WorldWideScience

Sample records for high quality fruit

  1. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  2. High-quality total RNA isolation from melon (Cucumis melo L. fruits rich in polysaccharides

    Gabrielle Silveira de Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Melon, a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is the fourth most important fruit in the world market and, on a volume basis, is Brazil’s main fresh fruit export. Many molecular techniques used to understand the maturation of these fruits require high concentrations of highly purified RNA. However, melons are rich in polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides, which interfere with RNA extraction. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for total RNA extraction from melon fruits. Six extraction buffers were tested: T1 guanidine thiocyanate/phenol/chloroform; T2 sodium azide/?-mercaptoethanol; T3 phenol/guanidine thiocyanate; T4 CTAB/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol; T5 SDS/sodium perchlorate/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol, and T6 sarkosyl/PVP/guanidine thiocyanate, using the AxyPrepTM Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit. The best method for extracting RNA from both mature and green fruit was based on the SDS/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol buffer, because it rapidly generated a high quality and quantity of material. In general, higher amounts of RNA were obtained from green than mature fruits, probably due to the lower concentration of polysaccharides and water. The purified material can be used as a template in molecular techniques, such as microarrays, RT-PCR, and in the construction of cDNA and RNA-seq data.

  3. Fruit quality parameters of some southern high bush blueberries (Vaccinium xcorymbosum L.) grown in Andalusia (Spain)

    Molina, J. M.; Calvo, D.; Medina, J. J.; Barrau, C.; Romero, E.

    2008-07-01

    Physical and chemical parameters of fresh berries from three southern high bush (ONeal, Sharp blue and Misty) blueberry cultivars grown in Huelva (Southwestern Spain) under two production systems were measured and evaluated. ANOVA applied to data yielded significant differences between production systems for mean fruit size and mean fruit fresh weight (P<0.05), although main effects on physical and chemical characteristics of fruit were due to cultivar. All three cultivars showed significantly different means (P<0.05) for fruit fresh weight, and all chemical characteristics. Stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) for classification and identification of the cultivars based on physico-chemical properties of samples of fruits was performed. The model obtained gave high percentages of correct classification and prediction (81.1% and 78.4%, respectively). The variables with higher discriminating power were fruit titratable acidity, fruit size and fruit sugar content. (Author)

  4. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Castillo-Ruiz, F. J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, F.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Sola-Guirado, R. R.; Agüera-Vega, J.; Castro-Garcia, S.

    2015-07-01

    Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina) in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%). Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system. (Author)

  6. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%. Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system.

  7. FRUIT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BLUEBERRY GENOTYPES

    Irina Ancu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the blueberry breeding program started in 1982 and till now was conducted by dr. Paulina Mladin. For inducing the variability, different genetic resources of American blueberry cultivars (V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium were involved in a high number of crosses. For identify the genotype with the best fruit quality, some biometric quality indicators (average fruit weight, size index and basically chemical compounds of fruits including ascorbic acid, dry matter, ash, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, tanoid substances, pectic substances, protein crude, phosphorus and potassium were determined. Of the eleven chemical studied properties who reflected the fruits quality, for five of them were found no statistically significant differences. The purpose of this paper work was to evaluate fruit quality and to identify the valuable genotypes resulted from Romanian blueberry breeding program.

  8. Optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes

    Defez Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic engineering of parthenocarpy confers to horticultural plants the ability to produce fruits under environmental conditions that curtail fruit productivity and quality. The DefH9-iaaM transgene, whose predicted action is to confer auxin synthesis specifically in the placenta, ovules and derived tissues, has been shown to confer parthenocarpy to several plant species (tobacco, eggplant, tomato and varieties. Results UC82 tomato plants, a typical cultivar used by the processing industry, transgenic for the DefH9-iaaM gene produce parthenocarpic fruits that are malformed. UC82 plants transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM, a DefH9-iaaM derivative gene modified in its 5'ULR by replacing 53 nucleotides immediately upstream of the AUG initiation codon with an 87 nucleotides-long sequence derived from the rolA intron sequence, produce parthenocarpic fruits of high quality. In an in vitro translation system, the iaaM mRNA, modified in its 5'ULR is translated 3–4 times less efficiently than the original transcript. An optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy correlates with a reduced transgene mRNA steady state level in DefH9-RI-iaaM flower buds in comparison to DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Consistent with the known function of the iaaM gene, flower buds transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene contain ten times more IAA than control untransformed flower buds, but five times less than DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Conclusions By using an auxin biosynthesis transgene downregulated at the post-transcriptional level, an optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy has been achieved in a genetic background not suitable for the original transgene. Thus, the method allows the generation of a wider range of expressivity of the desired trait in transgenic plants.

  9. A simple and rapid method for isolation of high quality genomic DNA from fruit trees and conifers using PVP.

    Kim, C S; Lee, C H; Shin, J S; Chung, Y S; Hyung, N I

    1997-03-01

    Because DNA degradation is mediated by secondary plant products such as phenolic terpenoids, the isolation of high quality DNA from plants containing a high content of polyphenolics has been a difficult problem. We demonstrate an easy extraction process by modifying several existing ones. Using this process we have found it possible to isolate DNAs from four fruit trees, grape (Vitis spp.), apple (Malus spp.), pear (Pyrus spp.) and persimmon (Diospyros spp.) and four species of conifer, Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis,Taxus cuspidata and Juniperus chinensis within a few hours. Compared with the existing method, we have isolated high quality intact DNAs (260/280 = 1.8-2.0) routinely yielding 250-500 ng/microl (total 7.5-15 microg DNA from four to five tissue discs).

  10. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation.

    Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F

    2017-01-02

    The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.

  11. High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.

    Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2010-02-01

    Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe.

  12. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Quality Attributes of Fruits

    Ayustaningwarno, Fitriyono; Dekker, Matthijs; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum frying of fruits enables frying at lower temperatures compared to atmospheric frying, thereby improving quality attributes of the fried product, such as oil content, texture, retention of nutrients, and color. Producing high-quality vacuum-fried fruit is a challenge, especially because of the

  13. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  14. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    Popa, C; Dumitras, D C; Patachia, M; Banita, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones. (paper)

  15. Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology.

    Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening is considered to be the main process in fruit development, and all studies had been focused on this process which included physicochemical, biochemical, and molecular analysis. With the development of genomic analysis the strategies to study fruit ripening have been changing and now there are new perspectives and opportunities. The objective of this review is to describe the state of the art in the studies related to fruit ripening with emphasis in molecular studies.

  16. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  17. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  18. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    Bruno Mezzetti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundamental a study of the major quality determinants organized by following a heuristic approache useful to identify the contribution of each factor in defining the quality of the product. The genetic knowledge applied to all available techniques useful for the creation of new genetic variability surely represent the most important starting point for the release of new varieties with increased nutritional quality without limitation in plant productivity. About agronomic practices, new opportunities are offered by the sustainable management of the production factors able to improve the plant-environment interaction, to well address the reduction of inputs needed for the production, and finally to induce specific stress conditions able to promote higher quality at reduced inputs. Much more attention is also addressed to the post-harvest technologies, this because of the increased needs to guarantee the preservation of the high quality obtained in the field until the consumer use. Taking in account such complexity of the horticultural production systems and examples of some major model crops, an outlook of the main determinants and potential valorisation of high quality horticultural products are attempted.

  19. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    Bruno Mezzetti

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundamental a study of the major quality determinants organized by following a heuristic approache useful to identify the contribution of each factor in defining the quality of the product. The genetic knowledge applied to all available techniques useful for the creation of new genetic variability surely represent the most important starting point for the release of new varieties with increased nutritional quality without limitation in plant productivity. About agronomic practices, new opportunities are offered by the sustainable management of the production factors able to improve the plant-environment interaction, to well address the reduction of inputs needed for the production, and finally to induce specific stress conditions able to promote higher quality at reduced inputs. Much more attention is also addressed to the post-harvest technologies, this because of the increased needs to guarantee the preservation of the high quality obtained in the field until the consumer use. Taking in account such complexity of the horticultural production systems and examples of some major model crops, an outlook of the main determinants and potential valorisation of high quality horticultural products are attempted.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PASSION FRUIT C03 PROGENIES UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL LEVELS

    CARLOS LACY SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate different fertilization-management strategies in ten progenies of passion fruit from the third recurrent selection cycle and their effects on yield and fruit-quality traits. For this purpose, we adopted the strategy of correlations analysis, using the phenotypic and path correlations in different environmental conditions characterized by three levels of fertilization. The trial was set up as a randomized-block design in a split-plot arrangement with progenies representing the plots and three levels of potassium-nitrogen fertilization as the sub-plots, with three replicates. Path analysis showed that number of fruits was the variable of highest correlation with fruit diameter at fertilization I. Fruit weight and pulp weight were correlated with each other and with other traits like fruit length and fruit diameter at the three fertilization levels, except for number of fruits, which was correlated with nitrogen and potassium only at fertilization II. Path analysis also revealed that fruit diameter (3.125 showed the highest direct effect on yield at fertilization I. However, fruit weight and number of fruits showed, at fertilization II, the highest direct effects of 2.964 and 1.134 on yield, respectively, and number of fruits had a high phenotypic correlation and direct effect on yield at the three fertilization levels: 0.528 at fertilization I; 2.206 at fertilization II; and 0.928 at fertilization III. The results demonstrate the greater direct effect obtained with fertilization II, suggesting that the level adopted at fertilization II can provide satisfactory gains in yield and is thus recommended for the population in question.

  1. Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

  2. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits.

    Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection Of Irradiated Fruits And Assessment Of Quality Parameters Of The Stone Fruits During Storage

    Abd El-Magide, A.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to detect the irradiated fruits and assess the quality parameters of plums (Prunus domestica L., cv. Pioneer) and peaches (Prunus persica Bausch, cv. Swilling) fruits treated with gamma irradiation. This investigation was carried out during 2010 and 2011 seasons. The fruits were harvested at commercial maturity, irradiated with the doses 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (0±1°C, RH 80%) then evaluated at intervals of 7, 10 and 21 days (the end cold storage period) followed by 5 days of storage under market condition (20±2°C, RH 80%). Electron spin resonance (ESR) was carried out for determination of free radicals by using dried layers of plum and peach kernels. Fruit characters included weight loss %, fruit firmness (kgf), discarded fruits %, soluble solid contents (SSC, ºBrix), total titratable acidity (TA%), respiration rate and sensory evaluation tastes. ESR results proved the possibility of identification of irradiated fruits by using dried stone kernels. The results showed that ESR intensities were sensitive for all applied doses even at low doses of 0.5 or 1.0 kGy which was applied for dis infestations, to extend the shelf-life of fruits or to detect the irradiated stored fresh samples was carried out at the 7th, 10th and 21st days. The linear relationship resulted between ESR intensity and applied doses showed high significant correlation coefficient (R2) for the irradiated samples. However, ESR intensity was decreased gradually during long storage period but can identify clearly the irradiated samples. Irradiation treatment at 0.5 kGy for P ioneer p lums and at 0.5 or 0.75 kGy for S willing p eaches was effective in slowing the rate of losing of fruits weight and decreasing the discarded fruits percentage. Furthermore, it has significant effects on reducing respiration rate, maintaining higher soluble solid contents and decreasing total titratable acidity. Referring to sensory

  4. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  5. Technological quality of irradiated Moroccan citrus fruits

    Moussaid El Idrissi, M.; R'Kiek, C.; Farahat Laaroussi, S.; Zantar; Mouhib, M.; El Guerrouj, D.; Toukour, L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiation at doses of 125, 250, 375, and 500 Gy, commonly used for quarantine treatment, on the quality of Maroc-late orange, the most common export variety of Morocco was investigated. In the first study fruits were irradiated without any previous cold conditioning treatment as practiced by the export trade for quarantine purposes. In the second study fruits obtained from the normal chain after conditioning was irradiated. Storage of irradiated fruits was studied at room temperature and 10 deg. C at 0 deg. C in case of control fruits. The parameters studied included juice yield, total solids, reducing and total sugars, total acids and volatile acids, dry weight and weight loss. The results showed that irradiation did not affect the technological quality of citrus fruits during four weeks storage. The result thus far points to the possibility for the successful application of irradiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to the classical methods, which result in browning of the peel. The browning phenomenon could be controlled by waxing and will be the subject of a future study. (author)

  6. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    Bruno Mezzetti; Cherubino Leonardi

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundame...

  7. Using genomics to improve fruit quality.

    Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    New fruit varieties are needed to satisfy consumers, and the industry is facing new challenges in order to respond to these demands. The emergence of genomic tools is releasing information on polymorphisms that can be utilized to expedite breeding processes in species that are difficult to breed, given the long periods of time required to get new varieties. The present review describes the current stages of the ongoing efforts that are being taken to apply these technologies to obtain varieties with improved fruit quality in species of the family Rosaceae.

  8. Image Processing for Quality Inspection of Mango Fruit

    Ahmad, Usman

    2002-01-01

    Indonesia has many kinds of tropical fruits, including mango, that can be exported besides to suplly the demand on the fruits in the country. To ensure the quality of mango, it is important to do sortation and grading on them, especially those for export, based on the quality requirement. In this case, the use of high technology such as image processing in necesary to put into practise with the aim to increase the consistance of sortation and grading processes as compare to the result of manu...

  9. Understanding the effects of slip pruning on pineapple fruit quality

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple fruit quality is important especially when fruits are exported to international markets. Fruits should meet minimum requirements such as a weight of at least 0.7 kg, a ratio between the crown length and infructescence (fruit without the crown) length ranging from 0.5 to 1.5, and a Brix

  10. Drying of macaw palm fruits and its influence on oil quality

    Gutierres Nelson Silva; Anderson Barbosa Evaristo; José Antonio Saraiva Grossi; Larissa Sousa Campos; Marcela Silva Carvalho; Leonardo Duarte Pimentel

    2017-01-01

    After harvest, macaw palm fruits show high deterioration rates when improperly preserved. A possible cause is the high fruit water content favoring enzymatic and microbiological degradation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of drying on the mesocarp oil quality during storage and to set the drying curve of macaw palm fruits. For that, two experiments were carried out. In the first, the drying curve of macaw palm fruits was determined at 60 °C, and mathematical models were de...

  11. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber ( Ziziphus ...

    Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. The quality of Jujube or Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits after harvest depends on storage conditions used. In this study, different storage temperatures and durations were evaluated to determine the appropriate storage conditions of fresh fruits of Z.

  12. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Microbiological Shelf-Life and Quality of Fruits Pretreated with Ascorbic Acid or SnCl2

    Anthoula A. Argyri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the processing conditions required for the inactivation of Paenibacillus polymyxa and relevant spoilage microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on apricot, peach, and pear pieces in sucrose (22°Brix solution were assessed. Accordingly, the shelf-life was determined by evaluating both the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics (taste, odor, color, and texture during refrigerated storage after HHP treatment. The microbiological shelf-life of apricots, peaches, and pears was prolonged in the HHP-treated products in comparison with the untreated ones. In all HHP-treated packages for apricots, peaches, and pears, all populations were below the detection limit of the method (1 log CFU/g and no growth of microorganisms was observed until the end of storage. Overall, no differences of the L*, a*, or b* value among the untreated and the HHP-treated fruit products were observed up to the time at which the unpressurized product was characterized as spoiled. HHP treatment had no remarkable effect on the firmness of the apricots, peaches, and pears. With regard to the sensory assessment, the panelists marked better scores to HHP-treated products compared to their respective controls, according to taste and total evaluation during storage of fruit products.

  13. Tropical Fruit Pulps: Processing, Product Standardization and Main Control Parameters for Quality Assurance

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.

  14. Influence of electric conductivity management on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality

    Dorai , Martine; Papadopoulos , Athanasios; Gosselin , André

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The osmotic and ionic effects of the electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution and its interactions with climatic factors and cultural practices on tomato yield and fruit quality are reviewed. Adjusting the salinity of the nutrient solution allows growers to modify water availability to the crop and hence improve fruit quality. At some point, however, increases in salinity limit marketable yield. Under high ECs, fruit size is inversely related to EC while t...

  15. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  16. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  17. Liming and postharvest quality of carambola fruits

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of lime application on the postharvest quality of carambola fruit, an experiment with carambola trees cultivated on an acid soil was conducted at the Bebedouro, São Paulo, Brazil. The trees were treated with increasing doses of lime during the pre-planting period. Liming led to a increase in calcium concentration of carambola leaves and fruits. Adequate nutrition of the plant with calcium improved post-harvest fruit quality, permitting a longer (~ 2 days period of storage under ambient conditions.Tendo como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de doses crescentes de calcário ao solo, na qualidade de frutos de caramboleira pela avaliação das alterações físico-químicas dos frutos após a colheita, foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP,Brasil, sobre um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, ácido. Os tratamentos foram doses crescentes de calcário, em pré-plantio, como segue: D0 = zero; D1 = metade da dose; D2 = a dose; D3 = 1,5 vez a dose; e D4 = 2 vezes a dose para elevar V= 70%. No florescimento da caramboleira, avaliou-se o teor de cálcio na folha. Após a colheita dos frutos, determinou-se o teor de cálcio na polpa, o peso dos frutos, diâmetro transversal, comprimento, peso da polpa, % de polpa, ºBrix, acidez titulável e Ratio dos frutos. Diariamente, durante sete dias de armazenamento em condições ambiente, determinou-se a perda de massa fresca e a firmeza dos frutos. A calagem proporcionou um aumentou linear de cálcio nas folhas e nos frutos da caramboleira. A nutrição adequada da planta com cálcio melhorou a qualidade dos frutos pós-colheita, permitindo um período de armazenamento mais longo (~ 2 days, em condições ambiente.

  18. YIELD AND QUALITY OF YELLOW PASSION FRUITS ACCORDING TO ORGANIC FERTILIZATION AND ALTERNATIVE PHYTOSANITARY MANAGEMENT

    Anália Lúcia Vieira Pacheco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing yellow passion fruit is a profitable activity, with a high demand for labor, and it is practiced especially by family-based farmers. However, the production cost is rather high and a significant part of this cost is associated with the expenses related to fertilization and phytosanitary treatments necessary for obtaining satisfactory yields and high commercial quality fruit. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using organic compound in fertilization of plants and alternative products in phytosanitary treatments on the yield and quality of fruits. Yellow passion fruits were submitted to three types of fertilization (mineral, organic and organic-mineral and two types of phytosanitary treatment (‘conventional’ and ‘alternative’. This experiment evaluated fruit yield (kg/plant and fruit quality by using the following evaluations: seedless pulp yield, soluble solids content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C content. The different types of fertilization did not interfere in fruit yield, however, plants under conventional phytosanitary treatment displayed higher yields. The SS content and TA of the fruits were influenced only by fertilization, where plants that received mineral and organic-mineral fertilization produced fruit with higher contents of SS and TA. Pulp yield, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C content were not influenced by any of the evaluated factors. Regarding cultivation of passion fruit, it is possible to substitute some mineral fertilizers for organic fertilizers with no negative effects on the fruit yield or quality. However, the substitution of pesticides for alternative products compromises fruit yield.

  19. Storage temperature affects fruit quality attributes of Ber (Ziziphus ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 2Department of Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Agronomy Research Institute, Box CY 550, Causeway, ... Fruit utilization is affected by quality attributes and shelf life. ... preserve fresh and dried fruits can ensure its availability ... Vitamin C was determined using titrimetric method with 2,6-.

  20. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control. After packaging, fruits were ...

  1. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  2. Effect of boron on fruit quality in pineapple

    Wei, Changbin; Ma, Zhiling; Liu, Yuge; Qiao, Jian; Sun, Guangming

    2018-04-01

    Boron (B) is an important element for the plant. The aim of work was to study the effect of B on fruit quality of pineapple. The experiment was carried out with `Comte de paris' variety in pots. The results demonstrated that B had positive effect on fruit weight, TSS, the ratio of TSS/acidity, Vitamin C, the content of aroma volatile compounds. The B had no effect on the content of the three sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) and titrable acidity. There was a positive effect on fruit quality by application of B fertilizer in production of pineapple.

  3. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  4. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  5. Strobilurin and boscalid in the quality of net melon fruits

    Ana Claudia Macedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, fungicides were used exclusively for disease control; however observations of physiological effects brought a new concept to the use of these products. Strobilurins have positive physiological effects on crop yield, due to the increase of liquid photosynthesis and better hormonal balance. However, boscalid complements the action of these fungicides, applied alternately or together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strobilurins (azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin, boscalid and the mixture of these on the physical-chemical quality of net melon fruits (Cucumis melo var. Reticulatus. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of São Manuel (SP, using the hybrid of Cantaloupe M2-308 net melon, the experimental design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The treatments used were: T1 - control; T2 - azoxystrobin 60g ha-1 of active principle (a.p.; T3 - boscalid 75g ha-1 of the a.p.; T4 - pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 of the a.p.; T5 - boscalid (37,5g ha-1 of the a.p. + pyraclostrobin (25g ha-1 of the a.p. The first application of the treatments was carried out at fourteen days after the transplanting of the seedlings and the others at seven day intervals, totaling eight applications throughout the cycle. Two fruits of each plot were collected, which were identified for analysis in the laboratory. The following characteristics were evaluated: fresh fruit mass; mesocarp thickness, pulp texture, peel trajectory, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and the ratio. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability using the SISVAR program. The fruits of the plants treated with boscalid 75g ha-1 were the ones that showed higher concentration of soluble solids and low titratable acidity, resulting in a better ratio. Despite the lower value, the fruits of the plants treated with pyraclostrobin 50g ha-1 showed a high ratio value, besides presenting higher

  6. REPEATABILITY OF FRUIT QUALITY TRAITS OF CACTUS PEAR

    VALTÂNIA XAVIER NUNES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Repeatability analysis has been used to study traits in several crops, assisting in the definition of the minimum number needed to evaluate genotypes more efficiently and with less time and resource consumption. So far, however, no repeatability studies on cactus pear have been found in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of repeatability for cactus pear fruits traits and the minimum number of evaluations (fruit that can provide acceptable accuracy for the prediction of the true value. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Bahia/Campus Guanambi, with 150 fruits collected from three municipalities in the state of Bahia. The coefficients of repeatability were estimated by the methods of analysis of variance, principal components based on the covariance (PCCV and correlation (PCC matrices, and structural analysis based on the correlation matrix (SA. The analysis of variance showed that, except for fruit diameter, the effect of the production site (municipality was significant for all traits evaluated. The PCCV method was proven the most suitable for studying the repeatability of quality traits of cactus pear fruits. Seven fruits were required to determine, with 90% confidence, the traits length, diameter, fruit firmness, skin thickness, number of seeds, fruit mass, bark mass, pulp mass, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/AT ratio, and pulp yield.

  7. Effects of GA3 applications on seedlesness and fruit quality in black myrtle (Myrtus communis L.

    Esra Alım

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. is one of the medical and aromatic plants naturally grown in Mediterranean basin. Myrtle fruits are mostly consumed as fresh or dried while essential oils obtained from the leaves are widely used in pharmacy, perfumery, cosmetic and even as pesticide. Myrtle fruits have white and black color. Nowadays, there is a big demand for myrtle fruits because of its high antioxidant capacity. But it contains high amount of seeds which reduce marketing and production. Main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of GA3 on seedlesness and quality in black myrtle fruits. At different flowering stages, GA3 dose of 100 ppm were applied to whole of the plants. Some applications significantly reduced seed number in fruits. Two applications of GA3 at great ballon and full bloom stages consecutively decreased seed number from 10.69 (control to 1.98 seed fruit-1 . In addition, with three consecutive application of GA3, seed rate decreased to 4.98% while 15.08% in control. Some GA3 applications resulted in fully seedless fruits up to 10.67%. Conversely, GA3 applications did not change fruit weight and some biochemical parameters of fruits.

  8. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Cory Silas Sheffield

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas, percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Pollination levels, percent fruit set and mature fruit quality were much higher than minimums required for adequate crop production, and all but pollination levels showed weak but significant decreases at increased distance from the established nests, suggesting that even at low numbers these bees may have been making significant contributions to apple production. Fruit were typically of better quality in areas of the orchard adjacent to Osmia nests, having fewer empty carpels and greater symmetry; fruit quality (i.e., symmetry is typically most reduced when two or more adjacent carpels are empty. Empty carpels reduce growth in fruit height rather than diameter, suggesting that symmetry indices using fruit diameter are not sensitive enough to evaluate fruit quality. Evidencing this, fruit without mature seeds observed in this study showed high symmetry based on diameter, but were greatly asymmetric with respect to fruit height. Further discussion on Osmia bees as apple pollinators and on methods of evaluating apple fruit quality with respect to seed distribution within the apple fruit are provided.

  9. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  11. Potential of mathematical modeling in fruit quality | Vazquez-Cruz ...

    A review of mathematical modeling applied to fruit quality showed that these models ranged inresolution from simple yield equations to complex representations of processes as respiration, photosynthesis and assimilation of nutrients. The latter models take into account complex genotype environment interactions to ...

  12. Fulvic acid affects pepper antioxidant activity and fruit quality ...

    Fulvic acid has been considered as a valuable fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fulvic acid (FA) on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of pepper under field conditions. Plants were grown in the Department of Horticulture Farm, Ferdowsi University of ...

  13. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V.; Ares, M. Ines

    2009-01-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  14. Fruit quality of ‘Eva’ e ‘Princesa’ apples grown under nitrogen fertigation in semiarid climate

    João M. de S. Miranda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe production of high quality fruits is a necessary factor for the adaptation and production of plant species with economic viability. Thus, an experiment was conducted from July 2012 to January 2013 to evaluate the fruit quality of the ‘Eva’ and ‘Princesa’ apple cultivars as a function of nitrogen fertilization in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement 2 x 4, corresponding to apple cultivars (Eva and Princesa and nitrogen doses (40; 80; 120 and 160 kg of N ha-1, with four replications and three plants in each plot. The fruit characteristics, such as fruit mass, skin color (luminosity, chromaticity, and colour angle, size (width and length, pulp firmness, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS and the SS/TA ratio, were recorded. Nitrogen doses do not affect fruit quality of studied apple cultivars. The fruit quality attributes are different between apple cultivars: fruit firmness, SS/TA ratio, fruit mass and fruit diameter are superior for Princesa cultivar, while the fruit length for Eva cultivar is superior.

  15. Effects of different plant growth regulators on blueberry fruit quality

    Zhang, X. C.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. N.; Luo, C.; Wang, X.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on blueberry fruit growth, various concentrations of Abscisic acid (ABA), Methyl jasmonate (MJ), Brassinolide (BR), Melatonin (MT) were sprayed on blueberry cv. ‘Brigita’ fruits. The results showed that all the PGRs put into effect on improving the quality of blueberry fruit. Comparing with the control plants no PGR spraying,300 mg/L of MT treatment promoted effectively accumulation of the soluble sugar. ABA 20mg/L treatment in-creased effectively accumulation of anthocyanin, and significantly decreased titratable acid content. The treatment of MJ 10mg/L improved significantly the soluble solid content. The effect of the four PGRs treatments on appearance did not show obvious difference.

  16. Production and Quality Evaluation of Pineapple Fruit Wine

    Qi, Ningli; Ma, Lina; Li, Liuji; Gong, Xiao; Ye, Jianzhi

    2017-12-01

    The fermentation process of pineapple fruit wine was studied. The juice was inoculated with 5% (v/v) active yeast and held at 20 °C for 7 days. Total sugar and pH decreased while the alcoholic strength increased with increasing length of fermentation. The fermented fruit wine contains 2.29 g/L total acid, 10.2 % (v/v) alcohol, 5.4 °Brix soluble solids, pH 3.52. Pineapple wine detected 68 kinds of aroma components, including 34 esters, 13 alcohols. The ester material accounted for 52.25% of the main aroma components. The quality and sensory evaluation results indicated that pineapple fruit wine belongs to a kind of low alcohol wine, so it is easy to be accepted by the public.

  17. PRODUCTION AND POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF IRRIGATED PASSION FRUIT AFTER N-K FERTILIZATION

    DANIEL GONÇALVES DIAS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies with nitrogen and potassium in yellow passion fruit cultivars with high yield potential are scarce in semiarid regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence the N and K doses on productivity and fruit quality of different passion fruit cultivars in irrigated conditions in the northern of Minas Gerais state. The study was installed at experimental farm located in Janaúba-MG. This area was located at 15º 47’ S and 43º 18’ W, 516 m above sea level. The experiment was in completely randomized block with four replications, arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design consisting of four Passion Fruit cultivars (BRS Sol do Cerrado, BRS Ouro Vermelho, BRS Gigante Amarelo, IAC 275 and six N and K doses, which corresponded to 0-0, 50-125, 100-250, 150-375, 200 -500 and 250-625 kg ha-1 yr-1 of N and K2O, respectively. BRS Gigante Amarelo and BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivars showed higher productivity. Total fruit yield and average fruit weight were higher for BRS Sol do Cerrado and IAC 275, BRS Gigante Amarelo and BRS Ouro Vermelho cultivars, respectively. IAC 275 showed the highest pulp yield and along with BRS Sol do Cerrado, showed the higher soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. BRS Sol do Cerrado, BRS Gigante Amarelo and IAC 275 cultivars showed higher pulp productivity, indicating that they are more promising for passion fruit juice industry.

  18. Irrigation and fruit canopy position modify oil quality of olive trees (cv. Frantoio).

    Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Sifola, Maria Isabella; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Fruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In the present study, the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting approximately 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. Fruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position, nor irrigation affected K 232 , K 270 , ΔK and the concentration of lignan in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA [2-(3,4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl (3S,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate] and p-HPEA-EDA (decarboxymethyl ligstroside-aglycone) increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment. Light and water availability are crucial not only for tree productivity, but also they clearly affect olive oil quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Influence of silicon on production and fruit quality of strawberry

    Maria Ligia Souza Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the culture of strawberries is an important activity for small and medium farmers. Among the important factors for culture is fertilization, which can interfere in production and fruit quality. Silicon (Si is one of the little studied in fertilization, which demonstrated some beneficial to several different cultures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Si on production and concentration of anthocyanin and titratable acid in the fruit and reading SPAD (chlorophyll in the leaves of the strawberry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using pots containing 14.5 kg of limed soil, fertilized and three plants (cultivar Milsei Tudla were transplanted to pots. Treatments consisted of application of Si at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 rates, via soil or foliar. During this experiment the reading of SPAD (chlorophyll and the end of the experiment, the shoots was collected, dried, weighed, ground and analyzed by content and accumulation Si. The fruits were weighed and analyzed the concentration of anthocyanin, titratable acidity and Si concentration. The fertilization with Si, via soil or foliar applied, contributed to the increase in fruit production, especially with the application via soil. Applying foliar or soil promoted an increase in the values of titratable acidity and anthocyanins. Rates of Si via soil or foliar applied influenced the reading SPAD (chlorophyll, in the leaves. The Si independent of the form of application promoted improvements in strawberry crop.

  20. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  1. Inheritance of fresh-cut fruit quality attributes in Capsicum

    The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry has expanded rapidly during the past decade, due to freshness, convenience and the high nutrition that fresh-cut produce offers to consumers. The current report evaluates the inheritance of postharvest attributes that contribute to pepper fresh-cut product...

  2. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  3. Effect of irradiation on quality of fresh fruits and vegetables

    Basbayraktar, V.; Gueclue, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in developing and developed countries. However, they carry the potential risk of contamination from soil, irrigation water and/or manure and result in food borne outbreaks. Since they are consumed without any treatments, they are the potential sources of contamination. Irradiation is a physical food preservation method; foods are exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation for sterilization or preservation purposes. Irradiation treatment has been shown to effectively enhance the microbial quality and increase the shelf-life by 3-5 times. Also, this treatment reduces the post harvest losses and controls the insects.

  4. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution.

    Yanping Wang

    Full Text Available Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris, semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus. Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED, Cla005404 (NCED, Cla020673 (CYP707A, Cla006655 (UGT and Cla020180 (SnRK2, varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A and one single SNP (-701, G/A in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2 exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into

  5. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution.

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus), and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus). Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED), Cla005404 (NCED), Cla020673 (CYP707A), Cla006655 (UGT) and Cla020180 (SnRK2), varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T) in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A) and one single SNP (-701, G/A) in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2) exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into the

  6. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality.

    Ramsay, Samantha A; Shriver, Lenka H; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-03-01

    Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children ( n  = 2595) in 2005-2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t -tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories ( P  ≤ 0.018). Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice ( P  ≤ 0.038). Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score ( P  ≤ 0.027). Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables ( P  ≤ 0.017), but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.

  7. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality

    Samantha A. Ramsay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595 in 2005–2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t-tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories (P ≤ 0.018. Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice (P ≤ 0.038. Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score (P ≤ 0.027. Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables (P ≤ 0.017, but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.

  8. Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia ...

    Cagaita fruits are subject to seasonality and perishability. This work aims to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, texture, color and physical structure of cagaita fruits coated with different chitosan concentrations. The fruits were divided as follows: T0 (uncoated fruits), ...

  9. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit.

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Zheng, Yonghua

    2018-01-15

    The blueberry fruit has a light-blue appearance because its blue-black skin is covered with a waxy bloom. This layer is easily damaged or removed during fruit harvesting and postharvest handling. We investigated the effects of wax removal on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit and their possible mechanisms. The removal of natural wax on the fruit was found to accelerate the postharvest water loss and decay, reduce the sensory and nutritional qualities, and shorten the shelf-life. Wax removal decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants, and accelerated accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation, especially at the later period of storage. Moreover, the organellar membrane structure was disrupted in fruit with wax removed. These results indicate that cuticular wax plays an important role in maintaining the postharvest quality and delaying fruit senescence. The results should improve our understanding for better preservation of postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. QUALITY CHARACTERISTIS OF FRUITS AND OILS OF PALMS NATIVE TO THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    MARY DE FÁTIMA GUEDES DOS SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Native palm trees are highly important plant resources for the Amazon region; however, despite the great diversity and utilities, few species have been studied, requiring more comprehensive studies on quality and composition for species not yet explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of fruits and oils of palm trees from the Brazilian Amazon and to identify potential uses. Fruits from five palm trees (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã were evaluated for total mass, length, diameter, and yield, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, pH, SS/TA ratio, total soluble sugar (TSS, reducing sugar (RS, total pectin (TP soluble pectin (SP, and starch. The oils from the edible portion of fruits were evaluated for acidity and peroxide indexes, oxidative stability, unsaponifiable matter, polar compounds and fatty acids composition analyzed by gas chromatography. Pupunha showed the highest yield of the edible portion (76.38% and starch content (24.89%. The mesocarp of palm fruits showed SS values between 7.5 and 14.3 ºBrix, low acidity (0.30%, pH (4.2 to 6.3, higher content of total sugars in tucuma and reducing sugars in bacaba and 0.81% for total pectin. The content of lipids was high, ranging from 17.0% for pupunha to 38.3% for bacaba in dry basis. In buriti, tucuma, and bacaba oils, high content of unsaturated fatty acids was found, with more than 83, 75, and 61%, respectively. Therefore, not only fruits but also oils showed excellent quality and great nutritional potential.

  11. Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic ...

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... Guava fruit production increases from the first to the second harvest. Fruit quality for ... tenance is one of the essential factors for a sustainable production .... titratable acidity (SS/TA ratio) was calculated; and vii) the fruit yield.

  12. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  13. Effect of mulching systems on fruit quality and phytochemical composition of newly developed strawberry lines

    Li Fan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three mulching systems on total yield, average yield per plant, average fruit weight, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA, firmness and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC of two newly developed lines (‘Orléans’ and ‘Saint Pierre’, one advanced selection (‘SJ8976-1’ and two commonly used cultivars (‘Jewel’ and ‘Kent’ were evaluated. The studied mulching systems were: plastic mulch (PM, mulch with row cover (PMRC, and matted-row system (MRS. Results showed that plastic mulch with row cover (PMRC generally increased yield per plant, average fruit weight, SSC, firmness and ORAC, but differences varied within harvest times. No significant differences in total yield and TA were observed under the selected mulching systems. Both PMRC and PM accelerated the harvest periods compared to MRS. ‘Kent’ and ‘Jewel’ had the highest total yield while ‘SJ8976-1’ and ‘St-Pierre’ had the highest average fruit weight. The highest SSC, TA and ORAC were found in ‘Jewel’. There was no interaction between the mulching systems and genotypes, indicating that the effect of production system is independent of cultivars. PMRC seems to be a better growing system, improving fruit quality and increasing the nutritional value of all genotypes. By allowing off-season fruit production in cool climates, PMRC can be an alternative method to the costly high tunnels.

  14. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplas...

  15. Effect of thinning on flower and fruit and of edible coatings on postharvest quality of jaboticaba fruit stored at low temperature

    Talita Pimenta do Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticaba is a Brazilian fruit, native to the Atlantic forest, which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In this work we describe the effect of the thinning of "flower", "fruit" and "flower & fruit" compared to non-thinned fruit (control and of edible coatings with respect on nutritional composition, overall acceptability and shelf-life of jaboticaba ‘Sabara’, grown in an irrigated commercial orchard. "Flower and fruit" thinning allows fruit with higher quality as diameter, volume and mass. Non-thinned fruit shows higher yield, however fruit have lower quality. As a result of the improving quality at harvest, the shelf life was twice (~8 days for thinned fruit. The lack of change in concentration of soluble sugar and absence of formation of volatile compounds during storage indicate that there was no natural fermentation of the jaboticaba pulp after harvest. Treatments with wax and calcium did not improve the jaboticaba shelf life.

  16. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of the acoustic impulse-response of apples as a measure of fruit quality

    Landahl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic impulse-response technique is a means to evaluate apple quality. In this work the effect of physiological changes in the fruit on the physical measurements of fruit quality are examined. In the acoustic impulse-response technique the fruit is mechanically excited by an impact force and starts to vibrate at its own natural frequency. The resulting sound waves are then recorded and analysed. It is a fast method and yields a produce-averaged value: the stiffness factor. Experimen...

  18. Gamma ray induced fruit quality variations in banana variety Nendran (Musa Paradasiaca L.)

    Radha Devi, D.S.; Nayer, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma ray induced fruit quality variation was envisaged to analyse the direct effect of Co 60 gamma rays in banana variety Nendran. Fruit quality analysis showed that the total soluble solids and acidity decreased and total sugar and sugar acid ratio increased with increase in dose of gamma ray exposures. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  19. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a) whether differences in pineapple fruit quality

  20. Study on Handing Process and Quality Degradation of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The study employs exploratory and descriptive design, with quantitative approach and purposive sampling using self-administrated questionnaires, were obtained from 30 smallholder respondents from the Southern Region, Peninsular Malaysia. The study reveals that there was a convincing relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The main handling process factors influencing quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) were harvesting activity and handling at the plantation area. As a result, it can be deduced that the handling process factors variable explains 82.80% of the variance that reflects the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The overall findings reveal that the handling process factors do play a significant role in the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB).

  1. Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil.

    Pestana, Maribela; Beja, Pedro; Correia, Pedro José; de Varennes, Amarilis; Faria, Eugénio Araújo

    2005-06-01

    To determine if flower nutrient composition can be used to predict fruit quality, a field experiment was conducted over three seasons (1996-1999) in a commercial orange orchard (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. 'Valencia Late', budded on Troyer citrange rootstock) established on a calcareous soil in southern Portugal. Flowers were collected from 20 trees during full bloom in April and their nutrient composition determined, and fruits were harvested the following March and their quality evaluated. Patterns of covariation in flower nutrient concentrations and in fruit quality variables were evaluated by principal component analysis. Regression models relating fruit quality variables to flower nutrient composition were developed by stepwise selection procedures. The predictive power of the regression models was evaluated with an independent data set. Nutrient composition of flowers at full bloom could be used to predict the fruit quality variables fresh fruit mass and maturation index in the following year. Magnesium, Ca and Zn concentrations measured in flowers were related to fruit fresh mass estimations and N, P, Mg and Fe concentrations were related to fruit maturation index. We also established reference values for the nutrient composition of flowers based on measurements made in trees that produced large (> 76 mm in diameter) fruit.

  2. Radiation temperature of chosen fruit and seed as a parameter of their quality evaluation (model investigation)

    Baranowski, P.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation on application of passive and active thermography for evaluation of seed and fruit quality. A hypothesis was formulated, that internal defects and physiological disorders of fruit as well as biochemical processes which cause diminishing of seed viability lead to changes of thermal properties within these objects. It was stated that radiation temperature of seed and fruit surface is a good parameter of evaluation of their quality. During thermal stimulation, hetero-geneities of thermal properties lead to the occurrence of thermal contrasts on the surface of these materials which can be successfully registered with the use of thermographic device. A method was elaborated of early detection of apple bruises with the use of pulsed phase thermography (PPT). On the base of model investigations of heat transfer in fruit, optimal parameters of thermographic registration were chosen. Both model and experimental studies revealed that heat pulse of 1000 W, ranging from one to three seconds, caused the increase of fruit surface temperature of only 3-4°C, however due to the high heat capacity of apple skin its internal temperature did not increase above 1°C. The use of Fourier transformation, the analysis of ampligrams and phasegrams of fruit heat response as well as thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR) enabled to eliminate from the thermographic images the contrasts resulting from non-uniform heating of the object and to distinguish defects occurring at different depths. The studies were performed on detection of flesh watercore in apples through the analysis of radiation temperature change on the surface of fruit during short-time heating. It was stated that the derivative of apple temperature in time per apple mass is a good parameter to evaluate the differences in thermal properties between apples with and without watercore affected tissues. The temperature gradient of 18.5°C between the fruit surface and the ambient

  3. Water stress at the end of the pomegranate fruit ripening permits earlier harvesting and improve fruit quality

    Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Calín-Sánchez,; Griñán, I.; Rodríguez, P.; Cruz, Zulma N; Girón, I.F.; Corell, M.; Martínez-Font, R.; Moriana, A.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Torrecillas, A.; Hernández, F.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a drought tolerant crop, which thrives in the face of scarce water resources, this fact underlines the importance of determining the optimum harvest time to improve the quality of pomegranate fruits. This research was focused on the crop responses to drought

  4. Morphometry, floral resources and efficiency of natural and artificial pollination in fruit quality in cultivars of sour passion fruit

    Laís Alves Lage

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to provide information on the biology and floral resources, stigmatic receptivity and viability of pollen grains during rainy season and dry season, and to evaluate the efficiency of natural and artificial pollination on quality of fruits of eight passion fruit cultivars sourced in Tangará da Serra - MT. Five commercial cultivars and three populations of the genetic improvement program of the sour passion fruit from the Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso were evaluated. The climatic conditions of the rainy season favored the greater development of the floral pieces. The sugar concentration in the nectar presented higher averages in the rainy season, in all cultivars, except for FB 200. The climatic conditions of the dry season favored the replacement of the nectar volume. All cultivars evaluated presented pollen viability and stigmatic receptivity higher than 79% and 90%, respectively. The characteristics of fruit mass and percentage of pulp were better in artificial pollination, and the fruits obtained from natural and artificial pollination in all cultivars evaluated presented physical and chemical characteristics that are within the quality standards desired in the commercialization.

  5. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction.

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a) whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b) whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown) and internal quality attributes [total soluble solids (TSS), pH, translucent flesh]. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The associations between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots) explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight, infructescence weight and fruit height in cv. Sugarloaf. Possibilities for reducing the variation in fruit quality by precise cultural practices are discussed.

  6. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction

    V. Nicodeme eFassinou Hotegni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown and internal quality attributes (total soluble solids, pH, translucent flesh. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The association between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots, explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight, infructescence weight and fruit height in cv. Sugarloaf. Possibilities for reducing the variation in fruit quality by precise cultural practices are discussed.

  7. Variations in fresh fruit and vegetable quality by store type, urban-rural setting and neighbourhood deprivation in Scotland.

    Cummins, Steven; Smith, Dianna M; Taylor, Mathew; Dawson, John; Marshall, David; Sparks, Leigh; Anderson, Annie S

    2009-11-01

    Neighbourhood differences in access to fresh fruit and vegetables may explain social inequalities in diet. Investigations have focused on variations in cost and availability as barriers to the purchase and consumption of fresh produce; investigations of quality have been neglected. Here we investigate whether produce quality systematically varies by food store type, rural-urban location and neighbourhood deprivation in a selection of communities across Scotland. Cross-sectional survey of twelve fresh fruit and vegetable items in 288 food stores in ten communities across Scotland. Communities were selected to reflect a range of urban-rural settings and a food retail census was conducted in each location. The quality of twelve fruit and vegetable items within each food store was evaluated. Data from the Scottish Executive were used to characterise each small area by deprivation and urban-rural classification. Scotland. Quality of fruit and vegetables within the surveyed stores was high. Medium-sized stores, stores in small town and rural areas, and stores in more affluent areas tended to have the highest-quality fresh fruit and vegetables. Stores where food is secondary, stores in urban settings and stores in more deprived areas tended have the lowest-quality fresh produce. Although differences in quality were not always statistically significant, patterns were consistent for the majority of fruit and vegetable items. The study provides evidence that variations in food quality may plausibly be a micro-environmental mediating variable in food purchase and consumption and help partially explain neighbourhood differences in food consumption patterns.

  8. Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi

    Md. Mokter Hossain

    2018-04-01

    The investigation was carried out at Germplasm Centre (BAU-GPC, Bangladesh Agricultural University, during March to July 2016 in order to investigate the effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on post-harvest quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. Four different bagging materials viz. brown paper bag, white paper bag, white polythene bag, black polythene bag included for the study and uncovered fruits were used as control treatment. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit bagging treatments showed significant effects on different parameters studied. It was observed that fruit size, fruit weight, vitamin C concentration, and moisture content increased due to fruit bagging. Fruits were gained maximum in size (6.59 cm length, 5.86 cm diameter and weight (164.26 g under white paper bag followed by white polythene bag (131.3g. The skin color of fruits was very attractive in case of white paper bag than that of other treatments. Total soluble solid concentration of the fruit was found maximum (12.33% Brix under brown paper bag while maximum vitamin C concentration (162.14 mg 100 g-1 was recorded under white paper bag. Uncovered fruits showed maximum total sugar, non-reducing sugar, reducing sugar concentrations (10.13%, 6.05%, 4.08%, respectively.The results revealed that fruit bagging in general, improved the growth and quality of guava fruits as compared to control. Among the various fruit covering materials, white paper bag was found to be the best for overall improvement of physical and chemical quality of guava cv. Swarupkathi. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(1.000: 363-371

  9. Non-Conventional Tools to Preserve and Prolong the Quality of Minimally-Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    Maria Rosaria Corbo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is a focus on some non-conventional tools to preserve the microbiological and physico-chemical quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. The quality of fresh-cut foods is the result of a complex equilibrium involving surface microbiota, storage temperature, gas in the headspace and the use of antimicrobials. This paper proposes a short overview of some non-conventional approaches able to preserve the quality of this kind of product, with a special focus on some new ways, as follows: (1 use of edible or antimicrobial-containing coatings (e.g., chitosan-based coatings on fruits or vegetables; (2 alternative modified atmospheres (e.g., high O2-modified atmosphere packaging (MAP or the use of essential oils in the headspace; (3 conditioning solutions with antimicrobials or natural compounds for fruit salad; and (4 biopreservation and use of a probiotic coating.

  10. Fruit and vegetable intake and their pesticide residues in relation to semen quality among men from a fertility clinic.

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J; Williams, P L; Petrozza, J C; Tanrikut, C; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2015-06-01

    Is consumption of fruits and vegetables with high levels of pesticide residues associated with lower semen quality? Consumption of fruits and vegetables with high levels of pesticide residues was associated with a lower total sperm count and a lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm among men presenting to a fertility clinic. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides is associated with lower semen quality. Whether the same is true for exposure through diet is unknown. Men enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study, an ongoing prospective cohort at an academic medical fertility center. Male partners (n = 155) in subfertile couples provided 338 semen samples during 2007-2012. Semen samples were collected over an 18-month period following diet assessment. Sperm concentration and motility were evaluated by computer-aided semen analysis (CASA). Fruits and vegetables were categorized as containing high or low-to-moderate pesticide residues based on data from the annual United States Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the association of fruit and vegetable intake with sperm parameters accounting for within-person correlations across repeat samples while adjusting for potential confounders. Total fruit and vegetable intake was unrelated to semen quality parameters. High pesticide residue fruit and vegetable intake, however, was associated with poorer semen quality. On average, men in highest quartile of high pesticide residue fruit and vegetable intake (≥1.5 servings/day) had 49% (95% confidence interval (CI): 31%, 63%) lower total sperm count and 32% (95% CI: 7%, 58%) lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (vegetable intake was associated with a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.04). Surveillance data, rather than individual pesticide assessment, was used to assess the pesticide residue

  11. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  12. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strength......Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA...... strengthening was exempli ed in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5( pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of p...

  13. USE OF PLANT EXTRACTS AS REGULATORS OF QUALITY OF MOMORDIKA FRUIT (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L.

    O. A. Gribova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica (Momordica charantia L. is unconventional crop of the Cucurbitaceae family for the central regions of the Russian. Fruits of this crop have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect. The influence of promising growth regulators from plants on the qualitative composition of fruits momordika has been studied. The positive effect of leaf extract yakon as phytoregulator on productivity increasing and fruit quality of momordika is shown.

  14. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M. S.; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  15. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  16. Yield and fruit quality traits of atemoya hybrids grown in Puerto Rico

    As consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products the demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the past 15 years. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) hybrids. Six a...

  17. Ionizing radiation treatment to improve postharvest life and maintain quality of fresh guava fruit

    Singh, S.P.; Pal, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the potential of ionizing radiation for improving physiological responses, quality, and storage time of fresh guava fruit. Ionizing radiation treatment suppressed the respiration and ethylene production rates and thus retarded the process of fruit ripening during storage. Irradiation treatment also retarded the physical and biochemical changes associated with ripening such as firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and vitamin C during storage, but for doses higher than 0.25 kGy the vitamin C content decreased. The positive effects of ionizing radiation treatment on delayed fruit ripening and other quality attributes diminished during 22 days of storage at 10 deg. C. Thus, a combination of ionizing radiation with low-temperature storage (10 deg. C) did not have much synergistic effect on storage life and quality of guava fruit. In conclusion, ionizing radiation treatment of guava fruit with 0.25 kGy dose increased the postharvest life by 3-4 days, maintained fruit quality, and reduced the decay incidence. The optimal dose (0.25 kGy) for postharvest life extension of guava fruit may be exploited to provide phytosanitary security against many insect pests including fruit flies

  18. Postharvest quality of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) after x-ray irradiation quarantine treatment

    The quality of three dragon fruit clones (Hylocereus sp.) was determined following x-ray irradiation for disinfestation of quarantine pests. Fruit were treated with irradiation doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, or 800 Gy and stored for 12 days at 10 °C. Irradiation did not affect soluble solids content, ti...

  19. Oil palm fruit fibre promotes the yield and quality of Lentinus ...

    Agricultural production and the agro-food industry furnish large volumes of solid wastes, which when unutilized could lead to environmental pollution. ... oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) significantly influenced crop cycle time, yield, nutritional properties and market quality of the mushroom.

  20. A 3D digitizing tool to determine fruit quality distribution within the canopy

    Dallabetta, N.; Costa, F.; Giordan, M.; Guerra, C.A.; Pasqualini, J.; Wehrens, R.; Costa, G.

    2017-01-01

    The "Slender Spindle", one of the most used training systems for apple, was compared with the "Bi-axis", an innovative training system, to determine their effect on fruit quality and fruit distribution within the canopy on 'Gala' cultivar. Two levels of crop loads were also introduced to observe

  1. Selective pruning in pineapple plants as means to reduce heterogeneity in fruit quality

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.; Agbossou, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality (size and taste) is a major problem in pineapple production chains. The possibilities were investigated of reducing the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field by pruning slips on selected plants, in order to promote the fruit growth on these plants. Slips are side

  2. Nutritional quality of raw and processed unripe Carica papaya fruit ...

    the unripe or green fruit is added into fresh salads (Boshra .... Copper showed the least concentration being undetectable in the raw and dried-cooked samples ..... meat. COMPETING INTERESTS. The authors declare that there is no conflict of ...

  3. Potential link between fruit yield, quality parameters and phytohormonal changes in preharvest UV-C treated strawberry.

    Xu, Yanqun; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Luo, Zisheng; Roussel, Dominique; Rolland, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Preharvest ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment of strawberry is a very new approach, and little information is available on the effect of this treatment on plant growth regulators. In this study, the effect of preharvest UV-C irradiations at three different doses on strawberry yield, fruit quality parameters and endogenous phytohormones was investigated simultaneously. The overall marketable yield of strawberry was not affected by the preharvest UV-C treatments, although more aborted and misshapen fruits were found in UV-C treated groups than in the untreated control. The fruits in the high dose group were firmer and had approximately 20% higher sucrose content and 15% higher ascorbic acid content than the control, while fruits from the middle and low dose groups showed no significant changes in these parameters. The lower abscisic acid (ABA) content found in the fruits in the high UV-C group may be associated with those quality changes. The citric acid content decreased only in the low dose group (reduction of 5.8%), with a concomitant 37% reduction in jasmonic acid (JA) content, compared to the control. The antioxidant status of fruits that received preharvest UV-C treatment was considered enhanced based on their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In terms of aroma, three volatile alcohols differed significantly among the various treatments with obvious activation of alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) activity. The observed synchronous influence on physiological indexes and related phytohormones suggests that preharvest UV-C might affect fruit quality via the action of plant hormones. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  5. Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality of Cold Stored Ber Fruit

    Sukhjit K. JAWANDHA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits are perishable in nature and have poor shelf- life. To extend the storage life of ber fruits different post-harvest treatments, like CaCl2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, gibberellic acid (GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (0.1% were given to fruits and their effect was studied on the storage life and quality of Umran ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits under cold storage conditions. Fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested, from healthy plants, and subjected to post harvest dip of different chemicals, before packing in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5C and 85-90% RH They have been evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage for physiological loss in weight (PLW, firmness, pectin methyl esterase (PME activity and palatability rating. The PLW increased and fruit firmness decreased during storage at each treatment. The sensory rating increased up to 10 days at all treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased during storage. The increase rate in PME activity was faster, up to 10 days, in untreated fruits, while treated fruits showed slower rise in PME activity, up to 20 days with a decline afterwards. It can be concluded that ber fruits can be stored up to 20 days by post-harvest treatment using GA3 at 60 ppm, with acceptable quality.

  6. Impact of humic substances and nitrogen fertilising on the fruit quality and yield of custard apple

    Marcelo dos Santos Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The custard apple (Annona squamosa L., also known as the sugar apple, is a fruit species native to Brazil that has been poorly studied, especially in relation to the effect of humic substances on its fruit quality and yield. An experiment was conducted from December 2010 to November 2011 to evaluate the fruit quality and yield of the custard apple as a function of nitrogen fertilising and the use of humic substances. The experimental design consisted of randomised blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (4 x 2, using four nitrogen doses (0, 100, 175 and 250 g of N plant-1 and two humic substance applications (with and without humic substances, with four replications. The fruit yield and fruit characteristics, such as fruit mass, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, pulp pH and SS/TA ratio, were recorded. The humic substances and the nitrogen levels significantly affected the soluble solids, titratable acidity and SS/TA ratio, while the pH pulp was only influenced by the humic substances. The humic substances promoted a quantitative increase in the fruit yield of 0.63 ton ha-1. The fruit quality and yield of the custard apple depend on the nitrogen fertiliser and the interaction of the humic substances. Nitrogen fertilising of 100 g per plant, associated with humic substances, could be recommended for use in the production of custard apples.

  7. High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit

    Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted

  8. Pre-harvest fruit drop, bunch weight and fruit quality of 'Rothana' and ...

    ajl2

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... Pre-harvest fruit drop is a serious problem of some date palm cultivars. During 2010 ... important subsistence crop in most of the hot arid regions. (Botes and .... diluted 10-fold with distilled water) and allowed to stand for 5 min before the ... made by F-test and the least significant differences (LSD) at P = 5%.

  9. Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation

    De La Cruz Torres, Eulogio; Garcia Andrade, Juan M.; Ibannez Palacios, Jorge; Mijares Oviedo, Pedro

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits

  10. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to 60Co gamma radiation

    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J.; Mijares O, P.; Garcia A, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO 2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  11. Influence of Inter stock Grafting as a Dwarfing Component on Peach Trees Development and Fruit Quality

    Hossain, S.; Nasrulhaq, A.; Mizutani, F.

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the interstock grafting effect as a dwarfing component on Peach tree development and fruit quality. The study was made at the Ehime University Experimental farm located in south-eastern Japan during the period 2001-2005. The results of the field experiment indicated that pruned branches weight and flowers number were lower in interstock than in control trees. However, percent fruit set was a little higher in intersrock treated than in control trees. Fruit yield and fruit weight were lower in interstock treated than control trees. Soluble solids content and maturity index were higher in interstock treated trees than control, with an increasing trend in the period from 2001 to 2005, while titratable acidity showed that the livestock grafting is a useful dwarfing component for controlling the size of peach trees and improvement of fruit quality. (author)

  12. Potassium permanganate effects on the quality and post-harvest conservation of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (L. P.Royen fruits under modified atmosphere

    Wallace Edelky de Souza Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota (L. P. Royen is a climacteric fruit, very perishable, with high metabolic activity, rapid ripening and reduced storage time at room temperature, thus making difficult its commercialization. However, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 on the quality and post-harvest conservation of sapodilla fruit under modified atmosphere at room temperature. The sapodilla fruits were harvested when they reached physiological maturity and then accommodated in Styrofoam trays with PVC film coating. Within each package, KMnO4 were placed at different concentrations (0, 0.250, 0.375, and 0.500 g of KMnO4 per kg of fruit, respectively, impregnated in vermiculite. In addition, were kept in storage at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C and 54 ± 5% RU for fifteen days, with fruit quality analysis every five days. The potassium permanganate doses influenced the sapodilla fruit quality, wherein the concentration of 0.375 g of KMnO4 per kg of fruit was the most efficient, retarding the loss of firmness and vitamin C degradation of sapodilla fruits throughout five days storage under modified atmosphere at room temperature. The sapodilla fruit postharvest life stored under modified atmosphere with potassium permanganate 25 ± 1 °C and 54 ± 5% RU, is ten days.

  13. Microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract by spray drying and its effect on bread quality.

    Ezhilarasi, Perumal Natarajan; Indrani, Dasappa; Jena, Bhabani Sankar; Anandharamakrishnan, Chinnaswamy

    2014-04-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the major acid present in the fruit rinds of certain species of Garcinia. HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Hence, Garcinia cowa fruit extract was microencapsulated using three different wall materials such as whey protein isolate (WPI), maltodextrin (MD) and a combination of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin (WPI + MD) by spray drying. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention. Maltodextrin (MD) encapsulates had higher free (86%) and net HCA (90%) recovery. Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content. The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Yield, fruit quality, contents and sensory quality of old apple varieties trained as slender spindle under organic and integrated cultivation conditions

    Wurm, Lothar; Gössinger, Manfred; Wendelin, Silvia; Martina, Kieler; Thomas, Rühmer; Walter, Brandes; Kathrin, Sigl

    2015-04-01

    Between 2006 and 2013 the old apple varieties 'Ananas Reinette', 'llzer Rosenapfel', 'Kronprinz Rudolf', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Ribston Pepping', 'Steirische Schafnase', 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Florianer Rosmarin' (from 2009 on also 'Roter Berlepsch', 'Cox Orange' and 'Kanada Reinette') were tested for their fresh market suitability at the experimental orchard Haschhof of the HBLA and BA für Wein- und Obstbau Klosterneuburg under organic and integrated cultivation (IP) conditions trained as slender spindle. In 2010 the effect of an organic and a combined "integrated-organic summer" plant protection strategie on fruit quality and pesticide residues was tested in addition. No pesticide residues were detected in fruits of both plant protection strategies, expect on fruits of "integrated-organic summer" Schafnase in 2010. At harvest 2010 the bio-variant showed a significantly higher percentage of fruits with skin defects. The losses due to parasitic diseases during storage were strongly depending on the cultivar, but hardly affected by the plant protection strategy in this year. Looking at the entire experimental period, most of the varieties in the organic plot showed a comparable fruiting performance as those in the IP plot. The best fruiting performances were found with 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Kronprinz Rudolf', while the cumulative yield of 'Florianer Rosmarin', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel' remained below average. With respect to external fruit quality and storability 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Kronprinz Rudolf' and 'Ilzer Rosenapfel' showed comparatively good results. With 'Ananas Reinette' the significantly lowest total phenolics contents were determined. 'Kanada Reinette', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Ananas Reinette' showed a high acidity. High contents of soluble solids were found with 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter

  15. Appearance and characterization of fruit image textures for quality sorting using wavelet transform and genetic algorithms.

    Khoje, Suchitra

    2018-02-01

    Images of four qualities of mangoes and guavas are evaluated for color and textural features to characterize and classify them, and to model the fruit appearance grading. The paper discusses three approaches to identify most discriminating texture features of both the fruits. In the first approach, fruit's color and texture features are selected using Mahalanobis distance. A total of 20 color features and 40 textural features are extracted for analysis. Using Mahalanobis distance and feature intercorrelation analyses, one best color feature (mean of a* [L*a*b* color space]) and two textural features (energy a*, contrast of H*) are selected as features for Guava while two best color features (R std, H std) and one textural features (energy b*) are selected as features for mangoes with the highest discriminate power. The second approach studies some common wavelet families for searching the best classification model for fruit quality grading. The wavelet features extracted from five basic mother wavelets (db, bior, rbior, Coif, Sym) are explored to characterize fruits texture appearance. In third approach, genetic algorithm is used to select only those color and wavelet texture features that are relevant to the separation of the class, from a large universe of features. The study shows that image color and texture features which were identified using a genetic algorithm can distinguish between various qualities classes of fruits. The experimental results showed that support vector machine classifier is elected for Guava grading with an accuracy of 97.61% and artificial neural network is elected from Mango grading with an accuracy of 95.65%. The proposed method is nondestructive fruit quality assessment method. The experimental results has proven that Genetic algorithm along with wavelet textures feature has potential to discriminate fruit quality. Finally, it can be concluded that discussed method is an accurate, reliable, and objective tool to determine fruit

  16. Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil

    Pestana, M.; Beja, P.; Correia, P. J.; Varennes, Amarilis de; Faria, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a commercial orange orchard (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. cv. ‘Valencia late’ grafted on Citrange Troyer) established on a calcareous soil in the south of Portugal, to investigate if flower analysis could be used to predict fruit quality. In April 1996, during full bloom, flowers were collected from 20 trees. In March 1997 the fruits were harvested and their quality evaluated. This procedure was repeated every year during three years. Principal Compon...

  17. Effect of rootstocks on fruit quality and aroma characteristics of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus

    Onur Karaağaç

    2018-06-01

    non-grafted watermelon (4.08. However, they were determined that the majority of combinations (9 have slightly fibrous flesh structure. The use of grafted watermelon was found to be effective on the amount of volatile aroma compounds. M6 / C combination having high (Z,Z-3,6-nonadien-1-ol (watermelon smell compound and low (Z-6-nonen-1-ol (squash smell compound values was come into prominence. According to evaluated all fruit quality and aroma results; M6 and M2 genotypes were selected as the suitable local rootstock candidates for grafted watermelon production

  18. Preliminary Study on the Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Fruit Quality

    Elbashir, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    White fleshed guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits were exposed to three doses of gamma irradiation (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy) to disinfest the fruit fly infestation. Irradiated fruits were tested for post-harvest qualities. Weight loss increased during the ripening period but the rate was greater in the control fruits. The irradiated fruits showed a gradual decrease in tissue firmness. TSS showed fluctuations, however, those treated with 0.1kGy showed highest TSS on the ninth day compared to control and those treated with lower doses. After the seventh day, most irradiated fruits reached peak titratable acidity values. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid content in the control fruits which was more pronounced than in those irradiated with 0.025 and 0.05kGy, however, no decrease in its content was noticed in fruits irradiated with 0.10kGy in the ninth day compared to the first day which suggests a probable preservation of ascorbic acid by gamma irradiation. No microbial infections or insect infestations were observed on the fruits treated with 0.1kGy.

  19. Quality of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus as influenced by storage temperature and packaging

    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus is an exotic non-climacteric fruit that reaches its best eating quality when harvested ripe, decreasing thereafter during storage. Our objectives were to determine the best combination of storage temperature and use of perforated plastic bags to maintain the postharvest quality of the fruit. Fruits were stored at 5, 7, or 10 ºC with and without a perforated plastic bag for 20 days, followed by five days at 20 ºC without the bag for shelf-life determination. Storage at 5 ºC, followed by 7 ºC maintained better visual appearance of the pitaya fruit after 20 days, by reducing decay incidence and severity, and maintaining greener bracts compared with fruit stored at 10 ºC. Pitaya fruit stored at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag showed no decay after storage and shelf-life. In general, higher temperatures and the use of a perforated plastic bag increased decay incidence, as well as decay severity after storage and shelf-life conditions. At all temperatures, fruit stored in a perforated plastic bag had lower weight loss during storage. After shelf-life, weight loss was highest in fruit stored at higher temperatures. Storage of fruits at 5 ºC resulted in minor chilling injury symptoms in the outer flesh tissue, close to the peel. Storage at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag was the best condition to maintain the postharvest quality of the pitaya fruit.

  20. The effect of fruit maturity on the physiological quality and conservation of Jatropha curcas seeds

    Laércio Junio da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fruit maturation stage on the physiological quality of J. curcas seeds during storage. Thus, seeds were extracted from fruits harvested at different maturity stages based on external color, i.e., yellow, yellow-brown and brown (dry fruits. After natural drying, the seeds were packed in Kraft paper bag and stored for 18 months at laboratory environment. Initially and every three months, the seeds were evaluated for moisture content, germination, first count of germination, accelerated aging, cold test, electrical conductivity and emergence. There was reduction in seed physiological quality, with decrease in germination and vigor, especially after nine months of storage. The seeds extracted from yellow and yellow-brown fruits are the most vigorous and can be stored for up to nine months without loss of physiological quality.

  1. Citrus fruit quality assessment; producer and consumer perspectives

    Consumption of citrus fruit and juices is popular with consumers worldwide and makes an important contribution to a healthy diet. Nevertheless, consumer preferences for citrus have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years and it is important to understand what consumers are looking ...

  2. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  3. Proteome changes in banana fruit peel tissue in response to ethylene and high-temperature treatments.

    Du, Lina; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi

    2016-01-01

    protein and calmodulin) and repressed 43 proteins in 4 groups (groups 4-7), of which 6 were associated with photosynthesis II oxygen-evolving protein, the photosynthesis I reaction center, sugar metabolism, the redox-oxidative system and fatty acid metabolism. Differences in the response to ethylene and holding temperature at 30 °C were also revealed and have been discussed. The identities and quantities of the proteins found were linked with quality changes. This study demonstrates that ethylene and high temperature influence banana fruit ripening and senescence at the proteomic level and reveals the mechanisms by which high temperature accelerates banana fruit ripening.

  4. Use of osmotic dehydration to improve fruits and vegetables quality during processing.

    Maftoonazad, Neda

    2010-11-01

    Osmotic treatment describes a preparation step to further processing of foods involving simultaneous transient moisture loss and solids gain when immersing in osmotic solutions, resulting in partial drying and improving the overall quality of food products. The different aspects of the osmotic dehydration (OD) technology namely the solutes employed, solutions characteristics used, process variables influence, as well as, the quality characteristics of the osmodehydrated products will be discussed in this review. As the process is carried out at mild temperatures and the moisture is removed by a liquid diffusion process, phase change that would be present in the other drying processes will be avoided, resulting in high quality products and may also lead to substantial energy savings. To optimize this process, modeling of the mass transfer phenomenon can improve high product quality. Several techniques such as microwave heating, vacuum, high pressure, pulsed electric field, etc. may be employed during or after osmotic treatment to enhance performance of the osmotic dehydration. Moreover new technologies used in osmotic dehydration will be discussed. Patents on osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables are also discussed in this article.

  5. Development and quality of pineapple guava fruit in two locations with different altitudes in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit growth is stimulated by different weather conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of weather conditions on the physicochemical properties of pineapple guava fruit growth. Twenty trees were marked in two production areas located at different altitudes (1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., and measurements were performed every 7 days from 99 and 141 days post-anthesis to harvest at altitudes of 1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., respectively. The results indicate that altitude and weather conditions greatly influence the growth and development of pineapple guava fruit, and these effects are primarily manifested in the physical characteristics of the fruit. The weight and size of the fruit at harvest are directly related to the altitude of the production area. The weather condition that has the greatest impact on total titratable acidity at harvest is cumulative radiation during fruit growth; the highest value of total soluble solids at harvest corresponds to the location with the higher altitude, lower rainfall and relative humidity and higher cumulative radiation during the fruit growth period. The hue angle and pulp firmness at harvest are not influenced by the location or weather conditions at any location and do not determine the fruit quality at harvest time.

  6. Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatments on Ripening and Quality of Harvested Sapodilla Fruit

    Zhong Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sapodilla fruits were exposed to the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP at 0, 40 or 80 nL/L for 24 h at 20 °C. Fruits were then stored at 20 °C and 85−95 % relative humidity and later assessed for quality and ripening characteristics. 1-MCP treatments delayed the increases in the rates of respiration and ethylene production by 6 days. Treatments also delayed by 6 days the increase in polygalacturonase activity. Decreases in ascorbic acid, titratable acidity and chlorophyll content that are normally seen with ripening were delayed. Changes in the content of soluble solids were also slowed compared to untreated fruit. The application of 1-MCP was an effective technology for ripening inhibition and quality maintenance of harvested sapodilla fruit.

  7. ORGANOLEPTIC QUALITY OF FRUIT SORBETS CONTAINING YACON (SMALLANTHUS SONCHIFOLIUS Poepp. and Endl.

    Kinga Topolska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing consumer interest in functional food, sorbets containing yacon root powder as a source of many valuable compounds, especially fructans, may be a desirable alternative to traditional ice cream desserts. The aim of this work was to evaluate organoleptic quality (taste, color, aroma as well as consistency and structure of fruit sorbets containing Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl. root powder in dependence on kind of fruit (orange, cherry, strawberry, and its share in sorbet’s recipe, using a 9-point hedonic scale (1 point =„I do not like it at all“, 9 = „I like it very much“. The results showed that organoleptic quality was depended on the kind and the share of fruit used to the sorbet production. Strawberry sorbets gained over 80% of maximal scores. One can conclude that yacon root powder can be used as the ingredient of fruit sorbet, with increased consumer liking.

  8. Ensuring the Quality of the New Fruit and Berry Marmalade by Adding Kelp

    Tetyana Nepochatykh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of a new method for the production of fruit and berry marmalade, which is adding kelp to the traditional recipe of fruit and berry marmalade. The use of this additive is scientifically grounded in the amount of 5 %. This can improve the quality of fruit and berry marmalade, as well as update its assortment. Adding kelp to marmalade increases the content of iodine in it by 7.95 %, phosphorus – by 2.15 %, magnesium – by 8.5 %, potassium – by 48.5 %, iron – by 0.03 %, vitamin PP – by 0.015 %.

  9. An FSPM approach for modeling fruit yield and quality in mango trees

    Boudon , Frédéric; Persello , Severine; Jestin , Alexandra; Briand , Anne-Sarah; Fernique , Pierre; Guédon , Yann; Léchaudel , Mathieu; Grechi , Isabelle; Normand , Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Research focus-Mango (Mangifera indica L.), the fifth most cultivated fruit in the world, is mainly produced in tropical and subtropical regions. Its cultivation raises a number of issues: (i) mango yield is irregular across years, (ii) phenological asynchronisms within and between trees maintain long periods with phenological stages susceptible to pests and diseases, and (iii) fruit quality and maturity are heterogeneous at harvest. To address these issues, we develop...

  10. Effects of foliar potassium fertilization on muskmelon fruit quality and yield

    Consumer preference of many fruits and vegetables such as muskmelon [Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group)] is determined by a few key quality traits such as sugar content, aroma and texture. These quality traits are directly related to adequate potassium (K) content in plant tissues. However, soil-...

  11. The influence of organic amendment and nickel pollution on tomato fruit yield and quality.

    Palacios, G; Carbonell-Barrachina, A; Gómez, I; Mataix, J

    1999-01-01

    The effects of organic fertilization (sludge application) and/or different levels of Ni pollution on tomato fruit yield, quality, nutrition, and Ni accumulation were investigated. The mass loading of sewage sludge solids used in this study for the amendment of a calcareous soil with low organic matter content was 2% (w/w). A control with no sewage sludge amendment was also included (S). Nickel was added to the sludge amended soil at 0, 60, 120 and 240 mg kg-1 concentrations. Sewage sludge addition to the calcareous soil significantly increased fruit yield but did not adversely affect the quality and nutritional status of the tomato fruit. The results demonstrated that sewage sludge could be successfully used as a horticultural fertilizer. Only the highest addition rate of Ni (240 mg kg-1) to an organic amended calcareous soil had negative effects on fruit yield and quality, and caused a Ni accumulation in fruit that could be considered as a hazard for human health. Thus, no toxic problems will be encountered in tomato fruit due to Ni pollution provided the total Ni (soil Ni plus Ni incorporated with sludge amendment) concentration is kept below the maximum concentration of Ni allowed for agricultural alkaline soils in Spain (112 mg Ni kg-1).

  12. Quality evaluation of frozen guava and yellow passion fruit pulps by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Alamar, Priscila D; Caramês, Elem T S; Poppi, Ronei J; Pallone, Juliana A L

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the application of near infrared spectroscopy as a green, quick, and efficient alternative to analytical methods currently used to evaluate the quality (moisture, total sugars, acidity, soluble solids, pH and ascorbic acid) of frozen guava and passion fruit pulps. Fifty samples were analyzed by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and reference methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to develop calibration models to relate the NIR spectra and the reference values. Reference methods indicated adulteration by water addition in 58% of guava pulp samples and 44% of yellow passion fruit pulp samples. The PLS models produced lower values of root mean squares error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), and coefficient of determination above 0.7. Moisture and total sugars presented the best calibration models (RMSEP of 0.240 and 0.269, respectively, for guava pulp; RMSEP of 0.401 and 0.413, respectively, for passion fruit pulp) which enables the application of these models to determine adulteration in guava and yellow passion fruit pulp by water or sugar addition. The models constructed for calibration of quality parameters of frozen fruit pulps in this study indicate that NIR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate calibration technique could be applied to determine the quality of guava and yellow passion fruit pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  14. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genome provides insights into fruit quality and ovule developmental biology.

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Fang, Yanming; Zhang, Taikui; Fei, Zhangjun; Han, Fengming; Liu, Cuiyu; Liu, Min; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Wenjing; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Mengwei; Ju, Youhui; Xu, Huili; Dai, He; Liu, Yujun; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianqing; Guan, Dian; Yan, Ming; Xia, Yanhua; Huang, Xianbin; Liu, Dongyuan; Wei, Hongmin; Zheng, Hongkun

    2017-12-22

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has an ancient cultivation history and has become an emerging profitable fruit crop due to its attractive features such as the bright red appearance and the high abundance of medicinally valuable ellagitannin-based compounds in its peel and aril. However, the limited genomic resources have restricted further elucidation of genetics and evolution of these interesting traits. Here, we report a 274-Mb high-quality draft pomegranate genome sequence, which covers approximately 81.5% of the estimated 336-Mb genome, consists of 2177 scaffolds with an N50 size of 1.7 Mb and contains 30 903 genes. Phylogenomic analysis supported that pomegranate belongs to the Lythraceae family rather than the monogeneric Punicaceae family, and comparative analyses showed that pomegranate and Eucalyptus grandis share the paleotetraploidy event. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analyses provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of ellagitannin-based compounds, the colour formation in both peels and arils during pomegranate fruit development, and the unique ovule development processes that are characteristic of pomegranate. This genome sequence provides an important resource to expand our understanding of some unique biological processes and to facilitate both comparative biology studies and crop breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effect of Post-Harvest Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality of Cold Stored Ber Fruit

    Sukhjit K. JAWANDHA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits are perishable in nature and have poor shelf- life. To extend the storage life of ber fruits different post-harvest treatments, like CaCl2 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, Ca(NO32 (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, gibberellic acid (GA3 (20, 40 and 60 ppm and Bavistin (0.1% were given to fruits and their effect was studied on the storage life and quality of �Umran� ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk fruits under cold storage conditions. Fruits of uniform size and colour were harvested, from healthy plants, and subjected to post harvest dip of different chemicals, before packing in CFB boxes and placed in cold storage (3-5�C and 85-90% RH They have been evaluated after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage for physiological loss in weight (PLW, firmness, pectin methyl esterase (PME activity and palatability rating. The PLW increased and fruit firmness decreased during storage at each treatment. The sensory rating increased up to 10 days at all treatments, except control but subsequently it decreased during storage. The increase rate in PME activity was faster, up to 10 days, in untreated fruits, while treated fruits showed slower rise in PME activity, up to 20 days with a decline afterwards. It can be concluded that ber fruits can be stored up to 20 days by post-harvest treatment using GA3 at 60 ppm, with acceptable quality.

  16. Fruit and vegetable consumption - the influence of aspects associated with trust in food and safety and quality of food.

    Taylor, Anne W; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul R; Henderson, Julie; Meyer, Samantha B; Pilkington, Rhiannon; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-02-01

    To profile adults who eat less than the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables per day. Australia-wide population telephone survey on a random sample of the Australian population, with results analysed by univariate and multivariate models. Australia. One thousand one hundred and eight interviews, respondents' (49·3 % males) mean age was 45·12 (sd 17·63) years. Overall 54·8 % and 10·7 % were eating the recommended number of servings of fruit and vegetables. Variables included in the multivariate model indicating low fruit consumption included gender, age, employment, education and those who were less likely to consider the safety and quality of food as important. In regard to low vegetable consumption, people who were more likely to do the food shopping only 'some of the time' and have a high level of trust in groups of people such as immediate family, neighbours, doctors and different levels of government were included in the final model. They were also less likely to neither consider the safety and quality of food as important nor trust organisations/institutions such as the press, television and politicians. In the final model depicting both low fruit and low vegetable servings, sex, age and a low level of importance with regard to safety and quality of food were included. To increase fruit and vegetable consumption, research into a broad range of determinants associated with behaviours should be coupled with a deeper understanding of the process associated with changing behaviours. While levels of trust are related to behaviour change, knowledge and attitudes about aspects associated with safety and quality of food are also of importance.

  17. Researches of fruit quality prediction model based on near infrared spectrum

    Shen, Yulin; Li, Lian

    2018-04-01

    With the improvement in standards for food quality and safety, people pay more attention to the internal quality of fruits, therefore the measurement of fruit internal quality is increasingly imperative. In general, nondestructive soluble solid content (SSC) and total acid content (TAC) analysis of fruits is vital and effective for quality measurement in global fresh produce markets, so in this paper, we aim at establishing a novel fruit internal quality prediction model based on SSC and TAC for Near Infrared Spectrum. Firstly, the model of fruit quality prediction based on PCA + BP neural network, PCA + GRNN network, PCA + BP adaboost strong classifier, PCA + ELM and PCA + LS_SVM classifier are designed and implemented respectively; then, in the NSCT domain, the median filter and the SavitzkyGolay filter are used to preprocess the spectral signal, Kennard-Stone algorithm is used to automatically select the training samples and test samples; thirdly, we achieve the optimal models by comparing 15 kinds of prediction model based on the theory of multi-classifier competition mechanism, specifically, the non-parametric estimation is introduced to measure the effectiveness of proposed model, the reliability and variance of nonparametric estimation evaluation of each prediction model to evaluate the prediction result, while the estimated value and confidence interval regard as a reference, the experimental results demonstrate that this model can better achieve the optimal evaluation of the internal quality of fruit; finally, we employ cat swarm optimization to optimize two optimal models above obtained from nonparametric estimation, empirical testing indicates that the proposed method can provide more accurate and effective results than other forecasting methods.

  18. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology.

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi

    2015-11-01

    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Fruit quality of seedless watermelon grafted onto squash rootstocks under different production systems.

    Liu, Qianru; Zhao, Xin; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Sims, Charles A; Sanchez, Tatiana; Dufault, Nicholas S

    2017-11-01

    The market demand for seedless watermelon has been continuously increasing because of consumer preference. Grafting is a useful tool to manage soilborne diseases in watermelon production, but the use of squash rootstocks may negatively affect watermelon fruit quality. Currently, most research has focused on seeded cultivars, while grafting effects on seedless watermelons remain largely unknown. This multi-season study was conducted to assess the effects of squash rootstocks, including both Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata and C. moschata cultivars, with intact or excised and regenerated roots, on fruit quality of seedless watermelon 'Melody' using both instrumental and sensory measurements under different production scenarios. The grafted watermelon plants were also challenged by field inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum. A combination of instrumental measurements and consumer sensory analyses suggested that fruit quality of the seedless watermelon 'Melody' was not impacted by the use of the squash rootstocks used in this study, which included soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and most fruit sensory properties. Watermelon flesh firmness was increased by grafting but the grafting effect on lycopene content was inconclusive. Root excision and regeneration did not influence the grafting effect, whereas the grafting effect on flesh firmness varied among the rootstocks under Fusarium inoculation. Overall, grafting with squash rootstocks did not reduce fruit quality attributes of 'Melody' but improved texture. Our results support incorporating grafting into integrated management programs for seedless watermelon production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of olive fruits (Olea Europaea L. ), and its oil

    Al-Bashir, M.

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on accelerating the debittering steps of olive fruits, oil extractability and the quality of extracted oil. Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 669 Gy/hr., a part of these fruits was debittered in distilled water, the second was processed with NaOH (3.6% concentration) for 3 or 6 hr. Both treated fruits with a control part were kept in brine (5.6% sodium chloride) and stored for 12 months at room temperature. Portions of all these treated fruits were subjected to oil extraction by mechanical means immediately after treatment. During the debittering period (8 days) the total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and ph values were determined in wastewater (daily), whereas the peroxide value, iodine number and the total acidity were measured in the extracted oil. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, a and K in wastewater. The most significant effect was noticed when irradiated fruits were processed with NaOH for 3 hrs. as indicated by the values of total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K concentration in wastewater. All used doses of gamma radiation, increased the extractability of the oil from the treated fruits, the total acidity and the peroxide value of that oil. (Author)

  1. Quality of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) after sifting pupae by mechanical sifter

    Sutantawong, M.; Uthaisarn, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quality of fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in mass production is important for controlling pest populations by means of the sterile insect technique. The experiment was to study the quality of fruit fly after sifting pupae by mechanical sifter. Laboratory-reared pupae, held at 26 ± 1 degree C were sifted at intensity of 18 rpm in a rotary sifting device at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 days of age. The quality of fruit flies were determined on adult eclosion and flight capability. The results showed that there were no significantly different (P < 0.05) in adult eclosion between control with sifted pupae at 1 to 8 days of age. However, there were significantly different (P < 0.05) in flight capability between control and sifted pupae at 1, 5, 6, 7, 8 days of age with sifted pupae at 2, 3, 4 days of age

  2. Elevated and super-elevated CO2 differ in their interactive effects with nitrogen availability on fruit yield and quality of cucumber.

    Dong, Jinlong; Xu, Qiao; Gruda, Nazim; Chu, Wenying; Li, Xun; Duan, Zengqiang

    2018-02-25

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen (N) availability can interactively promote cucumber yield, but how the yield increase is realized remains unclear, whilst the interactive effects on fruit quality are unknown. In this study, cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinmei No. 3) were grown in a paddy soil under three CO 2 concentrations - 400 (ambient CO 2 ), 800 (elevated CO 2 , eCO 2 ) and 1200 µmol mol -1 (super-elevated CO 2 ) - and two N applications - 0.06 (low N) and 0.24 g N kg -1 soil (high N). Compared with ambient CO 2 , eCO 2 increased yield by 106% in high N but the increase in total biomass was only 33%. This can result from greater carbon translocation to fruits from other organs, indicated by the increased biomass allocation from stems and leaves, particularly source leaves, to fruits and the decreased concentrations of fructose and glucose in source leaves. Super-elevated CO 2 reduced the carbon allocation to fruits thus yield increase (71%). Additionally, eCO 2 also increased the concentrations of fructose and glucose in fruits, maintained the concentrations of dietary fiber, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, copper, molybdenum and sodium, whilst it decreased the concentrations of nitrate, protein, iron, and zinc in high N. Compared with eCO 2 , super-elevated CO 2 can still improve the fruit quality to some extent in low N availability. Elevated CO 2 promotes cucumber yield largely by carbon allocation from source leaves to fruits in high N availability. Besides a dilution effect, carbon allocation to fruits, carbohydrate transformation, and nutrient uptake and assimilation can affect the fruit quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Sustainable crop models for fruit, vegetable and flower quality productions.

    Inglese Paolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a paradigm that has evolved over the time, since the ideas of socially acceptable and compatible development, on which it was originally based, are now supported by the more recent notions of ecological equilibria and production process economy, both of which need to be also preserved. Environmental and health safety, rational use of the natural resources and technological tools, upkeep of high social growth rates and respect of a social equity are the basis of the sustainability for any production process, including the agriculture. The new globalization framework has penalized small farms and, at the same time, has put serious constraints to the development of stronger economic systems (medium/large farms, as well. As consequence, the EU has outlined several strategic programs to support small agricultural systems in marginal areas by: 1 strengthening all the quality- related aspects of agricultural production, including nutritional and cultural traits associated to local, typical and in some cases to neglected crops; 2 improving traditional cultural practices by adapting the cropping cycles and fomenting new partnerships between the different parts of the production chain, as for example; promotion of small horticultural chains. Specific political actions for the horticultural production sector have also been developed. Some of these policies are specifically addressed to preserve the biodiversity and to create quality labels certifying typical and/or organic products. All of these are possible strategies that may counteract and cope with the globalization process and increase the competitiveness of many production systems especially those performed by local and small entrepreneurs. New sustainable development models are required by both the market and the implicit requirements of the production system, inside a context on which Europe must face with new emerging economies with lower production costs, by increasing

  4. Blueberry pollination in southern Brazil and their influence on fruit quality

    Tiago Madruga Telesca da Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium ashei is a relatively new crop in cultivation under Southern Brazil conditions. The first collection introduced in the area was formed by rabbiteye cultivars which need insect pollinators and also pollinizers. The aim of this work was to observe if there were differences between pollinizers on fruit quality of the commercial cultivar and also to observe the most effective and frequent insect pollinators, under natural conditions. It was concluded that pollen source has an effect on quality of blueberry fruits. Bumblebees are the most efficient pollinators; however the species found in southern Brazil are different from the ones mentioned in the U.S. literature.

  5. Fruit quality in strawberry (Fragaria sp. grown on colored plastic mulch

    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

  6. Sustainable nitrogen fertilisation in sweet pepper: assessing growth and fruit quality and the potential nitrate pollution from different organic manures.

    Gómez-López, María D; del Amor, Francisco M

    2013-03-30

    The use of organic cultivation with manures does not avoid the risk of high nitrate concentrations if nutrient management is inefficient. So we studied the influence of three organic manures combined or not with additional chemical fertilisers on growth and yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and on the soil and plant N concentrations. After 3 years of organic cultivation, poultry manure caused the highest soil pollution. The evolution of nitrate and organic matter in soil showed a pattern close to that of plant growth. The addition of mineral fertiliser increased vegetative growth and yield, and a cumulative season effect was observed. In treatments with no additional mineral fertiliser N translocation from leaves to fruits happened. A cumulative effect of seasons on fruit quality and a reduction near to 30% was observed in the first fruit quality category after 3 years. The fruit vitamin C content was reduced by increasing N fertilisation. The effects of organic fertiliser on soil and plant growth and yield depended on the type of manure used, its rate, and consecutive crop seasons. Horse manure gave the best combination of agricultural and environmental characteristics and could be used without additional fertigation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Tree age affects physicochemical, functional quality and storability of Amrapali mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits.

    Meena, Nirmal Kumar; Asrey, Ram

    2017-12-12

    The effect of tree age on physicochemical quality attributes and storage behaviour of Amrapali mango fruit was evaluated. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from 6-, 18- and 30-year-old trees and kept for ripening under ambient conditions (temperature 35 ± 3 °C, relative humidity 60 ± 5%). Observations were recorded at 3-day intervals. Highest total soluble solids and total sugars were found in the fruit sourced from 18-year-old trees. At the end of storage, least titratable acidity (0.17%) and higher carotenoids (10.86 mg 100 g -1 ) were found in 30-year-old tree fruits during the last day of storage. Highest total phenols (TP) (251.33 μg gallic acid g -1 ), antioxidant capacity (AC) (5.63 μmol Trolox g -1 ) and ascorbic acid (AA) (31.13 mg 100 g -1 ) were reported in fruits from younger trees of 6 years old. Maximum respiratory and ethylene evolution peak was observed in fruits obtained from oldest trees, whereas least activities of pectin methyl esterase (0.31 μmol min -1 g -1 fresh weight) and polygalacturonase (53.67 μg galacturonic acid g -1 h -1 ) were observed in 6-year-old tree fruits at the end of the 9-day storage period. Higher total soluble solids and total sugars were found in fruit harvested from middle-age-group (18-year-old) trees during the entire storage period of 9 days. Most of the functional parameters, such as TP, AC and AA, were observed to be higher in fruits from younger (6-year-old) trees. The obtained results revealed that produce from middle-age-group (18-year-old) Amrapali mango orchards suit consumers' and processors' requirements. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Influence of weight and type of planting material on fruit quality and its heterogeneity in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill].

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Cultural practices can affect the quality of pineapple fruits and its variation. The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) effects of weight class and type of planting material on fruit quality, heterogeneity in quality and proportion and yield of fruits meeting European export standards, and (b) the improvement in quality, proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards when flowering was induced at optimum time. Experiments were conducted in Benin with cvs Sugarloaf (a Perola type) and Smooth Cayenne. In cv. Sugarloaf, experimental factors were weight class of planting material (light, mixed, heavy) and time of flowering induction (farmers', optimum) (Experiment 1). In cv. Smooth Cayenne an additional experimental factor was the type of planting material (hapas, ground suckers, a mixture of the two) (Experiment 2). Fruits from heavy planting material had higher infructescence and fruit weights, longer infructescences, shorter crowns, and smaller crown: infructescence length than fruits from light planting material. The type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not significantly affect fruit quality except crown length: fruits from hapas had shorter crowns than those from ground suckers. Crops from heavy planting material had a higher proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards than those from other weight classes in Experiment 1 only; also the type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not affect these variates. Heterogeneity in fruit quality was usually not reduced by selecting only light or heavy planting material instead of mixing weights; incidentally the coefficient of variation was significantly reduced in fruits from heavy slips only. Heterogeneity was also not reduced by not mixing hapas and ground suckers. Flowering induction at optimum time increased the proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards in fruits from light and mixed slip weights and in those from the mixture of heavy hapas plus ground suckers.

  9. Effect of environmental change on yield and quality of fruits and vegetables: two systematic reviews and projections of possible health effects

    Smith, P.; Scheelbeek, P.; Bird, F.; Green, R.; Dangour, A.

    2017-12-01

    Background - Environmental changes—including climatic change, water scarcity, and biodiversity loss—threaten agricultural production and pose challenges to global food security. In this study, we review the evidence of the effects of environmental change on the yield and quality of fruits and vegetables - a food group that plays a highly important role in our diets - and assess possible implications for nutrition and health outcomes. Methods - We undertook two systematic reviews of the published literature on the effect of 8 different environmental stressors on yields and nutritional quality of (1) fruits and (2) vegetables, measured in greenhouse and field studies. We combined the review outcomes with Food Balance Sheet data to assess the potential consequences of changed availability and quality of fruits and vegetables for global nutrient deficiencies and related chronic diseases. Findings - Overall, fruits were affected more prominently by changing environmental patterns than vegetables. In tropical countries, there were largely adverse effects on yield of increased temperature and changing precipitation patterns, although in more temperate zones some beneficial effects were reported. In contrast, the effects on nutritional quality were mostly positive, especially in fruit crops, with higher vitamin and mineral content measured in most crops. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations had a predominantly positive effect on yield, especially in legumes, but a negative effect on nutritional quality of both fruits and vegetables. Adverse nutritional implications were estimated to be largest in areas characterised by high vulnerability to environmental change, high dependency on local markets, and high rates of food insecurity. Interpretation - Our study identified effects of environmental change on yields and quality of fruits and vegetables that might pose threats to population health, especially in areas vulnerable to climate-change and food insecurity. To

  10. Natural Ecosystem Surrounding a Conventional Banana Crop Improves Plant Health and Fruit Quality

    Florence P. Castelan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems near agricultural landscapes may provide rich environments for growing crops. However, the effect of a natural ecosystem on crop health and fruit quality is poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated whether the presence of a natural ecosystem surrounding a crop area influences banana plant health and fruit postharvest behavior. Plants from two conventional banana crop areas with identical planting time and cultural practices were used; the only difference between banana crop areas is that one area was surrounded by a natural forest (Atlantic forest fragment (Near-NF, while the other area was inserted at the center of a conventional banana crop (Distant-NF. Results showed that bananas harvested from Near-NF showed higher greenlife and a more homogeneous profile during ripening compared to fruits harvested from Distant-NF. Differences in quality parameters including greenlife, carbohydrate profile, and pulp firmness between fruits harvested from Near-NF and Distant-NF are explained, at least partly, by differences in the balance of plant growth regulators (indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in bananas during ripening. Furthermore, plants from Near-NF showed a lower severity index of black leaf streak disease (BLSD and higher levels of phenolic compounds in leaves compared to plants from Distant-NF. Together, the results provide additional evidence on how the maintenance of natural ecosystems near conventional crop areas could be a promising tool to improve plant health and fruit quality.

  11. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Review: computer vision applied to the inspection and quality control of fruits and vegetables

    Erick Saldaña

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the current existing literature concerning the inspection of fruits and vegetables with the application of computer vision, where the techniques most used to estimate various properties related to quality are analyzed. The objectives of the typical applications of such systems include the classification, quality estimation according to the internal and external characteristics, supervision of fruit processes during storage or the evaluation of experimental treatments. In general, computer vision systems do not only replace manual inspection, but can also improve their skills. In conclusion, computer vision systems are powerful tools for the automatic inspection of fruits and vegetables. In addition, the development of such systems adapted to the food industry is fundamental to achieve competitive advantages.

  13. Effect of biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould, fruit yield and fruit quality in organic strawberry production

    S. PROKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases, especially grey mould (Botrytis cinerea, may cause severe losses in organic strawberry production. In a two-year period, 2001–2002, the effects of different biological sprays on grey mould, the fruit yield and fruit quality of organically grown strawberry ‘Jonsok’ were studied in field trials at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki and Mikkeli. In Experiment 1 the biological sprays were seaweed, garlic and compost extracts, silicon and Trichoderma spp. on both trial sites. In Experiment 2, compost extract, Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium catenulatum sprays were studied in Ruukki. The treatment time was chosen to control grey mould. The effect of different biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould and total and marketable yield was insignificant compared to the untreated control. In both years and in all trials the incidence of grey mould was low and rot occurred mainly in the latter part of the harvesting period, which may partly explain the small differences between treatments. Anyhow, despite of feasible biological control cultural control methods will be important to manage the fungus in organic strawberry production.;

  14. Application of power ultrasound on the convective drying of fruits and vegetables: effects on quality.

    Rodríguez, Óscar; Eim, Valeria; Rosselló, Carmen; Femenia, Antoni; Cárcel, Juan A; Simal, Susana

    2018-03-01

    Drying gives rise to products with a long shelf life by reducing the water activity to a level that is sufficiently low to inhibit the growth of microorganisms, enzymatic reactions and other deteriorative reactions. Despite the benefits of this operation, the quality of heat sensitive products is diminished when high temperatures are used. The use of low drying temperatures reduces the heat damage but, because of a longer drying time, oxidation reactions occur and a reduction of the quality is also observed. Thus, drying is a method that lends itself to being intensified. For this reason, alternative techniques are being studied. Power ultrasound is considered as an emerging and promising technology in the food industry. The potential of this technology relies on its ability to accelerate the mass transfer processes in solid-liquid and solid-gas systems. Intensification of the drying process with power ultrasound can be achieved by modifying the product behavior during drying, using pre-treatments such as soaking in a liquid medium assisted acoustically or, during the drying process itself, by applying power ultrasound in the gaseous medium. This review summarises the effects of the application of the power ultrasound on the quality of different dried products, such as fruits and vegetables, when the acoustic energy is intended to intensify the drying process, either when the application is performed before pretreatment or during the drying process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Impact of Power Ultrasound on the Quality of Fruits and Vegetables During Dehydration

    Villamiel, Mar; Gamboa, Juliana; Soria, A. Cristina; Riera, Enrique; García-Pérez, José V.; Montilla, Antonia

    In the present work, the influence of power ultrasound (US) on the quality of fruits and vegetables during both the pre-treatment and drying has been evaluated. Chemical indicators such as pectinmethyl esterase and peroxidase enzymes, vitamin C, carbohydrates, proteins, polyphenols and 2-furoylmethylamino acids (indicators of the early stages of Maillard reaction) have been studied. In addition, rehydration capacity, leaching losses and shrinkage and organoleptic characteristics of the final product have also been assessed. During blanching, similar leaching losses and enzyme inactivation were found in low temperature and prolonged conventional treatments and in US processes, but with a significant reduction in the time for the latter. Finally, application of US in drying of carrots and strawberries originated significant reductions in processing time, while providing high quality end-products. The quality was higher as compared to marketed products and superior or equivalent to samples obtained under similar conditions in a prototype convective dryer, and, in the case of some indicators, similar to that of freeze-dried samples.

  16. Quality Maintenance and Storability Extension of Cornelian Cherry Fruit by Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Sh. Mohebbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of packaging with two types of polymeric films (Low density polyethylene and polypropylene and three gas compositions (Air, 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ and 20% CO₂ + 5% O₂ on quantitative and qualitative attributes and storage life of cornelian cherry fruits were evaluated. Also some fruits in containers without cap were considered as control. After treatment, the fruits were stored at 1°C and 90-95% Relative Humidity for 35 days. Samples were taken initially and at 7-day intervals during storage, and to simulate market conditions they were placed at room temperature for 24 hr, and then qualitative and quantitative parameters such as weight loss, surface color, anthocyanin index, visual quality, decay, pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solid and vitamin C were measured. The results showed that gas combination of 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ with polyethylene packaging and air in polypropylene packaging had a significant effect on maintaining pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solid compared with control fruits. Also, the fruits packed with polyethylene packaging in 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ showed the best effect on retaining of vitamin C and anthocyanin index. In conclusion, the application of MAP regardless of gas combination was found to be more effective in maintaining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics compared with fruits without packaging.

  17. Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIA SPP. in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

    Bianchi Giulia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca, ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata, ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa. Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT, F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively were detected among these genotypes. In fruits of F. x ananassa the terpenoid profile was dominated by nerolidol, whereas wild spe–cies produced mainly monoterpenes. It was correlated with the higher induction of FaNES1 in cultivated and PINS gene in the wild Fragaria species. The flavour biogenesis in ripening fruits was determined by the expression of SAAT gene, especially visible for ‘Profumata di Tortona’ and ‘Onda’ strawberries. The fruit solid-phase microextraction (SPME headspace was analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Olfac–tometry (GC-O, that allows for the chromatographic separation of volatiles together with their olfactomet-ric evaluation. ‘Reine des Vallées’ fruits have a peculiar profile characterized by high concentrations of limonene, linalool and mesifurane that resulted in “spiced”, “citrus, floral” and “sweet, baked” descriptors. The character impact compound in ‘Profumata di Tortona’ fruits was ethyl butanoate, responsible for “sweet” and “fruity, strawberry” descriptors. However, it was detected in lower amount in comparison to the data obtained for F. x ananassa strawberries. The sesquiterpene nerolidol was identified in both culti–vated strawberry genotypes.

  18. Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic ...

    Fruit production and quality of guava 'Paluma' as a function of humic substances and soil mulching. Leonardo Fonseca da Rocha, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Járisson Cavalcante Nunes, Antônio Gustavo de Luna Souto, Alian Cássio Pereira Cavalcante, Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante, Walter Esfrain Pereira ...

  19. Effects of nitrogen rate and application method on early production and fruit quality in highbush blueberry

    A field study was conducted to examine the effects of nitrogen (N) rate and method of N fertilizer application on growth, yield, and fruit quality in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) during the first 4 years after planting in south-coastal BC. Nitrogen was applied at 0-150% of current pr...

  20. Evaluation of fruit quality, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant activity of flat peach cultivars.

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Marallo, Nadia; Graziani, Giulia; Ritieni, Alberto; Di Matteo, Antonio

    2015-08-15

    Fruit quality traits (fresh weight, dry weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness) as well as the content of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds) and total antioxidant activity were evaluated in four commercial cultivars of peach (Greta, Ufo 4, Rome Star and Ufo 6) and four of nectarine (Neve, Planet 1, Maria Carla and Mesembrina) differing in fruit shape (standard or flat) and flesh colour (white or yellow), important cultivars of the Italian and foreign market. The higher fruit organoleptic quality and nutritional profile of flat peach and nectarine cultivars make them candidates for exploiting new market opportunities and the chance to improve profits of farmers. The results showed that assayed quality parameters differed greatly among cultivars. In particular, flesh color and fruit shape accounted for most of the variation in traits underlying organoleptic and nutritional quality. Overall data suggested that the flat white-fleshed nectarine Planet 1, the yellow-fleshed nectarine Mesembrina and the yellow-fleshed peach Ufo 6, because of their profiles in terms of soluble solids content, titratable acidity and bioactive compounds, have the greatest potential to meet current consumer requirements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Alternate partial root-zone drying irrigation improves fruit quality in tomatoes

    Sun, Y.; Holm, Peter Engelund; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Alternate partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation and deficit irrigation (DI) are water-saving irrigation strategies. Here, comparative effects of PRD and DI on fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the irrigation treatments had no effect o...

  2. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  3. Cryogenic freezing of fresh date fruits for quality preservation during frozen storage

    Abdullah Alhamdan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh date fruits, especially Barhi cultivar, are favored and widely consumed at the Khalal maturity stage (first color edible stage. These fruits are seasonal and perishable and there is a need for extending their shelf life. This study evaluates two different freezing methods, namely cryogenic freezing using liquid nitrogen and conventional deep freezing on preserving the quality and stability of date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal maturity stage. Fresh date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal stage were frozen utilizing the two methods. The produced frozen dates were stored under frozen storage conditions for nine months (at −20 °C and −40 °C for the conventional and cryogenic freezing, respectively. Color values, textural properties (hardness, elasticity, chewiness and resilience, and nutrition attributes (enzymes and sugars for fresh dates before freezing and for the frozen dates were measured every three months during the frozen storage. Color values of the frozen dates were affected by the freezing method and the frozen storage period. There are substantial differences in the quality of the frozen fruits in favor of cryogenic freezing compared to the conventional slow freezing. The results revealed a large disparity between the times of freezing of the two methods. The freezing time accounted to 10 min in the cryogenic freezing method, whereas it was 1800 min for the conventional slow freezing system.

  4. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2018-03-04

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O 2 and high CO 2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and nonconventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O 2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  5. Variety of fruit and vegetables is related to preschoolers' overall diet quality

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Shriver, Lenka H.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595) in 2005–2010 NHANES were examined. ...

  6. A Comparison of Conventional, Integrated and Organic Management Systems on the Quality of Pomegranate Fruit cv. “Rabbab-e- Shiraz”

    Maisam Ahmadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., belonging to Punicaceae family, is a tropical and subtropical attractive deciduous or evergreen shrub and is one of the native fruits of Iran. With total production of 941804 tons in 2013, Iran is one of the most important pomegranate producers in the world. Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds. Despite the high nutritional values of pomegranate fruits, the overuse of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in conventional systems reduces nutritional and functional quality of pomegranate fruits. On the other hand, world demand for organic products is growing rapidly in developed countries, especially in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia. Previous studies showed that organic fruits contain higher minerals, vitamins and oxidant activity than conventional crops. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to compare organic, integrated and conventional management systems in pomegranate orchard on mineral contents and qualitative attributes of pomegranate fruit. Materials and methods: Pomegranate (cv. Rabbab-e-Shiraz grown under organic, conventional and integrated management systems in a commercial orchard, in Nourabad Mamsani, Fars province, was used for this study. Pomegranate fruits were harvested at commercial harvest stage and transported in an air-conditioned vehicle to the laboratory of Horticultural Science Department, University of Guilan, Rasht. Some factors like fruit, aril and peel weight, aril length, weight ratio of peel to aril, peel to fruit and aril to fruit, and seed firmness (Penetrometer, with the diameter of 11 mm were assessed. In addition, qualitative properties (Total Soluble Solids (TSS, TA (Titratable Acidity, TSS/TA and pH, antioxidant compounds (total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin content in pomegranate juice and mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg in peel and arils were measured. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with

  7. A Comparison of Conventional, Integrated and Organic Management Systems on the Quality of Pomegranate Fruit cv. “Rabbab-e- Shiraz”

    Maisam Ahmadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L., belonging to Punicaceae family, is a tropical and subtropical attractive deciduous or evergreen shrub and is one of the native fruits of Iran. With total production of 941804 tons in 2013, Iran is one of the most important pomegranate producers in the world. Pomegranate is an important source of bioactive compounds. Despite the high nutritional values of pomegranate fruits, the overuse of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in conventional systems reduces nutritional and functional quality of pomegranate fruits. On the other hand, world demand for organic products is growing rapidly in developed countries, especially in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia. Previous studies showed that organic fruits contain higher minerals, vitamins and oxidant activity than conventional crops. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to compare organic, integrated and conventional management systems in pomegranate orchard on mineral contents and qualitative attributes of pomegranate fruit. Materials and methods: Pomegranate (cv. Rabbab-e-Shiraz grown under organic, conventional and integrated management systems in a commercial orchard, in Nourabad Mamsani, Fars province, was used for this study. Pomegranate fruits were harvested at commercial harvest stage and transported in an air-conditioned vehicle to the laboratory of Horticultural Science Department, University of Guilan, Rasht. Some factors like fruit, aril and peel weight, aril length, weight ratio of peel to aril, peel to fruit and aril to fruit, and seed firmness (Penetrometer, with the diameter of 11 mm were assessed. In addition, qualitative properties (Total Soluble Solids (TSS, TA (Titratable Acidity, TSS/TA and pH, antioxidant compounds (total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin content in pomegranate juice and mineral nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg in peel and arils were measured. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with

  8. Quality and bioactive compounds in fruit of foreign accessions of mango conserved in an Active Germplasm Bank1

    Thalita Passos Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the quality and levels of bioactive compounds in the fruit of 22 foreign accessions of the mango belonging to the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semiárido. Sixty fruits from each of the accessions: Florigon, Haden, 65, Irwin, M 13269, Momi-K, Scuper Many, Simmonds, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke, Winter, Zill, Amrapali, Olour, Aplle DCG 406, Mon Amon DCG 407, Black Java, Kensington, Chené, Manila, Manzanillo and Maya, were harvested upon reaching physiological maturity, one half being analysed when harvested and the other half stored at ambient temperature (25.4 ± 2.9 ºC and 41 ± 9% RH until ripe. The experimental design was completely randomised in a 22 x 2 factorial (accession x maturity stage, with three replications of ten fruits. The accessions Chene, Momi-K and Van Dyke stood out for their physical attributes: weight, length, diameter and firmness of pulp, and for their good post-harvest conservation. The accession Amrapali was different because of its high levels of soluble solids, total soluble sugars, starch, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, suggesting a high potential for insertion into a breeding program aimed at the quality of the mango.

  9. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; McInnis, D.; Shelly, T.; Jang, E.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-01-01

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [es

  10. Effect of gamma-ray on olive fruits quality, enzyme activities and issued oil

    Mejri, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The results described in the present work concern the study of changes in gamma ray irradiated olive fruit (Tunisian variety: C hemlali ) quality along the storage time processing and the quality of olive oil issued. The study focused on the changes related to the microbiological, physico-chemical properties, as well as pectinase activities in olive after irradiation. We also have been interested in the final product quality after oil extraction. The results of non irradiated olives were presented for comparative purposes. Mature olive fruits were treated with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy gamma ray radiation. Olive fruits were then stored for one month. Irradiation at 1.5 kGy allows the almost total destruction of the total aerobic germs, yeasts and moulds. Concerning physico-chemical parameters, the increase of the dose level generated an improvement in water retention capacity and decreased the rate of polysaccharides hydrolyzes olives. Moreover, the irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy induced the increase in pectinase activities thanks to the improvement of the protein extraction yield. The gamma ray irradiation of olive fruit seems to not decrease olive oil oxidative stability in the studied samples. Finally, gamma ray radiation was able to improve the yield of extraction of the oil and insaponifiable fraction as polyphenols and beta carotenes. (Author)

  11. Determination of optimum harvest maturity and physico-chemical quality of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) during fruit ripening.

    Kheng, Tee Yei; Ding, Phebe; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2012-01-15

    A series of physico-chemical quality (peel and pulp colours, pulp firmness, fruit pH, sugars and acids content, respiration rate and ethylene production) were conducted to study the optimum harvest periods (either week 11 or week 12 after emergence of the first hand) of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) based on the fruit quality during ripening. Rastali banana fruit exhibited a climacteric rise with the peaks of both CO(2) and ethylene production occurring simultaneously at day 3 after ripening was initiated and declined at day 5 when fruits entered the senescence stage. De-greening was observed in both of the harvesting weeks with peel turned from green to yellow, tissue softening, and fruits became more acidic and sweeter as ripening progressed. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the main sugars found while malic, citric and succinic acids were the main organic acids found in the fruit. Rastali banana harvested at weeks 11 and 12 can be considered as commercial harvest period when the fruits have developed good organoleptic and quality attributes during ripening. However, Rastali banana fruit at more mature stage of harvest maturity taste slightly sweeter and softer with higher ethylene production which also means the fruits may undergo senescence faster than fruit harvested at week 11. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of rootstocks on fruit yield and some quality traits of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus

    Rana Kurum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of rootstocks on watermelon fruit quality and yield were investigated by comparing grafted plants with non-grafted and self-grafted ones in open field conditions in over two consecutive years (2013-2014. The watermelon cultivar Crimson Tide was grafted onto Ferro RZ, Maximus, Nun 9075, RS 841, No:3, Strong Tosa and TZ 148 rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted plants were used as control. Grafting increased the average fruit yield between 17.45% and 52.56% compared to non-grafted treatment. It was concluded that among the tested rootstocks No:3 along with Nun 9075 and TZ 148 rootstocks can be advised due to the increase in fruit yield, total soluble solids and taste panel test values and that the use of grafted plants can be advantageous alternative in watermelon production for producers.

  13. Fruit quality attributes of low chilling requirement ‘Snowchaser’ blueberry cultivated in Brazil

    Isabela Maria Jimenes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil there are still few studies on the post-harvest quality of low-chill blueberry cultivars, which have been recently introduced in the country. ‘Snowchaser’ blueberries were evaluated during a six-day storage period regarding fruit physical and chemical properties, and its antioxidant capacity. During fruit storage there was an increased weight loss and maintenance of some skin color properties such as luminosity (L* and b*, whereas the values of parameter a* decreased and chroma (C values increased. The levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids in the pulp increased, as well as the antioxidant activity. Maximum fruit shelf life at room temperature was six days without reduction on the antioxidant activity along the period, which is beneficial to consumers’ health.

  14. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-01-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25±5 °C, Relative Humidity 90±2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control. (author)

  15. Quality changes and nutrient retention in fresh-cut versus whole fruits during storage.

    Gil, María I; Aguayo, Encarna; Kader, Adel A

    2006-06-14

    The influences of processing and storage on the quality indices and nutritional content of fresh-cut fruits were evaluated in comparison to whole fruits stored for the same duration but prepared on the day of sampling. Fresh-cut pineapples, mangoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, strawberries, and kiwifruits and whole fruits were stored for up to 9 days in air at 5 degrees C. The postcutting life based on visual appearance was shorter than 6 days for fresh-cut kiwifruit and shorter than 9 days for fresh-cut pineapple, cantaloupe, and strawberry. On the other hand, fresh-cut watermelon and mango pieces were still marketable after 9 days at 5 degrees C. Losses in vitamin C after 6 days at 5 degrees C were spoil before any significant nutrient loss occurs.

  16. Innovative Hyperspectral Imaging-Based Techniques for Quality Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables: A Review

    Yuzhen Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New, non-destructive sensing techniques for fast and more effective quality assessment of fruits and vegetables are needed to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand for better, more consistent and safer food products. Over the past 15 years, hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a new generation of sensing technology for non-destructive food quality and safety evaluation, because it integrates the major features of imaging and spectroscopy, thus enabling the acquisition of both spectral and spatial information from an object simultaneously. This paper first provides a brief overview of hyperspectral imaging configurations and common sensing modes used for food quality and safety evaluation. The paper is, however, focused on the three innovative hyperspectral imaging-based techniques or sensing platforms, i.e., spectral scattering, integrated reflectance and transmittance, and spatially-resolved spectroscopy, which have been developed in our laboratory for property and quality evaluation of fruits, vegetables and other food products. The basic principle and instrumentation of each technique are described, followed by the mathematical methods for processing and extracting critical information from the acquired data. Applications of these techniques for property and quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables are then presented. Finally, concluding remarks are given on future research needs to move forward these hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  17. Near infrared spectrometric technique for testing fruit quality: optimisation of regression models using genetic algorithms

    Isingizwe Nturambirwe, J. Frédéric; Perold, Willem J.; Opara, Umezuruike L.

    2016-02-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has gained extensive use in quality evaluation. It is arguably one of the most advanced spectroscopic tools in non-destructive quality testing of food stuff, from measurement to data analysis and interpretation. NIR spectral data are interpreted through means often involving multivariate statistical analysis, sometimes associated with optimisation techniques for model improvement. The objective of this research was to explore the extent to which genetic algorithms (GA) can be used to enhance model development, for predicting fruit quality. Apple fruits were used, and NIR spectra in the range from 12000 to 4000 cm-1 were acquired on both bruised and healthy tissues, with different degrees of mechanical damage. GAs were used in combination with partial least squares regression methods to develop bruise severity prediction models, and compared to PLS models developed using the full NIR spectrum. A classification model was developed, which clearly separated bruised from unbruised apple tissue. GAs helped improve prediction models by over 10%, in comparison with full spectrum-based models, as evaluated in terms of error of prediction (Root Mean Square Error of Cross-validation). PLS models to predict internal quality, such as sugar content and acidity were developed and compared to the versions optimized by genetic algorithm. Overall, the results highlighted the potential use of GA method to improve speed and accuracy of fruit quality prediction.

  18. Anoxia Treatment for Delaying Skin Browning, Inhibiting Disease Development and Maintaining the Quality of Litchi Fruit

    Yueming Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Litchi fruit has a very short shelf life after harvest, so marketers and consumers alike desire longer periods of storage, transportation and distribution. To extend shelf life, anoxia treatments were used for the fruit. Litchi fruit were exposed to pure N2 for 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h. They were then kept individually in closed but vented containers for 6 days in the dark at 20 °C and 95–100 % relative humidity. Exposure of litchi fruit to N2 for 3 or 6 h markedly delayed skin browning, reduced rot development and maintained higher concentrations of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid after 6 days of storage. Anoxia treatment for 24 h reduced browning index, but it accelerated disease development, compared to the control. Thus, a pre-storage pure N2 treatment for 3 or 6 h can be an effective means of reducing rotting while maintaining the physical quality of the fruit.

  19. EFFECT OF DEFOLIATION ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PRATA COMUM’ BANANA FRUITS

    JULIANA DOMINGUES LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the advent of black sigatoka in commercial banana crops in the “Vale do Ribeira” region, state of São Paulo, the monitoring the severity and chemical control of the disease in susceptible varieties have become more frequent in order to avoid leaf loss. This study simulated the effect of defoliation caused by the disease on the yield and quality of ‘Prata Comum’ banana fruits, depending on the formation period and fruit position in the bunch. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x11 factorial scheme (period of bunch formation x number of leaves at flowering, 6-16 leaves at flowering in two periods of bunch formation with six replicates. In Period 1, flowering occurred at 04/15/13 and in Period 2 at 01/07/14, although in Period 1, bunch mass was higher and in Period 2, higher average maximum and minimum daily temperatures, precipitation and radiation were observed. Regardless of formation period, the number of leaves at flowering affected bunch mass, which ranged from 18 to 23 kg plant-1. Defoliation affected the size of fruits of hand 1 and last hand of the bunch, but not the variability in fruit size due to the position the fruit occupies in the bunch and physicochemical characteristics.

  20. Thyme oil vapour and modified atmosphere packaging reduce anthracnose incidence and maintain fruit quality in avocado.

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Mafune, Mpho; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2013-09-01

    Postharvest application of prochloraz fungicide is commercially practiced to control anthracnose, a postharvest disease in avocado. Increasing consumer concern regarding food safety and demand for organically produced fruits make it necessary to search for natural environmentally friendly alternative products and processes for the fruit industry. A combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; ∼8% CO₂, 2% O₂) plus thyme oil (TO) was evaluated on the incidence and severity of anthracnose, physiological disorders (grey pulp, vascular browning), fruit quality parameters (L*, h°, firmness, weight loss) and sensory parameters (taste, texture, flavour and overall acceptance), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in avocados ('Fuerte' and 'Hass' cultivars) held at 10 °C cold storage for 18 days and thereafter, ripened at 25 °C for 5-10 days. Stand-alone MAP, commercial treatment (prochloraz 0.05%) and untreated (control) fruit were included for comparison. MAP + TO treatment significantly (P anthracnose, grey pulp, vascular browning, weight loss and loss of fruit firmness, and showed acceptable taste, flavour, texture and higher overall acceptance, increased PAL activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, after ripening at 25 °C followed by cold storage at 10 °C. This investigation recommends MAP + TO combination treatment as a suitable alternative to the currently adopted prochloraz application. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

    Changhong Liu

    Full Text Available Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS, support vector machine (SVM and back propagation neural network (BPNN, were applied to develop theoretical models for predicting the firmness and TSS of intact strawberry fruit. Compared with PLS and SVM, BPNN considerably improved the performance of multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and total soluble solids content with the correlation coefficient (r of 0.94 and 0.83, SEP of 0.375 and 0.573, and bias of 0.035 and 0.056, respectively. Subsequently, the ability of multispectral imaging technology to classify fruit based on ripeness stage was tested using SVM and principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN models. The higher classification accuracy of 100% was achieved using SVM model. Moreover, the results of all these models demonstrated that the VIS parts of the spectra were the main contributor to the determination of firmness, TSS content estimation and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. These results suggest that multispectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for rapid estimation of quality attributes and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

  2. Effect of maleic hydrazide and waxing on quality and shelf life of papaya (carica papaya L.) fruits

    Abu-Goukh, A. A.; Shattir, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of post harvest treatment of maleic hydrazide (MH) with and with out waxing on the quality and shelf-life of Baladi and Ekostika I papaya fruits at 18 ±1°C and 85%-90% relative humidity was evaluated. Maleic hydrazide at 250 and 500 ppm significantly delayed fruit ripening by two and three days in both papaya cultivars, respectively, compared with untreated fruits. The higher the concentration, the more was the delay in fruit ripening. The results also showed that waxing addition to MH resulted in a delay of two more days in fruit ripening that treatment with MH alone. The effect of MH and waxing treatments in delaying papaya fruits ripening was manifested in retarded respiratory climacteric, reduced weight loss and delayed fruit softening and increase in total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.(Author)

  3. School-level factors associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption among students in California middle and high schools.

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. This cross-sectional study included 5439 seventh- and ninth-grade students from 31 schools in California in 2010. Multilevel regression models estimated whether the odds of consuming fruits or vegetables at school among students eating the school lunch were associated with the length of the lunch period, quality/variety of produce options, or other factors. A longer lunch period was associated with increased odds of a student eating fruits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40) and vegetables (OR = 1.54) at school. Better fruit quality increased the odds of a student consuming fruit (OR = 1.44). Including a salad bar and involving students in food service decisions increased a student's odds of consuming vegetables (OR = 1.48 and OR = 1.34, respectively). This study suggests that institutional factors in schools are positively associated with middle and high school students' consumption of produce items at school. Additional efforts to structure school meal environments to enhance students' consumption of produce items can benefit students' nutrition and health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  4. Light spectrum on the quality of fruits of physalis species in subtropical area

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of colored-shade nets on the physicochemical characteristics of physalis in subtropical area. The experimental design was the randomized blocks with a 4 × 5 factorial, being four species of physalis (Physalis peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa and four net colors (white, blue, red and black, besides the control under full sun. Titratable acidity (TA, pH, vitamin C, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA relation, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. It was observed that P. peruviana and P. pubescens have more acid fruits, and P. minima shows vitamin C content higher than the other species. In general, fruits of P. peruviana and P. pubescens have better quality when grown in white, blue or black shade net; fruits of P. minima are physicochemically superior when produced under full sun or under white or blue shade net; finally, fruits of P. ixocarpa have low quality when produced under black net.

  5. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared...... recommended sample sizes to accurately describe the distribution of various quality variables of apples at the orchard scale....

  6. Vegetable Grafting: The Implications of a Growing Agronomic Imperative for Vegetable Fruit Quality and Nutritive Value

    Marios C. Kyriacou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has become an imperative for intensive vegetable production since chlorofluorocarbon-based soil fumigants were banned from use on grounds of environmental protection. Compelled by this development, research into rootstock–scion interaction has broadened the potential applications of grafting in the vegetable industry beyond aspects of soil phytopathology. Grafting has been increasingly tapped for cultivation under adverse environs posing abiotic and biotic stresses to vegetable crops, thus enabling expansion of commercial production onto otherwise under-exploited land. Vigorous rootstocks have been employed not only in the open field but also under protected cultivation where increase in productivity improves distribution of infrastructural and energy costs. Applications of grafting have expanded mainly in two families: the Cucurbitaceae and the Solanaceae, both of which comprise major vegetable crops. As the main drives behind the expansion of vegetable grafting have been the resistance to soilborne pathogens, tolerance to abiotic stresses and increase in yields, rootstock selection and breeding have accordingly conformed to the prevailing demand for improving productivity, arguably at the expense of fruit quality. It is, however, compelling to assess the qualitative implications of this growing agronomic practice for human nutrition. Problems of impaired vegetable fruit quality have not infrequently been associated with the practice of grafting. Accordingly, the aim of the current review is to reassess how the practice of grafting and the prevalence of particular types of commercial rootstocks influence vegetable fruit quality and, partly, storability. Physical, sensorial and bioactive aspects of quality are examined with respect to grafting for watermelon, melon, cucumber, tomato, eggplant, and pepper. The physiological mechanisms at play which mediate rootstock effects on scion performance are discussed in interpreting the

  7. Quality characterization of Andean blackberry fruits (Rubus glaucus Benth. in different maturity stages in Antioquia, Colombia

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product quality and safety are two essential characteristics for the fruit market, making it necessary to normalize and standardize processes in order to improve their commercialization. In this study, the quality of two Andean blackberry cultivars grown in two regions of Antioquia (Envigado and Guarne, Colombia, from different maturity stages as defined by the Norma Tecnica Colombiana 7146 (NTC Spanish was characterized. The parameters that were found suitable for the fruit quality characterization were: weight, total solid soluble content (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index (MI, color index (CI and firmness (F. The equatorial diameter (ED maintained its importance relative to the standard and the market, along with the juice yield (JY. The quotient a*/b* presented the best correlation with the visual color scale as defined in the standard. The TSS ranges defined in NTC 4106 were not verified in this studied for fruits grown in the agro-climatic conditions of Antioquia. Linear regression models are a useful tool for making quick and easy comparisons and estimations of the quality parameters.

  8. Machine Vision-Based Measurement Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Quality Control in Postharvest.

    Blasco, José; Munera, Sandra; Aleixos, Nuria; Cubero, Sergio; Molto, Enrique

    Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria. Moreover, current technology makes it possible to inspect the fruit in spectral ranges beyond the sensibility of the human eye, for instance in the ultraviolet and near-infrared regions. Machine vision-based applications require the use of multiple technologies and knowledge, ranging from those related to image acquisition (illumination, cameras, etc.) to the development of algorithms for spectral image analysis. Machine vision-based systems for inspecting fruit and vegetables are targeted towards different purposes, from in-line sorting into commercial categories to the detection of contaminants or the distribution of specific chemical compounds on the product's surface. This chapter summarises the current state of the art in these techniques, starting with systems based on colour images for the inspection of conventional colour, shape or external defects and then goes on to consider recent developments in spectral image analysis for internal quality assessment or contaminant detection.

  9. Fruit quality of tomato ‘giuliana’ treated with products with physiological effects

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the effect of strobilurins, boscalid, plant growth regulators and vegetal extracts on the physico-chemical quality of tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana. The fruits from each treatment were selected and separated in 4 repetitions: control, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, pyraclostrobin + boscalid, IBA + GA3 + kinetin, GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine and vegetal extract. The first application was carried out at 30 days after transplant and the following at every 15 days. The evaluations were: weight loss, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA relation, pH, ascorbic acid content, texture, total soluble sugars (TSS, activity of pectin methyl esterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG. The SS content, responsible for fruit flavor, varied accordingly to the treatment, being highest for GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine and lowest for the control. The same occurred regarding the SS/AT relation. The fruits were kept on the shelf for 9 days, at room temperature, being that at the end of this period several treatments still presented fruit in optimal consumption conditions, notably the boscalid treatment, which presented lowest weight loss, followed by pyraclostrobin. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of the treatments did not modify the values for pH, AT and AST of the fruits. The highest PME activity was observed for the treatments with boscalid and the mixture of boscalid and pyraclostrobin, while the lowest PG activity occurred in the control and the pyraclostrobin treatment, indicating that some products accelerated the process of demethylation of pectins by PME, facilitating the action of PG.

  10. Importance of fruit variability in the assessment of apple quality by sensory evaluation

    Bavay, Cécile; Symoneaux, Ronan; Maître, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    cultivars, apples were sorted into homogenous acoustic firmness categories within each cultivar. The discrimination ability of the trained panel was observed not only between cultivars but also within each cultivar for crunchiness, firmness, juiciness and acidity. Following these results, a mixed......The assessment of produce quality is a major aspect of applied postharvest biology. Horticultural researchers working on organoleptic quality of fruit need objective methods for the evaluation of sensory properties. The development of sensory methodologies specifically for apples highlighted...... the problem of handling variation due to fruit variability and assessor differences. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight of within-batch variability in sensory evaluation of apples and to propose a methodology that accounts for this variability. Prior to sensory analysis, for three apple...

  11. Effect of different coatings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits.

    Meighani, Hossein; Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three different coatings; resin wax (Britex Ti), carnauba wax (Xedasol M14), and chitosan (1 and 2 % w/v) on postharvest quality of pomegranate fruits were investigated. Fruits quality characteristics and bioactive compounds were evaluated during 40, 80 and 120 days storage at 4.5 °C and 3 additional days at 20 °C. The results showed that uncoated fruits showed higher respiration rate, weight loss, L* and b* values of arils, total soluble solids (TSS)/titratable acidity (TA), and pH than coated fruits during storage. Coating treatments could delay declining TSS and TA percent, a* value of arils, as well as bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The coated fruits with commercial resin and carnauba waxes showed significantly lower respiration rate and weight loss than other treatments, however carnauba wax could maintain considerably higher fruits quality and bioactive compounds than other coating treatments. The results suggested that postharvest application of carnauba wax have a potential to extend storage life of pomegranate fruits by reducing respiration rate, water loss and maintaining fruit quality.

  12. The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits

    Violina R. Angelova; Sava G. Tabakov; Aleksander B. Peltekov; Krasimir I. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on ...

  13. Effect of organic amendments on vegetative growth, fruit and yield quality of strawberry

    Khalid, S.; Qureshi, K.M.; Hafiz, I.A.; Khan, K.S.; Qureshi, U.S.

    2013-01-01

    Organic agricultural techniques are utilized globally to protect our environment and prevent health issues resulting from pesticides and hazardous chemicals. In this regard, studies were conducted using six different organic amendments on strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler which included T 1 = planting media (soil + silt + farm yard manure); T 2 = planting media + 400 mgl/sup -1/ humic acid; T 3 = planting media + 200 g kg/sup -1/ leaf manure; T 4 = planting media + 200 g kg/sup -1/ vermicompost; T 5 = planting media + 200 g kg/sup -1/ plant fertilizer and T 6 = planting media + 200 g kg/sup -1/ bio-compost during 2011-12 at PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi. Treatment T 1 (soil + silt + FYM) induced positive influence on plant height (15.21 cm), canopy spread (20.37 cm), crown diameter (1.47 cm), fresh weight of plant (10.71 g), number of runners per plant (2), total number of flowers (58), total number of fruits (42), fruit size (3.04 cm), fruit weight per berry (8.82 g) while T 4 (soil + silt + 200 g/sup -1/ kg vermicompost) improved fresh leaf weight (0.92 g), number of leaves (6.67), leaf area (43.07 cm/sup 2/) and days required for first bloom (96.67). Leaf manure based treatment (T 3 ) enhanced root length (20.11 cm), T 4 improved quality parameters like total soluble solid (TSS) (8.88) and ascorbic acid contents (64 mg) while T 1 improved total sugar contents in fruits (6.82%). Hence farm yard manure(FYM) and vermicompost based organic amendments enhanced vegetative growth and improved quality of strawberry fruits. (author)

  14. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    García-Arias, Francy L; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Núñez Zarantes, Victor M

    2018-01-01

    Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII), fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO), and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST), in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP) > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF) peruviana .

  15. Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory quality of dried jujube fruits as affected by cultivar and drying method.

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Figiel, Adam; Legua, Pilar; Lech, Krzysztof; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different dying methods, such as convective drying (CD: 50, 60, 70 °C), vacuum-microwave drying (VMD: 120, 480, 480-120 W), a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying [(CPD (60 °C)-VMFD (480-120 W)], and freeze-drying (FD) on key quality parameters of dried jujube fruits (cv. "GAL", "MSI", and "PSI"). The parameters studied included bioactive compounds (flavan-3-ols and flavonols, identified by LC-PDA-MS, and vitamin C), antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP), and sensory attributes (e.g. hardness, jujube-ID, and sweetness). The best quality of the dried product (high contents of bioactive compounds and high intensity of key sensory attributes) was found in fruits treated by FD and VMD 480-120 W. The best cultivars were "PSI" and "GAL" from the point of view of bioactive content and sensory quality, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECT OF PRE-TREATMENT ON THE DRYING KINETICS AND PRODUCT QUALITY OF STAR FRUIT SLICES

    CHING LIK HII

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Start fruit (Avverhoa carambola is rich in nutrients and contains dietary antioxidants which are beneficial to human health. Currently, the commercial potential of this fruit has not been fully explored especially in its dried form. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the drying kinetics and product quality of star fruit slices. The various pre-treatment methods investigated were hot water blanching and dipping in sugar solution. The star fruit was cut into thin slices (5 mm for drying (60°C-80°C using a hot air ventilated oven. Mathematical modelling showed that the Page model was able to describe the moisture diffusion process during drying. Effective diffusivity values were found within the order reported for most food materials (10-8-10-12 m2/s. A decreasing trend in shrinkage ratios was observed with decreasing moisture ratios which corresponds to the greater rate of moisture removal especially at the falling rate period. Overall colour changes were more significant in the blanched samples which could be due to the non-enzymatic browning.

  17. Investigation of the effects of irradiation for quarantine treatment purposes on food quality and hygiene in citrus fruits

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a major problem in citrus production sector in Turkey. In order to overcome this problem, required irradiation doses were investigated for the quarantine treatment for 'Yafa' orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osb.), 'Star ruby' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.); 'Satsuma' tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco) in this project. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of unirradiated and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) fruits were determined in terms of weight loss, water soluble dry matter, pH, titratable acidity, alcohol insoluble pectin, apparent color of fruits, reducing sugar, total carotenoid, flavonoid, vitamin C contents, sensory properties of fruits, total aerob mesophilic bacteria and total yeast and mould counts of fruits. Results showed that, 0.1 kGy gamma irradiation dose is sufficient for effective quarantine treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus fruits, low dose irradiation (≤1.0 kGy) applications had no detrimental effects on citrus fruits' quality except tangerines, microbial load of fruits were seriously affected by irradiation at 1.0 kGy. In addition, under this work we noticed that, irradiated citrus fruits could be detected by using DNA comet analysis method.

  18. Fruit quality traits of ten California-grown pomegranate cultivars harvested over three months

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a deciduous tree crop. Its fruit are known to have relatively high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. The USDA-ARS pomegranate germplasm collection maintains over 250 cultivars, but most have not been evaluated for optimal harvest...

  19. Quality Variation of Goji (Fruits of Lycium spp. in China: A Comparative Morphological and Metabolomic Analysis

    Ruyu Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. has been used in China as food and medicine for millennia, and globally has been consumed increasingly as a healthy food. Ningxia, with a semi-arid climate, always had the reputation of producing best goji quality (daodi area. Recently, the increasing market demand pushed the cultivation into new regions with different climates. We therefore ask: How does goji quality differ among production areas of various climatic regions? Historical records are used to trace the spread of goji production in China over time. Quality measurements of 51 samples were correlated with the four main production areas in China: monsoon (Hebei, semi-arid (Ningxia, Gansu, and Inner Mongolia, plateau (Qinghai and arid regions (Xinjiang. We include morphological characteristics, sugar and polysaccharide content, antioxidant activity, and metabolomic profiling to compare goji among climatic regions. Goji cultivation probably began in the East (Hebei of China around 100 CE and later shifted westward to the semi-arid regions. Goji from monsoon, plateau and arid regions differ according to its fruit morphology, whereas semi-arid goji cannot be separated from the other regions. L. chinense fruits, which are exclusively cultivated in Hebei (monsoon, are significantly lighter, smaller and brighter in color, while the heaviest and largest fruits (L. barbarum stem from the plateau. The metabolomic profiling separates the two species but not the regions of cultivation. Lycium chinense and samples from the semi-arid regions have significantly (p < 0.01 lower sugar contents and L. chinense shows the highest antioxidant activity. Our results do not justify superiority of a specific production area over other areas. Instead it will be essential to distinguish goji from different regions based on the specific morphological and chemical traits with the aim to understand what its intended uses are.

  20. Water shortage and quality of fleshy fruits--making the most of the unavoidable.

    Ripoll, Julie; Urban, Laurent; Staudt, Michael; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Bidel, Luc P R; Bertin, Nadia

    2014-08-01

    Extreme climatic events, including drought, are predicted to increase in intensity, frequency, and geographic extent as a consequence of global climate change. In general, to grow crops successfully in the future, growers will need to adapt to less available water and to take better advantage of the positive effects of drought. Fortunately, there are positive effects associated with drought. Drought stimulates the secondary metabolism, thereby potentially increasing plant defences and the concentrations of compounds involved in plant quality, particularly taste and health benefits. The role of drought on the production of secondary metabolites is of paramount importance for fruit crops. However, to manage crops effectively under conditions of limited water supply, for example by applying deficit irrigation, growers must consider not only the impact of drought on productivity but also on how plants manage the primary and secondary metabolisms. This question is obviously complex because during water deficit, trade-offs among productivity, defence, and quality depend upon the intensity, duration, and repetition of events of water deficit. The stage of plant development during the period of water deficit is also crucial, as are the effects of other stressors. In addition, growers must rely on relevant indicators of water status, i.e. parameters involved in the relevant metabolic processes, including those affecting quality. Although many reports on the effects of drought on plant function and crop productivity have been published, these issues have not been reviewed thus far. Here, we provide an up-to-date review of current knowledge of the effects of different forms of drought on fruit quality relative to the primary and secondary metabolisms and their interactions. We also review conventional and less conventional indicators of water status that could be used for monitoring purposes, such as volatile compounds. We focus on fruit crops owing to the importance of

  1. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection

    Adilson M. Enes; Juliana A. Fracarolli; Inácio M. Dal Fabbro; Silvestre Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing an...

  3. Leaf biochemical responses and fruit oil quality parameters in olive plants subjected to airborne metal pollution.

    Fourati, Radhia; Scopa, Antonio; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Terzano, Roberto; Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Allegretta, Ignazio; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Sofo, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Chemlali) located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory and in a control unpolluted site, managed with similar cultivation techniques. The aim was to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of polluted plants (PP), exposed to atmospheric metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) as compared to control plants (CP). Leaves, roots and fruits of PP showed a depression of their non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defences and a disruption of their hormonal homeostasis. The anomalous physiological status of PP was also demonstrated by the lower values of pigments in leaves and fruits, as compared to CP. Atmospheric metals negatively affected olive oil chemical and sensory quality. However, despite metal deposition on fruit surfaces, the accumulation of potentially toxic metals in olive oil was negligible. Considering that olive oil is an important food product worldwide and that many productive olive orchards are exposed to several sources of pollution, this work could contribute to clarify the effects of atmospheric metal pollution on olive oil quality and its potential toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulated deficit irrigation effects on yield, fruit quality and vegetative growth of Navelina citrus trees

    Gasque, M.; Granero, B.; Turegano, J. V.; Gonzalez-Altozano, P.

    2010-07-01

    An experiment on regulated deficit irrigation (Redi) was performed during two growing seasons (2007 and 2008) in a drip-irrigated orchard of Navelina/Cleopatra in Senyera (Valencia, Spain). Two RDI treatments, where water application was reduced to 40% and 60% of the irrigation dose (ID), were carried out during the initial fruit enlargement phase (Stage II, 17th July to 2nd September). The rest of the year they were irrigated at 110% ID. These treatments were compared with a control, where irrigation was applied without restriction during the whole year at 110% ID. The ID was obtained from the evapotranspiration data, as well as from the characteristic variables of drip irrigation for the specific experimental orchard. The effects of the treatments on yield, fruit quality, and vegetative growth are discussed in relation to tree water status (midday stem water potential, ?st). Minimal ?st values reached in the treatment with the highest stress intensity were -1.71 and - 1.60 MPa in 2007 and 2008 respectively. These ?st values reached as a consequence of the water reduction in the RDI summer treatments applied in this study did not affect yield or fruit quality, allowing water savings between 16% and 23%. In conclusion, water restriction during summer, and once June drop has finished, favours the better use of water resources by Navelina citrus trees, achieving an increase of water use efficiency (between 14% and 27% in this case), provided that an appropriate irrigation in autumn allows for tree recovery. (Author) 39 refs.

  5. Fruit quality in the peach and nectarine with application of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil

    Sarita Leonel

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the quality of the fruit in peach and nectarine cultivars with and without the application of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil, for two production cycles (2009 and 2010. The experiment was carried out at the School of Agricultural Science of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, at Botucatu in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, located at latitude 22º51'55" S and longitude 48º26'22" E, at an altitude of 810 m. The predominant climate type is warm temperate (mesothermal with rains in the summer and dry in the winter. The following were evaluated: soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ratio, firmness, vitamin C and pulp yield. The use of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil had no effect on the quality attributes of the fruit, except for pH, where those fruits under application of the products showed higher values. The cultivars all had a pulp yield greater than 90%, with 'Tourmaline' showing the highest yield (96 %. The levels of vitamin C varied according to the cultivars, where 'Marli' (16.9 mg 100 g-1 and 'Dourado-2' (16.5 mg 100 g-1, stood out for having the highest levels.

  6. Methyl Jasmonate: An Alternative for Improving the Quality and Health Properties of Fresh Fruits

    Marjorie Reyes-Díaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methyl jasmonate (MeJA is a plant growth regulator belonging to the jasmonate family. It plays an important role as a possible airborne signaling molecule mediating intra- and inter-plant communications and modulating plant defense responses, including antioxidant systems. Most assessments of this compound have dealt with post-harvest fruit applications, demonstrating induced plant resistance against the detrimental impacts of storage (chilling injuries and pathogen attacks, enhancing secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, the interactions between MeJA and other compounds or technological tools for enhancing antioxidant capacity and quality of fruits were also reviewed. The pleiotropic effects of MeJA have raisen numerous as-yet unanswered questions about its mode of action. The aim of this review was endeavored to clarify the role of MeJA on improving pre- and post-harvest fresh fruit quality and health properties. Interestingly, the influence of MeJA on human health will be also discussed.

  7. Seasonal changes in quality of wastewater from fruit and vegetable industry

    Puchlik, Monika; Ignatowicz, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The paper aimed at evaluating the seasonal changes in quality of wastewater from facilities producing fruit and vegetable juices, processed and frozen products, and vegetable concentrates. The study revealed that wastewater from fruit and vegetable industry contain large amounts of organic substances expressed as BOD5 (minimum - 500 mgO2/dm3, maximum - 6 100 mgO2/dm3) and COD (minimum - 806 mg O2/dm3, maximum - 7 732 mg O2/dm3), while is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Considerable seasonal oscillations in sewage load disposed by industry to sewerage, were observed. An increase of 50%-60% wastewater concentrations was found between June and October in 2013-2016 as compared to the remaining months.

  8. Effects of dehydration methods on quality characteristics of yellow passion fruit co-products.

    Silva, Neiton C; Duarte, Claudio R; Barrozo, Marcos As

    2017-11-01

    The production and processing of fruits generate a large amount of residues, which are usually disposed of or under-used, representing losses of raw material and energy. The present paper investigates the effect of four dehydration techniques (convective, infrared, microwave and freeze-drying) on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) co-products and the influence of the main variables on moisture removal and bioactive compounds. The compounds analyzed were total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid and pectin. The content of phenolics and flavonoids increased after dehydration in all techniques investigated and the process temperatures directly affected the ascorbic acid content. Microwave dehydration showed the best results for most bioactive compounds analyzed, if performed in suitable process conditions. However, the highest levels of pectin content were obtained by freeze-drying and convective dehydration. This study reinforces the importance of the adequate use of passion fruit co-products due to the high levels of bioactive compounds in this material. Microwave dehydration presented the best results, which indicates the potential use of this technique for a better exploitation of fruit co-products. Larger quantities of pectin were extracted from samples dehydrated through methodologies with long-time process and low temperatures, such as convective drying and freeze-drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage.

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-10-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 °C, Relative Humidity 90 ± 2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar. non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control.

  10. Efficient sampling to determine distribution of fruit quality and yield in a commercial apple orchard

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Wulfsohn, D.; Zamora, I.

    2012-01-01

    In situ assessment of fruit quality and yield can provide critical data for marketing and for logistical planning of the harvest, as well as for site-specific management. Our objective was to develop and validate efficient field sampling procedures for this purpose. We used the previously reported...... ‘fractionator’ tree sampling procedure and supporting handheld software (Gardi et al., 2007; Wulfsohn et al., 2012) to obtain representative samples of fruit from a 7.6-ha apple orchard (Malus ×domestica ‘Fuji Raku Raku’) in central Chile. The resulting sample consisted of 70 fruit on 56 branch segments...... of yield. Estimated marketable yield was 295.8±50.2 t. Field and packinghouse records indicated that of 348.2 t sent to packing (52.4 t or 15% higher than our estimate), 263.0 t was packed for export (32.8 t less or -12% error compared to our estimate). The estimated distribution of caliber compared very...

  11. Efficient sampling to determine the distribution of fruit quality and yield in a commercial apple orchard

    Martinez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Zamora, I.

    2012-01-01

    In situ assessment of fruit quality and yield can provide critical data for marketing and for logistical planning of the harvest, as well as for site-specific management. Our objective was to develop and validate efficient field sampling procedures for this purpose. We used the previously reported...... 'fractionator' tree sampling procedure and supporting handheld software (Gardi et al., 2007; Wulfsohn et al., 2012) to obtain representative samples of fruit from a 7.6-ha apple orchard (Malus ×domestica 'Fuji Raku Raku') in central Chile. The resulting sample consisted of 70 fruit on 56 branch segments...... of yield. Estimated marketable yield was 295.8±50.2 t. Field and packinghouse records indicated that of 348.2 t sent to packing (52.4 t or 15% higher than our estimate), 263.0 t was packed for export (32.8 t less or -12% error compared to our estimate). The estimated distribution of caliber compared very...

  12. Gamma radiation protects fruit quality in tomato by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ethylene

    Mahesh Kumar; Sumedha Ahuja; Bhupinder Singh; Anil Dahuja; Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the individual and combined effect of two different electromagnetic energies, i.e., gamma ray viz 0.1, 0.5 and 1 kGy and static magnetic field (50 mT for 1 h) and their combination (0.5 kGy + 50 mT) on the shelf life of tomato and evaluates the biochemical attributes that influence the fruit ripening and fruit quality. Magnetic field application either alone or in combination with gamma irradiation was not effective in delaying the ripening process. Gamma ray exposed fruits at 0.5 and 1 kGy showed an extended shelf life due to delayed fruit ripening and reduced lycopene synthesis and ethylene production. Efficient ROS scavenging ability and consequent reduction in oxidative damage in the irradiated treatment may cause favorable biochemical changes to facilitate delayed ripening of the tomato fruits. (author)

  13. Effect of postharvest spray of apple polyphenols on the quality of fresh-cut red pitaya fruit during shelf life.

    Fan, Panhui; Huber, Donald J; Su, Zihan; Hu, Meijiao; Gao, Zhaoyin; Li, Min; Shi, Xuequn; Zhang, Zhengke

    2018-03-15

    Fresh-cut (FC) red pitaya fruit were treated with 5ga.i.l -1 apple polyphenols (APP) and then stored at 20°C for up to 4days to evaluate the effects on attributes. Results showed that FC pitaya fruit with APP treatment showed greater colour retention, delayed softening, reduced loss of soluble solids content, titratable acidity, betacyanin and total phenolics compared with untreated FC fruit. APP treatment also maintained antioxidant activity, as indicated by higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power compared with untreated FC pitaya fruit. APP treatment strongly suppressed microbial growth, contributing to improvement of product safety. Because APP is a natural product, we propose that application of APP could be a convenient, safe and low-cost approach to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of FC red pitaya fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Initial evaluation of fruit of accessions of Persea schiedeana Nees for nutritional value, quality and oil extraction.

    López-Yerena, A; Guerra-Ramírez, D; Jácome-Rincón, J; Espinosa-Solares, T; Reyes-Trejo, B; Famiani, F; Cruz-Castillo, J G

    2018-04-15

    Persea schiedeana Nees is an underutilized and very little known species whose fruit is consumed in Mesoamerica where it grows wild. This study was carried out to evaluate: 1) the variability of fruit characteristics of different accessions; 2) the effects of centrifugation and microwave treatment on extracting oil from the fruit and on its qualitative characteristics; 3) the nutraceutical characteristics of the fruit and seeds of different accessions. The results showed a large variability in fruit size and oil/dry matter contents among the different accessions. There was a significant relationship between the dry matter and oil contents in the pulp. The combined use of centrifugation and microwave treatments gave high oil extraction yields (67-68%). The oils had good fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity. The results gave an initial picture about the total phenol contents and antioxidant capacities in the seeds and in the different parts of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fruit and vegetable by-products as novel ingredients to improve the nutritional quality of baked goods.

    Gómez, Manuel; Martinez, Mario M

    2017-03-31

    The industrial manufacturing of fruits and vegetables generates approximately 50% by-product waste, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are rich nutrients and extranutritional compounds that contribute to bowel health, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels and improved control of glycemic and insulin responses. Due to the positive influence of FVB fibers and bioactive compounds during the digestion of glycemic carbohydrates, such as starch, baked goods are ideal food systems to accommodate FVB, since most of them have a high glycemic index. Therefore, this is an area of recent interest with critical environmental, economic and health implications worldwide. However, the utilization of FVB in baked goods leads to the loss of acceptability, in many cases caused by a lack of understanding of the physical structure and composition of FVB and their effects on food quality. The objective of this review is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the impact of the physical structure and composition of FVB on common baked goods and their influence on the nutritional and physical quality of the resulting product. This review will support the use of FVB as ideal ingredients while improving the added value of waste streams.

  16. Exploring a Tomato Landraces Collection for Fruit-Related Traits by the Aid of a High-Throughput Genomic Platform.

    Sacco, Adriana; Ruggieri, Valentino; Parisi, Mario; Festa, Giovanna; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Picarella, Maurizio Enea; Mazzucato, Andrea; Barone, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    During its evolution and domestication Solanum lycopersicum has undergone various genetic 'bottlenecks' and extreme inbreeding of limited genotypes. In Europe the tomato found a secondary centre for diversification, which resulted in a wide array of fruit shape variation given rise to a range of landraces that have been cultivated for centuries. Landraces represent a reservoir of genetic diversity especially for traits such as abiotic stress resistance and high fruit quality. Information about the variation present among tomato landrace populations is still limited. A collection of 123 genotypes from different geographical areas was established with the aim of capturing a wide diversity. Eighteen morphological traits were evaluated, mainly related to the fruit. About 45% of morphological variation was attributed to fruit shape, as estimated by the principal component analysis, and the dendrogram of relatedness divided the population in subgroups mainly on the basis of fruit weight and locule number. Genotyping was carried out using the tomato array platform SolCAP able to interrogate 7,720 SNPs. In the whole collection 87.1% markers were polymorphic but they decreased to 44-54% when considering groups of genotypes with different origin. The neighbour-joining tree analysis clustered the 123 genotypes into two main branches. The STRUCTURE analysis with K = 3 also divided the population on the basis of fruit size. A genomic-wide association strategy revealed 36 novel markers associated to the variation of 15 traits. The markers were mapped on the tomato chromosomes together with 98 candidate genes for the traits analyzed. Six regions were evidenced in which candidate genes co-localized with 19 associated SNPs. In addition, 17 associated SNPs were localized in genomic regions lacking candidate genes. The identification of these markers demonstrated that novel variability was captured in our germoplasm collection. They might also provide a viable indirect selection tool

  17. Exploring a Tomato Landraces Collection for Fruit-Related Traits by the Aid of a High-Throughput Genomic Platform.

    Adriana Sacco

    Full Text Available During its evolution and domestication Solanum lycopersicum has undergone various genetic 'bottlenecks' and extreme inbreeding of limited genotypes. In Europe the tomato found a secondary centre for diversification, which resulted in a wide array of fruit shape variation given rise to a range of landraces that have been cultivated for centuries. Landraces represent a reservoir of genetic diversity especially for traits such as abiotic stress resistance and high fruit quality. Information about the variation present among tomato landrace populations is still limited. A collection of 123 genotypes from different geographical areas was established with the aim of capturing a wide diversity. Eighteen morphological traits were evaluated, mainly related to the fruit. About 45% of morphological variation was attributed to fruit shape, as estimated by the principal component analysis, and the dendrogram of relatedness divided the population in subgroups mainly on the basis of fruit weight and locule number. Genotyping was carried out using the tomato array platform SolCAP able to interrogate 7,720 SNPs. In the whole collection 87.1% markers were polymorphic but they decreased to 44-54% when considering groups of genotypes with different origin. The neighbour-joining tree analysis clustered the 123 genotypes into two main branches. The STRUCTURE analysis with K = 3 also divided the population on the basis of fruit size. A genomic-wide association strategy revealed 36 novel markers associated to the variation of 15 traits. The markers were mapped on the tomato chromosomes together with 98 candidate genes for the traits analyzed. Six regions were evidenced in which candidate genes co-localized with 19 associated SNPs. In addition, 17 associated SNPs were localized in genomic regions lacking candidate genes. The identification of these markers demonstrated that novel variability was captured in our germoplasm collection. They might also provide a viable

  18. Post-harvest quality model of pineapple guava fruit according to storage and weather conditions of cultivation

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The post-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruit is determined by the storage and prevailing weather conditions during growth and development. This study proposes a model for post-harvest fruit quality according to the storage and weather conditions in the pineapple guava growing region. Physiologically ripe fruit were collected during two harvests from two locations within the Department of Cundinamarca (Colombia: Tenjo and San Francisco de Sales. The fruits were stored at 18 ± 1 °C (76 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, over 11 days and at 5 ± 1 °C (87 ± 5% RH, over 31 days, and the quality attributes were evaluated every two days. Models of the most significant physio-chemical quality characteristics of the post-harvest fruit were developed by using the Excel® Solver tool for all data obtained in the two crop periods. The results showed that storage and prevailing weather conditions, which differed according to the altitude of the growing site, had considerable impacts on the physio-chemical characteristics of the fruit throughout the post-harvest ripening process.

  19. Fruit quality of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon fruits bagged with different types of packings/ Qualidade de frutos de caqui ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes embalagens

    Louise Larissa May de Mio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The bagging technique of fruits comes being used by many producers, aiming at the fruit quality, reduction of application of agro toxics and reduction of the damages caused by insects and diseases. The present work evaluated the quality of bagging fruits of ‘Jiro’ japanese persimmon with different types of bags. The experiment was lead in the orchard of Japanese persimmon of the Experimental Farm of the Canguiri of the UFPR, located in Pinhais-PR. The fertilization and the management of the orchard were entirely organic. The treatments had been: microperforated plastic bag, brown kraft paper bag, butter-like paper bag, newspaper bag and without bagging. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with five replicates, being each plant considered a block. Each parcel was composed by 20 fruits. The bagging was made after the physiological fall of the young fruits, distributing the types of bags aleatorely inside each plant. The evaluation was 77 days after bagging, verifying the number of fruits harvested, mass of the fruits, diameter of the fruits, number of fruits in each category of maturation, number of fruits attacked with Schyzothyrium pomi and soluble solids content. The results were significant only in the incidence of S. pomi and in the percentage of coloration of the fruits. The bagging with newspaper and brown kraft bags reduced the incidence of S. Pomi and the color of fruits. The size and the soluble solids content were not affected by bagging.A técnica de ensacamento de frutos vem sendo utilizadas por muitos produtores, visando a melhor qualidade de frutos, redução de aplicação de agrotóxicos e diminuição dos danos provocados por pragas e doenças. O presente trabalho avaliou a qualidade de frutos de caquizeiro ‘Jiro’ ensacados com diferentes tipos de embalagens. O experimento foi conduzido no pomar de caquizeiro da Fazenda Experimental do Canguiri da UFPR, localizada em Pinhais-PR. A adubação e o manejo do

  20. Ionization with accelerated high energy electrons as quarantine treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruits

    Alonso, M.; Río, M.A. del; Jacas, J.

    2002-01-01

    Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest. Spanish citrus exports to countries such as the USA or Japan are subjected to a mandatory quarantine treatment consisting of exposure of fruits to a low temperatures. Some citrus (''Fino'' lemon, ''Fortune'' mandarin) are very sensitive to this kind of treatment and can not be treated this way. Therefore, alternative treatments are necessary. In this study, high energy electrons were investigated as an alternative quarantine treatment against C. capitata in citrus. Survival of the different instars (egg to old pupae) of C. capitata reared in an artificial medium was assessed when exposed to different doses between 0 and 1 kGy. Both pupariation and adult emergence were almost prevented at 0.25 kGy, and no viable adults were obtained at 0.50 kGy. When artificially infested fruits (in both ''Fino'' lemon and ''Fortune'' mandarin) were exposed to 1 kGy, 100% mortality was obtained. Finally, quality (texture, color index, maturity index, juice yield, ethanol and acetaldehyde contents, physiological alterations and organoleptic characteristics) of irradiated (1 kGy) and non irradiated fruit were compared. High energy electron irradiation resulted in unacceptable damage to ''Fortune'' mandarin, but quality of ''Fino'' lemon resulted unaltered even when evaluated one month after irradiation. Therefore high energy electrons could be a useful alternative to cold quarantine treatment for ''Fino'' lemons. (author) [es

  1. Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men123

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Mendiola, Jaime; Levine, Hagai; Hauser, Russ; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have shown that occupational or environmental pesticide exposure can affect male fertility. There is less evidence, however, regarding any potentially adverse effects of pesticide residues in foods on markers of male fertility potential. Objectives: We examined the relations between fruit and vegetable intake, considering pesticide residue status, and semen quality and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones in healthy young men. Methods: The Rochester Young Men's Study is a cross-sectional study that recruited men aged 18–22 y (n = 189) in Rochester, New York. Participants completed a questionnaire, provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, and underwent a physical examination at enrollment. Semen samples were analyzed for total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology, motility, ejaculate volume, total motile count, and total normal count. Dietary intake during the previous year was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fruit and vegetables were categorized as having high [Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) ≥4] or low-to-moderate (PRBS vegetable intake with semen variables and reproductive hormones while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: The total intake of fruit and vegetables was unrelated to semen quality. However, the intake of fruit and vegetables with low-to-moderate pesticide residues was associated with a higher total sperm count and sperm concentration, whereas the intake of fruit and vegetables with high pesticide residues was unrelated to semen quality. On average, men in the highest quartile of low-to-moderate-pesticide fruit and vegetable intake (≥2.8 servings/d) had a 169% (95% CI: 45%, 400%) higher total sperm count and a 173% (95% CI: 57%, 375%) higher sperm concentration than did men in the lowest quartile (vegetables, regardless of pesticide-residue status, was not associated with reproductive hormone concentrations. Conclusions: The consumption of fruit

  2. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment Combined with Peracetic Acid Treatment Reduces Decay and Maintains Quality in Loquat Fruit

    Chen Ling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ultrasonic treatment (UT, 400 watts for 6 min combined with peracetic acid (PA, 0.4% (W/W treatment on fruit decay, browning, and quality and physiological changes in loquat fruit stored at 20°C were investigated. The results showed that treatment with UT or PA alone significantly reduced both decay and browning index in loquat fruit compared with the control. The combined treatment was more effective in decreasing decay and browning index and maintaining higher quality parameters than UT or PA treatment alone. Loquat fruits treated with the combined treatment maintained higher activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD than those treated with other treatments. In addition, UT combined with PA treatment significantly reduced the increase of firmness and increased fruit extractable juice, total soluble solid (TSS, and ascorbic acid content in loquat fruit. Moreover, the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were enhanced by the combination of UT and PA treatment. The combination of UT and PA treatment could be a useful method to reduce decay and browning in loquat fruit stored at room temperature, which has potential for application in the loquat industry.

  3. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Francisco Pérez-Sarmiento

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida” were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain, during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010. The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc and ii RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest. Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years, whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  4. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Pérez-Sarmiento, F.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.; Alcobendas, R.; Alarcón, J.J.; Mounzer, O.; Nicolas, E.

    2016-01-01

    Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida”) were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain), during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010). The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i) control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc) and ii) RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a) 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b) 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c) 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest). Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years), whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  5. Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on physiology, yield and fruit quality in apricot trees under Mediterranean conditions

    Pérez-Sarmiento, F.; Mirás-Avalos, J.M.; Alcobendas, R.; Alarcón, J.J.; Mounzer, O.; Nicolas, E.

    2016-07-01

    Scarce water resources mainly in arid and semi-arid areas have caused an increasing interest for applying irrigation protocols aiming to reduce water spends. The effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the performance of apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. “Búlida”) were assessed in Murcia (SE Spain), during three consecutive growing seasons (2008-2010). The hypothesis was that RDI would not restrict yield but increase fruit quality while saving water. Two irrigation treatments were established: i) control, irrigated to fully satisfy crop water requirements (100% ETc) and ii) RDI, that reduced the amount of applied water to: a) 40% of ETc at flowering and stage I of fruit growth; b) 60% of ETc during the stage II of fruit growth and c) 50% and 25% of ETc during the late postharvest period (from 60 days after harvest). Stem water potential, gas exchanges, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), fruit diameter, yield and fruit quality traits were determined. Vegetative growth was decreased by the use of RDI (12% less TCSA on average for the three years), whereas yield was unaffected. In addition, some qualitative characteristics of the fruits, such as the level of soluble solids, sweetness/acidity relation and fruit colour, were improved by the use of RDI. These results and average water savings of approximately 30%, lead us to conclude that RDI strategies are a possible solution for irrigation management in areas with water shortages, such as arid and semi-arid environments.

  6. Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Fruits import by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Lamees Munef Abdul-Latef

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables.  This studycollected 24 samples and reported a method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. For determination of pesticide residues used in Some fruits which were collected from different markets of Baghdad city to make 24 samples from (peel , core, mixture for each type of fruits markets as:  Oranges( Egypt , Africa, Pomegranate ( Egypt, Mango ( Kenya , Pears (China,  Plum fruits ( Africa , Kiwi (Turkey .That detective of ( 5 different  pesticides (diazinon,  malathion, chlorpyrifos ,parathion  and cypermethrin. The results were detected of multi-residues of  pesticides on the fruit in ( peel , core , mixture may be in the limit of Maximum residue limits(MRL or higher of it   . The pesticides detected that exceeding the limits are: cypermethrin  in Kiwi (peel, core and mixtureat(0.204,0.038, 0.537, in pomegranate detected in (peel and mixture at (0.509,0.189 mg/kg , Diazinondetccted in Egyptian orange in (peel ,core and mixture at (0.031,0.207, 0.099 mg/kg . Malathion and Parathion was not detected at any type of fruits and  that results was compared with codex of FAO/WHO(2013. That data is important to monitor residues in food and to fill gaps in current knowledge would be helpful in assessing human exposure risks from ingestion of contaminated Fruits Imported to our country .

  7. Electronic-nose applications for fruit identification, ripeness, and quality grading

    Manuela Baietto; Dan Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Fruits produce a wide range of volatile organic compounds that impart their characteristically distinct aromas and contribute to unique flavor characteristics. Fruit aroma and flavor characteristics are of key importance in determining consumer acceptance in commercial fruit markets based on individual preference. Fruit producers, suppliers and retailers traditionally...

  8. Combination of ozone and packaging treatments maintained the quality and improved the shelf life of tomato fruit

    Zainuri; Jayaputra; Sauqi, A.; Sjah, T.; Desiana, R. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is very important vegetable crop but has short shelf life. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of ozone and packaging combination treatment on the quality and the storage life of tomato fruit. There were six treatments including: control (without ozone and packaging); without ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; without ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet; with ozone but without packaging; with ozone and packaged with polyethylene bag; and with ozone and polyethylene terephtalate punnet. Each treatment was made into 3 replications. Tomato samples were harvested at turning stage. Ozone treatment was applied for 60 seconds. Tomatoes were then treated with and without packaging. The fruit were then stored at room temperature for up to 12 days. The parameters for assessment were water content, color, texture, weight loss and the population of naturally contamination Escherichia coli. Each parameter was assessed on day 0, 6 and 12 of storage. The results indicated that combination of ozone and packaging treatments significantly affected the physical and biochemical changes (water content, color, texture and weight loss) of the fruit, suppressed the microbiological contamination on the fruit and maintained fruit freshness or quality after 12 days of storage. The combination of ozone and perforated polyethylene packaging treatment was the best treatment to maintain the quality and prolonged the shelf life of tomato fruit to be 12 days at room temperature.

  9. Effect of Chitosan Coating with Cinnamon Oil on the Quality and Physiological Attributes of China Jujube Fruits

    Xing, Yage; Lin, Hongbin; Cao, Dong; Xu, Qinglian; Han, Wenfeng; Wang, Ranran; Che, Zhenming; Li, Xihong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of chitosan coating with cinnamon oil on the physiological attributes and preservation quality of China jujube fruits during storage at 4°C for 60 days were investigated. Results indicated that weight loss and decay of jujube fruits were significantly reduced by chitosan-oil coating during the period of 60-day storage, which also exhibited a quite beneficial effect on maintaining the sensory quality for jujube fruits. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and titratable acid decreased to 3.08 mg·g−1 and 0.342% for the fruits treated by chitosan-oil coating (1.0% + 0.10%), respectively. Polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities were 13.40 U·g−1, 14.53 U·g−1, and 63.6 U·g−1 at the end of storage, respectively. The contents of total soluble phenolics and MDA were 34.51 mg·g−1 and 19.43 μmol·g−1 for the combined coating treated samples and control fruits, respectively. These results suggested that the chitosan-oil coating might be recognized as one efficiency technology on the preservation quality of jujube fruits during the storage time. PMID:26495315

  10. Effect of Salicylic Acid and Chelated Magnesium Sulfate on Fruit Quality Improvement (Physical Characteristics in Pear (cv. Louise Bonne

    mahjabin adel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruit quality is described based on the crop functions (for industry or table and/or difference of the consumer tastes in different societies. The conformity of the quality with consumer demands has an effective role in improvement of the marketing process. For example, elongated pears are preferred for the processing industries and conserving productions. The lack of attention to retaining of quality and/or improvement of apparent situation of gardening product in proportion to consumer demands decreases especial consumer acceptance. The necessity of having desired quality characteristics in pear fruits from the characters viewpoint of fruit specific gravity (major rating criterion of pears and proportion of length to diameter (minor rating, because of their role in market acceptance and pricing, is evident. Fruit quality, while harvesting, as one of the components of plants fertility influenced under different parameters like nourishment and could be managed during growth season. In other words, the gain of qualities proportionated to consumers demands and/or processing industries is possible by the use of acquired method such as the kind of mother plant nutrition, and control of pests and diseases, etc. In the current research, the effect of salicylic acid and chelated magnesium sulfate was studied on physical indexes of fruits quality of pear fruit. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of treatment agents, an experiment was conducted in the ecological conditions of Qazvinon Pear trees belonging to Louise Bonne cultivar in the Randomized Complete Block Design. The treatments includecontrol group (with andwithout water,chelated magnesium sulfate with concentration of 0.5 gram in a liter, chelated magnesium sulfate with concentration of 0.7gram in a liter, salicylic acid with concentration of0.1 gram in a liter,the compound treatment of salicylic acid with concentration of 0.1 andchelated magnesium sulfate with

  11. The maturity characterization of orange fruit by using high frequency ultrasonic echo pulse method

    Aboudaoud, I; Faiz, B; Aassif, E; Izbaim, D; Abassi, D; Malainine, M; Azergui, M; Moudden, A

    2012-01-01

    In this present work, we develop a new ultrasonic echo pulse method in order to study the feasibility of maturity assessment of orange fruit. This study concerns two varieties of orange (Navel and Mandarin) which are the most harvested in the region of Souss-Massa-Drāa in Morocco. We worked in the range of high frequencies by the means of a focusing transducer with 20MHz as a central frequency. By taking into account the strong attenuation of the ultrasounds in the texture of fruits and vegetables, we limited our study only to the external layer of orange peel. This control is based mainly on the measure of the ultrasonic parameters eventually velocity and attenuation in order to check the aptitude of this technique to detect the maturity degree of the fruit without passing by penetrometric and biochemical measurements which are generally destructives but the mostly correlated with human perception concerning the firmness of the fruit.

  12. [Effects of sand-covering on apple trees transpiration and fruit quality in dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu].

    Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiao-ning; Liu, Xiao-yong; Wang, Fa-lin

    2010-11-01

    Aiming at the seasonal drought in the dry land orchards of Longdong, Gansu Province, a sand-covering experiment was conducted with 15-year-old Nagafu No. 2 apple trees, with the soil water content, temperature, stem sap flow velocity, leaf stomatal conductance, and fruit quality measured. In the orchard covered with 5-cm-thick riversand, the increment of soil temperature in February-April was lower than 1 degrees C, while in June-July, it was 2.44 degrees C and 2.61 degrees C on sunny and cloudy days, respectively. The soil water content was over 60% of field capacity throughout the growing season. On sunny days with high soil water content (H season), the stem sap flow curve presented a wide peak. Under sand- covering, the sap flow started 0.6 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 25.5% higher than the control. On cloudy days of H season, the maximum sap flow velocity was 165.6% higher than the control. On sunny days with low soil water content (L season), the sap flow curve had a single peak, and under sand covering, the sap flow started 0.5-1 h earlier than the control on sunny days. The maximum sap flow velocity was 794 g x h(-1). On cloudy days of L season, the sap flow started 1 h earlier, and the maximum sap flow velocity was 311.0% higher than the control. The evaporation of the control was 156.0% higher than that of sand-covering from March to July, suggesting that excessive ground water evaporation was the main reason to cause soil drought. Under sand-covering, single fruit mass was improved obviously whereas fruit firmness was reduced slightly, and soluble solids, vitamin C, total sugar, and organic acid contents were somewhat promoted.

  13. Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men.

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Levine, Hagai; Hauser, Russ; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that occupational or environmental pesticide exposure can affect male fertility. There is less evidence, however, regarding any potentially adverse effects of pesticide residues in foods on markers of male fertility potential. We examined the relations between fruit and vegetable intake, considering pesticide residue status, and semen quality and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones in healthy young men. The Rochester Young Men's Study is a cross-sectional study that recruited men aged 18-22 y (n = 189) in Rochester, New York. Participants completed a questionnaire, provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, and underwent a physical examination at enrollment. Semen samples were analyzed for total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology, motility, ejaculate volume, total motile count, and total normal count. Dietary intake during the previous year was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fruit and vegetables were categorized as having high [Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) ≥4] or low-to-moderate (PRBS sperm count and sperm concentration, whereas the intake of fruit and vegetables with high pesticide residues was unrelated to semen quality. On average, men in the highest quartile of low-to-moderate-pesticide fruit and vegetable intake (≥2.8 servings/d) had a 169% (95% CI: 45%, 400%) higher total sperm count and a 173% (95% CI: 57%, 375%) higher sperm concentration than did men in the lowest quartile (sperm counts in young men unselected by fertility status. This suggests that pesticide residues may modify the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetable intake on semen quality. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Effect of shading nets on the production and quality of blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta

    Mario Marcelo Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth, development and fruit quality blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. variety Brigitta under different shade nets were evaluated. Assays were performed in plants 7 years in a commercial orchard Collipulli, Araucanía Region, Chile. Treatments were a control without shading and four types of screens: a red 40% and 18% shade; aluminized mesh with 40% shade and a black mesh 35% shade. In fruits shade of red mesh 40% greater equatorial and polar diameter were observed and three weeks later harvested the fruits of treatment without mesh. In growing shade 40% aluminized mesh phenological stages extension lag and the maximum weekly production two weeks over control was observed. The highest yields were observed in plants of treatment and control shade of red mesh 40%, with 11008 kg ha-1 and 10461 kg ha-1, respectively, while the lowest was in red mesh 18% with 9668 kg ha-1. The fruits grown under shade of red mesh 18% showed the highest number of fruits per plant with 1806 berries per plant, fruit weight less than 1.69 g with the strongest with 3.76 N mm-1 module deformability. Therefore, the largest weight berry fruits observed in non-mesh screen and 40% red shading, together with the increased size and performance.

  15. Plant probiotic bacteria enhance the quality of fruit and horticultural crops

    Alejandro Jiménez-Gómez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects on the environment and human health caused by the current farming systems based on the overuse of chemical fertilizers have been reported in many studies. By contrast, bacterial inoculations produce positive effects on yields without causing this type of harm. Hence, during recent years, the commercialization of biofertilizers has been on the increase, and the number of companies and products available are expanding worldwide every year. In addition to the notable enhancement of crop production, many studies have shown how the application of bacteria has positive effects on food quality such as improved vitamin, flavonoid and antioxidant content, among other benefits. This advantage is interesting with respect to food that is consumed raw, such as fruits and many vegetables, as these bioactive molecules are maintained up until the moment the food is consumed. As regards this review focuses on the collection of studies that demonstrate that microorganisms can act as plant probiotics of fruit and horticultural crops, essential types of food that form part of a healthy diet.

  16. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m 3 fed -1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 . Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m 3 fed -1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m 3 fed -1 and 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m 3 fed -1 plus 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 , for both seasons

  17. Influence of 1-MCP on texture, related enzymes, quality and their relative gene expression in 'Amrapali' mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits.

    Reddy, S V R; Sharma, R R; Barthakur, S

    2017-11-01

    The mango fruits remain biologically active even after harvest as they continue respiration, transpiration and other bio-chemical processes. Being highly perishable, the fruit quality deteriorates fast under ambient conditions (30 ± 5 °C and 50 ± 5% RH), rendering them unmarketable within 5-6 days. In order to extend the shelf-life of 'Amrapali' mango fruits, we have treated them with three different concentrations (500, 750 and 1000 ppb) of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) @ 20 °C and stored at ambient conditions. Among all the treatments, 1000 ppb was found to be an effective in extending shelf-life till twelfth day with minimum physiological loss in weight (19.24%), maximum firmness (10.43 N), highest retention of quality parameters such as soluble solid concentrates (27.88 °B), ascorbic acid (28.49 mg 100 g -1 FW) and total antioxidant activity (675.41 µmol Trolox g -1 FW) compared to untreated mango fruits (21.79%, 5.45 N, 23.17 °B, 19.55 mg 100 g -1 FW and 265.41 µmol Trolox g -1 FW, respectively). Gene expression studies have revealed that the texture related gene expansin was significantly repressed till fifth day of storage with increasing concentrations of 1-MCP.

  18. Chemical and physical pretreatments of fruits and vegetables: Effects on drying characteristics and quality attributes - a comprehensive review.

    Deng, Li-Zhen; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Xu-Hai; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhi-An; Gao, Zhen-Jiang; Xiao, Hong-Wei

    2017-12-20

    Pretreatment is widely used before drying of agro-products to inactivate enzymes, enhance drying process and improve quality of dried products. In current work, the influence of various pretreatments on drying characteristics and quality attributes of fruits and vegetables is summarized. They include chemical solution (hyperosmotic, alkali, sulfite and acid, etc.) and gas (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and ozone) treatments, thermal blanching (hot water, steam, super heated steam impingement, ohmic and microwave heating, etc), and non-thermal process (ultrasound, freezing, pulsed electric field, and high hydrostatic pressure, etc). Chemical pretreatments effectively enhance drying kinetics, meanwhile, it causes soluble nutrients losing, trigger food safety issues by chemical residual. Conventional hot water blanching has significant effect on inactivating various undesirable enzymatic reactions, destroying microorganisms, and softening the texture, as well as facilitating drying rate. However, it induces undesirable quality of products, e.g., loss of texture, soluble nutrients, pigment and aroma. Novel blanching treatments, such as high-humidity hot air impingement blanching, microwave and ohmic heat blanching can reduce the nutrition loss and are more efficient. Non-thermal technologies can be a better alternative to thermal blanching to overcome these drawbacks, and more fundamental researches are needed for better design and scale up.

  19. Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.

    Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

    2015-03-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. © The Author(s) 2012.

  20. Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P fruit quality. PMID:25806821

  1. Effect of irrigation and fertilization on crop yield and fruit quality of the Tahiti lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae

    Diana Dorado Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a seven years old citrus grove of Tahiti lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka (Rutaceae located in El Espinal, Tolima, Colombia, which has a predominantly negative water balance throughout the year, we evaluated the effect of irrigation and fertilization on yield and fruit quality in 2009 and 2011. Trees were subjected to three levels of water based on the evapotranspiration reference (ETo: L1=100 %, L2=70 % and L3=50 %. We applied three nitrogen treatments: N1=nitrogen required by the nutritional balance, N2=twice the level of nitrogen used in N1, and N3=fertilizer application used by the common farmer. We evaluated the performance, fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameter of fruit, shell thickness, weight and percentage of juice, acidity, soluble solids and vitamin C. The experiment was conducted under a randomized complete block design in a split plot arrangement; the variance and means of the data were statistically analyzed with SAS. And optimal response is between irrigation and fruit quality interaction was obtained with irrigation L1 and fertilization N2. We obtained the highest values in the response variables when the highest amount of water was applied L1, regardless of fertilizer applications, indicating that a lower water supply not only affects the performance of the plant, but also the quality of the fruit, minimizing market opportunities.

  2. Application of High Power Ultrasound in Drying of Fruits and Vegetables

    Werner, Z.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is a sound frequency in the range between 18 and 100 kHz that is above hearing of the human ear. High power ultrasound means application of intensities higher than 1 W cm–2 (usually in the range between I=10–1000Wcm–2. High power and low frequency ultrasound (f = 20 to 100 kHz is considered as “power ultrasound” because its application causes cavitation and is applied in the food industry. High power ultrasound is applied for degassing of liquid food, for induction of oxidation/reduction reactions, for extraction of enzymes and proteins, for inactivation of enzymes and induction of nucleation for crystallization. Ultrasound is anticipating heat transfer; it is used for emulsifying, sterilization, extraction, degassing, filtrating, drying and induction of oxidation. Conventional hot air drying is a very energy- and cost-intensive process. Drying is a simultaneous operation of heat and mass exchange that is followed by phase changes. Application of different pretreatments, like osmotic dehydration, ultrasound and ultrasound assisted osmotic dehydration has shown different effects on fruits and vegetables. When the high intensity acoustic energy is passing through solid material, it causes several fast and successive compressions and rarefactions with speeds that depend on the frequency applied. Thus, material is exposed to a series of exchangeable squeezing and relaxations, very like continuous squeezing and releasing of the sponge. This mechanism known as "rectified diffusion" is very important in acoustic drying and migration of water. Application of ultrasound as a pretreatment has shown great influence on reducing afterward hot air drying thereby reducing total drying time. It is also shown that pretreatment before drying facilitates better mass transfer and water diffusivity than osmotic dehydration. Quality of the product after drying is better because ultrasound pretreatment is applied at room temperature thus reducing

  3. The Influence of the Fruits Addition on the Quality Characteristics of Yogurt

    Zorica Vosgan; Anca Dumuta; Cristina Mihali; Lucia Mihalescu; Thomas Dippong; Alina Moldovan

    2016-01-01

    Yogurt is considered a healthy food and by incorporating fruits the flavor and its nutritional value are improved. The objective of this study consists in obtaining and characterization of functional dairy products with added fruits, of yogurt type. The raw material used for obtaining the acid dairy products is cow milk, in which there were incorporated fruits: cherry, bananas and oleaginous fruits (nuts). The evolution in time of the acidity during fermentation is influenced by the addition ...

  4. Microbiological Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables at Retail Levels in Korea.

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Wei, Shuai; Khan, Imran; Hussain, Mohammad Shakhawat; Kounkeu, Paul-François Ngnitcho; Park, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Se-Hun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of fresh produce at retail level in Korea in order to periodically update information and establish available risks associated with consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. The samples from different markets located in 3 provinces of South Korea were collected. The protocol in the Korean Food Standards Codex was applied and generic Escherichia coli, coliforms, aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), and yeast and mold (YM) in 360 packaged and unpackaged fresh fruits and vegetables were analyzed. Presence of pathogens was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) after enrichment of samples. For all, the microbial counts ranged from 1.7 to 10.6 log cfu/g for AMB, 2.2 to 7.9 log cfu/g for coliforms, and 5.5 to 7.9 log cfu/g for YM. Three lettuce samples were contaminated by E. coli with a bacterial load ranging from 2 to 4 log cfu/g. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any fresh produce. Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus were found in 1 (0.6%), 3 (0.8%), and 5 (1.4%) fresh produce samples, respectively. Bacillus cereus (50.3%) and Clostridium perfringens (13.3%) had the highest prevalence. These results indicate the need for employing strict control measures and developing preventive strategies to improve the quality and safety of fresh produce in Korea. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. MATURITY AND QUALITY OF APPLE FRUIT DURINIG THE HARVEST PERIOD AT APPLE INDUSTRY

    MARCOS WESTPHAL GONÇALVES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A database of maturity and quality indices was built by analysis of 62,807 samples of 100 ‘Gala’ apples and 29,053 samples of 100 ‘Fuji’ apples at harvest, over 11 years (2005-2015 in an apple industry warehouse. Apple fruit were harvested in Fraiburgo (SC, São Joaquim (SC and Vacaria (RS. Data on firmness, starch index (SI, soluble solid content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, size and grades (external appearance of apple fruit were submitted to linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Each fruit was graded by analysis of external qualities (color and surface blemishes following Brazilian legal standards. At apples industry, the harvest period extended from 3rd to 15th week of the year for ‘Gala’ and from 10th to 22nd week of the year for ‘Fuji’ apples, although approximately 70% of total production for ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples was harvested in a period of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Average maturity of 11 years varied from the 1st to the last week of harvest as follows: ‘Gala’ apples: 17.9 to 14.2 pounds (firmness, 4.0 to 6.1 (SI, 12.2 to 13.1% (SS and 5.7 to 3.9 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. ‘Fuji’ apples: 17.1 to 14.3 pounds (firmness, 3.9 to 6.4 (SI, 12.9 to 14.4% (SS, 6.2 to 3.8 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. Approximately 48% of ‘Gala’ samples and 45% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness higher than 17 and 16 pounds, respectively, intended for long term storage, while 6% of ‘Gala’ samples and 8.5% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness lower than 14 pounds, intended for marketing shortly after harvest. The frequency of apple samples graded as Extra, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3 and out of category were 6%, 32%, 34% and 6% for ‘Gala’ apples and 5%, 39%, 33%, 18%, 5% for ‘Fuji’ apples.

  6. The effect of ethylene on transgenic melon ripening and fruit quality ...

    In cell wall expression analysis, MPG1 increased when fruits of transgenic melons were exposed to ethylene; showing they are ethylene- dependent. MPG2 decreased ... Ethylene productions in transgenic fruits were reestablished when ethylene was applied, exhibiting the same behavior as transgenic fruits. Antioxidant ...

  7. Fast High-Quality Noise

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Wyvill, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the noise functions available in a graphics programmer's toolbox are either slow to compute or they involve grid-line artifacts making them of lower quality. In this paper we present a real-time noise computation with no grid-line artifacts or other regularity problems. In other words......, we put a new tool in the box that computes fast high-quality noise. In addition to being free of artifacts, the noise we present does not rely on tabulated data (everything is computed on the fly) and it is easy to adjust quality vs. quantity for the noise. The noise is based on point rendering (like...... spot noise), but it extends to more than two dimensions. The fact that it is based on point rendering makes art direction of the noise much easier....

  8. Improvement in fresh fruit and vegetable logistics quality: berry logistics field studies.

    do Nascimento Nunes, M Cecilia; Nicometo, Mike; Emond, Jean Pierre; Melis, Ricardo Badia; Uysal, Ismail

    2014-06-13

    Shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is greatly influenced by environmental conditions. Increasing temperature usually results in accelerated loss of quality and shelf-life reduction, which is not physically visible until too late in the supply chain to adjust logistics to match shelf life. A blackberry study showed that temperatures inside pallets varied significantly and 57% of the berries arriving at the packinghouse did not have enough remaining shelf life for the longest supply routes. Yet, the advanced shelf-life loss was not physically visible. Some of those pallets would be sent on longer supply routes than necessary, creating avoidable waste. Other studies showed that variable pre-cooling at the centre of pallets resulted in physically invisible uneven shelf life. We have shown that using simple temperature measurements much waste can be avoided using 'first expiring first out'. Results from our studies showed that shelf-life prediction should not be based on a single quality factor as, depending on the temperature history, the quality attribute that limits shelf life may vary. Finally, methods to use air temperature to predict product temperature for highest shelf-life prediction accuracy in the absence of individual sensors for each monitored product have been developed. Our results show a significant reduction of up to 98% in the root-mean-square-error difference between the product temperature and air temperature when advanced estimation methods are used.

  9. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene on mango fruit (Cv. Kesar): potential for shelf life enhancement and retention of quality.

    Sakhale, B K; Gaikwad, S S; Chavan, R F

    2018-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of gaseous application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on quality and shelf life of mango fruits of Cv. Kesar. The freshly harvested matured mango fruits were washed, cleaned and treated with fungicide at 500 ppm concentration for 10 min. The fruits were then subjected to 1-MCP treatment at different concentrations (500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppb) and exposed for 18 and 24 h at 20 °C temperature in an air tight chamber along with control sample. The results indicated that the ripening in the early stages of mango was delayed by 1-MCP and shelf life of the fruits was increased with increase in the concentration of 1-MCP, also the physico-chemical changes such as percent physiological loss in weight of fruit, total soluble solids and colour was slowly increased and ascorbic acid content was effectively reduced. 1-MCP treatment of 2000 ppb for 24 h exposure time gave the best results for percent physiological loss in weight of fruit from 6.1 to 13% and ascorbic acid content from 80.28 to 22.34 mg/100 g, total soluble solids increased from 7.3 to 16.23 °Brix and the colour was improved from 50.9 to 68.6 h with shelf life of 20 days.

  10. AN APPLE GRADING SYSTEM ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN FRUIT QUALITY STANDARDS USING GABOR FILTER AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    KEYVAN ASEFPOUR VAKILIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of applications of machine learning methods in food engineering in recent decades, several intelligent methods have been introduced in fruit grading technology. In this study, an apple grading system is presented using image’s textural features extraction and artificial intelligence. The objective of this study was to simplify the use of Gabor filter in classification of two varieties of apple fruits (Golden Delicious and Red Delicious in four categories according to the European fruit quality standards. Using this filter, neural network classifier was trained for four category grading of the fruits. Two textural parameters were extracted from each obtained image: mean and variance of energy values of obtained image representing image’s luminous intensity and contrast, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the training of extracted features of about 350 fruits enabled the network to classify the test samples with appropriate accuracy. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed grading categories (‘Extra’, ‘Type 1’, ‘Type 2’ and ‘Rejected’ classes achieved acceptable recognition rates of about 89 % and 92 % overall accuracy for Golden Delicious and Red Delicious varieties, respectively. These experimental results show the appropriate application of proposed method in fast grading of apple fruits. Furthermore, proposed feature extraction and network training methods can be used efficiently in online applications.

  11. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  12. Influence of microwave radiation on the post harvest decay and quality of peach fruits in cold storage

    Azarpajoun, E.; Nikkhah, SH.

    2009-01-01

    This research has been carried out in Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources research center to study the effect of microwave radiation on storage time and control of peach fruit rot. Peach cultivars (Alberta, Red, White and Green of Mashad) were harvested in the first and second decades of June, July and September, sorted and stored at 4°C for 12 hours. Then fruits were treated with a Microwave with the Frequency at 2450 MHZ and two intensities, low (200 w) and high (800 w) for 30, 60 and 120 seconds, the treated and control fruits were laid on in plastic trays, packed in perforated polyethylene bags and stored in cold storage (0°C and 90-95% relative humidity) for 2 months. The qualitative tests including fruit rot, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, weight loss, firmness and color were assayed after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Sensory attributes were measured after 60 days storage. The experimental design was factorial in frame of completely randomized design. Multiple range test (Duncan) were used to compare the means. The results showed that treating the fruit with microwave decreased the fruit rot and increased pH, flesh firmness and total soluble solids of treated peach. Microwave radiation with the 800w for 60 seconds maintained the qualitative characteristics of fruits. Panel test confirmed these results. (author)

  13. Influence of foliar applications of humic acids on yield and fruit quality of table grape cv. Italia

    Giuseppe Ferrara

    2008-06-01

    Significance and impact of study: This study gives new information about the positive effects of foliar application of humic acids, active components of soil and compost organic matter, on yield and fruit quality of table grape. In organic viticulture humic acids may find a valid and appropriate application for a technical and economical use.

  14. Rootstock effects on fruit quality among 'Ray Ruby' grapefruit trees grown in the Indian River district of Florida

    The objective of this experiment was to compare fruit quality parameters of ‘Ray Ruby’ grapefruit grown on seven rootstocks. Four recent releases from the USDA rootstock breeding program, US-852, US-897, US-942 and US-812 (all Citrus reticulata x P. trifoliata hybrids), X639 (C. reticulata x P. tri...

  15. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves.

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-30

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  16. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves

    Adam Figiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  17. REGULATED DEFICIT IRRIGATION AND DIFFERENT MULCH TYPES ON FRUIT QUALITY AND YIELD OF WATERMELON

    KLEITON ROCHA SARAIVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the pulp resistance, soluble solids and yield of watermelon fruits grown under different irrigation managements (determined by the ISAREG model and mulches, and their interactions. After a survey carried out on local producers, two experiments were conducted, using a completely randomized block design in split - plot arrangement with four replications, in the Teaching, Research and Extension Unit (UEPE of the Federal Institute of Ceara (IFCE, Jaguaribe - Apodi Irrigation District (DIJA, State of Ceara, Brazil. The treatments consisted of four irrigation managements in the plots, M1 (100% of the available - water capacity (AWC of the soil, M2 (80%, M3 (60% and M4 (average water depth used by local producers and four mulch types in the sub - plots, without mulching (C0 with rice husk (C1, white plastic (C2 and black plastic (C3 as mulches. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and significant results were subjected to regression (irrigation managements, average test (mulches and trend graphs (interaction between the factors. The irrigation management practiced during the watermelon crop cycle by the local producers of the Irrigation District of Jaguaribe - Apodi (DIJA in the State of Ceara, Brazil, is not appropriated, since they usually apply more water than the highest water depth determined by the ISAREG model (100% of the AWC. The plants grown under irrigation water depth of 365.20 mm (M1 and soils with mulches of rice husk or white plastic had the highest yields and fruits with better quality of soluble solids and pulp resistance.

  18. Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. 'Santa Maria' in semi-arid conditions

    Ali Ikinci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communisand Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L. were investigated. RESULTS: Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree−1, largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha−1 in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant, K, Ca, Mg, Fe

  19. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP; water deficit (WD plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  20. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree.

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  1. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality. PMID:29051767

  2. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20% has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious.

  3. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities

    Diamante, Lemuel M.; Bai, Xue; Busch, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20%) has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious. PMID:26904618

  4. The effects of drying conditions on moisture transfer and quality of pomegranate fruit leather (pestil

    Fatih Mehmet Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum, cabinet and open air drying of pomegranate fruit leather were carried out at various drying conditions to monitor the drying kinetics together with bionutrient degradation of the product. Drying curves exhibited first order drying kinetics and effective moisture diffusivity values varied between 3.1 × 10−9 and 52.6 × 10−9 m2/s. The temperature dependence of the effective moisture diffusivity was satisfactorily described by an Arrhenius-type relationship. Drying conditions, product thickness and operation temperature had various effects on drying rate and final quality of the product. In terms of drying kinetics and final quality of product, vacuum drying had higher drying rate with higher conservation of phenolic, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid that is connected to faster drying condition and oxygen deficient medium. Anthocyanin content was significantly affected by drying method, drying temperature and product thickness. Scatter plot using principle component analysis enabled better understanding of moisture transfer rate and anthocyanin change under various drying conditions.

  5. Characteristics of postharvest quality in regional fruits treate with ionizing radiation

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Villar, Heldio P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: jmnilda@cnen.gov.br; Correia, Lidia C.S.A.; Maciel, Maria Ines S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: aidil_alencar@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: marines@ufrpe.br

    2009-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of irradiation on the main characteristics of quality postharvest of three cultivated species of the Northeast Region of Brazil, experiments with cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum), sapodilla (Manilkara sapodilla (L) Van Royen) and mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) have been performed. Cashew peduncles stored for fourteen days under 6.5 deg C had presented best results in the sensorial analyses for external appearance, flavour and aroma when irradiated with 1 kGy. sapodillas irradiated with doses of 300, 600 and 900 Gy have not displayed harmed sensorial qualities when stored under 20 deg C during twelve days. Doses up to 800 Gy had not harmed the external and internal appearance of mangabas after being stored for a fortnight under 13 deg C. Chemical characteristics of TSS, TTA, pH and solid/acidity ratio have not been affected significantly by the different doses applied to the three studied species. Amount of ascorbic acid was lower in the irradiated fruits, with significant differences for the species Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. (author)

  6. Characteristics of postharvest quality in regional fruits treate with ionizing radiation

    Silva, Josenilda M.; Villar, Heldio P.; Correia, Lidia C.S.A.; Maciel, Maria Ines S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of irradiation on the main characteristics of quality postharvest of three cultivated species of the Northeast Region of Brazil, experiments with cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum), sapodilla (Manilkara sapodilla (L) Van Royen) and mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) have been performed. Cashew peduncles stored for fourteen days under 6.5 deg C had presented best results in the sensorial analyses for external appearance, flavour and aroma when irradiated with 1 kGy. sapodillas irradiated with doses of 300, 600 and 900 Gy have not displayed harmed sensorial qualities when stored under 20 deg C during twelve days. Doses up to 800 Gy had not harmed the external and internal appearance of mangabas after being stored for a fortnight under 13 deg C. Chemical characteristics of TSS, TTA, pH and solid/acidity ratio have not been affected significantly by the different doses applied to the three studied species. Amount of ascorbic acid was lower in the irradiated fruits, with significant differences for the species Anacardium occidentale L. var. Nanum and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. (author)

  7. High-throughput analysis of endogenous fruit glycosyl hydrolases using a novel chromogenic hydrogel substrate assay

    Schückel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Lausen, Thomas Frederik

    2017-01-01

    A broad range of enzyme activities can be found in a wide range of different fruits and fruiting bodies but there is a lack of methods where many samples can be handled in a high-throughput and efficient manner. In particular, plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes – glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) play...... led to a more profound understanding of the importance of GH activity and regulation, current methods for determining glycosyl hydrolase activity are lacking in throughput and fail to keep up with data output from transcriptome research. Here we present the use of a versatile, easy...

  8. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  9. Product quality control, irradiation and shipping procedures for mass-reared tephritid fruit flies for sterile insect release programmes

    1999-05-01

    This document represents the recommendations, reached by consensus of an international group of quality control experts, on the standard procedures for product quality control (QC) for mass reared tephritid flies that are to be used in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs. In addition, the manual describes recommended methods of handling and packaging pupae during irradiation and shipment. Most of the procedures were designed specifically for use with Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), but they are applicable, with minor modification in some cases, for other tephritid species such as Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspense, Mexican fruit fly A. ludens, and various Bactrocera species. The manual is evolving and subject to periodic updates. The future additions will include other fruit flies as the need is identified. If followed, procedures described in this manual will help ensure that the quality of mass-produced flies is measured accurately in a standardised fashion, allowing comparisons of quality over time and across rearing facilities and field programmes. Problems in rearing, irradiation and handling procedures, and strain quality can be identified and hopefully corrected before control programmes are affected. Tests and procedures described in this document are only part of a total quality control programme for tephritid fly production. The product QC evaluations included in this manual are, unless otherwise noted, required to be conducted during SIT programmes by the Field programme staff not the production staff. Additional product QC tests have been developed and their use is optional (see ancillary test section). Production and process QC evaluations (e.g., analysis of diet components, monitoring the rearing environment, yield of larvae, development rate, etc.) are not within the scope of this document. Quality specifications are included for minimum and mean acceptability of conventional strains of C. capitata, A. ludens, and A

  10. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  11. Sequential high pressure extractions applied to recover piceatannol and scirpusin B from passion fruit bagasse.

    Viganó, Juliane; Aguiar, Ana C; Moraes, Damila R; Jara, José L P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Cazarin, Cinthia B B; Maróstica, Mário R; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Passion fruit seeds are currently discarded on the pulp processing but are known for their high piceatannol and scirpusin B contents. Using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), these highly valuable phenolic compounds were efficiently extracted from defatted passion fruit bagasse (DPFB). PLE was performed using mixtures of ethanol and water (50 to 100% ethanol, w/w) as solvent, temperatures from 50 to 70°C and pressure at 10MPa. The extraction methods were compared in terms of the global yield, total phenolic content (TPC), piceatannol content and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The DPFB extracts were also compared with those from non-defatted passion fruit bagasse (nDPFB). Identification and quantification of piceatannol were performed using UHPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that high TPC and piceatannol content were achieved for the extracts obtained from DPFB through PLE at 70°C and using 50 and 75% ethanol as the solvent. The best PLE conditions for TPC (70°C, 75% ethanol) resulted in 55.237mgGAE/g dried and defatted bagasse, whereas PLE at 70°C and 50% ethanol achieved 18.590mg of piceatannol/g dried and defatted bagasse, and such yields were significantly higher than those obtained using conventional extraction techniques. The antioxidant capacity assays showed high correlation with the TPC (r>0.886) and piceatannol (r>0.772). The passion fruit bagasse has therefore proved to be a rich source of piceatannol and PLE showed high efficiency to recover phenolic compounds from defatted passion fruit bagasse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of mesquite gum-candelilla wax based edible coatings on the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.)

    Tomás, S. A.; Bosquez-Molina, E.; Stolik, S.; Sánchez, F.

    2005-06-01

    The ability of composite edible coatings to preserve the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) at 20ºC was studied for a period of 15 days. The edible coatings were formulated with candelilla wax blended with white mineral oil as the lipid phase and mesquite gum as the structural material. The use of edible coatings prolonged the shelf life of treated fruits by retarding ethylene emission and enhancing texture as compared to control samples. At the sixth day, the ethylene produced by the control samples was fivefold higher than the ethylene produced by the coated samples. In addition, the physiological weight loss of coated fruits was nearly 30% lower than the control samples.

  13. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value☆

    Garratt, M.P.D.; Breeze, T.D.; Jenner, N.; Polce, C.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  14. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value.

    Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Jenner, N; Polce, C; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G

    2014-02-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  15. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality

    Jing Xiong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rockwool (RC and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better. For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  16. Comparison of Coconut Coir, Rockwool, and Peat Cultivations for Tomato Production: Nutrient Balance, Plant Growth and Fruit Quality.

    Xiong, Jing; Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Rockwool (RC) and peat are two common substrates used worldwide in horticultural crop production. In recent years environmental and ecological concerns raised the demand for reducing the use of RC and peat. Although coconut coir (CC) has been increasingly used as an alternative to RC and peat, it is still needed to comprehensively evaluate the feasibility of CC before widely used. To meet this need, CC, RC, and peat-vermiculite (PVC) cultivations were used as tomato cultivation substrates to evaluate their effects on EC, pH and mineral ions in root-zone solution and drainage, nutrient uptake by crops, nutrient balance of cultivation system, plant growth and fruit quality. In general, CC significantly increased K and S uptake by crops, photosynthesis, individual fruit weight and total fruit yield compared to RC, and increased P and K uptake by crops and total fruit yield compared to PVC. Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient was overally lower under CC than under RC and PVC (the lower, the better). For all substrates, the blossom-end rot (BER) of fruit increased gradually from 3rd to 13th trusses. The BER of fruit was not significantly influenced by CC compared to RC or PVC, but was sginificantly decreased by PVC compared to RC. Our results infer that CC was a potential substrate that could be widely used in tomato production. However, the inhibition of BER was still a challenge when CC was used as cultivation substrate for tomato.

  17. High pressure and foods -fruit/vegetable juices

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Kocurová, K.; Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Fiedlerová, V.; Holasová, M.; Gabrovská, D.; Paulíčková, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2006), s. 386-398 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : high-pressure pasteurisation * Foods * Broccoli juice Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2006

  18. Gamma irradiation, hot water and imazalil treatments on decay organisms and physical quality of stored netted muskmelon fruit

    Lester, G.

    1989-01-01

    Nonchemical treatments of gamma irradiation (2 Kilograys) and hot water (57°C) and the fungicide imazalil (1000 ppm) were compared with and without shrink-film wrap for effects on decay and physical quality of netted muskmelon fruit stored at 4°C for 0 through 60 days. Gamma irradiation was ineffective in controlling decay and surface molds, and injurious to physical quality by decreasing firmness, increasing fresh weight loss, membrane leakage and vein track browning. Hot water treatment coupled with shrink-film wrap was effective in controlling decay activity and maintaining physical quality up to 20 days storage. Imazalil coupled with shrink-film wrap controlled the incidence and severity of decay and maintained fruit firmness, moisture loss, membrane permeability and vein track browning for almost 60 days storage. (author)

  19. Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

    Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel

    2009-05-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition.

  20. Effects of different irrigation practices using treated wastewater on tomato yields, quality, water productivity, and soil and fruit mineral contents.

    Demir, Azize Dogan; Sahin, Ustun

    2017-11-01

    Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE) in the TWW was significantly higher than in the FW. Although the DI and the PRD practices caused less yields, these practices significantly increased WUE values due to less irrigation water applied. The water-yield linear relationships were statistically significant. TWW significantly increased titratable acidity and vitamin C contents. Reduced irrigation provided significantly lower titratable acidity, vitamin C, and lycopene contents. TWW increased the surface soil and fruit mineral contents in response to FW. Greater increases were observed under FI, and mineral contents declined with reduction in irrigation water. Heavy metal accumulation in soils was within safe limits. However, Cd and Pb contents in fruits exceeded standard limits given by FAO/WHO. Higher metal pollution index values determined for fruits also indicated that TWW application, especially under FI, might cause health risks in long term.

  1. Fruit irradiation

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  2. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Salvi, Aguisson de Oliveira; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of LED irradiation on the ripening and nutritional quality of postharvest banana fruit.

    Huang, Jen-Yi; Xu, Fengying; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-04-24

    With the ability to tailor wavelengths necessary to the photosynthetically active radiation spectrum of plant pigments, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer vast possibilities in horticultural lighting. The influence of LED light irradiation on major postharvest features of banana was investigated. Mature green bananas were treated daily with selected blue (464-474 nm), green (515-525 nm) and red (617-627 nm) LED lights for 8 days, and compared with non-illuminated control. The positive effect of LED lighting on the acceleration of ripening in bananas was greatest for blue, followed by red and green. Under the irradiation of LED lights, faster peel de-greening and flesh softening, and increased ethylene production and respiration rate in bananas were observed during storage. Furthermore, the accumulations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, and total sugars in banana fruit were enhanced by LED light exposure. LED light treatment can induce the ripening of bananas and improve their quality and nutrition potential. These findings might provide new chemical-free strategies to shorten the time to ripen banana after harvest by using LED light source. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation of defoliation caused by Black Sigatoka in the yield and quality of banana 'Nanica ' fruits

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Defoliation caused by Black Sigatoka in yield and quality of banana 'Nanica' was stimulated in this study. A completely randomized 2x8 factorial design with six repetitions was used, in which period of bunch formation and number of leaves at flowering were established as factors. Plants for defoliation were selected on 04/05/2013 (Period 1, and on 07/01/2014 (Period 2. Six to to 13 leaves remained per plant by removing those with more than 50% of blade with injury or senescence. More appropriate climatic conditions before and after flowering, promoted greater mass accumulation in the bunch in Period 2. The increased number of leaves at flowering increased the length of the fruit and the mass of 4th hand, as well as the bunch mass and postharvest period. Defoliation is suggested only for non-functional leaves as well as the maintenance of at least 10 leaves per plant, independent of the period of bunch formation.

  5. Preliminary study on isolation and quality analysis of enzymes from fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Mat Rasol Awang; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) is a cellulosic waste, consisting of 40 - 60 % cellulose with the remaining components comprised of hemicellulose, lignin and other materials. Cellulase is a complex of enzymes containing chiefly endo and exo glucanase, as well as cellobiase plus others (Mandel et al, 1976). Studies on cellulase production from Trichodermaa viride have been reported. The enzyme system from this fungi is considered to be a complete composition of cellulase; and it was reported to be able to hydrolyse slowly a more resistant or crystalline portion of cellulose. Previous work showed Pleorotus sajor-caju and Coprinus cinereus can be easily grown on EFB. The quality of this enzyme system was characterized based on its degradation activity on filter paper, salicin and xylan into simple sugars. These activity tests would revealed the ability of cellulase enzyme system to break down insoluble cellulose, and hydrolysing salicin such as cellobiose and xylanase for breaking down hemicellulose. In this study, the enzyme system derived from liquid state fermentation by these fungi utilizing EFB as carbon source was investigated

  6. Effect of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on the fruit quality of cucumber and the health risk.

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Xin; Chang, Qin; Tao, Yue; Wang, Lihua; Dong, Junwei; Lin, Yulong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely used as plastic films' plasticizer, can cause agricultural pollution which is of increasing concern because of the food safety issues. Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus Linn.), commonly cultured in greenhouse, was exposed to DBP stress to gain more information about the ecological risk of DBP in this study. Changes of DBP residues and fruit quality of cucumber at different DBP concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg of dry soil) were investigated in pot experiments using an agricultural soil under greenhouse condition, respectively. DBP residue in cucumber fruits ranged from 0.5326 to 1.8938 mg/kg, and the quality of cucumber fruits (organic acids, vitamin C, soluble protein, and soluble sugar) were influenced by DBP stress. Moreover, the health risk assessment was evaluated by estimate daily intakes (EDI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) was analyzed. Under 40 mg/kg DBP condition, the highest value of EDI was 2.49 μg/kg bw/day and the THQ ranged from 0.000700 to 0.0249. Although the risk of DBP in cucumber fruits was lower than the threshold limit value of risk, the potential health risk was not a negligible issue.

  7. Identification and characterization of novel microRNAs for fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Liu, Zhoubin; Zhang, Yuping; Ou, Lijun; Kang, Linyu; Liu, Yuhua; Lv, Junheng; Wei, Ge; Yang, Bozhi; Yang, Sha; Chen, Wenchao; Dai, Xiongze; Li, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shudong; Zhang, Zhuqing; Ma, Yanqing; Zou, Xuexiao

    2017-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs which play an important regulatory role in various biological processes. Previous studies have reported that miRNAs are involved in fruit development in model plants. However, the miRNAs related to fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) remains unknown. In this study, small RNA populations from different fruit ripening stages and different varieties were compared using next-generation sequencing technology. Totally, 59 known miRNAs and 310 novel miRNAs were identified from four libraries using miRDeep2 software. For these novel miRNAs, 656 targets were predicted and 402 of them were annotated. GO analysis and KEGG pathways suggested that some of the predicted miRNAs targeted genes involved in starch sucrose metabolism and amino sugar as well as nucleotide sugar metabolism. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the contrasting expression patterns between several miRNAs and their target genes. These results will provide an important foundation for future studies on the regulation of miRNAs involved in fruit development and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient and salinity concentrations effects on quality and storability of cherry tomato fruits grown by hydroponic system

    Mohammad Zahirul Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient and salinity concentrations on the quality of deepflow technique hydroponic system cultivated cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Unicorn’. The conditions were: (1 control (NS-1 × nutrient Solution, Electrical Conductivity – EC: 2.5 mS∙cm–1; (2 2 × NS (2 × NS-Double NS, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; (3 NS + 4.23 mM NaCl (NaCl-Sodium Chloride, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; and (4 NS + 13.70 mM Sea Water – SW (EC: 7.5 mS∙cm–1. NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment showed the lowest fresh weight loss. Visual quality as well as shelf life was the longest in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The longest shelf life at 5 °C, 11 °C, and 24 °C were 21, 16, and 8 days, respectively, in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits, which was retained after storage. Moreover, NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment increased the cherry tomato fruit’s quality, especially soluble solids and sugar contents. These results indicate that salinity concentration has effect the soluble solids and sugar of cherry tomato fruits. In addition, nutrient concentration influenced the shelf life and firmness of cherry tomato fruits.

  9. Physicochemical quality and antioxidant changes in ‘Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit during ripening

    Pannipa Youryon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and antioxidant changes of ‘Kluai Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit (Musa AA group were investigated during ripening. The visual appearance, peel and pulp color, firmness, total soluble solids concentration (TSS, total acidity (TA and bioactive compounds of the fruit at three stages of ripening (mature green, ripe and overripe were monitored. Changes in both the peel and pulp color, texture, TSS and TA contents during banana ripening were similar to those of other banana fruits. Interestingly, the highest total antioxidants capacity and total phenols concentration were found in the ripe banana fruit. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity remained constant and the highest total flavonoids concentration was found in the mature green fruit.

  10. Persea schiedeana: A High Oil “Cinderella Species” Fruit with Potential for Tropical Agroforestry Systems

    Jay Bost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persea schiedeana, a close relative of avocado (Persea americana, is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene, coyo, and yas. Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI in Oaxaca, Mexico shows that Persea schiedeana has potential as a supplement to avocado production in subsistence systems and as a potential oil crop in more market oriented agroforestry systems. This survey of Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla area reports on the ethnoecology and management of chinene, as well as on the morphological diversity of the fruit in the area. High morphological diversity for fruit characters was noted and it is suggested that artificial selection has occurred and been modestly successful for desired fruit characters. Superior fruiting trees, identified during village level “chinene fairs” were targeted for vegetative propagation as part of a participatory domestication project. Such superior genotypes hold potential for addressing food security and creating marketable products in tropical areas around the globe.

  11. Consumer Perception Concerning Apple Fruit Quality, Depending on Cultivars and Hedonic Scale of Evaluation - a Case Study

    Cătălina DAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse fruit quality through consumers’ perceptions and their preferences revealed by two panel questionnaires. Among the most common apple cultivars on the Romanian markets, were chosen the ones existing simultaneously and continuously (over two-years, during January-March: ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Braeburn’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonathan’, ‘Florina’, ‘Idared’. The consumers’ panel for sensory evaluation was represented by students, who completed two types of questionnaires. Both questionnaires refer to foremost traits for dessert apple, such as fruit appearance (size, shape, color and intrinsic peculiarities (pulp consistency, juiciness, taste, flavor. First questionnaire comprised different scales for the traits (1-3, 1-5 or 1-15, while the second one consisted of the hedonic scale (1-9 for all traits. For commercial appearance of the fruits were highlighted ‘Idared’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Braeburn’ and especially ‘Jonagold’. ‘Braeburn’ was distinct by the highest quality taste (average grade 13.9 on the scoring taste scale 1-15 and also for fruit flavor. ‘Granny Smith’, a commercially attractive-looking fruit, received only an average of 6.2 for taste and 2.6 for flavor. ‘Granny Smith’ presented the largest value for the coefficients of variation for taste, this variety being preferred less by female than male tasters. Inconsistency of the market, prices and foreign assortment on Romanian market was illustrated by the lack of statistical correlations between commercial fruit quality and price. The study could provide useful background information for apples breeders, farmers and marketing fruits strategy. The use of different scales for panel evaluation, dependent on the relevance of traits, might be a proper solution for reducing bias. In this case, the 1-15 large scale for apple taste compared with lower ones for other traits

  12. A high-density linkage map and QTL mapping of fruit-related traits in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.).

    Zhong, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Yang-Yang; Li, Jun-Xing; Yu, Ting; Wu, Ting-Quan; Luo, Jian-Ning; Luo, Shao-Bo; Huang, He-Xun

    2017-10-06

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is an economically worldwide crop. Few quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were reported previously due to the lack of genomic and genetic resources. In this study, a high-density linkage map of C. moschata was structured by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, using 200 F2 individuals of CMO-1 × CMO-97. By filtering 74,899 SNPs, a total of 3,470 high quality SNP markers were assigned to the map spanning a total genetic distance of 3087.03 cM on 20 linkage groups (LGs) with an average genetic distance of 0.89 cM. Based on this map, both pericarp color and strip were fined mapped to a novel single locus on LG8 in the same region of 0.31 cM with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of 93.6% and 90.2%, respectively. QTL analysis was also performed on carotenoids, sugars, tuberculate fruit, fruit diameter, thickness and chamber width with a total of 12 traits. 29 QTLs distributed in 9 LGs were detected with PVE from 9.6% to 28.6%. It was the first high-density linkage SNP map for C. moschata which was proved to be a valuable tool for gene or QTL mapping. This information will serve as significant basis for map-based gene cloning, draft genome assembling and molecular breeding.

  13. The Influence of the Fruits Addition on the Quality Characteristics of Yogurt

    Zorica Vosgan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt is considered a healthy food and by incorporating fruits the flavor and its nutritional value are improved. The objective of this study consists in obtaining and characterization of functional dairy products with added fruits, of yogurt type. The raw material used for obtaining the acid dairy products is cow milk, in which there were incorporated fruits: cherry, bananas and oleaginous fruits (nuts. The evolution in time of the acidity during fermentation is influenced by the addition of fruits, the highest acidity being reported in the cherry yogurt case. The ascorbic acid content of the fruity yogurts almost doubled compared to simple yogurt, the highest content of vitamin C was found in the yogurt with bananas. The amount of fat was higher in the yogurt containing nuts, because of the oleaginous fruits contribution, fact observed also due to a lower amount of whey released, followed by the yogurt with banana and the cherry yogurt, which released more whey. The study results also indicated that fruits have the effect of increasing the number of lactic acid bacteria, especially the cherry yogurt leading to a population of 4.84 ± 0.13 log CFU/ml.

  14. Recent developments in high efficient freeze-drying of fruits and vegetables assisted by microwave: A review.

    Fan, Kai; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2018-01-10

    Microwave heating has been applied in the drying of high-value solids as it affords a number of advantages, including shorter drying time and better product quality. Freeze-drying at cryogenic temperature and extremely low pressure provides the advantage of high product quality, but at very high capital and operating costs due partly to very long drying time. Freeze-drying coupled with a microwave heat source speeds up the drying rate and yields good quality products provided the operating unit is designed and operated to achieve the potential for an absence of hot spot developments. This review is a survey of recent developments in the modeling and experimental results on microwave-assisted freeze-drying (MFD) over the past decade. Owing to the high costs involved, so far all applications are limited to small-scale operations for the drying of high-value foods such as fruits and vegetables. In order to promote industrial-scale applications for a broader range of products further research and development efforts are needed to offset the current limitations of the process. The needs and opportunities for future research and developments are outlined.

  15. Genotyping by sequencing for SNP-based linkage analysis and identification of QTLs linked to fruit quality traits in Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in stone fruit (Prunus species) breeding is currently difficult to achieve due to the polygenic nature of themost relevant agronomic traits linked to fruit quality. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), however, provides a large quantity of useful data suitable for finemapp...

  16. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R. K.; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared...

  17. The use of fruit extracts for production of beverages with high antioxidative activity

    Tomasz Tarko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can cause many diseases of the circulatory and nervous system as well as tumors. There are many ways of preventing and treating these diseases including the consumption of products that contain significant amounts of antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols and antioxidative vitamins. However, currently food stores offer mainly convenient food, ready-to-eat foodstuffs or highly processed products. During numerous technological treatments they have been deprived of many valuable compounds occurring in fresh products. Therefore, an important element of the food production technology is to ensure a proper composition of valuable human health-promoting compounds, mostly vitamins, minerals and polyphenols in final food product. Consumers often and willingly drink beverages. They are also a good starting base for supplementation. Drinks can be enriched with polyphenols, which may reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, owing to their antiradical potential. The aim of this study was to use the fruit extracts for beverages enrichment in order to increase their antioxidative potential and polyphenol content. For the experiment the fruits of Cornelian cherry, lingonberry, elderberry, hawthorn and Japanese quince were used. Fruit was extracted with 80% ethanol, and then thickened by distillation under reduced pressure. Extracts were used to enrich the apple, orange and grapefruit beverages. Antioxidative activity and total polyphenols content in final beverages were determined. Also, sensory analysis was carried out. The fortification of tested beverages resulted in an increased antioxidative activity and total polyphenol content in case of all applied fruit extracts. Among the beverages composed, the best antioxidative properties were found in a beverage of red grapefruit, whereas the best organoleptically evaluated was the orange beverage. The scores of on the sensory evaluation revealed that the addition of

  18. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: ...

  19. Repeated applications of CPPU on highbush blueberry cv. Duke increase yield and enhance fruit quality at harvest and during postharvest

    Jorge B Retamales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl-N'-phenylurea (CPPU can increase blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. yield and fruit size, but their impact on postharvest is unknown. We studied repeated CPPU applications effects on yield and quality (harvest, postharvest, over 2 yr on mature 'Duke' plants in South-Central Chile. The first year, 5 or 10 mL L-1 CPPU was applied at 3, 10, and/or 17 d after full bloom (DAFB plus a non-sprayed control. The second year, 5 or 10 mL L-1 CPPU were sprayed 10 and 17 DAFB plus a control. The first year, only 10 mL L-1 CPPU sprayed 3+17 DAFB increased yield (32.5% > control; 10 mL L-1 CPPU applied 10 or 3+17 DAFB had highest fruit diameter; and 10 mL L-1 CPPU at 17 DAFB or at 3+10+17 DAFB had highest soluble solids. Overall, 10 mL L-1 CPPU applied 3+17 DAFB, was the best treatment for year one, since it increased fruit yield and diameter, while soluble solids and postharvest weight loss were similar to control. The second year, 10 mL L-1 CPPU reduced fruit coloration (blue color coverage index: BCCI and soluble solids, but not firmness at harvest. This rate increased berry weight (24.2% and fruit wax (59% > wax coverage index: WCI at harvest. Harvest and postharvest WCI increased consistently as CPPU rate increased. CPPU reduced fruit rotting (15% at 45+5 evaluation. During storage, CPPU-treated-fruit had a slower decrease in firmness (30.5% < control at 30+1, but no difference at 30+5. CPPU-treated-fruit usually had higher post harvest soluble solids. Ten mL L-1 CPPU retarded color evolution at harvest and at 30+1, but not at 30+5, 40+1 or 40+5.

  20. Influence of gamma rays, soaking and microwave heating on the quality of olive fruits and their virgin oil

    Rady, A.H.; El-Nashaby, F.M.; Afifi, E.A.; Sallam, E.M.; Abd El-Hady, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 1 and 3 KGy, soaking in boiling water at 100 degree C for 6,9 and 12 min and microwave heating for 10, 13 and 15 minutes treatments on the chemical composition, sensory properties and microbiological quality of olive fruits (Calamata variety). In addition, the influence of applied treatments on the acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) and fatty acids profiles of virgin oil (extracted from olive fruits under investigation) were studied. The results indicated that all treatments undertaken had no real effects on the chemical composition of olive fruits except the moisture content which was markedly decreased by microwave heating treatment. However, the total counts of bacteria, molds and yeasts were decreased by the above treatments. During storage, the overall acceptability scores of each treatment were gradually decreased by increasing the storage periods, while a gradually increase in AV, PV and TBA of olive oil were observed while fatty acid profiles did not alter by all treatments. Gamma irradiation at dose of 3 KGy was the best treatment under investigation for extending the shelf-life of olive fruits to 35 days compared to 20 days for control sample which stored at ambient temperature without a deleterious effect on their chemical and sensory properties

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation and vapor gard on keeping quality of fuerte avocado fruits stored at temperature

    Awad, S.M.; Hassan, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    'Fuerte'avocado fruits, at mature stage, were treated after harvest by gamma rays and Vapor-Gard either alone or in combination, and stored at room temperature. Irradiation with 0.025 or 0.05 kGy increased loss of weight and decay percentage. However, fruit firmness, total carotenoids content, total phenolic compounds and total carbohydrates content were not affected. In all Vapor-Gard treatments at 0.5 or 1.0% either alone or combined with irradiation decreased the weight loss, decay percentage and total carotenoids content, but increased significantly each of fruit firmness, total phenols content and total carbohydrates content during storage periods. Avocados treated by Vapor-Gard at 0.5 or 1.0% alone or combined with irradiation delayed the ripening and extended shelf by 4 and 8 days respectively compared with those of the control or irradiated fruits which reached the fair quality after 8 days of storage. Concerning the changes in oil properties, it is noticed that, refractive index at 25 degree C and iodine value of avocado oil were not affected by treatments or storage periods, while storage periods caused a noticeable decrease in the free fatty acid percentage in all treatments and this reduction was greater in all Vapor-Gard treatments compared with the control.8 tab

  2. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Francy L. García-Arias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII, fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO, and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST, in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF < 4%, to be used as parents in cape gooseberry breeding program. In addition, the accessions were also characterized using Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS. We discovered 27,982 and 36,142 informative SNP markers based on the alignment against the two cape gooseberry references transcriptomes. Besides, 30,344 SNPs were identified based on alignment to the tomato reference genome. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population could be divided into two or three sub-groups, corresponding to landraces-anther culture and wild accessions for K = 2 and wild, landraces, and anther culture plants for K = 3. Association analysis was carried out using a Mixed Linear Model (MLM and 34 SNP markers were significantly associated. These results reveal the basis of the genetic control of important agronomic traits and may facilitate marker-based breeding in P. peruviana.

  3. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Rats.

    Shoeb, Ahsan; Alwar, M C; Shenoy, Preethi J; Gokul, P

    2016-04-01

    The medicinal value of Morinda citrifolia L. (commonly known as Noni) has been explored in ancient folk remedies with a wide range of therapeutic utility, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumour, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Noni fruit juice on serum lipid profile in high fat diet induced murine model of dyslipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a cholesterol rich high fat diet for 45 days in wistar albino rats of either sex (n=8). Noni fruit juice administered at 50mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day, per oral, was compared with the standard drug Atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 30 days. The blood samples were then sent for complete blood lipid profile, after 30 days of treatment. The data presented as mean ± SEM was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The p juice treated group showed a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol at both the doses when compared to the disease control (pjuice at the 50mg/kg dose employed, failed to show a statistical significance when compared to atorvastatin. The present study provides evidence for the hypolipidemic activity of Noni fruit juice in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

  4. The Relationship between the Morphology and Structure and the Quality of Fruits of Two Pear Cultivars (Pyrus communis L. during Their Development and Maturation

    Agata Konarska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavour and nutritional values of pears are appreciated by consumers worldwide, who, however, demand specific fruit quality, that is, attractive appearance, firmness and flavour, and health safety as well as long-term shelf life and storability. Pear cultivars differ in terms of the above-mentioned traits; therefore, we undertook investigations to demonstrate the differences in structure of fruits of two pear cultivars that determine fruit quality in its broadest sense. The micromorphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure of “Clapp’s Favourite” and “Conference” fruits in the fruit set stage and in the harvest maturity stage were investigated under light microscope and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The fruits of “Clapp’s Favourite” and “Conference” in the fruit set stage exhibited distinct differences in the values of anatomical parameters only. Substantial differences in fruit structure were observed in the harvest maturity stage. The analyses indicate that firmness and durability of pear fruits are largely influenced by the presence of russeting, the proportion of closed lenticels and number of stone cells, and the content of starch grains and tannin compounds. The thickness of the cuticle and presence of epicuticular waxes as well as the number of lenticels and the number and depth of microcracks play a minor role.

  5. EFFECT OF THE TIME OF POULTRY MANURE APPLICATION AND GENOTYPE ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PLANTAINS (MUSA spp. AAB

    Okorie Ndukwe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of time of poultry manure application: no application, at planting, 1, 2 and 3 months after planting (MAP were determined on the growth, yield and fruit quality of two plantain (Musa spp. AAB cultivars (PITA 17 and French Reversion. PITA 17 significantly produced more standing leaves, fruits with longer green and shelf life. French Reversion significantly produced taller plants, heavier bunches and fruits, wider and longer fruits. Dry matter partitioning to the pulp, pulp degree of lightness and redness were also higher for French Reversion than PITA 17. The application of poultry manure at 2 MAP produced heaviest bunches and the highest yield components while pulp dry matter and fruit shelf life duration were highest with manure application at 3 MAP. Bunch and fruit weights were heaviest in French Reversion plots applied with poultry manure at 2 MAP whereas shelf life was longest with PITA 17 that received manure application at planting.

  6. Debranching improves morpho-physiological characters, fruit quality and yield of tomato

    Mondal, M.M.A.; Razzaque, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers are commercially cultivated tomato with different levels of shoot pruning but this production practice has not been defined clearly. The experiment was conducted under sub-tropical condition to assess the effect of different levels of debranching on morpho-physiological, reproductive and yield contributing characters in determinate tomato cultivar cv. Binatomato-5. The debranching levels were: i) control, ii) only main stem (MS), iii) MS with 2 branches, iv) MS with 3 branches and v) MS with 4 branches. Based on recommended spacing (50 cm * 50 cm), the higher fruit yield plant-1 as well as fruit yield per hectare were observed in more branch bearing plants of the treatment control (MS with 5-6 branches), MS with 3 branches and MS with 4 branches due to production of higher number of fruits plant-1 with being the highest in MS with 3 branches due to increase fruit size. The lowest fruit yield per plant as well as per hectare was observed in uniculm plants due to lower number of fruits per plant. This study suggests that plants that have MS with three branches may be recommended for commercial cultivation of tomato under sub-tropical condition. (author)

  7. Price versus Non-price Incentives for Participation in Quality Labeling: The Case of the German Fruit Juice Industry

    Simon Bleich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance and labeling play an important and increasing role in firms’ marketing strategies. In almost all cases, a price incentive has been stressed as the major incentive for firms to participate in such schemes. We argue here that important non-price incentives for participation in quality labeling may exist, too. In German retailing, it can be observed that discount retailers are listing more and more foods with quality labels. Processors may then participate in voluntary quality labeling in order to enter the large and growing market of discount retailers. The price-premium versus the market-entry hypothesis are analyzed theo-retically. We investigate then in an empirical hedonic pricing model for the German fruit juice market and for participation in the quality label of the Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft (DLG which of the two hypotheses is consistent with the data. There is strong support for the market-entry hypothesis

  8. High School Girl's Adherence to 5-a-Day Serving's Fruits and Vegetables: An Application Theory of Planned Behavior

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basics of healthy eating is five times consumption of fruits and vegetable a day. Given the importance of recognizing effective factors of consuming fruit and vegetable in this group, the present study aimed to investigate high school girl's adherence to five-time serving fruits and vegetables per day in Hamadan based on the theory of planned behavior application. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 400 girl students from high schools of Hamadan recruited with a multistage cluster sampling method. Participants filled out questionnaires including demographic variables, the theory of planned behavior constructs and a fruit and vegetable consumption measure one week later. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-18 by Chi-square, Pearson correlation and Logistic regression. Results: Fruit and vegetable consumption by female students is 3.4 times daily. Among the demographic variables, family size, mother's education, father's occupation, household income, body mass index and type of school had significant associations with fruit and vegetable consumption (P<0.05. Behavioral intention predicted 35% of the variation in daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Moreover, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and attitude were able to predict 32% of behavioral intention. Conclusion: Fruit and vegetable consumption in female students is inadequate. The theory of planned behavior may be a useful framework to design a 5-A-Day intervention for female students.

  9. Influence of pollen source and pollination frequency on fruit drop, yield and quality of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cv. Dhakki

    Shafique, M.; Khan, A.S.; Malik, A.U.; Shahid, M.; Rajwana, I.A.; Saleem, B.A.; Amin, M.; Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the influence of pollen sources and pollination frequency on fruit drop, yield and quality of date palm cv. 'Dhakki'. Three 'Dhakki' female trees and three different male trees (M-1, M-2 and M-3) were selected for the experiment. On each female tree six spathes were chosen and were pollinated with pollens collected from one of the selected male parent. Out of six, three spathes were pollinated once and other three were pollinated twice (second pollination was done two days after first pollination). Data were collected for physico-chemical characteristics of the fruit including fruit drop, fruit weight, flesh weight, seed weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), TSS: TA ratio, sugars, level of ascorbic acid and total phenols. The results indicated that pollen source significantly affected the fruit drop percentage as minimum fruit drop was observed from the tree pollinated with M-3. Physical properties of the fruit like fruit weight, flesh weight and seed weight were significantly improved with pollination from M-1 compared to other male trees. After harvest chemical quality parameters like TSS and TSS: TA ratio, ascorbic acid contents, and reducing sugars were highest in fruit pollinated with M-3 and M-2 respectively. Whereas lowest level of TA was recorded in fruits pollinated with M-3. Pollen source and number of pollinations did not significantly affect the level of total phenols in the date palm fruit. Total and non-reducing sugars were significantly higher in the fruit pollinated twice. In conclusion, the pollen source had significant impact on the physicochemical properties of date palm cv. 'Dhakki'. The results suggested that best pollen source (male trees) should be selected for their respective female trees to get most desired characteristics. (author)

  10. Avaliação da intensidade de raleio na qualidade de frutos de nespereira Evaluation of thinning intensity on loquat fruit quality

    Aexandre Manzoni Grassi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A nespereira é uma frutífera de origem subtropical, porém com ampla adaptação a regiões de clima temperado com temperaturas baixas pouco rigorosas. Possui inflorescência que origina uma quantidade de frutos superior ao que pode suportar a árvore, produzindo elevada quantidade de frutos de baixo calibre, sendo necessário o raleio de frutos para a melhoria da qualidade. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da intensidade de raleio na qualidade de frutos de nespereira. Avaliaram-se as respostas de cinco cultivares e uma seleção de nespereira a quatro intensidades de raleio de frutos (4, 6, 8 e 10 frutos por panícula. As panículas foram selecionadas em relação ao tamanho (aproximadamente 1,5 cm de diâmetro e ensacadas utilizando-se papel jornal. Todas as panículas foram raleadas e ensacadas no mesmo dia. A colheita foi realizada quando os frutos estavam maduros, no ponto de consumo. Foram avaliados comprimento e diâmetro do fruto, massa do fruto e da semente, pH, acidez titulável e teor de sólidos solúveis. Conclui-se que a melhor qualidade de frutos pode ser obtida quando as panículas são raleadas com intensidades de 4 frutos, os quais resultam em maior comprimento, diâmetro e massa. As variáveis massa da semente, pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis não foram afetadas pela intensidade de raleio.Loquat is a fruit of subtropical origin, but with wide adaptation in temperate regions with low, fairly rigorous temperatures. It presents an inflorescence that leads to higher quantity of fruit than the tree can support, resulting in a high quantity of low caliber fruit. To increase the fruit size is necessary to realize the thinning. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of thinning intensities on the loquat fruit quality. It was studied five cultivars and one loquat selection and four thinning intensities (4, 6, 8, and 10 fruit per panicle. Panicles were selected according to equivalent sizes (1.5 cm

  11. Evaluation gives productivity and quality gives fruit in Aguacate subjected has to gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate hass sometido a radiacion gamma

    De La Cruz Torres, Eulogio; Garcia Andrade, Juan M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares. Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ibannez Palacios, Jorge [Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas. U.A.E., Toluca (Mexico); Mijares Oviedo, Pedro [Fundacion Salvador Sanchez Col CICTAMEX, Coatepec Harina (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of productivity, post harvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Has avocado trees irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the La Labor Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300%. In regard to post harvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO2 /kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This means that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and post harvest behavior of fruits.

  12. The Effect of Green Pruning on the Yield and Fruit Quality of the Crawling Grape Vines Cultivar Keshmeshy in the Climatic Conditions of Shirvan

    F. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green pruning or summer pruning completes winter pruning, and it is conducted during the growing season. The purpose of green pruning is to maximize yield of high quality grapes. Green pruning in fruit trees improves light penetration and increases the quality of fruits. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of green pruning on fruit quantitative and qualitative attributes in grapevine cultivar 'keshmeshi'. Materials and Methods: The present research was undertaken in Shirvan, Northern Khorasan province. The vines were highly uniform, 17 years old and all had equal vegetative growth strength.The planting distances were 3 × 3 m. The present study was conducted on cultivar 'Keshmeshi' that is considered to be one of the best grapevine cultivars mostly used for raisin production as well as table fresh fruits. In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning on different quantitative and qualitative attributes of fruits in cultivar "keshmeshi", the experiment was carried out in two way randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Vines were pruned three times including full bloom, two weeks after full bloom and veraison (eight weeks after full bloom. Pruning was carried out in three levels including tipping after two, four or six nodes above the final cluster. The characteristics studied were cluster weight, berry weight, cluster length and width, berry length and width, number of cluster and berry, vine yield, leaf area, soluble solid, total acidity, pH, berry color, berry sunscald and number of shot berry. The SAS software (SAS, version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data. The mean comparison was performed based on Duncan's multiple range tests at %5 and %1 levels. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of green pruning has no significant effect on the number and width of berries. This treatment also had no

  13. Fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of elephant grass silage added the buriti fruit peel

    Raimundo Ribeiro Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluated the inclusion of buriti fruit peel as additive on the fermentation profile, losses, chemical composition and degradability of elephant grass silage. We used a completely randomized design with five levels of buriti fruit peel (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 g kg-1. The silos were opened after 28 days of storage. In situ degradability monitoring was conducted using a split-plot design in which four animals represented the blocks and silage supplemented with five levels of buriti fruit peel represented the treatments. The use of the additive in elephant silage increased dry matter (DM (P < 0.001, ether extract (EE (P < 0.001, ash (P < 0.001, neutral detergent fiber (NDF (P < 0.001 and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P= 0.0000. The pH (P= 0.0000, N-NH3 (P = 0.024 and there was a decrease in gas losses (P < 0.001, effluent losses and dry matter recovery (P = 0.218 not were influenced by the addition of buriti fruit peel. The inclusion of buriti fruit peel linearly reduced the ruminal degradability DM of soluble fraction (a (P < 0.001 and potentially degradable insoluble fraction (b (P < 0.001. The DM content increase with the addition of the buriti fruit peel to the elephant grass silage promotes improvements in the fermentation process, reduces losses of nutrients and ruminal disappearance of dry matter and does not significantly change the chemical composition with the inclusion of 166.7 g kg-1 of the buriti fruit peel.

  14. Application of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method and kano model to redesign fresh fruit bunches sorting tool

    Anizar; Siregar, I.; Yahya, I.; Yesika, N.

    2018-02-01

    The activity of lowering fresh fruit bunches (FFB) from truck to sorting floor is performed manually by workers using a sorting tool. Previously, the sorting tool used is a pointed iron bar with a T-shaped handle. Changes made to the sorting tool causes several complaints on worker and affect the time to lower the fruit. The purpose of this article is to obtain the design of an FFB sorting tool that suits the needs of these workers by applying the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano Model methods. Both of the two methods will be integrated to find the design that matches workers’ image and psychological feeling. The main parameters are to obtain the customer requirements of the palm fruit loading workers, to find the most important technical characteristics and critical part affecting the quality of the FFB sorting tool. The customer requirements of the palm loading workers are the following : the color of the coating paint is gray, the bar material is made of stainless pipe, the main grip coating material is made of grip, the tip material is made of the spring steel, the additional grip is made of rubber and the handle is of triangular shape.

  15. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage.

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R K; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S K

    2014-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared with control fruits under both the storage conditions. Combined application of putrescine + carnauba wax showed better response in retaining functional properties than putrescine treated or nontreated fruits. The impacts of putrescine and carnauba wax treatments were found more pronounced after 30 days at 3-5 °C storage temperature in retaining functional and sensory qualities. After 60 days of storage, putrescine + carnauba wax retained about 25% higher antioxidant activity both at 3 and 5 °C storage temperatures.

  17. A diet high in fruits and low in meats reduces the risk of colorectal adenomas.

    Austin, Gregory L; Adair, Linda S; Galanko, Joseph A; Martin, Christopher F; Satia, Jessie A; Sandler, Robert S

    2007-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests overall dietary patterns, rather than specific dietary components, may be a better predictor of colorectal adenomas or cancers. Using cluster analysis, we aimed to assess the association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas and whether adjusting for total energy consumption prior to creating clusters affects this relation. Data from a case-control study of 725 individuals undergoing a colonoscopy were utilized. Cases (n = 203) had > or =1 adenoma on colonoscopy, and controls (n = 522) were those who had no adenomas. Dietary data were obtained from an FFQ. Daily intake for 18 different food groups was calculated. The values were transformed into Z-scores. Participants were first clustered without energy adjustment, then again based on their consumption per 1000 kcal (4187 kJ). There was no association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas without energy adjustment prior to creating dietary clusters, as clusters formed as a by-product of energy consumption. After adjusting for energy consumption, 3 distinct clusters emerged: 1) high fruit-low meat cluster; 2) high vegetable-moderate meat cluster; and 3) high meat cluster. After adjusting for potential confounders, the high vegetable-moderate meat cluster (odds ratio [OR] 2.17: [95% CI] 1.20-3.90) and high meat cluster (OR 1.70: [95% CI] 1.04-2.80) were at significantly increased odds of having had an adenoma compared with the high fruit-low meat cluster. A high-fruit, low-meat diet appears to be protective against colorectal adenomas compared with a dietary pattern of increased vegetable and meat consumption.

  18. Effect of methyl salicylate in combination with 1-methylcyclopropene on postharvest quality and decay caused by Botrytis cinerea in tomato fruit.

    Min, Dedong; Li, Fujun; Zhang, Xinhua; Shu, Pan; Cui, Xixi; Dong, Lulu; Ren, Chuntao; Meng, Demei; Li, Jian

    2018-01-20

    Postharvest diseases result in major losses in fruits. Tomato is susceptible to postharvest rot caused by Botrytis cinerea and is regarded as a good model system to study postharvest disease and quality deterioration in fruit. To develop a safe and effective technique to alleviate disease and maintain fruit quality, the effects of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) either separately or combined on quality and gray mold caused by B. cinerea in tomato fruit were investigated. The results showed that application of MeSA (0.05 mmol L -1 ) delayed fruit ripening and reduced gray mold. Compared with MeSA treatment, 1-MCP (0.5 µL L -1 ) effectively delayed fruit ripening. Further, MeSA combined with 1-MCP treatment was more effective in inhibiting fungal decay during storage than MeSA treatment alone. The combined treatment not only enhanced pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) expression, activities of defense enzymes and total phenolic content but also inhibited the increase in electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content. The combined treatment was also more effective in retaining firmness, color change and titratable acidity content than MeSA treatment alone. MeSA combined with 1-MCP treatment was a useful technique to maintain quality and alleviate gray mold in postharvest tomato fruit during storage. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Investigations into the shelf life and nutritional quality of fresh tomato fruit (solanum Lycopersicon) following two post-harvest treatments

    Gyimah, L. A

    2013-07-01

    Tomato production in Ghana is characterized by a glut and high post - harvest losses during the major season followed by scarcity and high prices during the off season. This is the result of the absence of a standard method for preservation of fresh fruits. This research was conducted to determine an effective method for the post - harvest treatment of fresh tomato fruits to enhance shelf life while preserving its physiochemical and nutritional properties. Two experiments were conducted, each with a factorial design of 5x2. In experiment one, the fruits were subjected to 0,1,2,3,and 4 kGy gamma radiation and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. In experiment two, CaCl 2 dissolved in distilled water at 0, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% concerntrations were used to coat tomato fruits and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. Gamma radiation at 4kGy extended the shelf life of tomato by 5 and 9 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. The use of CaCl 2 at 2.5% greatly extended the shelf life of tomato by 11days and 18 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. For both treatments, shelf life increased with increasing dose of radiation/ concentraionn of CaCl 2 . Weight loss was higher in control fruits as well as fruits treated with gamma radiation or CaCl 2 coating stored at 28±1°C temperature than treated fruits stored at 10±1°C. Tomato fruits treated with gamma radiation at 1 and 2 kGy and untreated fruits showed an increased in pH and Total Soluble Solids (TSS) which was paralleled by a decrease in Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) as storage period advance at both storage temperatures. However, fruits treated with CaCl 2 at 1.00% had little effect on pH and TTA of tomato during the storage period. Nutritionally, CaCl 2 coating significantly maintained the vitamin C and Iycopene concentrations in tomato fruit more than control and gamma irradiation which reduced vitamin C and Iycopene contents in the fruits significantly

  20. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200–400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200–400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200–400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation. - Highlights: • A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during 9 month storage period. • Effects of γ radiation in combination with biocontrol agent on physico-chemical parameters of the apple fruits during cold storage. • The potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with biocontrol agent. • Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum (postharvest pathogen) control

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation, Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012, on sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) cv. California wonder in the Research Station of Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Egypt. This research aimed to evaluate response of sweet pepper to chemical and organic manure (poultry or sheep) fertilizers. Organic manures were treated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 KGy to keep it free from pathogenic organism pests and weed seeds. Growth characters such as plant height, num - ber of leaves, number of stems and dry weight per plant in the two seasons were significantly respond to tested factors. The highest vegetative growth characters were induced by 100% mineral fertilizer. Meanwhile, the lowest vegetative growth characters were recorded by using 100% organic manure as compared to mineral fertilizer. On the other hand dry weight of plants treated with organic manure treatment significantly decreased as compared to mineral fertilizer in the two seasons. Furthermore, using organic manure had enhanced or improved the quality of sweet pepper fruits. In conclusion, mineral fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers were the best treatment resulted in the highest vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper. This treatment resulted in not only higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control plants, but also the highest chemical properties values of fruits, total soluble solids, acidity, vitamin C. and carotenoids in the two seasons. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content non significantly increased with all treatments except that of 100% chemical fertilizer. The improvement of plant growth and production recorded with the irradiated organic manure as compared to the unirradiated one. All parameters were higher in sweet pepper fertilized with poultry manure as compared to that fertilized with sheep manure. Although the treatment of organic manure only gave to some extent, less total yield, it has great impact on the

  2. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF MANGO ‘Ubá’ (Mangifera indica L. FRUITS SUBMITTED TO IMPACT MECHANICAL DAMAGE AT HARVEST

    ANÁLIA LÚCIA VIEIRA PACHECO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of ‘Ubá’ mango fruit submitted to mechanical damage. The fruits were harvested in the 2012/2013 harvest, and let to drop once on a flat, hard surface, simulating the harvesting process of ‘Ubá’ mango, which is to drop all the fruits of a plant when they are physiologically mature. Treatments consisted of different drop heights (zero, one, two, three, four and five meters, totaling six treatments. After the fall, the fruits were submitted to ripening, and then evaluated for fresh mass loss (FML, presence of external lesions (PEL, presence of internal lesions (PIL, soluble solids content (SS,titratable acidity (TA, pH, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C. There was no difference between fresh weight loss of the dropped fruits and control. Regarding the presence of external and internal lesions, damage in fruits due to drop height tends to increase. The fruits that were not dropped presented higher SS content than the others, while those that fell from a height of 5 m had the vitamin C content reduced by 27.78% compared to control. The decrease in SS content and vitamin C was influenced by damage caused by the impact. It is concluded that mechanical damage caused by the impact interferes in the main attributes of quality of fruits and pulp of “Ubá” mango.

  3. Stabilization of red fruit-based smoothies by high-pressure processing. Part A. Effects on microbial growth, enzyme activity, antioxidant capacity and physical stability.

    Hurtado, Adriana; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Picouet, Pierre; Jofré, Anna; Ros, José María; Bañón, Sancho

    2017-02-01

    Non-thermal pasteurization by high-pressure processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing thermal processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. However, most of the research on HPP-fruit products only partially addresses fruit-pressure interaction, which limits its practical interest. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit-based smoothies (microbial, enzymatic, oxidative and physical stability). HPP (350 MPa/10 °C/5 min) was slightly less effective than TP (85 °C/7 min) in inactivating microbes (mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) in smoothies kept at 4 °C for up to 28 days. The main limitation of using HPP was its low efficacy in inactivating oxidative (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (pectin methyl esterase) enzymes. Data on antioxidant status, colour parameters, browning index, transmittance, turbidity and viscosity confirmed that the HPP-smoothies have a greater tendency towards oxidation and clarification, which might lead to undesirable sensory and nutritional changes (see Part B). The microbial quality of smoothies was adequately controlled by mild HPP treatment without affecting their physical-chemical characteristics; however, oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes are highly pressure-resistant, which suggests that additional strategies should be used to stabilize smoothies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Evandro eDe Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI from M. circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days. During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC values of 7.5 mg/mL and 10 µL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL and CAR (5 or 2.5 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 µL/mL inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  5. Quantification of patulin in fruit leathers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA).

    Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Ma, Liang; Bobell, John

    2015-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin commonly found in certain fruit and fruit products. For this reason many countries have established regulatory limits pertaining to, in particular, apple juice and apple products. Fruit leathers are produced by dehydrating fruit puree, leaving a sweet product that has a leathery texture. A recent report in the literature described the detection of patulin at substantial levels in fruit leathers. To investigate this further, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) method was developed for the sensitive detection of patulin in fruit leathers. Investigations were also made of the suitability of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for detection of patulin from the surface of fruit leathers. Results indicated DART-MS was insufficiently sensitive for quantification from the surface of home-style apple leathers, although patulin spiked onto the surface of leather or peel could be detected. The UPLC-PDA method was used to determine the fate of patulin during the preparation of home-made fruit leathers. Interestingly, when a home-style process was used, the patulin was not destroyed, but rather increased in concentration as the puree was dehydrated. The UPLC-PDA method was also used to screen for patulin in commercial fruit leathers. Of the 36 products tested, 14 were above the limit of detection (3.5 μg kg(-1)) and nine were above the limit of quantification (12 μg kg(-1)). Positive samples were confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS. Only one sample was found above the US regulatory limit for single-strength apple juice products (50 μg kg(-1)). These results suggest patulin can be concentrated during preparation and can be found in fruit leathers. The limited survey suggests that patulin is fairly prevalent in such commercial products, but that the levels are usually low.

  6. Comparing the availability, price, variety and quality of fruits and vegetables across retail outlets and by area-level socio-economic position.

    Millichamp, Anna; Gallegos, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    To explore whether area-level socio-economic position or the form of retail stream (conventional v. farmers' market) is associated with differences in the price, availability, variety and quality of a range of fresh fruit and vegetables. A multi-site cross-sectional pilot study of farmers' markets, supermarkets and independent fruit and vegetable retailers. Each was surveyed to assess the price, availability, variety and quality of fifteen fruit and eighteen vegetable items. Retail outlets were located in south-east Queensland. Fifteen retail outlets were surveyed (five of each retail stream). Average basket prices were not significantly different across the socio-economic spectrum, but prices in low socio-economic areas were cheapest. Availability, variety and quality did not differ significantly across levels of socio-economic position; however, the areas with the most socio-economic disadvantage scored poorest for quality and variety. Supermarkets had significantly better fruit and vegetable availability than farmers' markets, although price, variety and quality scores were not different across retail streams. Results demonstrate a trend to fruit and vegetable prices being more expensive at farmers' markets, with the price of the fruit basket being significantly greater at the organic farmers' market compared with the non-organic farmers' markets. Neither area-level socio-economic position nor the form of retail stream was significantly associated with differences in the availability, price, variety and quality of fruit and vegetables, except for availability which was higher in supermarkets than farmers' markets. Further research is needed to determine what role farmers' markets can play in affecting fruit and vegetable intake.

  7. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  8. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  9. Desorption isotherms, drying characteristics and qualities of glace tropical fruits undergoing forced convection solar drying

    Jamradloedluk, Jindaporn; Wiriyaumpaiwong, Songchai [Mahasarakham Univ. Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    Solar energy, a form of sustainable energy, has a great potential for a wide variety of applications because it is abundant and accessible, especially for countries located in the tropical region. Drying process is one of the prominent techniques for utilization of solar energy. This research work proposes a forced convection solar drying of osmotically pretreated fruits viz. mango, guava, and pineapple. The fruit cubes with a dimension of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm were immersed in 35% w./w. sucrose solution prior to the drying process. Drying kinetics, color and hardness of the final products obtained from solar drying were investigated and compared with those obtained from open air-sun drying. Desorption isotherms of the osmosed fruits were also examined and five mathematical models were used to fit the desorption curves. Experimental results revealed that solar drying provided higher drying rate than natural sun drying. Color of glace fruit processed by solar drying was more intense, indicated by lower value of lightness and higher value of yellowness, than that processed by sun drying. Hardness of the products dehydrated by both drying methods, however, was not significantly different (p>0.05). Validation of the mathematical models developed showed that the GAB model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated mango and pineapple whereas Peleg's model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated guava. (orig.)

  10. Protecting apple trees from rain –better fruit quality and maintenance of yield

    Kjaer, Katrine Heinsvig

    2016-01-01

    Plastic rain shields reduce the leaf and fruit wetness and protect apple trees against major leaf diseases and hail damage. Shielding the trees may reduce incoming radiation, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the light spectrum, and affect the microclimate and photosynthesis.

  11. Influence of nitrogen rate and drip application method on pomegranate fruit yield and quality

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. Developing more efficient methods of water and fertilizer application are important in reducing production costs. In 2012, a pomegranate orchard established in 2010 with a den...

  12. Influence of white plastic and water replacement rates on pomegranate orchard phenology, fruit yield and quality

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. In 2013, a pomegranate orchard, established in 2010 with a density of 558 trees/ha, was irrigated at water replacement rates of 35, 50 and 100% based on rainfall, tree water r...

  13. Harvest maturity and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    'Arkin' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 13.5), cut to 1 cm thick slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 d...

  14. Oil palm fruit fibre promotes the yield and quality of Lentinus ...

    aghomotsegin

    fruit fibre proved a better substrate for the production of mushrooms with higher yields and protein content (30.10 g/kg ... techniques which in turn affect the chemical compositions ... potentials of this group of fungi, there is need for better.

  15. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-10-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200-400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200-400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200-400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation.

  16. Influence of Calcium Chloride (CaCl/sub 2/) on Fruit Quality of Pear (Pyrus communis) cv. le conte During Storage

    Sajid, M.; Mukhtiar, M.; Rab, M.; Shah, S.R.; Jan, I.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Postharvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2010 to evaluate the 'Influence of calcium chloride (CaCl/sub 2/) on fruit quality of pear (Pyrus communis) cv. Le-conte'. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three factors i.e. (CaCl/sub 2/) concentration (0,3,6 and 9%), dipping time (5,10 and 15 minutes) and storage durations (0,10,20,30 and 40 days). The maximum ascorbic acid (7.93 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (5.86%), while the least percent weight loss (4.52%), pH of fruit juice (4.42), total soluble solids (TSS) (19.83%) and percent disease incidence (2.56%) were observed in fruits treated with 9% CaCl/sub 2/ solution. The dipping time also significantly influenced the quality attributes of pear fruits during storage. The more ascorbic acid (6.88 mg/100 g) and reducing sugar (5.44%) were recorded in the pear fruits dipped for 15 minutes. Storage duration significantly affected the fruit quality 40 days storage. The highest reducing sugar recorded in fresh pear fruits while the highest ascorbic acid (7.83 mg/100 g) were observed in pear fruit stored for 10 days storage duration, while more non-reducing sugar (7.03%) recorded in the fruits stored for 30 days. In the interaction of CaCl/sub 2/ concentration x dipping time, the highest total soluble solid (31.88%) noted in the fruits stored for 40 days and dipped for 5 minutes in CaCl/sub 2/ solution. It is concluded that pear fruit perform best in the postharvest life when treated with 9% CaCl/sub 2/ solution and dipped for 15 minutes. It retained most of the quality attributes up to 10 days storage at ambient temperature while a significant decline was recorded in fruit quality when extended the storage duration from 20 to 40 days. (author)

  17. Quality control of goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill.): A value chain analysis perspective.

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Zigui; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-06-14

    Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted during five months of fieldwork in the main production areas in China with a total of 65 stakeholders. Quality of goji, behaviour and financial performance of stakeholders was documented and analysed for different VCs. Ten different types of VCs were identified. VCs with vertical integration and horizontal collaboration were found to have a more coherent quality control and better goji quality as well as improved stakeholders' financial performance. Vertical integration at different levels was found for independent farmer-based VCs, horizontal collaboration was found in the cooperative-based VCs. Full vertically integrated VCs were found in large-scale production. Goji quality and stakeholders' revenues are linked with different types of VCs which mirror stakeholders' behaviour driven by target markets. Considering their positive influence on quality and revenues, well-developed vertically integrated value chains are likely to become more important in the near future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Potential of UVC germicidal irradiation in suppressing crown rot disease, retaining postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of Musa AAA "Berangan" during fruit ripening.

    S Mohamed, Nuratika Tamimi; Ding, Phebe; Kadir, Jugah; M Ghazali, Hasanah

    2017-09-01

    Crown rot caused by fungal pathogen is the most prevalent postharvest disease in banana fruit that results significant economic losses during transportation, storage, and ripening period. Antifungal effects of ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation at doses varied from 0.01 to 0.30 kJ m -2 were investigated in controlling postharvest crown rot disease, maintenance of fruit quality, and the effects on antioxidant capacity of Berangan banana fruit during ripening days at 25 ± 2°C and 85% RH. Fruits irradiated with 0.30 kJ m -2 exhibited the highest (i.e., 62.51%) reduction in disease severity. However, the application of UVC at all doses caused significant browning damages on fruit peel except the dose of 0.01 kJ m -2 . This dose synergistically reduced 46.25% development of postharvest crown and did not give adverse effects on respiration rate, ethylene production, weight loss, firmness, color changes, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, and pH in banana as compared to the other treatments and control. Meanwhile, the dose also enhanced a significant higher level of total phenolic content, FRAP, and DPPH values than in control fruits indicating the beneficial impact of UVC in fruit nutritional quality. The results of scanning electron micrographs confirmed that UVC irradiation retarded the losses of wall compartments, thereby maintained the cell wall integrity in the crown tissue of banana fruit. The results suggest that using 0.01 kJ m -2 UVC irradiation dose as postharvest physical treatment, the crown rot disease has potential to be controlled effectively together with maintaining quality and antioxidant of banana fruit.

  19. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    Barnes, B [Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute, Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa); Rosenberg, S; Arnolds, L; Johnson, J [SIT Africa (Pty) Ltd., Stellenbosch, 7599 (South Africa)

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  20. Fruit quality and olive leaf and stone addition affect Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic content.

    Allouche, Yosra; Uceda, Marino; Jiménez, Antonio; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2009-10-14

    The present research aimed to evaluate whether Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds are affected by the addition of variable quantities of stones and leaves before processing or by fruit resting on the ground during 3 months. Results showed that stone addition did not influence triterpenic dialcohol content (uvaol and erythrodiol), whereas triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic) increased significantly when 20 and 30% stones were added. Leaves added at 2% increased significantly oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, and erythrodiol content by 83, 41, and 36%, respectively. During fruit resting on the ground, olive oils showed no differences in uvaol content, a slight increase in erythrodiol, and a gradual increase in both oleanolic and maslinic acids, obtaining at the end of the experiment contents nearly 10- and 3-fold higher than control oils. These results confirm that olive oil triterpenic composition is modified by the factors analyzed.

  1. Cross-correlation and time history analysis of laser dynamic specklegram imaging for quality evaluation and assessment of certain seasonal fruits and vegetables

    Samuel, Boni; Retheesh, R.; Zaheer Ansari, Md; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Mujeeb, A.

    2017-10-01

    Quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables is of great concern as there is a shortage of unadulterated items on the market. Even unadulterated fruits and vegetables, especially those with soft tissue, cannot be stored for longer times due to physical and chemical changes. Moreover, damage can occur during harvest and in the post-harvest period, while preserving or transporting the fruits and vegetables. This work describes the use of a laser dynamic speckle imaging technique as a powerful optoelectronic tool for the quality evaluation of certain seasonal fruits and vegetables in an Indian market. A simple optical configuration was designed for developing the dynamic speckle imagining system to record dynamic specklegrams of the specimens under different conditions. These images were analysed using a cross-correlation function and the temporal history of specklegrams. The technique can be effectively adapted to the industrial environment and would be beneficial for all stakeholders in the field.

  2. Effect of light quality on development of fruiting bodies of Panus fragilis

    Orson K. Miller; John G. Palmer

    1977-01-01

    Under a system that permits mass screening of mycelia within bands of the visible spectrum, fruit bodies initiated and developed in two light bands (387-400nm and 425-430nm) in axenic culture. Either or both of these light bands will trigger fruitbody initiation at as low an energy level as 0.2 K (1 K = 1,000 microwatts/cm2). Maturation of sporocarp and hymenium...

  3. Yield and fruit quality of peach scion by using rootstocks propagated by air layering and seed

    Picolotto,Luciano; Fachinello,José Carlos; Bianchi,Valmor João; Manica-Berto,Roberta; Pasa,Mateus da Silveira; Schmitz,Juliano Dutra

    2010-01-01

    In rootstock propagation, several methods can be used; however few practices are adopted due to the lack of information about the behavior of stionic combinations at field. The work aimed to compare the propagation method by air layering with the traditional propagation system by seeds using the scion peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivar Granada. The following variables were measured: yield, fruit weight and size, skin color, flesh firmness, total soluble solids content (TSS) and titat...

  4. Selective component degradation of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) using high-pressure steam

    Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi; Kim, Dong Hee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito; Nishida, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    In order to accelerate the bioconversion process of press-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB), the effect of high-pressure steam pre-treatment (HPST) in degrading the lignocellulosic structure was investigated. HPST was carried out under various sets of temperature/pressure conditions such as 170/0.82, 190/1.32, 210/2.03, and 230 °C/3.00 MPa. It was noted that after HPST, the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated EFB had obviously altered. Scanning electron micrographs of the treated EFB exhibited effective surface erosion that had occurred along the structure. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analyses showed the removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredients. X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity. These results reveal that HPST is an effective pre-treatment method for altering the physicochemical properties of the EFB and enhancing its biodegradability characteristics for the bioconversion process. -- Highlights: ► Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was accelerated by high-pressure steam pre-treatment. ► Scanning electron micrographs exhibited surface erosion as well as composting over 20 days. ► FT-IR and TG data showed the selective removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredient. ► X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity

  5. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  6. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  7. Application of Sensory Evaluation, HS-SPME GC-MS, E-Nose, and E-Tongue for Quality Detection in Citrus Fruits.

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, electronic tongue (E-tongue), headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), electronic nose (E-nose), and quantitative describe analysis (QDA) were applied to describe the 2 types of citrus fruits (Satsuma mandarins [Citrus unshiu Marc.] and sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis {L.} Osbeck]) and their mixing juices systematically and comprehensively. As some aroma components or some flavor molecules interacted with the whole juice matrix, the changes of most components in the fruit juice were not in proportion to the mixing ratio of the 2 citrus fruits. The potential correlations among the signals of E-tongue and E-nose, volatile components, and sensory attributes were analyzed by using analysis of variance partial least squares regression. The result showed that the variables from the sensor signals (E-tongue system and E-nose system) had significant and positive (or negative) correlations to the most variables of volatile components (GC-MS) and sensory attributes (QDA). The simultaneous utilization of E-tongue and E-nose obtained a perfect classification result with 100% accuracy rate based on linear discriminant analysis and also attained a satisfying prediction with high coefficient association for the sensory attributes (R(2) > 0.994 for training sets and R(2) > 0.983 for testing sets) and for the volatile components (R(2) > 0.992 for training sets and R(2) > 0.990 for testing sets) based on random forest. Being easy-to-use, cost-effective, robust, and capable of providing a fast analysis procedure, E-nose and E-tongue could be used as an alternative detection system to traditional analysis methods, such as GC-MS and sensory evaluation by human panel in the fruit industry. Being easy-to-use, cost-effective, robust, and capable of providing a fast analysis procedure, E-nose and E-tongue could be used as an alternative detection system to traditional analysis methods for characterizing food flavors. Based on those

  8. Performance, body measurements, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality in lambs fed residues from processing agroindustry of fruits

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the objective to evaluate the use of residue dry matter (DM from pineapple (Ananas comosus L., banana (Musa sp., mango (Mangifera indica and passion fruit (Passiflora spp. in feeding of the feedlot on productive performance, carcass yield and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of meat. Twenty-five crossbred lamps with Santa Inês breed and mixed breed were used. The treatments consisted of the replacement of 75% of sorghum silage by respective residue DM, whereas in the control treatment forage had only sorghum silage the diets had a houghageto- concentrate ratio of 40:60 interns of DM being isonitrogenous and isoenergetics. The animals were slaughtered at 32 kg liveweight. Before slaughter were obtained biometric measurements, after the same, was performed the hot carcasses weight and morphometric measurements. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4 ° C, was determined the cold carcass weight and yield calculation. The left half carcass was divided into five sections: neck, shoulder, shank, rib and loin, by performing the calculation of income cuts. Analyses meat quality such as pH, color (L, a, b, chroma and Ho, by cooking weight loss, water retention capacity and shear strength were carried out in the Longissimus dorsi sample. The completely randomized design was adapted. The data were interpreted using analysis of variance with the test a Tukey 5% probability. There was no effect of diet (P> 0.05 according to the parameters: growth performance, body measurements, and meat quality of lambs. There was also no effect of the diets (P> 0.05 on the loin eye area assuming that carcasses remained similar muscularity important fact to market acceptance standard. It is concluded that replacing up to 75% of sorghum silage by residues fruit (pineapple, banana, mango and passion fruit in lambs feeding becomes feasible not to change the productive performance, body measurements, yields carcass and cuts and meat

  9. Effect of saline conditions on the maturation process of Clementine clemenules fruits on two different rootstocks

    Navarro, J. M.; Gomez-Gomez, A.; Perez-Perez, J. G.; Botia, P.

    2010-07-01

    The production of mandarins is important in the Mediterranean area, where the continued use of saline water reduces fruit yield and modifies fruit quality. Grafted trees of Clemenules mandarin scion on Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks, two of the most common citrus rootstocks employed in this area, were irrigated with two saline treatments (control and 30 mM NaCl). The fruit quality was studied through the last two months before the fruit harvest. Salinity reduced both the fruit number and the mean fruit weight on Carrizo trees whereas no fruit weight reduction was observed on Cleopatra. The decrease of fruit weight on Carrizo trees is probably due to the lower water content and consequently the lower juice percentage. Although the saline treatment produced significant differences in some fruit quality variables (shape and thickness indices) throughout the maturation process, they were minimal at the harvest time. Total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in fruits from the saline treatments, probably due to a passive dehydration. It is also possible that de novo synthesis of sugars occurred, since fruits from Cleopatra trees receiving the saline treatment had similar water contents but higher TSS than control fruits. The external fruit colour indicated that the saline treatment accelerated the maturation process; however, the maturity index showed that the high acidity of these fruits delayed the internal maturation with respect to the control fruits. (Author) 41 refs.

  10. Engineering high quality medical software

    Coronato, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on high-confidence medical software in the growing field of e-health, telecare services and health technology. It covers the development of methodologies and engineering tasks together with standards and regulations for medical software.

  11. Sperm Quality and Testicular Histomorphometry of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Extract and Fractions of Fruit of Tribulus terrestris L.

    Nelma Neylanne Pinho Muniz Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the sperm quality and testicular histomorphometry of Wistar rats supplemented with extract and fractions of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The ethanolic extract was obtained by dynamic maceration of spray-dried fruit. This extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition, using increasing polarity solvents. Twenty male rats were separated in four groups, with five rats in each group. The control was supplemented with distilled water, while the others were daily given the ethanolic extract, hexanic or aqueous fraction soluble in methanol in a dose of 42 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 70 days. Sperm was obtained from the right epididymal tail for the analysis of motility, count, morphology and viability. The testicular weight of groups supplemented with ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction soluble in methanol was higher when compared to the control. The gonadosomatic index increased in the group supplemented with ethanolic extract. The nuclear, cytoplasmic and individual volume of Leydig cells increased in supplementation with hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol. It was concluded that the extract influenced the spermatogenesis, while hexanic and aqueous fractions soluble in methanol promoted the changes in the intertubular compartment. Therefore, Tribulus terrestris did not improve the sperm quality of the rats.

  12. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

    LEE MEISEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  13. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model

    Mitra Rahmati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar (“Elberta” under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on

  14. Disentangling the Effects of Water Stress on Carbon Acquisition, Vegetative Growth, and Fruit Quality of Peach Trees by Means of the QualiTree Model.

    Rahmati, Mitra; Mirás-Avalos, José M; Valsesia, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Génard, Michel; Davarynejad, Gholam H; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Climate change projections predict warmer and drier conditions. In general, moderate to severe water stress reduce plant vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis. However, vegetative and reproductive growths show different sensitivities to water deficit. In fruit trees, water restrictions may have serious implications not only on tree growth and yield, but also on fruit quality, which might be improved. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the complex interrelations among the physiological processes involved in within-tree carbon acquisition and allocation, water uptake and transpiration, organ growth, and fruit composition when affected by water stress. This can be studied using process-based models of plant functioning, which allow assessing the sensitivity of various physiological processes to water deficit and their relative impact on vegetative growth and fruit quality. In the current study, an existing fruit-tree model (QualiTree) was adapted for describing the water stress effects on peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch) vegetative growth, fruit size and composition. First, an energy balance calculation at the fruit-bearing shoot level and a water transfer formalization within the plant were integrated into the model. Next, a reduction function of vegetative growth according to tree water status was added to QualiTree. Then, the model was parameterized and calibrated for a late-maturing peach cultivar ("Elberta") under semi-arid conditions, and for three different irrigation practices. Simulated vegetative and fruit growth variability over time was consistent with observed data. Sugar concentrations in fruit flesh were well simulated. Finally, QualiTree allowed for determining the relative importance of photosynthesis and vegetative growth reduction on carbon acquisition, plant growth and fruit quality under water constrains. According to simulations, water deficit impacted vegetative growth first through a direct effect on its sink strength

  15. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.

  16. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed fruits and vegetables for enhancing quality

    Yuecel, P. K.; Halkman, H. B. D.

    2009-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. Minimal processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Unlike thermal processing, which has deteriorating effects on vitamins, flavoring compounds, and textural properties of foods, irradiation is a cold process. Besides its effectiveness in eliminating food-borne pathogens, ionizing radiation also reduces spoilage microorganisms, inhibits ethylene production, and retards the ripening process, resulting in extended shelf-life.

  17. Effects of Different Irrigation Programs on Fruit, Trunk Growth Rates, Quality and Yield of Grapefruit Trees

    KANBER, Rıza; KÖKSAL, Harun; YAZAR, Attila; ÖZEKİCİ, Bülent; ÖNDER, Sermet

    1999-01-01

    Long-term field experiments were carried out between 1985 and 1988 to determine the effect of different irrigation intervals and pan coefficients on the fruit and trunk growth rates and yield of mature grapefruit trees grown in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey in a medium-light textured soil. Two different irrigation intervals (I 1 =15 and I 2 =25 days), and pan coefficients (k 1 =0.60 and k 2 =1.00) were used. Higher evapotranspiration values were obtained from the treatments with ...

  18. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  19. The negotiation of quality standards: A social interactionists approach to fruit and vegetable distribution in Argentina

    Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses food quality standards. It suggests that writing on standards creates a flat view of the subject, failing to grasp the richness of the multiple self-organizing practices that shape quality within functioning markets. The article documents the social dimension of quality and

  20. Chemical and sensory quality of fresh pomegranate fruits exposed to gamma radiation as quarantine treatment.

    Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Hyo-Young; Park, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-02-15

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture in February 2012 approved the import of fresh pomegranates subjected to irradiation as a quarantine procedure with a minimum absorbed dose of 0.4kGy against different pests. This study evaluated the application of different gamma-irradiation doses (0.4, 1, and 2kGy) in fresh pomegranate fruits and their effect on the chemical and sensory characteristics. The total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and pH values remained unaffected up to 1kGy treatment. Irradiation caused a significant decrease in the total anthocyanins and phenolic content. A strong positive correlation was observed among the antioxidant activities, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. In general, a stronger preference was shown by sensory panelists for the juice from irradiated fruits. This study provides research-based information about the application of irradiation as a quarantine disinfestation treatment to enhance the marketing and consumer acceptance of pomegranates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tomato second cycle hybrids as a source of genetic variability for fruit quality traits

    Pereira da Costa JH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and molecular variability in a F2 generation derived from a SCH (Second Cycle Hybrid in order to detect QTLs for some fruit traits of tomato. Genome coverage at different levels was achieved by three types of molecular markers (polypeptides, sequence-related amplified polymorphism-SRAP and amplified restriction fragment polymorphism - AFLP. Different degrees of polymorphism were detected by SRAP and AFLP at the DNA structure level and also by polypeptides at the DNA expression level. The first two markers, associated with phenotypic variation, detected QTLs involved in important agronomic traits such as fruit shelf life, soluble solids content, pH, and titratable acidity. New gene blocks originated by recombination during the first cycle of crossing were detected. This study confirmed that the observed phenotypic differences represent a new gene rearrangement and that these new gene blocks are responsible for the presence of the genetic variability detected for these traits.

  2. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  3. Evaluation of agronomic and fruit quality traits of fig tree varieties (Ficus carica L.) grown in Mediterranean conditions

    Pereira, C.; Serradilla, M.J.; Pérez-Gragera, F.; Martín, A.; Villalobos, M. C.; López-Corrales, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the agronomic behaviour and fruit quality of ten varieties of common fig were evaluated for the establishment of new commercial orchards destined for fresh consumption. The following traits were measured: annual yield, cumulative yield, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) and yield efficiency of each variety, as well as weight, width, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and maturation index (MI) of brebas and figs. The results show that ‘Banane’ and ‘Brown Turkey’ were the earliest to enter into production, and ‘Banane’ showed the highest annual yield in the 7th green (2014), with 76 kg/tree, followed by ‘Brown Turkey’ (57.6 kg/tree), ‘Cuello Dama Blanco’ (52 kg/tree) and ‘Colar Elche’ (39 kg/tree). On the other hand, 'Cuello Dama Blanco' and 'De Rey' exhibited the better organoleptic traits, with TSS and MI values ranged from 18.7 ºBrix and 203.3 MI (‘Cuello Dama Blanco’) to 20.4 ºBrix and 187.1 MI (‘De Rey’) for brebas and from 21.4 ºBrix and 278.7 (‘Cuello Dama Blanco’) to 23.3 ºBrix and 255.6 (‘De Rey’) for figs. This study will allow the fruit grower to select the most interesting and appropriate range of varieties based on market needs taking into account the ripening season (early, middle or late) and fruit colour (green, purple or black).

  4. Evaluation of agronomic and fruit quality traits of fig tree varieties (Ficus carica L.) grown in Mediterranean conditions

    Pereira, C.; Serradilla, M.J.; Pérez-Gragera, F.; Martín, A.; Villalobos, M. C.; López-Corrales, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the agronomic behaviour and fruit quality of ten varieties of common fig were evaluated for the establishment of new commercial orchards destined for fresh consumption. The following traits were measured: annual yield, cumulative yield, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) and yield efficiency of each variety, as well as weight, width, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and maturation index (MI) of brebas and figs. The results show that ‘Banane’ and ‘Brown Turkey’ were the earliest to enter into production, and ‘Banane’ showed the highest annual yield in the 7th green (2014), with 76 kg/tree, followed by ‘Brown Turkey’ (57.6 kg/tree), ‘Cuello Dama Blanco’ (52 kg/tree) and ‘Colar Elche’ (39 kg/tree). On the other hand, 'Cuello Dama Blanco' and 'De Rey' exhibited the better organoleptic traits, with TSS and MI values ranged from 18.7 ºBrix and 203.3 MI (‘Cuello Dama Blanco’) to 20.4 ºBrix and 187.1 MI (‘De Rey’) for brebas and from 21.4 ºBrix and 278.7 (‘Cuello Dama Blanco’) to 23.3 ºBrix and 255.6 (‘De Rey’) for figs. This study will allow the fruit grower to select the most interesting and appropriate range of varieties based on market needs taking into account the ripening season (early, middle or late) and fruit colour (green, purple or black).

  5. Estimation of fruit quality parameters for tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav. interspecific segregating in response to Antracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds resistance

    William Fernando Viera Arroyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav. in Ecuador, performs a severe reduction in yield and production of tree tomato and it is mostly attributed to the attack of anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds. We assessed an improved tree tomato genotypes, derived from the crossing [(S. betaceum unilobum x x S. betaceum] x S. betaceum, showing some degree of resistance to generate an alternative of sustainable management to this disease on a site with a high degree of infection in commercial ecotypes (Pelileo- Province of Tungurahua, Ecuador. Significantly differences among the analyzed groups were found in fruit and flesh color, as well as in quantitative variables such as yield. Two groups (G1 and G5 were noted for their low incidence of anthracnose, although they showed less progress in terms of productive variables. A selection index based on z-scores, allowed identifying superior individuals in terms of resistance to the disease and fruit quality. The genetic component of phenotypic variables showed that most of the observed variability is due to the genotypes and not to the environmental variability.

  6. The Application of Active Paper Incorporated with Oleoresin of Cinnamon Leaf (Cinnamomum burmanii) Distillation Residues on Maintaining Dragon Fruits (Hylocereus costaricensis) Quality during Storage

    Aziz, M. S. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active paper placement methods on super red dragon fruits quality during storage at ambient temperature. The active papers were incorporated with oleoresin of cinnamon leaf distillation residues. Various active paper placement methods were applied such as wrapping, placed on the cardboard wall, placed cardboard pad, and scrap of paper on the sidelines. Weight loss, peel color, surface and flesh hardness, total titratable acid, soluble solid total, pH flesh fruit, and total plate count (TPC) of super red dragon fruits samples were investigated during 9 days storage. The result shows that active paper placement methods significantly affected the weight loss, surface firmness and color peel change of super red dragon fruits samples. However, active paper placement methods insignificantly affected the titrable acid total, soluble solid total, pH, flesh firmness and microbial spoilage of super red dragon fruits samples. The best method to maintain the super red dragon fruits quality was wrapping method.

  7. Effect of the moisture content of forced hot air on the postharvest quality and bioactive compounds of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Manila).

    Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of hot air treatments in controlling decay and insects in mango fruit has been demonstrated and has usually been assessed as a function of the temperature of the heated air and the duration of the treatment. However, the contribution of the moisture content of the heated air has received little attention, especially with regard to fruit quality. In this study, mango fruits (cv. Manila) at mature-green stage were treated with moist (95% relative humidity (RH)) or dry (50% RH) hot forced air (43 °C, at 2.5 m s(-1) for 220 min) and then held at 20 °C for 9 days and evaluated periodically. The heating rate was higher with moist air. Treatments with moist and dry air did not cause injury to the fruit. Treatment with moist air temporarily slowed down color development, softening, weight loss and β-carotene biosynthesis. This slowing down was clearly observed during the first 4-5 days at 20 °C. However, non-heated fruit and fruit heated with dry air showed similar quality at the end of storage. The moisture content of the heating air differentially modulated the postharvest ripening of 'Manila' mangoes. Moist air temporarily slowed down the ripening process of this mango cultivar. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. High quality-factor optical resonators

    Henriet, Rémi; Salzenstein, Patrice; Coillet, Aurélien; Saleh, Khaldoun; Chembo, Yanne K; Ristic, Davor; Ferrari, Maurizio; Mortier, Michel; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice; Cibiel, Gilles; Llopis, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Various resonators are investigated for microwave photonic applications. Micro-sphere, disk and fiber ring resonators were designed, realized and characterized. Obtained quality factors are as high as Q = 10 10 . (paper)

  9. A Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS and Chemometric Approach to Improve Apple Fruit Quality Management: A Case Study on the Cultivars “Cripps Pink” and “Braeburn”

    Daniela Eisenstecken

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in the wavelength range of 1000–2500 nm for predicting quality parameters such as total soluble solids (TSS, acidity (TA, firmness, and individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and xylose for two cultivars of apples (“Braeburn” and “Cripps Pink” was studied during the pre- and post-storage periods. Simultaneously, a qualitative investigation on the capability of NIRS to discriminate varieties, harvest dates, storage periods and fruit inhomogeneity was carried out. In order to generate a sample set with high variability within the most relevant apple quality traits, three different harvest time points in combination with five different storage periods were chosen, and the evolution of important quality parameters was followed both with NIRS and wet chemical methods. By applying a principal component analysis (PCA a differentiation between the two cultivars, freshly harvested vs. long-term stored apples and, notably, between the sun-exposed vs. shaded side of apples could be found. For the determination of quality parameters effective prediction models for titratable acid (TA and individual sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose by using partial least square (PLS regression have been developed. Our results complement earlier reports, highlighting the versatility of NIRS as a fast, non-invasive method for quantitative and qualitative studies on apples.

  10. A Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Chemometric Approach to Improve Apple Fruit Quality Management: A Case Study on the Cultivars "Cripps Pink" and "Braeburn".

    Eisenstecken, Daniela; Panarese, Alessia; Robatscher, Peter; Huck, Christian W; Zanella, Angelo; Oberhuber, Michael

    2015-07-24

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the wavelength range of 1000-2500 nm for predicting quality parameters such as total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), firmness, and individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and xylose) for two cultivars of apples ("Braeburn" and "Cripps Pink") was studied during the pre- and post-storage periods. Simultaneously, a qualitative investigation on the capability of NIRS to discriminate varieties, harvest dates, storage periods and fruit inhomogeneity was carried out. In order to generate a sample set with high variability within the most relevant apple quality traits, three different harvest time points in combination with five different storage periods were chosen, and the evolution of important quality parameters was followed both with NIRS and wet chemical methods. By applying a principal component analysis (PCA) a differentiation between the two cultivars, freshly harvested vs. long-term stored apples and, notably, between the sun-exposed vs. shaded side of apples could be found. For the determination of quality parameters effective prediction models for titratable acid (TA) and individual sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose by using partial least square (PLS) regression have been developed. Our results complement earlier reports, highlighting the versatility of NIRS as a fast, non-invasive method for quantitative and qualitative studies on apples.

  11. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p > 0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest.

  12. High-quality compressive ghost imaging

    Huang, Heyan; Zhou, Cheng; Tian, Tian; Liu, Dongqi; Song, Lijun

    2018-04-01

    We propose a high-quality compressive ghost imaging method based on projected Landweber regularization and guided filter, which effectively reduce the undersampling noise and improve the resolution. In our scheme, the original object is reconstructed by decomposing of regularization and denoising steps instead of solving a minimization problem in compressive reconstruction process. The simulation and experimental results show that our method can obtain high ghost imaging quality in terms of PSNR and visual observation.

  13. EFFECT LINDAK CACAO FRUIT MATURITY (THEOBROMA CACAO, F) WITH HIGH LEVEL OF POLYPHENOLS AS ANTIOXIDANT

    Langkong, Jumriah

    2013-01-01

    Lindak cacao beans has polyphenol compounds that has a function as antioxidants which is important for the body to ward off a disease like cancer. The content of polyphenols in cocoa pods, influenced by post-harvest and processing. In addition, also influenced by fruit maturity level of lindak cocoa maturity level A (colored yellow on the entire surface of the fruit), B (yellow on the groove and back fruits), and C (colored yellow on the flow of fruit). The purpose of this study was to ana...

  14. Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.

    Huey Fang Teh

    Full Text Available To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.

  15. Highly oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids and their bioactivity from the fruiting body of Ganoderma gibbosum.

    Pu, De-Bing; Zheng, Xi; Gao, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Xing-Jie; Qi, Yan; Li, Xiao-Si; Wang, Yong-Mei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Li, Xiao-Li; Wan, Chun-Ping; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2017-06-01

    Eight new highly oxygenated lanostane triterpenes, gibbosic acids A-H (1-8), along with three known ones (9-11), were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma gibbosum. The structures of new isolates were assigned by NMR and HRESIMS experiments. The absolute configurations of 1 were further confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction data and computational ECD methods. Immunoregulatory effect and anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were screened in murine lymphocyte proliferation assay and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW-264.7 macrophages, respectively. Compound 2 exhibited immunostimulatory effect both in lymphocyte proliferation assay without any induction and ConA-induced mitogenic activity of T-lymphocyte, and the proportion of lymphocyte proliferation at the concentration of 0.1μM are 20.01% and 21.40%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and characterization of miRNAs in ripening fruit of Lycium barbarum L. using high-throughput sequencing

    Shaohua eZeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are master regulators of gene activity documented to play central roles in fruit ripening in model plant species, yet little is known of their roles in Lycium barbarum L. fruits. In this study, miRNA levels in L. barbarum fruit samples at four developmental stages, were assayed using Illumina HiSeqTM2000. This revealed the presence of 50 novel miRNAs and 38 known miRNAs in L. barbarum fruits. Of the novel miRNAs, 36 were specific to L. barbarum fruits compared with L. chinense. A number of stage-specific miRNAs were identified and GO terms were assigned to 194 unigenes targeted by miRNAs. The majority of GO terms of unigenes targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs are ‘intracellular organelle’, ‘binding’, ‘metabolic process’, ‘pigmentation’, and ‘biological regulation’. Enriched KEGG analysis indicated that nucleotide excision repair and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis were over-represented during the initial stage of ripening, with ABC transporters and sulfur metabolism pathways active during the middle stages and ABC transporters and spliceosome enriched in the final stages of ripening. Several miRNAs and their targets serving as potential regulators in L. barbarum fruit ripening were identified using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The miRNA-target interactions were predicted for L. barbarum ripening regulators including miR156/157 with LbCNR and LbWRKY8, and miR171 with LbGRAS. Additionally, regulatory interactions potentially controlling fruit quality and nutritional value via sugar and secondary metabolite accumulation were identified. These include miR156 targeting of fructokinase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase and miR164 targeting of beta-fructofuranosidase. In sum, valuable information revealed by small RNA sequencing in this study will provide a solid foundation for uncovering the miRNA-mediated mechanism of fruit ripening and quality in this

  17. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’ LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del fruto. Se evaluaron los cambios en el crecimiento del fruto, los sólidos solubles totales, la relación pulpa: semilla, la producción, la calidad del fruto y el diámetro de la fruta, durante una temporada de crecimiento de los frutos según el efecto de la relación hoja: fruto (10; 20; 30; 40 y 50 hojas por fruto, en Guasca - Cundinamarca - Colombia. El raleo se realizó 85 días después de plena floración. Los árboles del tratamiento control no se ralearon. Se observaron diferencias en las curvas de crecimiento del fruto, en el promedio de fruto cosechado, en el peso fresco de los frutos y en su calidad comercial. El contenido de sólidos solubles totales en los frutos y la relación pulpa:semilla aumentaron con el raleo. Al momento de la cosecha, la producción se redujo en los árboles raleados, pero se mejoró la cantidad del fruto comercial. Los tratamientos con 40 y 50 hojas por fruto tuvieron la mayor proporción de frutos de mejor calidad en comparación con los árboles control.Fruit thinning is a standard practice on peach trees carrying a moderate to heavy crop. However, in spite of the many benefits from thinning demostrated through long years of experience in the temperate zone, fruit thinning is too often one of the most unefficiently conducted operations in peach growing. With a view to improve marketable yield and fruit quality, trees of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ were subjected to hand thinning. Changes

  18. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  19. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Analysis of High Antioxidant Australian Fruits with Antiproliferative Activity Against Cancer Cells.

    Sirdaarta, Joseph; Maen, Anton; Rayan, Paran; Matthews, Ben; Cock, Ian Edwin

    2016-05-01

    High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical scavenging assay. Antiproliferative activities against CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by a multicellular tumor spheroid-based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined by Artemia franciscana bioassay. Methanolic extracts of all plant species displayed high antioxidant contents (equivalent to approximately 7-16 mg of vitamin C per gram of fruit extracted). Most aqueous extracts also contained relatively high antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts of most species (except lemon aspen and bush tomato) had lower antioxidant contents (below 1.5 mg of vitamin C equivalents per gram of plant material extracted). The antioxidant contents correlated with the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation of CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The high antioxidant methanolic extracts of all species were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. The methanolic lemon aspen extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 480 and 769 μg/mL against HeLa and CaCo2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the lower antioxidant ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (except the lemon aspen ethyl acetate extract) generally did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation or inhibited to only a minor degree. Indeed, most of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts induced potent cell proliferation. The native tamarind ethyl acetate extract displayed low-moderate toxicity in the A. franciscana bioassay (LC50 values below 1000 μg/mL). All other extracts were nontoxic. A total of

  20. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry Analysis of High Antioxidant Australian Fruits with Antiproliferative Activity Against Cancer Cells

    Sirdaarta, Joseph; Maen, Anton; Rayan, Paran; Matthews, Ben; Cock, Ian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical scavenging assay. Antiproliferative activities against CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by a multicellular tumor spheroid-based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined by Artemia franciscana bioassay. Results: Methanolic extracts of all plant species displayed high antioxidant contents (equivalent to approximately 7–16 mg of vitamin C per gram of fruit extracted). Most aqueous extracts also contained relatively high antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts of most species (except lemon aspen and bush tomato) had lower antioxidant contents (below 1.5 mg of vitamin C equivalents per gram of plant material extracted). The antioxidant contents correlated with the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation of CaCo2 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The high antioxidant methanolic extracts of all species were potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. The methanolic lemon aspen extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 480 and 769 μg/mL against HeLa and CaCo2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the lower antioxidant ethyl acetate and hexane extracts (except the lemon aspen ethyl acetate extract) generally did not inhibit cancer cell proliferation or inhibited to only a minor degree. Indeed, most of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts induced potent cell proliferation. The native tamarind ethyl acetate extract displayed low-moderate toxicity in the A. franciscana bioassay (LC50 values below 1000

  1. Effect of combination methods on insect disinfestation and quality of dry fruits

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Jan, M.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    Dried apricots, dates, figs and raisins were irradiated with 0.25 kGy after packaging in clear and colored polyethylene (0.04 mm) and subsequently stored for one year at 10°E, 15°E, 20°EC, and room temperatures (10–36°EC). Influence of this treatment on insect infestation, and changes in the color and ascorbic acid was studied. the results revealed that dates and raisins were infested by Tribolium castaneum while apricots and figs by Corcyra cephalonica and Cadra cautella. Low dose radiation treatment (0.25 kGy) alone was not effective in controlling insect infestation. However, radiation treatment in combination with low temperatures (10-20°EC) checked infestation for one year and resulted in a better product than any other treatment tested. Storage of dry fruits in colored polyethylene protected their color and ascorbic acid more than clear polyethylene during one year storage. (author)

  2. Carotenoids from Capsicum annuum fruits: Influence of spectral quality of radiation

    Lopez, M.; Candela, M.E.; Sabater, F.

    1986-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L. cv. Ramillete fruits grown in the field were covered 60 d after flowering with “white”, yellow, red and blue cellophane filters. Two other sets were left in full sunlight and under cover, respectively. After 30 d of treatment, during the ripening period, the contents of individual carotenoids were analyzed. The red radiation was the most effective to increase the carotenoid biosynthesis, but the green and blue radiations inhibited their production. Either class of filters inhibited the formation of capsanthin, the most important carotenoid in the production of red colour of the maturation, but capsorubin, the other carotenoid responsible for the maturation colour, was more enhanced in the shade and under red radiation. Neither type of radiation was so efficient in increasing the total carotenoids content as the full sun radiation

  3. Combination of product quality management and exports: The case of Colombian fruits companies

    Lu Luque, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Quality management provides to companies a framework to improve quality in overall systems, reduction of costs, reallocation of resources efficiently, correct planning of strategies, prevent or correct errors in the right time and increase the performance of companies. In this text, we discuss the different theories in this field, their obligatory or non-obligatory compliance, the importance of quality management for exporting companies and a case study of a Colombian firm that its main objec...

  4. Fruit development and ripening.

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  5. The influence of different electrical conductivity values in a simplified recirculating soilless system on inner and outer fruit quality characteristics of tomato.

    Krauss, Sandra; Schnitzler, Wilfried H; Grassmann, Johanna; Woitke, Markus

    2006-01-25

    Irrigation with saline water affects tomato fruit quality. While total fruit yield decreases with salinity, inner quality characterized by taste and health-promoting compounds can be improved. For a detailed description of this relationship, the influence of three different salt levels [electrical conductivity (EC) 3, 6.5, and 10] in hydroponically grown tomatoes was investigated. Rising salinity levels in the nutrient solution significantly increased vitamin C, lycopene, and beta-carotene in fresh fruits up to 35%. The phenol concentration was tendentiously enhanced, and the antioxidative capacity of phenols and carotenoids increased on a fresh weight basis. Additionally, the higher EC values caused an increase of total soluble solids and organic acids, parameters determining the taste of tomatoes. Total fruit yield, single fruit weight, and firmness significantly decreased with rising EC levels. Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between the EC level and the dependent variables single fruit weight, total soluble solids, titrable acids, lycopene, and antioxidative capacities of carotenoids and phenols, whereas vitamin C and phenols correlated best with truss number, and beta-carotene correlated best with temperature. Only pressure firmness showed no correlation with any of the measured parameters. As all desirable characteristics in the freshly produced tomato increased when exposed to salinity, salinity itself constitutes an alternative method of quality improvement. Moreover, it can compensate for the loss of yield by the higher inner quality due to changing demands by the market and the consumer. This investigation is to our knowledge the first comprehensive overview regarding parameters of outer quality (yield and firmness), taste (total soluble solids and acids), nutritional value (vitamin C, carotenoids, and phenolics), as well as antioxidative capacity in tomatoes grown under saline conditions.

  6. High-performance liquid chromatography for the analytical characterization of anthocyanins in Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit and food products.

    Benvenuti, Stefania; Brighenti, Virginia; Pellati, Federica

    2018-06-01

    Anthocyanins represent the most abundant class of bioactive compounds present in Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit, conferring it several health-promoting properties. The content of anthocyanins in food products produced from bilberries can be affected by many parameters, making the study of their composition a critical issue. In this ambit, this work was aimed at a comprehensive profiling of anthocyanins in bilberry fruit and derivatives from the Italian Northern Apennines, including jam, juice, and liqueur ("Mirtillino"). Anthocyanins were extracted from the jams by means of a dynamic maceration with acidified methanol, while juice and liqueurs were directly analyzed. The analysis of anthocyanins in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-UV/DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and MS 2 , under gradient elution. As a comparison, authentic bilberry fruits were analyzed. The total anthocyanin content was in the range 582.4-795.2 mg/100 g (FW) for the fruit, 2.3-234.5 mg/100 g for the jams, 109.2-2252.2 mg/L for the juice, and 27.9-759.3 mg/L for the liqueurs. To deeper investigate the anthocyanin profile of the liqueurs that exhibited a remarkably different composition in comparison with the other products, an authentic bilberry liqueur was prepared in the lab, following a traditional recipe, and monitored weakly by HPLC. The percentage of degradation of 3-O-galactosides and 3-O-arabinosides of bilberry anthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of 3-O-glucosides. The results of this work demonstrated the importance of a suitable and reliable analysis of bilberry fruit and related food products to ensure their genuineness and quality. Graphical abstract Vaccinium myrtillus L. (bilberry) fruit and food products analyzed in this work.

  7. Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.

    Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

    2008-11-26

    Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc implied by arabinose/galactose ratios of 8-15 and 33-56 mol/100 mol, respectively. Limited galacturonic acid contents made the mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements.

  8. Deficit irrigation: is it impacting yield and nutritional quality of fruits?

    Water scarcity, impaired water quality, and decreased soil quality threaten agricultural production in many regions of the world. Farmers’ responses to water shortage and recurrent droughts will ultimately result in the reduced application of water, designated as deficit irrigation (DI). DI may resu...

  9. Effect of abscission zone formation on orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit/juice quality for trees affected by Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Orange trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, and fruit loosely attached to the tree may have inferior flavor. Fruit were collected from healthy and HLB-infected (Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus) ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ trees. Prior to harvest, the trees were shaken, f...

  10. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Lactic Acid from Empty Fruit Bunch at High Solids Loading

    Nursia Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of value-added chemicals from the bioconversion of lignocellulose biomass has been considered a promising venture. In this study, microwave, alkali-pretreated empty fruit bunch (EFB was used as the substrate, utilizing pelletized filamentous Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 and cellulolytic enzymes for lactic acid production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. Insoluble solids generally do not affect the SSF process until a certain concentration is exceeded. To achieve a high lactic acid concentration in the broth, a high solids loading was required to allow a higher rate of glucose conversion. However, the results revealed a decrease in the final lactic acid yield when running SSF at a massive insoluble solids level. High osmotic pressure in the medium led to poor cellular performance and caused the Rhizopus oryzae pellets to break down, affecting the lactic acid production. To improve the process performance, a fed-batch operation mode was used. The fed-batch operation was shown to facilitate higher lactic acid yield, compared with the SSF batch mode. Enzyme feeding, as well as substrate feeding, was also investigated as a means of enabling a higher dry matter content, with a high glucose conversion in SSF of cellulose-rich EFB.

  11. Fabrication of high-quality brazed joints

    Orlov, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Problem of ensuring of joint high-quality when brazing different parts in power engineering is considered. To obtain high-quality joints it is necessary to correctly design brazed joint and to choose a gap width, overlap length and fillet radius; to clean up carefully the surfaces to be brazed and fix them properly one relative to another; to apply a solder so as to provide its flowing into the gap and sticking in it; to exactly regulate thermal conditions of brazing. High quality and reliability of brazed joints are ensured by the application of solders based on noble metals, and cheap solders based on nickel, manganese and copper. Joints brazed with nickel base solders may operate at temperatures as high as 888 deg C

  12. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera philippinensis for SIT programmes

    Resilva, Sotero S.; Obra, Glenda B.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes different quality control tests necessary to monitor the behavior of oriental fruit fly, B. philippinensis from the mass rearing facility to the release site. Results of routine quality control tests revealed that pupal size, emergence, fliers, sex ration, stress tests, mating index and fertility tests were all above satisfactory levels in pre-and post-irradiation treatment. Tests at the release site showed similar findings except for mating index where poor performance of flies were observed. Fertility and fecundity tests indicate that complete sterility of OFF was achieved at dose ranging from 68-104 Gy. Standard specifications required for weekly and monthly quality control tests was not yet established because release of sterile flies in Guimaras started only last April, 2001. In determining eye color changes in relation to physiological development, eye appearance of the pupae is dark yellowish brown (HUE 10 YR 3/6) at 7 days old where irradiation is to be applied for sterilization. Cross correlation of results showed large pupae had great advantage over medium and small pupae in terms of flight dispersal. Poor emergence and fliers of small pupae were observed when irradiated and chilled for 24 hours. However, no significant difference was observed on mating preference, longevity and fertility among the three pupal size groups. (Author)

  13. INTEGRATING PHYSIOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE IN MODELS OF FRUIT EXPANSION

    Mikolaj Cieslak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Architectural properties of a fruit, such as its shape, vascular patterns, and skin morphology, play a significant role in determining the distributions of water, carbohydrates, and nutrients inside the fruit. Understanding the impact of these properties on fruit quality is difficult because they develop over time and are highly dependent on both genetic and environmental controls. We present a 3D functional-structural fruit model that can be used to investigate effects of the principle architectural properties on fruit quality. We use a three step modeling pipeline in the OpenAlea platform: (1 creating a 3D volumetric mesh representation of the internal and external fruit structure, (2 generating a complex network of vasculature that is embedded within this mesh, and (3 integrating aspects of the fruit’s function, such as water and dry matter transport, with the fruit’s structure. We restrict our approach to the phase where fruit growth is mostly due to cell expansion and the fruit has already differentiated into different tissue types. We show how fruit shape affects vascular patterns and, as a consequence, the distribution of sugar/water in tomato fruit. Furthermore, we show that strong interaction between tomato fruit shape and vessel density induces, independently of size, an important and contrasted gradient of water supply from the pedicel to the blossom end of the fruit. We also demonstrate how skin morphology related to microcracking distribution affects the distribution of water and sugars inside nectarine fruit. Our results show that such a generic model permits detailed studies of various, unexplored architectural features affecting fruit quality development.

  14. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Hasan SERİN, Alper AYTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Total Quality Management (TQM has been even more common and most recently its use in high education has been discussed. Likewise the enterprises producing various products, universities have also inputs, processes, and outputs. Due to conditions of competition, universities have to improve the qualities of these inputs, processes, and outputs, according to satisfaction, demands, and expectations of internal and external customers. If the TQM has been implemented in the universities with a manner that aims for customer satisfaction (students, lecturers, public and private establishments, and families, supports constant development, ensures participatory approach, and encourages working in groups, it will provide universities with effectiveness, efficiency, dynamics, and economics. In this study, common problems of universities, definitions of quality and TQM in high education, customer concept at universities, and factors affecting the quality of education have been explained. Besides, in order TQM approach to be successfully implemented in the universities, various suggestions have been presented.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds In Extract and Fraction of Star Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L. Leaves Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Nanang Yunarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L. is potential as raw material for medicine, native in tropic areas, including Indonesia. According to other study report, starfruit leaves containing flavonoids apigenin and quercetin as potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. The raw material for the drug in Indonesia mostly obtained through imports from other countries. In order to support the independence of traditional medicine raw materials, it is important to standardize the quality of traditional medicine raw materials, in this case is star fruit leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. The sample used is star fruit leaves extract obtained from maceration process using ethanol 70%; water fraction, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions obtained from fractionation process of the ethanolic extract. Physical parameters analyzed in sample include appearance, color, odor, taste, extract yield, water content, loss of drying, total ash content, residual solvent. Chemical parameters analyzed include apigenin and quercetin contents. The results shows that star fruit leaves used in this study meet the standards of Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia with highest apigenin and quercetin content are in ethyl acetate fraction.

  16. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  17. Pre-harvest application of calcium chloride and chitosan on fruit quality and storability of ‘Early Swelling’ peach during cold storage

    Ahmed Abdel Nabi Abdel Gayed

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies related with the storage of peach fruits have received great relevance in Egypt. In this study, the effect of pre-harvest sprays of calcium chloride and chitosan, separately and in combination, on quality attributes and storability of peach fruits stored at 0±1 °C was studied. ‘Early Swelling’ peach trees were sprayed twice with 1% or 2% calcium chloride. The first spraying was at pea stage, while the second one was performed at 10 days before harvesting. Chitosan sprays were performed at 0.5 or 1%, alone or in combination with 1 and 2% calcium chloride, at 10 days before harvesting. Untreated trees served as control. Fruits were harvested at maturity stage, then packaged and stored at 0±1 °C and 85-90% of relative humidity. Fruit physical and chemical properties were evaluated at 7-day intervals. Results showed that pre-harvest application with 2% CaCl2+1% chitosan was most effective in minimizing weight loss (% and decay (%, as well as in maintaining maximum firmness and lengthening shelf life. Fruit color was not affected by any of the treatments, while untreated fruits and calcium chloride treatment alone, at both applied concentrations, maintained higher total soluble solids (TSS, %, total phenolic content, and lower titratable acidity percentage.

  18. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a natural antioxidant/antimicrobial for high pressure processed fruit extract: processing parameter optimization.

    Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  20. Effect of fertilization methods on growth of pear trees, yielding and fruit quality

    Tomasz Lipa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the commercial orchard near Lublin on five-year old pear trees of two cultivars: ‘Conference’and ‘Lukasowka’, planted on Quince MA. The objective of the study was evaluated the reaction of pear on the method of application of fertilizers. In the early spring the surface broadcasting of fertilizers was used (N – 71,5 kg, P 2O5 – 33,0 kg, K 2 O – 114,0 kg and from the May to the middle of August the fertigation was applied (N – 76,4 kg, P 2O5 – 49,5 kg, K 2 O – 84,2 kg. Method of fertilizer’s applications had no significant effect on the growth of evaluated trees. There were no differences in quantity of yield in dependence on the method of fertilization. In the case of cv. ‘Lukasowka’the beneficial influence of the way of fertilization on morphology of fruits (their diameter, height and mass was stated. Such an effect was not observed in the case of the ‘Conference’.

  1. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...

  2. Potential of deficit irrigation, irrigation cut-offs, and crop thinning to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water in northern highbush blueberry

    Drought and mandatory water restrictions are limiting the availability of irrigation water in many important blueberry growing regions, including Oregon, Washington, and California. New strategies are needed to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water. Three potential options, including defi...

  3. Efficacy of insect-proof nets used in Tunisian tomato greenhouses against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and potential impact on plant growth and fruit quality

    A. Harbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect-proof screens constitute efficient physical means of protecting horticultural crops against insect pests and their use has become widespread. However, they may have a negative impact on plant growth and fruit quality by modifying climatic parameters of greenhouses. In case of tomato crops, they are used mainly against white flies and the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. In Tunisia, tomato plastic tunnels are often netted following two modalities: i complete netting of the greenhouse under the plastic screen (total netting; or ii netting only doors and lateral aeration windows (partial netting. Weekly monitoring of T. absoluta in two tomato greenhouses with different netting setups using pheromone traps and sampling of leaves and fruits showed no differences in the levels of infestation by the pest with a maximum average values of 6.66 eggs/leaf, 4.16 larvae/leaf and 4.16 mines/leaf. The maximum infestation rate of leaves was 86.66% and that of fruits was 10.83%. No effects of the netting setup used on plant growth parameters were detected. However, the study of fruit quality parameters revealed significant decrease in sugar contents in tomato fruits when using total netting setup (4.26°Brix versus 3.68°Brix. Recommendations regarding the combined use of pheromones traps and insect-proof nets are given and possibilities to enhance the efficiency of nets as physical barrier against T. absoluta are explored.

  4. Effects of fertigation with purified urban wastewater on soil and pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) production, fruit quality and pollutant contents

    Garcia-Delgado, C.; Eymar, E.; Contreras, J. I.; Segura, M. L.

    2012-11-01

    The effects, in greenhouse conditions, of Purified Urban Wastewater (PW) from Almeria (Spain), in the fertigation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on sandy mulch soil, were evaluated. Primary, secondary (active sludges) and tertiary (Chlorination + ozonation) purification treatments were applied to wastewater. Irrigation treatments applied were PW, natural Ground Water (GW), Fertilizer PW (FPW) and Fertilizer GW (FGW). The vegetal biomass, yield and fruit quality were controlled. Heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cu and Zn), arsenic (As) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in water, soil, leaf, and fruit were analysed. The PW presented heavy metal, As and PAH contents acceptable for its use in drip irrigation. In the soil, fertigated with PW, the concentration of heavy metals and As did not increase, whilst the PAH concentration decreased. The PW treatment supplied enough nutrients to obtain yield and fruit quality equal to that of GW with fertilization. A significant saving on N, P and K fertilizers (37%, 66% and 12% respectively) was achieved by using PW. The Cd, Pb and As contents of the fruit did not show risk for human consumption. The total PAH concentrations in the fruit were low, the highest of which was phenathrene, with no carcinogenic signification. (Author) 39 refs.

  5. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Putrescine Treatments on Marketable and Some Quality Attributes Certains of Citrus Fruit (Citrus sinensis Cv. Hamlen

    H. Azh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruit quality preserve the post harvest cause marketability increased. In this research, the effect of putrescin and gibberellic acid concentrations on storage life of sweet orange fruit (Hamlen cultivar was studied to in factorial design (3*3*6=54based on randomized complete block with six replications. Putrescin at three concentrations( 0, 1 and 2 mM and three level of gibberellic acid (0, 50 and 100 mg/L were sprayed on the tree at the physiological maturation stage and two weeks pre harvest. Fruit firmness, marketability, vitamin C, total acidity, total soluble solids (TSS and ratio of total soluble solids (TSS to total acidity were evaluated. The results showed that putrescin spraying at 1 mM significantly prevented fruit softening and preserved fruit firmness. Also putrescin treatment (1 mM preserved ideal marketability and was superior than other treatments. Gibberellic acid significantly preserved total acidity and total soluble solids. The interaction of gibberellic acid and putrescine also preserved significantly vitamin C. Therefore, the application of putrescine at 1 mM and gibberellic at 100 mg/L was recommended for preserve marketability, appearance and quality of citrus sinensis cv. Hamlen.

  6. Temperature breaks within fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town ...

    kirstam

    Key words: fruit exports; reefer containers; cold chain; Cape Town Container ... challenges required for maintaining high product quality when exporting large ... perishable products due to the availability of a range of temperature settings.

  7. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  8. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  9. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  10. Qualidade e conservação de tangerina minimamente processada = Quality and conservation of minimally processed mandarin fruit

    Casiane Salete Tibola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho objetivou verificar a conservação de tangerinas ‘Clemenules’, ‘Marisol’ e ‘Nova’ minimamente processadas. As frutas foram selecionadas, descascadas e seus gomos separados individualmente. No armazenamento, foram embaladas em bandejas,recobertas com filme de polietileno (60 mm, por 6 dias a 5±1°C e 85±5% de umidade relativa (UR, mantidas para comercialização simulada (CS de um ou de dois dias a 10±1°C e 90±5% de UR. Realizaram-se análises no armazenamento e no 6º dia e também noperíodo de CS, através dos parâmetros: perda de peso (PP, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação ATT/SST, pH, ácido ascórbico e ocorrência de podridões. A PP foi maior aos seis mais dois dias de CS. O pH, os SST e o ácido ascórbico apresentaram decréscimo progressivo com a evolução do armazenamento. As tangerinas ‘Clemenules’, ‘Marisol’ e ‘Nova’ minimamente processadas mantiveram-se com qualidade adequada para o consumo, por 6 dias de armazenamento, mais dois dias de CS.This work was objective to verify the conservation of minimally processed ‘Clemenules’, ‘Marisol', and ‘Nova’ mandarins’ fruit. The fruits were selected, peeled and the buds had been broken individually. At the stored were packed in trays, covered with polyethylene film (60 mm, for six days at 5±1°C, and relative humidity (RH 85±5%, plus simulated commercialization (SC of one or two days at 10±1°C and RH 90±5%. The analysis has been developed during the storage and on the six days and also in SC period, considering the parameters: weight loss (WL, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, TTA/TSS, pH, acid ascorbic, and rottenness. The WL was higher on the six more two days of SC. The pH, TSS, and the acid ascorbic presented gradual decrease with the storage period. The minimally processed ‘Clemenules’, ‘Marisol', and ‘Nova’ mandarins fruit maintained adequate quality

  11. The influence of drying on the physiological quality of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruits added with active components

    Yudy Ana Cabrera Ordoñez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated products added with active components (AC represent a healthy alternative for modern consumer. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying process conditions on the physiological quality attributes of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. impregnated under vacuum with AC and dehydrated. A factorial design was performed with two independent variables, 2 levels per variable (temperature: 50 and 60ºC, air velocity: 2.0 and 3.0 m.s-1 and three replicates per drying condition. In fact, cape gooseberry fruits were previously impregnated under vacuum with an emulsion containing calcium and vitamins B9, C, D3 and E, which were subjected to dehydration until a water activity of approximately 0.6. In addition, drying rate curves presented in all cases two periods of decreasing speed. An increase of drying temperature decreases the processing time, presenting a greater AC degradation, while the air velocity offers a non-significant effect. The treatment which have allowed an AC better retention and low processing times was 60° C and 2 m.s-1, reaching levels of 204.8 ± 10.5 mg, 137.0 ± 34.7 μg, 13.6 ± 0.9 mg, 2.2± 0.6 μg, 7.0±1.2 mg for calcium and vitamins B9, C, D3 and E, respectively per 50 g serving of dehydrated cape gooseberry. An integration of the vacuum impregnation process with conventional air-drying, represents an effective technological alternative, which confers a higher added value to cape gooseberry fruit.

  12. Model of pre-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruits (Acca sellowiana (O. berg burret as a function of weather conditions of the crops

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Weather conditions influence the quality parameters of pineapple guava fruit during growth and development. The aim of this study was to propose a model of pre-harvest fruit quality as a function of weather conditions in the cultivation area. Twenty trees were flagged per farm in 2 localities of the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia: Tenjo (2,580 m.a.s.l.; 12.5 °C; relative humidity between 74 and 86%; mean annual precipitation 765 mm and San Francisco de Sales (1,800 m.a.s.l.; 20.6 °C; relative humidity between 63 and 97%; mean annual precipitation 1,493 mm. Measurements were performed every 7 days during 2 harvest periods starting on days 96 (Tenjo and 99 (San Francisco de Sales after anthesis and until harvest. The models were obtained using Excel® Solver, and a set of data was obtained for the 2 different cultivar periods and each study site. The results showed that altitude, growing degree days, and accumulated precipitation are the weather variables with the highest influence on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit during growth. The models of fresh weight, total titratable acidity, and skin firmness better predict the development of fruit quality during growth and development. Equations were obtained for increases of length and diameter as a function of fruit weight and for days from anthesis as a function of growing degree days and altitude. The regression analysis parameters showed that the models adequately predicted the fruit characteristics during growth for both localities, and a cross-validation analysis showed a good statistical fit between the estimated and observed values.

  13. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  14. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoit; Deborde, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non...

  15. Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment

    Bernillon, S.; Biais, B.; Deborde, C.; Maucort, M.; Cabasson, C.; Gibon, Y.; Hansen, T.; Husted, S.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Mumm, R.; Jonker, H.; Ward, J.L.; Miller, S.J.; Baker, J.M.; Burger, J.; Tadmor, Y.; Beale, M.H.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Schaffer, A.; Rolin, D.; Hall, R.D.; Moing, A.

    2013-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non-volatile

  16. Quality of frozen fruit bars manufactured through infrared pre-dehydration

    In this study, frozen restructured whole apple and strawberry bars were manufactured by partial dehydration, using infrared (IR) heating, followed by restructuring and freezing. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of IR partial dehydration on the quality of restructured f...

  17. Managed Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Caged With Blueberry Bushes at High Density Did Not Increase Fruit Set or Fruit Weight Compared to Open Pollination.

    Campbell, J W; O'Brien, J; Irvin, J H; Kimmel, C B; Daniels, J C; Ellis, J D

    2017-04-01

    Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination. There were four treatments in this study: two treatments of caged commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies (low and high weight hives), a treatment excluding all pollinators, and a final treatment which allowed all pollinators (managed and wild pollinators) in the area have access to the plot. All treatments were located within a highbush blueberry field containing two cultivars of blooming plants, 'Emerald' and 'Millennia', with each cage containing 16 mature blueberry plants. We gathered data on fruit set, berry weight, and number of seeds produced per berry. When pollinators were excluded, fruit set was significantly lower in both cultivars (58%). Berry weight was not significantly different among the treatments, and the number of seeds per berry did not show a clear response. This study emphasizes the importance of bumble bees as an effective pollinator of blueberries and the potential beneficial implications of the addition of bumble bees in commercial blueberry greenhouses or high tunnels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The effect of dry caper (capparis spinosa) fruit on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens

    Yildirim, A.; Tahtali, Y.; Sen, M. I.; Duman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary inclusion of dry Caper (Capparis spinosa) fruit (DCF) on egg production and quality characteristics of laying hens between 20 and 32 weeks of age. Four groups of commercial hens (ATAK-S) were fed with diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15 g DCF/kg. The results showed that final body weight, feed intake, shape index (SI) and morning hen - day egg yield were influenced by dietary supplementation of DCF (P 0.05) during the entire experiment. The lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values for egg shell color were similar (P>0.05) in the DCL supplemented groups as compared to the control group. The yellowness (b*), Hue angle (H), chroma (C*) and E* values were lower (P<0.05) in 15 g DFC/kg group when compared with the control. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolics amount of DCF were 43.75+-0.680 mmol trolox/kg, 60.03+-3.710 mmol TEAC/kg and 3.16+-0.060 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg, respectively. Based on the results from the current study, the dietary supplementation with dry DCF had adverse effects on productivity performance traits and egg quality. (author)

  19. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.; Katsoyannos, B.

    2007-01-01

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [es

  20. Assuring quality in high-consequence engineering

    Hoover, Marcey L.; Kolb, Rachel R.

    2014-03-01

    In high-consequence engineering organizations, such as Sandia, quality assurance may be heavily dependent on staff competency. Competency-dependent quality assurance models are at risk when the environment changes, as it has with increasing attrition rates, budget and schedule cuts, and competing program priorities. Risks in Sandia's competency-dependent culture can be mitigated through changes to hiring, training, and customer engagement approaches to manage people, partners, and products. Sandia's technical quality engineering organization has been able to mitigate corporate-level risks by driving changes that benefit all departments, and in doing so has assured Sandia's commitment to excellence in high-consequence engineering and national service.

  1. Brave new fruits

    Hurter, N.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described

  2. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds

    James Barnett; Sue Varela

    2003-01-01

    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  3. Endorectal high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    Devic, S.; Vuong, T.; Evans, M.; Podgorsak, E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our quality assurance method for preoperative high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy of endorectal tumours. Reproduction of the treatment planning dose distribution on a daily basis is crucial for treatment success. Due to the cylindrical symmetry, two types of adjustments are necessary: applicator rotation and dose distribution shift along the applicator axis. (author)

  4. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  5. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zongxia; Niu, Wenquan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing), on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS) and enlargement (58-85 DAS) growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content), taste (titratable acidity), and market quality (shape and firmness) of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  6. Low dose irradiation influence on yield and quality of fruit juice

    Mitchell, G.E.; Isaacs, A.R.; Williams, D.J.; McLauchlan, R.L.; Nottingham, S.M.; Hammerton, K.

    1991-01-01

    Granny Smith apples, Valencia oranges, and Pearlette grapes grown in Queensland, Australia were irradiated at 0, 75, 300 and 600 Gy. Following irradiation, juice was extracted and analysed for quality and compositional changes. Irradiation treatment significantly (p0.05) decreased yield of apple juice (by 6.3% w/w at 600 Gy) and grape juice (by 4.8% w/w at 600 Gy) but did not significantly (p0.05) affect yield of orange juice (OJ). Acceptability significantly (p0.05) decreased in OJ after 600 Gy treatment. Other changes in quality and composition were minimal. Juice from irradiated apples and oranges stored at 5 degrees C for 8 wk showed similar results

  7. Calidad postcosecha de tomates almacenados en atmósferas controladas Postharvest quality of tomato fruits stored under controlled atmospheres

    Perla A. Gómez

    2002-03-01

    maturity stages and, at the same time, affecting their quality. The effects of controlled atmospheres were studied (low oxygen concentrations and free of carbon dioxide and ethylene, on color, firmness and the main components of tomato fruit taste, cv. Diva. On April 1998, fruits harvested at the turning stage (USDA in INTA Balcarce (Argentina were stored in 3 L hermetic flasks at 12ºC during 36 days. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replications. Each flask containing four fruits was considered as the experimental unit. Treatments were four, a flow through system of: a 1%, b 3%, c 5% and d 21% (check of oxygen balanced with nitrogen to 100%. Color, measured with a colorimeter, changed more slowly and firmness remained higher with decreasing oxygen concentrations. The final color of fruits at 5% O2 was the same as those from check fruits. Fruits from the treatment 3% reached the optimum color only when transferred to 20ºC, while those stored at 1% did not reach a normal color. On the other side, and in all the treatments, soluble solids and titratable acidity were lower and pH was higher than those at the beginning. Color and firmness preferred by the consumers (Color index » 12 and firmness » 65 KPa were reached after 7-day storage at 21% O2, 12 days at 5%, 14 days at 3% and 21 days at 1% according to decreasing values of the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. This would indicate that fruits externally alike could have different organoleptic properties. Effects observed could be related to both the low oxygen levels and the absence of ethylene.

  8. Produção e qualidade dos frutos da goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' submetida a diferentes épocas de poda Production and quality of guava fruits 'Pedro Sato' submitted to different pruning times

    Ronaldo Hissayuki Hojo

    2007-03-01

    fruit firmness. It is possible to produce high quality guava fruits during nine months of the year by prunning plants in the periods above mentioned.

  9. High incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic Citrus sinensis fruit by Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus

    Huanglongbing (HLB), presumably caused by bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive pre-harvest fruit drop. Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (SER). The pathogen infects citrus fruit ...

  10. High Tunnel versus Open Field: Management of Primocane-fruiting Blackberry Using Pruning and Tipping to Increase Yield and Extend the Fruiting Season

    Primocane-fruiting blackberries may offer opportunities for season extension and off-season fruit productionivation. ‘Prime-Jan’® plants were established at the Oregon State University - North Willamette Research and Extension Center, Aurora, Ore. (NWREC). Half of the planting was established under...

  11. Irradiation of 'carabao' (Manila 'super') mangoes II. Comparison of the effects of gamma radiation and the vapor heat treatment on fruit quality

    Lizada, M.C.C.; Esguerra, E.B.; Brena, S.R.; Fuentes, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    'Carabao' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to the vapor heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose a low but significant incidence of pulp discoloration was found, albeit in only one trial. Both the vapor heat treatment and gamma radiation need to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on peel color development. The results of this study indicate that irradiation might be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the 'Carabao' mango. (Auth.). 7 tabs., 3 figs

  12. [Effects of different nitrogen application rates on 15N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality of dwarf apple].

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Ning; Peng, Ling; Ge, Shun Feng; Jiang, Yuan Mao

    2017-07-18

    Seven-year-old 'Yanfu3'/M 26 /M. hupehensis Rehd. seedlings and 15 N trace technique were used to explore the characteristics of 15 N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality under different nitrogen application rates (N 100 , N 200 and N 300 ). The main results were as follows: the plant growth, 15 N absorption, utilization and loss differed significantly under different treatments. The plant leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value), photosynthetic rate (P n ), total N content of leaves and the biomass, as well as the root-shoot ratio of N 200 treatment were obviously higher than the N 100 and N 300 treatments. Significant differences were observed in the 15 N derived from fertilizer (Ndff value) of different organs under different nitrogen application rates. The Ndff of fruits (flowers), leaves, one-year-old branch, and perennial branches in each measurement period was N 100 >N 200 >N 300 , while that of the roots at full-bloom and spring shoot growing slowly stage was N 100 >N 200 >N 300 , and in a trend of N 200 >N 100 >N 300 at autumn shoot growing stage, fruit rapid-swel-ling stage and fruit maturity stage. At fruit maturity stage, plant 15 N nitrogen utilization ratio of N 200 treatment was 23.6%, which was obviously higher than the N 100 (16.3%) and N 300 (14.4%) treatments, with the 15 N loss rate of 56.4%, obviously lower than the N 100 (60.6%) and N 300 (66.1%) treatments. There were significant differences among the treatments in fruit mass, yield per plant, soluble solid, fruit firmness, soluble sugar, titratable acids and sugar-acid ratio of different nitrogen rates, and the N 200 treatment showed the best performance, followed by the N 300 treatment, and then the N 100 treatment.

  13. Effect of Abscission Zone Formation on Orange ( Citrus sinensis) Fruit/Juice Quality for Trees Affected by Huanglongbing (HLB).

    Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Bai, Jinhe; Manthey, John; Zhao, Wei; Raithore, Smita; Irey, Mike

    2018-03-21

    Orange trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, and fruit loosely attached to the tree may have inferior flavor. Fruit were collected from healthy and HLB-infected ( Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus) 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' trees. Prior to harvest, the trees were shaken, fruit that dropped collected, tree-retained fruit harvested, and all fruit juiced. For chemical analyses, sugars and acids were generally lowest in HLB dropped (HLB-D) fruit juice compared to nonshaken healthy (H), healthy retained (H-R), and healthy dropped fruit (H-D) in early season (December) but not for the late season (January) 'Hamlin' or 'Valencia' except for sugar/acid ratio. The bitter limonoids, many flavonoids, and terpenoid volatiles were generally higher in HLB juice, especially HLB-D juice, compared to the other samples. The lower sugars, higher bitter limonoids, flavonoids, and terpenoid volatiles in HLB-D fruit, loosely attached to the tree, contributed to off-flavor, as was confirmed by sensory analyses.

  14. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged...

  15. A Quality Sorting of Fruit Using a New Automatic Image Processing Method

    Amenomori, Michihiro; Yokomizu, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents an innovative approach for quality sorting of objects such as apples sorting in an agricultural factory, using an image processing algorithm. The objective of our approach are; firstly to sort the objects by their colors precisely; secondly to detect any irregularity of the colors surrounding the apples efficiently. An experiment has been conducted and the results have been obtained and compared with that has been preformed by human sorting process and by color sensor sorting devices. The results demonstrate that our approach is capable to sort the objects rapidly and the percentage of classification valid rate was 100 %.

  16. The effect of waxes, as a complement to hydrothermal immersion, on the quality of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. Pococí hybrid

    V. Gustavo Corra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Different waxes were evaluated as a complement to hydrothermal treatment on the overall papaya fruit quality parameters. The fruits were harvested, washed in water, disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and exposed to hydrothermal immersion treatment at 49°C/20 min (HT; then treatments were applied: 1 bees wax +palm oil 5% solution; 2 fatty acids wax mixture 4.7%; 3 chitosan 0.1%; 4 only HT; 5 control (no hydrothermal immersion nor wax. The fruit was stored for 15 days at 12°C, then at 20°C. Significant differences (p≤0.05 were found between fruits receiving HT complemented with 5% bees + palm oil wax, which exhibited lower respiration rate (12.27 ml CO2/kg*h a 8 days after leaving cold storage, as compared with those receiving only HT (16.72 ml CO2/ kg*h or control fruits (17.01 ml CO2/kg*h. The lesser percent of acumulated weight loss was registered whit TH plus bees wax cund palm oil. The color parameters were not affected, except for treatment 2, fatty acids wax mixture, which induced a delay in color development (p≤0.05. No changes were observed in internal or external firmness, nor in degrees brix. HT reduced the incidence of peduncular rot and anthracnose severity (p≤0.05, and extended useful life time. The use of waxes as a complement to HT can contribute to preserving some of the parameters which influence the final papaya fruit quality.

  17. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  18. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  19. Studies on Prolonging Storage life and Maintaining Fruit Quality Parameters of Zaghloul Dates

    ElSalhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 1, 2 and 3 kGy) and some natural plant extracts i.e. aloe, ambrosia, cinnamon, chamomile, clove or nigella on prolonging the storage life and some parameters of Zaghloul dates quality under cold storage (5 ±2 C, 90-95 % RH). The weight loss %, decay %, T.S.S. %, total sugars and non-reducing sugars % of Zaghloul dates were increased in most cases with prolonging the storage time. Meanwhile, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were decreased during storage period (56 days). However, the lowest values of weight loss % and decay % were recorded by aloe extract treatment while the highest values of T.S.S., total sugars, non-reducing sugars, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were scored by gamma irradiation at 3 kGy. It could be concluded that using irradiation at 3 kGy, aloe, cinnamon or clove can keep the dates (Zaghloul variety) fresh even after 56 days at cold storage with good quality and safety levels of microbes

  20. Effect of high-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide atmospheres on strawberry flavor and other quality traits.

    Pérez, A G; Sanz, C

    2001-05-01

    The effect of high-oxygen atmospheres on strawberry flavor was studied. Strawberry fruits (Fragariax ananassa Duch. cv. Camarosa) were stored at 8 degrees C in four different atmospheres: air, 5% O(2)/20% CO(2), 80% O(2)/20% CO(2), and 90% O(2)/10% CO(2). Changes in several quality parameters were evaluated. Atmospheres combining high O(2) and high CO(2) were the most effective in preventing fungal growth and enhancing strawberry firmness. Other quality parameters such as color, titrable acidity, sugars and organic acids distribution, off-flavor development, and aroma were only mildly affected by superatmospheric O(2) levels. After one week of storage, unexpected high contents of off-flavor related compounds were found in the 80% O(2)/20% CO(2) and 90% O(2)/10% CO(2) atmospheres. Evidence of an altered ester biosynthesis was also found in fruits stored under these high-O(2) atmospheres. Data obtained suggest that stress induced by high CO(2) and stress induced by high O(2) have an additive effect on strawberry flavor alteration.

  1. A nutrient-dense, high fiber, fruit-based supplement bar increases HDL, particularly large HDL, lowers homocysteine, and raises glutathione in a 2-week trial

    Dietary intake modulates disease risk, but little is known as to how components within food mixtures affect pathophysiology. Here, a low-calorie, high-fiber, fruit-based nutrient-dense bar of defined composition (e.g., vitamins/minerals, fruit polyphenolics, B-glucan, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) app...

  2. The Use of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME to Assess the Quality and Stability of Fruit Products: An Example Using Red Mombin Pulp (Spondias purpurea L.

    Katieli Martins Todisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME in the analysis of parameters such as the quality and stability of fruit products. Volatiles profiles of the pulp were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and compared to the profile of the powder stored at 0, 60 and 120 days in plastic (PP or laminated packages (LP. The results showed that the technique was able to identify 36 compounds in the red mombin pulp, 17 out of which have been described for the first time in this fruit, showing that red mombin fresh pulp appears to be unique in terms of volatiles composition. However, only 24 compounds were detected in the powder. This decrease is highly correlated (r2 = 0.99, at least for the majority of compounds, to the degree of volatility of compounds. Furthermore, the powder stored in PP or LP showed no statistical differences in the amounts of its components for a period of 120 days of storage. Finally, this work shows how HS-SPME analysis can be a valuable tool to assess the quality and stability of fruit products.

  3. Optimization of edible coating formulations for improving postharvest quality and shelf life of pear fruit using response surface methodology.

    Nandane, A S; Dave, Rudri K; Rao, T V Ramana

    2017-01-01

    The effect of composite edible films containing soy protein isolate (SPI) in combination with additives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and olive oil on 'Babughosha' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 5 °C and 60 ± 10% RH) was evaluated using Response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 30 edible coating formulations comprising of SPI (2-6%, w/v), olive oil (0.7-1.1%, v/v), HPMC (0.1-0.5%, w/v) and potassium sorbate (0-0.4% w/v) were evaluated for optimizing the most suitable combination. Quality parameters like weight loss%, TSS, pH and titrable acidity of the stored pears were selected as response variables for optimization. The optimization procedure was carried out using RSM. It was observed that the response variables were mainly effected by concentration of SPI and olive oil in the formulation. Edible coating comprising of SPI 5%, HPMC 0.40%, olive oil 1% and potassium sorbate 0.22% was found to be most suitable combination for pear fruit with predicted values of response variables indicated as weight loss% 3.50, pH 3.41, TSS 11.13 and TA% 0.513.

  4. Effect of Gamma Radiations on the Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry Fruit of the Uttrakhand Region

    Sharma, Prianka; Rastogi, Meetu

    2016-08-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiations on the quality and shelf life of strawberries. The aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation doses in range of 0.3- 1.5 kGy. The irradiated strawberries were stored in ambient (temperature 25 +- 2oC, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (3 +-1oC, RH 80%) conditions. In samples treated with dose 1.2-1.5 kGy no decay was recorded up to 9 days of ambient conditions. Under refrigerated conditions, strawberry samples of unirradiated and irradiated in the range of 0.3-0.9 kGy started decaying after 14 days of storage. No decay was observed in the samples treated with 1.2-1.5 kGy up to 28 days of refrigerated storage. Dose of 1.2 kGy was significantly effective in reducing the weight loss and in maintaining the higher overall acceptability under both the storage conditions compared to the other treatments. This dose also proved effective in retention of significantly higher levels of total sugars compared to the other treatments. Thus, it was established that irradiating strawberries with dose of 1.2 kGy can prove beneficial in facilitating the marketing of the fruit to distant places other than the local markets, thereby benefiting the growers.

  5. Use of gamma radiations as a quarternary process to control the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), variety 'pera' and observations on its effects on fruits quality; Utilizacao da radiacao gama como um processo quarentenario para o 'bicho furao' Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) em laranja pera (Citrus sinensis), e o estudo dos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade dos frutos

    Faria, Jose Tadeu de

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine if gamma radiations could be used as a quarentenary process against the orange fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927), infesting oranges of the variety 'Pera', beyond observations on some fruit quality parameters. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranges from the control to 500 Gy. To observe the gamma radiations effects on the insects, doses ranging from the control to 800 Gy were used, and to observe possible effects on fruits quality, the utilized doses ranged from the control to 500 Gy. It was observed that over 200 Gy avoid emergency of viable adults of the orange fruit borer. Only one single female, and even these with wing malformations, emerged at the dose of 300 Gy. Dose up to 500 Gy did not interfere on fruits weight loss nor on the period of conservation of the oranges. Acidity, Brix value and skin resistance against perforation also did not showed any changes due to radiations. The irradiation of green fruit induced into a smaller loss of weight than when the fruits were irradiated in the mature stage. (author)

  6. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    Nawito, M.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons on M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments

  7. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  8. Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling

    Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1980-01-01

    The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region

  9. Characterization of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum fruits from outstanding mexican selections

    Marian Guadalupe Hernández Arenas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of five regional selections of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. were characterized to identify those with international marketing quality to promote their propagation in Mexico, improvement and conservation in germoplasm bank. The fruits were harvested in June, July, and August 2008 and, after each harvest, were assessed for shape (length/diameter, firmness, fruit weight, number of fruits per kilogram, weight and percentage of pericarp, seed and aril, total soluble solids, total sugars, vitamin C content, pH, and titratable acidity. In addition, a sensorial evaluation was carried out with 31 panelists who graded each selection for color, sweetness, and acidity. Fruits of five selections were ovoid, and with the following characteristics: firmness values from 43.7 to 51.0 N, fruit weight ranged from 22.4 to 34.7 g, registering from 28.9 to 45.0 fruits per kg; pericarp weight from 10.5 to 17.3 g (45.9 to 49.9% of the total fruit weight; total seed weight from 2.2 to 2.5 g (7.0 to 10.0%; average arils weight from 8.9 to 13.1 g (37.5 to 41.4%. The fruits had high contents of total soluble solids (17.8 to 20.4 ºBrix, total sugars (211.95 to 242.70 mg/100g in the edible portion, vitamin C (37.9 to 69.1 mg/100 g, pH 5.0, and titratable acidity of 0.20 to 0.28%. The fruits from the RT-01 and RT-05 selections had better attributes in fruit weight, total soluble solids and titratable acidity and were better accepted by the panelists. Harvest date significantly affects rambutan fruit quality; at the middle and end of the season harvested fruits had better qualitative characteristics for the marketing.

  10. Minimizing quality changes of cloudy apple juice: The use of kiwifruit puree and high pressure homogenization.

    Yi, Junjie; Kebede, Biniam; Kristiani, Kristiani; Grauwet, Tara; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-05-30

    Cloud loss, enzymatic browning, and flavor changes are important quality defects of cloudy fruit juices determining consumer acceptability. The development of clean label options to overcome such quality problems is currently of high interest. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of kiwifruit puree (clean label ingredient) and high pressure homogenization on quality changes of cloudy apple juice using a multivariate approach. The use of kiwifruit puree addition and high pressure homogenization resulted in a juice with improved uniformity and cloud stability by reducing particle size and increasing viscosity and yield stress (p < 0.01). Furthermore, kiwifruit puree addition reduced enzymatic browning (ΔE ∗  < 3), due to the increased ascorbic acid and contributed to a more saturated and bright yellow color, a better taste balance, and a more fruity aroma of juice. This work demonstrates that clean label options to control quality degradation of cloudy fruit juice might offer new opportunities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  12. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  13. High hydrostatic pressure processing of fruit juices and smoothies: research and commercial application

    Several world-wide health organizations such as WHO and FAO have pointed out the importance of increasing the intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet because they can provide essential bioactive compounds as well as health beneficial phytochemicals. Consumers are also increasingly more conscious...

  14. Agronomics characteristics and nutritional quality of fruits and seeds of pumpkin Cucurbita sp.

    Robert Rodríguez R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Butternut Squash is food security in ancient pre-Columbian America for its agronomic plasticity and culinary versatility. Today its value in use is evident in both its diversity within the genus Cucurbita and 20-27 species, where the most used are: Cucurbita maxima, C. moschata, C. pepo, C. argyrosperma; C. ficifolia. The high biological value in the pulp (80% in vitro digestibility and oil in the seeds (45%, where 55% are unsaturated (56% linoleic acid fatty. The processed pumpkin is a competitive and sustainable raw material for agro food industry, and is a source of carotenoids, lutein, Vitamima A, Vitamin C, starch, long chain polyunsaturated oils, and this entire means an increase in research in squash due to its comprehensive utility in the pulp and seed.

  15. Influence of thermal treatment on the stability of phenolic compounds and the microbiological quality of sucrose solution following osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry fruits.

    Kucner, Anna; Papiewska, Agnieszka; Klewicki, Robert; Sójka, Michał; Klewicka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration is a process of the partial removal of water which is based on immersion of material having cellular structure in a hypertonic solution. Osmotic dehydration is used as a pretreatment for the dehydration of foods before they are subjected to further processing such as freezing, freeze drying, vacuum drying. Management of spent syrup is one of the most important problems related to osmotic dewatering. Osmotic solutions are heavily polluted with of carbohydrates, remains of the dehydrated material and microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment on the content of phenolic compounds and the microbiological quality of sucrose solution used in 15 cycles of osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits. The tested material was 65.0 ±0.5°Brix sucrose solution used for 15 cycles of osmotic dehydration of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Osmotic dehydration was conducted at 40°C for 120 min using fruits previously subjected to enzymatic pretreatment. The thermal treatment of sucrose solution was conducted at 70, 80, 90, 100 and 115°C for 20, 40 and 60 s. The sucrose solution was analysed in terms of total polyphenols, particular polyphenols using high performance liquid chromatography and microbiological analysis was subjected. Thermal treatment at 70-115°C for 20 s caused degradation of 8.5% to 12.7% of polyphenols, while as much as 23.1% of polyphenols were degraded at 115°C after 60 s. The present paper proposes heating parameters that are optimal from the point of view of phenolic compound retention and microbiological quality: thermal treatment of syrup at 100°C for 40 s. Under these conditions, total polyphenols retention was 94.5%, while the retention of individual phenolic compounds varied from 89.2% to 37.2%, and that of flavan-3-ols amounted to 89.5%. The studied manner of syrup treatment eliminated the problem of syrup contamination with yeasts and molds

  16. Fruit size and quality of pineapples cv. Vitória in response to micronutrient doses and way of application and to soil covers

    Aiala Vieira Amorim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of foundation and leaf fertilization with micronutrients on fruit size and quality of pineapple cv. Vitória under the environmental conditions of the Baixo Acaraú irrigated perimeter in Northern Ceará State, Brazil, under two covers (bagana and black plastic of the sandy soil of low fertility. The experimental design was a randomized split blocks one with four levels of soil dressing and four levels of foliar fertilization, with five replications. Micronutrient soil dressing was studied as FTE-12 at doses of 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1. The four levels of foliar fertilization were: LF0 (without fertilizer, LF 1 (15 leaf fertilization, using the amount of 1158.75 g Fe ha-1, 844.65 g Mn ha-1, 391.5 g ha-1 Zn, 322.65 g ha-1 Cu and 216 g ha-1 B, LF2 (15 leaf fertilization, using twice the quantities of level LF1 and LF3 (15 leaf fertilization, using three times the amount of level LF1. At 13 months after planting the micropropagated plantlets was carried out the floral induction treatment and five months later the fruit harvest determining the following variables: fruit weight and median diameter, soluble solids content (SS and titratable acidity (TA. Both fruit weight and diameter increased with increasing doses of micronutrients applied to the soil and to the leaves, of plants grown both on bagana soil cover and plastic mulch. On the other hand fruit pulp quality was little affected by the treatments studied. There were a small increase of SS contents for plants grown on bagana soil cover and a small decrease of titratable acidity for those grown on plastic mulch, in both cases just in response to micronutrient foliar application.

  17. Potential of carboxymethyl cellulose coating and low dose gamma irradiation to maintain storage quality, inhibit fungal growth and extend shelf-life of cherry fruit.

    Hussain, P R; Rather, S A; Suradkar, P; Parveen, S; Mir, M A; Shafi, F

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality, inhibiting fungal incidence and extending shelf-life of cherry fruit. Two commercial cherry varieties viz. Misri and Double after harvest at commercial maturity were coated with CMC at levels 0.5-1.0 % w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.2 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (temperature 3 ± 1 °C, RH 80 %) conditions for evaluation of various physico-chemical parameters. Fruits were evaluated after every 3 and 7 days under ambient and refrigerated conditions. CMC coating alone at levels 0.5 and 0.75 % w/v was not found effective with respect to mold growth inhibition under either of the two conditions. Individual treatment of CMC coating at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation proved helpful in delaying the onset of mold growth up to 5 and 8 days of ambient storage. During post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 %, irradiation alone at 1.2 kGy gave further 4 days extension in shelf-life of cherry varieties following 28 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of cherry fruit during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 70 % but, combination of CMC at 1.0 % w/v and 1.2 kGy irradiation was found significantly ( p  ≤ 0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of cherry fruit. The above combinatory treatment besides maintaining storage quality resulted in extension of 6 days in shelf life of cherry varieties during post-refrigerated storage at 25 ± 2 °C, RH 80 % following 28 days of refrigeration. Above Combination treatment gave a maximum of 2.3 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count of cherry fruits after 9 and 28

  18. Melatonin treatment attenuates postharvest decay and maintains nutritional quality of strawberry fruits (Fragaria×anannasa cv. Selva) by enhancing GABA shunt activity.

    Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Fard, Javad Rezapour

    2017-04-15

    Fresh strawberry fruits as perishable commodities have a short postharvest life and are prone to postharvest fungal decay. In this study, the impact of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000μmol/L melatonin on attenuating fungal decay and maintaining nutritional quality of strawberry fruits was investigated during storage at 4°C for 12days. Melatonin treatment at 100μmol/L triggered H 2 O 2 accumulation, which result from higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, associated with lower catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, leading to fruits with lower decay. Higher H 2 O 2 accumulation was concurrent with higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity leading to higher total phenols and anthocyanins accumulation along with higher DPPH scavenging capacity. Also, strawberry fruits treated with melatonin exhibited higher γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) enzyme activity which ensured sufficient ATP supplying leading to higher unsaturated/saturated fatty acids (unSFA/SFA) ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Pre- and Postharvest Summer Pruning on the Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality, and Carbohydrate Content of Early Season Peach Cultivars

    Ikinci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Winter and summer pruning are widely applied processes in all fruit trees, including in peach orchard management. This study was conducted to determine the effects of summer prunings (SP), as compared to winter pruning (WP), on shoot length, shoot diameter, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) increment, fruit yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of two early ripening peach cultivars (“Early Red” and “Maycrest”) of six years of age, grown in semiarid climate conditions, in 2008 to 2010. The trees were grafted on GF 677 rootstocks, trained with a central leader system, and spaced 5 × 5 m apart. The SP carried out after harvesting in July and August decreased the shoot length significantly; however, it increased its diameter. Compared to 2009, this effect was more marked in year 2010. In general, control and winter pruned trees of both cultivars had the highest TCSA increment and yield efficiency. The SP increased the average fruit weight and soluble solids contents (SSC) more than both control and WP. The titratable acidity showed no consistent response to pruning time. The carbohydrate accumulation in shoot was higher in WP and in control than in SP trees. SP significantly affected carbohydrate accumulation; postharvest pruning showed higher carbohydrate content than preharvest pruning. PMID:24737954

  20. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  1. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  2. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  3. Taï chimpanzees anticipate revisiting high-valued fruit trees from further distances.

    Ban, Simone D; Boesch, Christophe; Janmaat, Karline R L

    2014-11-01

    The use of spatio-temporal memory has been argued to increase food-finding efficiency in rainforest primates. However, the exact content of this memory is poorly known to date. This study investigated what specific information from previous feeding visits chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, take into account when they revisit the same feeding trees. By following five adult females for many consecutive days, we tested from what distance the females directed their travels towards previously visited feeding trees and how previous feeding experiences and fruit tree properties influenced this distance. To exclude the influence of sensory cues, the females' approach distance was measured from their last significant change in travel direction until the moment they entered the tree's maximum detection field. We found that chimpanzees travelled longer distances to trees at which they had previously made food grunts and had rejected fewer fruits compared to other trees. In addition, the results suggest that the chimpanzees were able to anticipate the amount of fruit that they would find in the trees. Overall, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzees act upon a retrieved memory of their last feeding experiences long before they revisit feeding trees, which would indicate a daily use of long-term prospective memory. Further, the results are consistent with the possibility that positive emotional experiences help to trigger prospective memory retrieval in forest areas that are further away and have fewer cues associated with revisited feeding trees.

  4. High prevalence of sensitization to gibberellin-regulated protein (peamaclein) in fruit allergies with negative immunoglobulin E reactivity to Bet v 1 homologs and profilin: Clinical pattern, causative fruits and cofactor effect of gibberellin-regulated protein allergy.

    Inomata, Naoko; Miyakawa, Mami; Aihara, Michiko

    2017-07-01

    Gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP) is a new allergen in peach allergy, with an amino acid sequence very well conserved through several botanical species. We investigated the allergenicity of GRP in fruit allergies other than peaches and identified the clinical characteristics of fruit allergy patients with GRP sensitization. One hundred consecutive Japanese patients with fruit allergies were enrolled in the present study. To identify the features of GRP sensitization, we selected patients with negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin, which are marker allergens for pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS), or lipid transfer protein. These patients underwent specific immunoglobulin E measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and skin prick tests (SPT) using purified nPru p 7. Twenty of 100 consecutive patients with fruit allergies had negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin. Thirteen (65.0%) of the 20 patients had positive ELISA and/or SPT results using nPru p 7, whereas one of the 20 patients had positive ImmunoCAP results for Pru p 3. In 13 nPru p 7-sensitized patients, the causative foods were peaches (92.3%), apricots (61.5%), oranges (46.2%) and apples (30.8%). Ten patients (76.9%) had multiple causative fruits. Frequent symptoms included facial edema (92.3%) and laryngeal tightness (66.7%). In eight patients (61.5%), exercise or aspirin intake enhanced the allergic reaction onset as cofactors. The prevalence of GRP sensitization was high in Japanese fruit allergy patients except for PFAS patients. In conclusion, GRP-sensitized patients may have allergies to multiple fruits and may show peculiar characteristics such as facial swelling and cofactor dependence. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Occurrence, distribution and contamination levels of heat-resistant moulds throughout the processing of pasteurized high-acid fruit products.

    Santos, Juliana Lane Paixão Dos; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Biyikli, Ayse; Van Impe, Jan; Akkermans, Simen; Höfte, Monica; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Devlieghere, Frank

    2018-05-19

    Heat-resistant moulds (HRMs) are well known for their ability to survive pasteurization and spoil high-acid food products, which is of great concern for processors of fruit-based products worldwide. Whilst the majority of the studies on HRMs over the last decades have addressed their inactivation, few data are currently available regarding their contamination levels in fruit and fruit-based products. Thus, this study aimed to quantify and identify heat-resistant fungal ascospores from samples collected throughout the processing of pasteurized high-acid fruit products. In addition, an assessment on the effect of processing on the contamination levels of HRMs in these products was carried out. A total of 332 samples from 111 batches were analyzed from three processing plants (=three processing lines): strawberry puree (n = 88, Belgium), concentrated orange juice (n = 90, Brazil) and apple puree (n = 154, the Netherlands). HRMs were detected in 96.4% (107/111) of the batches and 59.3% (197/332) of the analyzed samples. HRMs were present in 90.9% of the samples from the strawberry puree processing line (1-215 ascospores/100 g), 46.7% of the samples from the orange juice processing line (1-200 ascospores/100 g) and 48.7% of samples from the apple puree processing line (1-84 ascospores/100 g). Despite the high occurrence, the majority (76.8%, 255/332) of the samples were either not contaminated or presented low levels of HRMs (processing had no statistically significant effect on the levels of HRMs (p > 0.05). On the contrary, a significant reduction (p levels was observed during the processing of apple puree. Twelve species were identified belonging to four genera - Byssochlamys, Aspergillus with Neosartorya-type ascospores, Talaromyces and Rasamsonia. N. fumigata (23.6%), N. fischeri (19.1%) and B. nivea (5.5%) were the predominant species in pasteurized products. The quantitative data (contamination levels of HRMs) were fitted to exponential

  6. Fresh fruits, vegetables and mushrooms as transmission vehicles for Echinococcus multilocularis in highly endemic areas of Poland: reply to concerns.

    Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Myjak, Przemysław; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm that may cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most dangerous parasitic zoonoses. As in the case of other foodborne diseases, unwashed fruits and vegetables, contaminated with dispersed forms of E. multilocularis, may serve as an important transmission route for this parasite. In this article, we reply to the incorrect interpretation of results of our study concerning the detection of E. multilocularis DNA in fresh fruit, vegetable and mushroom samples collected from the highly endemic areas of the Warmia-Masuria Province, Poland, to dispel any doubts. The accusations formulated by the commentators concerning our paper are unfounded; moreover, these commentators demand information which was beyond the purview of our study. Making generalisations and drawing far-reaching conclusions from our work is also unjustified. The majority of positive samples were found in only a few hyperendemic communities; this information corresponds with the highest number of both infected foxes and AE cases in humans recorded in this area. Our findings indicate that E. multilocularis is present in the environment and may create a potential risk for the inhabitants. These people should simply be informed to wash fruits and vegetables before eating. No additional far-reaching conclusions should be drawn from our data. We believe these commentators needlessly misinterpreted our results and disseminated misleading information. Nevertheless, we would like to encourage any readers simply to contact us if any aspects of our study are unclear.

  7. Current technologies and new insights for the recovery of high valuable compounds from fruits by-products.

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Asaduzzaman, Md; Scampicchio, Matteo Mario

    2018-02-11

    The recovery of high valuable compounds from food waste is becoming a tighten issue in food processing. The large amount of non-edible residues produced by food industries causes pollution, difficulties in the management, and economic loss. The waste produced during the transformation of fruits includes a huge amount of materials such as peels, seeds, and bagasse, whose disposal usually represents a problem. Research over the past 20 years revealed that many food wastes could serve as a source of potentially valuable bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants and vitamins with increasing scientific interest thanks to their beneficial effects on human health. The challenge for the recovery of these compounds is to find the most appropriate and environment friendly extraction technique able to achieve the maximum extraction yield without compromising the stability of the extracted products. Based on this scenario, the aim of the current review is twofold. The first is to give a brief overview of the most important bioactive compounds occurring in fruit wastes. The second is to describe the pro and cons of the most up-to-dated innovative and environment friendly extraction technologies that can be an alternative to the classical solvent extraction procedures for the recovery of valuable compounds from fruit processing. Furthermore, a final section will take into account published findings on the combination of some of these technologies to increase the extracts yields of bioactives.

  8. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  9. Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit.

    Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2009-01-01

    Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence.

  10. Evaluation of fruit productivity and quality in Hass avocado submitted to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Evaluacion de productividad y calidad de fruta en aguacate Hass sometido a radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

    Cruz T, E. De la; Ibanez P, J; Mijares O, P; Garcia A, J M [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Biologia, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of productivity, postharvest behavior and fruit quality was performed on four years Hass avocado trees irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays in doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy, established in the ''La Labor'' Experimental Center of the Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologias del Aguacate en el Estado de Mexico (CICTAMEX) at Temascaltepec Mexico. Productivity had a significant increase in the dose of 15 Gy being the average number of fruits nearly 400 % more than the control at fruit setting, being such difference reduced at fruit harvesting to 300 %. In regard to postharvest performance, the respiration index (mg CO{sub 2}/kg/hr) did not show significant differences among treatments. Also others variables such as physiological weight losses, texture, maturity pattern, and sensorial tests (color, flavor, aroma, texture) were not different in regard to the control. This mean that radiation has altered productivity but not the quality and postharvest behavior of fruits. (Author)

  11. Efeito do ensacamento na qualidade dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos da atemoieira e da pinheira Bagging effect upon either quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer in atemoya and sweetsop

    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o uso de diferentes invólucros nos frutos de atemoieira e pinheira na qualidade físico-química dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos, Cerconota anonella. Os experimentos foram instalados em dois pomares comerciais: um de atemoieira no município de Matias Cardoso e outro de pinheira no município de Verdelândia, Norte de Minas Gerais. Os tratamentos para a atemoieira consistiram em: 1 Testemunha (sem ensacamento; 2 Saco plástico leitoso; 3 Saco de TNT (tecido-não-tecido branco sem fundo e 4 Saco de TNT branco com fundo. Para a pinheira foi modificado apenas o tratamento 2 para saco de papel pardo. Avaliaram-se número de dias da polinização à colheita, número de dias da colheita ao amadurecimento, ocorrência de injúrias e brocas e características físico-químicas dos frutos. Observam-se maior número de dias entre a colheita e o amadurecimento e mais firmeza nos frutos de pinheira não-ensacados. O uso do plástico leitoso controlou a broca em frutos de atemoieira. As características físico-químicas: massa, comprimento, diâmetro dos frutos e teor de sólidos solúveis totais da polpa não foram influenciados pelo uso dos invólucros.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect from using different involucres for fruits of the atemoya and sweetsop upon either physiochemical quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer Cerconota anonella. The experiments were set up in two commercial orchards: one with atemoya at Matias Cardoso county and the other one with sweetsop at Verdelândia on northern Minas Gerais state. The treatments for atemoya consisted of: 1 Control (without bagging; 2 Milky plastic bag; 3 White, bottomless, tissue-non-tissue (TNT bag; and (4 With bottom TNT bag. For the sweetsop, only treatment 2 was modified to brown paper bag. The following evaluation were performed: the number of days from pollination to harvest, number of days from harvest to ripening

  12. Postharvest quality and functional compounds in "dedo-de-moça" 'BRS Mari' pepper fruit at different stages of maturity

    Cristina Soethe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of "dedo-de-moça" 'BRS Mari' pepper fruits at different maturity stages, and determine the ideal harvest stage for fresh consumption. The pepper plants were grown in the experimental field of Embrapa Hortaliças (Brasília, DF, Brazil in 2012, and their fruits were evaluated at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 days after anthesis (DAA to determine the soluble solid content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, color (hue angle and lightness, a, b, and total chlorophyll, total phenolic compounds (TPC, total antioxidant activity (TAA, and capsanthin. It was observed that SS content increased until 70 DAA, and TA increased until 50 DAA, with decrease at 80 DAA. The a and total chlorophyll decreased until 60 DAA. Values for chlorophyll b were high until 30 DAA, and then decreased. The values for hue angle and lightness decreased until 60 DAA, indicating a change from green to red in fruits external color, with small changes in color from 60 to 80 DAA. The TPC content increased until 60 DAA, and then small increases occurred until 80 DAA. The AA increased as the fruit ripened, and the capsanthin content increased until 70 DAA. These results indicated that the ideal stage for harvest of the "dedo-de-moça" 'BRS Mari' pepper fruits is at 70 days after anthesis, when they also have a full development of red color in the fruit epidermis.

  13. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  14. High quality data: An evaluation of AIM data quality and data quality procedures

    The goal of every monitoring program is to collect high-quality data which can then be used to provide information to decision makers. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) program is one such data set which provides rangeland status, condition, and trend in...

  15. Effect of osmotic dehydration and vacuum-frying parameters to produce high-quality mango chips.

    Nunes, Yolanda; Moreira, Rosana G

    2009-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit rich in flavor and nutritional values, which is an excellent candidate for producing chips. The objective of this study was to develop high-quality mango chips using vacuum frying. Mango ("Tommy Atkins") slices were pretreated with different maltodextrin concentrations (40, 50, and 65, w/v), osmotic dehydration times (45, 60, and 70 min), and solution temperatures (22 and 40 degrees C). Pretreated slices were vacuum fried at 120, 130, and 138 degrees C and product quality attributes (oil content, texture, color, carotenoid content) determined. The effect of frying temperatures at optimum osmotic dehydration times (65 [w/v] at 40 degrees C) was assessed. All samples were acceptable (scores > 5) to consumer panelists. The best mango chips were those pretreated with 65 (w/v) concentration for 60 min and vacuum fried at 120 degrees C. Mango chips under atmospheric frying had less carotenoid retention (32%) than those under vacuum frying (up to 65%). These results may help further optimize vacuum-frying processing of high-quality fruit-based snacks.

  16. High-picture quality industrial CT scanner

    Shoji, Takao; Nishide, Akihiko; Fujii, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial X-ray-CT-scanners, which provide cross-sectional images of a tested sample without destroying it, are attracting attention as a new nondestructive inspection device. In 1982, Toshiba commenced the development of industrial CT scanners, and introduced the 'TOSCANER' -3000 and-4000 series. Now, the state of the art 'TOSCANER'-20000 series of CT systems has been developed incorporating the latest computer tomography and image processing technology, such as the T9506 image processor. One of the advantages of this system is its applicability to a wide range of X-ray energy . The 'TOSCANER'-20000 series can be utilized for inspecting castings and other materials with relatively low-transparency to X-rays, as well as ceramics, composite materials and other materials with high X-ray transparency. A further feature of the new system is its high-picture quality, with a high-spatial resolution resulting from a pixel size of 0.2x0.2(mm). (author)

  17. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms with consumption of high fruit-juice and vegetable diet affect antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

    Yuan, Linhong; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Ji, Jian; Li, Nan; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no data have yet shown the combined effects of GSTM1/GSTT1 gene polymorphisms with high consumption of a fruit and vegetable diet on the body's antioxidant capacity. A 2-wk dietary intervention in healthy participants was conducted to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant biomarkers in individuals with different glutathione-S-transferases (GST) genotypes will be different in response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet. In our study, 24 healthy volunteers with different GST genotypes (12 GSTM1+/GSTT1+ and 12 GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants) consumed a controlled diet high in fruit-juice and vegetables for 2 wk. Blood and first-void urine specimens were obtained at baseline, 1-wk, and 2-wk intervals. The antioxidant capacity-related biomarkers in blood and urine were observed and recorded at the scheduled times. Erythrocyte GST and glutathione reductase (GR) activities response to a high fruit-juice and vegetable diet are GST genotype-dependent. Two weeks on the high fruit-juice and vegetable diet increased GST and GR activities in the GSTM1+/GSTT1+ group (P juice and vegetable diet than GSTM1-/GSTT1- participants. The diet intervention was effective in enhancing glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in all participants (P 0.05). The effects of a diet rich in fruit-juice and vegetables on antioxidant capacity were dependent on GSTM1/GSTT1 genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Quality management is associated with high quality services in health care].

    Nielsen, Tenna Hassert; Riis, Allan; Mainz, Jan; Jensen, Anne-Louise Degn

    2013-12-09

    In these years, quality management has been the focus in order to meet high quality services for the patients in Danish health care. This article provides information on quality management and quality improvement and it evaluates its effectiveness in achieving better organizational structures, processes and results in Danish health-care organizations. Our findings generally support that quality management is associated with high quality services in health care.

  19. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  20. High Quality Data for Grid Integration Studies

    Clifton, Andrew; Draxl, Caroline; Sengupta, Manajit; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-01-22

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. The existing electric grid infrastructure in the US in particular poses significant limitations on wind power expansion. In this presentation we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets are presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. The need for high-resolution weather data pushes modeling towards finer scales and closer synchronization. We also present how we anticipate such datasets developing in the future, their benefits, and the challenges with using and disseminating such large amounts of data.

  1. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by >1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  2. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by 1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  3. Açai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementat...

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Quality of Fruit, Fresh and Processed as Compote, of certain Cherry Tree Cultivars

    Ion Caplan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The five cherry tree cultivars presented in this paper (Van, Stela, Simbol, Boambe de Cotnari, Gesmerdorf are those that occupy most of the surface cultivated with this species at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta. The observations and measurements concerning the biometrical and organoleptic characteristics of fresh fruit (size, aspect, firmness, taste, stone percentage, as well as the biochemical features (soluble dry substance, soluble carbohydrates, revealed the superiority of the Van and Simbol cultivars. Processed as compote, all the cultivars, apart from Stela, displayed a very good processing capacity.

  5. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  6. Characterization of Polysaccharides from the Fruiting Bodies of Two Species of Genus Ganoderma (Agaricomycetes) and Determination of Water-Soluble β-D-Glucan Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Liu, Yanfang; Tang, Qingjiu; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Wu, Di; Tang, Chuanhong; Zhang, Zhong; Yan, Mengqiu; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Jing-Song

    2017-01-01

    Molecular weight (Mw) distributions of polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of different Ganoderma lucidum strains and G. sinense were investigated and compared using high-pressure size exclusion chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering/refractive index analysis. Results showed that there were big differences in the Mw distributions and characteristics of polysaccharides from 2 species of Ganoderma. All tested G. lucidum materials exhibited similar polysaccharide distributions and similar characteristics for each fraction. The fraction with highest Mw (peak 1) was identified as β-(1→3)-linked D-glucan with (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl side branches. G. sinense fruiting bodies did not include the β-D-glucan when compared with G. lucidum. A high-pressure size exclusion chromatography method was developed and applied to determine the amount of high-Mw β-D-glucan in G. lucidum fruiting bodies. Results indicated that there was no obvious relationship between β-D-glucan content and the genetic similarity of G. lucidum. The strain labeled "Longzhi no. 2" was determined to possess the largest amount of β-D-glucan: 8.2 mg/mL based on the dry weight of fruiting bodies. The β-D-glucan content in the hot water extract of Longzhi no. 2 reached 17.05%. For the "Hunong no. 1" strain, the β-D-glucan content in log-cultivated fruiting bodies was much higher than that in bag-cultivated ones. This method could be used to improve quality control of polysaccharides in G. lucidum.

  7. Pasteurization of fruit juices of different pH values by combined high hydrostatic pressure and carbon dioxide.

    Li, Wang; Pan, Jian; Xie, Huiming; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Dianfei; Zhu, Zhaona

    2012-10-01

    The inactivation of the selected vegetative bacteria Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Lactobacillus plantarum by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in physiological saline (PS) and in four fruit juices with pHs ranging from 3.4 to 6.3, with or without dissolved CO(2), was investigated. The inactivation effect of HHP on the bacteria was greatly enhanced by dissolved CO(2). Effective inactivation (>7 log) was achieved at 250 MPa for E. coli and 350 MPa for L. innocua and L. plantarum in the presence of 0.2 M CO(2) at room temperature for 15 min in PS, with additional inactivation of more than 4 log for all three bacteria species compared with the results with HHP treatment alone. The combined inactivation by HHP and CO(2) in tomato juice of pH 4.2 and carrot juice of pH 6.3 showed minor differences compared with that in PS. By comparison, the combined effect in orange juice of pH 3.8 was considerably promoted, while the HHP inactivation was enhanced only to a limited extent. In another orange juice with a pH of 3.4, all three strains lost their pressure resistance. HHP alone completely inactivated E. coli at relatively mild pressures of 200 MPa and L. innocua and L. plantarum at 300 MPa. Observations of the survival of the bacteria in treated juices also showed that the combined treatment caused more sublethal injury, which increased further inactivation at a relatively mild pH of 4.2 during storage. The results indicated that the combined treatment of HHP with dissolved CO(2) may provide an effective method for the preservation of low- or medium-acid fruit and vegetable juices at relatively low pressures. HHP alone inactivated bacteria effectively in high-acid fruit juice.

  8. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sorting Method to Improve Quality of Capsicum Pepper Seed Lots Produced from Different Maturity Fruits

    Kenanoglu, B.B.; Demir, I.; Jalink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the efficacy of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) sorting to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and vigor of seeds produced from different maturity fruits of four different cultivars. Four harvest dates from each cultivar were evaluated by harvesting

  10. Microbial safety and overall quality of cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces prepared from whole fruit after wet steam treatment

    Fresh-cut cantaloupes have been associated with outbreaks of Salmonellosis. Minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and physiological processes. The objectives of this study were to use a wet steam process to 1) reduce ind...

  11. Rolled-crimped winter rye cover effects on hand-weeding times and fruit yield and quality of cucurbits

    Fruit and vegetables produced without pesticides are in demand by some segments of society. However, weeds often are deleterious in such crops, and managing them without herbicides is difficult. Stale seedbeds and rolled-crimped winter rye cover crops are non-chemical methods that may help manage we...

  12. Influence of deficit irrigation and crop load on the yield and fruit quality in Wonderful and Mollar de Elche pomegranates

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Collado-González, Jacinta; Rodríguez, Pedro; Cruz, Zulma N; Legua, Pilar; Burló, Francisco; Morales, Donaldo; Carbonell-barrachina, Ángel A; Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The working hypothesis of the present study was that, by proper simultaneous control of irrigation (hydroSOStainable products) and crop load (thinning), it is possible to promote the accumulation of bioactive compounds and improve fruit appearance (size and weight). The effects of (i)

  13. Harvest maturity, pre-cutting wash and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    ‘Arkin’ carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 12), cut to 10 mm slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 days sto...

  14. Selenium Biofortification in Fragaria × ananassa: Implications on Strawberry Fruits Quality, Content of Bioactive Health Beneficial Compounds and Metabolomic Profile

    Tanja Mimmo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential nutrient for humans, due to its antioxidant properties, whereas, to date, its essentiality to plants still remains to be demonstrated. Nevertheless, if added to the cultivation substrate, plants growth resulted enhanced. However, the concentration of Se in agricultural soils is very variable, ranging from 0.01 mg kg-1 up to 10 mg kg-1 in seleniferous areas. Therefore several studies have been performed aimed at bio-fortifying crops with Se and the approaches exploited were mainly based on the application of Se fertilizers. The aim of the present research was to assess the biofortification potential of Se in hydroponically grown strawberry fruits and its effects on qualitative parameters and nutraceutical compounds. The supplementation with Se did not negatively affect the growth and the yield of strawberries, and induced an accumulation of Se in fruits. Furthermore, the metabolomic analyses highlighted an increase in flavonoid and polyphenol compounds, which contributes to the organoleptic features and antioxidant capacity of fruits; in addition, an increase in the fruits sweetness also was detected in biofortified strawberries. In conclusion, based on our observations, strawberry plants seem a good target for Se biofortification, thus allowing the increase in the human intake of this essential micronutrient.

  15. The Impact of Plastic Film Mclching on the White Mulberry Fruit Disease and Fruit Quality%果桑地表覆膜对桑白果病发病及果实品质的影响

    阿布都肉苏力·库尔班; 师志敏; 麦麦提依明·阿尤甫; 石彩云; 吕化荣; 刘永忠

    2016-01-01

    以果桑(Morsu alba L)品种大十(M.alba cv.Big ten)为材料,分别覆盖聚乙烯白色地膜、黑色地膜和银黑反光膜,在果桑萌芽开花前于行内覆盖,比较了开花前不同地表覆膜对果桑果实桑白果病发病率以及果实品质的影响.结果表明,不同地膜覆盖均能显著降低果桑果实桑白果病的发病率,对成熟果实的可滴定酸含量有降低的趋势,同时也显著降低了果实可溶性固形物、花青素和抗坏血酸的含量.说明地表覆膜可以有效预防桑白果病的发生,但是对果实品质的影响尚待进一步试验确认.%To study the influence of different surface mulching before flowering on the white mulberry(Morsu alba L.) disease and fruit quality of mulberry,with M.alba cv.Big ten as tested material,polyethylene mulch film,black and silver black reflective film,respectively,were tightly coated before bud sprouting and flowering of mulberry.The study found that,under different film covering,infection rates of the white mulberry disease and titratable acid (TA) in ripe mulberry fruit reduced significantly.Meanwhile,several beneficial metabolites,such as total soluble solids (TAA),anthocyanin and ascorbic acid dropped significantly.The surface coating could effectively prevent the happening of the white mulberry disease;but the effects on fruit quality is yet to be further confirmed.

  16. Microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat leaf vegetables, sprouts and non-pasteurized fresh fruit-vegetable juices including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Garbowska, Monika; Stefańska, Ilona; Pluta, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples). All samples were determined for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The isolates of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to genetic identification and differentiation by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and RAPD-PCR and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion assay. The TAMB count in samples of lettuces, sprouts and non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices was in the range of 5.6-7.6, 6.7-8.4 and 2.9-7.7 log CFU g -1 , respectively. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 21 (35%) samples of the products, including in 6 (30%) samples of leaf vegetables (rucola, lamb's lettuce, endive escarola and leaf vegetables mix) and in 15 (75%) samples of sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, small radish, lentil, sunflower, leek and sprout mix). No presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in the analyzed samples of non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices. The 21 strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from leaf vegetable and sprouts included: 13 strains of C. sakazakii, 4 strains of C. muytjensii, 2 strains of C. turicensis, one strain of C. malonaticus and one strain of C. condimenti. All isolated C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. malonaticus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin

  17. Effects of exogenous application of CPPU, NAA and GA4+7 on parthenocarpy and fruit quality in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Qian, Chunlu; Ren, Nannan; Wang, Jingye; Xu, Qiang; Chen, Xuehao; Qi, Xiaohua

    2018-03-15

    In protected vegetable fields, plant growth regulators are often used to improve cucumber fruit growth. However, the effects of plant growth regulators on the appearance and nutritional quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) remain largely unknown. In the present study, 100 mg/L N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or gibberellin A4+A7 (GA 4+7 ) was applied to the female cucumber flowers 1 day before anthesis and at anthesis. The CPPU, NAA and GA 4+7 treatments resulted in parthenocarpic fruits with similar weights, sizes and shapes as the pollinated fruits. NAA treatment did not affect the appearance and nutritional characteristics of cucumber at harvest and after storage. CPPU treatment increased the flesh firmness at harvest but decreased phenolic acid and vitamin C contents after storage. GA 4+7 treatment decreased the flesh firmness but increased total flavonoids and protein content after storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High demand for firewood leads to overuse of walnut-fruit forests in Kyrgyzstan

    Maik Rehnus; Annemarie Nazarek; Davlet Mamadzhanov; Bronislav Ivanovitch Venglovsky; Jean-Pierre Sorg

    2013-01-01

    After Kyrgyzstan gained independence in 1991, the importance of the primary sector for food-and energy-supply increased significantly. This has led to a discussion about the sustainability of current firewood use. We investigated firewood collection and use practices in three selected villages and analysed differences between the annual increment of woody biomass and firewood consumption for heating during winter months. The calculated individual firewood consumption is on average 3.90 kg/capita/heating day and the calculation of differences between increment and consumption shows that in minimum one village the surrounding forests are overused for firewood collection. Pressure on the forest and the overuse of preferred tree species for firewood can lead to an overuse of the resource and to a decrease in the genetic diversity of these species in the walnut-fruit forests which are considered as a biodiversity hotspot of international significance due to the diversity of woody.

  19. Pectin methyl esterase treatment on high-methoxy pectin for making fruit jam with reduced sugar content.

    Wang, Yuh-Tai; Lien, Ling-Lan; Chang, Ya-Chu; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2013-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) has been postulated to catalyse the transacylation reaction between pectin molecules. The present study aimed to prove the occurrence of this reaction. The feasibility of applying PME-catalysed transacylation between high-methoxy pectin molecules in making fruit jam with reduced sugar content was also investigated. PME treatment increased the turbidity and particle size in pectin solution and the molecular weight of pectin, while it decreased the number of methoxy ester linkages and the intensity of the CH₃ absorption peak in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum without changes in the number of total ester linkages in pectin molecules. These findings support the occurrence of PME-catalysed transacylation between pectin molecules. Higher values of hardness, gumminess and chewiness were found in a jam containing PME-treated citrus pectin (10 g L⁻¹) and sugar (350 g L⁻¹) as compared with either a jam containing untreated citrus pectin (10 g L⁻¹) and sugar (350 g L⁻¹) or strawberry jam containing pectin (10 g L⁻¹) from the fruit and sugar (650 g L⁻¹). The demand for sugar in jam making can be greatly reduced by the use of PME-treated high-methoxy pectin. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Comparison of drip, pipe and surge spring root irrigation for Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. fruit quality in the Loess plateau of China.

    Qing-Han Gao

    Full Text Available Loess Plateau is a typical rain-fed farming region, facing the threat of drought. Irrigation method is among the most important factors affecting jujube quality. This study investigated the response of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lizao quality to three different irrigation methods (drip-, pipe- and surge spring root irrigation combining two water levels (20 m(3/hm(2 and 120 m(3/hm(2. The effects of the trials were evaluated by taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of jujubes and the antioxidant activity. Concomitant to this, the concentration of some taste-related (viz. glucose, fructose, TSS and malic acid and health-related compounds/parameters (viz. catechin and epicatechin were generally much greater in jujube fruit treated with drip irrigation (120 m(3/hm(2. Different irrigation treatments had no significant effects on antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and proanthocyanidins (except for pipe irrigation 20 m(3/hm(2. The best compromise between quality and irrigation of jujube fruit was achieved with drip irrigation (120 m(3/hm(2.