WorldWideScience

Sample records for high quality audio

  1. Maintaining high-quality IP audio services in lossy IP network environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert J., III; Chodura, Hartmut

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we present our research activities in the area of digital audio processing and transmission. Today's available teleconference audio solutions are lacking in flexibility, robustness and fidelity. There was a need for enhancing the quality of audio for IP-based applications to guarantee optimal services under varying conditions. Multiple tests and user evaluations have shown that a reliable audio communication toolkit is essential for any teleconference application. This paper summarizes our research activities and gives an overview of developed applications. In a first step the parameters, which influence the audio quality, were evaluated. All of these parameters have to be optimized in order to result into the best achievable quality. Therefore it was necessary to enhance existing schemes or develop new methods. Applications were developed for Internet-Telephony, broadcast of live music and spatial audio for Virtual Reality environments. This paper describes these applications and issues of delivering high quality digital audio services over lossy IP networks.

  2. On the definition of adapted audio/video profiles for high-quality video calling services over LTE/4G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Maty; Quinquis, Catherine; Larabi, Mohamed Chaker; Le Lay, Gwenael; Saadane, Hakim; Perrine, Clency

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, the important advances and widespread availability of mobile technology (operating systems, GPUs, terminal resolution and so on) have encouraged a fast development of voice and video services like video-calling. While multimedia services have largely grown on mobile devices, the generated increase of data consumption is leading to the saturation of mobile networks. In order to provide data with high bit-rates and maintain performance as close as possible to traditional networks, the 3GPP (The 3rd Generation Partnership Project) worked on a high performance standard for mobile called Long Term Evolution (LTE). In this paper, we aim at expressing recommendations related to audio and video media profiles (selection of audio and video codecs, bit-rates, frame-rates, audio and video formats) for a typical video-calling services held over LTE/4G mobile networks. These profiles are defined according to targeted devices (smartphones, tablets), so as to ensure the best possible quality of experience (QoE). Obtained results indicate that for a CIF format (352 x 288 pixels) which is usually used for smartphones, the VP8 codec provides a better image quality than the H.264 codec for low bitrates (from 128 to 384 kbps). However sequences with high motion, H.264 in slow mode is preferred. Regarding audio, better results are globally achieved using wideband codecs offering good quality except for opus codec (at 12.2 kbps).

  3. Spatial audio quality perception (part 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial audio processes (SAPs) commonly encountered in consumer audio reproduction systems are known to produce a range of impairments to spatial quality. By way of two listening tests, this paper investigated the degree of degradation of the spatial quality of six 5-channel audio recordings resu...

  4. Spatial audio quality perception (part 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.;

    2015-01-01

    Spatial audio processes (SAPs) commonly encountered in consumer audio reproduction systems are known to produce a range of impairments to spatial quality. By way of two listening tests, this paper investigated the degree of degradation of the spatial quality of six 5-channel audio recordings resu...

  5. LiveDescribe: Can Amateur Describers Create High-Quality Audio Description?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Carmen J.; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here evaluated the usability of the audio description software LiveDescribe and explored the acceptance rates of audio description created by amateur describers who used LiveDescribe to facilitate the creation of their descriptions. Methods: Twelve amateur describers with little or no previous experience with…

  6. Ferrite bead effect on Class-D amplifier audio quality

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Kevin El; Mrad, Roberto; Morel, Florent; Pillonnet, Gael; Vollaire, Christian; Nagari, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the effect of ferrite beads on the audio quality of Class-D audio amplifiers. This latter is a switch-ing circuit which creates high frequency harmonics. Generally, a filter is used at the amplifier output for the sake of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC). So often, in integrated solutions, this filter contains ferrite beads which are magnetic components and present nonlinear behavior. Time domain measurements and their equivalence in frequency do...

  7. Quality Enhancement of Compressed Audio Based on Statistical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouchtaris Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most audio compression formats are based on the idea of low bit rate transparent encoding. As these types of audio signals are starting to migrate from portable players with inexpensive headphones to higher quality home audio systems, it is becoming evident that higher bit rates may be required to maintain transparency. We propose a novel method that enhances low bit rate encoded audio segments by applying multiband audio resynthesis methods in a postprocessing stage. Our algorithm employs the highly flexible Generalized Gaussian mixture model which offers a more accurate representation of audio features than the Gaussian mixture model. A novel residual conversion technique is applied which proves to significantly improve the enhancement performance without excessive overhead. In addition, both cepstral and residual errors are dramatically decreased by a feature-alignment scheme that employs a sorting transformation. Some improvements regarding the quantization step are also described that enable us to further reduce the algorithm overhead. Signal enhancement examples are presented and the results show that the overhead size incurred by the algorithm is a fraction of the uncompressed signal size. Our results show that the resulting audio quality is comparable to that of a standard perceptual codec operating at approximately the same bit rate.

  8. Quality Enhancement of Compressed Audio Based on Statistical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kyriakakis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Most audio compression formats are based on the idea of low bit rate transparent encoding. As these types of audio signals are starting to migrate from portable players with inexpensive headphones to higher quality home audio systems, it is becoming evident that higher bit rates may be required to maintain transparency. We propose a novel method that enhances low bit rate encoded audio segments by applying multiband audio resynthesis methods in a postprocessing stage. Our algorithm employs the highly flexible Generalized Gaussian mixture model which offers a more accurate representation of audio features than the Gaussian mixture model. A novel residual conversion technique is applied which proves to significantly improve the enhancement performance without excessive overhead. In addition, both cepstral and residual errors are dramatically decreased by a feature-alignment scheme that employs a sorting transformation. Some improvements regarding the quantization step are also described that enable us to further reduce the algorithm overhead. Signal enhancement examples are presented and the results show that the overhead size incurred by the algorithm is a fraction of the uncompressed signal size. Our results show that the resulting audio quality is comparable to that of a standard perceptual codec operating at approximately the same bit rate.

  9. Spatial audio quality perception (part 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.;

    2015-01-01

    location, envelopment, coverage angle, ensemble width, and spaciousness. They can also impact timbre, and changes to timbre can then influence spatial perception. Previously obtained data was used to build a regression model of perceived spatial audio quality in terms of spatial and timbral metrics...

  10. Spatial audio quality perception (part 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.

    2015-01-01

    location, envelopment, coverage angle, ensemble width, and spaciousness. They can also impact timbre, and changes to timbre can then influence spatial perception. Previously obtained data was used to build a regression model of perceived spatial audio quality in terms of spatial and timbral metrics...

  11. Adaptive Variable Degree-k Zero-Trees for Re-Encoding of Perceptually Quantized Wavelet-Packet Transformed Audio and High Quality Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Ghahabi, Omid

    2011-01-01

    A fast, efficient and scalable algorithm is proposed, in this paper, for re-encoding of perceptually quantized wavelet-packet transform (WPT) coefficients of audio and high quality speech and is called "adaptive variable degree-k zero-trees" (AVDZ). The quantization process is carried out by taking into account some basic perceptual considerations, and achieves good subjective quality with low complexity. The performance of the proposed AVDZ algorithm is compared with two other zero-tree-based schemes comprising: 1- Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet (EZW) and 2- The set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT). Since EZW and SPIHT are designed for image compression, some modifications are incorporated in these schemes for their better matching to audio signals. It is shown that the proposed modifications can improve their performance by about 15-25%. Furthermore, it is concluded that the proposed AVDZ algorithm outperforms these modified versions in terms of both output average bit-rates and computation times.

  12. Standardization Promotes the Quality of Meteorological Audio & Video Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As an important part of meteorological sector and a critical basis for enhancing the capability of meteorological disaster prevention and mitigation and climate change response,the meteorological standardization is a significant support for facilitating the good and quick development of meteorological sector.Huafeng Group,as a leading enterprise of meteorological audio & video service,has,for years,attached much importance to employing the standardization of meteorological audio & video service to improve its management level and quality of programs,enhance the quality of meteorological audio & video service,build the brand image,cultivate the highlevel backbone personnel,and facilitate the sustainable development of meteorological audio & video service.

  13. Objective assessment of speech and audio quality - Technology and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, A.W.; Beerends, J.G.; Kim, D.-S.; Kroon, P.; Ghitza, O.

    2006-01-01

    In the past few years, objective quality assessment models have become increasingly used for assessing or monitoring speech and audio quality. By measuring perceived quality on an easily-understood subjective scale, such as listening quality (excellent, good, fair, poor, bad), these methods provide

  14. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Perceived Audio Quality of Current Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Web-Casting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of different audio codecs typically deployed in current digital audio broadcasting (DAB) systems and web-casting applications, which represent a main source of quality impairment in these systems and applications, on the quality perceived by the end user. Both subj

  15. Audio Quality Assurance : An Application of Cross Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl

    2012-01-01

    We describe algorithms for automated quality assurance on content of audio files in context of preservation actions and access. The algorithms use cross correlation to compare the sound waves. They are used to do overlap analysis in an access scenario, where preserved radio broadcasts are used in...

  16. The complete guide to high-end audio

    CERN Document Server

    Harley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    An updated edition of what many consider the "bible of high-end audio"   In this newly revised and updated fifth edition, Robert Harley, editor in chief of the Absolute Sound magazine, tells you everything you need to know about buying and enjoying high-quality hi-fi. With this book, discover how to get the best sound for your money, how to identify the weak links in your system and upgrade where it will do the most good, how to set up and tweak your system for maximum performance, and how to become a more perceptive and appreciative listener. Just a few of the secrets you will learn cover hi

  17. The relationship between basic audio quality and overall listening experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Michael; Herre, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    Basic audio quality (BAQ) is a well-known perceptual attribute, which is rated in various listening test methods to measure the performance of audio systems. Unfortunately, when it comes to purchasing audio systems, BAQ might not have a significant influence on the customers' buying decisions since other factors, like brand loyalty, might be more important. In contrast to BAQ, overall listening experience (OLE) is an affective attribute which incorporates all aspects that are important to an individual assessor, including his or her preference for music genre and audio quality. In this work, the relationship between BAQ and OLE is investigated in more detail. To this end, an experiment was carried out, in which participants rated the BAQ and the OLE of music excerpts with different timbral and spatial degradations. In a between-group-design procedure, participants were assigned into two groups, in each of which a different set of stimuli was rated. The results indicate that rating of both attributes, BAQ and OLE, leads to similar rankings, even if a different set of stimuli is rated. In contrast to the BAQ ratings, which were more influenced by timbral than spatial degradations, the OLE ratings were almost equally influenced by timbral and spatial degradations.

  18. High Capacity and Resistance to Additive Noise Audio Steganography Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Ismael Shahadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of message hiding in a cover signal without attracting attention. The requirements of the good steganography algorithm are security, capacity, robustness and imperceptibility, all them are contradictory, therefore, satisfying all together is not easy especially in audio cover signal because human auditory system (HAS has high sensitivity to audio modification. In this paper, we proposed a high capacity audio steganography algorithm with good resistance to additive noise. The proposed algorithm is based on wavelet packet transform and blocks matching. It has capacity above 35% of the input audio file size with acceptable signal to noise ratio. Also, it is resistance to additive Gaussian noise to about 25 db. Furthermore, the reconstruction of actual secret messages does not require the original cover audio signal.

  19. Audio Quality Assurance : An Application of Cross Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl

    2012-01-01

    We describe algorithms for automated quality assurance on content of audio files in context of preservation actions and access. The algorithms use cross correlation to compare the sound waves. They are used to do overlap analysis in an access scenario, where preserved radio broadcasts are used...... in research and annotated. They have been applied in a migration scenario, where radio broadcasts are to be migrated for long term preservation....

  20. On the comparison of audio fingerprints for extracting quality parameters of compressed audio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Menot Gisbert, M.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Audio fingerprints can be seen as hashes of the perceptual content of an audio excerpt. Applications include linking metadata to unlabeled audio, watermark support, and broadcast monitoring. Existing systems identify a song by comparing its fingerprint to pre-computed fingerprints in a database. Sma

  1. C Implementation & comparison of companding & silence audio compression techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dangarwala, Kruti

    2010-01-01

    Just about all the newest living room audio-video electronics and PC multimedia products being designed today will incorporate some form of compressed digitized-audio processing capability. Audio compression reduces the bit rate required to represent an analog audio signal while maintaining the perceived audio quality. Discarding inaudible data reduces the storage, transmission and compute requirements of handling high-quality audio files. This paper covers wave audio file format & algorithm of silence compression method and companding method to compress and decompress wave audio file. Then it compares the result of these two methods.

  2. Quality and Distortion Evaluation of Audio Signal by Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Niranjan Singh; Dr. Bhupendra Verma

    2012-01-01

    Information hiding in digital audio can be used for such diverse applications as proof ofownership, authentication, integrity, secret communication, broadcast monitoring and eventannotation. To achieve secure and undetectable communication, stegano-objects, anddocuments containing a secret message, should be indistinguishable from cover-objects, andshow that documents not containing any secret message. In this respect, Steganalysis is the setof techniques that aim to distinguish between cover...

  3. Parametric Coding of Stereo Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Schuijers

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Parametric-stereo coding is a technique to efficiently code a stereo audio signal as a monaural signal plus a small amount of parametric overhead to describe the stereo image. The stereo properties are analyzed, encoded, and reinstated in a decoder according to spatial psychoacoustical principles. The monaural signal can be encoded using any (conventional audio coder. Experiments show that the parameterized description of spatial properties enables a highly efficient, high-quality stereo audio representation.

  4. Implementation of Audio signal by using wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakresh kumar,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Audio coding is the technology to represent audio in digital form with as few bits as possible while maintaining the intelligibility and quality required for particular application. Interest in audio coding is motivated by the evolution to digital communications and the requirement to minimize bit rate, and hence conserve bandwidth. There is always a tradeoff between compression ratio and maintaining the delivered audio quality and intelligibility. Audio coding is widely used in application such as digital broadcasting, Internet audio or music database to reduce the bit rate of high quality audio signal without comprising the perceptual quality. In this dissertation work Design and implementation of a MPEG Lossless audio codec using wavelet transform has been proposed. The major issues concerning the development of audio codec are choosing optimal wavelets for audio signals, decomposition level in the digital wavelet transform and thresholding criteria for coefficient truncation which is the basis to provide compression ratio for audio with suitable peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, wavelet packet compression technique has also been used to compare the performanceof audio codec using wavelet transform. A psychoacoustic model is used to improve the quality of audio signal. The proposed audio codec has been implemented on DSK6713 Starter Kit using MATLAB-7.3 and Link to Code Composer Studio and various audio signals of different time duration have been tested. Result obtained show that the proposed codec improves quality of the reconstructed audio signal.

  5. Class D audio amplifiers for high voltage capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis

    voltage capacitive transducers can be constructed with THD+N below 0.1 % and peak efficiency above 80 %. However the complexity of the amplifier combined with the current high cost of components, makes the technology of DEAP based loudspeaker unfeasible. Suggestions to future work in the pursuit...... of high volume, weight, and cost. High efficient class D amplifiers are now widely available offering power densities, that their linear counterparts can not match. Unlike the technology of audio amplifiers, the loudspeaker is still based on the traditional electrodynamic transducer invented by C.W. Rice....... Due to the similarities between the electrostatic loudspeaker and the DEAP transducer, the state-of-the-art has a special focus on amplifiers for electrostatic loudspeakers. Amplifiers for other type of capacitive transducers like piezoelectric ones are also considered. Finally the current state...

  6. High-Resolution Audio with Inaudible High-Frequency Components Induces a Relaxed Attentional State without Conscious Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Ryuma; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution audio has a higher sampling frequency and a greater bit depth than conventional low-resolution audio such as compact disks. The higher sampling frequency enables inaudible sound components (above 20 kHz) that are cut off in low-resolution audio to be reproduced. Previous studies of high-resolution audio have mainly focused on the effect of such high-frequency components. It is known that alpha-band power in a human electroencephalogram (EEG) is larger when the inaudible high-frequency components are present than when they are absent. Traditionally, alpha-band EEG activity has been associated with arousal level. However, no previous studies have explored whether sound sources with high-frequency components affect the arousal level of listeners. The present study examined this possibility by having 22 participants listen to two types of a 400-s musical excerpt of French Suite No. 5 by J. S. Bach (on cembalo, 24-bit quantization, 192 kHz A/D sampling), with or without inaudible high-frequency components, while performing a visual vigilance task. High-alpha (10.5–13 Hz) and low-beta (13–20 Hz) EEG powers were larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. Reaction times and error rates did not change during the task and were not different between the excerpts. The amplitude of the P3 component elicited by target stimuli in the vigilance task increased in the second half of the listening period for the excerpt with high-frequency components, whereas no such P3 amplitude change was observed for the other excerpt without them. The participants did not distinguish between these excerpts in terms of sound quality. Only a subjective rating of inactive pleasantness after listening was higher for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the other excerpt. The present study shows that high-resolution audio that retains high-frequency components has an advantage over similar and indistinguishable digital

  7. High-Resolution Audio with Inaudible High-Frequency Components Induces a Relaxed Attentional State without Conscious Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Ryuma; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution audio has a higher sampling frequency and a greater bit depth than conventional low-resolution audio such as compact disks. The higher sampling frequency enables inaudible sound components (above 20 kHz) that are cut off in low-resolution audio to be reproduced. Previous studies of high-resolution audio have mainly focused on the effect of such high-frequency components. It is known that alpha-band power in a human electroencephalogram (EEG) is larger when the inaudible high-frequency components are present than when they are absent. Traditionally, alpha-band EEG activity has been associated with arousal level. However, no previous studies have explored whether sound sources with high-frequency components affect the arousal level of listeners. The present study examined this possibility by having 22 participants listen to two types of a 400-s musical excerpt of French Suite No. 5 by J. S. Bach (on cembalo, 24-bit quantization, 192 kHz A/D sampling), with or without inaudible high-frequency components, while performing a visual vigilance task. High-alpha (10.5-13 Hz) and low-beta (13-20 Hz) EEG powers were larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. Reaction times and error rates did not change during the task and were not different between the excerpts. The amplitude of the P3 component elicited by target stimuli in the vigilance task increased in the second half of the listening period for the excerpt with high-frequency components, whereas no such P3 amplitude change was observed for the other excerpt without them. The participants did not distinguish between these excerpts in terms of sound quality. Only a subjective rating of inactive pleasantness after listening was higher for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the other excerpt. The present study shows that high-resolution audio that retains high-frequency components has an advantage over similar and indistinguishable digital sound

  8. Towards Unification of Methods for Speech, Audio, Picture and Multimedia Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, S.; Rumsey, F.; Bech, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the need to develop unified methods for subjective and objective quality assessment across speech, audio, picture, and multimedia applications. Commonalities and differences between the currently used standards are overviewed. Examples of the already undertaken research...... attempting to “bridge the gap” between the quality assessment methods used in various disciplines are indicated. Prospective challenges faced by researchers in the unification process are outlined. They include development of unified scales, defining unified anchors, integration of objective models...

  9. Technical Evaluation Report 52: Audio/ Videoconferencing Packages: High cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urel Sawyers

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This report compares two integrated course delivery packages: Centra 6 and WebEx. Both applications feature asynchronous and synchronous audio communications for online education and training. They are relatively costly products, and provide useful comparisons with the two less expensive products to be evaluated in the following report #53. The criteria used in the current evaluation include capacity, interactivity features, integration with learning management systems, technical specifications, and cost. The report ends with a short analysis of the currently emerging audio-conferencing software, Google Talk.

  10. Measuring 3D Audio Localization Performance and Speech Quality of Conferencing Calls for a Multiparty Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Hyder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication systems which support 3D (Three Dimensional audio offer a couple of advantages to the users/customers. Firstly, within the virtual acoustic environments all participants could easily be recognized through their placement/sitting positions. Secondly, all participants can turn their focus on any particular talker when multiple participants start talking at the same time by taking advantage of the natural listening tendency which is called the Cocktail Party Effect. On the other hand, 3D audio is known as a decreasing factor for overall speech quality because of the commencement of reverberations and echoes within the listening environment. In this article, we study the tradeoff between speech quality and human natural ability of localizing audio events/or talkers within our three dimensional audio supported telephony and teleconferencing solution. Further, we performed subjective user studies by incorporating two different HRTFs (Head Related Transfer Functions, different placements of the teleconferencing participants and different layouts of the virtual environments. Moreover, subjective user studies results for audio event localization and subjective speech quality are presented in this article. This subjective user study would help the research community to optimize the existing 3D audio systems and to design new 3D audio supported teleconferencing solutions based on the quality of experience requirements of the users/customers for agriculture personal in particular and for all potential users in general.

  11. A High-Voltage Class D Audio Amplifier for Dielectric Elastomer Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric Elastomer (DE) transducers have emerged as a very interesting alternative to the traditional electrodynamic transducer. Lightweight, small size and high maneuverability are some of the key features of the DE transducer. An amplifier for the DE transducer suitable for audio applications...... is proposed and analyzed. The amplifier addresses the issue of a high impedance load, ensuring a linear response over the midrange region of the audio bandwidth (100 Hz – 3.5 kHz). THD+N below 0.1% are reported for the ± 300 V prototype amplifier producing a maximum of 125 Var at a peak efficiency of 95 %....

  12. A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱樟明; 刘帘曦; 杨银堂; 雷晗

    2009-01-01

    Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 μA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 × 1.52 mm2. With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.

  13. A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhangming; Liu Lianxi; Yang Yintang [Institute of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Lei Han, E-mail: zmyh@263.ne [Xi' an Power-Rail Micro Co., Ltd, Xi' an 710075 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 mum CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 muA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 x 1.52 mm{sup 2}. With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.

  14. Review of AVS Audio Coding Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; ZHANG Caixia; ZHAO Xin

    2016-01-01

    Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS) is a second⁃generation source coding standard and the first standard for audio and video coding in China with independent intellectual property rights. Its performance has reached the international standard. Its coding efficiency is 2 to 3 times greater than that of MPEG⁃2. This technical solution is more simple, and it can greatly save channel resource. After more than ten years ’develop⁃ment, AVS has achieved great success. The latest version of the AVS audio coding standard is ongoing and mainly aims at the increasing demand for low bitrate and high quality audio services. The paper reviews the history and recent develop⁃ment of AVS audio coding standard in terms of basic fea⁃tures, key techniques and performance. Finally, the future de⁃velopment of AVS audio coding standard is discussed.

  15. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; Tuijl, van E.; Schinkel, D.; Annema, A.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant natur

  16. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Schinkel, Daniel; Annema, Anne J.; Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, Bram

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant

  17. Post-Production: "Sweeting" the Final Audio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Augie

    1995-01-01

    Knowing how to use audio mixers in the postproduction of student videos is necessary for high-quality sound. Equipment and techniques are described, and the use of background sound, sound effects, and music is described. (AEF)

  18. Location audio simplified capturing your audio and your audience

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Dean

    2014-01-01

    From the basics of using camera, handheld, lavalier, and shotgun microphones to camera calibration and mixer set-ups, Location Audio Simplified unlocks the secrets to clean and clear broadcast quality audio no matter what challenges you face. Author Dean Miles applies his twenty-plus years of experience as a professional location operator to teach the skills, techniques, tips, and secrets needed to produce high-quality production sound on location. Humorous and thoroughly practical, the book covers a wide array of topics, such as:* location selection* field mixing* boo

  19. Detecting double compression of audio signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

  20. AC-3 audio coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  1. Microphone Handling Noise: Measurements of Perceptual Threshold and Effects on Audio Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kendrick

    Full Text Available A psychoacoustic experiment was carried out to test the effects of microphone handling noise on perceived audio quality. Handling noise is a problem affecting both amateurs using their smartphones and cameras, as well as professionals using separate microphones and digital recorders. The noises used for the tests were measured from a variety of devices, including smartphones, laptops and handheld microphones. The signal features that characterise these noises are analysed and presented. The sounds include various types of transient, impact noises created by tapping or knocking devices, as well as more sustained sounds caused by rubbing. During the perceptual tests, listeners auditioned speech podcasts and were asked to rate the degradation of any unwanted sounds they heard. A representative design test methodology was developed that tried to encourage everyday rather than analytical listening. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the handling noise events was shown to be the best predictor of quality degradation. Other factors such as noise type or background noise in the listening environment did not significantly affect quality ratings. Podcast, microphone type and reproduction equipment were found to be significant but only to a small extent. A model allowing the prediction of degradation from the SNR is presented. The SNR threshold at which 50% of subjects noticed handling noise was found to be 4.2 ± 0.6 dBA. The results from this work are important for the understanding of our perception of impact sound and resonant noises in recordings, and will inform the future development of an automated predictor of quality for handling noise.

  2. Microphone Handling Noise: Measurements of Perceptual Threshold and Effects on Audio Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Paul; Jackson, Iain R; Fazenda, Bruno M; Cox, Trevor J; Li, Francis F

    2015-01-01

    A psychoacoustic experiment was carried out to test the effects of microphone handling noise on perceived audio quality. Handling noise is a problem affecting both amateurs using their smartphones and cameras, as well as professionals using separate microphones and digital recorders. The noises used for the tests were measured from a variety of devices, including smartphones, laptops and handheld microphones. The signal features that characterise these noises are analysed and presented. The sounds include various types of transient, impact noises created by tapping or knocking devices, as well as more sustained sounds caused by rubbing. During the perceptual tests, listeners auditioned speech podcasts and were asked to rate the degradation of any unwanted sounds they heard. A representative design test methodology was developed that tried to encourage everyday rather than analytical listening. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the handling noise events was shown to be the best predictor of quality degradation. Other factors such as noise type or background noise in the listening environment did not significantly affect quality ratings. Podcast, microphone type and reproduction equipment were found to be significant but only to a small extent. A model allowing the prediction of degradation from the SNR is presented. The SNR threshold at which 50% of subjects noticed handling noise was found to be 4.2 ± 0.6 dBA. The results from this work are important for the understanding of our perception of impact sound and resonant noises in recordings, and will inform the future development of an automated predictor of quality for handling noise.

  3. Investigation of Energy Consumption and Sound Quality for Class-D Audio Amplifiers using Tracking Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Schneider, Henrik; Knott, Arnold;

    2015-01-01

    The main advantage of Class-D audio amplifiers is high efficiency which is often stated to be more than 90 % but at idle or low power levels the efficiency is much lower. The waste energy is an environmental concern, a concern in mobile applications where long battery operation is required...... power supply tracking and its influence on power losses, audio performance and environmental impact for a 130 W class-D amplifier prototype as well as a commercialized class-D amplifier. Both modeled and experimental results verify that a large improvement of efficiency can be achieved. The total...

  4. A Single Core Hardware Approach of MPEG Audio Decoder for Real-Time Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B.I. Reaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decoding of the voice audio bit stream is an issue in terms of real-time transmission of high quality voice audio over the Internet. A stand-alone chip to perform decoding is a better solution over software approach. The MPEG audio compression provides high compression with minimal loss. This study describes a VHDL model of MPEG audio layer 1 decoder that perform concurrent processing while receiving voice quality audio input bit stream at a constant bit rate and simultaneously producing a stream of 8-bit monopole PCM samples at a constant sampling frequency in real time.

  5. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, T.S.; Tuijl, van, B.A.J.; Schinkel, D.; Annema, A.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant nature of this PWM-signal. An impulse response with only positive coefficients was chosen, because of its resistance to deadzone and mismatch. With a DAC current of 0.5 mA, the dynamic range is 111 dB (...

  6. A Novel and High Capacity Audio Steganography Algorithm Based on Adaptive Data Embedding Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Ismael Shahadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel and high embedding capacity audio steganography scheme based on Lifting Wavelet Transform (LWT and adaptive embedding positions is proposed. Specifically, the message data is inserted in the imperceptible positions that chosen from the coefficients of detail sub-bands taking advantage of our proposed Weighted Block Matching (WBM. The WBM is preceded by preparing the cover audio in order to select the bits-positions that can possibly be used for embedding from each detail coefficient based on coefficient amplitude then copy the contents of the selected bits-positions and arrange them in blocks of bits. Also, the message data is arranged in blocks of bits after preprocessed and encrypted. The WBM computes the matching between each message block and whole extracted cover blocks to find the similarity between them. This process help to provide optimal locations to hide the message blocks. These locations are considered as a stego-key that is ciphered and hided within the final detail sub-band which is specified for this purpose. The proposed approach attains higher security than other fixed embedding positions approaches because the random positions for the embedded message blocks based on adaptive selection for embedding positions. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is not only has very high embedding capacity (exceed 300 kbps with excellent transparency (above 35 dB for the cover to noise ratio, but also achieve lossless massage retrieved. Comparisons with the related audio steganography algorithms also show that our proposed scheme outperforms all the selected algorithms.

  7. Newnes audio and Hi-Fi engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Audio and Hi-Fi Engineer's Pocket Book, Second Edition provides concise discussion of several audio topics. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that cover different audio equipment. The coverage of the text includes microphones, gramophones, compact discs, and tape recorders. The book also covers high-quality radio, amplifiers, and loudspeakers. The book then reviews the concepts of sound and acoustics, and presents some facts and formulas relevant to audio. The text will be useful to sound engineers and other professionals whose work involves sound systems.

  8. The Individually Focused Interview: Methodological Quality without Transcription of Audio Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I argue--with an example--that under certain conditions replacement of audio transcriptions with a combination of simultaneously taken and jointly produced notes can be done without affecting reliability, validity, and transparency. These conditions are: (1) professional or otherwise relatively "strong" interviewees (interview…

  9. Effect of Making an Audio Recording of a Term Paper on Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxis, Tasia M.; Lannin, Amy A.; Selting, Bonita R.; Lamberson, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Writing-to-learn assignments engage students with a problem while they develop writing skills. It is difficult in large classes to provide training in proofreading and editing techniques. The purpose of this project was to determine if a term paper was improved after making an audio recording of a draft of the paper. Data from 2 years of papers…

  10. A high-performance, low-power {sigma} {Delta} ADC for digital audio applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Hao; Han Yan; Han Xiaoxia; Ma Shaoyu; Ying Peng; Zhu Dazhong [Institute of Microelectronics and Photoelectronics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheung, Ray C. C., E-mail: hany@zju.edu.c [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077 (China)

    2010-05-15

    A high-performance low-power {sigma} {Delta} analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for digital audio applications is described. It consists of a 2-1 cascaded {sigma} {Delta} modulator and a decimation filter. Various design optimizations are implemented in the system design, circuit implementation and layout design, including a high-overload-level coefficient-optimized modulator architecture, a power-efficient class A/AB operational transconductance amplifier, as well as a multi-stage decimation filter conserving area and power consumption. The ADC is implemented in the SMIC 0.18-{mu}m CMOS mixed-signal process. The experimental chip achieves a peak signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio of 90 dB and a dynamic range of 94 dB over 22.05-kHz audio band and occupies 2.1 mm{sup 2}, which dissipates only 2.1 mA quiescent current in the analog circuits. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. High-performance combination method of electric network frequency and phase for audio forgery detection in battery-powered devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, Maryam; Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2016-09-01

    Audio forgery is any act of tampering, illegal copy and fake quality in the audio in a criminal way. In the last decade, there has been increasing attention to the audio forgery detection due to a significant increase in the number of forge in different type of audio. There are a number of methods for forgery detection, which electric network frequency (ENF) is one of the powerful methods in this area for forgery detection in terms of accuracy. In spite of suitable accuracy of ENF in a majority of plug-in powered devices, the weak accuracy of ENF in audio forgery detection for battery-powered devices, especially in laptop and mobile phone, can be consider as one of the main obstacles of the ENF. To solve the ENF problem in terms of accuracy in battery-powered devices, a combination method of ENF and phase feature is proposed. From experiment conducted, ENF alone give 50% and 60% accuracy for forgery detection in mobile phone and laptop respectively, while the proposed method shows 88% and 92% accuracy respectively, for forgery detection in battery-powered devices. The results lead to higher accuracy for forgery detection with the combination of ENF and phase feature.

  12. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows' Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C; Turner, Charles F

    1998-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today.

  13. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows’ Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C.; Turner, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today. PMID:22081743

  14. High Capacity Reversible Watermarking for Audio by Histogram Shifting and Predicted Error Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability.

  15. High capacity reversible watermarking for audio by histogram shifting and predicted error expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xie, Zhaoxin; Chen, Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Being reversible, the watermarking information embedded in audio signals can be extracted while the original audio data can achieve lossless recovery. Currently, the few reversible audio watermarking algorithms are confronted with following problems: relatively low SNR (signal-to-noise) of embedded audio; a large amount of auxiliary embedded location information; and the absence of accurate capacity control capability. In this paper, we present a novel reversible audio watermarking scheme based on improved prediction error expansion and histogram shifting. First, we use differential evolution algorithm to optimize prediction coefficients and then apply prediction error expansion to output stego data. Second, in order to reduce location map bits length, we introduced histogram shifting scheme. Meanwhile, the prediction error modification threshold according to a given embedding capacity can be computed by our proposed scheme. Experiments show that this algorithm improves the SNR of embedded audio signals and embedding capacity, drastically reduces location map bits length, and enhances capacity control capability.

  16. Joint evaluation of communication quality and user experience in an audio-visual virtual reality meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Carrozzino, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-the-art speech intelligibility tests are created with the purpose of evaluating acoustic communication devices and not for evaluating audio-visual virtual reality systems. This paper present a novel method to evaluate a communication situation based on both the speech intelligibility...... and the indexical characteristics of the speaker. The results will be available in the final paper. Index Terms: speech intelligibility , virtual reality, body language, telecommunication.......The state-of-the-art speech intelligibility tests are created with the purpose of evaluating acoustic communication devices and not for evaluating audio-visual virtual reality systems. This paper present a novel method to evaluate a communication situation based on both the speech intelligibility...

  17. Joint evaluation of communication quality and user experience in an audio-visual virtual reality meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Carrozzino, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-the-art speech intelligibility tests are created with the purpose of evaluating acoustic communication devices and not for evaluating audio-visual virtual reality systems. This paper present a novel method to evaluate a communication situation based on both the speech intelligibility...... and the indexical characteristics of the speaker. The results will be available in the final paper. Index Terms: speech intelligibility , virtual reality, body language, telecommunication....

  18. Introduction to AVS Audio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Jun Ai; Shui-Xian Chen; Rui-Min Hu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a general audio coding algorithm which has been recently standardized by AVS, China.The algorithm is based on a perceptual coding technique. The codec delivers near CD-quality audio at 128kb/s. This paper describes the coder structure in detail and discusses the reasons for specific design methods. A summary of the subjective test results are presented for the prototype codec. Comparison Mean Opinion Score (CMOS) test indicates that the quality of the AVS audio coder is comparable with MPEG Layer-3 audio coder. A real-time decoder was used for the characterization test,which is based on a 16-bit fixed-point DSP. The performance of the DSP solution was demonstrated, including computational complexity and storage characteristics.

  19. Comparative Study of Si and SiC MOSFETs for High Voltage Class D Audio Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) are traditional utilised in class D audio amplifiers. It has been proposed to replace the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducer with the electrostatic transducer. This imposes new high voltage requirements...... on the MOSFETs of class D amplifiers, and significantly reduces the selection of suitable MOSFETs. As a consequence it is investigated, if Silicon-Carbide (SiC) MOSFETs could represent a valid alternative. The theory of pulse timing errors are revisited for the application of high voltage and capactive loaded...... class D amplifiers. It is shown, that SiC MOSFETs can compete with Si MSOFETs in terms of THD. Validation is done using simulations and a 500 V amplifier driving a 100 nF load. THD+N below 0.3 % is reported...

  20. Audio Twister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Moreno Garcia, Rodrigo; Monastiridis, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015....

  1. Audio Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    With this special issue of Seismograf we are happy to present a new format of articles: Audio Papers. Audio papers resemble the regular essay or the academic text in that they deal with a certain topic of interest, but presented in the form of an audio production. The audio paper is an extension...... of the written paper through its specific use of media, a sonic awareness of aesthetics and materiality, and creative approach towards communication. The audio paper is a performative format working together with an affective and elaborate understanding of language. It is an experiment embracing intellectual...... arguments and creative work, papers and performances, written scholarship and sonic aesthetics. For this special issue of Seismograf, the guidelines for authors and peer reviewers mainly focused on the format. Topic-wise we encouraged dealing with site-specificity and topics related to the island Amager...

  2. An 18-bit high performance audio {sigma}-{Delta} D/A converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hao; Han Yan; Han Xiaoxia; Wang Hao; Liang Guo [Institute of Microelectronics and Photoelectronics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang Xiaowei [CISD, Institute of Microelectronic CAD, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Cheung, Ray C., E-mail: huangxw@hdu.edu.c [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-07-15

    A multi-bit quantized high performance sigma-delta ({sigma}-{Delta}) audio DAC is presented. Compared to its single-bit counterpart, the multi-bit quantization offers many advantages, such as simpler {sigma}-{Delta} modulator circuit, lower clock frequency and smaller spurious tones. With the data weighted average (DWA) mismatch shaping algorithm, element mismatch errors induced by multi-bit quantization can be pushed out of the signal band, hence the noise floor inside the signal band is greatly lowered. To cope with the crosstalk between digital and analog circuits, every analog component is surrounded by a guard ring, which is an innovative attempt. The 18-bit DAC with the above techniques, which is implemented in a 0.18 {mu}m mixed-signal CMOS process, occupies a core area of 1.86 mm{sup 2}. The measured dynamic range (DR) and peak SNDR are 96 dB and 88 dB, respectively.

  3. An 18-bit high performance audio σ-Δ D/A converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhang; Xiaowei, Huang; Yan, Han; Cheung, Ray C.; Xiaoxia, Han; Hao, Wang; Guo, Liang

    2010-07-01

    A multi-bit quantized high performance sigma-delta (σ-Δ) audio DAC is presented. Compared to its single-bit counterpart, the multi-bit quantization offers many advantages, such as simpler σ-Δ modulator circuit, lower clock frequency and smaller spurious tones. With the data weighted average (DWA) mismatch shaping algorithm, element mismatch errors induced by multi-bit quantization can be pushed out of the signal band, hence the noise floor inside the signal band is greatly lowered. To cope with the crosstalk between digital and analog circuits, every analog component is surrounded by a guard ring, which is an innovative attempt. The 18-bit DAC with the above techniques, which is implemented in a 0.18 μm mixed-signal CMOS process, occupies a core area of 1.86 mm2. The measured dynamic range (DR) and peak SNDR are 96 dB and 88 dB, respectively.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES FOR DEVELOPMENT HIGH-POWER AUDIO SPEAKER DEVICES PERFORMANCE USING PERMANENT NdFeB MAGNETS SPECIAL TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin D. STĂNESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors shows the research made for improving high-power audio speaker devices performance using permanent NdFeB magnets special technology. Magnetic losses inside these audio devices are due to mechanical system frictions and to thermal effect of Joules eddy currents. In this regard, by special technology, were made conical surfaces at top plate and center pin. Analysing results obtained by modelling the magnetic circuit finite element method using electronic software package,was measured increase efficiency by over 10 %, from 1,136T to13T.

  5. A New Principle for a High Efficiency Power Audio Amplifier for Use with a Digital Preamplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1986-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amlifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore, a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...... the supply voltage to the amplifier according to the amplitude of the audio signal, a higher efficiency than can be obtained by the current principles is achieved. The regulation can be done very efficiently by generating the control signal to the power supply in advance of the audio signal, made possible...

  6. Portable Audio Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2014-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodological approach to the early process of producing portable audio design. The chapter high lights audio walks and audio guides, but can also be of inspiration when working with graphical and video production for portable devices. The final products can be presented...... within online and physical institutional contexts. The approach focuses especially on the relationship to specific sites, and how an awareness of the relationship between the site and the production can be part of the design process. Such awareness entails several approaches: the necessity of paying...

  7. Audio Video Compression Stream Synthesis and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燕凌; 方向忠; 周源华

    2004-01-01

    Multiplex of digital streams is one of the key technologies in audio video communication, and determines audio-video quality. A design scheme for an MPEG2 compliant digital television system including audio-video encoding and multiplexing was implemented. The principles and elements of system layer stream synthesis were analyzed. The key technologies of video and audio PES packetization were discussed, such as stream structure,scheduling matching, audio-video synchronization, data flow and buffering. DSP and FPGA are combined to construct header information and packet structure. The substitution of traditional RAM or PLD results in high operational efficiency and saves memory space. A scheduling algorithm was introduced for PES coding, using the monitor information of PES buffers. DTS is generated by multiplexer to guarantee synchronization. The system is not only simple but also stable, and maintains synchronization constraints of the standard. It supports both analogy and digital audio-video source input, and provides real-time MPEG2 compliant TS/PS output. It has perfect performance and meets the national broadcasting requirements.

  8. Robust audio hashing for audio authentication watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Current systems and protocols based on cryptographic methods for integrity and authenticity verification of media data do not distinguish between legitimate signal transformation and malicious tampering that manipulates the content. Furthermore, they usually provide no localization or assessment of the relevance of such manipulations with respect to human perception or semantics. We present an algorithm for a robust message authentication code in the context of content fragile authentication watermarking to verify the integrity of audio recodings by means of robust audio fingerprinting. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides both a high level of distinction between perceptually different audio data and a high robustness against signal transformations that do not change the perceived information. Furthermore, it is well suited for the integration in a content-based authentication watermarking system.

  9. High efficiency class-Ⅰ audio power amplifier using a single adaptive supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhenfei; Yang Shanshan; Feng Yong; Liu Yang; Hong Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    A high efficiency class-Ⅰ linear audio power amplifier (PA) with an adaptive supply is presented.Its efficiency is improved by a dynamic supply to reduce the power transistors' voltage drop.A gain compression technique is adopted to make the amplifier accommodate a single positive supply.Circuit complicity and chip area are reduced because no charge pump is necessary for the negative supply.A common shared mode voltage and a symmetric layout pattern are used to minimize the non-linearity.A peak efficiency of 80% is reached at peak output power.The measured THD+N before and after the supply switching point are 0.01% and 0.05%,respectively.The maximum output power is 410 mW for an 8 Ω speaker load.Unlike switching amplifiers,the class-Ⅰ amplifier operates as a linear amplifier and hence has a low EMI.The advantage of a high efficiency and low EMI makes the class-Ⅰ amplifier suitable for portable and RF sensitive applications.

  10. A High Performance Sigma-Delta ADC for Audio Decoder Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a high performance sigma delta Analog to Digital Converter (ADC applied in computer audio decoder chip. In this design, a 3rd-order single-loop CIFF topology is chosen to achieve the high performance ADC. Its signal bandwidth is 20KHz, sampling frequency is 10.24MHz and oversampling ratio is 256. Local feedback coefficient is used to reduce quantization noise. The non-linear model of modulator is given and the stability is analyzed. It is got that when quantizer gain is bigger than 0.322 the system is stable. According to simulation, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR is 123.1dB and Effective Number of Bits (ENOB is 20.15bits. When input level is bigger than -3dBFs, the modulator is overload and becomes unstable. Then the integrator, quantizer and feed forward summation in ADC circuit are designed.  Then the ADC is implemented in 0.6um CMOS process, and the test result shows that its performance is 99.28dB.  

  11. Performance Analysis of Data Hiding in MPEG-4 AAC Audio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shuzheng; ZHANG Peng; WANG Pengjun; YANG Huazhong

    2009-01-01

    A high capacity data hiding technique was developed for compressed digital audio.As perceptual audio coding has become the accepted technology for storage and transmission of audio signals,compressed audio information hiding enables robust,imperceptible transmission of data within audio signals,thus allowing valuable information to be attached to the content,such as the song title,lyrics,composer's name,and artist or property rights related data.This paper describes simultaneous low bitrate encoding and information hiding for highly compressed audio signals.The information hiding is implemented in the quantization process of the audio content which improves robustness,signal quality,and security.The imperceptibility of the embedded data is ensured based on the masking property of the human auditory system (HAS).The robustness and security are evaluated by various attacking algorithms.Tests with an extended MPEG4 advanced audio coding (AAC) encoder confirm that the method is robust to the regular and singular groups method (RS) and sample pair analysis (SPA) attacks as well as other statistical steganalysis method attacks.

  12. Audio watermark a comprehensive foundation using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates the commonly used and novel approaches of audio watermarking for copyrights protection. The author examines the theoretical and practical step by step guide to the topic of data hiding in audio signal such as music, speech, broadcast. The book covers new techniques developed by the authors are fully explained and MATLAB programs, for audio watermarking and audio quality assessments and also discusses methods for objectively predicting the perceptual quality of the watermarked audio signals. Explains the theoretical basics of the commonly used audio watermarking techniques Discusses the methods used to objectively and subjectively assess the quality of the audio signals Provides a comprehensive well tested MATLAB programs that can be used efficiently to watermark any audio media

  13. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  14. A High Dynamic Range and Low Power Consumption Audio Delta-Sigma Modulator with Opamp Sharing Technique among Three Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, Daisuke; Ido, Toru; Taniguchi, Kenji

    A low power and high performance with third order delta-sigma modulator for audio applications, fabricated in a 0.18µm CMOS process, is presented. The modulator utilizes a third order noise shaping with only one opamp by using an opamp sharing technique. The opamp sharing among three integrator stages is achieved through the optimal operation timing, which makes use of the load capacitance differences between the three integrator stages. The designed modulator achieves 101.1dB signal-to-noise ratio (A-weighted) and 101.5dB dynamic range (A-weighted) with 7.5mW power consumption from a 3.3V supply. The die area is 1.27mm2. The fabricated delta-sigma modulator achieves the highest figure-of-merit among published high performance low power audio delta-sigma modulators.

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A high-performance, low-power σ Δ ADC for digital audio applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Luo; Yan, Han; Cheung, Ray C. C.; Xiaoxia, Han; Shaoyu, Ma; Peng, Ying; Dazhong, Zhu

    2010-05-01

    A high-performance low-power σ Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for digital audio applications is described. It consists of a 2-1 cascaded σ Δ modulator and a decimation filter. Various design optimizations are implemented in the system design, circuit implementation and layout design, including a high-overload-level coefficient-optimized modulator architecture, a power-efficient class A/AB operational transconductance amplifier, as well as a multi-stage decimation filter conserving area and power consumption. The ADC is implemented in the SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS mixed-signal process. The experimental chip achieves a peak signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio of 90 dB and a dynamic range of 94 dB over 22.05-kHz audio band and occupies 2.1 mm2, which dissipates only 2.1 mA quiescent current in the analog circuits.

  16. A New Principle for a High Efficiency Power Audio Amplifier for Use with a Digital Preamplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1986-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amlifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore, a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...

  17. A High-Efficiency 4x45W Car Audio Power Amplifier using Load Current Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, C.H.J.; Mensink, C.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Mostert, F.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2010-01-01

    A 4x45W (EIAJ) monolithic car audio power amplifier is presented that achieves a power dissipation decrease of nearly 2x over standard class AB operation by sharing load currents between loudspeakers. Output signals are conditioned using a common-mode control loop to allow switch placement between l

  18. A High-Efficiency 4x45W Car Audio Power Amplifier using Load Current Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, C.H.J.; Mensink, C.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Mostert, F.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2010-01-01

    A 4x45W (EIAJ) monolithic car audio power amplifier is presented that achieves a power dissipation decrease of nearly 2x over standard class AB operation by sharing load currents between loudspeakers. Output signals are conditioned using a common-mode control loop to allow switch placement between

  19. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  20. Communication Modes, Persuasiveness, and Decision-Making Quality: A Comparison of Audio Conferencing, Video Conferencing, and a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    Geographically dispersed teams rely on information and communication technologies (ICTs) to communicate and collaborate. Three ICTs that have received attention are audio conferencing (AC), video conferencing (VC), and, recently, 3D virtual environments (3D VEs). These ICTs offer modes of communication that differ primarily in the number and type…

  1. Communication Modes, Persuasiveness, and Decision-Making Quality: A Comparison of Audio Conferencing, Video Conferencing, and a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    Geographically dispersed teams rely on information and communication technologies (ICTs) to communicate and collaborate. Three ICTs that have received attention are audio conferencing (AC), video conferencing (VC), and, recently, 3D virtual environments (3D VEs). These ICTs offer modes of communication that differ primarily in the number and type…

  2. The Safeguard of Audio Collections: A Computer Science Based Approach to Quality Control—The Case of the Sound Archive of the Arena di Verona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bressan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of multimedia, very little attention is given to the activities involved in the preservation of audio documents. At the same time, more and more archives storing audio and video documents face the problem of obsolescing and degrading media, which could largely benefit from the instruments and the methodologies of research in multimedia. This paper presents the methodology and the results of the Italian project REVIVAL, aimed at the development of a hardware/software platform to support the active preservation of the audio collection of the Fondazione Arena di Verona, one of the finest in Europe for the operatic genre, with a special attention on protocols and tools for quality control. On the scientific side, the most significant objectives achieved by the project are (i the setup of a working environment inside the archive, (ii the knowledge transfer to the archival personnel, (iii the realization of chemical analyses on magnetic tapes in collaboration with experts in the fields of materials science and chemistry, and (iv the development of original open-source software tools. On the cultural side, the recovery, the safeguard, and the access to unique copies of unpublished live recordings of artists the calibre of Domingo and Pavarotti are of great musicological and economical value.

  3. Single conversion audio amplifier and DC-AC converters with high performance and low complexity control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel control topology for a mains isolated single conversion audio amplifier and DC-AC converters. The topology is made for use in audio applications, and differs from prior art in terms of significantly reduced distortion as well as lower system complexity. The topology can...

  4. Audio in Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    experience in the world. Vision, and to some extent the tactile senses have been dominant modalities discussed in experiential terms within HCI. This workshop suggests that there is a need to better understand how sound can be used for shaping and augmenting the experiential qualities of places through......Audio-based content, location and mobile technologies can offer a multitude of interactional possibilities when combined in innovative and creative ways. It is important not to underestimate impact of the interplay between location, place and sound. Even if intangible and ephemeral, sounds impact...

  5. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  6. Lossless Audio Watermarking Based on the Alpha Statistic Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita V. Dhavale

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a high capacity, self-synchronized, lossless audio watermarking algorithm based on the alpha (‘α’ statistic modulation. Here ‘α’ is related to the correlation among any given sequence i.e audio samples and it is modulated according to the watermark bit stream. The embedding scheme is tested in both the time domain and DWT domain. Though the time domain embedding reduces the computational time in searching the synchronization codes, the time-frequency localization capability of DWT provides good trade off between the computational complexity and robustness of synchronization codes. In case of DWT, ‘α’ related to the 2nd level DWT coarse wavelet components is used for embedding the watermark. The offset value used for embedding is made adaptive to the required SNR for the final watermarked audio signal. After extraction of the embedded watermark using a watermark key, original audio can be recovered with minimal distortion. The watermarking method presented here does not require the use of the original signal for watermark detection. Also high embedding capacity is achieved by using small sizedaudio frames. Experimental results reveal that the proposed watermarking scheme maintains high audio quality and is simultaneously highly robust to pirate attacks, including MP3 compression, cropping, filtering, re-sampling, and re-quantization.

  7. A new principle for a high-efficiency power audio amplifier for use with a digital preamplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1987-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amplifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...... the supply voltage to the amplifier according to the amplitude of the audio signal, a higher efficiency than can be obtained by the usual principles is achieved. The regulation can be done very efficiently by generating the control signal to the power supply in advance of the audio signal, made possible...

  8. Capacity-optimized mp2 audio watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Martin; Dittmann, Jana

    2003-06-01

    Today a number of audio watermarking algorithms have been proposed, some of them at a quality making them suitable for commercial applications. The focus of most of these algorithms is copyright protection. Therefore, transparency and robustness are the most discussed and optimised parameters. But other applications for audio watermarking can also be identified stressing other parameters like complexity or payload. In our paper, we introduce a new mp2 audio watermarking algorithm optimised for high payload. Our algorithm uses the scale factors of an mp2 file for watermark embedding. They are grouped and masked based on a pseudo-random pattern generated from a secret key. In each group, we embed one bit. Depending on the bit to embed, we change the scale factors by adding 1 where necessary until it includes either more even or uneven scale factors. An uneven group has a 1 embedded, an even group a 0. The same rule is later applied to detect the watermark. The group size can be increased or decreased for transparency/payload trade-off. We embed 160 bits or more in an mp2 file per second without reducing perceived quality. As an application example, we introduce a prototypic Karaoke system displaying song lyrics embedded as a watermark.

  9. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  10. An Adaptive Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Audio Signals Using SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Malay Kishore; Pathak, Vinay K.; Gupta, Phalguni

    This paper proposes an efficient watermarking algorithm which embeds watermark data adaptively in the audio signal. The algorithm embeds the watermark in the host audio signal in such a way that the degree of embedding (DOE) is adaptive in nature and is chosen in a justified manner according to the localized content of the audio. The watermark embedding regions are selectively chosen in the high energy regions of the audio signal which make the embedding process robust to synchronization attacks. Synchronization codes are added along with the watermark in the wavelet domain and hence the embedded data can be subjected to self synchronization and the synchronization code can be used as a check to combat false alarm that results from data modification due to watermark embedding. The watermark is embedded by quantization of the singular value decompositions in the wavelet domain which makes the process perceptually transparent. The experimental results suggest that the proposed algorithm maintains a good perceptual quality of the audio signal and maintains good robustness against signal processing attacks. Comparative analysis indicates that the proposed algorithm of adaptive DOE has superior performance in comparison to existing uniform DOE.

  11. Structure Learning in Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch

    and speech, using novel features based on pitch dynamics. Within instrument classification two different harmonic models have been compared. Finally voiced/unvoiced segmentation of popular music is done based on MFCC’s and AR coefficients. The structures in the mixings of multiple sources have been...... investigated. A fast and computationally simple approach that compares recordings and classifies if they are from the same audio environment have been developed, and shows very high accuracy and the ability to synchronize recordings in the case of recording devices which are not connected. A more general model...

  12. Mixed-Signal Architectures for High-Efficiency and Low-Distortion Digital Audio Processing and Power Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Terreni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the algorithmic and architectural design of digital input power audio amplifiers. A modelling platform, based on a meet-in-the-middle approach between top-down and bottom-up design strategies, allows a fast but still accurate exploration of the mixed-signal design space. Different amplifier architectures are configured and compared to find optimal trade-offs among different cost-functions: low distortion, high efficiency, low circuit complexity and low sensitivity to parameter changes. A novel amplifier architecture is derived; its prototype implements digital processing IP macrocells (oversampler, interpolating filter, PWM cross-point deriver, noise shaper, multilevel PWM modulator, dead time compensator on a single low-complexity FPGA while off-chip components are used only for the power output stage (LC filter and power MOS bridge; no heatsink is required. The resulting digital input amplifier features a power efficiency higher than 90% and a total harmonic distortion down to 0.13% at power levels of tens of Watts. Discussions towards the full-silicon integration of the mixed-signal amplifier in embedded devices, using BCD technology and targeting power levels of few Watts, are also reported.

  13. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  14. Audio Mining with emphasis on Music Genre Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Audio is an important part of our daily life, basically it increases our impression of the world around us whether this is communication, music, danger detection etc. Currently the field of Audio Mining, which here includes areas of music genre, music recognition / retrieval, playlist generation...... in searching / retrieving audio effectively is needed. Currently, search engines such as e.g. Google, AltaVista etc. do not search into audio files, but uses either the textual information attached to the audio file or the textual information around the audio. Also in the hearing aid industries around...... the world the problem of detecting environments from the input audio is researched as to increase the life quality of hearing-impaired. Basically there is a lot of work within the field of audio mining. The presentation will mainly focus on music genre classification where we have a fixed amount of genres...

  15. Digital Advances in Contemporary Audio Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Steven O.

    Noting that a revolution in sonic high fidelity occurred during the 1980s as digital-based audio production methods began to replace traditional analog modes, this paper offers both an overview of digital audio theory and descriptions of some of the related digital production technologies that have begun to emerge from the mating of the computer…

  16. Impact of patient audio-visual re-education through a smartphone on quality of bowel preparation before colonoscopy; a single-blinded randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Su Young; Kim, Hyun Gun; Ahn, Eu Mi; Park, Suyeon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Im, Hee Hyuk; Kim, Jin-Oh; Ko, Bong Min; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Cho, Jun-Hyung

    2017-09-19

    Preparation education is essential for successful colonoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of audio-visual (AV) re-education through a smartphone before colonoscopy on bowel preparation quality. A prospective, endoscopist-blinded, randomized, controlled study was performed. Patients who underwent colonoscopy with 3 purgatives, including 4 L polyethylene glycol (4L-PEG), 2 L PEG with ascorbic acid (2L-PEG/Asc) and sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC), were enrolled, and randomized into AV re-education through smartphone group (AV group, n=160) and a control group (n=160). The primary outcome was the quality of the bowel preparation according to the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS). The secondary outcomes included instruction adherence using adherence score (AS) and patient satisfaction with education using a visual analogue scale (VAS). A total of 283 patients (AV group: n=139, control group: n=144) were analyzed per protocol. The mean BBPS (7.53 vs. 6.29, psmartphone was easy and convenient, and enhanced preparation quality, patient adherence to instructions, and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  18. Principles of Audio Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hrncar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief overview of modern methods for embedding additional data in audio signals. It could have many reasons - for the purposes of access control or identification related to particular type of audio. This secret information is not “visible” for a user. This concept utilizes the imperfection of human auditory system. Simple data hiding into audio file has been proved in MATLAB.

  19. Audio Papers - A Manifesto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Audio papers resemble the regular essay or the academic text in that they deal with a certain topic of interest, but presented in the form of an audio production. The audio paper is an extension of the written paper through its specific use of media, a sonic awareness of aesthetics and materiality......, and creative approach towards communication. The audio paper is a performative format working together with an affective and elaborate understanding of language. It is an experiment embracing intellectual arguments and creative work, papers and performances, written scholarship and sonic aesthetics....

  20. Digital Audio Legal Recorder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Digital Audio Legal Recorder (DALR) provides the legal recording capability between air traffic controllers, pilots and ground-based air traffic control TRACONs...

  1. Quantization of wavelet packet audio coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Jianguo; Zhang Wenjun; Liu Peilin

    2006-01-01

    The method of quantization noise control of audio coding in the wavelet domain is proposed. Using the inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), it converts the masking threshold coming from MPEG psycho-acoustic model in the frequency domain to the signal in the time domain; the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT) is performed; the energy in each subband is regarded as the maximum allowed quantization noise energy. The experimental result shows that the proposed method can attain the nearly transparent audio quality below 64kbps for the most testing audio signals.

  2. Cross-modal retrieval of scripted speech audio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Charles B.; Makedon, Fillia

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes an approach to the problem of searching speech-based digital audio using cross-modal information retrieval. Audio containing speech (speech-based audio) is difficult to search. Open vocabulary speech recognition is advancing rapidly, but cannot yield high accuracy in either search or transcription modalities. However, text can be searched quickly and efficiently with high accuracy. Script- light digital audio is audio that has an available transcription. This is a surprisingly large class of content including legal testimony, broadcasting, dramatic productions and political meetings and speeches. An automatic mechanism for deriving the synchronization between the transcription and the audio allows for very accurate retrieval of segments of that audio. The mechanism described in this paper is based on building a transcription graph from the text and computing biphone probabilities for the audio. A modified beam search algorithm is presented to compute the alignment.

  3. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  4. Does modality of survey administration impact data quality: audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI versus self-administered pen and paper?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Reichmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT on HIV testing in the emergency department (ED setting, we evaluated preferences for survey modality and data quality arising from each modality. METHODS: Enrolled participants were offered the choice of answering a survey via audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI or pen and paper self-administered questionnaire (SAQ. We evaluated factors influencing choice of survey modality. We defined unusable data for a particular survey domain as answering fewer than 75% of the questions in the domain. We then compared ACASI and SAQ with respect to unusable data for domains that address sensitive topics. RESULTS: Of 758 enrolled ED patients, 218 (29% chose ACASI, 343 chose SAQ (45% and 197 (26% opted not to complete either. Results of the log-binomial regression indicated that older (RR = 1.08 per decade and less educated participants (RR = 1.25 were more likely to choose SAQ over ACASI. ACASI yielded substantially less unusable data than SAQ. CONCLUSIONS: In the ED setting there may be a tradeoff between increased participation with SAQ versus better data quality with ACASI. Future studies of novel approaches to maximize the use of ACASI in the ED setting are needed.

  5. Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohamed F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel algorithm for high-quality data embedding in audio. The algorithm is based on changing the relative length of the middle segment between two successive maximum and minimum peaks to embed data. Spline interpolation is used to change the lengths. To ensure smooth monotonic behavior between peaks, a hybrid orthogonal and nonorthogonal wavelet decomposition is used prior to data embedding. The possible data embedding rates are between 20 and 30 bps. However, for practical purposes, we use repetition codes, and the effective embedding data rate is around 5 bps. The algorithm is invariant after time-scale modification, time shift, and time cropping. It gives high-quality output and is robust to mp3 compression.

  6. Roundtable Audio Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bigum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available RoundTable on Technology, Teaching and Tools. This is a roundtable audio interview conducted by James Farmer, founder of Edublogs, with Anne Bartlett-Bragg (University of Technology Sydney and Chris Bigum (Deakin University. Skype was used to make and record the audio conference and the resulting sound file was edited by Andrew McLauchlan.

  7. The Study of Audio Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景; 唐晟

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly introduced the basic knowledge of the digital watermarking and digital audio watermarking, including the definition of digital watermarking and digital audio watermarking, the embedding algorithm of digital audio watermarking and the com

  8. Progressive Syntax-Rich Coding of Multichannel Audio Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yang

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Being able to transmit the audio bitstream progressively is a highly desirable property for network transmission. MPEG-4 version 2 audio supports fine grain bit rate scalability in the generic audio coder (GAC. It has a bit-sliced arithmetic coding (BSAC tool, which provides scalability in the step of 1 Kbps per audio channel. There are also several other scalable audio coding methods, which have been proposed in recent years. However, these scalable audio tools are only available for mono and stereo audio material. Little work has been done on progressive coding of multichannel audio sources. MPEG advanced audio coding (AAC is one of the most distinguished multichannel digital audio compression systems. Based on AAC, we develop in this work a progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec (PSMAC. It not only supports fine grain bit rate scalability for the multichannel audio bitstream but also provides several other desirable functionalities. A formal subjective listening test shows that the proposed algorithm achieves an excellent performance at several different bit rates when compared with MPEG AAC.

  9. Comparing audio and video data for rating communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Video recording has become increasingly popular in nursing research, adding rich nonverbal, contextual, and behavioral information. However, benefits of video over audio data have not been well established. We compared communication ratings of audio versus video data using the Emotional Tone Rating Scale. Twenty raters watched video clips of nursing care and rated staff communication on 12 descriptors that reflect dimensions of person-centered and controlling communication. Another group rated audio-only versions of the same clips. Interrater consistency was high within each group with Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) (2,1) for audio .91, and video = .94. Interrater consistency for both groups combined was also high with ICC (2,1) for audio and video = .95. Communication ratings using audio and video data were highly correlated. The value of video being superior to audio-recorded data should be evaluated in designing studies evaluating nursing care.

  10. Forensic audio watermark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

  11. Audio recording and reproduction in CARROUSO: Getting closer to perfection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Heinz; Spors, Sascha; Buchner, Herbert; Rabenstein, Rudolf; Kellermann, Walter

    2002-05-01

    State-of-the-art systems for spatial audio reproduction utilize two to six discrete playback channels. A problem inherent to these systems is the relatively small area where the listener is able to experience a true 3-D sound sensation. This so-called ``sweet spot'' can be significantly enlarged by using loudspeaker arrays in combination with wave field synthesis (WFS) technology, initially developed at Delft University. By following this approach, actual sonic spaces can be reproduced in their entirety and not only discrete multichannel representations thereof. While loudspeaker arrays can be used to reproduce sound fields, microphone arrays can be used for sound field capture and analysis. Having high-quality audio reproduction in mind, microphone array designs are presented that need to fulfill stricter requirements than what has been traditionally considered for microphone array applications. Information on acoustic source position is essential for WFS-based rendering techniques. As will be shown, joint audio-video object tracking proves to be efficient for this task. Moreover, full-duplex applications based on WFS technology, like high-quality teleconferencing or remote music teaching, call for sophisticated multichannel acoustic echo cancellation algorithms. The European project ``CARROUSO'' aims at developing, integrating, and building a real-time system that embraces all previously described technologies in an MPEG-4 context.

  12. Watermarking-Based Digital Audio Data Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dittmann

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. While most efforts concentrate on user authentication, recently interest in data authentication to ensure data integrity has been increasing. Existing concepts address mainly image data. Depending on the necessary security level and the sensitivity to detect changes in the media, we differentiate between fragile, semifragile, and content-fragile watermarking approaches for media authentication. Furthermore, invertible watermarking schemes exist while each bit change can be recognized by the watermark which can be extracted and the original data can be reproduced for high-security applications. Later approaches can be extended with cryptographic approaches like digital signatures. As we see from the literature, only few audio approaches exist and the audio domain requires additional strategies for time flow protection and resynchronization. To allow different security levels, we have to identify relevant audio features that can be used to determine content manipulations. Furthermore, in the field of invertible schemes, there are a bunch of publications for image and video data but no approaches for digital audio to ensure data authentication for high-security applications. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate two watermarking algorithms for digital audio data, addressing content integrity protection. In our first approach, we discuss possible features for a content-fragile watermarking scheme to allow several postproduction modifications. The second approach is designed for high-security applications to detect each bit change and reconstruct the original audio by introducing an invertible audio watermarking concept. Based on the invertible audio scheme, we combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable data authentication and a reproduction of the original, protected with a secret key.

  13. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  14. Audio networking at the Center for Art and Media Technology Karlsruhe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilleux, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Art and Media Technology is dedicated to art and its relationship to new media. The Center supports music as well as graphic art. It also will house museums. The Center will be fully operational by the middle of 1996. The audio network will interconnect five recording studios and a large theater with three control rooms. With the additional facilities, the number of 40 interconnected rooms is reached. As to the quality and the versatility, the network can be compared, to some extent, to that of a broadcast-building. Traditional networking techniques involve many kilometers of high quality audio-cables and bulky automated patch-bays. Still, we wish even more freedom in the way the rooms are interconnected. Digital audio and computer network technology are promising. Although digital audio technology is spreading, the size of the totally digital systems is still limited. Fiber optic and large capacity optical disks offer attractive alternatives to traditional techniques (cabling, multitrack recorders, sound archives, routing). The digital audio standards are evolving from point to point communication to network communication. A 1 Gbit/s network could be the backbone of a solution.

  15. Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Anarım

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.

  16. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  17. Frequency Hopping Method for Audio Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anastasijević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degradation of audio content for a perceptible removable watermark. Two different approaches to embedding the watermark in the spectral domain were investigated. The frequencies for watermark embedding are chosen according to a pseudorandom sequence making the methods robust. Consequentially, the lower quality audio can be used for promotional purposes. For a fee, the watermark can be removed with a secret watermarking key. Objective and subjective testing was conducted in order to measure degradation level for the watermarked music samples and to examine residual distortion for different parameters of the watermarking algorithm and different music genres.

  18. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how they ...

  19. Embedded Audio Without Beeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Møbius, Nikolaj Friis

    2014-01-01

    software environments for audio processing) via innovative interfaces that send real-time inputs to such software running on a laptop, mobile device, or small Linux board (e.g., Raspberry Pi or Beagleboard). Basic hardware will be provided, but participants are also encouraged to bring related equipment...

  20. Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning CHEN; Jie ZHU

    2008-01-01

    To make audio watermarking accomplish both copyright protection and content authentication with localization, a novel multipurpose audio watermarking scheme is proposed in this paper. The zero-watermarking idea is introduced into the design of robust watermarking algorithm to ensure the transparency and to avoid the interference between the robust watermark and the semi-fragile watermark. The property of natural audio that the VQ indices of DWT-DCT coefficients among neighboring frames tend to be very similar is utilized to extract essential feature from the host audio, which is then used for watermark extraction. And, the chaotic mapping based semi-fragile watermark is embedded in the detail wavelet coefficients based on the instantaneous mixing model of the independent component analysis (ICA) system. Both the robust and semi-fragile watermarks can be extracted blindly and the semi-fragile watermarking algorithm can localize the tampering accurately. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of transparency, security, robustness and tampering localization ability.

  1. Editing Audio with Audacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Walsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For those interested in audio, basic sound editing skills go a long way. Being able to handle and manipulate the materials can help you take control of your object of study: you can zoom in and extract particular moments to analyze, process the audio, and upload the materials to a server to compliment a blog post on the topic. On a more practical level, these skills could also allow you to record and package recordings of yourself or others for distribution. That guest lecture taking place in your department? Record it and edit it yourself! Doing so is a lightweight way to distribute resources among various institutions, and it also helps make the materials more accessible for readers and listeners with a wide variety of learning needs. In this lesson you will learn how to use Audacity to load, record, edit, mix, and export audio files. Sound editing platforms are often expensive and offer extensive capabilities that can be overwhelming to the first-time user, but Audacity is a free and open source alternative that offers powerful capabilities for sound editing with a low barrier for entry. For this lesson we will work with two audio files: a recording of Bach’s Goldberg Variations available from MusOpen and another recording of your own voice that will be made in the course of the lesson. This tutorial uses Audacity 2.1.2, released January 2016.

  2. Circuit Bodging: Audio Multiplexer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Audio amplifiers usually come with a single, glaring design flaw: Not enough auxiliary inputs. Not only that, but you’re usually required to press a button to switch between the amplifier’s limited number of inputs. This is unacceptable - we have better things to do than change input channels! In

  3. High-Resolution Mapping Using a Sub-Audio Magnetic Survey at the Comet Gold Mine, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaphong Chenrai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Comet Gold Mine in the Murchison mineral field lies within the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Gold mineralization in this area is associated with a series of north-northeasterly trending structures, and has a long exploration history with some previous geophysical information. Other exploration information, such as geology and drill hole data, are integrated with the geophysical results to study the geophysical responses and generate a geophysical interpretation map. The response from the sub-audio magnetic (SAM survey was investigated over an area of 13 sq km. The SAM survey was completed using a transmitter current of 5 - 8 Amp with a 50 o/o duty cycle at 4 Hz frequency, which was considered a good instrumental setting for the Comet area. SAM anomalies were compared to results obtained from other geophysical methods and then integrated with geological data to generate a geophysical interpretation map at a 1 : 5000 scale. The new interpretation of geological units and structures at the Comet area should provide a better understanding of the geological and structural setting for mineralization in the Comet area. Our results show that the Comet Fault represents a faulted limb of the Comet fold structure that has both limbs dipping to the southeast and a plunge to the northeast. Magnetic anomalies associated with sedimentary iron formation (SIF are considered to be well correlated with some gold bearing horizons and the location of the Comet Fault, which has become more siliceous and has been altered by sulphide minerals and magnetite minerals.

  4. The audio expert everything you need to know about audio

    CERN Document Server

    Winer, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    The Audio Expert is a comprehensive reference that covers all aspects of audio, with many practical, as well as theoretical, explanations. Providing in-depth descriptions of how audio really works, using common sense plain-English explanations and mechanical analogies with minimal math, the book is written for people who want to understand audio at the deepest, most technical level, without needing an engineering degree. It's presented in an easy-to-read, conversational tone, and includes more than 400 figures and photos augmenting the text.The Audio Expert takes th

  5. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  6. Multi Carrier Modulation Audio Power Amplifier with Programmable Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Theis; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Knott, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment. To lower the EMI of switch-mode (class D) audio power a...

  7. Decision-level fusion for audio-visual laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, M.; Truong, K.; Poppe, R.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is per

  8. Decision-Level Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, Boris; Poel, Mannes; Truong, Khiet; Poppe, Ronald; Pantic, Maja; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laugh- ter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio- visual laughter detection is

  9. Small signal audio design

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Learn to use inexpensive and readily available parts to obtain state-of-the-art performance in all the vital parameters of noise, distortion, crosstalk and so on. With ample coverage of preamplifiers and mixers and a new chapter on headphone amplifiers, this practical handbook provides an extensive repertoire of circuits that can be put together to make almost any type of audio system.A resource packed full of valuable information, with virtually every page revealing nuggets of specialized knowledge not found elsewhere. Essential points of theory that bear on practical performance are lucidly

  10. A review of lossless audio compression standards and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muin, Fathiah Abdul; Gunawan, Teddy Surya; Kartiwi, Mira; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Over the years, lossless audio compression has gained popularity as researchers and businesses has become more aware of the need for better quality and higher storage demand. This paper will analyse various lossless audio coding algorithm and standards that are used and available in the market focusing on Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) specifically due to its popularity and robustness in audio compression, nevertheless other prediction methods are compared to verify this. Advanced representation of LPC such as LSP decomposition techniques are also discussed within this paper.

  11. The HDTV digital audio matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A. J.

    Multichannel sound systems are being studied as part of the Eureka 95 and Radio-communication Bureau TG10-1 investigations into high definition television. One emerging sound system has five channels; three at the front and two at the back. This raises some compatibility issues. The listener might have only, say, two loudspeakers or the material to be broadcast may have fewer than five channels. The problem is how best to produce a set of signals to be broadcast, which is suitable for all listeners, from those that are available. To investigate this area, a device has been designed and built which has six input channels and six output channels. Each output signal is a linear combination of the input signals. The inputs and outputs are in AES/EBU digital audio format using BBC-designed AESIC chips. The matrix operation, to produce the six outputs from the six inputs, is performed by a Motorola DSP56001. The user interface and 'housekeeping' is managed by a T222 transputer. The operator of the matrix uses a VDU to enter sets of coefficients and a rotary switch to select which set to use. A set of analog controls is also available and is used to control operations other than the simple compatibility matrixing. The matrix has been very useful for simple tasks: mixing a stereo signal into mono, creating a stereo signal from a mono signal, applying a fixed gain or attenuation to a signal, exchanging the A and B channels of an AES/EBU bitstream, and so on. These are readily achieved using simple sets of coefficients. Additions to the user interface software have led to several more sophisticated applications which still consist of a matrix operation. Different multichannel panning laws have been evaluated. The analog controls adjust the panning; the audio signals are processed digitally using a matrix operation. A digital SoundField microphone decoder has also been implemented. digital audio matrix is such that it can be applied to a wide variety of signal processing

  12. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  13. Quality assurance of high education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aleksankov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article expounds questions concerning Quality assurance of Higher education, related to the entry of Russia into the united European Higher Education Area. The main emphases is focused on the necessity to create the system for Quality assurance of Russian Higher education, which will be harmonized with European systems. Comparing of Russian and European approaches in Quality assurance of Higher education is drawn. Russian system of Quality assurance of Higher education is considered on four levels: State level, level of Higher educational institution, level of society and international level; for each level the main elements of a system are determined. Since the European approach separates the Quality assurance system into two levels, e.g. internal and external, a conversion to comparable levels is being proposed. Characteristics of EURopean ACcredited Engineer (EUR-ACE Framework Standards are expounded. These Standards have been developed, fi rst of all, for facilitation of the procedure of acceptance of degrees and qualifi cations as well as Quality assurance of Study Programmes in European Higher Education Area. The comparison of requirements of Federal State Educational Standards for Higher education in Russian Federation and EUR-ACE Framework Standards is produced on the example of Masters’ Study programmes in Engineering. The comparison exposed similarities and, at the same time, considerable differences in examined approaches. So, the results of studies are formulated in different “coordinate systems”: according with kinds of activities in Federal State Educational Standards for Higher education, but according to the “cycle” of Engineering activity in EURACE Framework Standards. However, if the task for harmonization of standards (or requirements could be considered out of just simple coincidence between their structures and/or definitions and terms, than the principle contradictions between

  14. Audio Watermarking with Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chadha, Aman; Goel, Rishabh; Dave, Hiren; Roja, M Mani

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, communication through the internet has tremendously facilitated the distribution of multimedia data. Although this is indubitably a boon, one of its repercussions is that it has also given impetus to the notorious issue of online music piracy. Unethical attempts can also be made to deliberately alter such copyrighted data and thus, misuse it. Copyright violation by means of unauthorized distribution, as well as unauthorized tampering of copyrighted audio data is an important technological and research issue. Audio watermarking has been proposed as a solution to tackle this issue. The main purpose of audio watermarking is to protect against possible threats to the audio data and in case of copyright violation or unauthorized tampering, authenticity of such data can be disputed by virtue of audio watermarking.

  15. Audio Watermarking with Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chadha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, communication through the internet has tremendously facilitated the distribution of multimedia data. Although this is indubitably a boon, one of its repercussions is that it has also given impetus to the notorious issue of online music piracy. Unethical attempts can also be made to deliberately alter such copyrighted data and thus, misuse it. Copyright violation by means of unauthorized distribution, as well as unauthorized tampering of copyrighted audio data is an important technological and research issue. Audio watermarking has been proposed as a solution to tackle this issue. The main purpose of audio watermarking is to protect against possible threats to the audio data and in case of copyright violation or unauthorized tampering, authenticity of such data can be disputed by virtue of audio watermarking.

  16. Digital Audio Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tenter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper is about the possibility of libraries creating digital music or audio collections based on the current state of the digital music industry, and in comparison with the difficulties librarians have found in adding e-books to collections. In comparing the e-book and digital music markets, factors such as digital rights management (DRM and the differences in both markets’ relationships with customers are examined. This juxtaposition suggests that where e-books have been difficult to include in library collections because publishers want to maintain control over their content, music publishers have had to resign some of the control over their products because of file-sharing, and so may work with libraries to develop these collections in a more constructive way than e-book venders. At the end of the paper, some models are suggested for developing these collections.

  17. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  18. Audio Steganography Techniques-A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kaur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available we can communicate with each other by passing messages which is not secure, but we make a communication be kept secret by embedding the message into carrier or by special tools such as invisible ink, microdots etc. Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate carrier which is used from hundreds of years. In digital age new techniques of hiding the data inside the carrier are invented which are known as digital steganography. Nowadays, the carrier of the message can be an image, audio, video or a text file. In this paper we have purposed a method to enhance the security level in audio steganography and also improve the quality by making 2-level steganography.

  19. Robust message authentication code algorithm for digital audio recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzinski, Sascha; Steinebach, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Current systems and protocols for integrity and authenticity verification of media data do not distinguish between legitimate signal transformation and malicious tampering that manipulates the content. Furthermore, they usually provide no localization or assessment of the relevance of such manipulations with respect to human perception or semantics. We present an algorithm for a robust message authentication code (RMAC) to verify the integrity of audio recodings by means of robust audio fingerprinting and robust perceptual hashing. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides both a high level of distinction between perceptually different audio data and a high robustness against signal transformations that do not change the perceived information.

  20. Multi Carrier Modulation Audio Power Amplifier with Programmable Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Theis; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Knott, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment. To lower the EMI of switch-mode (class D) audio power...... for performance and out of band spectral amplitudes. The basic principle in MCM is to use programmable logic to combine two or more Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) audio signals at different switching frequencies. In this way the out of band spectrum will be lowered compared with conventional class D amplifiers...

  1. "Look who's talking!" Gaze Patterns for Implicit and Explicit Audio-Visual Speech Synchrony Detection in Children With High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B; Steinhart, Erin; Mitchell, Teresa; McIlvane, William

    2015-06-01

    Conversation requires integration of information from faces and voices to fully understand the speaker's message. To detect auditory-visual asynchrony of speech, listeners must integrate visual movements of the face, particularly the mouth, with auditory speech information. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder may be less successful at such multisensory integration, despite their demonstrated preference for looking at the mouth region of a speaker. We showed participants (individuals with and without high-functioning autism (HFA) aged 8-19) a split-screen video of two identical individuals speaking side by side. Only one of the speakers was in synchrony with the corresponding audio track and synchrony switched between the two speakers every few seconds. Participants were asked to watch the video without further instructions (implicit condition) or to specifically watch the in-synch speaker (explicit condition). We recorded which part of the screen and face their eyes targeted. Both groups looked at the in-synch video significantly more with explicit instructions. However, participants with HFA looked at the in-synch video less than typically developing (TD) peers and did not increase their gaze time as much as TD participants in the explicit task. Importantly, the HFA group looked significantly less at the mouth than their TD peers, and significantly more at non-face regions of the image. There were no between-group differences for eye-directed gaze. Overall, individuals with HFA spend less time looking at the crucially important mouth region of the face during auditory-visual speech integration, which is maladaptive gaze behavior for this type of task. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Use of Chitosan of Pomacea canaliculata Shell as Natural Preservation to Maintain Fruit Quality during Storage Process: Used as Audio Visual Media of Biotechnology Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurike Fransischa Trisnaningrum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan merupakan turunan kitin yang terbentuk dari proses deasetilasi yang bisa digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet alami yang efektif dan memiliki aktivitas antimikroba.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kandungan vitamin C, pH dan berat dalam buah jeruk, strowberi, dan pisang yang diawetkan dengan chitosan cangkang keong mas selama proses penyimpanan danuntuk mengetahui berapakah konsentrasi chitosan cangkang keong mas yang paling efektif sebagai bahan pengawet buah. Penelitian merupakan True Experimental Research yang dilaksanakan di Laboratorium KimiaUniversitas Muhammadiyah Malang. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan 6 perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan pada jeruk, strowberi dan pisang yaitu konsentrasi chitosan 1,5%, 2%, 2,5%, 3% dan 3,5%. Analisis data menggunakan analisis Blok Acak dan uji beda jarak nyata Duncan pada taraf signifikansi 0,05.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada pengaruh terhadap buah. Perubahan kandungan vitamin C dan berat paling kecil terjadi pada perlakuan 2,5% dan paling besar pada perlakuan kontrol. Pemberian konsentrasi chitosan cangkang keong mas2,5% yang paling efektif mempengaruhi kandungan vitamin C dan berat buah jeruk, strowberi dan pisang. Hasil penelitian diaplikasikan sebagai media audio visual dalam pembelajaran Bioteknologi

  3. SCALABLE PERCEPTUAL AUDIO REPRESENTATION WITH AN ADAPTIVE THREE TIME-SCALE SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Moussawy Raed; Yin Junxun; Song Shaopeng

    2004-01-01

    This work is concerned with the development and optimization of a signal model for scalable perceptual audio coding at low bit rates. A complementary two-part signal model consisting of Sines plus Noise (SN) is described. The paper presents essentially a fundamental enhancement to the sinusoidal modeling component. The enhancement involves an audio signal scheme based on carrying out overlap-add sinusoidal modeling at three successive time scales,large, medium, and small. The sinusoidal modeling is done in an analysis-by-synthesis overlapadd manner across the three scales by using a psychoacoustically weighted matching pursuits.The sinusoidal modeling residual at the first scale is passed to the smaller scales to allow for the modeling of various signal features at appropriate resolutions. This approach greatly helps to correct the pre-echo inherent in the sinusoidal model. This improves the perceptual audio quality upon our previous work of sinusoidal modeling while using the same number of sinusoids. The most obvious application for the SN model is in scalable, high fidelity audio coding and signal modification.

  4. Fast High-Quality Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Wyvill, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the noise functions available in a graphics programmer's toolbox are either slow to compute or they involve grid-line artifacts making them of lower quality. In this paper we present a real-time noise computation with no grid-line artifacts or other regularity problems. In other wor...

  5. Digital Audio Watermarking: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvnesh Kumar Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is a very recent research area. Digital audio watermarking is a method to embed or hide the Watermark (Information signal into a digital signal i.e. Image, audio, text or video data. The watermark is difficult to remove from the audio signal. If the signal is copied, the information or watermark is also carried in the copy. A signal may carry several different watermarks at the same time. It is used to protecting multimedia data from unauthorized copying, piracy, ownership, inventions, authentication etc. in this paper we present the watermarking methods and applications

  6. Switching-mode Audio Power Amplifiers with Direct Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new class of switching-mode audio power amplifiers, which are capable of direct energy conversion from the AC mains to the audio output. They represent an ultimate integration of a switching-mode power supply and a Class D audio power amplifier, where the intermediate DC bus...... has been replaced with a high frequency AC link. When compared to the conventional Class D amplifiers with a separate DC power supply, the proposed single conversion stage amplifier provides simple and compact solution with better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to reduced...

  7. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Umapathy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  8. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umapathy Karthikeyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  9. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  10. Tag Based Audio Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Vellachu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The volume of the music database is increasing day by day. Getting the required song as per the choice of the listener is a big challenge. Hence, it is really hard to manage this huge quantity, in terms of searching, filtering, through the music database. It is surprising to see that the audio and music industry still rely on very simplistic metadata to describe music files. However, while searching audio resource, an efficient "Tag Based Audio Search Engine" is necessary. The current research focuses on two aspects of the musical databases 1. Tag Based Semantic Annotation Generation using the tag based approach.2. An audio search engine, using which the user can retrieve the songs based on the users choice. The proposed method can be used to annotation and retrieve songs based on musical instruments used , mood of the song, theme of the song, singer, music director, artist, film director, instrument, genre or style and so on.

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  12. WLAN Technologies for Audio Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas-Alexander Tatlas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio delivery and reproduction for home or professional applications may greatly benefit from the adoption of digital wireless local area network (WLAN technologies. The most challenging aspect of such integration relates the synchronized and robust real-time streaming of multiple audio channels to multipoint receivers, for example, wireless active speakers. Here, it is shown that current WLAN solutions are susceptible to transmission errors. A detailed study of the IEEE802.11e protocol (currently under ratification is also presented and all relevant distortions are assessed via an analytical and experimental methodology. A novel synchronization scheme is also introduced, allowing optimized playback for multiple receivers. The perceptual audio performance is assessed for both stereo and 5-channel applications based on either PCM or compressed audio signals.

  13. Modeling Audio Fingerprints: Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted,

  14. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  15. Introduction to audio analysis a MATLAB approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Audio Analysis serves as a standalone introduction to audio analysis, providing theoretical background to many state-of-the-art techniques. It covers the essential theory necessary to develop audio engineering applications, but also uses programming techniques, notably MATLAB®, to take a more applied approach to the topic. Basic theory and reproducible experiments are combined to demonstrate theoretical concepts from a practical point of view and provide a solid foundation in the field of audio analysis. Audio feature extraction, audio classification, audio segmentation, au

  16. Audio Steganography with Embedded Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teck Jian, Chua; Chai Wen, Chuah; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Binti Ab.; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi Binti A.

    2017-08-01

    Audio steganography is about hiding the secret message into the audio. It is a technique uses to secure the transmission of secret information or hide their existence. It also may provide confidentiality to secret message if the message is encrypted. To date most of the steganography software such as Mp3Stego and DeepSound use block cipher such as Advanced Encryption Standard or Data Encryption Standard to encrypt the secret message. It is a good practice for security. However, the encrypted message may become too long to embed in audio and cause distortion of cover audio if the secret message is too long. Hence, there is a need to encrypt the message with stream cipher before embedding the message into the audio. This is because stream cipher provides bit by bit encryption meanwhile block cipher provide a fixed length of bits encryption which result a longer output compare to stream cipher. Hence, an audio steganography with embedding text with Rivest Cipher 4 encryption cipher is design, develop and test in this project.

  17. Digital Audio Radio Broadcast Systems Laboratory Testing Nearly Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Radio history continues to be made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with the completion of phase one of the digital audio radio (DAR) testing conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. This satellite, satellite/terrestrial, and terrestrial digital technology will open up new audio broadcasting opportunities both domestically and worldwide. It will significantly improve the current quality of amplitude-modulated/frequency-modulated (AM/FM) radio with a new digitally modulated radio signal and will introduce true compact-disc-quality (CD-quality) sound for the first time. Lewis is hosting the laboratory testing of seven proposed digital audio radio systems and modes. Two of the proposed systems operate in two modes each, making a total of nine systems being tested. The nine systems are divided into the following types of transmission: in-band on-channel (IBOC), in-band adjacent-channel (IBAC), and new bands. The laboratory testing was conducted by the Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association. Subjective assessments of the audio recordings for each of the nine systems was conducted by the Communications Research Center in Ottawa, Canada, under contract to the Electronic Industries Association. The Communications Research Center has the only CCIR-qualified (Consultative Committee for International Radio) audio testing facility in North America. The main goals of the U.S. testing process are to (1) provide technical data to the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) so that it can establish a standard for digital audio receivers and transmitters and (2) provide the receiver and transmitter industries with the proper standards upon which to build their equipment. In addition, the data will be forwarded to the International Telecommunications Union to help in the establishment of international standards for digital audio receivers and transmitters, thus allowing U.S. manufacturers to compete in the

  18. Advances in audio watermarking based on singular value decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces audio watermarking methods for copyright protection, which has drawn extensive attention for securing digital data from unauthorized copying. The book is divided into two parts. First, an audio watermarking method in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) domains using singular value decomposition (SVD) and quantization is introduced. This method is robust against various attacks and provides good imperceptible watermarked sounds. Then, an audio watermarking method in fast Fourier transform (FFT) domain using SVD and Cartesian-polar transformation (CPT) is presented. This method has high imperceptibility and high data payload and it provides good robustness against various attacks. These techniques allow media owners to protect copyright and to show authenticity and ownership of their material in a variety of applications.   ·         Features new methods of audio watermarking for copyright protection and ownership protection ·         Outl...

  19. Modeling Audio Fingerprints: Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Doets, P.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted, and ingested into a database, together with all relevant metadata. In the identification phase, unknown audio content is fingerprinted, and the fingerprints form the query to the database. The que...

  20. The method of narrow-band audio classification based on universal noise background model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Rui; Bao, Chang-chun

    2013-03-01

    Audio classification is the basis of content-based audio analysis and retrieval. The conventional classification methods mainly depend on feature extraction of audio clip, which certainly increase the time requirement for classification. An approach for classifying the narrow-band audio stream based on feature extraction of audio frame-level is presented in this paper. The audio signals are divided into speech, instrumental music, song with accompaniment and noise using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In order to satisfy the demand of actual environment changing, a universal noise background model (UNBM) for white noise, street noise, factory noise and car interior noise is built. In addition, three feature schemes are considered to optimize feature selection. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a high accuracy for audio classification, especially under each noise background we used and keep the classification time less than one second.

  1. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  2. The 7 Qualities of Highly Secure Software

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Mano

    2012-01-01

    The 7 Qualities of Highly Secure Software provides a framework for designing, developing, and deploying hacker-resilient software. It uses engaging anecdotes and analogies-ranging from Aesop's fables, athletics, architecture, biology, nursery rhymes, and video games-to illustrate the qualities that are essential for the development of highly secure software. Each chapter details one of the seven qualities that can make your software highly secure and less susceptible to hacker threats. Leveraging real-world experiences and examples, the book: Explains complex security concepts in language that

  3. Digital audio and video broadcasting by satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Takehiko

    In parallel with the progress of the practical use of satellite broadcasting and Hi-Vision or high-definition television technologies, research activities are also in progress to replace the conventional analog broadcasting services with a digital version. What we call 'digitalization' is not a mere technical matter but an important subject which will help promote multichannel or multimedia applications and, accordingly, can change the old concept of mass media, such as television or radio. NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories has promoted studies of digital bandwidth compression, transmission, and application techniques. The following topics are covered: the trend of digital broadcasting; features of Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB); compression encoding and transmission; transmission bit rate in 12 GHz band; number of digital TV transmission channels; multichannel pulse code modulation (PCM) audio broadcasting system via communication satellite; digital Hi-Vision broadcasting; and development of digital audio broadcasting (DAB) for mobile reception in Japan.

  4. On Steganography in Lost Audio Packets

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new hidden data insertion procedure based on estimated probability of the remaining time of the call for steganographic method called LACK (Lost Audio PaCKets steganography). LACK provides hidden communication for real-time services like Voice over IP. The analytical results presented in this paper concern the influence of LACK's hidden data insertion procedures on the method's impact on quality of voice transmission and its resistance to steganalysis. The proposed hidden data insertion procedure is also compared to previous steganogram insertion approach based on estimated remaining average call duration.

  5. Derivation and Analysis of a Low-Cost, High-performance Analogue BPCM Control Scheme for Class-D Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost analogue control scheme for class-D audio power amplifiers. The scheme is based around bandpass current-mode (BPCM) control, and provides ample stability margins and low distortion over a wide range of operating conditions. Implementation is very simple and does...... not require the use of operational amplifiers. Small-signal behavior of the controller is accurately predicted, and design is carried out using standard transfer function based linear control methodology. Effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated via a 60W/8Ω single-ended switching amplifier with THD...

  6. Concept Framework for Audio Information Retrieval: ARF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI GuoHui(李国辉); WU DeFeng(武德峰); ZHANG Jun(张军)

    2003-01-01

    The majority of researches on content-based retrieval focused on visual media.However audio is also an important medium and information carrier from the viewpoint of humanauditory perception, so it is needed to retrieve for audio collection. Audio is handled by conven-tional methods as an opaque stream medium, which is not suitable for information retrieval byits content. In fact, audio carries rich aural information with the form of speech, musical, andsound effects, so it could be retrieved based on its aural content, such as acoustic features, musicalmelodies and associated semantics. In this paper, a concept framework (ARF) for content-basedaudio retrieval is proposed from systematic perspectives, which describes audio content model,audio retrieval architecture and audio query schemes. Audio contents are represented by a hier-archical model and a set of formal descriptions from physical to acoustic to semantic level, whichdepict acoustic features, logical structure and semantics of audio and audio objects. The archi-tecture consisting of audio meta-database, populating and accessing modules presents a systemstructure view of audio information retrieval. The query schemes give generalized approaches andmodes concerning how users deliver audio information needs to audio collections. Finally, an audioretrieval example implemented is used to explain and specify the application of the components in the proposed ARF.

  7. The Fungible Audio-Visual Mapping and its Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws a perceptual approach to audio-visual mapping. Clearly perceivable cause and effect relationships can be problematic if one desires the audience to experience the music. Indeed perception would bias those sonic qualities that fit previous concepts of causation, subordinating other sonic qualities, which may form the relations between the sounds themselves. The question is, how can an audio-visual mapping produce a sense of causation, and simultaneously confound the actual cause-effect relationships. We call this a fungible audio-visual mapping. Our aim here is to glean its constitution and aspect. We will report a study, which draws upon methods from experimental psychology to inform audio-visual instrument design and composition. The participants are shown several audio-visual mapping prototypes, after which we pose quantitative and qualitative questions regarding their sense of causation, and their sense of understanding the cause-effect relationships. The study shows that a fungible mapping requires both synchronized and seemingly non-related components – sufficient complexity to be confusing. As the specific cause-effect concepts remain inconclusive, the sense of causation embraces the whole. 

  8. Evaluation of Audio Compression Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herrera Martinez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audio-coding systems. From this evaluation, it is found that, depending on the type of signal and the algorithm of the audio-coding system, different types of audible errors arise. These errors are called coding artifacts. Although three kinds of artifacts are perceivable in the auditory domain, the author proposes that in the coding domain there is only one common cause for the appearance of the artifact, inefficient tracking of transient-stochastic signals. For this purpose, state-of-the art audio coding systems use a wide range of signal processing techniques, including application of the wavelet transform, which is described here. 

  9. Virtual environment interaction through 3D audio by blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Lumbreras, M

    1999-01-01

    Interactive software is actively used for learning, cognition, and entertainment purposes. Educational entertainment software is not very popular among blind children because most computer games and electronic toys have interfaces that are only accessible through visual cues. This work applies the concept of interactive hyperstories to blind children. Hyperstories are implemented in a 3D acoustic virtual world. In past studies we have conceptualized a model to design hyperstories. This study illustrates the feasibility of the model. It also provides an introduction to researchers to the field of entertainment software for blind children. As a result, we have designed and field tested AudioDoom, a virtual environment interacted through 3D Audio by blind children. AudioDoom is also a software that enables testing nontrivial interfaces and cognitive tasks with blind children. We explored the construction of cognitive spatial structures in the minds of blind children through audio-based entertainment and spatial sound navigable experiences. Children playing AudioDoom were exposed to first person experiences by exploring highly interactive virtual worlds through the use of 3D aural representations of the space. This experience was structured in several cognitive tasks where they had to build concrete models of their spatial representations constructed through the interaction with AudioDoom by using Legotrade mark blocks. We analyze our preliminary results after testing AudioDoom with Chilean children from a school for blind children. We discuss issues such as interactivity in software without visual cues, the representation of spatial sound navigable experiences, and entertainment software such as computer games for blind children. We also evaluate the feasibility to construct virtual environments through the design of dynamic learning materials with audio cues.

  10. Design and realization of digital audio equalizer based on MCU and FPAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ping; Liu Zhuo; Xia Liang

    2008-01-01

    In analog audio equalizer, the filters are constructed by op-amplifiers and discrete components. Being influenced by its discrete capabilities, audio equalizer has many disadvantages. Meanwhile, pure digital audio equalizer has got better performance and stability, but its cost and price are too high. So digital audio equalizer only has its application in upscale domain. A new design method for audio equalizer is proposed, which attempts to design and realize a high precision and high SNR (signal noise ratio) digital audio equalizer system based on field programmable analog array (FPAA) and micro-controller unit. This design confirms that design speed and performance will be greatly enhanced when FPAA technology is applied to analog design domain.

  11. Subjective evaluation and electroacoustic theoretical validation of a new approach to audio upmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, John S.

    Audio signal processing systems for converting two-channel (stereo) recordings to four or five channels are increasingly relevant. These audio upmixers can be used with conventional stereo sound recordings and reproduced with multichannel home theatre or automotive loudspeaker audio systems to create a more engaging and natural-sounding listening experience. This dissertation discusses existing approaches to audio upmixing for recordings of musical performances and presents specific design criteria for a system to enhance spatial sound quality. A new upmixing system is proposed and evaluated according to these criteria and a theoretical model for its behavior is validated using empirical measurements. The new system removes short-term correlated components from two electronic audio signals using a pair of adaptive filters, updated according to a frequency domain implementation of the normalized-least-means-square algorithm. The major difference of the new system with all extant audio upmixers is that unsupervised time-alignment of the input signals (typically, by up to +/-10 ms) as a function of frequency (typically, using a 1024-band equalizer) is accomplished due to the non-minimum phase adaptive filter. Two new signals are created from the weighted difference of the inputs, and are then radiated with two loudspeakers behind the listener. According to the consensus in the literature on the effect of interaural correlation on auditory image formation, the self-orthogonalizing properties of the algorithm ensure minimal distortion of the frontal source imagery and natural-sounding, enveloping reverberance (ambiance) imagery. Performance evaluation of the new upmix system was accomplished in two ways: Firstly, using empirical electroacoustic measurements which validate a theoretical model of the system; and secondly, with formal listening tests which investigated auditory spatial imagery with a graphical mapping tool and a preference experiment. Both electroacoustic

  12. Amplificador de audio Clase D

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El presente proyecto lleva a cabo el desarrollo de un amplificador de audio tipo D basado en dos tipos de modulación, modulación PWM y modulación Sigma-Delta ambos con puente inversor en H. Tanto el modulador PWM como el modulador Sigma-Delta se desarrollaran mediante circuitos digitales implementados en una FPGA. La señal de audio de entrada se digitalizará mediante un convertidor analógico–digital (ADC) que también estará controlado mediante una circuitería digital implementada en la misma ...

  13. A Joint Audio-Visual Approach to Audio Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    Localization of audio sources is an important research problem, e.g., to facilitate noise reduction. In the recent years, the problem has been tackled using distributed microphone arrays (DMA). A common approach is to apply direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation on each array (denoted as nodes...

  14. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan SERİN, Alper AYTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Total Quality Management (TQM has been even more common and most recently its use in high education has been discussed. Likewise the enterprises producing various products, universities have also inputs, processes, and outputs. Due to conditions of competition, universities have to improve the qualities of these inputs, processes, and outputs, according to satisfaction, demands, and expectations of internal and external customers. If the TQM has been implemented in the universities with a manner that aims for customer satisfaction (students, lecturers, public and private establishments, and families, supports constant development, ensures participatory approach, and encourages working in groups, it will provide universities with effectiveness, efficiency, dynamics, and economics. In this study, common problems of universities, definitions of quality and TQM in high education, customer concept at universities, and factors affecting the quality of education have been explained. Besides, in order TQM approach to be successfully implemented in the universities, various suggestions have been presented.

  15. Practical Design of Delta-Sigma Multiple Description Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leegaard, Jack Højholt; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    It was recently shown that delta-sigma quantization (DSQ) can be used for optimal multiple description (MD) coding of Gaussian sources. The DSQ scheme combined oversampling, prediction, and noise-shaping in order to trade off side distortion for central distortion in MD coding. It was shown......, it is possible to obtain good quality audio in the presence of packet losses. Simulations on real audio reveal that, contrary to existing designs, it is straightforward to obtain a large number of trade-off points between side distortion and central distortion, which makes the proposed coder suitable for a wide...

  16. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2010 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2010. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are or...

  17. The Audio-Visual Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Pierre, Ed.

    A series of twelve essays discuss the use of audiovisuals in religious education. The essays are divided into three sections: one which draws on the ideas of Marshall McLuhan and other educators to explore the newest ideas about audiovisual language and faith, one that describes how to learn and use the new language of audio and visual images, and…

  18. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  19. Robust Unsupervised Speaker Segmentation for Audio Diarization

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri, Hachem; Davy, Manuel; Ellouze, Noureddine

    2010-01-01

    Audio diarization is the process of partitioning an input audio stream into homogeneous regions according to their specific audio sources. These sources can include audio type (speech, music, background noise, ect.), speaker identity and channel characteristics. With the continually increasing number of larges volumes of spoken documents including broadcasts, voice mails, meetings and telephone conversations, diarization has received a great deal of interest in recent years which significantl...

  20. A New High Quality EAF Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the shortage of scrap, especially high quality scrap, granular pig iron, a new substitute for scrap or DRI (direct reduction iron) has been developed. The technical process of decarbonized granular pig iron has been evaluated. The result shows that this new process is superior to direct reduction process in product quality, construction investment, operation flexibility, production efficiency etc. Decarbonized granular pig iron (DGPI) not only can be used as conventional scrap but also can be charged into EAF as high purity burden equivalent to heavy scrap.

  1. Audio-Visual Aids: Historians in Blunderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarie, Graeme

    1988-01-01

    A history professor relates his experiences producing and using audio-visual material and warns teachers not to rely on audio-visual aids for classroom presentations. Includes examples of popular audio-visual aids on Canada that communicate unintended, inaccurate, or unclear ideas. Urges teachers to exercise caution in the selection and use of…

  2. [Audio-visual aids and tropical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, J J

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a list of the audio-visual productions about Tropical Medicine, as well as of their main characteristics. He thinks that the audio-visual educational productions are often dissociated from their promotion; therefore, he invites the future creator to forward his work to the Audio-Visual Health Committee.

  3. The Application of Audio-visual Media in Junior High School English Teaching%关于初中英语教学中电教手段的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江介香

    2012-01-01

    In junior high school English teaching, applying audio-visual media can motivate students' English learning interest. As a teaching aid, the application of audio-visual media in English classroom is the supplement and development of English classroom teaching, and it is helpful to the improvement of classroom teaching effect and it is of important meaning in cultivating students' comprehensive applying ability.%在初中英语教学中,运用电教手段可以激发学生英语学习的兴趣。作为一种辅助教学手段,电教手段运用于英语课堂中,是对英语课堂教学的补充和发展,有利于提高整体课堂教学效率,对于培养学生英语综合应用能力有着十分重要的意义。

  4. Assuring quality in high-consequence engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Marcey L.; Kolb, Rachel R.

    2014-03-01

    In high-consequence engineering organizations, such as Sandia, quality assurance may be heavily dependent on staff competency. Competency-dependent quality assurance models are at risk when the environment changes, as it has with increasing attrition rates, budget and schedule cuts, and competing program priorities. Risks in Sandia's competency-dependent culture can be mitigated through changes to hiring, training, and customer engagement approaches to manage people, partners, and products. Sandia's technical quality engineering organization has been able to mitigate corporate-level risks by driving changes that benefit all departments, and in doing so has assured Sandia's commitment to excellence in high-consequence engineering and national service.

  5. Research and Development Platform for Multimedia Streaming of MP3 Audio Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Novak

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the MPEG Layer III (MP3 music compression format hasbecome an extremely popular choice for digital audio compression. Its high compressionratio, and near CD quality sound make it a natural choice for storing and distributingmusic - especially over the internet, where space and bandwidth are importantconsiderations. For example, using MPEG Layer-3 compression, 40 MBytes audio fileshave been compressed to approximately 3.5 MBytes. As a result of the MP3 popularity, avariety of portable MP3 players entered the market. We decided to design and implement aHard Disk based MP3 player similar to products currently available (e.g. Creative LabsNomad, Archos Jukebox 6000, Apple Ipod, etc.. Our goal was to design the player withminimal cost and to implement a FM Stereo Radio Transmitter module for ease ofconnectivity. This module resolves the compatibility problems with the current availablecar audio systems. In the same time system flexibility and scalability as well as systemevolution to more advanced architectures were the main principles that drove thedevelopment of this platform. The primary enhancement of the platform will be to switchthe communication module from a analogical FM radio transmitter to digital wired orwireless communication solutions.

  6. Multi Carrier Modulator for Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment, in particular radio receivers. Lowering the EMI of switch......-mode audio power amplifiers while keeping the performance measures to excellent levels is therefore of high general interest. A modulator utilizing multiple carrier signals to generate a two level pulse train will be shown in this paper. The performance of the modulator will be compared in simulation...... to existing modulation topologies. The lower EMI as well as the preserved audio performance will be shown in simulation as well as in measurement results on a prototype....

  7. Design of an Audio Interface for Patmos

    OpenAIRE

    Ausin, Daniel Sanz; Goerge, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an audio interface for the Patmos processor, which runs on an Altera DE2-115 FPGA board. This board has an audio codec included, the WM8731. The interface described in this work allows to receive and send audio from and to the WM8731, and to synthesize, store or manipulate audio signals writing C programs for Patmos. The audio interface described in this paper is intended to be used with the Patmos processor. Patmos is an open source RISC ...

  8. Two-dimensional audio watermark for MPEG AAC audio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryuki

    2004-06-01

    Since digital music is often stored in a compressed file, it is desirable that an audio watermarking method in a content management system handles compressed files. Using an audio watermarking method that directly manipulates compressed files makes it unnecessary to decompress the files before embedding or detection, so more files can be processed per unit time. However, it is difficult to detect a watermark in a compressed file that has been compressed after the file was watermarked. This paper proposes an MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) bitstream watermarking method using a two-dimensional pseudo-random array. Detection is done by correlating the absolute values of the recovered MDCT coefficients and the pseudo-random array. Since the embedding algorithm uses the same pseudo-random values for two adjacent overlapping frames and the detection algorithm selects the better frame in the two by comparing detected watermark strengths, it is possible to detect a watermark from a compressed file that was compressed after the watermark was embedded in the original uncompressed file. Though the watermark is not detected as clearly in this case, the watermark can still be detected even when the watermark was embedded in a compressed file and the file was then decompressed, trimmed, and compressed again.

  9. Engineering a Scalable High Quality Graph Partitioner

    CERN Document Server

    Holtgrewe, Manuel; Schulz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We describe an approach to parallel graph partitioning that scales to hundreds of processors and produces a high solution quality. For example, for many instances from Walshaw's benchmark collection we improve the best known partitioning. We use the well known framework of multi-level graph partitioning. All components are implemented by scalable parallel algorithms. Quality improvements compared to previous systems are due to better prioritization of edges to be contracted, better approximation algorithms for identifying matchings, better local search heuristics, and perhaps most notably, a parallelization of the FM local search algorithm that works more locally than previous approaches.

  10. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  11. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2010 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2010. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are or...... are organized in topical sections on multimodal integration, tactile and sonic explorations, walking and navigation interfaces, prototype design and evaluation, and gestures and emotions.......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2010 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2010. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers...

  12. A Multimedia Application: Spatial Perceptual Entropy of Multichannel Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuixian Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually multimedia data have to be compressed before transmitting, and higher compression rate, or equivalently lower bitrate, relieves the load of communication channels but impacts negatively the quality. We investigate the bitrate lower bound for perceptually lossless compression of a major type of multimedia—multichannel audio signals. This bound equals to the perceptible information rate of the signals. Traditionally, Perceptual Entropy (PE, based primarily on monaural hearing measures the perceptual information rate of individual channels. But PE cannot measure the spatial information captured by binaural hearing, thus is not suitable for estimating Spatial Audio Coding (SAC bitrate bound. To measure this spatial information, we build a Binaural Cue Physiological Perception Model (BCPPM on the ground of binaural hearing, which represents spatial information in the physical and physiological layers. This model enables computing Spatial Perceptual Entropy (SPE, the lower bitrate bound for SAC. For real-world stereo audio signals of various types, our experiments indicate that SPE reliably estimates their spatial information rate. Therefore, “SPE plus PE” gives lower bitrate bounds for communicating multichannel audio signals with transparent quality.

  13. A Multimedia Application: Spatial Perceptual Entropy of Multichannel Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shuixian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually multimedia data have to be compressed before transmitting, and higher compression rate, or equivalently lower bitrate, relieves the load of communication channels but impacts negatively the quality. We investigate the bitrate lower bound for perceptually lossless compression of a major type of multimedia—multichannel audio signals. This bound equals to the perceptible information rate of the signals. Traditionally, Perceptual Entropy (PE, based primarily on monaural hearing measures the perceptual information rate of individual channels. But PE cannot measure the spatial information captured by binaural hearing, thus is not suitable for estimating Spatial Audio Coding (SAC bitrate bound. To measure this spatial information, we build a Binaural Cue Physiological Perception Model (BCPPM on the ground of binaural hearing, which represents spatial information in the physical and physiological layers. This model enables computing Spatial Perceptual Entropy (SPE, the lower bitrate bound for SAC. For real-world stereo audio signals of various types, our experiments indicate that SPE reliably estimates their spatial information rate. Therefore, "SPE plus PE" gives lower bitrate bounds for communicating multichannel audio signals with transparent quality.

  14. From ITU-T G.722.1 to ITU-T G.722.1 Annex C: A New Low-Complexity 14kHz Bandwidth Audio Coding Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Xie

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the low-complexity 14kHz bandwidth audio coding algorithm which has been recently standardized by ITU-T as Recommendation G.722.1 Annex C (“G.722.1C”. The algorithm is an extension to ITU-T Recommendation G.722.1 and a doubled form of the G.722.1 algorithm to permit 14 kHz audio bandwidth using a 32 kHz audio sample rate, at 24, 32, and 48 kbit/s. The G. 722.1C codec features very high audio quality, extremely low computational complexity, and low algorithmic delay compared to other state-of-the-art audio coding algorithms. This codec is suitable for use in video conferencing and teleconferencing, and Internet streaming applications as well as a general-purpose 14 kHz audio codec. Subjective test results from the Characterization phase of G 722.1C are also presented in the paper.

  15. AudioRegent: Exploiting SimpleADL and SoX for Digital Audio Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Arora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AudioRegent is a command-line Python script currently being used by the University of Alabama Libraries’ Digital Services to create web-deliverable MP3s from regions within archival audio files. In conjunction with a small-footprint XML file called SimpleADL and SoX, an open-source command-line audio editor, AudioRegent batch processes archival audio files, allowing for one or many user-defined regions, particular to each audio file, to be extracted with additional audio processing in a transparent manner that leaves the archival audio file unaltered. Doing so has alleviated many of the tensions of cumbersome workflows, complicated documentation, preservation concerns, and reliance on expensive closed-source GUI audio applications.

  16. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  17. Suggestions for writing high quality scientific papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Fisher

    2011-01-01

    @@ Writing a good scientific paper that will be accepted by a high quality journal requires careful planning and preparation.The process actually begins with the design and performance of the study to be reported upon in the paper.The main sections of the paper which include the introduction,methods,results and discussion are actually components of the planning and execution of the study to be reported.

  18. EULEB EUropean high quality Low Energy Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The EULEB-Project is intended to supply information to architects and engineers throughout Europe and beyond it. Within the EU it will support the new Energy Directive on Buildings through providing design and engineering details of European public high quality buildings with low energy consumption. By providing a CD containing information on architecture, energy consumption and economical efficiency as well as the comfort of these innovative buildings in use, the lac...

  19. Multi Carrier Modulator for Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment, in particular radio receivers. Lowering the EMI of swit...

  20. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  1. Development of high quality electron beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, Masaki; Dewa, Hideki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A design study on a high quality electron beam accelerator is described. This accelerator will be used for second generation experiments of laser wakefield acceleration, short x-ray generation, and other experiments of interaction of high intensity laser with an electron beam at Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The system consists of a photocathode rf gun and a race-track microtron (RTM). To combine these two components, injection and extraction beamlines are designed employing transfer matrix and compute codes. A present status of the accelerator system is also presented. (author)

  2. Bimodal audio-visual training enhances auditory adaptation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Tetsuaki; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Hori, Yoko; Maki, Atsuko; Suzuki, Yôiti; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2009-09-23

    Effects of auditory training with bimodal audio-visual stimuli on monomodal aural speech intelligibility were examined in individuals with normal hearing using highly degraded noise-vocoded speech sound. Visual cue simultaneously presented with auditory stimuli during the training session significantly improved auditory speech intelligibility not only for words used in the training session, but also untrained words, when compared with the auditory training using only auditory stimuli. Visual information is generally considered to complement insufficient speech information conveyed by the auditory system during audio-visual speech perception. However, the present results showed another beneficial effect of audio-visual training that the visual cue enhances the auditory adaptation process to the degraded new speech sound, which is different from those given during bimodal training.

  3. Efficiency Optimization in Class-D Audio Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new power efficiency optimization routine for designing Class-D audio amplifiers. The proposed optimization procedure finds design parameters for the power stage and the output filter, and the optimum switching frequency such that the weighted power losses are minimized under...... the given constraints. The optimization routine is applied to minimize the power losses in a 130 W class-D audio amplifier based on consumer behavior investigations, where the amplifier operates at idle and low power levels most of the time. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization method can...... lead to around 30 % of efficiency improvement at 1.3 W output power without significant effects on both audio performance and the efficiency at high power levels....

  4. Technical Evaluation Report 56: Video-Conferencing with Audio Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Baggaley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An online conference is illustrated using the format of a TV talk show. The conference combined live audio discussion with visual images spontaneously selected by the moderator in the manner of a TV control-room director. A combination of inexpensive online collaborative tools was used for the event, based on the browser-based audio-conferencing software, iVocalize. The exercise illustrates how an impression of a fully featured online video-conference can be created without the need for complex video-conferencing software and high bandwidth.

  5. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library.

  6. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Giannakopoulos

    Full Text Available Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation, etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/. Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits. The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library.

  7. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolomé, Javier, E-mail: j.bartolome@fis.ucm.es; Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier [Department of Materials Physics, Faculty of Physics, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  8. Semantic Labeling of Nonspeech Audio Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human communication about entities and events is primarily linguistic in nature. While visual representations of information are shown to be highly effective as well, relatively little is known about the communicative power of auditory nonlinguistic representations. We created a collection of short nonlinguistic auditory clips encoding familiar human activities, objects, animals, natural phenomena, machinery, and social scenes. We presented these sounds to a broad spectrum of anonymous human workers using Amazon Mechanical Turk and collected verbal sound labels. We analyzed the human labels in terms of their lexical and semantic properties to ascertain that the audio clips do evoke the information suggested by their pre-defined captions. We then measured the agreement with the semantically compatible labels for each sound clip. Finally, we examined which kinds of entities and events, when captured by nonlinguistic acoustic clips, appear to be well-suited to elicit information for communication, and which ones are less discriminable. Our work is set against the broader goal of creating resources that facilitate communication for people with some types of language loss. Furthermore, our data should prove useful for future research in machine analysis/synthesis of audio, such as computational auditory scene analysis, and annotating/querying large collections of sound effects.

  9. Transboundary High School Air Quality Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, I. [Cascadia AirNET, Bellingham, WA (United States)

    2004-04-07

    A study was conducted to determine why the air quality in the Cascadia bioregion is declining. The Cascadia bioregion extends from the Alaska border in northern British Columbia to the northern coast of California and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Cascade Mountains. The region shares resources such as air, water, soil migration, wildlife, human power, flora, and aquatic life. It has one of the fastest growing populations in Canada and the United States. AirNet is a school-based program that was established to promote environmental cooperation between the two countries and to increase citizen understanding and participation in protecting air quality and biodiversity. The objective of AirNet is to increase trans-border cooperation by non-governmental organizations, governments, scientists, citizens and educational facilities. AirNet shares biomonitoring data world-wide. The 5 components of the AirNet program are: (1) a teacher training workshop, (2) classroom presentations by AirNet staff on general air quality issues, (3) a presentation on lichen classification and identification, (4) a field trip with AirNet personnel to gather biomonitoring data, and (5) a follow-up field trip to use the PAX Air Quality Analyzer which analyzes biomonitoring data for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. PAX can also analyze wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and barometric pressure. Results from a lichen study at Port Moody High School in British Columbia indicated high levels of sulphur dioxide in areas of lichen absence. In response, the students requested that the industrial facility upwind from the area cover its solid sulphur piles. The study raised awareness of bioindicators for air and applied student Internet knowledge and capability to real-life science. tabs., figs.

  10. Digital audio watermarking fundamentals, techniques and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage on the most important aspects of audio watermarking, from classic techniques to the latest advances, from commonly investigated topics to emerging research subdomains, and from the research and development achievements to date, to current limitations, challenges, and future directions. It also addresses key topics such as reversible audio watermarking, audio watermarking with encryption, and imperceptibility control methods. The book sets itself apart from the existing literature in three main ways. Firstly, it not only reviews classical categories of audio watermarking techniques, but also provides detailed descriptions, analysis and experimental results of the latest work in each category. Secondly, it highlights the emerging research topic of reversible audio watermarking, including recent research trends, unique features, and the potentials of this subdomain. Lastly, the joint consideration of audio watermarking and encryption is also reviewed. With the help of this...

  11. Modified BTC Algorithm for Audio Signal Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMIC, S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modification of a well-known image coding algorithm, named Block Truncation Coding (BTC and its application in audio signal coding. BTC algorithm was originally designed for black and white image coding. Since black and white images and audio signals have different statistical characteristics, the application of this image coding algorithm to audio signal presents a novelty and a challenge. Several implementation modifications are described in this paper, while the original idea of the algorithm is preserved. The main modifications are performed in the area of signal quantization, by designing more adequate quantizers for audio signal processing. The result is a novel audio coding algorithm, whose performance is presented and analyzed in this research. The performance analysis indicates that this novel algorithm can be successfully applied in audio signal coding.

  12. Use of Cue Sheets in Audio Digitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio digitization is becoming essential to many libraries. As more and more audio files are being digitally preserved, the workflows for handling those digital objects need to be examined to ensure efficiency. In some instances, files are being manually manipulated when it would be more efficient to manipulate them programmatically. This article describes a time-saving solution to the problem of how to split master audio files into sub-item tracks.

  13. Making the Switch to Digital Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gwin Mitchell

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors describe the process of converting from analog to digital audio data. They address the step-by-step decisions that they made in selecting hardware and software for recording and converting digital audio, issues of system integration, and cost considerations. The authors present a brief description of how digital audio is being used in their current research project and how it has enhanced the “quality” of their qualitative research.

  14. Coexistence issues for a 2.4 GHz wireless audio streaming in presence of bluetooth paging and WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, F.; Rashwan, M.; Biebl, E.; Napholz, B.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, customers expect to integrate their mobile electronic devices (smartphones and laptops) in a vehicle to form a wireless network. Typically, IEEE 802.11 is used to provide a high-speed wireless local area network (WLAN) and Bluetooth is used for cable replacement applications in a wireless personal area network (PAN). In addition, Daimler uses KLEER as third wireless technology in the unlicensed (UL) 2.4 GHz-ISM-band to transmit full CD-quality digital audio. As Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 and KLEER are operating in the same frequency band, it has to be ensured that all three technologies can be used simultaneously without interference. In this paper, we focus on the impact of Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11 as interferer in presence of a KLEER audio transmission.

  15. Delivery of High-Quality Biomarker Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker measurements now support key decisions throughout the drug development process, from lead optimization to regulatory approvals. They are essential for documenting exposure-response relationships, specificity and potency toward the molecular target, untoward effects, and therapeutic applications. In a broader sense, biomarkers constitute the basis of clinical pathology and laboratory medicine. The utility of biomarkers is limited by their specificity and sensitivity toward the drug or disease process and by their overall variability. Understanding and controlling sources of variability is not only imperative for delivering high-quality assay results, but ultimately for controlling the size and expense of research studies. Variability in biomarker measurements is affected by: biological and environmental factors (e.g., gender, age, posture, diet and biorhythms, sample collection factors (e.g., preservatives, transport and storage conditions, and collection technique, and analytical factors (e.g., purity of reference material, pipetting precision, and antibody specificity. The quality standards for biomarker assays used in support of nonclinical safety studies fall under GLP (FDA regulations, whereas, those assays used to support human diagnostics and healthcare are established by CLIA (CMS regulations and accrediting organizations such as the College of American Pathologists. While most research applications of biomarkers are not regulated, biomarker laboratories in all settings are adopting similar laboratory practices in order to deliver high-quality data. Because of the escalation in demand for biomarker measurements, the highly-parallel (multi-plexed assay platforms that have fueled the rise of genomics will likely evolve into the analytical engines that drive the biomarker laboratories of tomorrow.

  16. Fuzzy Logic-Based Audio Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcangi, M.

    2008-11-01

    Audio and audio-pattern recognition is becoming one of the most important technologies to automatically control embedded systems. Fuzzy logic may be the most important enabling methodology due to its ability to rapidly and economically model such application. An audio and audio-pattern recognition engine based on fuzzy logic has been developed for use in very low-cost and deeply embedded systems to automate human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interaction. This engine consists of simple digital signal-processing algorithms for feature extraction and normalization, and a set of pattern-recognition rules manually tuned or automatically tuned by a self-learning process.

  17. Some Topologies of High Quality Rectifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several basic classes of three-phase high-quality rectifiers are described.Both single-switch and six-switch three-phase rectifier topologiescan be derived from parent dc-dc converters.Single-switch rectifiers are compared with the basic six-switch PWM rectifiers performingsimilar power conversion functions,using the measures of total semiconductor stress and active semiconductor utilization.The singleswitchapproach is shown to utilize the semiconductor devices more effectively.Zero current switching and multiresonant approaches are foundto exhibit low switch stress over a wide range of operating points,with lowTHD.

  18. Quantization Audio Watermarking with Optimal Scaling on Wavelet Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S -T; Tu, S -Y

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) provides an useful platform for digital information hiding and copyright protection. Many DWT-based algorithms for this aim are proposed. The performance of these algorithms is in term of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bit-error-rate (BER) which are used to measure the quality and the robustness of an embedded audio. However, there is a tradeoff relationship between the embedded-audio quality and robustness. The tradeoff relationship is a signal processing problem in the wavelet domain. To solve this problem, this study presents an optimization-based scaling scheme using optimal multi-coefficients quantization in the wavelet domain. Firstly, the multi-coefficients quantization technique is rewritten as an equation with arbitrary scaling on DWT coefficients and set SNR to be a performance index. Then, a functional connecting the equation and the performance index is derived. Secondly, Lagrange Principle is used to obtain the optimal solution. Thirdly, the scal...

  19. Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.

  20. Distortion Estimation in Compressed Music Using Only Audio Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact yet very robust representation of the perceptually relevant parts of an audio signal. It can be used for content-based audio identification, even when the audio is severely distorted. Audio compression changes the fingerprint slightly. We show that these small finge

  1. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and simulated waveforms of a prototype amplifier are presented. (au)

  2. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and simulated waveforms of a prototype amplifier are presented. (au)

  3. Self-oscillating modulators for direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    Direct energy conversion audio power amplifier represents total integration of switching-mode power supply and Class D audio power amplifier into one compact stage, achieving high efficiency, high level of integration, low component count and eventually low cost. This paper presents how self......-oscillating modulators can be used with the direct switching-mode audio power amplifier to improve its performance by providing fast hysteretic control with high power supply rejection ratio, open-loop stability and high bandwidth. Its operation is thoroughly analyzed and experimental results from prototype amplifier...

  4. Digital audio broadcasting: Measuring techniques and coverage performance for a medium power VHF single frequency network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, M. C. D.; Eng, C.; Pullen, I. R.; Green, J. A.

    1995-02-01

    The advent of digital formats such as CD has created demand for uniformly high audio quality from radio. In order to provide such high-quality stereo reception, a Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) system capable of reliable reception in vehicles and on portables has been developed by the European EUREKA 147 Project. As a VHF frequency allocation would appear most suitable for the introduction of terrestrial broadcasting of DAB in the United Kingdom, the BBC is undertaking a major experiment to test the EUREKA DAB system and to generate data to allow efficient planning of its transmitter network. A network of four, 1 kW e.r.p., VHF transmitters has been installed to cover the London area in England. This Report describes the experimental program and the rationale and measurement techniques behind it. The results show a wide-area coverage from the transmitter network which is in reasonable agreement with computer predictions. This indicates that the current transmitting and receiving equipment (built to the EUREKA specification) is operating in the way that would be expected from theoretical studies and simulation. The results also provide quantitative values which can be used for coverage prediction and for international co-ordination of services. Finally, the performance of the system demonstrates a number of the benefits of the EUREKA DAB system for mobile and portable reception.

  5. Adaptive Quantization Index Modulation Audio Watermarking based on Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita V. Dhavale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the adaptive watermarking schemes reported in the literature consider only local audio signal properties. Many schemes require complex computation along with manual parameter settings. In this paper, we propose a novel, fuzzy, adaptive audio watermarking algorithm based on both global and local audio signal properties. The algorithm performs well for dynamic range of audio signals without requiring manual initial parameter selection. Here, mean value of energy (MVE and variance of spectral flux (VSF of a given audio signal constitutes global components, while the energy of each audio frame acts as local component. The Quantization Index Modulation (QIM step size Δ is made adaptive to both the global and local features. The global component automates the initial selection of Δ using the fuzzy inference system while the local component controls the variation in it based on the energy of individual audio frame. Hence Δ adaptively controls the strength of watermark to meet both the robustness and inaudibility requirements, making the system independent of audio nature. Experimental results reveal that our adaptive scheme outperforms other fixed step sized QIM schemes and adaptive schemes and is highly robust against general attacks.

  6. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli;

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  7. Enhancing Manual Scan Registration Using Audio Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntsoko, T.; Sithole, G.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor mapping and modelling requires that acquired data be processed by editing, fusing, formatting the data, amongst other operations. Currently the manual interaction the user has with the point cloud (data) while processing it is visual. Visual interaction does have limitations, however. One way of dealing with these limitations is to augment audio in point cloud processing. Audio augmentation entails associating points of interest in the point cloud with audio objects. In coarse scan registration, reverberation, intensity and frequency audio cues were exploited to help the user estimate depth and occupancy of space of points of interest. Depth estimations were made reliably well when intensity and frequency were both used as depth cues. Coarse changes of depth could be estimated in this manner. The depth between surfaces can therefore be estimated with the aid of the audio objects. Sound reflections of an audio object provided reliable information of the object surroundings in some instances. For a point/area of interest in the point cloud, these reflections can be used to determine the unseen events around that point/area of interest. Other processing techniques could benefit from this while other information is estimated using other audio cues like binaural cues and Head Related Transfer Functions. These other cues could be used in position estimations of audio objects to aid in problems such as indoor navigation problems.

  8. Audio-Visual Aids in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jackie

    1970-01-01

    A report on the proceedings and ideas expressed at a one day seminar on "Audio-Visual Equipment--Its Uses and Applications for Teaching and Research in Universities." The seminar was organized by England's National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education in conjunction with the British Universities Film Council. (LS)

  9. Audio Classification from Time-Frequency Texture

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Guoshen

    2008-01-01

    Time-frequency representations of audio signals often resemble texture images. This paper derives a simple audio classification algorithm based on treating sound spectrograms as texture images. The algorithm is inspired by an earlier visual classification scheme particularly efficient at classifying textures. While solely based on time-frequency texture features, the algorithm achieves surprisingly good performance in musical instrument classification experiments.

  10. Audio coding in wireless acoustic sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2015-01-01

    ) for the resulting remote DSC problem under covariance matrix distortion constraints. We further show that for this problem, the Gaussian source is the worst to code. Thus, the Gaussian RDF provides an upper bound to other sources such as audio signals. We then turn our attention to audio signals. We consider...

  11. Developing high-quality educational software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn A; Schleyer, Titus K L

    2003-11-01

    The development of effective educational software requires a systematic process executed by a skilled development team. This article describes the core skills required of the development team members for the six phases of successful educational software development. During analysis, the foundation of product development is laid including defining the audience and program goals, determining hardware and software constraints, identifying content resources, and developing management tools. The design phase creates the specifications that describe the user interface, the sequence of events, and the details of the content to be displayed. During development, the pieces of the educational program are assembled. Graphics and other media are created, video and audio scripts written and recorded, the program code created, and support documentation produced. Extensive testing by the development team (alpha testing) and with students (beta testing) is conducted. Carefully planned implementation is most likely to result in a flawless delivery of the educational software and maintenance ensures up-to-date content and software. Due to the importance of the sixth phase, evaluation, we have written a companion article on it that follows this one. The development of a CD-ROM product is described including the development team, a detailed description of the development phases, and the lessons learned from the project.

  12. Particle Filtering on the Audio Localization Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Ettinger, Evan

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel particle filtering algorithm for tracking a moving sound source using a microphone array. If there are N microphones in the array, we track all $N \\choose 2$ delays with a single particle filter over time. Since it is known that tracking in high dimensions is rife with difficulties, we instead integrate into our particle filter a model of the low dimensional manifold that these delays lie on. Our manifold model is based off of work on modeling low dimensional manifolds via random projection trees [1]. In addition, we also introduce a new weighting scheme to our particle filtering algorithm based on recent advancements in online learning. We show that our novel TDOA tracking algorithm that integrates a manifold model can greatly outperform standard particle filters on this audio tracking task.

  13. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  14. Video salient event classification using audio features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchs, Silvia; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Fiori, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work is to detect the events in video sequences that are salient with respect to the audio signal. In particular, we focus on the audio analysis of a video, with the goal of finding which are the significant features to detect audio-salient events. In our work we have extracted the audio tracks from videos of different sport events. For each video, we have manually labeled the salient audio-events using the binary markings. On each frame, features in both time and frequency domains have been considered. These features have been used to train different classifiers: Classification and Regression Trees, Support Vector Machine, and k-Nearest Neighbor. The classification performances are reported in terms of confusion matrices.

  15. Stego-audio Using Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Santhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of digital multimedia applications, the secure data transmission becomes the main issue in data communication system. So the multimedia data hiding techniques have been developed to ensure the secured data transfer. Steganography is an art of hiding a secret message within an image/audio/video file in such a way that the secret message cannot be perceived by hacker/intruder. In this study, we use RSA encryption algorithm to encrypt the message and Genetic Algorithm (GA to encode the message in the audio file. This study presents a method to access the negative audio bytes and includes the negative audio bytes in the message encoding and position embedding process. This increases the capacity of encoding message in the audio file. The use of GA operators in Genetic Algorithm reduces the noise distortions.

  16. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Study on Leakage Audio Detector for High Voltage Switch Cabinet Based on ZigBee Technology%基于ZigBee的高压开关柜漏电音频检测仪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱品昌; 王芳; 袁秀平; 倪继锋; 茅红伟

    2011-01-01

    ZigBee wireless communication technology was introduced. The current automatic protection function of high voltage switch cabinet was analyzed. A design concept of high voltage switch cabinet's leakage audio detector was proposed based on ZigBee technology. The design of wireless communication module was completed which met the using requirements of substation. The design improves the security and reliability of leakage detection and protection system of substation high voltage switch cabinet, and it has a certain application prospect.%介绍了ZigBee无线通信技术,分析了现有变电站高压开关柜的自动保护功能,提出一种基于ZigBee技术的高压开关柜高压漏电音频检测仪设计构想,完成了适用于变电站使用要求的无线通信模块设计.该设计提高了变电站高压开关柜高压漏电检测与防护系统的安全性和可靠性,具有一定的应用前景.

  18. High Quality Data for Grid Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Draxl, Caroline; Sengupta, Manajit; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-01-22

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. The existing electric grid infrastructure in the US in particular poses significant limitations on wind power expansion. In this presentation we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets are presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. The need for high-resolution weather data pushes modeling towards finer scales and closer synchronization. We also present how we anticipate such datasets developing in the future, their benefits, and the challenges with using and disseminating such large amounts of data.

  19. SNR-adaptive stream weighting for audio-MES ASR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2008-08-01

    Myoelectric signals (MESs) from the speaker's mouth region have been successfully shown to improve the noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers (ASRs), thus promising to extend their usability in implementing noise-robust ASR. In the recognition system presented herein, extracted audio and facial MES features were integrated by a decision fusion method, where the likelihood score of the audio-MES observation vector was given by a linear combination of class-conditional observation log-likelihoods of two classifiers, using appropriate weights. We developed a weighting process adaptive to SNRs. The main objective of the paper involves determining the optimal SNR classification boundaries and constructing a set of optimum stream weights for each SNR class. These two parameters were determined by a method based on a maximum mutual information criterion. Acoustic and facial MES data were collected from five subjects, using a 60-word vocabulary. Four types of acoustic noise including babble, car, aircraft, and white noise were acoustically added to clean speech signals with SNR ranging from -14 to 31 dB. The classification accuracy of the audio ASR was as low as 25.5%. Whereas, the classification accuracy of the MES ASR was 85.2%. The classification accuracy could be further improved by employing the proposed audio-MES weighting method, which was as high as 89.4% in the case of babble noise. A similar result was also found for the other types of noise.

  20. Possible technical solutions to reduce energy consumption in audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K.; Andersen, M.A.E.

    1999-07-01

    In common audio products nearly all the supplied power is dissipated as heat. The major consumers are with almost no exception the power supply and the audio amplifier. This paper is divided in two parts, concentrating on typical efficiency measures for the concepts of today and the possibly technical solutions, by which the overall efficiency can be considerably improved in the future. Traditional power supplies are made using a transformer operating on the mains frequency followed by a linear regulator. These are bulky and the efficiency is only around 40%. Using high frequency switch mode power supplies the size of the power supply can be reduced and the efficiency can be increased to 80-90%. Construction of optimal amplifiers in regard to total energy consumption over life time, can only be accomplished by considering both the general volume control distribution, and the general spectral amplitude distribution of audio signals. The traditional efficiency measure specified at the maximum efficiency level says only very little about the real energy consumption of the audio amplifier. As an example, the theoretical efficiency for at traditional class B amplifier is 78%. Using a new efficiency measure defined on the basis of the approximate volume control distribution, an 50W amplifier example shows an overall efficiency of only 1%. In the paper possible solutions and guidelines to increase the real amplifier efficiency are given. (au)

  1. A Robust Zero-Watermarking Algorithm for Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In traditional watermarking algorithms, the insertion of watermark into the host signal inevitably introduces some perceptible quality degradation. Another problem is the inherent conflict between imperceptibility and robustness. Zero-watermarking technique can solve these problems successfully. Instead of embedding watermark, the zero-watermarking technique extracts some essential characteristics from the host signal and uses them for watermark detection. However, most of the available zero-watermarking schemes are designed for still image and their robustness is not satisfactory. In this paper, an efficient and robust zero-watermarking technique for audio signal is presented. The multiresolution characteristic of discrete wavelet transform (DWT, the energy compression characteristic of discrete cosine transform (DCT, and the Gaussian noise suppression property of higher-order cumulant are combined to extract essential features from the host audio signal and they are then used for watermark recovery. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme in terms of inaudibility, detection reliability, and robustness.

  2. Optimization of audio - ultrasonic plasma system parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    The present plasma is a special glow plasma type generated by an audio ultrasonic discharge voltage. A definite discharge frequency using a gas at a narrow band pressure creates and stabilizes this plasma type. The plasma cell is a self-extracted ion beam; it is featured with its high output intensity and its small size. The influence of the plasma column length on the output beam due to the variation of both the audio discharge frequency and the power applied to the plasma electrodes is investigated. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to put in evidence the parameters that influence the self-extracted collected ion beam and to optimize the conditions that enhance the collected ion beam. The experimental parameters studied are the nitrogen gas, the applied frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, the plasma length that varies from 8 to 14 cm, at a gas pressure of ≈ 0.25 Torr and finally the discharge power from 50 to 500 Watt. A sheet of polyethylene of 5 micrometer covers the collector electrode in order to confirm how much ions from the beam can go through the polymer and reach the collector. To diagnose the occurring events of the beam on the collector, the polymer used is analyzed by means of the FTIR and the XRF techniques. Optimization of the plasma cell parameters succeeded to enhance and to identify the parameters that influence the output ion beam and proved that its particles attaining the collector are multi-energetic.

  3. Worldwide survey of direct-to-listener digital audio delivery systems development since WARC-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Dion D.

    Each country was allocated frequency band(s) for direct-to-listener digital audio broadcasting at WARC-92. These allocations were near 1500, 2300, and 2600 MHz. In addition, some countries are encouraging the development of digital audio broadcasting services for terrestrial delivery only in the VHF bands (at frequencies from roughly 50 to 300 MHz) and in the medium-wave broadcasting band (AM band) (from roughly 0.5 to 1.7 MHz). The development activity increase was explosive. Current development, as of February 1993, as it is known to the author is summarized. The information given includes the following characteristics, as appropriate, for each planned system: coverage areas, audio quality, number of audio channels, delivery via satellite/terrestrial or both, carrier frequency bands, modulation methods, source coding, and channel coding. Most proponents claim that they will be operational in 3 or 4 years.

  4. A Bit Stream Scalable Speech/Audio Coder Combining Enhanced Regular Pulse Excitation and Parametric Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus C. den Brinker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new audio and speech broadband coding technique based on the combination of a pulse excitation coder and a standardized parametric coder, namely, MPEG-4 high-quality parametric coder. After presenting a series of enhancements to regular pulse excitation (RPE to make it suitable for the modeling of broadband signals, it is shown how pulse and parametric codings complement each other and how they can be merged to yield a layered bit stream scalable coder able to operate at different points in the quality bit rate plane. The performance of the proposed coder is evaluated in a listening test. The major result is that the extra functionality of the bit stream scalability does not come at the price of a reduced performance since the coder is competitive with standardized coders (MP3, AAC, SSC.

  5. Delivering high quality hip fracture rehabilitation: the perspective of occupational and physical therapy practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Natalie E; Lepore, Michael; Wong, Carin; Chang, Sun Hwa; Freeman, Lynn; Crum, Karen; Gillies, Heather; Nash, Paul

    2017-01-23

    The majority of post-acute hip fracture rehabilitation in the US is delivered in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Currently, there are limited guidelines that equip occupational and physical therapy practitioners with a summary of what constitutes evidence-based high quality rehabilitation. Thus, this study aimed to identify rehabilitation practitioners' perspectives on the practices that constitute high quality hip fracture rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 99 occupational and physical therapy practitioners working in SNFs in southern California. Purposive sampling of facilities was conducted to capture variation in key characteristics known to impact care delivery for this patient population (e.g., financial resources, staffing, and patient case-mix). Questions aimed to elicit practitioners' perspectives on high quality hip fracture rehabilitation practices. Each session was audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were systematically analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Seven themes emerged: objectives of care; first 72 h; positioning, pain, and precautions; use of standardized assessments; episode of care practices; facilitating insight into progress; and interdisciplinary collaboration. Clinical guidelines are critical tools to facilitate clinical decision-making and achieve desired patient outcomes. The findings of this study highlight the practitioners' perspective on what constitutes high quality hip fracture rehabilitation. This work provides critical information to advance the development of stakeholder-driven rehabilitation clinical guidelines. Future research is needed to verify the findings from other stakeholders (e.g., patients), ensure the alignment of our findings with current evidence, and develop measures for evaluating their delivery and relationship to desired outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation This study highlights occupational and physiotherapy therapy practitioners' perspectives on the cumulative best

  6. Real-Time Transmission and Storage of Video, Audio, and Health Data in Emergency and Home Care Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Ivano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the availability of bandwidth for wireless links, network integration, and the computational power on fixed and mobile platforms at affordable costs allows nowadays for the handling of audio and video data, their quality making them suitable for medical application. These information streams can support both continuous monitoring and emergency situations. According to this scenario, the authors have developed and implemented the mobile communication system which is described in this paper. The system is based on ITU-T H.323 multimedia terminal recommendation, suitable for real-time data/video/audio and telemedical applications. The audio and video codecs, respectively, H.264 and G723.1, were implemented and optimized in order to obtain high performance on the system target processors. Offline media streaming storage and retrieval functionalities were supported by integrating a relational database in the hospital central system. The system is based on low-cost consumer technologies such as general packet radio service (GPRS and wireless local area network (WLAN or WiFi for lowband data/video transmission. Implementation and testing were carried out for medical emergency and telemedicine application. In this paper, the emergency case study is described.

  7. Real-Time Transmission and Storage of Video, Audio, and Health Data in Emergency and Home Care Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Stagnaro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the availability of bandwidth for wireless links, network integration, and the computational power on fixed and mobile platforms at affordable costs allows nowadays for the handling of audio and video data, their quality making them suitable for medical application. These information streams can support both continuous monitoring and emergency situations. According to this scenario, the authors have developed and implemented the mobile communication system which is described in this paper. The system is based on ITU-T H.323 multimedia terminal recommendation, suitable for real-time data/video/audio and telemedical applications. The audio and video codecs, respectively, H.264 and G723.1, were implemented and optimized in order to obtain high performance on the system target processors. Offline media streaming storage and retrieval functionalities were supported by integrating a relational database in the hospital central system. The system is based on low-cost consumer technologies such as general packet radio service (GPRS and wireless local area network (WLAN or WiFi for lowband data/video transmission. Implementation and testing were carried out for medical emergency and telemedicine application. In this paper, the emergency case study is described.

  8. Audio-Visual Classification of Sports Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a method for classification of sports types from combined audio and visual features ex- tracted from thermal video. From audio Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are extracted, and PCA are applied to reduce the feature space to 10 dimensions. From the visual modality...... short trajectories are constructed to rep- resent the motion of players. From these, four motion fea- tures are extracted and combined directly with audio fea- tures for classification. A k-nearest neighbour classifier is applied for classification of 180 1-minute video sequences from three sports types...

  9. Audio-Biofeedback training for posture and balance in Patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijlstra Wiebren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD suffer from dysrhythmic and disturbed gait, impaired balance, and decreased postural responses. These alterations lead to falls, especially as the disease progresses. Based on the observation that postural control improved in patients with vestibular dysfunction after audio-biofeedback training, we tested the feasibility and effects of this training modality in patients with PD. Methods Seven patients with PD were included in a pilot study comprised of a six weeks intervention program. The training was individualized to each patient's needs and was delivered using an audio-biofeedback (ABF system with headphones. The training was focused on improving posture, sit-to-stand abilities, and dynamic balance in various positions. Non-parametric statistics were used to evaluate training effects. Results The ABF system was well accepted by all participants with no adverse events reported. Patients declared high satisfaction with the training. A significant improvement of balance, as assessed by the Berg Balance Scale, was observed (improvement of 3% p = 0.032, and a trend in the Timed up and go test (improvement of 11%; p = 0.07 was also seen. In addition, the training appeared to have a positive influence on psychosocial aspects of the disease as assessed by the Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire (PDQ-39 and the level of depression as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Conclusions This is, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that audio-biofeedback training for patients with PD is feasible and is associated with improvements of balance and several psychosocial aspects.

  10. 音频大地电磁法在地下水质评价中的应用%THE APPLICATION OF THE AUDIO MAGNETOTELLURIC METHOD TO THE ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高敬语; 谭嘉言; 朱占升; 张强; 林昌洪

    2013-01-01

    The audio magnetotelluric method has been widely used in the field of groundwater exploration both in China and abroad.In this paper,the groundwater exploration in a certain area of Northwest China was taken as an example.The theoretical basis of the meth-od was elaborated and its application effect was discussed.As the equipment of audio magnetotelluric method is relatively light in weight,the exploration depth is relatively large,and hence the results are fairly satisfactory.Therefore this technology has a broad ap-plication prospect in groundwater exploration.%以西北某区的地下水勘查为例,对音频大地电磁法的野外工作方法技术作了较详细的介绍,并对其应用效果进行分析。音频大地电磁法因其装备相对轻便,勘探深度相对较大,应用效果良好,在地下水勘查中有着广泛的应用前景。

  11. High Quality Silica Bricks for Glass Melting Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification, technical requirements, test method, inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation,storage and quality certification of high quality silica bricks for glass melting furnace.

  12. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shikha Kabra; Ritika Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    ...), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality...

  13. APPLICATION OF PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION FOR AUDIO-VISUAL SPEECH PROCESSING AND MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of lip region image reconstruction from speech signal by means of Partial Least Squares regression. Such problems arise in connection with development of audio-visual speech processing methods. Audio-visual speech consists of acoustic and visual components (called modalities. Applications of audio-visual speech processing methods include joint modeling of voice and lips’ movement dynamics, synchronization of audio and video streams, emotion recognition, liveness detection. Method. Partial Least Squares regression was applied to solve the posed problem. This method extracts components of initial data with high covariance. These components are used to build regression model. Advantage of this approach lies in the possibility of achieving two goals: identification of latent interrelations between initial data components (e.g. speech signal and lip region image and approximation of initial data component as a function of another one. Main Results. Experimental research on reconstruction of lip region images from speech signal was carried out on VidTIMIT audio-visual speech database. Results of the experiment showed that Partial Least Squares regression is capable of solving reconstruction problem. Practical Significance. Obtained findings give the possibility to assert that Partial Least Squares regression is successfully applicable for solution of vast variety of audio-visual speech processing problems: from synchronization of audio and video streams to liveness detection.

  14. Impact of audio narrated animation on students' understanding and learning environment based on gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrudin, Ajeng Ratih; Setiawan, Wawan; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    This study is titled the impact of audio narrated animation on students' understanding in learning humanrespiratory system based on gender. This study was conducted in eight grade of junior high school. This study aims to investigate the difference of students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation. Research method that is used is quasy experiment with matching pre-test post-test comparison group design. The procedures of study are: (1) preliminary study and learning habituation using audio narrated animation; (2) implementation of learning using audio narrated animation and taking data; (3) analysis and discussion. The result of analysis shows that there is significant difference on students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation, both in general and specifically in achieving learning indicators. The discussion related to the impact of audio narrated animation, gender characteristics, and constructivist learning environment. It can be concluded that there is significant difference of students' understanding at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratory system using audio narrated animation. Additionally, based on interpretation of students' respond, there is the difference increment of agreement level in learning environment.

  15. A SELF PROCESS IMPROVEMENT FOR ACHIEVING HIGH SOFTWARE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. SHASHANK.D.JOSHI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality has been one of the most important factors in judging any product. Quality means “a degree or grade of excellence or worth”. Quality is a term that is usually described using adjectives. Quality has several attributes to it, some of which can be quantified using metrics. These attributes such as usability, portability, security, performance, reliability etc have different importance in different projects. Different software quality assurance methods & practices have been used in different software projects to attain the true value. Quality is an attribute which is a distinct feature and it differs with people’s perception. Achieving high software quality involves measurement of software metrics and optimization based on estimated values. As the software systems grow larger, complexity ofdesign and implementation increases, and this in turn is more prone to defects and hence directly affect the quality of the systems. However, in any software project, high quality is always desirable, and many projects have specific quality requirements. Achieving high software quality involves measurement of software metrics and optimization based on estimated values. Developing high quality software is governed by factors such as people, process, technology and cost. This paper attempts to present a novel approach towards achieving high software quality in various kinds of projects under given constraints.

  16. Audio Indexing on the Web: a Preliminary Study of Some Audio Descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Parlangeau-Vallès, Nathalie; Farinas, Jérôme; Fohr, Dominique; Illina, Irina; Magrin-Chagnolleau, Ivan; Mella, Odile; PINQUIER, Julien; Rouas, Jean-Luc; Sénac, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; The "Invisible Web" is composed of documents which can not be currently accessed by Web search engines, because they have a dynamic URL or are not textual, like video or audio documents. For audio documents, one solution is automatic indexing. It consists in finding good descriptors of audio documents which can be used as indexes for archiving and search. This paper presents an overview and recent results of th...

  17. Audio watermarking for live performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryuki

    2003-06-01

    Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digitally stored content. Using real-time watermark embedding, its coverage can be extended to live broadcasts and live performances. In general, a conventional embedding algorithm receives a host signal (HS) and outputs the summation of the HS and a watermark signal (WS). However, when applied to real-time embedding, there are two problems: (1) delay of the HS, and (2) possible interruption of the broadcast. To solve these problems, we propose a watermark generation algorithm that outputs only a WS, and a system composition method in which a mixer outside the computer mixes the WS generated by the algorithm and the HS. In addition, we propose a new composition method "sonic watermarking." In this composition method, the sound of the HS and the sound of the WS are played separately by two speakers, and the sounds are mixed in the air. Using this composition method, it would be possible to generate a watermarking sound in a concerto hall so that the watermark could be detected from content recorded by audience members who have recording devices at their seats. We report on the results of experiments and discuss the merits and flaws of various real-time watermarking composition methods.

  18. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  19. Presence and the utility of audio spatialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    performance by varying the spatial fidelity of the audio independently of its relevance to performance on the search task that subjects were to perform. This was achieved by having conditions in which subjects searched for a music-playing radio (an active sound source) and having conditions in which......The primary concern of this paper is whether the utility of audio spatialization, as opposed to the fidelity of audio spatialization, impacts presence. An experiment is reported that investigates the presence-performance relationship by decoupling spatial audio fidelity (realism) from task...... the playing radio would be stationary (a passive sound source) while subjects searched for some other object. Independent of this, the music emitted by the radio would be either fully spatialized or directional but nonattenuated. Findings include that for subjects searching for the active sound source, being...

  20. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  1. Definición de audio

    OpenAIRE

    Montañez, Luis A.; Cabrera, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Descripción del significado de Audio como objeto de estudio por distintos autores, y su diferenciación con el significado de Sonido. De esta forma se define Audio como una señal eléctrica con características similares en su forma de onda en comparación a la de una señal sonora, teniendo en cuenta la señal sonora corresponde a presión en u medio físico, mientras que la señal de Audio es una tensión o voltaje definida como señal análoga. En este orden de ideas, el Audio se concibe como una seña...

  2. Augmenting Environmental Interaction in Audio Feedback Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Audio feedback is defined as a positive feedback of acoustic signals where an audio input and output form a loop, and may be utilized artistically. This article presents new context-based controls over audio feedback, leading to the generation of desired sonic behaviors by enriching the influence of existing acoustic information such as room response and ambient noise. This ecological approach to audio feedback emphasizes mutual sonic interaction between signal processing and the acoustic environment. Mappings from analyses of the received signal to signal-processing parameters are designed to emphasize this specificity as an aesthetic goal. Our feedback system presents four types of mappings: approximate analyses of room reverberation to tempo-scale characteristics, ambient noise to amplitude and two different approximations of resonances to timbre. These mappings are validated computationally and evaluated experimentally in different acoustic conditions.

  3. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Multimedia

    Sierra Moral, R

    2009-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  4. Audio Mining with emphasis on Music Genre Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2004-01-01

    in searching / retrieving audio effectively is needed. Currently, search engines such as e.g. Google, AltaVista etc. do not search into audio files, but uses either the textual information attached to the audio file or the textual information around the audio. Also in the hearing aid industries around...

  5. High Rates of Pregnancy among Vocational School Students: Results of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Survey in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Kilmarx, Peter H.; van Griensven, Frits; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Limpakarnjanarat, Khanchi; Uthaiworavit, Wat

    2003-01-01

    Examined prevalence of and factors associated with pregnancy and abortion among vocation school students in northern Thailand. Age, current contraceptive use, early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual coercion were associated with self or partner pregnancy. High rates of pregnancy and abortion indicate the need for…

  6. Audio description as an accessibility enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cláudia Susana Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Audio description for the blind and visually-impaired has been around since people have described what is seen. Throughout time, it has evolved and developed in different contexts, starting with daily life, moving into the cinema and television, then across other performing arts, museums and galleries, historical sites and public places. Audio description is above all an issue of accessibility and of providing visually-impaired people with the same rights to have access to culture, e...

  7. Adaptive audio watermarking based on SNR in localized regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-min; ZHUANG Yue-ting; WU Fei; PAN Yun-he

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a novel localized audio watermarking scheme based on signal to noise ratio (SNR) to determine a scaling parameter α is proposed. The basic idea is to embed watermark in selected high inflexion regions, and the intensity of embedded watermarks are modified by adaptively adjusting α. As these high inflexion local regions usually correspond to music edges like sound of percussion instruments, explosion or transition of mixed music, which represent the music rhythm or tempo and are very important to human auditory perception, the embedded watermark is especially expected to escape the distortions caused by time domain synchronization attacks. Taking advantage of localization and SNR, the method shows strong robustness against common problems in audio signal processing, random cropping, time scale modification, etc.

  8. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA AUDIO DALAM PEMBELAJARAN STENOGRAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Martono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study is to know the effectivenes of using audio media in stenografi typing learning. The population  of this research was 30 students that divided into two groups; experimental and controlled group consisted of 15 students. Based on the first score in stenografi subject that the two groups have the same abillity but they were given different treatment. For experimental group, they got a treatment of audio media whereas the controlled group didn’t use audio media. The technique of collecting data were documentation technique and experimental tecnique. The instrument was stenografi speed typing. The final result showed that the using of audio media was more effective and can improve the study result better than controlled group. This result was expected to  give significance for the stenografi teachers to apply audio media in learning and input for the students that stenografi was not a memorizing subject but it was a skill subject that must be trained by joining the lesson. Thus, people can use stenografi typing to record each talk. Keywords: Learning, Audio Media, Stenografi

  9. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA AUDIO DALAM PEMBELAJARAN STENOGRAFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Martono

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study is to know the effectivenes of using audio media in stenografi typing learning. The population  of this research was 30 students that divided into two groups; experimental and controlled group consisted of 15 students. Based on the first score in stenografi subject that the two groups have the same abillity but they were given different treatment. For experimental group, they got a treatment of audio media whereas the controlled group didn’t use audio media. The technique of collecting data were documentation technique and experimental tecnique. The instrument was stenografi speed typing. The final result showed that the using of audio media was more effective and can improve the study result better than controlled group. This result was expected to  give significance for the stenografi teachers to apply audio media in learning and input for the students that stenografi was not a memorizing subject but it was a skill subject that must be trained by joining the lesson. Thus, people can use stenografi typing to record each talk. Keywords: Learning, Audio Media, Stenografi

  10. Design and implementation of an audio indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyong; Li, Zhao; Li, Biqing

    2017-04-01

    This page proposed an audio indicator which designed by using C9014, LED by operational amplifier level indicator, the decimal count/distributor of CD4017. The experimental can control audibly neon and holiday lights through the signal. Input audio signal after C9014 composed of operational amplifier for power amplifier, the adjust potentiometer extraction amplification signal input voltage CD4017 distributors make its drive to count, then connect the LED display running situation of the circuit. This simple audio indicator just use only U1 and can produce two colors LED with the audio signal tandem come pursuit of the running effect, from LED display the running of the situation takes can understand the general audio signal. The variation in the audio and the frequency of the signal and the corresponding level size. In this light can achieve jump to change, slowly, atlas, lighting four forms, used in home, hotel, discos, theater, advertising and other fields, and a wide range of USES, rU1h life in a modern society.

  11. Robust Watermarking Using Compressed Sensing Framework with Application to MP3 Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Waleed Fakhr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a watermark embedding and recovery technique is proposed based on the compressed sensing framework. Both the watermark and the host signal are sparse, each in its own domain. In recovery, the L1-minimization is used to recover the watermark and the host signal almost perfectly in clean conditions. The proposed technique is tested on MP3 audio compression-decompression attack and additive noise attack. Bit error rates are compared with standard spread spectrum embedding. The proposed technique is implemented for both time domain and frequency domain embedding with a unified approach. The WalshHadamard transform (WHT, the discrete cosine transform (DCT and the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT are compared in the host signal sparsifying process. Significant performance improvements in all tested conditions are achieved against the spread spectrum embedding. A payload as high as 172bps in additive noise attacks, 86bps in 128kbps MP3 attacks and 11bps in 64kbps MP3 attacks are achieved at small bit error rates and acceptable MP3 audio signal quality.

  12. Robust Watermarking Using Compressed Sensing Framework with Application to MP3 Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Waleed Fakhr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a watermark embedding and recovery technique is proposed based on the compressed sensingframework. Both the watermark and the host signal are sparse, each in its own domain. In recovery, theL1-minimization is used to recover the watermark and the host signal almost perfectly in clean conditions.The proposed technique is tested on MP3 audio compression-decompression attack and additive noiseattack. Bit error rates are compared with standard spread spectrum embedding. The proposed technique isimplemented for both time domain and frequency domain embedding with a unified approach. The Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT, the discrete cosine transform (DCT and the Karhunen-Loeve transform(KLT are compared in the host signal sparsifying process. Significant performance improvements in alltested conditions are achieved against the spread spectrum embedding. A payload as high as 172bps inadditive noise attacks, 86bps in 128kbps MP3 attacks and 11bps in 64kbps MP3 attacks are achieved atsmall bit error rates and acceptable MP3 audio signal quality.

  13. Optimized Audio Classification and Segmentation Algorithm by Using Ensemble Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saadia Zahid; Fawad Hussain; Muhammad Rashid; Muhammad Haroon Yousaf; Hafiz Adnan Habib

    2015-01-01

    Audio segmentation is a basis for multimedia content analysis which is the most important and widely used application nowadays. An optimized audio classification and segmentation algorithm is presented in this paper that segments a superimposed audio stream on the basis of its content into four main audio types: pure-speech, music, environment sound, and silence. An algorithm is proposed that preserves important audio content and reduces the misclassification rate without using large amount o...

  14. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Haleem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF nitrogen gas discharge (10 – 100 kHz is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ∼ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 – 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  15. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage Bi...

  16. Simulation of High Quality Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kortbek, Jacob; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates if the influence on image quality using physical transducers can be simulated with an sufficient accuracy to reveal system performance. The influence is investigated in a comparative study between Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation (SASB) and Dynamic Receive Focus...

  17. High Fidelity Audio Playback Attack Forensics Algorithm and Aimulation%高保真录音回放攻击取证算法与仿真验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧

    2015-01-01

    针对语音认证系统中高保真录音回放攻击问题,开展了录音回放攻击取证的研究,论述了基于信道模式噪声和回放语音MFCC特征参数提取的取证算法;通过labview软件编程进行仿真验证,提取了疑似回放攻击语音和原始语音信道噪声差值频谱图和疑似回放语音MFCC特征值,结果表明通过提取回放语音中信道模式噪声和MFCC特征参数并设计滤波器去噪能够识别原始语音和高保真录音的差异,为语音司法鉴定和语音认证系统的设计提供了理论依据。%ABSTRACT:Aiming at the playback attack in the speech certification system,In the study of the playback attack forensics,Model is presented based on the channel noise and playback voice MFCC feature parameter extraction of forensics algorithm ,Through the labview software programming for simulation,Extract the suspected playback attack speech and original speech channel noise difference spectrum and suspected playback speech MFCC fea⁃ture values,Results show that by extracting playback speech mode noise in channel and MFCC feature parame⁃ters and design filter denoising to identify original speech differences and high-fidelity recording ,For voice judi⁃cial authentication and voice provides theory basis for the design of the authentication system.

  18. “Wrapping” X3DOM around Web Audio API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stamoulias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sound has a conceptual role in the Web3D environments, due to highly realism scenes that can provide. Lately the efforts are concentrated on the extension of the X3D/ X3DOM through spatial sound attributes. This paper presents a novel method for the introduction of spatial sound components in the X3DOM framework, based on X3D specification and Web Audio API. The proposed method incorporates the introduction of enhanced sound nodes for X3DOM which are derived by the implementation of the X3D standard components, enriched with accessional features of Web Audio API. Moreover, several examples-scenarios developed for the evaluation of our approach. The implemented examples established the achievability of new registered nodes in X3DOM, for spatial sound characteristics in Web3D virtual worlds.

  19. Exploiting Acoustic Similarity of Propagating Paths for Audio Signal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Bin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind signal separation can easily find its position in audio applications where mutually independent sources need to be separated from their microphone mixtures while both room acoustics and sources are unknown. However, the conventional separation algorithms can hardly be implemented in real time due to the high computational complexity. The computational load is mainly caused by either direct or indirect estimation of thousands of acoustic parameters. Aiming at the complexity reduction, in this paper, the acoustic paths are investigated through an acoustic similarity index (ASI. Then a new mixing model is proposed. With closely spaced microphones (5–10 cm apart, the model relieves the computational load of the separation algorithm by reducing the number and length of the filters to be adjusted. To cope with real situations, a blind audio signal separation algorithm (BLASS is developed on the proposed model. BLASS only uses the second-order statistics (SOS and performs efficiently in frequency domain.

  20. Random Numbers Generated from Audio and Video Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Te Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Random numbers are very useful in simulation, chaos theory, game theory, information theory, pattern recognition, probability theory, quantum mechanics, statistics, and statistical mechanics. The random numbers are especially helpful in cryptography. In this work, the proposed random number generators come from white noise of audio and video (A/V sources which are extracted from high-resolution IPCAM, WEBCAM, and MPEG-1 video files. The proposed generator applied on video sources from IPCAM and WEBCAM with microphone would be the true random number generator and the pseudorandom number generator when applied on video sources from MPEG-1 video file. In addition, when applying NIST SP 800-22 Rev.1a 15 statistics tests on the random numbers generated from the proposed generator, around 98% random numbers can pass 15 statistical tests. Furthermore, the audio and video sources can be found easily; hence, the proposed generator is a qualified, convenient, and efficient random number generator.

  1. Lost Audio Packets Steganography: The First Practical Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents first experimental results for an IP telephony-based steganographic method called LACK (Lost Audio PaCKets steganography). This method utilizes the fact that in typical multimedia communication protocols like RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol), excessively delayed packets are not used for the reconstruction of transmitted data at the receiver, i.e. these packets are considered useless and discarded. The results presented in this paper were obtained basing on a functional LACK prototype and show the method's impact on the quality of voice transmission. Achievable steganographic bandwidth for the different IP telephony codecs is also calculated.

  2. Sinusoidal Analysis-Synthesis of Audio Using Perceptual Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Painter

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for the selection of sinusoidal components for use in compact representations of narrowband audio. The method consists of ranking and selecting the most perceptually relevant sinusoids. The idea behind the method is to maximize the matching between the auditory excitation pattern associated with the original signal and the corresponding auditory excitation pattern associated with the modeled signal that is being represented by a small set of sinusoidal parameters. The proposed component-selection methodology is shown to outperform the maximum signal-to-mask ratio selection strategy in terms of subjective quality.

  3. A listening test system for automotive audio - listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Hegarty, Patrick; Christensen, Flemming;

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in order to validate an experimental procedure to perform listening tests on car audio systems in a simulation of the car environment in a laboratory, using binaural synthesis with head-tracking. Seven experts and 40 non-expert listeners rated a range...... of stimuli for 15 sound-quality attributes developed by the experts. This paper presents a comparison between the attribute ratings from the two groups of participants. Overall preference of the non-experts was also measured using direct ratings as well as indirect scaling based on paired comparisons...

  4. Emotion-based Music Rretrieval on a Well-reduced Audio Feature Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Chua, Bee Yong; Nanopoulos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    Music expresses emotion. A number of audio extracted features have influence on the perceived emotional expression of music. These audio features generate a high-dimensional space, on which music similarity retrieval can be performed effectively, with respect to human perception of the music......-emotion. However, the real-time systems that retrieve music over large music databases, can achieve order of magnitude performance increase, if applying multidimensional indexing over a dimensionally reduced audio feature space. To meet this performance achievement, in this paper, extensive studies are conducted...... on a number of dimensionality reduction algorithms, including both classic and novel approaches. The paper clearly envisages which dimensionality reduction techniques on the considered audio feature space, can preserve in average the accuracy of the emotion-based music retrieval....

  5. Biochemistry on the Media: daily science in audio and video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Melo et al

    2014-08-01

    (1996, science popularization can be done by a lot of communication vehicles. Corroborating, MEDEIROS (2005 tells that “the science makes knowledge and the journalism strives in disseminate it”. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the end of courses, questionary has been applied to evaluate the material's quality and the applicability to students, showing that 83,3% of teachers thought excelent the quality of the material offered and 73,3% thought the content applicable or partially applicable. CONCLUSION: The box is a good material and its content is aplicable to high school. We can offer a vehicle for science popularization, and we can rouse curiosity and critical sense on the public, making it an effective way to divulge the Biochemistry. Thus, the album allows that the educational process can be done in a playful manner. Key-words: radio, television, spots, audio, video. Biochemistry Education. Sponsors: FAPEMIG and National Institute of Science and Technology in Plant-Pest Interactions (NISTPPI   (* Espaço Ciência is a project developed by Journalism’s students from UFV. In this project, they have done television and radio programs with scientific themes to divulgate on College’s Radio and TV.     ANNEXES:     Visual Elements:   Below, the art made to illustrate the book and the cover’s box.

  6. Production of high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of producing high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts was evaluated in various ways. With this, a contribution has been made to a more efficient usage of natural resources while yielding a high-quality product. Crude oil extracted from herring byproducts is relativ

  7. Audio Journal in an ELT Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Aysin Siyli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that one of the most serious problems students of English as a foreign language face is their deprivation of practicing the language outside the classroom. Generally, the classroom is the sole environment where they can practice English, which by its nature does not provide rich setting to help students develop their competence by putting the language into practice. Motivated by this need, this descriptive study investigated the impact of audio dialog journals on students’ speaking skills. It also aimed to gain insights into students’ and teacher’s opinions on keeping audio dialog journals outside the class. The data of the study developed from student and teacher audio dialog journals, student written feedbacks, interviews held with the students, and teacher observations. The descriptive analysis of the data revealed that audio dialog journals served a number of functions ranging from cognitive to linguistic, from pedagogical to psychological, and social. The findings and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed in detail. Key words: audio dialog journal, speaking skills, and student-teacher communication

  8. The perceptual influence of the cabin acoustics on the reproduced sound of a car audio system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, a sensory evaluation methodology [Lokki et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 3148–2161 (2012)] was employed to identify the most relevant attributes that characterize the influence of the physical properties of a car cabin on the reproduced sound field. A series of in-situ measurements of a high......A significant element of audio evaluation experiments is the availability of verbal descriptors that can accurately characterize the perceived auditory events. In terms of room acoustics, understanding the perceptual effects of the physical properties of the space would enable a better...... understanding of its acoustical qualities, and stipulate perceptually relevant ways to compensate for the subsequent degradations. In contrast to concert halls, perceptual evaluation of everyday-sized and less reverberant spaces has been a challenging task, and literature on the subject is limited...

  9. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  10. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  11. Comparison of Linear Prediction Models for Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available While linear prediction (LP has become immensely popular in speech modeling, it does not seem to provide a good approach for modeling audio signals. This is somewhat surprising, since a tonal signal consisting of a number of sinusoids can be perfectly predicted based on an (all-pole LP model with a model order that is twice the number of sinusoids. We provide an explanation why this result cannot simply be extrapolated to LP of audio signals. If noise is taken into account in the tonal signal model, a low-order all-pole model appears to be only appropriate when the tonal components are uniformly distributed in the Nyquist interval. Based on this observation, different alternatives to the conventional LP model can be suggested. Either the model should be changed to a pole-zero, a high-order all-pole, or a pitch prediction model, or the conventional LP model should be preceded by an appropriate frequency transform, such as a frequency warping or downsampling. By comparing these alternative LP models to the conventional LP model in terms of frequency estimation accuracy, residual spectral flatness, and perceptual frequency resolution, we obtain several new and promising approaches to LP-based audio modeling.

  12. Comparison of Linear Prediction Models for Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Waterschoot Toon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While linear prediction (LP has become immensely popular in speech modeling, it does not seem to provide a good approach for modeling audio signals. This is somewhat surprising, since a tonal signal consisting of a number of sinusoids can be perfectly predicted based on an (all-pole LP model with a model order that is twice the number of sinusoids. We provide an explanation why this result cannot simply be extrapolated to LP of audio signals. If noise is taken into account in the tonal signal model, a low-order all-pole model appears to be only appropriate when the tonal components are uniformly distributed in the Nyquist interval. Based on this observation, different alternatives to the conventional LP model can be suggested. Either the model should be changed to a pole-zero, a high-order all-pole, or a pitch prediction model, or the conventional LP model should be preceded by an appropriate frequency transform, such as a frequency warping or downsampling. By comparing these alternative LP models to the conventional LP model in terms of frequency estimation accuracy, residual spectral flatness, and perceptual frequency resolution, we obtain several new and promising approaches to LP-based audio modeling.

  13. Effective multidisciplinary working: the key to high-quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoro, Samuel

    This article explores multidisciplinary team working, inter-disciplinary, trans-disciplinary and effective collaborative practice in order to provide high-quality patient care. It discusses different views on collaboration, some of the issues around cross-discipline and multi-agency working and concerns around promoting 'high-quality' care. It also discusses the importance of evidence-based practice in multidisciplinary teams. Issues around good-quality care, clinical governance and the audit cycle in MDTs are addressed. The article highlights the importance of the 6Cs (care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment) in MDTs if quality care is to be achieved. The article also explores advantages and limitations of multidisciplinary team working, trans-disciplinary working and inter-professional working in developing and delivering high-quality patient-centred care. Further research is needed on how clinical audits can help to improve how MDTs function in order improve the quality of service provided to clients.

  14. A study of high-quality foamed fracturing fluid properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, R.S. [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Successful stimulation and extraction of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs have created different approaches to the stimulation process. Types of treatment vary from slickwater stimulations, low dosages of polyacrylamide, conventional crosslinked, or linear gelled fluids. There has also been successful treatments in implementing a high-quality foam stimulation in some shale formations. The advantage of using a high quality foam is its reduced environmental impact as it uses very small amounts of water as compared to high-rate slickwater stimulations. However, there is little published information on high-quality fluid foam properties. In order to examine the rheological properties of high-quality foamed fracturing fluids and compare it to other fluids that are common in fracturing treatments, this paper presented a study that examined the fluid characteristics of high-quality foams as compared to typical 50-70 quality foams. The study demonstrated trends of viscosity, foam stability and temperature sensitivity of high-quality foams using xanthan, guar-based gelling agents and viscoelastic base fluids. The paper described the test equipment and procedures, as well as the test results. The tests using guar as the base fluid gellant demonstrated increasing viscosity with increased foam quality. 2 tabs., 22 figs.

  15. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user.

  16. Near-field Localization of Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    Localization of audio sources using microphone arrays has been an important research problem for more than two decades. Many traditional methods for solving the problem are based on a two-stage procedure: first, information about the audio source, such as time differences-of-arrival (TDOAs......) and gain ratios-of-arrival (GROAs) between microphones is estimated, and, second, this knowledge is used to localize the audio source. These methods often have a low computational complexity, but this comes at the cost of a limited estimation accuracy. Therefore, we propose a new localization approach......, where the desired signal is modeled using TDOAs and GROAs, which are determined by the source location. This facilitates the derivation of one-stage, maximum likelihood methods under a white Gaussian noise assumption that is applicable in both near- and far-field scenarios. Simulations show...

  17. Audio Description as a Pedagogical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Kleege

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio description is the process of translating visual information into words for people who are blind or have low vision. Typically such description has focused on films, museum exhibitions, images and video on the internet, and live theater. Because it allows people with visual impairments to experience a variety of cultural and educational texts that would otherwise be inaccessible, audio description is a mandated aspect of disability inclusion, although it remains markedly underdeveloped and underutilized in our classrooms and in society in general. Along with increasing awareness of disability, audio description pushes students to practice close reading of visual material, deepen their analysis, and engage in critical discussions around the methodology, standards and values, language, and role of interpretation in a variety of academic disciplines. We outline a few pedagogical interventions that can be customized to different contexts to develop students' writing and critical thinking skills through guided description of visual material.

  18. Comparing Learning Gains: Audio Versus Text-based Instructor Communication in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Dominique

    Though blended course audio feedback has been associated with several measures of course satisfaction at the postsecondary and graduate levels compared to text feedback, it may take longer to prepare and positive results are largely unverified in K-12 literature. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the time investment and learning impact of audio communications with 228 secondary students in a blended online learning biology unit at a central Florida public high school. A short, individualized audio message regarding the student's progress was given to each student in the audio group; similar text-based messages were given to each student in the text-based group on the same schedule; a control got no feedback. A pretest and posttest were employed to measure learning gains in the three groups. To compare the learning gains in two types of feedback with each other and to no feedback, a controlled, randomized, experimental design was implemented. In addition, the creation and posting of audio and text feedback communications were timed in order to assess whether audio feedback took longer to produce than text only feedback. While audio feedback communications did take longer to create and post, there was no difference between learning gains as measured by posttest scores when student received audio, text-based, or no feedback. Future studies using a similar randomized, controlled experimental design are recommended to verify these results and test whether the trend holds in a broader range of subjects, over different time frames, and using a variety of assessment types to measure student learning.

  19. Mobile video-to-audio transducer and motion detection for sensory substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eAmbard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-auditory sensory substitution systems are augmented reality devices that translate a video stream into an audio stream in order to help the blind in daily tasks requiring visuo-spatial information. In this work, we present both a new mobile device and a transcoding method specifically designed to sonify moving objects. Frame differencing is used to extract spatial features from the video stream and two-dimensional spatial information is converted into audio cues using pitch, interaural time difference and interaural level difference. Using numerical methods, we attempt to reconstruct visuo-spatial information based on audio signals generated from various video stimuli. We show that despite a contrasted visual background and a highly lossy encoding method, the information in the audio signal is sufficient to allow object localization, object trajectory evaluation, object approach detection, and spatial separation of multiple objects. We also show that this type of audio signal can be interpreted by human users by asking ten subjects to discriminate trajectories based on generated audio signals.

  20. Synchronization and comparison of Lifelog audio recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We investigate concurrent ‘Lifelog’ audio recordings to locate segments from the same environment. We compare two techniques earlier proposed for pattern recognition in extended audio recordings, namely cross-correlation and a fingerprinting technique. If successful, such alignment can be used...... as a preprocessing step to select and synchronize recordings before further processing. The two methods perform similarly in classification, but fingerprinting scales better with the number of recordings, while cross-correlation can offer sample resolution synchronization. We propose and investigate the benefits...

  1. Information Security using Audio Steganography -A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important application of internet is data transmission. Unfortunately this is less secured because of advanced hacking technologies. So, for secured data transmission we make use of steganography. This is the art of hiding information where the existence of data is unknown. Any medium like music, video, text, speech, etc can be used. In this study, the selected medium is audio. This study discusses about the existing audio steganographic techniques along with their advantages and limitations. Also an algorithm implementing parity and LSB methods is proposed. This mitigates the limitations of the existing methods discussed, thus increasing security and reducing computational load and code complexity.

  2. Enhancing Navigation Skills through Audio Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2010-01-01

    We present the design, development and initial cognitive evaluation of an Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES). This software allows a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space for the purposes of training orientation and mobility skills. Our findings indicate that users feel satisfied and self-confident when interacting with the audio-based interface, and the embedded sounds allow them to correctly orient themselves and navigate within the virtual world. Furthermore, users are able to transfer spatial information acquired through virtual interactions into real world navigation and problem solving tasks.

  3. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

  4. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  5. Work environment characteristics of high-quality home health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Riggs, Jennifer S; Farag, Amany A

    2011-10-01

    This concurrent mixed-method study examines the nurse work environment of high-quality Medicare-certified home health agencies. High-quality (n=6) and low-quality (n=6) home health agencies were recruited using agency-level publicly reported patient outcomes. Direct care registered nurses (RNs) from each agency participated in a focus group and completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nurse Work Index (PES-NWI). No significant differences were found in the PES-NWI results between nurses working in high- and low-quality agencies, though nurses in high-quality agencies scored higher on all subscales. Nurses working in all the high-quality agencies identified themes of adequate staffing, supportive managers, and team work. These themes were not consistently identified in low-quality agencies. Themes of supportive managers and team work are reflective of effective leadership at the manager level. Agencies struggling to improve quality of care might consider developing their managers' leadership skills.

  6. PRODUCTION OF HIGH QUALITY LUBRICATING BASE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@High VI lubricating oil is produced in hydrocracker through hydrocracking (HDC) and hydroisome-rization reactions. In order to effectively produce high VI component, such as iso-pafaffins and monocyclic naphtenes, it is important to load suitable HDC catalysts and operate them in the appropriate reaction conditions.   Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Corporation (NMOC) and its affiliate company, Nippon Mitsubishi Petroleum Refining Company (NMPRC) reported their original HDC catalysts four years ago in this Japan-China joint se-minar in Beijing[1]. NMOC and NMPRC operate their hydrocracker both in fuel oil production mode and in lubricating oil production mode. In lubricating oil production mode, high VI lubricating oil called VHDC are produced.   In this paper, at first, the advantages of high VI lubricating oil are described. And then it is announced that NMOC and NMPRC have developed a new generation of HDC catalyst with higher cracking activity, higher middle distillate selectivity and longer life than the other commercial HDC catalysts. In addition to those properties, the catalyst is able to yield high VI lubricating oil as well.

  7. High quality tunable Brillouin optoelectronic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mahmoud H.; Hassan, Kamel M. M.; Abouelatta, Mohamed; Afifi, Abdelrahman E.

    2016-09-01

    An optical scheme to improve the quality of an RF signal is proposed. The 6 dB linewidth is reduced to sub hertz and the low frequency noise below 1 KHz is reduced about 10 dB. The scheme utilizes a Brillouin-semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) ring laser fitted with an RF intensity modulator and an APD detector. The experimental results show cavity modes with FSR of 30.57 KHz due to Brillouin fiber length of 6.6 km and 6 dB bandwidth of 780 mHz typical of Brillouin lasers. The gain of the SOA balances out most of the losses in the ring mainly that due to the RF modulator. The modulated optical signal beats at the APD. The optical loop acts as a cavity filter to the RF signal. A jitter in the cavity resonances due to temperature variations is completely eliminated from the output beat signal. There is a 10 dB increase in the phase noise at the FSR frequency and its harmonics. The setup is tested with signals generated by different sources and to frequencies up to 10 GHz, the limit of the APD. Sources with RF linewidth less than the optical FSR produces one output mode with sub-hertz line width. For larger line width signals more than one RF frequency is produced, separated by the FSR, each showing the Brillouin linewidth.

  8. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  9. Low-consumption sigma-delta DAC for audio mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Benabes, Philippe; Kielbasa, Richard

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a new Three-level D-to-A sigma delta converter for low consumption applications. The two one bit outputs of this converter can drive a loudspeaker directly without requiring passive components and with a sufficient audio quality. The global consumption is minimized by reducing the number of active states.

  10. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case

  11. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case

  12. Total quality management: A management philosophy for providing high quality construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Paul D.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is not a new concept. Only recently (within the past ten years or so) have American companies started to realize the potential of TQM as a means of ensuring high quality products and services. With this realization has come implementation in manufacturing and service companies. A commercial construction company, like any other business, must provide a top quality finished product to its customer if it intends to stay in business. TQM is one way to work to that end. This report explores the quality problems facing my fictitious construction company, which I believe are fairly typical among the commercial construction industry, existing management methods, and the TQM method to ensure top quality production. It will be shown why I believe TQM or a variation thereof is the best method for controlling the quality of products and service during the construction process. Under the philosophy of TQM, we build quality into the finished product.

  13. Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Ectocarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

    2012-03-01

    For some applications, such as genome sequencing and high-throughput genotyping with multiple markers, it is necessary to use high-quality genomic DNA. This article describes how to obtain several micrograms of high-quality, cesium chloride-purified DNA from 1 g of Ectocarpus filaments. We also recommend using DNA of this quality for quantitative RT-PCR control reactions. However, simpler, more rapid, kit-based methods are preferable for experiments that involve the treatment of large numbers of individuals, such as genotyping large populations with a small number of markers or PCR screening of large populations.

  14. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan,; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Part 21: Electronics: Applications; International audience; This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining a reduction of the OSR with an increase of the order results in considerable power savings while the audio quality is kept. For further savin...

  15. Discovering High-Quality Threaded Discussions in Online Forums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Tae Lee; Min-Chul Yang; Hae-Chang Rim

    2014-01-01

    Archives of threaded discussions generated by users in online forums and discussion boards contain valuable knowledge on various topics. However, not all threads are useful because of deliberate abuses, such as trolling and flaming, that are commonly observed in online conversations. The existence of various users with different levels of expertise also makes it difficult to assume that every discussion thread stored online contains high-quality contents. Although finding high-quality threads automatically can help both users and search engines sift through a huge amount of thread archives and make use of these potentially useful resources effectively, no previous work to our knowledge has performed a study on such task. In this paper, we propose an automatic method for distinguishing high-quality threads from low-quality ones in online discussion sites. We first suggest four different artificial measures for inducing overall quality of a thread based on ratings of its posts. We then propose two tasks involving prediction of thread quality without using post rating information. We adopt a popular machine learning framework to solve the two prediction tasks. Experimental results on a real world forum archive demonstrate that our method can significantly improve the prediction performance across all four measures of thread quality on both tasks. We also compare how different types of features derived from various aspects of threads contribute to the overall performance and investigate key features that play a crucial role in discovering high-quality threads in online discussion sites.

  16. Extracting meaning from audio signals - a machine learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression...

  17. Extracting meaning from audio signals - a machine learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression...

  18. Audio-visual materials usage preference among agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audio-visual materials usage preference among agricultural extension workers in rivers ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The use of audio-visual materials in the dissemination of agricultural ...

  19. The road to success - from high quality public services towards the high-quality public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreva, Elizabeta; Taskov, Nako

    2013-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that various quality improvement programmes in public administration have increased users' satisfaction. Yet, at the same time, mass public surveys indicate a decrease in trust in national government, Parliament and the civil service. This indicates that there is no linear relationship between service quality and trust. The perception of quality come from very specific observations of public services whereas trust refers to the government machinery in general. ...

  20. Comparative performance of wavelets and JPEG coders at high quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algazi, V. Ralph; Estes, Robert R., Jr.

    1997-04-01

    In recent work, we have examined the performance of wavelet coders using a perceptually relevant image quality metric, the picture quality scale (PQS). In that study, we considered some of the design options available with respect to choice of wavelet basis, quantizer, and method for error- free encoding of the quantized coefficients, including the EZW methodology. A specific combination of these design options provides the best trade off between performance and PQS quality. Here, we extend this comparison by evaluating the performance of JPEG and the previously chosen optimal wavelet scheme, focusing principally on the high quality range.

  1. A New Audio Watermarking Method Based on Discrete Cosine Transform with a Gray Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ibrahim Khan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many effective watermarking algorithms have been proposed and implemented for digital images anddigital video. However, a few algorithms have been proposed for audio watermarking. This is due to thefact that, human auditory system (HAS is far more complex and sensitive than human visual system (HVS.In this research work, a new method of embedding image data into the audio signal and additive audiowatermarking algorithm based on Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT domain is proposed. First, theoriginal audio is transformed into DCT domain. The DCT coefficients are divided into a fixed number ofsubsections and the energy of each subsection is calculated. Next, watermark is generated from image byimage processing algorithm. Watermarks are then embedded into selected peaks of highest energysubsection. Experimental results demonstrate that the watermark is inaudible and this algorithm is robustto common operations of digital audio signal processing, such as noise addition, re-sampling, requantization and so on. To evaluate the performance of the proposed audio watermarking method,subjective and objective quality tests including Bit Error Rate (BER and Signal to Noise ratio (SNR areconducted.

  2. Music and audio - oh how they can stress your network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, R.

    Nearly ten years ago a paper written by the Audio Engineering Society (AES)[1] made a number of interesting statements: 1. 2. The current Internet is inadequate for transmitting music and professional audio. Performance and collaboration across a distance stress beyond acceptable bounds the quality of service Audio and music provide test cases in which the bounds of the network are quickly reached and through which the defects in a network are readily perceived. Given these key points, where are we now? Have we started to solve any of the problems from the musician's point of view? What is it that musician would like to do that can cause the network so many problems? To understand this we need to appreciate that a trained musician's ears are extremely sensitive to very subtle shifts in temporal materials and localisation information. A shift of a few milliseconds can cause difficulties. So, can modern networks provide the temporal accuracy demanded at this level? The sample and bit rates needed to represent music in the digital domain is still contentious, but a general consensus in the professional world is for 96 KHz and IEEE 64-bit floating point. If this was to be run between two points on the network across 24 channels in near real time to allow for collaborative composition/production/performance, with QOS settings to allow as near to zero latency and jitter, it can be seen that the network indeed has to perform very well. Lighting the Blue Touchpaper for UK e-Science - Closing Conference of ESLEA Project The George Hotel, Edinburgh, UK 26-28 March, 200

  3. Calibration of an audio frequency noise generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1966-01-01

    A noise generator of known output is very convenient in noise measurement. At low audio frequencies, however, all devices, including noise sources, may be affected by excess noise (1/f noise). It is therefore very desirable to be able to check the spectral density of a noise source before it is u...

  4. Structuring Broadcast Audio for Information Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Gauvain

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available One rapidly expanding application area for state-of-the-art speech recognition technology is the automatic processing of broadcast audiovisual data for information access. Since much of the linguistic information is found in the audio channel, speech recognition is a key enabling technology which, when combined with information retrieval techniques, can be used for searching large audiovisual document collections. Audio indexing must take into account the specificities of audio data such as needing to deal with the continuous data stream and an imperfect word transcription. Other important considerations are dealing with language specificities and facilitating language portability. At Laboratoire d′Informatique pour la Mécanique et les Sciences de l′Ingénieur (LIMSI, broadcast news transcription systems have been developed for seven languages: English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish, and Arabic. The transcription systems have been integrated into prototype demonstrators for several application areas such as audio data mining, structuring audiovisual archives, selective dissemination of information, and topic tracking for media monitoring. As examples, this paper addresses the spoken document retrieval and topic tracking tasks.

  5. Transparency benchmarking on audio watermarks and steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana; Lang, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The evaluation of transparency plays an important role in the context of watermarking and steganography algorithms. This paper introduces a general definition of the term transparency in the context of steganography, digital watermarking and attack based evaluation of digital watermarking algorithms. For this purpose the term transparency is first considered individually for each of the three application fields (steganography, digital watermarking and watermarking algorithm evaluation). From the three results a general definition for the overall context is derived in a second step. The relevance and applicability of the definition given is evaluated in practise using existing audio watermarking and steganography algorithms (which work in time, frequency and wavelet domain) as well as an attack based evaluation suite for audio watermarking benchmarking - StirMark for Audio (SMBA). For this purpose selected attacks from the SMBA suite are modified by adding transparency enhancing measures using a psychoacoustic model. The transparency and robustness of the evaluated audio watermarking algorithms by using the original and modifid attacks are compared. The results of this paper show hat transparency benchmarking will lead to new information regarding the algorithms under observation and their usage. This information can result in concrete recommendations for modification, like the ones resulting from the tests performed here.

  6. Audio-visual integration in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, B.L.M.F. de; Vroomen, J.; Annen, L.; Masthoff, E.D.M.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of information provided simultaneously by audition and vision was studied in a group of 18 schizophrenic patients. They were compared to a control group, consisting of 12 normal adults of comparable age and education. By administering two tasks, each focusing on one aspect of audio-visua

  7. Audio-visual integration in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, B. de; Vroomen, J.; Annen, L.; Masthof, E.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2003-01-01

    Integration of information provided simultaneously by audition and vision was studied in a group of 18 schizophrenic patients. They were compared to a control group, consisting of 12 normal adults of comparable age and education. By administering two tasks, each focusing on one aspect of audio-visua

  8. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  9. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  10. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  11. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...

  12. Consuming audio: an introduction to Tweak Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    abstractAudio technology is a medium for music, and when we pay attention to it we tend to speculate about its effects on the music it transmits. By now there are well-established traditions of commentary (many of them critical) about the impact of musical reproduction on musical production.

  13. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  14. Relevant Research on Audio-Tutorial Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews two aspects of research related to audio-tutorial instructional methods. First, the learning theory of David P. Ausebel is summarized and applied to instructional procedures. Secondly, learning time for attainment of concept and knowledge levels is discussed. Concludes that studies are needed on designs based on Ausebel's theory,…

  15. Fabrication of high quality ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany) and CNI-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: m.weides@fz-juelich.de; Tillmann, K. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kohlstedt, H. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); CNI-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Material Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We present ferromagnetic Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40}/Nb Josephson junctions (SIFS) with an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier. The junction fabrication was optimized regarding junction insulation and homogeneity of current transport. Using ion-beam-etching and anodic oxidation we defined and insulated the junction mesas. The additional 2 nm thin Cu-layer below the ferromagnetic NiCu (SINFS) lowered interface roughness and ensured very homogeneous current transport. A high yield of junctional devices with j {sub c} spreads less than 2% was obtained.

  16. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  17. A Model of Distraction in an Audio-on-Audio Interference Situation with Music Program Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, J.; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.

    2015-01-01

    by a qualitative analysis of subject responses. Distraction ratings were collected for one hundred randomly created audio-on-audio interference situations with music target and interferer programs. The selected features were related to the overall loudness, loudness ratio, perceptual evaluation of audio source......There are many situations in which multiple audio programs are replayed over loudspeakers in the same acoustic environment, allowing listeners to focus on their desired target program. Where this situation is deliberately created and the different program items are centrally controlled, each...... listener can be viewed as having a personal sound zone system. In order to evaluate and optimize such situations in a perceptually relevant manner, the authors created a predictive model using the features that contribute to the distraction from unwanted sounds. Feature extraction was motivated...

  18. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    OpenAIRE

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  19. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  20. A Study of Quality of Service Communication for High-Speed Packet-Switching Computer Sub-Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenqian

    1999-01-01

    With the development of high-speed networking technology, computer networks, including local-area networks (LANs), wide-area networks (WANs) and the Internet, are extending their traditional roles of carrying computer data. They are being used for Internet telephony, multimedia applications such as conferencing and video on demand, distributed simulations, and other real-time applications. LANs are even used for distributed real-time process control and computing as a cost-effective approach. Differing from traditional data transfer, these new classes of high-speed network applications (video, audio, real-time process control, and others) are delay sensitive. The usefulness of data depends not only on the correctness of received data, but also the time that data are received. In other words, these new classes of applications require networks to provide guaranteed services or quality of service (QoS). Quality of service can be defined by a set of parameters and reflects a user's expectation about the underlying network's behavior. Traditionally, distinct services are provided by different kinds of networks. Voice services are provided by telephone networks, video services are provided by cable networks, and data transfer services are provided by computer networks. A single network providing different services is called an integrated-services network.

  1. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  2. High-quality Crystal Filter – Design and Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dujković

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Analog oscillators and filters are still very important devices in modern telecommunication and measurement equipment. Quartz crystal units are used for high-quality oscillators and filters, due to their extremely stable resonant frequency and Q-factor. In this paper the design and realization of a high-quality bandpass quartz crystal filter with a possible application to antenna circuitry is described.

  3. Elicitation of attributes for the evaluation of audio-on audio-interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, Jon; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.;

    2014-01-01

    , annoyance, balance and blend, and confusion. Ratings using these attributes were collected in the fourth stage, and a principal component analysis performed. This suggested two dimensions underlying the perception of an audio-on-audio interference situation: The first dimension was labeled “distraction......” and accounted for 89% of the variance; the second dimension, accounting for 10% of the variance, was labeled “balance and blend.” © 2014 Acoustical Society of America...

  4. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal...

  5. Enhancement of LSB based Steganography for Hiding Image in Audio

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar Singh; R.K.Aggrawal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will take an in-depth look on steganography by proposing a new method of Audio Steganography. Emphasize will be on the proposed scheme of image hiding in audio and its comparison with simple Least Significant Bit insertion method for data hiding in audio.

  6. Switching-mode Audio Power Amplifiers with Direct Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new class of switching-mode audio power amplifiers, which are capable of direct energy conversion from the AC mains to the audio output. They represent an ultimate integration of a switching-mode power supply and a Class D audio power amplifier, where the intermediate DC bus...

  7. Debugging of Class-D Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Lasse; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2012-01-01

    Determining and optimizing the performance of a Class-D audio power amplier can be very dicult without knowledge of the use of audio performance measuring equipment and of how the various noise and distortion sources in uence the audio performance. This paper gives an introduction on how to measure...

  8. 47 CFR 73.403 - Digital audio broadcasting service requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital audio broadcasting service requirements. 73.403 Section 73.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.403 Digital audio broadcasting...

  9. A technology prototype system for rating therapist empathy from audio recordings in addiction counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up psychotherapy services such as for addiction counseling is a critical societal need. One challenge is ensuring quality of therapy, due to the heavy cost of manual observational assessment. This work proposes a speech technology-based system to automate the assessment of therapist empathy—a key therapy quality index—from audio recordings of the psychotherapy interactions. We designed a speech processing system that includes voice activity detection and diarization modules, and an automatic speech recognizer plus a speaker role matching module to extract the therapist’s language cues. We employed Maximum Entropy models, Maximum Likelihood language models, and a Lattice Rescoring method to characterize high vs. low empathic language. We estimated therapy-session level empathy codes using utterance level evidence obtained from these models. Our experiments showed that the fully automated system achieved a correlation of 0.643 between expert annotated empathy codes and machine-derived estimations, and an accuracy of 81% in classifying high vs. low empathy, in comparison to a 0.721 correlation and 86% accuracy in the oracle setting using manual transcripts. The results show that the system provides useful information that can contribute to automatic quality insurance and therapist training.

  10. A technology prototype system for rating therapist empathy from audio recordings in addiction counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Huang, Chewei; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2016-04-01

    Scaling up psychotherapy services such as for addiction counseling is a critical societal need. One challenge is ensuring quality of therapy, due to the heavy cost of manual observational assessment. This work proposes a speech technology-based system to automate the assessment of therapist empathy-a key therapy quality index-from audio recordings of the psychotherapy interactions. We designed a speech processing system that includes voice activity detection and diarization modules, and an automatic speech recognizer plus a speaker role matching module to extract the therapist's language cues. We employed Maximum Entropy models, Maximum Likelihood language models, and a Lattice Rescoring method to characterize high vs. low empathic language. We estimated therapy-session level empathy codes using utterance level evidence obtained from these models. Our experiments showed that the fully automated system achieved a correlation of 0.643 between expert annotated empathy codes and machine-derived estimations, and an accuracy of 81% in classifying high vs. low empathy, in comparison to a 0.721 correlation and 86% accuracy in the oracle setting using manual transcripts. The results show that the system provides useful information that can contribute to automatic quality insurance and therapist training.

  11. Case mix, quality and high-cost kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englesbe, M J; Dimick, J B; Fan, Z; Baser, O; Birkmeyer, J D

    2009-05-01

    A better understanding of high-cost kidney transplant patients would be useful for informing value-based purchasing strategies by payers. This retrospective cohort study was based on the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) files from 2003 to 2006. The focus of this analysis was high-cost kidney transplant patients (patients that qualified for Medicare outlier payments and 30-day readmission payments). Using regression techniques, we explored relationships between high-cost kidney transplant patients, center-specific case mix, and center quality. Among 43 393 kidney transplants in Medicare recipients, 35.2% were categorized as high-cost patients. These payments represented 20% of total Medicare payments for kidney transplantation and exceeded $200 million over the study period. Case mix was associated with these payments and was an important factor underlying variation in hospital payments high-cost patients. Hospital quality was also a strong determinant of future Medicare payments for high-cost patients. Compared to high-quality centers, low-quality centers cost Medicare an additional $1185 per kidney transplant. Payments for high-cost patients represent a significant proportion of the total costs of kidney transplant surgical care. Quality improvement may be an important strategy for reducing the costs of kidney transplantation.

  12. High Quality RF resonant cavity for high gradient linacs

    CERN Document Server

    TianXiu-fang,; Deguo, Xun; Kun, Liu; yong, Hou; Jian, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In traditional accelerating structures, maximum amplitudes of accelerating fields are restricted by Joule heating losses in conducting walls and electron breakdown. In this paper, a composite accelerating cavity utilizing a resonant, periodic structure with a dielectric sphere located at a spherical conducting cavity center is presented. The presence of the dielectric in the central part of the resonance cavity shifts the magnetic fields maximum from regions close to the metallic wall towards the dielectric surface, which strongly lowers the skin effect losses in the wall. By using the existing ultra-low loss Sapphire dielectrics, we make theory analyze and numerical calculations by MATLAB, and further make simulated calculation by CST for comparison. The results show that all field components at the metallic wall are either zero or very small, so one can expect the cavity to be less prone to electrical breakdowns than the traditional cavity. And the quality factor Q can be three orders of magnitude higher th...

  13. 数字音频技术编辑软件设计构建研究%Digital Audio Technology Editing Software Design Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵美玉

    2014-01-01

    随着计算机技术和数字音频技术的飞速发展,计算机技术和电子技术已渗入到各行各业,各种各样方便人们使用的不同用途的软件也大量应运而生,音乐制作方面也不例外。在数字化发展如此快的年代,通过现有技术,MIDI功能就已经到了一个非常完善的程度。电脑音乐给有想象力的人们带来了很宽广的创作空间。伴随着广播电台的数字化建设不断快速推进,广播音频编辑软件结合了计算机技术与数字音频技术,在我国广播电台中得到了广泛应用,因此,我们相信在今后的数字广播的发展中,可以提供更高质量、更多声道的多声道数字音频系统。本文对音频编辑软件的特效、数字音频制作软件设计构建进行了研究分析。%With the rapid development of computer technology and digital audio technology, computer technology and elec-tronic technology has penetrated into all walks of life, using a variety of convenient for people to the different uses of the sof-tware also emerge as the times require, making music is no exception. In the digital age is growing so fast, the existing tech-nology, the MIDI function will have reached a very perfect degree. Computer music brings a broad creative space to people with imagination. Along with the construction of digital radio rapidly advancing, broadcast audio editing software combines computer technology and digital audio technology, in a radio broadcast in China has been widely applied, therefore, we be-lieve that in the development of digital radio in the future, multi-channel digital audio system can provide more high quality, more channels. Effects of digital audio, the audio editing software software design are studied.

  14. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalari, G., E-mail: scalari@phys.ethz.ch; Maissen, C.; Faist, J. [Institute of Quantum Electronics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (Switzerland); Cibella, S.; Leoni, R. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN), CNR, via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  15. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  16. Navigation for the Blind through Audio-Based Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2010-01-01

    We present the design, development and an initial study changes and adaptations related to navigation that take place in the brain, by incorporating an Audio-Based Environments Simulator (AbES) within a neuroimaging environment. This virtual environment enables a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space in order to train his/her orientation and mobility skills. Our initial results suggest that this kind of virtual environment could be highly efficient as a testing, training and rehabilitation platform for learning and navigation.

  17. A Comparative Study of English Audio Typing(EAT) Str-ategies Employed by High-scored Group and Low-scored Group%英语同声打字高分组和低分组学习策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏

    2014-01-01

    英语同声打字(EAT)策略决定着英语同声打字的结果。本文试图对比高分组和低分组EAT策略使用差异,进而探讨有效的EAT学习方法。%English Audio Typing (EAT)strategies determine the outcome of EAT process. This paper tries to compare the EAT strategies employed by high-scored group and low-scored group, intending to discuss the effective way of learning EAT.

  18. Audio segmentation using Flattened Local Trimmed Range for ecological acoustic space analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany Vega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic space in a given environment is filled with footprints arising from three processes: biophony, geophony and anthrophony. Bioacoustic research using passive acoustic sensors can result in thousands of recordings. An important component of processing these recordings is to automate signal detection. In this paper, we describe a new spectrogram-based approach for extracting individual audio events. Spectrogram-based audio event detection (AED relies on separating the spectrogram into background (i.e., noise and foreground (i.e., signal classes using a threshold such as a global threshold, a per-band threshold, or one given by a classifier. These methods are either too sensitive to noise, designed for an individual species, or require prior training data. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is not sensitive to noise, does not need any prior training data and works with any type of audio event. To do this, we propose: (1 a spectrogram filtering method, the Flattened Local Trimmed Range (FLTR method, which models the spectrogram as a mixture of stationary and non-stationary energy processes and mitigates the effect of the stationary processes, and (2 an unsupervised algorithm that uses the filter to detect audio events. We measured the performance of the algorithm using a set of six thoroughly validated audio recordings and obtained a sensitivity of 94% and a positive predictive value of 89%. These sensitivity and positive predictive values are very high, given that the validated recordings are diverse and obtained from field conditions. The algorithm was then used to extract audio events in three datasets. Features of these audio events were plotted and showed the unique aspects of the three acoustic communities.

  19. High quality genomic DNA extraction from postmortem fetal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, S; Sebire, N J; Taylor, A M; Abrams, D; Peebles, D; Mein, C; Munroe, P B; Thayyil, S

    2012-11-01

    We examined the yield and quality of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from various postmortem fetal tissues. Fetal tissues were collected at the time of autopsy, and DNA was subsequently extracted. The yield and DNA quality was assessed using ultraviolet spectrometry and agarose gel electrophoresis. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess the DNA extracted for genomic testing. The median (range) gestation of the fetuses was 22 (16-41) weeks and the postmortem interval was 5.5 (2-10) days. Non-degraded genomic DNA was successfully extracted from all fetal tissues. Liver tissue had the lowest quality and muscle the highest quality. DNA yield or purity was not influenced by the postmortem interval. High quality genomic DNA can be extracted from fetal muscle, despite postmortem intervals of several days.

  20. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  1. A Physiologically Inspired Method for Audio Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Anderson

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of physiologically inspired auditory features with both physiologically motivated and statistical audio classification methods. We use features derived from a biophysically defensible model of the early auditory system for audio classification using a neural network classifier. We also use a Gaussian-mixture-model (GMM-based classifier for the purpose of comparison and show that the neural-network-based approach works better. Further, we use features from a more advanced model of the auditory system and show that the features extracted from this model of the primary auditory cortex perform better than the features from the early auditory stage. The features give good classification performance with only one-second data segments used for training and testing.

  2. Enlace optoelectrónico de audio

    OpenAIRE

    García Lozano, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    En este proyecto se diseña e implementa un sistema capaz de transmitir audio mediante luz infrarroja. Se pueden diferenciar dos grandes partes del proyecto, una el módulo emisor y la otra el módulo receptor. La señal es introducida en el módulo emisor a partir de cualquier reproductor de audio. Esta señal es sometida a un proceso de modulación FM para mejorar la comunicación entre emisor y receptor, puesto que la transmisión de la señal en banda base es más vulnerable a ruidos. Una vez modula...

  3. A Survey on Steganography Techniques in Real Time Audio Signals and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaleem Z. Al-Othmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography has proven to be one of the practical ways of securing data. It is a new kind of secret communication used mainly to hide secret data inside other innocent digital mediums. Most of existing steganographic techniques use digital multimedia files as cover mediums to hide secret data. Audio files and signals make appropriate mediums for steganography due to the high data transmission rate and the high level of redundancy. Hiding data in real time communication audio signals is not a simple mission. Steganography requirements as well as real time communication requirements are supposed to be met in order to construct a useful and useful data hiding application. In this paper we will survey the general principles of hiding secret information using audio technology, and provide an overview of current functions and techniques. These techniques will be evaluated across both, steganography and real time communication requirements.

  4. The roar of Yasur: Handheld audio recorder monitoring of Vanuatu volcanic vent activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Howell, Robert; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.

    2016-08-01

    We describe how near-field audio recording using a pocket digital sound recorder can usefully document volcanic activity, demonstrating the approach at Yasur, Vanuatu in May 2014. Prominent emissions peak at 263 Hz, interpreted as an organ-pipe mode. High-pass filtering was found to usefully discriminate volcano vent noise from wind noise, and autocorrelation of the high pass acoustic power reveals a prominent peak in exhalation intervals of 2.5, 4 and 8 s, with a number of larger explosive events at 200 s intervals. We suggest that this compact and inexpensive audio instrumentation can usefully supplement other field monitoring such as seismic or infrasound. A simple estimate of acoustic power interpreted with a dipole jet noise model yielded vent velocities too low to be compatible with pyroclast emission, suggesting difficulties with this approach at audio frequencies (perhaps due to acoustic absorption by volcanic gases).

  5. Indexing spoken audio by LSA and SOMs

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an indexing system for spoken audio documents. The framework is indexing and retrieval of broadcast news. The proposed indexing system applies latent semantic analysis (LSA) and self-organizing maps (SOM) to map the documents into a semantic vector space and to display the semantic structures of the document collection. The SOM is also used to enhance the indexing of the documents that are difficult to decode. Relevant index terms and suitable index weights are computed by...

  6. Digitisation of the CERN Audio Archives

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Since the creation of CERN in 1954 until mid 1980s, the audiovisual service has recorded hundreds of hours of moments of life at CERN on audio tapes. These moments range from inaugurations of new facilities to VIP speeches and general interest cultural seminars The preservation process started in June 2005 On these pictures, we see Waltraud Hug working on an open-reel tape.

  7. Museum audio guides as an accessibility enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cláudia Susana Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Accessibility to museums is enhanced by various types of cultural mediation, such as the use of audio guides, which consist of a means for innovative mediation put forth to make the museum visit more autonomous and simultaneously replace the traditional guided visit. Their use is integrated in the tendency for museum democratisation felt in Europe between the 60s and the 80s of the 20th century, especially with the development of educational services at museums and their opening to schools. I...

  8. PDE-SVD Based Audio Denoising

    OpenAIRE

    Baravdish, George; Evangelista, Gianpaolo; Svensson, Olof; Sofya, Faten

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for denoising audio signals. The method is based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the frame matrix representing the signal inthe Overlap Add decomposition. Denoising is performed by modifying both the singular values, using a tapering model, and the singular vectors of the representation, using a nonlinear PDE method. The performance of the method is evaluated and compared with denoising obtained by filtering.

  9. Quality of service on high-speed data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ezio; Antonelli, Ferruccio

    1995-02-01

    Since the beginning of this century the issue of `quality' has been gaining increasing importance in a number of fields of human activities. For telecommunication services, too, the quality perceived by customers has been taken into account early on as an issue of strategic importance. Whilst for telephony the Quality of Service (QoS) has been already investigated and identified in terms of parameters and related test methodology, the situation for high speed data services (i.e. CBDS/SMDS, Frame Relay, etc.), provided by means of high speed network based on Asynchronous Transfer Moe (ATM) or Metropolitan Area Network technologies, can still be considered `under study'. There is a death of experience not only in terms of measurement instruments and procedures, but also in terms of knowledge of the relationship between the QoS provided at a network level and the quality perceived by the user on his or her terminal. The complexity of the equipment involved in setting up an end-to-end solution based on high speed data communications makes the problems of knowledge and supply of quality very hard to solve. Starting from the experience gained in carrying out high- speed network field trials based on Metropolitan Area Networks and, more recently, on ATM technology, the paper mainly deals with the problem of defining, measuring and then offering a specific QoS. First, the issue of what the user expects from the `high-speed network' is addressed. This analysis is carried out trying to gather what is peculiar to high-speed data communications from the user standpoint. Next, the focus is on how to cope with the requirements due to users' expectations, while carefully considering the basic principles of quality. Finally, a solution is proposed, starting from the experience gained from high speed networks installed in Italy.

  10. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the method of interviewing by questionnaires was applied. The sample survey was conducted among undergraduate students, teachers and staff of the Teacher Training Faculty in Uzice.

  11. Next Generation High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, we have witnessed an explosion of video initiatives in the industry worldwide. Several advancements in video technology are currently improving the way we interact and collaborate. These advancements are forcing tendencies and overall experiences: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To cope with this technology progresses, CERN IT Department has taken the leading role to establish strategies and directions to improve the user experience in remote dispersed meetings and remote collaboration at large in the worldwide LHC communities. Due to the high rate of dispersion in the LHC user communities, these are critically dependent of videoconferencing technology, with a need of robustness and high quality for the best possible user experience. We will present an analysis of the factors that influenced the technical and strategic choices to improve the reliability, efficiency and overall quality of the LHC remote sessions. In particular, ...

  12. Real Time Recognition Of Speakers From Internet Audio Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weychan Radoslaw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an automatic speaker recognition technique with the use of the Internet radio lossy (encoded speech signal streams. We show an influence of the audio encoder (e.g., bitrate on the speaker model quality. The model of each speaker was calculated with the use of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM approach. Both the speaker recognition and the further analysis were realized with the use of short utterances to facilitate real time processing. The neighborhoods of the speaker models were analyzed with the use of the ISOMAP algorithm. The experiments were based on four 1-hour public debates with 7–8 speakers (including the moderator, acquired from the Polish radio Internet services. The presented software was developed with the MATLAB environment.

  13. Head Tracking of Auditory, Visual, and Audio-Visual Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Johahn; Wei, Vincent; Burgess, Martin; Carlile, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The ability to actively follow a moving auditory target with our heads remains unexplored even though it is a common behavioral response. Previous studies of auditory motion perception have focused on the condition where the subjects are passive. The current study examined head tracking behavior to a moving auditory target along a horizontal 100° arc in the frontal hemisphere, with velocities ranging from 20 to 110°/s. By integrating high fidelity virtual auditory space with a high-speed visual presentation we compared tracking responses of auditory targets against visual-only and audio-visual "bisensory" stimuli. Three metrics were measured-onset, RMS, and gain error. The results showed that tracking accuracy (RMS error) varied linearly with target velocity, with a significantly higher rate in audition. Also, when the target moved faster than 80°/s, onset and RMS error were significantly worst in audition the other modalities while responses in the visual and bisensory conditions were statistically identical for all metrics measured. Lastly, audio-visual facilitation was not observed when tracking bisensory targets.

  14. Head Tracking of Auditory, Visual and Audio-Visual Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johahn eLeung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to actively follow a moving auditory target with our heads remains unexplored even though it is a common behavioral response. Previous studies of auditory motion perception have focused on the condition where the subjects are passive. The current study examined head tracking behavior to a moving auditory target along a horizontal 100° arc in the frontal hemisphere, with velocities ranging from 20°/s to 110°/s. By integrating high fidelity virtual auditory space with a high-speed visual presentation we compared tracking responses of auditory targets against visual-only and audio-visual bisensory stimuli. Three metrics were measured – onset, RMS and gain error. The results showed that tracking accuracy (RMS error varied linearly with target velocity, with a significantly higher rate in audition. Also, when the target moved faster than 80°/s, onset and RMS error were significantly worst in audition the other modalities while responses in the visual and bisensory conditions were statistically identical for all metrics measured. Lastly, audio-visual facilitation was not observed when tracking bisensory targets.

  15. Le registrazioni audio dell’archivio Luigi Nono di Venezia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cossettini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The audio recordings of the Luigi Nono Archive in Venice: guidelines for preservation and critical edition of audio documentsStudying audio recordings brings us back to ancient source verification problems that too often one thinks are overcome by the technical reproduction of sound. Au-dio signal is “fixed” on a specific carrier (tape, disc etc with a specific audio format (speed, number of tracks etc; the choice of support and format during the first “memorizing” process and the following copying processes is a subjective and, in case of copying, an interpretative operation conducted within a continuously evolv-ing audio technology. What we listen to today is the result of a transmission process that unavoidably transforms the original acoustic event and the documents that memorize it. Audio recording is no way a timeless and immutable fixing process. It is therefore necessary to study the transmission processes and to reconstruct the au-dio document tradition. The re-recording of the tapes of the Archivio Luigi Nono, conducted by the Audio Labs of the DAMS Musica of the University of Udine, of-fers clear examples of the technical and musicological interpretative problems one can find when he works with audio recordings.

  16. Differences in Human Audio Localization Performance between a HRTF- and a non-HRTF Audio System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2013-01-01

    -related transfer function (HRTF) system implemen- tation in a study in relation to precision, speed and navi- gational performance in localizing audio sources in a virtual environment. We found that a system using HRTFs is signif- icantly better at all three performance tasks than a system using panning.......Spatial audio solutions have been around for a long time in real-time applications, but yielding spatial cues that more closely simulate real life accuracy has been a computational issue, and has often been solved by hardware solutions. This has long been a restriction, but now with more powerful...... computers this is becoming a lesser and lesser concern and software solutions are now applicable. Most current virtual environment applications do not take advantage of these im- plementations of accurate spatial cues, however. This paper compares a common implementation of spatial audio and a head...

  17. Credence goods, consumers’ trust in regulation and high quality exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cuffaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of the effectiveness of internal regulation for the development of internal and export markets for credence goods, focusing on food products, particularly for a developing country which is an exporter (or a potential exporter.  In the model, since goods of actual different quality can be sold as high quality goods, expected quality is a function of consumers’ beliefs about the effectiveness of regulation.  Foreign consumers, who cannot observe foreign regulation as closely as domestic ones, may partly base their expectations on the level of development of the exporting country. Low effectiveness, negative stereotype and low consumers’ trust may cause a failure in the market for high quality, and there may be a trap of underdevelopment and no high quality exports. The main policy implications are that increasing the effectiveness of regulation improves export prospects; standard setting and enforcement by external actors, such as supermarkets, or NGOs in the case of certain niche markets, is likely to be beneficial. 

  18. Carrier Distortion in Hysteretic Self-Oscillating Class-D Audio Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Kofod; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    An important distortion mechanism in hysteretic self-oscillating (SO) class-D (switch mode) power amplifiers-–carrier distortion-–is analyzed and an optimization method is proposed. This mechanism is an issue in any power amplifier application where a high degree of proportionality between input...... and output is required, such as in audio power amplifiers or xDSL drivers. From an average-mode point of view, carrier distortion is shown to be caused by nonlinear variation of the hysteretic comparator input average voltage with the output average voltage. This easily causes total harmonic distortion...... proven in an audio power amplifier leading to THD figures that are comparable to the state of the art. Experimental hardware is a hysteretic SO bandpass current-mode-controlled single-ended audio power amplifier capable of 45 W into 8 Omega or 80 W into 4 Omega from a pm34 V supply with less than 0...

  19. Differences in Human Audio Localization Performance between a HRTF- and a non-HRTF Audio System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2013-01-01

    Spatial audio solutions have been around for a long time in real-time applications, but yielding spatial cues that more closely simulate real life accuracy has been a computational issue, and has often been solved by hardware solutions. This has long been a restriction, but now with more powerful......-related transfer function (HRTF) system implemen- tation in a study in relation to precision, speed and navi- gational performance in localizing audio sources in a virtual environment. We found that a system using HRTFs is signif- icantly better at all three performance tasks than a system using panning....

  20. Active Electromagnetic Interference Cancelation for Automotive Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    . Electromagnetic interference between switch-mode audio power amplifiers and receivers show the same physical obstacle as the described ANC endeavors are targeting. The principle of active electromagnetic interference cancelation (AEC) is derived in this paper on a theoretical basis with verifications...... in simulation and experiment. The resulting switch-mode audio power amplifier of this experiment keeps its high efficiency and is able to deliver the signal with less than 0.1 % distortion, while improving the source of electromagnetic interference by 15 dB....

  1. Total Quality Management (TQM): High School/College Course Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, David

    This Total Quality Management (TQM) course was designed to introduce students to the principles and tools of TQM in a full-semester course in high schools or community colleges. The course includes all the competencies found in TQM and is intended to be taught with an interactive method in which students are involved in the learning process. This…

  2. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., composition, and detailing), the ground floor and sidewalk pedestrian environment, interior public spaces, and... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High architectural quality. 910.31 Section 910.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT...

  3. Grow Large High-Quality Diamonds with Different Seed Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Chuan-Yi; JIA Xiao-Peng; MA Hong-An; LI Shang-Sheng; TIAN Yu; XIAO Hong-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Large high-quality type Ib diamond crystals have been grown with different seed surfaces by temperature gradient method at 5.5GPa, 1500-1600K, with NiMnCo alloy as the metal solvent. Compared with {100} as the growth surface, the growth region of large high-quality diamond crystals with {111} as the growth surface at a higher growth rate shifts markedly from lower temperatures (suitable for {100}-facet growth) to higher temperatures (suitable for {lll}-facet growth). However, regardless of different growth surfaces, {100} or {111}, the grown crystals of sheet-shaped shape are most difficult for metal inclusions to be trapped into, and whether or not matched growth between the seed surfaces and the growth temperatures determines the crystal shapes. In view of the growth rates, large high-quality diamond crystals of sheet-shaped shapes can be grown at a growth rate of above 2.5mg/h, while the growth rate of large high-quality diamond crystals should not be beyond 1.5mg/h for tower-shaped crystals.

  4. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  5. Baishideng's century goal: Editing and publishing high-quality articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Sheng Ma

    2009-01-01

    Baishideng's goal over the next few years is to edit and publish high-quality articles through the open-access model, to maximize the benefits to members of the editorial board, authors and readers, as well as achieving social and economic benefits.

  6. High-quality multi-resolution volume rendering in medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai; YANG Jie; LI Xiao-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform a high-quality interactive rendering of large medical data sets on a single off-theshelf PC, a LOD selection algorithm for multi-resolution volume rendering using 3D texture mapping is presented, which uses an adaptive scheme that renders the volume in a region-of-interest at a high resolution and the volume away from this region at lower resolutions. The algorithm is based on several important criteria, and rendering is done adaptively by selecting high-resolution cells close to a center of attention and low-resolution cells away from this area. In addition, our hierarchical level-of-detail representation guarantees consistent interpolation between different resolution levels. Experiments have been applied to a number of large medical data and have produced high quality images at interactive frame rates using standard PC hardware.

  7. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  8. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kuchenbuch

    Full Text Available Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  9. High-quality dialysis: a lesson from the Japanese experience

    OpenAIRE

    Masakane, Ikuto

    2010-01-01

    High-quality dialysis does not always mean high efficiency; dialysis should maintain nutritional balance and full biocompatibility. In undergoing treatment with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and/or ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVAL) membrane dialysers, the body weight decrease caused by polysulfone membrane has been dramatically improved for those receiving predilution online haemodiafiltration (HDF) as well. These membranes are assumed to somewhat suppress the clearance of small molecul...

  10. Highly qualified does not equal high quality: A study of urban stakeholders' perceptions of quality in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel Joseph

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions that urban stakeholders hold about what characteristics should distinguish a high school science teacher whom they would consider to demonstrate high quality in science teaching. A maximum variation sample of six science teachers, three school administrators, six parents and six students from a large urban public school district were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, a list of observable characteristics which urban stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching was generated. Observational techniques were utilized to determine the extent to which six urban high school science teachers, who meet the NCLB Act criteria for being "highly qualified", actually possessed the characteristics which these stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set. The findings suggest that urban stakeholders perceive that a high school science teacher who demonstrates high quality in science teaching should be knowledgeable about their subject matter, their student population, and should be resourceful; should possess an academic background in science and professional experience in science teaching; should exhibit professionalism, a passion for science and teaching, and a dedication to teaching and student learning; should be skillful in planning and preparing science lessons and in organizing the classroom, in presenting the subject matter to students, in conducting a variety of hands-on activities, and in managing a classroom; and should assess whether students complete class goals and objectives, and provide feedback about grades for students promptly. The findings further reveal that some of the urban high school science teachers who were deemed to be "highly qualified", as defined by the NCLB Act, engaged in practices that threatened quality in science

  11. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  12. Adaptive Audio Watermarking via the Optimization Point of View on the Wavelet-Based Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Chen, Chur-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to present an adaptive audio watermarking method using ideas of wavelet-based entropy (WBE). The method converts low-frequency coefficients of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) into the WBE domain, followed by the calculations of mean values of each audio as well as derivation of some essential properties of WBE. A characteristic curve relating the WBE and DWT coefficients is also presented. The foundation of the embedding process lies on the approximately invariant property demonstrated from the mean of each audio and the characteristic curve. Besides, the quality of the watermarked audio is optimized. In the detecting process, the watermark can be extracted using only values of the WBE. Finally, the performance of the proposed watermarking method is analyzed in terms of signal to noise ratio, mean opinion score and robustness. Experimental results confirm that the embedded data are robust to resist the common attacks like re-sampling, MP3 compression, low-pass filtering, and amplitude-scaling

  13. Design of a New Audio Watermarking System Based on Human Auditory System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, D.H. [Maqtech Co., Ltd., (Korea); Shin, S.W.; Kim, J.W.; Choi, J.U. [Markany Co., Ltd., (Korea); Kim, D.Y. [Bucheon College, Bucheon (Korea); Kim, S.H. [The University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust digital copyright-protection technique based on the concept of human auditory system. First, we propose a watermarking technique that accepts the various attacks such as, time scaling, pitch shift, add noise and a lot of lossy compression such as MP3, AAC, WMA. Second, we implement audio PD(portable device) for copyright protection using proposed method. The proposed watermarking technique is developed using digital filtering technique. Being designed according to critical band of HAS(human auditory system), the digital filters embed watermark without nearly affecting audio quality. Before processing of digital filtering, wavelet transform decomposes the input audio signal into several signals that are composed of specific frequencies. Then, we embed watermark in the decomposed signal (0kHz-11kHz) by designed band-stop digital filter. Watermarking detection algorithm is implemented on audio PD(portable device). Proposed watermarking technology embeds 2bits information per 15 seconds. If PD detects watermark '11', which means illegal song, PD displays 'Illegal Song' message on LCD, skips the song and plays the next song. The implemented detection algorithm in PD requires 19 MHz computational power, 7.9kBytes ROM and 10kBytes RAM. The suggested technique satisfies SDMI(secure digital music initiative) requirements of platform3 based on ARM9E core. (author). 9 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Performance Improvement of Threshold based Audio Steganography using Parallel Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shoaib; Zakir Khan; Danish Shehzad; Tamer Dag; Arif Iqbal Umar; Noor Ul Amin

    2016-01-01

    Audio steganography is used to hide secret information inside audio signal for the secure and reliable transfer of information. Various steganography techniques have been proposed and implemented to ensure adequate security level. The existing techniques either focus on the payload or security, but none of them has ensured both security and payload at same time. Data Dependency in existing solution was reluctant for the execution of steganography mechanism serially. The audio data and secret ...

  15. Integration study of high quality teaching resources in universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglu Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development level and quality of education depend on the merits and efficiency in the use of teaching resources, especially in the case of obvious contradiction between the demand and supply of teaching resources. So to integrate teaching resources, improve the efficiency in the use of high quality teaching resources, and take the road of content development to enhance the competitiveness of education has become very important and urgent.Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of analysis on the teaching resources of universities and the problems they faced, this paper introduced the basic concepts of cloud storage, and built the integration architecture of high quality teaching resources in universities based on the cloud storage.Findings and Originality/value: The HDFS-based cloud storage proposed in this paper is a dynamically adjustable and Internet-based storage solution, and the users can access storage targets using the network through a common and easy-to-use protocol and application programming interfaces. This new technology is useful for end users benefits. With the continuous development and improvement of cloud storage, it will necessarily result in more and more applications in the institutions of higher learning and education network.Originality/value: This paper introduced the cloud storage into the integration of high quality teaching resources in universities first and as a new form of service, it can be a good solution.

  16. Digital Audio Watermarking Algorithm for Media Copyright Management%用于版权管理的数字音频水印算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学敏; 郭宇弘; 邹学强; 刘建; 颜永红

    2011-01-01

    该文提出了一种用于多媒体资料版权管理的自同步音频盲水印算法.由于版权应用需要通过解码结果得到素材的使用情况,对解码结果时间精度有一定要求,同时对鲁棒性和不可感知性要求也较高.针对之前算法存在鲁棒性不够,时间精度低的问题.该文提出的算法利用扩频的方法和音频信号的短时相关的特性提高嵌入水印的鲁棒性的同时,通过心理声学模型的应用改善算法的不可感知性.算法通过合理设计了水印信息帧结构和同步策略提高了解码结果的时间精度.实验结果表明,该文的方法在具有很高不可感知性的情况下,能够有效地抵抗各种常见的音频编辑操作.%A blind audio watermarking algorithm with self-synchronization for copyright protection is proposed. In the application of media copyright management, the decoding results should have a time precision, better robustness and fidelity. However, most of algorithms can not provide enough robustness and time precision. To deal with these problems, in this paper, spread spectrum theory and the short-time relevance of audio signal are used to generate a watermark. To improve the fidelity of audio, a psychoacoustic auditory model is further used. Moreover, special synchronization strategy and watermark message frame structure are used to get a high time precision decoding results. Experimental results show that the watermarking scheme is robust against common audio editing attacks while keeping the watermarked audio a high perceptual quality.

  17. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adie, Steven G; Kennedy, Brendan F; Armstrong, Julian J; Alexandrov, Sergey A; Sampson, David D [Optical-Biomedical Engineering Laboratory (OBEL), School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)], E-mail: dsampson@ee.uwa.edu.au

    2009-05-21

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  18. Non Audio-Video gesture recognition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2016-01-01

    Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Current research focus includes on the emotion...... that can be connected to any computer on the market. The paper proposes an equation that relates the distance and voltage for a Sharp GP2Y0A21 and GP2D120 sensors in the situation that a hand is used as the reflective object. In the end, the presented system is compared with other audio/video system...

  19. Mixing audio concepts, practices and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Izhaki, Roey

    2013-01-01

    Your mix can make or break a record, and mixing is an essential catalyst for a record deal. Professional engineers with exceptional mixing skills can earn vast amounts of money and find that they are in demand by the biggest acts. To develop such skills, you need to master both the art and science of mixing. The new edition of this bestselling book offers all you need to know and put into practice in order to improve your mixes. Covering the entire process --from fundamental concepts to advanced techniques -- and offering a multitude of audio samples, tips and tricks, this boo

  20. Audio marketing v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Timanov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is processing and evaluation of the investment project. The project implies an establishment of the firm in Czech Republic. The branch of the entrepreneurship is sensory marketing or audio-visual marketing. The essence of this field of the marketing is encouragement of sales through the influence on emotional side of the client. Components of the work are market research, analysis of the competitors in this sphere, and the financial plan. As a result, the work will be stru...

  1. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach.......Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...

  2. Stuttering and speech naturalness: audio and audiovisual judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R R; Haroldson, S K

    1992-06-01

    Unsophisticated raters, using 9-point interval scales, judged speech naturalness and stuttering severity of recorded stutterer and nonstutterer speech samples. Raters judged separately the audio-only and audiovisual presentations of each sample. For speech naturalness judgments of stutterer samples, raters invariably judged the audiovisual presentation more unnatural than the audio presentation of the same sample; but for the nonstutterer samples, there was no difference between audio and audiovisual naturalness ratings. Stuttering severity ratings did not differ significantly between audio and audiovisual presentations of the same samples. Rater reliability, interrater agreement, and intrarater agreement for speech naturalness judgments were assessed.

  3. A Novel Algorithm for Robust Audio Watermarking in Wavelet Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yu; WANG Bao-bao; LI Chun-ru; QUAN Ning-qiang

    2004-01-01

    A novel algorithm for digital audio watermarking in wavelet domain is proposed. First,an original audio signal is decomposed by discrete wavelet transform at three levels. Then, a discrete watermark is embedded into the coefficients of its intermediate frequencies. Finally, the watermarked audio signal is obtained by wavelet reconstruction. The proposed algorithm makes good use of the multiresolution characteristics of wavelet transform. The original audio signal is not needed when detecting the watermark correlatively. Simulation results show that the algorithm is inaudible and robust to noise, filtering and resampling.

  4. A content-based digital audio watermarking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Digital audio watermarking embeds inaudible information into digital audio data for the purposes of copyright protection, ownership verification, covert communication, and/or auxiliary data carrying. In this paper, we present a novel watermarking scheme to embed a meaningful gray image into digital audio by quantizing the wavelet coefficients (using integer lifting wavelet transform) of audio samples. Our audio-dependent watermarking procedure directly exploits temporal and frequency perceptual masking of the human auditory system (HAS) to guarantee that the embedded watermark image is inaudible and robust. The watermark is constructed by utilizing still image compression technique, breaking each audio clip into smaller segments, selecting the perceptually significant audio segments to wavelet transform, and quantizing the perceptually significant wavelet coefficients. The proposed watermarking algorithm can extract the watermark image without the help from the original digital audio signals. We also demonstrate the robustness of that watermarking procedure to audio degradations and distortions, e.g., those that result from noise adding, MPEG compression, low pass filtering, resampling, and requantization.

  5. Coverage aspects of a single frequency network designed for digital audio broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C. P.; Williams, W. F.

    Since the early 1960s, the VHF/FM pilot tone system has been used by broadcasters to supply high quality stereophonic programs to listeners equipped with fixed receivers and modest gain directional antennas mounted externally at a height of about ten meters above ground levels. More recently, with the advent of improved radio receivers and digital technology in the reproduction industry, the broadcasters' target audience has changed and listeners now expect high fidelity reception, comparable to CD quality, on their portable and mobile receivers. In many areas, the demand for high quality can be supplied using the existing VHF/FM networks. There are, however, areas where good portable and mobile reception cannot be obtained, due to shadowing and multipath. This report discusses the coded orthogonal frequency division multiplex (COFDM) channel coding and modulation system developed within the Eureka 147 digital audio broadcasting (DAB) project, which is able to overcome the problems of multipath. Indeed, it can make use of multipath signals. This fact leads to the concept of a Single Frequency Network (SFN) where a single DAB COFDM frequency block can be used to supply five or six programs to a whole country. The derivation of minimum required field strength levels for DAB COFDM signals, and the allowances required for high percentage location coverage, necessary for digital systems, are presented together with a spectrum efficiency comparison between SFN and VHF/FM networks. Theoretical lattice planning, using the CCIR Rec. 370 prediction method, is used initially to illustrate the SFN concept and suggest required effective radiated powers. The results of SFN coverage studies for the UK, using existing broadcast transmitter sites and utilizing both the Rec. 370 and the BBC terrain data based prediction methods, are given. In addition, a possible four frequency block SFN plan for Europe is discussed. The Report concludes that, in comparison, networks using the

  6. Audio Arduino - an ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) audio driver for FTDI-based Arduinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Technology Devices International Ltd [FTDI] company) can be demonstrated to behave as a full-duplex, mono, 8-bit 44.1 kHz soundcard, through an implementation of: a PC audio driver for ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture); a matching program for the Arduino's ATmega microcontroller - and nothing more...

  7. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  8. Challenges of Using Audio-Visual Aids as Warm-Up Activity in Teaching Aviation English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sule, St.; Seçer, Y. E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find out the challenges encountered in the use of video as audio-visual material as a warm-up activity in aviation English course at high school level. This study is based on a qualitative study in which focus group interview is used as the data collection procedure. The participants of focus group are four instructors teaching…

  9. Further Examination of Covert Audio Coaching on Improving Employment Skills among Secondary Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Honsberger, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulty maintaining employment, and there are few evidenced-based practices to guide professionals when developing employment skills among this population. The purpose of this study was to extend the literature on covert audio coaching (CAC) by examining its effects on high school students…

  10. Focus on Hinduism: Audio-Visual Resources for Teaching Religion. Occasional Publication No. 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, David; And Others

    The guide presents annotated lists of audio and visual materials about the Hindu religion. The authors point out that Hinduism cannot be comprehended totally by reading books; thus the resources identified in this guide will enhance understanding based on reading. The guide is intended for use by high school and college students, teachers,…

  11. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  12. Video equipment of tele dosimetry and audio; Video equipo de teledosimetria y audio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda R, M.A.; Padilla C, I. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Subgerencia General de Operacion, Proteccion Radiologica, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: aojega@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-07-01

    To develop a work in an area with high radiation, it requires of a detailed knowledge of the surroundings work, a communication and effective vision, a near dosimetric control. In a work where the spaces variables and reduced accesses exist, noise that hinders the communication, defendant operative condition, radiation field and taking of decision, it is necessary to have tools that allow a total control of the environment to make opportune and effective decisions, there where the task is developed. Under this elementary concept, it was developed in the Laguna Verde Central a project that it allowed a mechanism, interactive of control in spaces complex; to see, to hear, to speak, to measure. This concept takes to the creation of an equipped system with closed circuit of television, wireless communication systems, tele dosimetry wireless systems, VHS and DVD recording equipment, uninterrupted energy units. The system requires of an electric power socket, and the installation of two cables by CCTV camera. The system is mobilized by a person. He puts on in operation in 5 minutes using a verification list. The concept was developed in the project denominated VETA-1, (Video Equipment of Tele dosimetry and Audio). It is objective of this work to present before the society the development of the VETA-1 tool that conclude in their first prototype in May of the present year. The VETA-1 project arises by a necessity of optimizing dose, it is an ALARA tool, with a countless applications, like it was proven in the 12 recharge stop of the Unit 1. The VETA-1 project integrate a recording system, with the primary end of analyzing in the place where the task is developed the details for an effective and opportune decision, but the resulting information is of utility for the personnel's training and the planning of future works. The VETA-1 system is an ALARA tool of quick response control. (Author)

  13. Family Perspectives on High-Quality Pediatric Subspecialty Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kristin N; Ashcraft, Laura Ellen; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mehrotra, Ateev; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Although children are frequently referred to subspecialist physicians, many inadequacies in referral processes have been identified from physician and system perspectives. Little is known, however, about how to comprehensively measure or improve the quality of the referral systems from a family-centered perspective. To foster family-centered improvements to pediatric subspecialty referrals, we sought to develop a framework for high-quality, patient-centered referrals from the perspectives of patients and their families. We used stakeholder-informed qualitative analysis of parent, caregiver, and patient interviews to identify outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals as perceived by patients and their family members. We interviewed 21 informants. Informants identified 5 desired outcomes of subspecialty referrals: improved functional status or symptoms; improved long-term outcomes; improved knowledge of their disease; informed expectations; and reduced anxiety about the child's health status. Processes that informants identified as supporting these outcomes centered around 6 key steps in subspecialty referrals, including the referral decision, previsit information transfer, appointment scheduling, subspecialist visit, postvisit information transfer, and ongoing care integration and communication. Health care delivery structures identified by informants as supporting these processes included physical infrastructure, human resources, and information technology systems. We identified family-centered outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals. These domains can be used not only to improve measurement of the quality of existing referral systems but also to inform future interventions to improve patient-centered outcomes for children in need of specialty care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical Evaluation Report 28: Speak2Me: Using Synchronous Audio for ESL Teaching in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrin A. Barrett

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of a synchronous audio tool is discussed for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL in Taiwan. Over several months, a community of practice has formed among teachers and teaching assistants, transcending cultural differences. Exploring the relationship that has developed between teachers and teaching assistants forms the basis of this report. We will also consider the technology underlying Speak2Me's program and its relationship to providing students with quality pedagogy and learning flexibility.

  15. Real-time Covert Communications Channel for Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Seleym

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Covert communications channel is considered as a type of secure communications that creates capability to transfer information between entities while hiding the contents of the channel. Multimedia data hiding techniques can be used to establish a covert channel for secret communications within a media carrier. In this paper, a high-rate covert communications channel is developed to exploit an audio stream as a carrier signal using multiple embedding in the Quantization Index Modulation framework. The proposed approach uses multi quantization vectors to increase data transmission rate. The embedding algorithms consider the embedding process as a communications problem, that it uses structured scheme of Multiple Trellis-Coded Quantization jointed with Multiple Trellis-Coded Modulation. Using convolution codes based trellis coding returns a real-time communications, because it can be continuously encoded and decoded. The proposed approach exhibits a high channel capacity due to the increase in data embedding rate without severely increasing in embedding distortion.

  16. Towards high-quality optical ceramic YAG fibers for high-energy laser (HEL) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HeeDong; Keller, Kristin; Sirn, Brian

    2012-06-01

    There is a critical demand for high quality, transparent ceramic YAG fibers for high powered fiber lasers. The production of laser quality ceramic fibers hinges on advanced ceramic processing technology, along with the availability of highly sinterable powder with high phase and chemical purity. These two fundamental technologies have been successfully developed at UES. Nd (1.1 a/o) and Yb (1.0 a/o)-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) fibers with high optical quality were produced by combining UES's tailored powders with advanced consolidation processes including fiber extrusion and vacuum sintering. The as-sintered and as-annealed fibers, approximately 30 microns in diameter, appeared transparent and successfully transmitted laser beams; further development will allow for the production of doped ceramic YAG fiber lasers for advanced high power and high energy fiber laser systems.

  17. A high-throughput, high-quality plant genomic DNA extraction protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Li, J; Cong, X H; Duan, Y B; Li, L; Wei, P C; Lu, X Z; Yang, J B

    2013-10-15

    The isolation of high-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) is a crucial technique in plant molecular biology. The quality of gDNA determines the reliability of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In this paper, we reported a high-quality gDNA extraction protocol optimized for real-time PCR in a variety of plant species. Performed in a 96-well block, our protocol provides high throughput. Without the need for phenol-chloroform and liquid nitrogen or dry ice, our protocol is safer and more cost-efficient than traditional DNA extraction methods. The method takes 10 mg leaf tissue to yield 5-10 µg high-quality gDNA. Spectral measurement and electrophoresis were used to demonstrate gDNA purity. The extracted DNA was qualified in a restriction enzyme digestion assay and conventional PCR. The real-time PCR amplification was sufficiently sensitive to detect gDNA at very low concentrations (3 pg/µL). The standard curve of gDNA dilutions from our phenol-chloroform-free protocol showed better linearity (R(2) = 0.9967) than the phenol-chloroform protocol (R(2) = 0.9876). The results indicate that the gDNA was of high quality and fit for real-time PCR. This safe, high-throughput plant gDNA extraction protocol could be used to isolate high-quality gDNA for real-time PCR and other downstream molecular applications.

  18. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  19. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Joaquín; Larios, Diego F; Personal, Enrique; Barbancho, Julio; León, Carlos

    2016-05-18

    Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance.

  20. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    there is a potential to increased nutrient recycling by reducing nutrient losses through improved management of the organic waste already designated as fertilizers and (2) composting has the potential to transform plant-derived organic waste into high-quality fertilizers if nutrient rich materials are added. Delaying......Agriculture faces several challenges of future provision of nutrients such as limited P reserves and increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers and recycling of nutrients from organic waste can be an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of the agricultural systems. Organically...... and S, is often low; and (3) the unbalanced composition of nutrients rarely matches crop demands. Therefore the objective of this project was to investigate the potential for (1) recycling nutrients from agro-industrial wastes and (2) compost biotransformation into high-quality organic fertilizers...

  1. Fabrication of High-Quality Niobium Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qin-Yin; CAO Chun-Hai; LI Meng-Yue; JIANG Yi; ZHA Shi-Tong; KANG Lin; XU Wei-Wei; CHEN Jian; WU Pei-Heng

    2011-01-01

    @@ For high-quality superconducting tunnel junctions(STJS), it is necessary to reduce leakage current as much as possible.We describe the fabrication of niobium STJs using the selective niobium(Nb) etching process and various ways to minimize the leakage current.The experiment shows that the leakage current mainly comes from shorts in the tunnel barrier layer rather than those around the junction edges.Through systematic analysis of the thin film stress, surface morphology and modified junction structures, we fabricate high-quality Nb STJs with a gap voltage of 2.8 mV and a leakage current at 1 m V as low as 8.1 % and 0.023% at 4.2K and 0.3 K, respectively.

  2. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Shikha; Agarwal, Ritika

    2014-02-01

    The goal of Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis in a particular language is to convert arbitrary input text to intelligible and natural sounding speech. However, for a particular language like Hindi, which is a highly confusing language (due to very close spellings), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality speech synthesis with the involvement of Spellchecker which generates spell suggestions for misspelled words automatically. Involvement of spellchecker would increase the efficiency of speech synthesis by providing spell suggestions for incorrect input text. Furthermore, we have provided the comparative study for evaluating the resultant effect on to phonetic text by adding spellchecker on to input text.

  3. High-quality Health Information Provision for Stroke Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Sheng Du; Jing-Jian Ma; Mu Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:High-quality information provision can allow stroke patients to effectively participate in healthcare decision-making,better manage the stroke,and make a good recovery.In this study,we reviewed information needs of stroke patients,methods for providing information to patients,and considerations needed by the information providers.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including information provision for patients with stroke in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on information provision for stroke patients in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Stroke is a major public health concern worldwide.High-quality and effective health information provision plays an essential role in helping patients to actively take part in decision-making and healthcare,and empowering them to effectively self-manage their long-standing chronic conditions.Different methods for providing information to patients have their relative merits and suitability,and as a result,the effective strategies taken by health professionals may include providing high-quality information,meeting patients' individual needs,using suitable methods in providing information,and maintaining active involvement of patients.Conclusions:It is suggested that to enable stroke patients to access high-quality health information,greater efforts need to be made to ensure patients to receive accurate and current evidence-based information which meets their individual needs.Health professionals should use suitable information delivery methods,and actively involve stroke patients in information provision.

  4. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization.

  5. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  6. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... measurement. However, if an even more accurate measurement is wanted, the article recommends using the passenger delay approach. For the passenger delay approach, the article recommends using a 3rd generation passenger delay model since it is the most accurate type of model and it can be combined with railway...

  7. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  8. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  9. High-frequency and high-quality silicon carbide optomechanical microresonators

    OpenAIRE

    Xiyuan Lu; Lee, Jonathan Y.; Qiang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) exhibits excellent material properties attractive for broad applications. We demonstrate the first SiC optomechanical microresonators that integrate high mechanical frequency, high mechanical quality, and high optical quality into a single device. The radial-breathing mechanical mode has a mechanical frequency up to 1.69 GHz with a mechanical Q around 5500 in atmosphere, which corresponds to a mechanical f-Q product as high as 9.47x10^12 Hz. The strong optomechanical cou...

  10. Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to

  11. Circular microphone array for multi channel audio recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsebos, E.M.; De Vries, D.; Boone, M.M.; Schuurmans, T.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    An audio system has a circular microphone array with a number of microphones arranged on a circle for receiving a sound field. A digital signal processor is provided for processing output signals from these microphones. To establish well controlled and sharp directivity patterns the audio system per

  12. On the Use of Memory Models in Audio Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Audio feature estimation is potentially improved by including higher- level models. One such model is the Short Term Memory (STM) model. A new paradigm of audio feature estimation is obtained by adding the influence of notes in the STM. These notes are identified when the perceptual spectral flux...

  13. Automated Speech and Audio Analysis for Semantic Access to Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.M.G. de; Ordelman, R.; Huijbregts, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  14. Automated speech and audio analysis for semantic access to multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Avrithis, Y.; Kompatsiaris, Y.; Staab, S.; O' Connor, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  15. Effect of Audio vs. Video on Aural Discrimination of Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrocklin, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing use of media in the classroom, the effects of using of audio versus video in pronunciation teaching has been largely ignored. To analyze the impact of the use of audio or video training on aural discrimination of vowels, 61 participants (all students at a large American university) took a pre-test followed by two training…

  16. Voice activity detection using audio-visual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using Hidden Markov Models; their outcomes are fused using a post-deci...

  17. Improving audio chord transcription by exploiting harmonic and metric knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Rodrigues Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new system for chord transcription from polyphonic musical audio that uses domain-specific knowledge about tonal harmony and metrical position to improve chord transcription performance. Low-level pulse and spectral features are extracted from an audio source using the Vamp plugin archi

  18. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  19. Technical Evaluation Report. 65. Video-Conferencing with Audio Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Jon; Klaas, Jim

    2006-01-01

    An online conference is illustrated using the format of a TV talk show. The conference combined live audio discussion with visual images spontaneously selected by the moderator in the manner of a TV control-room director. A combination of inexpensive online collaborative tools was used for the event, based on the browser-based audio-conferencing…

  20. DOA Estimation of Audio Sources in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Heusdens, Richard;

    2016-01-01

    Reverberation is well-known to have a detrimental impact on many localization methods for audio sources. We address this problem by imposing a model for the early reflections as well as a model for the audio source itself. Using these models, we propose two iterative localization methods that est...

  1. Using Audio Books to Improve Reading and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights significant research about what below grade-level reading means in middle school classrooms and suggests a tested approach to improve reading comprehension levels significantly by using audio books. The use of these audio books can improve reading and academic performance for both English language learners (ELLs) and for…

  2. Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to

  3. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  4. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  5. Context classification during blood pressure self-measurement using the sensor seat and the audio classification device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Rasmussen, Niels Holm; Ahrendt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    pressure (BP) devices cannot verify whether the patient has followed these recommendations or not. As a result, the data quality of BP measurements could be biased. We present a proof-of-concept demonstration prototype that uses audio context classification for detecting speech during the measurement...

  6. Feature Selection for Audio Surveillance in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIKTOVA Eva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the work leading to the acoustic event detection system, which is designed to recognize two types of acoustic events (shot and breaking glass in urban environment. For this purpose, a huge front-end processing was performed for the effective parametric representation of an input sound. MFCC features and features computed during their extraction (MELSPEC and FBANK, then MPEG-7 audio descriptors and other temporal and spectral characteristics were extracted. High dimensional feature sets were created and in the next phase reduced by the mutual information based selection algorithms. Hidden Markov Model based classifier was applied and evaluated by the Viterbi decoding algorithm. Thus very effective feature sets were identified and also the less important features were found.

  7. Detection of vibrations in the audio range using photorefractive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurova, S.; Espinosa, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Gather, M.; Meerholz, K.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the use of a photorefractive polymer composite as the active material for a planar photo- EMF detector suitable for the adaptive detection of optical phase modulated signals in the audio range (10Hz-10KHz). The composite is based on a conjugated triphenyldiamine- phenylenevinylene polymer (TPD-PPV) and is sensitized with a highly soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM). We demonstrate experimentally that the responsitivity of such polymer based detectors can be remarkably enhanced if the polymer sample is biased by an external dc field. This effect is theoretically explained by the strong dependence of the charge carrier generation rate on the external dc field, which is an inherent property of organic photoconductors.

  8. Comparison of different technologies for high-quality optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Francois

    1990-08-01

    Modern optical systems require still higher quality optical coatings. Conventional production techniques are not able to give such high quality layers. One of the main defaults comes from the relatively porous structure of the thin films; as a consequence the sensitiveness of the materials to the moisture gives noticeably unstable properties versus time. In this work, after a very short review of the different techniques nowaday used to perform high quality optical thin films, we will be especially interested in oxide layer production (Si02, Ta2O5, Ti02). To give a good comparison of the performances obtained with techniques such as TAD and ion plating we need extremely powerful characterization means: - In vacuo measurements of optical properties allowing the study of spontaneous water adsorption during air entrance; - Absorption measurement with photothermal deflection spectroscopy; - Scattering losses measurements and consequently determination of the grain size of the microstructure. Refractive index measurements, and optical anisotropy determined by guided mode study. Finally some views from electron microscopy justify the validity of the model used with our characterization techniques. To end, we will show the interest of ion plating technique when we are looking for very uniform deposition on large surfaces.

  9. Layered indexing of home video based on audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tomomi; Aizawa, Kiyoharu

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a home video indexing using an audio information to detect an event both a rules-based method and a GMM-based method. Although exclusive audio segmentation and classification was usually used, various sounds overlap in practice, in which case an audio in which various sound overlapped is expressed by a labeling layered index. With the rules-based method, low-level audio features are used to determine indexes, which are classied such as speech, silence, music, and EVN(Environment Noise). The GMM-based method which uses the same features as the rule based method also classifies an audio into the four classes. Smoothing is applied in order to determine the index. We show experiments in a few home video data.

  10. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Luhong

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual features in audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR is justified by both the speech generation mechanism, which is essentially bimodal in audio and visual representation, and by the need for features that are invariant to acoustic noise perturbation. As a result, current AVSR systems demonstrate significant accuracy improvements in environments affected by acoustic noise. In this paper, we describe the use of two statistical models for audio-visual integration, the coupled HMM (CHMM and the factorial HMM (FHMM, and compare the performance of these models with the existing models used in speaker dependent audio-visual isolated word recognition. The statistical properties of both the CHMM and FHMM allow to model the state asynchrony of the audio and visual observation sequences while preserving their natural correlation over time. In our experiments, the CHMM performs best overall, outperforming all the existing models and the FHMM.

  11. A Dither Modulation Audio Watermarking Algorithm Based on HAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-bo Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a dither modulation audio watermarking algorithm based on human auditory system which applied the theory of dither modulation. The algorithm made the two-value image watermarking to one-dimensional digital sequence firstly and used the Fibonacci to transform one-dimensional digital sequence. Then divide the audio into audio data segment and made discrete wavelet transform with audio data segment, every segment can adaptive choose quantization step. Finally put low frequency coefficients transformed embedding the watermarking which applied the dither modulation. When extract the watermark with no original audio, they realized blind extraction. The experimental results show that this algorithm has preferable robustness to against the attack from noise addition, compression, low pass filtering and re-sampling.

  12. High-quality Critical Heat Flux in Horizontally Coiled Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    An investigation on the high-quality dryout in two electrically heated coiled tubes with horizontally helix axes is reported.The temperature profiles both along the tube and around the circumference are measured.and it is found that the temperature profiles around the circumference are not identical for the corss-sections at different parts of the coil.The “local condition hypothesis” seems applicable under present conditions,and the critical heat flux qcr decreases with increasing critical quality xcr.The CHF increases as mass velocity and ratio of tube diameter to coil diameter(d/D) increases,and it seems not to be affected hby the system pressure.The CHF is larger with coils than that with straight tubes,and the difference increases with increasing mass velocity and d/D.

  13. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geetha Balakrishnan

    2008-10-01

    To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis will be placed on the crystal growth of various oxides (superconductors and magnetic materials), borides and carbides using the image furnaces at Warwick. The floating zone method of crystal growth used in these furnaces produces crystals of superior quality, circumventing many of the problems associated with, for example, flux growth from the melt. This method enables the growth of large volumes of crystal, a prerequisite especially for experiments using neutron beams. Some examples of experimental results from crystals grown at Warwick, selected from numerous in-house studies and our collaborative research projects with other UK and international groups will be discussed.

  14. On Building Immersive Audio Applications Using Robust Adaptive Beamforming and Joint Audio-Video Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beracoechea JA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some of the different problems, strategies, and solutions of building true immersive audio systems oriented to future communication applications. The aim is to build a system where the acoustic field of a chamber is recorded using a microphone array and then is reconstructed or rendered again, in a different chamber using loudspeaker array-based techniques. Our proposal explores the possibility of using recent robust adaptive beamforming techniques for effectively estimating the original sources of the emitting room. A joint audio-video localization method needed in the estimation process as well as in the rendering engine is also presented. The estimated source signal and the source localization information drive a wave field synthesis engine that renders the acoustic field again at the receiving chamber. The system performance is tested using MUSHRA-based subjective tests.

  15. AUDIO CRYPTANALYSIS- AN APPLICATION OF SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY AND AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Paira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent trend of network and technology, “Cryptography” and “Steganography” have emerged out as the essential elements of providing network security. Although Cryptography plays a major role in the fabrication and modification of the secret message into an encrypted version yet it has certain drawbacks. Steganography is the art that meets one of the basic limitations of Cryptography. In this paper, a new algorithm has been proposed based on both Symmetric Key Cryptography and Audio Steganography. The combination of a randomly generated Symmetric Key along with LSB technique of Audio Steganography sends a secret message unrecognizable through an insecure medium. The Stego File generated is almost lossless giving a 100 percent recovery of the original message. This paper also presents a detailed experimental analysis of the algorithm with a brief comparison with other existing algorithms and a future scope. The experimental verification and security issues are promising.

  16. Enhanced Audio LSB Steganography for Secure Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Junaid Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ease with which data can be remitted across the globe via Internet has made it an obvious (as medium choice for on line data transmission and communication. This salient trait, however, is constraint with akin issues of privacy, veracity of the information being exchanged over it, and legitimacy of its sender together with its availability when needed. Although cryptography is being used to confront confidentiality concern yet for many is slightly limited in scope because of discernibility of encrypted information. Further, due to restrictions imposed on the use of cryptography by its citizens for personal doings, various Governments have also coxswained the research arena to explore another discipline of information hiding called steganography – whose sole purpose is to make the information being exchanged inaudible. This research is focused on evolution of model based secure LSB Steganographic scheme for digital audio wave file format to withstand passive attack by Warden Wendy.

  17. A direct broadcast satellite-audio experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Abbe, Brian; Motamedi, Masoud

    1992-03-01

    System studies have been carried out over the past three years at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on digital audio broadcasting (DAB) via satellite. The thrust of the work to date has been on designing power and bandwidth efficient systems capable of providing reliable service to fixed, mobile, and portable radios. It is very difficult to predict performance in an environment which produces random periods of signal blockage, such as encountered in mobile reception where a vehicle can quickly move from one type of terrain to another. For this reason, some signal blockage mitigation techniques were built into an experimental DAB system and a satellite experiment was conducted to obtain both qualitative and quantitative measures of performance in a range of reception environments. This paper presents results from the experiment and some conclusions on the effectiveness of these blockage mitigation techniques.

  18. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  19. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  20. Comparison of Error Protection Methods for Audio-Video Broadcast over DVB-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses methods for robust audio-video broadcast over the digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H system. DVB-H includes a link-layer forward error correction (FEC scheme known as multiprotocol encapsulation (MPE FEC, which provides equal error protection (EEP to the transmitted media streams. Several approaches for unequal error protection (UEP have been proposed in the literature, and the applicability of some of them to DVB-H is analyzed in the paper. A link-layer UEP method based on priority segmentation of the media streams is chosen for more detailed analysis. According to the method, audio and the most important coded video pictures are protected by MPE-FEC more robustly compared to the remaining coded pictures. In order to compare EEP and UEP in a DVB-H environment, an error-prone DVB-H channel was simulated, audio-visual clips were sent through it, and a comprehensive subjective quality evaluation was conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. The results of the subjective evaluation revealed that the use of UEP improves the subjective quality of some test clips noticeably when the channel conditions were severe, while in other tested channel conditions and clips, UEP and EEP performed equally well.

  1. Comparison of Error Protection Methods for Audio-Video Broadcast over DVB-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, Miska M.; Malamal Vadakital, Vinod Kumar; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu

    2007-12-01

    The paper discusses methods for robust audio-video broadcast over the digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) system. DVB-H includes a link-layer forward error correction (FEC) scheme known as multiprotocol encapsulation (MPE) FEC, which provides equal error protection (EEP) to the transmitted media streams. Several approaches for unequal error protection (UEP) have been proposed in the literature, and the applicability of some of them to DVB-H is analyzed in the paper. A link-layer UEP method based on priority segmentation of the media streams is chosen for more detailed analysis. According to the method, audio and the most important coded video pictures are protected by MPE-FEC more robustly compared to the remaining coded pictures. In order to compare EEP and UEP in a DVB-H environment, an error-prone DVB-H channel was simulated, audio-visual clips were sent through it, and a comprehensive subjective quality evaluation was conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. The results of the subjective evaluation revealed that the use of UEP improves the subjective quality of some test clips noticeably when the channel conditions were severe, while in other tested channel conditions and clips, UEP and EEP performed equally well.

  2. High Quality Test Pattern Generation and Boolean Satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Eggersglüß, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an overview of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) and introduces novel techniques to complement classical ATPG, based on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT).  A fast and highly fault efficient SAT-based ATPG framework is presented which is also able to generate high-quality delay tests such as robust path delay tests, as well as tests with long propagation paths to detect small delay defects. The aim of the techniques and methodologies presented in this book is to improve SAT-based ATPG, in order to make it applicable in industrial practice. Readers will learn to improve the performance and robustness of the overall test generation process, so that the ATPG algorithm reliably will generate test patterns for most targeted faults in acceptable run time to meet the high fault coverage demands of industry. The techniques and improvements presented in this book provide the following advantages: Provides a comprehensive introduction to test generation and Boolean Satisfiability (SAT); Describes a...

  3. Prioritized MPEG-4 Audio-Visual Objects Streaming over the DiffServ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Tian-yun; ZHENG Chan

    2005-01-01

    The object-based scalable coding in MPEG-4 is investigated, and a prioritized transmission scheme of MPEG-4 audio-visual objects (AVOs) over the DiffServ network with the QoS guarantee is proposed. MPEG-4 AVOs are extracted and classified into different groups according to their priority values and scalable layers (visual importance). These priority values are mapped to the IP DiffServ per hop behaviors (PHB). This scheme can selectively discard packets with low importance, in order to avoid the network congestion. Simulation results show that the quality of received video can gracefully adapt to network state, as compared with the 'best-effort' manner. Also, by allowing the content provider to define prioritization of each audio-visual object, the adaptive transmission of object-based scalable video can be customized based on the content.

  4. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte F; Nygaard, Ditte E; Olsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable...... breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. METHODS: Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within...... a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing...

  5. High quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, S M; Issac, R C; Welsh, G H; Brunetti, E; Shanks, R P; Anania, M P; Cipiccia, S; Manahan, G G; Aniculaesei, C; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Burgess, R T L; Vieux, G; Jaroszynski, D A [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W A [SUPA, Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A M [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Van der Geer, S B; De Loos, M J, E-mail: m.wiggins@phys.strath.ac.u [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    High quality electron beams have been produced in a laser-plasma accelerator driven by femtosecond laser pulses with a peak power of 26 TW. Electrons are produced with an energy up to 150 MeV from the 2 mm gas jet accelerator and the measured rms relative energy spread is less than 1%. Shot-to-shot stability in the central energy is 3%. Pepper-pot measurements have shown that the normalized transverse emittance is {approx}1{pi} mm mrad while the beam charge is in the range 2-10 pC. The generation of high quality electron beams is understood from simulations accounting for beam loading of the wakefield accelerating structure. Experiments and self-consistent simulations indicate that the beam peak current is several kiloamperes. Efficient transportation of the beam through an undulator is simulated and progress is being made towards the realization of a compact, high peak brilliance free-electron laser operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength ranges.

  6. Growth of High Quality GaAs by MBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Chand

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the requirements and current practices in the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE growth af high-quality GaAs. High quality growth of GaAs means excellent control on the growth process andthe excellent surface, structural, electrical and optical properties of the deposited GaAs. Background material is presented about the MBE technique, the MBE system and its initial preparation for growth,molecular-beam source materials, substrate preparation and the growth conditions. The importance of meticulousness at every step is emphasized.Then, to illustrate that the MBE-GaAs has reached a level of perfection,experimental data is presented which shows an excellent control on the growth rate and its lateral uniformity (+- 0.75 per cent, the presence of verylow-level of background impurities (-low 1013 and high electronmobilities ( peak - 3 x 10to poer 5 cm2 v-1s-1 at 42 K for n - 3 x 10 to the power 13 (cm-3. In addition, we show that MBE-GaAs is intrinsically free from electron and hole deep traps. Chemical impurities in the impure arsenic source are shown to be the main limiting factors in determining the transport andoptical properties and formation of deep centers in MBE-GaAs. Such chemical impurities may, however, originate from other sources as well.

  7. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  8. CCD Astrophotography High-Quality Imaging from the Suburbs

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This is a reference book for amateur astronomers who have become interested in CCD imaging. Those glorious astronomical images found in astronomy magazines might seem out of reach to newcomers to CCD imaging, but this is not the case. Great pictures are attainable with modest equipment. Adam Stuart’s many beautiful images, reproduced in this book, attest to the quality of – initially – a beginner’s efforts. Chilled-chip astronomical CCD-cameras and software are also wonderful tools for cutting through seemingly impenetrable light-pollution. CCD Astrophotography from the Suburbs describes one man’s successful approach to the problem of getting high-quality astronomical images under some of the most light-polluted conditions. Here is a complete and thoroughly tested program that will help every CCD-beginner to work towards digital imaging of the highest quality. It is equally useful to astronomers who have perfect observing conditions, as to those who have to observe from light-polluted city skies.

  9. Fabrication of High Quality Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-Yong; LIU Yuan-Hao; CHENG Bing-Ying; ZHANG Dao-Zhong; MENG Qing-Bo

    2004-01-01

    High quality colloidal photonic crystals made from polystyrene spheres with diameter 240nm are fabricated by the vertical deposition method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the transmittance spectrum are used to characterize the properties of the photonic crystal. The SEM images show that there are few lattice defects. The transmittance of the photonic crystal is above 75% in the pass band at 700nm and is lower than 5% at the centre of the band gap, respectively. It is found that proper concentration is a very important factor to fabricate the photonic crystal when the diameter of the spheres is lower than 300nm.

  10. Extraction of high quality DNA from bloodstains using diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, S; Herold, J; Patzelt, D

    1995-01-01

    A simple method is described for the extraction of high quality DNA for PCR amplification. The DNA was extracted by using Chelex-100 ion exchange resin or a special cell lysis buffer containing proteinase K. For further purification the DNA was bound to silica in the presence of a chaotrophic agent. Hence it is possible to unlimitedly wash the bound DNA and inhibitory substances are removed. By using diatoms as a source of silicates, this method is very economical and can therefore be used as a routine method.

  11. Preparation of free-standing high quality mesoporous carbon membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Zhu, Qing [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Flat-sheet mesoporous carbon membranes with uniform pore size (e.g., 6.4 nm) and controllable thickness were prepared by pyrolysis of polymeric composite films, which were formed by self-assembly of phenolic resin and block copolymer under acidic conditions. Hexamethylenetetramine was selected as a solid cross-linker to control the rheology of polymeric carbon precursors so that the flat-sheet polymeric films could undergo carbonization without deformation, ensuring the preparation of mesoporous carbon membranes on a large scale with high quality. Gas transport properties through these mesoporous carbon membranes are also reported.

  12. Audiovisual Quality Fusion based on Relative Multimodal Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In multimodal presentations the perceived audiovisual quality assessment is significantly influenced by the content of both the audio and visual tracks. Based on our earlier subjective quality test for finding the optimal trade-off between audio and video quality, this paper proposes a novel meth...

  13. Beyond podcasting: creative approaches to designing educational audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Middleton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a university-wide pilot designed to encourage academics to creatively explore learner-centred applications for digital audio. Participation in the pilot was diverse in terms of technical competence, confidence and contextual requirements and there was little prior experience of working with digital audio. Many innovative approaches were taken to using audio in a blended context including student-generated vox pops, audio feedback models, audio conversations and task-setting. A podcast was central to the pilot itself, providing a common space for the 25 participants, who were also supported by materials in several other formats. An analysis of podcast interviews involving pilot participants provided the data informing this case study. This paper concludes that audio has the potential to promote academic creativity in engaging students through media intervention. However, institutional scalability is dependent upon the availability of suitable timely support mechanisms that can address the lack of technical confidence evident in many staff. If that is in place, audio can be widely adopted by anyone seeking to add a new layer of presence and connectivity through the use of voice.

  14. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices.

  15. Optimized Audio Classification and Segmentation Algorithm by Using Ensemble Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio segmentation is a basis for multimedia content analysis which is the most important and widely used application nowadays. An optimized audio classification and segmentation algorithm is presented in this paper that segments a superimposed audio stream on the basis of its content into four main audio types: pure-speech, music, environment sound, and silence. An algorithm is proposed that preserves important audio content and reduces the misclassification rate without using large amount of training data, which handles noise and is suitable for use for real-time applications. Noise in an audio stream is segmented out as environment sound. A hybrid classification approach is used, bagged support vector machines (SVMs with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Audio stream is classified, firstly, into speech and nonspeech segment by using bagged support vector machines; nonspeech segment is further classified into music and environment sound by using artificial neural networks and lastly, speech segment is classified into silence and pure-speech segments on the basis of rule-based classifier. Minimum data is used for training classifier; ensemble methods are used for minimizing misclassification rate and approximately 98% accurate segments are obtained. A fast and efficient algorithm is designed that can be used with real-time multimedia applications.

  16. Sampling Function of Degree 2 for DVD-Audio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraichi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Koji

    Authors have been studying Fluency Information Theory that generalizes Shannon’s sampling theorem and its applications. Among the practical application of the research, the Fluency DAC that is developed as the Digital-to-analog converter for CD audio could have received objective valuation including receipt Golden Sound Award in 1988. In recent, DVD-Audio that deal with maximum sampling rate of 192 kHz has appeared. Due to the introduction of DVD audio that requires four times the sampling rate of nowadays CD audio, the request for developing a new Fluency DAC for DVD audio was initiated. From such requirements, the research for developing the Fluency DAC for DVD-Audio has been started. The result of the research could revive awards in local contest in Japan audio apparatus at 2000 and 2001. As the initial report on our project in developing the Fluency DAC that is capable of dealing with a maximum sampling rate of 192kHz, in this paper we aimed to derive the sampling function that acts as the impulse response for such a D/A converter.

  17. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro; Rollo, Massimo; Piano, Mariangela; Re, Thomas J; Cipriani, Maria C; Colosimo, Cesare; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  18. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: apedicelli@rm.unicatt.it; Rollo, Massimo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mrollo@rm.unicatt.it; Piano, Mariangela [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mariangela.piano@gmail.com; Re, Thomas J. [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: tomjre@gmail.com; Cipriani, Maria C. [Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: alexped@yahoo.com; Colosimo, Cesare [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: lbonomo@rm.unicatt.it

    2009-02-15

    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  19. Components Necessary for High-Quality Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles A.; Arenberg, Douglas; Detterbeck, Frank; Gould, Michael K.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Jett, James; Naidich, David; Vachani, Anil; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Silvestri, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with a low-dose chest CT scan can result in more benefit than harm when performed in settings committed to developing and maintaining high-quality programs. This project aimed to identify the components of screening that should be a part of all lung cancer screening programs. To do so, committees with expertise in lung cancer screening were assembled by the Thoracic Oncology Network of the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and the Thoracic Oncology Assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Lung cancer program components were derived from evidence-based reviews of lung cancer screening and supplemented by expert opinion. This statement was developed and modified based on iterative feedback of the committees. Nine essential components of a lung cancer screening program were identified. Within these components 21 Policy Statements were developed and translated into criteria that could be used to assess the qualification of a program as a screening facility. Two additional Policy Statements related to the need for multisociety governance of lung cancer screening were developed. High-quality lung cancer screening programs can be developed within the presented framework of nine essential program components outlined by our committees. The statement was developed, reviewed, and formally approved by the leadership of CHEST and the ATS. It was subsequently endorsed by the American Association of Throacic Surgery, American Cancer Society, and the American Society of Preventive Oncology. PMID:25356819

  20. Production of high quality water for oil sands application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette-Hodsman, C.; Macleod, B. [Pall Corp., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Venkatadri, R. [Pall Corp., East Hills, NY (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pressurized microfiltration membrane system installed at an oil sands extraction site in Alberta. The system was designed to complement a reverse osmosis (RO) system installed at the site to produce the high quality feed water required by the system's boilers. Groundwater in the region exhibited moderate total suspended solids and high alkalinity and hardness levels, and the RO system required feed water with a silt density index of 3 or less. The conventional pretreatment system used at the site was slowing down production due to the severe fouling of the RO membranes. The new microfiltration system contained an automated PVDF hollow fiber microfiltration membrane system contained in a trailer. Suspended particles and bacteria were captured within the filter, and permeate was sent to the RO unit. Within 6 hours of being installed, the unit was producing water with SDI values in the range of 1.0 to 2.5. It was concluded that the microfiltration system performed reliably regardless of wide variations in feed water quality and flow rates. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  1. Image quality and high contrast improvements on VLT/NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Julien H V; Mawet, Dimitri; Kasper, Markus; Zins, Gérard; Neichel, Benoît; Kolb, Johann; Christiaens, Valentin; Tourneboeuf, Martin; 10.1117/12.925660

    2012-01-01

    NACO is the famous and versatile diffraction limited NIR imager and spectrograph with which ESO celebrated 10 years of Adaptive Optics at the VLT. Since two years a substantial effort has been put in to understanding and fixing issues that directly affect the image quality and the high contrast performances of the instrument. Experiments to compensate the non-common-path aberrations and recover the highest possible Strehl ratios have been carried out successfully and a plan is hereafter described to perform such measurements regularly. The drift associated to pupil tracking since 2007 was fixed in October 2011. NACO is therefore even better suited for high contrast imaging and can be used with coronagraphic masks in the image plane. Some contrast measurements are shown and discussed. The work accomplished on NACO will serve as reference for the next generation instruments on the VLT, especially those working at the diffraction limit and making use of angular differential imaging (i.e. SPHERE, VISIR, possibly ...

  2. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanmu; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than 10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high Q-factor of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows th...

  3. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  4. DOA Estimation of Audio Sources in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Heusdens, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Reverberation is well-known to have a detrimental impact on many localization methods for audio sources. We address this problem by imposing a model for the early reflections as well as a model for the audio source itself. Using these models, we propose two iterative localization methods...... that estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of both the direct path of the audio source and the early reflections. In these methods, the contribution of the early reflections is essentially subtracted from the signal observations before localization of the direct path component, which may reduce the estimation...

  5. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker;

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations....

  6. Lattice Vector Quantization Applied to Speech and Audio Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjie Xie

    2012-01-01

    Lattice vector quantization (LVQ) has been used for real-time speech and audio coding systems. Compared with conventional vector quantization, LVQ has two main advantages: It has a simple and fast encoding process, and it significantly reduces the amount of memory required. Therefore, LVQ is suitable for use in low-complexity speech and audio coding. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts of LVQ and its advantages over conventional vector quantization. We also describe some LVQ techniques that have been used in speech and audio coding standards of international standards developing organizations (SDOs).

  7. Survey of compressed domain audio features and their expressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Silvia; Vincent, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We give an overview of existing audio analysis approaches in the compressed domain and incorporate them into a coherent formal structure. After examining the kinds of information accessible in an MPEG-1 compressed audio stream, we describe a coherent approach to determine features from them and report on a number of applications they enable. Most of them aim at creating an index to the audio stream by segmenting the stream into temporally coherent regions, which may be classified into pre-specified types of sounds such as music, speech, speakers, animal sounds, sound effects, or silence. Other applications centre around sound recognition such as gender, beat or speech recognition.

  8. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  9. A Review on Audio-visual Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2008-01-01

    <正>This paper is dedicated to a thorough review on the audio-visual related translations from both home and abroad.In reviewing the foreign achievements on this specific field of translation studies it can shed some lights on our national audio-visual practice and research.The review on the Chinese scholars’ audio-visual translation studies is to offer the potential developing direction and guidelines to the studies and aspects neglected as well.Based on the summary of relevant studies,possible topics for further studies are proposed.

  10. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker;

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D......) and an amplitude panning audio system (panning) in a virtual environment. We present a performance study involving 33 participants locating aurally-aided visual targets placed at fixed positions, under different audio conditions. A varying amount of visual distractors were present, represented as black circles...

  11. Current-Driven Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Buhl, Niels Christian; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of electrical energy into sound waves by electromechanical transducers is proportional to the current through the coil of the transducer. However virtually all audio power amplifiers provide a controlled voltage through the interface to the transducer. This paper is presenting...... a switch-mode audio power amplifier not only providing controlled current but also being supplied by current. This results in an output filter size reduction by a factor of 6. The implemented prototype shows decent audio performance with THD + N below 0.1 %....

  12. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  13. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  14. Environmental Quality Assessment of Built Areas with High Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Neale, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Around the world, many urban areas are challenged by vacant and abandoned residential and business property. High vacancy areas have often been associated with increasing public safety problems and declining property values and subsequent tax base. High vacancy can lead to visible signs of city decline and significant barriers to the revitalization of cities. Addressing the problem of vacancy requires knowledge of vacancy patterns and their possible contributing factors. In this study, we evaluated the ten year (2005-2015) urban environmental changes for some high vacancy areas. Social and economic variables derived from U.S. census data such as non-white population, employment rate, housing price, and environmental variables derived from National Land Cover Data such as land cover and impervious area, were used as the basis for analysis. Correlation analysis and principle components analysis were performed at the Census Block Group level. Three components were identified and interpreted as economic status, urbanness, and greenness. A synthetic Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) index was developed by integrating the three principle components according to their weights. Comparisons of the UEQ indices between the 2005 and 2015 in the increasingly high vacancy area provided useful information for investigating the possible associations between social, economic, and environmental factors, and the vacancy status. This study could provide useful information for understanding the complex issues leading to vacancy and facilitating future rehabilitation of vacant urban area.

  15. Transmisión de audio usando redes Zigbee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delgado León

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Zigbee es un protocolo de comunicaciones basado en el estándar para redes inalámbricas IEEE_802.15.4. Concebido para el control y la monitorización de redes de sensores tanto en entornos industriales, médicos, como domóticos, ha existido un creciente interés por evaluarlo en aplicaciones de multimedia. Aun sin garantizar QoS (Quality of service por su limitado ancho de banda existen un conjunto de aplicaciones para vigilancia, grupos de rescate y salvamento, seguridad en entornos domóticos, grupos desplegados en un área limitada con necesidad de comunicación donde un sistema de audio y video en tiempo real de bajo costo basado en tecnología Zigbee es una idea sumamente atractiva.   Se presenta el diseño de un sistema que permita la comunicación de un grupo de usuarios desplegadas en un área limitada. Utiliza Microcontroladores RISC y tecnología Zigbee. Se investiga la factibilidad de usar la tecnología Zigbee para la transmisión de audio, se analizan

  16. Determination of saffron quality by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle García-Rodríguez, M; Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Tarantilis, Petros A; López-Córcoles, Horacio; Carmona, Manuel; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2014-08-13

    The aim of this work was to propose a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for determining the three main compounds responsible for determining the quality of saffron (crocetin esters, picrocrocin, and safranal) by preparing an aqueous extract according to the ISO 3632 standard to solve the difficulty that this standard has for aroma and taste determination by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Toward this aim, laboratory-isolated picrocrocin, a safranal standard with a purity of ≥ 88%, trans-crocetin di(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-4-GG) and trans-crocetin (β-D-glucosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester (trans-3-Gg) standards, both with a purity of ≥ 99%, and 50 different saffron spice samples from Italy, Iran, Greece, and Spain were used in the intralaboratory validation of the HPLC method. The analytical method proposed was adequate in terms of linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy for determining the three foremost parameters that define the quality of saffron using only a saffron solution prepared according to the ISO 3632 standard.

  17. SUBic: A Scalable Unsupervised Framework for Discovering High Quality Biclusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jooil Lee; Yanhua Jin; Won Suk Lee

    2013-01-01

    A biclustering algorithm extends conventional clustering techniques to extract all of the meaningful subgroups of genes and conditions in the expression matrix of a microarray dataset.However,such algorithms are very sensitive to input parameters and show poor scalability.This paper proposes a scalable unsupervised biclustering framework,SUBic,to find high quality constant-row biclusters in an expression matrix effectively.A one-dimensional clustering algorithm is proposed to partition the attributes,that is,columns of an expression matrix into disjoint groups based on the similarity of expression values.These groups form a set of short transactions and are used to discover a set of frequent itemsets each of which corresponds to a bicluster.However,a bicluster may include any attribute whose expression value is not similar enough to others,so a bicluster refinement is used to enhance the quality of a bicluster by removing those attributes based on its distribution of expression values.The performance of the proposed method is comparatively analyzed through a series of experiments on synthetic and real datasets.

  18. Facilitating high quality student practice in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Molly

    2001-07-01

    "Practice makes perfect, but only if you do it right." Typical physics students practice extensively through the large quantities of homework they do. But research in introductory physics instruction shows that despite this practice, students often do not learn much in introductory physics. Students often do not focus their practice on the skills (such as concept interpretation, and generating a physical representation of a problem) that they need in order to solve physics problems flexibly and reliably. They often focus their practice instead on simply getting an answer. By omitting practice of important skills, it is likely that those skills will not be learned. This paper identifies communication difficulties between students and between students and instructors as important sources of barriers to achieving high-quality student practice. Some strategies to address communication difficulties in the context of small group in-class problem solving are proposed. A classroom peer-collaborative structure, Supervised Practice, that implements these strategies is described, and the impact of the classroom design on the quality of student practice is investigated.

  19. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome), and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared ...

  20. High quality yarns from high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highest quality yarns from upland cotton are typically produced by using combing in the textile mill. Combing is a resource-intensive process in which short fibers are removed from cotton before spinning. The improvement in fiber length and length uniformity of upland cotton when high speed ro...