, and have used conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we will focus on the 2012 High Plains drought and will perform numerical simulations using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5 (Colorado State University (CSU) GCM coupled to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3)) at multiple sites overlying the Ogallala Aquifer for the 2011-2012 periods. In the first version of BUGS5, the model will be used in its standard bulk setting (single atmospheric column coupled to a single instance of SiB3), secondly, the Super-Parameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), a cloud resolving model (CRM consists of 64 atmospheric columns), will replace the single CSU GCM atmospheric parameterization and will be coupled to a single instance of SiB3, and for the third version of BUGS5, an instance of SiB3 will be coupled to each CRM column of the SP-CAM (64 CRM columns coupled to 64 instances of SiB3). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated at each site by all versions of BUGS5, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes will be computed between the 2011 and 2012 period and will be compared to differences calculated using

  9. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  10. High quality factor photonic resonators for nitride quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, T. [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, 34095 Montpellier (France); Mexis, M.; Rennesson, S.; Brimont, C.; Bretagnon, T.; Gil, B. [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, 34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, 34095 Montpellier (France); Sergent, S. [CRHEA-CNRS, Valbonne 06560 (France); Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, Nice 06102 Cedex 2 (France); Neel, D.; David, S.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS - Universite Paris Sud 11, 91405 Orsay (France); Sam-Giao, D.; Gayral, B. [CEA-INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Semond, F.; Leroux, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Valbonne 06560 (France)

    2012-03-15

    We report the realization and the optical study of nitride photonic resonators dedicated to the blue and UV spectral range. Microdisks and photonic crystal (PC) cavities are investigated containing GaN/AlN quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an AlN waveguide. The PC cavities are fabricated through the conformal growth of nitrides on a patterned Si substrate, and present delocalized and confined cavity modes in their microphotoluminescence spectra, that are compared to simulations. A large quality factor of 1800 is reached for a modified L3 cavity. In the case of microdisks, which are fabricated through a classical top-down approach, the series of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) with large quality factors (up to 7300) are observed and analysed. Scanning electron micrograph and microphotoluminescence spectrum of a 2 {mu}m AlN microdisk embedding GaN QDs; the WGMs appear as sharp peaks, with quality factors up to 5000. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. A high quality draft consensus sequence of the genome of a heterozygous grapevine variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Velasco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, grapes and their derived products have a large market. The cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera has potential to become a model for fruit trees genetics. Like many plant species, it is highly heterozygous, which is an additional challenge to modern whole genome shotgun sequencing. In this paper a high quality draft genome sequence of a cultivated clone of V. vinifera Pinot Noir is presented. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimate the genome size of V. vinifera to be 504.6 Mb. Genomic sequences corresponding to 477.1 Mb were assembled in 2,093 metacontigs and 435.1 Mb were anchored to the 19 linkage groups (LGs. The number of predicted genes is 29,585, of which 96.1% were assigned to LGs. This assembly of the grape genome provides candidate genes implicated in traits relevant to grapevine cultivation, such as those influencing wine quality, via secondary metabolites, and those connected with the extreme susceptibility of grape to pathogens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP distribution was consistent with a diffuse haplotype structure across the genome. Of around 2,000,000 SNPs, 1,751,176 were mapped to chromosomes and one or more of them were identified in 86.7% of anchored genes. The relative age of grape duplicated genes was estimated and this made possible to reveal a relatively recent Vitis-specific large scale duplication event concerning at least 10 chromosomes (duplication not reported before. CONCLUSIONS: Sanger shotgun sequencing and highly efficient sequencing by synthesis (SBS, together with dedicated assembly programs, resolved a complex heterozygous genome. A consensus sequence of the genome and a set of mapped marker loci were generated. Homologous chromosomes of Pinot Noir differ by 11.2% of their DNA (hemizygous DNA plus chromosomal gaps. SNP markers are offered as a tool with the potential of introducing a new era in the molecular breeding of grape.

  12. A High Quality Draft Consensus Sequence of the Genome of a Heterozygous Grapevine Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Dustin A.; Cestaro, Alessandro; Pruss, Dmitry; Pindo, Massimo; FitzGerald, Lisa M.; Vezzulli, Silvia; Reid, Julia; Malacarne, Giulia; Iliev, Diana; Coppola, Giuseppina; Wardell, Bryan; Micheletti, Diego; Macalma, Teresita; Facci, Marco; Mitchell, Jeff T.; Perazzolli, Michele; Eldredge, Glenn; Gatto, Pamela; Oyzerski, Rozan; Moretto, Marco; Gutin, Natalia; Stefanini, Marco; Chen, Yang; Segala, Cinzia; Davenport, Christine; Demattè, Lorenzo; Mraz, Amy; Battilana, Juri; Stormo, Keith; Costa, Fabrizio; Tao, Quanzhou; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Harkins, Tim; Lackey, Angie; Perbost, Clotilde; Taillon, Bruce; Stella, Alessandra; Solovyev, Victor; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Sterck, Lieven; Vandepoele, Klaas; Grando, Stella M.; Toppo, Stefano; Moser, Claudio; Lanchbury, Jerry; Bogden, Robert; Skolnick, Mark; Sgaramella, Vittorio; Bhatnagar, Satish K.; Fontana, Paolo; Gutin, Alexander; Van de Peer, Yves; Salamini, Francesco; Viola, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Worldwide, grapes and their derived products have a large market. The cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera has potential to become a model for fruit trees genetics. Like many plant species, it is highly heterozygous, which is an additional challenge to modern whole genome shotgun sequencing. In this paper a high quality draft genome sequence of a cultivated clone of V. vinifera Pinot Noir is presented. Principal Findings We estimate the genome size of V. vinifera to be 504.6 Mb. Genomic sequences corresponding to 477.1 Mb were assembled in 2,093 metacontigs and 435.1 Mb were anchored to the 19 linkage groups (LGs). The number of predicted genes is 29,585, of which 96.1% were assigned to LGs. This assembly of the grape genome provides candidate genes implicated in traits relevant to grapevine cultivation, such as those influencing wine quality, via secondary metabolites, and those connected with the extreme susceptibility of grape to pathogens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution was consistent with a diffuse haplotype structure across the genome. Of around 2,000,000 SNPs, 1,751,176 were mapped to chromosomes and one or more of them were identified in 86.7% of anchored genes. The relative age of grape duplicated genes was estimated and this made possible to reveal a relatively recent Vitis-specific large scale duplication event concerning at least 10 chromosomes (duplication not reported before). Conclusions Sanger shotgun sequencing and highly efficient sequencing by synthesis (SBS), together with dedicated assembly programs, resolved a complex heterozygous genome. A consensus sequence of the genome and a set of mapped marker loci were generated. Homologous chromosomes of Pinot Noir differ by 11.2% of their DNA (hemizygous DNA plus chromosomal gaps). SNP markers are offered as a tool with the potential of introducing a new era in the molecular breeding of grape. PMID:18094749

  13. Is a single-item visual analogue scale as valid, reliable and responsive as multi-item scales in measuring quality of life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Lanschot, J.J.B. van; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Sandick, J.W. van; Hulscher, J.B.F.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Sprangers, M.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a single, global quality of life question to multi-item scales. METHOD: Data were obtained from 83 consecutive patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma undergoing either transhiatal or transthoracic oesophagectomy. Quality of life

  14. Stretching single DNA molecules to demonstrate high-force capabilities of holographic optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Arnau; van der Horst, Astrid; Blab, Gerhard A; Downing, Benjamin P B; Forde, Nancy R

    2010-04-01

    The well calibrated force-extension behaviour of single double-stranded DNA molecules was used as a standard to investigate the performance of phase-only holographic optical tweezers at high forces. Specifically, the characteristic overstretch transition at 65 pN was found to appear where expected, demonstrating (1) that holographic optical trap calibration using thermal fluctuation methods is valid to high forces; (2) that the holographic optical traps are harmonic out to >250 nm of 2.1 mum particle displacement; and (3) that temporal modulations in traps induced by the spatial light modulator (SLM) do not affect the ability of optical traps to hold and steer particles against high forces. These studies demonstrate a new high-force capability for holographic optical traps achievable by SLM technologies. ((c) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  15. NASA-JSC Protocol for the Characterization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Material Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pasha; Gorelik, Olga; Hadjiev, Victor; Holmes, William; Devivar, Rodrigo; Files, Bradley; Yowell, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the raw as well as purified single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material always contain certain amount of impurities of varying composition (mostly metal catalyst and non-tubular carbon). Particular purification method also creates defects and/or functional groups in the SWCNT material and therefore affects the its dispersability in solvents (important to subsequent application development). A number of analytical characterization tools have been used successfully in the past years to assess various properties of nanotube materials, but lack of standards makes it difficult to compare these measurements across the board. In this work we report the protocol developed at NASA-JSC which standardizes measurements using TEM, SEM, TGA, Raman and UV-Vis-NIR absorption techniques. Numerical measures are established for parameters such as metal content, homogeneity, thermal stability and dispersability, to allow easy comparison of SWCNT materials. We will also report on the recent progress in quantitative measurement of non-tubular carbon impurities and a possible purity standard for SWCNT materials.

  16. Single dose oral ranitidine improves MRCP image quality: a double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, M.T. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, D.F. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk; Melling, A. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Roberts, D. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Laasch, H.-U. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sukumar, S. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom); Morris, J. [South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Wythenshawe, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To investigate the possibility of whether a single 300 mg dose of ranitidine given orally 2-3 h before magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) could reduce the signal from the stomach and duodenum, and thus increase the conspicuousness of the biliary tree. Materials and methods: Thirty-five volunteers (22 female, 13 male), (age range 21-50) were underwent MRCP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial on a Philips Intera 1.5 T machine using a phased array surface coil. Imaging was carried out in the coronal oblique plane. Six 40 mm sections were acquired at varying angles to delineate the biliary tree and pancreatic duct. The 70 examinations were blindly scored by three consultants experienced in cholangiography. Results: After ranitidine administration there was a significant decrease in signal from the stomach (mean = 17.7, p = 0.0005, CI 10, 25.3) and duodenum (mean = 18.4, p = 0.0005, 95%CI 9.6, 27.1) with a significant increase in conspicuousness of the distal common duct (mean = 7.7, p = 0.033, 95%CI 0.7, 14.7) and proximal common duct (mean = 8.7, p = 0.010 CI 2.2, 15.2). There were no adverse effects. Conclusion: Oral ranitidine is a cheap and effective agent to decrease signal from the upper gastrointestinal tract and to improve visibility of the biliary tree.

  17. A high throughput in vivo assay for taste quality and palatability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kyle Palmer

    Full Text Available Taste quality and palatability are two of the most important properties measured in the evaluation of taste stimuli. Human panels can report both aspects, but are of limited experimental flexibility and throughput capacity. Relatively efficient animal models for taste evaluation have been developed, but each of them is designed to measure either taste quality or palatability as independent experimental endpoints. We present here a new apparatus and method for high throughput quantification of both taste quality and palatability using rats in an operant taste discrimination paradigm. Cohorts of four rats were trained in a modified operant chamber to sample taste stimuli by licking solutions from a 96-well plate that moved in a randomized pattern beneath the chamber floor. As a rat's tongue entered the well it disrupted a laser beam projecting across the top of the 96-well plate, consequently producing two retractable levers that operated a pellet dispenser. The taste of sucrose was associated with food reinforcement by presses on a sucrose-designated lever, whereas the taste of water and other basic tastes were associated with the alternative lever. Each disruption of the laser was counted as a lick. Using this procedure, rats were trained to discriminate 100 mM sucrose from water, quinine, citric acid, and NaCl with 90-100% accuracy. Palatability was determined by the number of licks per trial and, due to intermediate rates of licking for water, was quantifiable along the entire spectrum of appetitiveness to aversiveness. All 96 samples were evaluated within 90 minute test sessions with no evidence of desensitization or fatigue. The technology is capable of generating multiple concentration-response functions within a single session, is suitable for in vivo primary screening of tastant libraries, and potentially can be used to evaluate stimuli for any taste system.

  18. High-throughput heterogeneous integration of diverse nanomaterials on a single chip for sensing applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel MacNaughton

    Full Text Available There is a large variety of nanomaterials each with unique electronic, optical and sensing properties. However, there is currently no paradigm for integration of different nanomaterials on a single chip in a low-cost high-throughput manner. We present a high throughput integration approach based on spatially controlled dielectrophoresis executed sequentially for each nanomaterial type to realize a scalable array of individually addressable assemblies of graphene, carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanowires and conductive polymers on a single chip. This is a first time where such a diversity of nanomaterials has been assembled on the same layer in a single chip. The resolution of assembly can range from mesoscale to microscale and is limited only by the size and spacing of the underlying electrodes on chip used for assembly. While many applications are possible, the utility of such an array is demonstrated with an example application of a chemical sensor array for detection of volatile organic compounds below parts-per-million sensitivity.

  19. Novel High-Gain Circularly Polarized Lens Antenna Using Single-Layer Transmissive Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yaqiang; Wang, Guangming; Li, Haipeng; Guo, Wenlong

    2017-05-01

    A high-gain lens antenna employing single-layer focusing metasurface (MS) is proposed in this article. The single-layer element achieves a 360° transmission phase range with a transmission magnitude better than 0.9. And the focusing MS consists of 169 elements was designed by utilizing the technique of varying rotation angle to compensate the phase delay. Thus, a lens antenna is constructed by placing a circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna at the focal point of the MS. The fabricated lens antenna demonstrates a good performance of 4.6 % 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth and 6 % 1-dB gain bandwidth, respectively. Moreover, the maximum gain is 18.3 dBic at 15 GHz, which is enhanced by 11.4 dBic compared with the patch antenna. Due to the single-layer structure, this design has a low profile and easy fabrication process compared with the conventional designs, making it an attractive alternative to compact high-gain antenna.

  20. Quality of life following live donor renal transplantation: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Alice; Shrestha, Anne; Basarab-Horwath, Caroline; McKane, William; Shrestha, Badri; Raftery, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life (QoL) of the live donor renal transplant (LDRTx) recipients pre- and post-transplantation and correlate with their pre-transplant (pre-Tx) dialysis status and immunosuppressive regimens post-transplantation (post-Tx). 57 LDRTx recipients and 38 healthy individuals as controls participated in the study. The Kidney Transplant Questionnaire (KTQ) and the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires were used to assess QoL. The post-Tx scores in all SF-36 dimensions were significantly higher in the LDRTx recipients, but remained lower than that of the control group. However, in the KTQ, all dimensions except Appearance (p=0.035), significantly increased post-Tx Patients transplanted pre-emptively and those on tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive drugs had significantly better QoL. LDRTx significantly improved QoL, which was best with preemptive transplantation and tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimens.

  1. Accuracy and Quality Assessment of EUS-FNA: A Single-Center Large Cohort of Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ephraim Bluen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thorough quality control (QC study with systemic monitoring and evaluation is crucial to optimizing the effectiveness of EUS-FNA. Methods. Retrospective analysis was composed of investigating consecutive patient files that underwent EUS-FNA. QC specifically focused on diagnostic accuracy, impacts on preexisting diagnoses, and case management. Results. 268 patient files were evaluated. EUS-FNA cytology helped establish accurate diagnoses in 92.54% (248/268 of patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 83%, 100%, 100%, 91.6%, and 94%, respectively. The most common biopsy site was the pancreas (68%. The most accurate location for EUS-FNA was the esophagus, 13/13 (100%, followed by the pancreas (89.6%. EUS-FNA was least informative for abdominal lymph nodes (70.5%. After FNA and followup, eight false negatives for tumors were found (3%, while 7.5% of samples still lacked a definitive diagnosis. Discussion. QC suggests that the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA might be improved further by (1 taking more FNA passes from suspected lesions, (2 optimizing needle selection (3 having an experienced echo-endoscopist available during the learning curve, and (4 having a cytologist present during the procedure. QC also identified remediable reporting errors. In conclusion, QC study is valuable in identifying weaknesses and thereby augmenting the effectiveness of EUS-FNA.

  2. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  3. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current HS athletes specialized, on average, 2 years earlier than current collegiate and professional athletes surveyed. These data challenge the notion that success at an elite level requires athletes to specialize in 1 sport at a very young age. PMID:28812031

  4. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality.

  5. Multispot single-molecule FRET: High-throughput analysis of freely diffusing molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Ingargiola

    Full Text Available We describe an 8-spot confocal setup for high-throughput smFRET assays and illustrate its performance with two characteristic experiments. First, measurements on a series of freely diffusing doubly-labeled dsDNA samples allow us to demonstrate that data acquired in multiple spots in parallel can be properly corrected and result in measured sample characteristics consistent with those obtained with a standard single-spot setup. We then take advantage of the higher throughput provided by parallel acquisition to address an outstanding question about the kinetics of the initial steps of bacterial RNA transcription. Our real-time kinetic analysis of promoter escape by bacterial RNA polymerase confirms results obtained by a more indirect route, shedding additional light on the initial steps of transcription. Finally, we discuss the advantages of our multispot setup, while pointing potential limitations of the current single laser excitation design, as well as analysis challenges and their solutions.

  6. A multichannel single-photon sensitive detector for high-energy physics: the megapixel EBCCD

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; Frekers, D; Frenkel, A; Giannini, G; Golovkin, S V; Kozarenko, E N; Kreslo, I E; Liberti, B; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Mondardini, M R; Penso, G; Polizzi, A; Santacesaria, R; Santini, G; Spinetti, M; Vilain, P; Votano, L; Wilquet, G; Winter, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    We present a study of the characteristics of a hybrid image intensifier tube based on a thinned backside Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) with better performance in spatial resolution, single photoelectron detection and gain stability than the conventional intensified systems based on a Micro Channel Plate followed by a CCD. Single photon detection sensitivity has been studied and a procedure to correct the gain non-uniformity of the EBCCD has been developed. The EBCCD, operating at 14 kV, has an average gain of approx 3000 electrons/photoelectron and a noise of the order of 100 electron/pixel. These characteristics make the EBCCD a very attractive device for many applications in high-energy physics, astrophysics and biomedicine. A possible application in a neutrino oscillation experiment is presented.

  7. Single-Molecule Diodes with High On/Off Ratios Through Environmental Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Dell, Emma; Adak, Olgun; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey; Campos, Luis; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-03-01

    Single-Molecule diodes were first proposed with an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Progress in molecular electronics has led to the realization of several single-molecule diodes; these have relied on asymmetric molecular backbones, asymmetric molecule-electrode linkers, or asymmetric electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for functional applications due to several pitfalls, including low rectification ratios (``on''/``off'' current ratios environment instead of an asymmetric molecule, we reproducibly achieve high rectification ratios at low operating voltages for molecular junctions based on a family of symmetric small-gap molecules. This technique serves as an unconventional approach for developing functional molecular-scale devices and probing their charge transport characteristics. Furthermore, this technique should be applicable to other nanoscale devices, providing a general route for tuning device properties.

  8. Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber as a high resolution probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtna-Lukner, Heli; Repän, Jaagup; Valdma, Sandhra-Mirella; Piksarv, Peeter

    2016-11-20

    We sample ultra-broadband light, focused onto a diffraction-limited spot, to an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM) and detect both the field amplitude and phase using a SEA TADPOLE interferometer. We resolve spatial features up to 2.5 times finer than the fiber mode size while sampling the periodic features of the bipolar oscillating field in the transverse section. The resolution enhancement is expected also in other types of single-mode fibers in intensity measurements and leads to an inexpensive method for characterizing the point-spread function of such optical fields, e.g., diffraction-limited spots from microscope objectives. In addition, we demonstrate the guidance of a high-NA light field in the fine structure of an ESM fiber mode. The results are especially valuable for devices where a fiber tip acts as an input slit and defines the spatial resolution, e.g., fiber-based interferometers, spectrometers, and sensors.

  9. A single-electron approach for many-electron dynamics in high-order harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Axel

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel ab-initio single-electron approach to correlated electron dynamics in strong laser fields. By writing the electronic wavefunction as a product of a marginal one-electron wavefunction and a conditional wavefunction, we show that the exact harmonic spectrum can be obtained from a single-electron Schr\\"odinger equation. To obtain the one-electron potential in practice, we propose an adiabatic approximation, i.e. a potential is generated that depends only on the position of one electron. This potential, together with the laser interaction, is then used to obtain the dynamics of the system. For a model Helium atom in a laser field, we show that by using our approach, the high-order harmonic generation spectrum can be obtained to a good approximation.

  10. Synthesis and high sensing properties of a single Pd-doped SnO2 nanoribbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jiang; Liu, Yingkai; Zhang, Heng; Ai, Peng; Gong, Nailiang; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Monocrystal SnO2 and Pd-SnO2 nanoribbons have been successfully synthesized by thermal evaporation, and novel ethanol sensors based on a single Pd-SnO2 nanoribbon and a single SnO2 nanoribbon were fabricated. The sensing properties of SnO2 nanoribbon (SnO2 NB) and Pd-doped SnO2 nanoribbon (Pd-SnO2 NB) sensors were investigated. The results indicated that the SnO2 NB showed a high sensitivity to ethanol and the Pd-SnO2 NB has a much higher sensitivity of 4.3 at 1,000 ppm of ethanol at 230°C, w...

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  12. Evaluation of problematic use of mobile phones and quality of sleep among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Öz; Didem Arslantaş; Necati Buğrul; Tuğçe Koyuncu; Alaettin Ünsal

    2015-01-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the problematic use of mobile phones and quality of sleep among high school students. This is a cross-sectional study carried out on 1,131 high school students studying at Sivrihisar, a district of Eskisehir, in December 2012. The questionnaire form include the sociodemographic characteristics, problematic use of mobile phones and quality of sleep. Bianchi-Phillips problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. Median...

  13. Micropatterned single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes for use in high-performance transistors and inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woonggi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Dong Yun; Chang, Suk Tai; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-06-25

    We demonstrated the solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) source-drain electrodes patterned using a plasma-enhanced detachment patterning method for high-performance organic transistors and inverters. The high-resolution SWNT electrode patterning began with the formation of highly uniform SWNT thin films on a hydrophobic silanized substrate. The SWNT source-drain patterns were then formed by modulating the interfacial energies of the prepatterned elastomeric mold and the SWNT thin film using oxygen plasma. The SWNT films were subsequently selectively delaminated using a rubber mold. The patterned SWNTs could be used as the source-drain electrodes for both n-type PTCDI-C8 and p-type pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs). The n- and p-type devices exhibited good and exactly matched electrical performances, with a field-effect mobility of around 0.15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an ON/OFF current ratio exceeding 10(6). The single electrode material was used for both the n and p channels, permitting the successful fabrication of a high-performance complementary inverter by connecting a p-type pentacene FET to an n-type PTCDI-C8 FET. This patterning technique was simple, inexpensive, and easily scaled for the preparation of large-area electrode micropatterns for flexible microelectronic device fabrication.

  14. Multisource Single-Tree Inventory in the Prediction of Tree Quality Variables and Logging Recoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vastaranta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The stem diameter distribution, stem form and quality information must be measured as accurately as possible to optimize cutting. For a detailed measurement of the stands, we developed and demonstrated the use of a multisource single-tree inventory (MS-STI. The two major bottlenecks in the current airborne laser scanning (ALS-based single-tree-level inventory, tree detection and tree species recognition, are avoided in MS-STI. In addition to airborne 3D data, such as ALS, MS-STI requires an existing tree map with tree species information as the input information. In operational forest management, tree mapping would be carried out after or during the first thinning. It should be highlighted that the tree map is a challenging prerequisite, but that the recent development in mobile 2D and 3D laser scanning indicates that the solution is within reach. In our study, the tested input tree map was produced by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and by using a Global Navigation Satellite System. Predictors for tree quality attributes were extracted from ALS data or digital stereo imagery (DSI and used in the nearest-neighbor estimation approach. Stem distribution was compiled by summing the predicted single-tree measures. The accuracy of the MS-STI was validated using harvester data (timber assortments and field measures (stem diameter, tree height. RMSEs for tree height, diameter, saw log volume and pulpwood volume varied from 4.2% to 5.3%, from 10.9% to 19.9%, from 28.7% to 43.5% and from 125.1% to 134.3%, respectively. Stand-level saw log recoveries differed from −2.2% to 1.3% from the harvester measurements, as the respective differences in pulpwood recovery were between −3.0% and 10.6%. We conclude that MS-STI improves the predictions of stem-diameter distributions and provides accurate estimates for tree quality variables if an accurate tree map is available.

  15. Examining the accessibility of high-quality physical activity behaviour change support freely available online for men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Camille E; Gelder, Charlotte; Binnewerg, Lena; McIntosh, Megan; Turnbull, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    While the internet is considered a promising avenue for providing physical activity support to prostate cancer survivors, little is known about the accessibility of quality websites in the real world. This work aimed to explore what websites prostate cancer survivors are likely to find when seeking physical activity support online and to evaluate their quality using evidenced-based criteria. A search strategy was developed in consultation with prostate cancer survivors (n = 44) to reflect the most common ways they are likely to search the internet. The search was then conducted by a single reviewer, and identified websites were assessed for quality by two reviewers using an evidence-based quality assessment tool developed for this study. Discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. Of the 45 identified websites, 13 (29%) received a high quality rating, 22 (49%) received a moderate rating and 10 (22%) received a low quality rating. Higher-quality websites tended to have a .org or .gov domain and tended to be located using searches specific to prostate cancer or prostate cancer and exercise. Very few websites contained complete information regarding the physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors, and no websites provided comprehensive behaviour change support. There are some good-quality physical activity websites accessible to men with prostate cancer. However, they may be difficult to find and/or require updating to include complete recommendations and more behaviour change support. Efforts to improve physical activity information online and strategies to direct prostate cancer survivors to higher-quality websites and support services are needed to ensure safety and efficacy.

  16. Normalizing sleep quality disturbed by psychiatric polypharmacy: a single patient open trial (SPOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Victoria; Wang, Yanpin; Schork, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in personalized and preventive medicine initiatives that leverage serious patient engagement, such as those initiated and pursued among participants in the quantified-self movement. However, many of the self-assessments that result are not rooted in good scientific practices, such as exploiting controls, dose escalation strategies, multiple endpoint monitoring, etc. Areas where individual monitoring and health assessments have great potential involve sleep and behavior, as there are a number of very problematic sleep and behavior-related conditions that are hard to treat without personalization. For example, winter depression or seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a serious, recurrent, atypical depressive disorder impacting millions each year. In order to prevent yearly recurrence antidepressant drugs are used to prophylactically treat SAD. In turn, these antidepressant drugs can affect sleep patterns, further exacerbating the condition. Because of this, possibly unique combinatorial or 'polypharmaceutical' interventions involving sleep aids may be prescribed. However, little research into the effects of such polypharmacy on the long-term sleep quality of treated individuals has been pursued. Employing wireless monitoring in a patient-centered study we sought to gain insight into the influence of polypharmacy on sleep patterns and the optimal course of therapy for an individual being treated for SAD with duloxetine (Cymbalta) and temazepam. We analyzed continuous-time sleep data while dosages and combinations of these agents were varied. We found that the administration of Cymbalta led to an exacerbation of the subject's symptoms in a statistically significant way. We argue that such analyses may be necessary to effectively treat individuals with similar overall clinical manifestations and diagnosis, despite their having a unique set of symptoms, genetic profiles and exposure histories. We also consider the limitations of our study and

  17. Rehosting of Bacterial Chaperones for High-Quality Protein Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Noad, Rob; Unzueta, Ugutz; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Roy, Polly; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Coproduction of DnaK/DnaJ in Escherichia coli enhances solubility but promotes proteolytic degradation of their substrates, minimizing the yield of unstable polypeptides. Higher eukaryotes have orthologs of DnaK/DnaJ but lack the linked bacterial proteolytic system. By coexpression of DnaK and DnaJ in insect cells with inherently misfolding-prone recombinant proteins, we demonstrate simultaneous improvement of soluble protein yield and quality and proteolytic stability. Thus, undesired side effects of bacterial folding modulators can be avoided by appropriate rehosting in heterologous cell expression systems. PMID:19820142

  18. Publishing high-quality climate data on the semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Andrew; Haller, Armin; Lefort, Laurent; Taylor, Kerry

    2013-04-01

    The effort over more than a decade to establish the semantic web [Berners-Lee et. al., 2001] has received a major boost in recent years through the Open Government movement. Governments around the world are seeking technical solutions to enable more open and transparent access to Public Sector Information (PSI) they hold. Existing technical protocols and data standards tend to be domain specific, and so limit the ability to publish and integrate data across domains (health, environment, statistics, education, etc.). The web provides a domain-neutral platform for information publishing, and has proven itself beyond expectations for publishing and linking human-readable electronic documents. Extending the web pattern to data (often called Web 3.0) offers enormous potential. The semantic web applies the basic web principles to data [Berners-Lee, 2006]: using URIs as identifiers (for data objects and real-world 'things', instead of documents) making the URIs actionable by providing useful information via HTTP using a common exchange standard (serialised RDF for data instead of HTML for documents) establishing typed links between information objects to enable linking and integration Leading examples of 'linked data' for publishing PSI may be found in both the UK (http://data.gov.uk/linked-data) and US (http://www.data.gov/page/semantic-web). The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is Australia's national meteorological agency, and has a new mandate to establish a national environmental information infrastructure (under the National Plan for Environmental Information, NPEI [BoM, 2012a]). While the initial approach is based on the existing best practice Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) architecture, linked-data is being explored as a technological alternative that shows great promise for the future. We report here the first trial of government linked-data in Australia under data.gov.au. In this initial pilot study, we have taken BoM's new high-quality reference surface

  19. Investigations of some aspects of the spray process in a single wire arc plasma spray system using high speed camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, N; Sahasrabudhe, S N; Tak, A K; Barve, D N; Das, A K

    2012-02-01

    A high speed camera has been used to record and analyze the evolution as well as particle behavior in a single wire arc plasma spray torch. Commercially available systems (spray watch, DPV 2000, etc.) focus onto a small area in the spray jet. They are not designed for tracking a single particle from the torch to the substrate. Using high speed camera, individual particles were tracked and their velocities were measured at various distances from the spray torch. Particle velocity information at different distances from the nozzle of the torch is very important to decide correct substrate position for the good quality of coating. The analysis of the images has revealed the details of the process of arc attachment to wire, melting of the wire, and detachment of the molten mass from the tip. Images of the wire and the arc have been recorded for different wire feed rates, gas flow rates, and torch powers, to determine compatible wire feed rates. High speed imaging of particle trajectories has been used for particle velocity determination using time of flight method. It was observed that the ripple in the power supply of the torch leads to large variation of instantaneous power fed to the torch. This affects the velocity of the spray particles generated at different times within one cycle of the ripple. It is shown that the velocity of a spray particle depends on the instantaneous torch power at the time of its generation. This correlation was established by experimental evidence in this paper. Once the particles leave the plasma jet, their forward speeds were found to be more or less invariant beyond 40 mm up to 500 mm from the nozzle exit.

  20. Simulating the 2012 High Plains Drought Using Three Single Column Models (SCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, I. D.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, S.; Dazlich, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited, and have used conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we focus on the 2012 High Plains drought and perform numerical simulations using three single column model (SCM) versions of BUGS5 (Colorado State University (CSU) GCM coupled to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3)). In the first version of BUGS5, the model is used in its standard bulk setting (single atmospheric column coupled to a single instance of SiB3), secondly, the Super-Parameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), a cloud resolving model (CRM) (CRM consists of 32 atmospheric columns), replaces the single CSU GCM atmospheric parameterization and is coupled to a single instance of SiB3, and for the third version of BUGS5, an instance of SiB3 is coupled to each CRM column of the SP-CAM (32 CRM columns coupled to 32 instances of SiB3). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated by all three versions of BUGS5, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes are computed between the 2011 and 2012 period and are compared to those calculated using observational data from the AmeriFlux Tower Network for the same period at the ARM Site in Lamont, OK. This research

  1. Safety of a DVT chemoprophylaxis protocol following traumatic brain injury: a single center quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickele, Christopher M; Kamps, Timothy K; Medow, Joshua E

    2013-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication that affects approximately 30 % of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients when pharmacologic prophylaxis is not used. Following TBI, specifically in the case of contusions, the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic thromboembolism prophylaxis (PTP) has been studied only in small sample sizes. In this study, we attempt to assess the safety and efficacy of a PTP protocol for TBI patients, as a quality improvement (QI) initiative, in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU). Between January 1st and December 31st, 2009, consecutive patients discharged from the University of Wisconsin NSICU after >a 48 h minimum stay were evaluated as part of a QI project. A protocol for the initiation of PTP was designed and implemented for NSICU patients. The protocol did not vary based on type of intracranial injury. The rate of VTE was reported as was heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and PTP-related expansion of intracranial hemorrhage (IH) requiring reoperation. The number of patients receiving PTP and the timing of therapy were tracked. Patients were excluded for persistent coagulopathy, other organ system bleeding (such as the gastrointestinal tract), or pregnancy. Faculty could opt out of the protocol without reason. Using the same criteria, patients discharged during the preceding 6 months, from July 1st to December 31st, 2008, were evaluated as controls as the PTP protocol was not in effect during this time. During the control period, there were 48 head trauma admissions who met the inclusion criteria. In 22 patients (45.8 %), PTP was initiated at an average of 4.9 ± 5.4 days after admission. During the protocol period, there were 87 head trauma admissions taken from 1,143 total NSICU stays who met criteria. In 63 patients (72.4 %), the care team in the NSICU successfully initiated PTP, at an average of 3.4 ± 2.8 days after admission. All 87 trauma patients were analyzed, and the rate of clinically

  2. High-resolution monochromator using a high-efficiency single-mode x-ray resonator at Laue incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Yi-Wei; Liu, Wen-Chung; Chih, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Shih-Lin

    2017-07-01

    We report a high-resolution and high-efficiency monochromator with energy resolution, ΔE/E∼2.08*10-7, utilizing a hard x-ray single-mode Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator at Laue incidence at 14.4388 keV. Instead of using multiple-crystal diffraction via several asymmetric-cut crystals, a 3 meV single-peak is generated from the interference of a Si-made two-plate cavity with a thickness of 70 μm and a gap of 45 μm, where a (0-40) Laue reflection is used to excite the backreflection (12 4 0) for the enhancement of the FP efficiency. Due to the large angular acceptance of (12 4 0) and (0-40), the energy tunability can be achieved by changing the incident angle into the resonator. The application of x-ray resonators at Laue incidence as a monochromator can be further implemented to x-ray optics.

  3. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  4. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-22

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known "polysulfide shuttle" effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp(3) boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates.

  5. High rate lithium-sulfur battery enabled by sandwiched single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubao; Li, Gai; Lai, Yuanchu; Zeng, Danli; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are highly promising for electric energy storage with high energy density, abundant resources and low cost. However, the battery technologies have often suffered from a short cycle life and poor rate stability arising from the well-known “polysulfide shuttle” effect. Here, we report a novel cell design by sandwiching a sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte film between two carbon films to fabricate a composite separator for lithium-sulfur batteries. The dense negative charges uniformly distributed in the electrolyte membrane inherently prohibit transport of polysulfide anions formed in the cathode inside the polymer matrix and effectively blocks polysulfide shuttling. A battery assembled with the composite separator exhibits a remarkably long cycle life at high charge/discharge rates. PMID:26898772

  6. Sustainable Inclusion of Smallholders in the Emerging High Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    security and the general livelihood conditions of any population. Agriculture, being one of the most weather-dependent of all human activities is highly vulnerable to climate change. African countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change because of their dependence on rain fed agriculture, high levels of poverty, low.

  7. A high-quality annotated transcriptome of swine peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: High throughput gene expression profiling assays of peripheral blood are widely used in biomedicine, as well as in animal genetics and physiology research. Accurate, comprehensive, and precise interpretation of such high throughput assays relies on well-characterized reference genomes an...

  8. Roles of Oxygen and Hydrogen in Crystal Orientation Transition of Copper Foils for High-Quality Graphene Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junxiong; Xu, Jianbao; Zhao, Yanfei; Shi, Lin; Li, Qi; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Liu, Liwei

    2017-04-01

    The high-quality graphene film can be grown on single-crystal Cu substrate by seamlessly stitching the aligned graphene domains. The roles of O2 and H2 have been intensively studied in the graphene growth kinetics, including lowering the nucleation sites and tailoring the domain structures. However, how the O2 and H2 influence Cu orientations during recrystallization prior to growing graphene, still remains unclear. Here we report that the oxidation of Cu surface tends to stabilize the Cu(001) orientation while impedes the evolution of Cu(111) single domain during annealing process. The crystal orientation-controlled synthesis of aligned graphene seeds is further realized on the long-range ordered Cu(111) substrate. With decreasing the thickness of oxide layer on Cu surface by introducing H2, the Cu(001) orientation changes into Cu(111) orientation. Meanwhile, the average domain size of Cu foils is increased from 50 μm to larger than 1000 μm. The density functional theory calculations reveal that the oxygen increases the energy barrier for Cu(111) surface and makes O/Cu(001) more stable than O/Cu(111) structure. Our work can be helpful for revealing the roles of O2 and H2 in controlling the formation of Cu single-crystal substrate as well as in growing high-quality graphene films.

  9. Quality control of high-dose-rate brachytherapy: treatment delivery analysis using statistical process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Able, Charles M; Bright, Megan; Frizzell, Bart

    2013-03-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is a quality control method used to ensure that a process is well controlled and operates with little variation. This study determined whether SPC was a viable technique for evaluating the proper operation of a high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment delivery system. A surrogate prostate patient was developed using Vyse ordnance gelatin. A total of 10 metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were placed from prostate base to apex. Computed tomography guidance was used to accurately position the first detector in each train at the base. The plan consisted of 12 needles with 129 dwell positions delivering a prescribed peripheral dose of 200 cGy. Sixteen accurate treatment trials were delivered as planned. Subsequently, a number of treatments were delivered with errors introduced, including wrong patient, wrong source calibration, wrong connection sequence, single needle displaced inferiorly 5 mm, and entire implant displaced 2 mm and 4 mm inferiorly. Two process behavior charts (PBC), an individual and a moving range chart, were developed for each dosimeter location. There were 4 false positives resulting from 160 measurements from 16 accurately delivered treatments. For the inaccurately delivered treatments, the PBC indicated that measurements made at the periphery and apex (regions of high-dose gradient) were much more sensitive to treatment delivery errors. All errors introduced were correctly identified by either the individual or the moving range PBC in the apex region. Measurements at the urethra and base were less sensitive to errors. SPC is a viable method for assessing the quality of HDR treatment delivery. Further development is necessary to determine the most effective dose sampling, to ensure reproducible evaluation of treatment delivery accuracy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experience from the 1st Year running a Massive High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Joao; Baron, Thomas; Bompastor, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    In the last few years, we have witnessed an explosion of visual collaboration initiatives in the industry. Several advances in video services and also in their underlying infrastructure are currently improving the way people collaborate globally. These advances are creating new usage paradigms: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To keep apace with this technology progression, the CERN IT Department launched a service based on the Vidyo product. This new service architecture introduces Adaptive Video Layering, which dynamically optimizes the video for each endpoint by leveraging the H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC)-based compression technology. It combines intelligent AV routing techniques with the flexibility of H.264 SVC video compression, in order to achieve resilient video collaboration over the Internet, 3G and WiFi. We present an overview of the results that have been achieved after this major change. In particular, the first year of operation of the CERN Vidyo service will be described in terms of performance and scale: The service became part of the daily activity of the LHC collaborations, reaching a monthly usage of more than 3200 meetings with a peak of 750 simultaneous connections. We also present some key features such as the integration with CERN Indico. LHC users can now join a Vidyo meeting either from their personal computer or a CERN videoconference room simply from an Indico event page, with the ease of a single click. The roadmap for future improvements, service extensions and core infrastructure tendencies such as cloud based services and virtualization of system components will also be discussed. Vidyo's strengths allowed us to build a universal service (it is accessible from PCs, but also videoconference rooms, traditional phones, tablets and smartphones), developed with 3 key ideas in mind: ease of use, full integration and high quality.

  11. High-peak-power, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly polarized, nanosecond all-fiber laser based on self-phase modulation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rongtao; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Pengfei; Lü, Haibin; Xu, Xiaojun

    2013-10-20

    We demonstrated a high-peak-power, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly polarized, nanosecond all-fiber laser in master oscillator power amplifier configuration. The pulsed seed was generated by modulating a single-frequency continuous wave laser at 1064 nm. The short pulse width (∼3.2  ns) of the pulsed seed prevented the onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering in the 10 μm-core single-transverse-mode polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped fiber of the main amplifier. In order to compensate self-phase modulation-induced spectral broadening, a phase modulator was employed to control the phase of the pulsed seed, and the linewidth of the output pulses were reduced from ∼1.22  GHz to ∼185  MHz at the peak power of 1.47 kW.

  12. Depth imaging in highly scattering underwater environments using time-correlated single-photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarone, Aurora; McCarthy, Aongus; Halimi, Abderrahim; Tobin, Rachael; Wallace, Andy M.; Petillot, Yvan; McLaughlin, Steve; Buller, Gerald S.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an optical depth imaging system optimized for highly scattering environments such as underwater. The system is based on the time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) technique and the time-of-flight approach. Laboratory-based measurements demonstrate the potential of underwater depth imaging, with specific attention given to environments with a high level of scattering. The optical system comprised a monostatic transceiver unit, a fiber-coupled supercontinuum laser source with a wavelength tunable acousto-optic filter (AOTF), and a fiber-coupled single-element silicon single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector. In the optical system, the transmit and receive channels in the transceiver unit were overlapped in a coaxial optical configuration. The targets were placed in a 1.75 meter long tank, and raster scanned using two galvo-mirrors. Laboratory-based experiments demonstrate depth profiling performed with up to nine attenuation lengths between the transceiver and target. All of the measurements were taken with an average laser power of less than 1mW. Initially, the data was processed using a straightforward pixel-wise cross-correlation of the return timing signal with the system instrumental timing response. More advanced algorithms were then used to process these cross-correlation results. These results illustrate the potential for the reconstruction of images in highly scattering environments, and to permit the investigation of much shorter acquisition time scans. These algorithms take advantage of the data sparseness under the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the correlation between adjacent pixels, to restore the depth and reflectivity images.

  13. Single tendon transfer of the flexor carpi ulnaris for high radial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Ajeesh; Thora, Ankit; Arora, Sumit; Dhal, Anil

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the outcome after single tendon transfer of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) to the digital extensors for high radial nerve palsy. Records of 10 patients aged 16 to 43 (median, 27) years who underwent single tendon transfer of the FCU to the digital extensors for high radial nerve palsy secondary to closed (n=4) or open (n=4) diaphyseal humeral fractures or deltoid injection (n=2) were reviewed. Two of the patients with open fractures also underwent treatment for non-union in a staged manner. Grip strength (power grip and precision grip) was measured monthly using an automated dynamometer. The range of motion of the wrist, and metacarpophalangeal joints of the thumb and fingers was measured monthly using a goniometer. All patients were followed up for at least one year. Preoperatively, the overall power grip strength of the injured hands was about 1/5 of the normal hands. At 12 months, the mean improvement was 202.5% for overall power grip strength and 43% to 57% for precision grip strength parameters. Compared with the normal hands, the mean deficit of the operated hands was 39% for overall power grip strength and 32% to 37% for precision grip strength parameters. At 12 months, mean wrist extension was 50.4º, with about 10º lag in finger and thumb extension. The mean total active motion was 86.7º in the operated wrists and 128.1º in normal wrists. The decrease in wrist flexion and ulnar deviation was 7.8º and 6.8º, respectively. Single tendon transfer of the FCU is a viable option to restore hand function and strength following high radial nerve injuries.

  14. Low cost, high performance processing of single particle cryo-electron microscopy data in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfrocco, Michael A; Leschziner, Andres E

    2015-05-08

    The advent of a new generation of electron microscopes and direct electron detectors has realized the potential of single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a technique to generate high-resolution structures. Calculating these structures requires high performance computing clusters, a resource that may be limiting to many likely cryo-EM users. To address this limitation and facilitate the spread of cryo-EM, we developed a publicly available 'off-the-shelf' computing environment on Amazon's elastic cloud computing infrastructure. This environment provides users with single particle cryo-EM software packages and the ability to create computing clusters with 16-480+ CPUs. We tested our computing environment using a publicly available 80S yeast ribosome dataset and estimate that laboratories could determine high-resolution cryo-EM structures for $50 to $1500 per structure within a timeframe comparable to local clusters. Our analysis shows that Amazon's cloud computing environment may offer a viable computing environment for cryo-EM.

  15. Electronic origin of high-temperature superconductivity in single-layer FeSe superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Defa; Zhang, Wenhao; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Ou, Yun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Yan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Hu, Jiangping; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2012-07-03

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds has attracted much attention. How to further increase the superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) and how to understand the superconductivity mechanism are two prominent issues facing the current study of iron-based superconductors. The latest report of high-T(c) superconductivity in a single-layer FeSe is therefore both surprising and significant. Here we present investigations of the electronic structure and superconducting gap of the single-layer FeSe superconductor. Its Fermi surface is distinct from other iron-based superconductors, consisting only of electron-like pockets near the zone corner without indication of any Fermi surface around the zone centre. Nearly isotropic superconducting gap is observed in this strictly two-dimensional system. The temperature dependence of the superconducting gap gives a transition temperature T(c)~ 55 K. These results have established a clear case that such a simple electronic structure is compatible with high-T(c) superconductivity in iron-based superconductors.

  16. High-performance SiC avalanche photodiode for single ultraviolet photon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaogang; Liu, Han-din; McIntosh, Dion; Campbell, Joe C.

    2008-08-01

    Sensitive ultraviolet photodetectors are essential components for a growing number of civilian and military applications. In this paper, we report 4H Silicon Carbide (SiC) avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with a p-i-n structure. These APDs, range in diameter from 180 μm to 250μm, exhibit very low dark current (10s of pA at avalanche gain of 1000) and high gain in linear-mode operation. An external quantum efficiency of 48% at 280 nm is achieved at unity gain with a recessed-window structure. The differential resistance of a 250 μm recessed-window device at zero bias is estimated to be 6×1014 ohms. As a result of high external quantum efficiency, large area, and large differential resistance, a record high specific detectivity of 4.1×1014 cmHz 1/2 W-1, has been achieved. Single ultraviolet photon detection in Geiger-mode operation with gated quenching is also described. In this paper, we report single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of 30% at 280 nm with a dark count probability (DCP) of 8×10-4.

  17. Quality of Experience for Large Ultra-High-Resolution Tiled Displays with Synchronization Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sachin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to quality of experience when viewing images, video, or other content on large ultra-high-resolution displays made from individual display tiles. We define experiments to measure vernier acuity caused by synchronization mismatch for moving images. The experiments are used to obtain synchronization mismatch acuity threshold as a function of object velocity and as a function of occlusion or gap width. Our main motivation for measuring the synchronization mismatch vernier acuity is its relevance in the application of tiled display systems, which create a single contiguous image using individual discrete panels arranged in a matrix with each panel utilizing a distributed synchronization algorithm to display parts of the overall image. We also propose a subjective assessment method for perception evaluation of synchronization mismatch for large ultra-high-resolution tiled displays. For this, we design a synchronization mismatch measurement test video set for various tile configurations for various interpanel synchronization mismatch values. The proposed method for synchronization mismatch perception can evaluate tiled displays with or without tile bezels. The results from this work can help during design of low-cost tiled display systems, which utilize distributed synchronization mechanisms for a contiguous or bezeled image display.

  18. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J

    2015-09-08

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  19. Postoperative single-dose interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy in therapy-resistant keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkamp, C J H; Lapid, O; Dávila Fajardo, R; van de Kar, A L; Koedooder, C; Stalpers, L J; Pieters, B R

    Patients with keloids complain of the cosmetic aspect, pain, and pruritus. Many different therapies are being used for keloids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence rate and outcome after resection followed by a single-dose brachytherapy. Patients treated by resection of the keloid plus a single dose of 13 Gy high-dose-rate brachytherapy were evaluated at least 1 year after treatment. Clinical response and cosmesis were assessed by a plastic surgeon and by the patients using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Only 24 of the 61 invited patients responded to participate with the study; 29 keloids were evaluated. The recurrence rate was 24.1% after a median followup of 53 months (19-95 months). Patients scored on average 24.3 for their total Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale score (range 6-52), whereas the observer scored on average 14.6 (range 6-42). This treatment has a higher recurrence rate than that reported in most other studies. This may be explained by differences in recurrence definition, differences in followup time among studies, and selection bias because of not contributing to the study. The cosmetic outcome for evaluated patients is relatively good. This treatment policy has the advantage that patients are treated in a single day. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly sensitive immunoassay of protein molecules based on single nanoparticle fluorescence detection in a nanowell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hee-Joo; Lakshmana, Sudheendra; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2011-03-01

    A nanoarray based-single molecule detection system was developed for detecting proteins with extremely high sensitivity. The nanoarray was able to effectively trap nanoparticles conjugated with biological sample into nanowells by integrating with an electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES). The nanoarray/EPES is superior to other biosensor using immunoassays in terms of saving the amounts of biological solution and enhancing kinetics of antibody binding due to reduced steric hindrance from the neighboring biological molecules. The nanoarray patterned onto a layer of PMMA and LOL on conductive and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass slide by using e-beam lithography. The suspension of 500 nm-fluorescent (green emission)-carboxylated polystyrene (PS) particles coated with protein-A followed by BDE 47 polyclonal antibody was added to the chip that was connected to the positive voltage. The droplet was covered by another ITO-coated-glass slide and connected to a ground terminal. After trapping the particles into the nanowells, the solution of different concentrations of anti-rabbit- IgG labeled with Alexa 532 was added for an immunoassay. A single molecule detection system could quantify the anti-rabbit IgG down to atto-mole level by counting photons emitted from the fluorescent dye bound to a single nanoparticle in a nanowell.